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1

White Tail Disease of Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Macrobrachium rosenbergii is the most important cultured freshwater prawn in the world and it is now farmed on a large scale in many countries. Generally, freshwater prawn is considered to be tolerant to diseases but a disease of viral origin is responsible for severe mortalities in larval, post-larval and juvenile stages of prawn. This viral infection namely white tail disease (WTD) was reported in the island of Guadeloupe in 1995 and later in Martinique (FrenchWest Indies) in Taiwan, the People's Republic of China, India, Thailand, Australia and Malaysia. Two viruses, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus-like particle (XSV) have been identified as causative agents of WTD. MrNV is a small icosahedral non-enveloped particle, 26-27 nm in diameter, identified in the cytoplasm of connective cells. XSV is also an icosahedral virus and 15 nm in diameter. Clinical signs observed in the infected animals include lethargy, opaqueness of the abdominal muscle, degeneration of the telson and uropods, and up to 100 % within 4 days. The available diagnostic methods to detect WTD include RT-PCR, dot-blot hybridization, in situ hybridization and ELISA. In experimental infection, these viruses caused 100 % mortality in post-larvae but failed to cause mortality in adult prawns. The reported hosts for these viruses include marine shrimp, Artemia and aquatic insects. Experiments were carried out to determine the possibility of vertical transmission of MrNV and XSV in M. rosenbergii. The results indicate that WTD may be transferred from infected brooders to their offspring during spawning. Replication of MrNV and XSV was investigated in apparently healthy C6/36 Aedes albopictus and SSN-1 cell lines. The results revealed that C6/36 and SSN-1cells were susceptible to these viruses. No work has been carried out on control and prevention of WTD and dsRNA against protein B2 produced RNAi that was able to functionally prevent and reduce mortality in WTD-infected redclaw crayfish. PMID:23997437

Sahul Hameed, A S; Bonami, Jean-Robert

2012-09-01

2

Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus disease (white tail disease) in Australia.  

PubMed

The index case of white tail disease (WTD) is presented in adult broodstock prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii from the Flinders River in western Queensland, Australia, in mid-2007. Histological examination revealed extensive myonecrosis with massive infiltration of myonuclei and some haemocytes. Juveniles from the same broodstock but not from 3 other families displayed white muscle lesions. Low-grade chronic mortalities approaching 100% over 1 yr occurred. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) were attempted for both M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) with 2 sets of primers and for the satellite virus, extrasmall virus (XSV). All 3 PCRs generated amplicons of the expected sizes. Basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) analyses of the 3 consensus sequences identified a 91% match with MrNV viral capsid protein gene, 96% match with MrNV RNA-directed RNA polymerase gene, and a 99% match with M. rosenbergii XSV capsid protein gene. The clinical signs, histopathological lesions and RT-PCR amplicons could be reproduced in M. rosenbergii inoculated with cell-free extracts fulfilling River's postulates. We conclude that this is an endemic strain of MrNV as the sequences are dissimilar to strains of MrNV circulating around Asia and the Americas. This case only poorly meets the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) case definition for WTD due to the age of the prawns involved and the nature of the inclusion bodies. Perhaps the OIE case definition needs broadening. PMID:19750804

Owens, Leigh; La Fauce, Kathy; Juntunen, Karen; Hayakijkosol, Orachun; Zeng, Chaoshu

2009-07-23

3

Characterization of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus from a bovine with clinical disease with high nucleotide sequence identity to white-tailed deer isolates.  

PubMed

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) was isolated from a pregnant cow in Indiana, USA, exhibiting excessive salivation, pyrexia and abortion. VP2, VP5, and VP7 sequences of the isolated bovine EHDV showed 97.7, 97.4, and 97.9 % identity to a serotype 2 reference virus. Bovine EHDV was closely related (>99.9 %) to white tailed deer (WTD) EHDV collected from Iowa in 2013 and showed less than 2.1 % divergence from EHDV collected from WTD across the USA in 2013. The high degree of sequence identity between bovine and WTD EHDV isolates demonstrates that similar viruses concurrently circulate in both species and suggests possible further incursions into bovines. PMID:24852073

Anbalagan, Srivishnupriya; Hause, Ben M

2014-10-01

4

Detection and phylogenetic profiling of nodavirus associated with white tail disease in Malaysian Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man.  

PubMed

White tail disease (WTD) is a serious viral disease in the hatcheries and nursery ponds of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in many parts of the world. A new disease similar to WTD was observed in larvae and post larvae of M. rosenbergii cultured in Malaysia. In the present study, RT-PCR assay was used to detect the causative agents of WTD, M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) using specific primers for MrNV RNA2 and XSV. The results showed the presence of MrNV in the samples with or without signs of WTD. However, XSV was only detected in some of the MrNV-positive samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the RNA2 of our Malaysian isolates were significantly different from the other isolates. Histopathological studies revealed myofiber degeneration of the tail muscles and liquefactive myopathy in the infected prawns. This was the first report on the occurrence of MrNV in the Malaysian freshwater prawn. PMID:22223294

Saedi, Tayebeh Azam; Moeini, Hassan; Tan, Wen Siang; Yusoff, Khatijah; Daud, Hassan Mohd; Chu, Kua Beng; Tan, Soon Guan; Bhassu, Subha

2012-05-01

5

Morphological and Genetic Comparisons between Babesia bovis and Trypanosoma spp. Found in Cattle and White-tailed Deer  

E-print Network

Babesia bovis has been an important disease agent in the U.S. cattle industry for over a century. Recently, B. bovis-like parasites have been identified in white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) in Texas. If the parasites found in the WTD...

Fisher, Amanda

2012-10-19

6

A nonluminescent and highly virulent Vibrio harveyi strain is associated with "bacterial white tail disease" of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp.  

PubMed

Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by "white tail" and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905) was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN), white tail disease (WTD) or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD). To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of "white tail" but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as "bacterial white tail disease (BWTD)". Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system. PMID:22383954

Zhou, Junfang; Fang, Wenhong; Yang, Xianle; Zhou, Shuai; Hu, Linlin; Li, Xincang; Qi, Xinyong; Su, Hang; Xie, Layue

2012-01-01

7

Goats are a potential reservoir for the herpesvirus (MCFV-WTD), causing malignant catarrhal fever in deer.  

PubMed

In the recent investigation of malignant catarrhal fever in a red brocket deer (Mazama americana) from a Texas zoo, the viral DNA from the herpesvirus termed MCFV-WTD, which causes disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), was detected. The epidemiology information revealed that the red brocket deer had been associated with a herd of pygmy goats (Capra hircus) at the zoo. MCFV-WTD DNA was also detected in one of these 12 goats that were malignant catarrhal fever viral antibody positive. The amplified herpesviral sequences from the affected deer and the MCFV-WTD-positive goat were identical, and matched the sequence in GenBank. Three of 123 DNA samples from various breeds of goats from different geographic locations in the United States were positive for MCFV-WTD DNA. The study shows that MCFV-WTD is capable of causing malignant catarrhal fever in other species of deer besides white-tailed deer and suggests that goats are a potential reservoir for the virus. PMID:23805572

Li, Hong; Cunha, Cristina W; Abbitt, Bruce; deMaar, Thomas W; Lenz, Stephen D; Hayes, Jeffrey R; Taus, Naomi S

2013-06-01

8

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as a potential sentinel for human Lyme disease in Indiana.  

PubMed

We assessed the potential of white-tailed deer (WTD) (Odocoileus virginianus) to be a sentinel for human cases of Lyme disease (LD) in Indiana using location data from a 3-year survey of approximately 3400 hunted deer with associated tick Ixodes scapularis and Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) data. Data on human LD cases at the county level were obtained from the Indiana Department of Health. All data were assigned to county centroids to match the resolution of the LD data before creating optimized trend surfaces for LD incidence, hunted deer count, Ixodes scapularis and Bb prevalence. To determine whether LD was spatially associated with the areas of high densities of deer, deer with Ixodes scapularis and deer with ticks infected with Bb, we used spatial analysis with distance indices (SADIE). The SADIE analysis found significant spatial association between LD and the distribution of three organismal predictor variables, that is, WTD, Ixodes ticks and Bb. Lyme disease incident rate varied between 0.08 cases per 10,000 habitants (Johnson county) and 5.9 cases per 10,000 habitants (Warren county). In conclusion, WTD can be used as an accurate and cost-effective sentinel for human LD. This method will permit public health workers to identify potentially endemic areas independently of human case reports. PMID:22776734

Raizman, E A; Holland, J D; Shukle, J T

2013-05-01

9

Protection of Macrobrachium rosenbergii against white tail disease by oral administration of bacterial expressed and encapsulated double-stranded RNA.  

PubMed

White tail disease (WTD) of cultured Macrobrachium rosenbergii is caused by M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and an extra small virus (XSV), both present together, and the mortality rate can be as high as 100% within 2 or 3 days of infection. Possible protection of M. rosenbergii against WTD by oral administration of bacterial expressed and encapsulated double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) was studied. Juvenile M. rosenbergii were fed with the feed coated with inactivated bacteria encapsulated dsRNA of MrNV and XSV genes individually and in combination for 7 days followed by challenge with WTD causing agents at 24 h and 72 h post-feeding. Test animals fed with a combination of dsRNA of MrNV and XSV capsid genes showed the highest relative percent survival (RPS) when compared to other treatments with RPS of 80% and 75% at 24 and 72 h respectively. One hundred percent mortality was observed in test animals fed with control dsRNA coated feed. Although in the literature, injection is the most common method used to deliver dsRNA, this study shows that oral administration is effective, feasible and economical. PMID:23811407

Naveen Kumar, Singaiah; Karunasagar, Indrani; Karunasagar, Iddya

2013-09-01

10

Experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) of elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) to white-tailed deer by intracerebral route.  

PubMed

To compare clinical and pathologic findings of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in a natural host, 3 groups (n = 5) of white-tailed deer (WTD) fawns were intracerebrally inoculated with a CWD prion of WTD, mule deer, or elk origin. Three other uninoculated fawns served as controls. Approximately 10 months postinoculation (MPI), 1 deer from each of the 3 inoculated groups was necropsied and their tissues were examined for lesions of spongiform encephalopathy (SE) and for the presence of abnormal prion protein (PrP(d)) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot (WB). The remaining deer were allowed to live until they developed clinical signs of the disease which began approximately 18 MPI. By 26 MPI, all deer were euthanatized on humane grounds. Obvious differences in clinical signs or the incubation periods were not observed between the 3 groups of deer given CWD. In 1 of 3 nonclinical deer euthanatized at 10 MPI, minimal microscopic lesions of SE were seen in the central nervous system (CNS) tissues, and PrP(d) was observed by IHC in tissues of all 3 deer. In the clinical deer, CNS lesions of SE and PrP(d) accumulations were more severe and extensive. It is concluded that the 3 sources of CWD prion did not induce significant differences in time to clinical disease or qualitative differences in signs or lesions in WTD. However, this observation does not imply that these CWD agents would necessarily behave similarly in other recipient species. PMID:18487485

Hamir, A N; Richt, J A; Miller, J M; Kunkle, R A; Hall, S M; Nicholson, E M; O'Rourke, K I; Greenlee, J J; Williams, E S

2008-05-01

11

Blood Chemistry of Free-Ranging and Captive White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Texas  

E-print Network

Blood samples were collected from 602 white-tailed deer (WTD) (Odocoileus virginianus) between October 2008 – October 2009, from 15 different counties throughout Texas. White-tailed deer were evaluated for serum biochemical parameters (total...

Smith, Melanie Love

2012-07-16

12

Deer density and disease prevalence influence transmission of chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer  

E-print Network

- year-old) white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in south-central Wisconsin, USA. We evaluated how); density dependence; disease management; disease transmission; frequency dependence; Odocoileus virginianus

13

Experimental infection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Northern European bluetongue virus serotype 8.  

PubMed

Bluetongue (BT) is an insect-transmitted, economically important disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Although only five of the 26 reported bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes are considered endemic to the USA, 10 exotic serotypes have been isolated primarily in the southeastern region of the country since 1999. For an exotic BTV serotype to become endemic there must be susceptible animal species and competent vectors. In the USA, sheep and white-tailed deer (WTD) are the primary sentinel livestock and wildlife species, respectively. In 2006, BTV-8 was introduced into Northern Europe and subsequently overwintered, causing unprecedented livestock disease and mortality during the 2006-2007 vector seasons. To assess the risk of the European strain of BTV-8 to North American WTD, and understand the role they could play after a similar introduction, eight bluetongue-seronegative WTD were inoculated with BTV-8. Body temperatures and clinical signs were recorded daily. Blood samples were analyzed for BTV RNA with quantitative real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), serum analyzed for BTV antibodies by cELISA, and tissues taken for histopathology and qRT-PCR. All eight deer became infected and developed moderate to severe clinical disease from days 8 to 15. Peak viremia was from day 7 to 10 with detectable titers through the end of the study (28 days) in most deer. Serum antibody was detected by day 6, peaked by day 10 and continued through day 28. We conclude that North American WTD are highly susceptible to BTV-8 and would act as clinical disease sentinels and amplifying hosts during an outbreak. PMID:23876932

Drolet, Barbara S; Reister, Lindsey M; Rigg, Tara D; Nol, Pauline; Podell, Brendan K; Mecham, James O; VerCauteren, Kurt C; van Rijn, Piet A; Wilson, William C; Bowen, Richard A

2013-10-25

14

Correlation of Cytokine Gene Expression with Pathology in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Infected with Mycobacterium bovis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium bovis-infected white-tailed deer (WTD) in northeast Michigan are a reservoir of mycobacteria that pose a threat to both domestic animals and humans. Relatively little work has been done to characterize the immune response of WTD to M. bovis infection; however, an understanding of the immune response to infection and pathogenesis may be critical to the development of an effective

Tyler C. Thacker; Mitchell V. Palmer; W. Ray Waters

2006-01-01

15

Tick-borne disease agents in various wildlife from Mississippi.  

PubMed

Because tick-borne diseases are becoming increasingly important throughout the world, monitoring their causative agents in wildlife may serve as a useful indicator of potential human exposure. We assessed the presence of known and putative zoonotic, tick-borne agents in four wildlife species in Mississippi. Animals were tested for exposure to or infection with Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, Borrelia lonestari, Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Francisella tularensis. Whole blood and serum were tested from white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) and feral swine (Sus scrofa); serum was tested from raccoons (Procyon lotor) and opossums (Didelphis virginiana). We used polymerase chain reaction to detect all agents in blood, whereas an indirect fluorescent antibody assay was used to detect antibodies to E. chaffeensis, B. lonestari, and Rickettsia parkeri (spotted fever group rickettsiae) antigens in serum. Molecular evidence of infection with E. chaffeensis, B. lonestari, and An. phagocytophilum was detected only in WTD. Antibodies to E. chaffeensis antigen were detected in 43.9% of WTD, 32.8% of swine, 42.1% of raccoons, and 15.8% of opossums. Serologic evidence of exposure to B. lonestari antigen was found in 19.3% of WTD, 6.9% of swine, and 5.3% of raccoons, but not in opossums. Interestingly, the percent of animals with antibodies reactive to spotted fever group rickettsiae (R. parkeri antigen) was highest in raccoons (73.7%) and opossums (57.9%). These results support the role of WTD as reservoirs for E. chaffeensis, B. lonestari, and An. phagocytophilum, as well as provide additional evidence for exposure of raccoons and opossums to E. chaffeensis. Finally, we provide new data that feral swine may have antibodies to these agents. Thus, in general, these four wildlife species are exposed to tick-borne disease agents in Mississippi, suggesting that ticks carry and have the potential to transmit the agents to humans in the state. PMID:20846016

Castellaw, Ashley H; Chenney, Erle F; Varela-Stokes, Andrea S

2011-04-01

16

Disease Limits Populations: Plague and Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs  

PubMed Central

Abstract Plague is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes mortality rates approaching 100% in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We mapped the perimeter of the active portions of black-tailed prairie dog colonies annually between 1999 and 2005 at four prairie dog colony complexes in areas with a history of plague, as well as at two complexes that were located outside the distribution of plague at the time of mapping and had therefore never been affected by the disease. We hypothesized that the presence of plague would significantly reduce overall black-tailed prairie dog colony area, reduce the sizes of colonies on these landscapes, and increase nearest-neighbor distances between colonies. Within the region historically affected by plague, individual colonies were smaller, nearest-neighbor distances were greater, and the proportion of potential habitat occupied by active prairie dog colonies was smaller than at plague-free sites. Populations that endured plague were composed of fewer large colonies (>100 ha) than populations that were historically plague free. We suggest that these differences among sites in colony size and isolation may slow recolonization after extirpation. At the same time, greater intercolony distances may also reduce intercolony transmission of pathogens. Reduced transmission among smaller and more distant colonies may ultimately enhance long-term prairie dog population persistence in areas where plague is present. PMID:20158327

Johnson, Tammi L.; Collinge, Sharon K.; Ray, Chris

2010-01-01

17

Chronic wasting disease in free-ranging Wisconsin white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three White-tailed Deer shot within 5 km during the 2001 hunting season in Wisconsin tested positive for chronic wasting disease, a prion disease of cervids. Subsequent sampling within 18 km showed a 3% prevalence (n=476). This discovery represents an important range extension for chronic wasting disease into the eastern United States.

Joly, D.O.; Ribic, C.A.; Langenberg, J.A.; Beheler, K.; Batha, C.A.; Dhuey, B.J.; Rolley, R.E.; Bartelt, G.; VanDeelen, T.R.; Samuel, M.D.

2003-01-01

18

DYNAMICS OF MATERNAL ANTIBODIES TO HEMORRHAGIC DISEASE VIRUSES (REOVIRIDAE: ORBIVIRUS) IN WHITE-TAILED DEER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzootic stability, potentially associated with acquired resistance and subsequent transfer of maternal antibodies, innate resistance, or both, has been hypothesized to explain the lack of reports of hemorrhagic disease (HD) in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Texas. The objectives of this research were to determine the following: how long maternal anti- bodies to epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) and bluetongue (BT)

Joseph K. Gaydos; David E. Stallknecht; Darrell Kavanaugh; Robert J. Olson; Eugene R. Fuchs

19

AN EPIZOOTIC OF ADENOVIRUS-INDUCED HEMORRHAGIC DISEASE IN CAPTIVE BLACK-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten fawns and four adult black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in a captive herd died as a result of adenovirus-induced hemorrhagic disease. Acute, systemic infections were characterized by hemorrhagic enteropathy, pulmonary edema, and occasional ulceration of the upper alimentary tract. Localized infections were limited to the upper alimentary tract and included stomatitis, pharyngitis, mandibular osteomyelitis, and rumenitis. In deer with acute,

Walter M. Boyce; Leslie W. Woods; M. Kevin Keel; N. James MacLachlan; Charles O. Porter; Howard D. Lehmkuhl

20

Alternative Feeding Strategies and Potential Disease Transmission in Wisconsin White-Tailed Deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted experimental feeding using 3 feeding methods (pile, spread, trough) and 2 quantities (rationed, ad libitum) of shelled corn to compare deer activity and behavior with control sites and evaluate potential direct and indirect transmission of infectious disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in central Wisconsin, USA. Deer use was higher at 2 of the feeding sites than at

Abbey K. Thompson; Michael D. Samuel; Timothy R. Van Deelen

2008-01-01

21

Proteomics approach to the study of cattle tick adaptation to white tailed deer.  

PubMed

Cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, are a serious threat to animal health and production. Some ticks feed on a single host species while others such as R. microplus infest multiple hosts. White tailed deer (WTD) play a role in the maintenance and expansion of cattle tick populations. However, cattle ticks fed on WTD show lower weight and reproductive performance when compared to ticks fed on cattle, suggesting the existence of host factors that affect tick feeding and reproduction. To elucidate these factors, a proteomics approach was used to characterize tick and host proteins in R. microplus ticks fed on cattle and WTD. The results showed that R. microplus ticks fed on cattle have overrepresented tick proteins involved in blood digestion and reproduction when compared to ticks fed on WTD, while host proteins were differentially represented in ticks fed on cattle or WTD. Although a direct connection cannot be made between differentially represented tick and host proteins, these results suggested that differentially represented host proteins together with other host factors could be associated with higher R. microplus tick feeding and reproduction observed in ticks fed on cattle. PMID:24364032

Popara, Marina; Villar, Margarita; Mateos-Hernández, Lourdes; de Mera, Isabel G Fernández; de la Fuente, José

2013-01-01

22

An adenovirus linked to mortality and disease in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) in Alaska.  

PubMed

An adenovirus was isolated from intestinal samples of two long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) collected during a die-off in the Beaufort Sea off the north coast of Alaska in 2000. The virus was not neutralized by reference antiserum against known group I, II, or III avian adenoviruses and may represent a new serotype. The prevalence of the virus was determined in live-trapped long-tailed ducks at the mortality site and at a reference site 100 km away where no mortality was observed. Prevalence of adenovirus antibodies in serum samples at the mortality site was 86% compared to 10% at the reference site. Furthermore, 50% of cloacal swabs collected at the mortality site and only 7% of swabs from the reference site were positive for adenoviruses. In 2001, no mortality was observed at either of the study areas, and virus prevalence in both serum and cloacal samples was low, providing further evidence that the adenovirus was linked to the mortality event in 2000. The virus was used to infect long-tailed ducks under experimental conditions and resulted in lesions previously described for avian adenovirus infections and similar to those observed in long-tailed duck carcasses from the Beaufort Sea. The status of long-tailed ducks has recently become a concern in Alaska due to precipitous declines in breeding populations there since the mid-1970s. Our findings suggest that the newly isolated adenovirus is a disease agent and source of mortality in long-tailed ducks, and thus could be a contributing factor in population declines. PMID:14708993

Hollmén, Tuula E; Franson, J Christian; Flint, Paul L; Grand, James B; Lanctot, Richard B; Docherty, Douglas E; Wilson, Heather M

2003-01-01

23

Occurrence, isolation, and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New Jersey.  

PubMed

The ingestion of uncooked infected white-tailed deer (WTD) tissues can transmit Toxoplasma gondii infection to humans and mesocarnivores, including cats. In the present study, we tested 264 WTD from New Jersey for T. gondii infection during the 2011-2012 hunting season. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (cutoff titer, 25); 76 (28.7%) of 264 WTD were seropositive. Heart muscle samples from 64 seropositive WTD were digested in pepsin, and the digests were bioassayed for the isolation of T. gondii . Viable T. gondii was isolated in mice from the myocardium of 9 WTD; tachyzoites from infected mouse tissues were further propagated in cell culture. One of the 9 strains was highly virulent for outbred Swiss Webster mice. The DNA isolated from culture-derived tachyzoites of these 9 T. gondii isolates was characterized using 11 PCR-RFLP markers (SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico). Six genotypes were found, including ToxoDB genotype no. 2 (Type III), no. 3 (Type II variant), no. 4 (Type 12), no. 216, no. 220, and no. 221. The last 2 were new genotypes that were reported for the first time. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in deer from this region of the United States. PMID:23574007

Dubey, J P; Randall, A R; Choudhary, S; Ferreira, L R; Verma, S K; Oliveira, S; Kwok, O C H; Su, C

2013-10-01

24

ANTIBODY PREVALENCE OF EIGHT RUMINANT INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN CALIFORNIA MULE AND BLACK-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested 276 sera from 18 free-ranging black-tailed and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) herds in California (USA) collected from 1987 to 1991 in five biogeographical habitat types, for antibodies against eight infectious disease agents. Overall antibody prevalence was 56% for Anaplasma marginale, 31% for Borrelia burgdorferi, 16% for bluetongue virus serotype 17, 15% for epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, 7% for

Bruno B. Chomel; Marius L. Carniciu; Rickie W. Kasten; Paolo M. Castelli; Thierry M. Work; David A. Jessup

25

Modeling the Impact of Climate and Landscape on the Efficacy of White Tailed Deer Vaccination for Cattle Tick Control in Northeastern Mexico  

PubMed Central

Cattle ticks are distributed worldwide and affect animal health and livestock production. White tailed deer (WTD) sustain and spread cattle tick populations. The aim of this study was to model the efficacy of anti-tick vaccination of WTD to control tick infestations in the absence of cattle vaccination in a territory where both host species coexist and sustain cattle tick populations. Agent-based models that included land cover/landscape properties (patch size, distances to patches) and climatic conditions were built in a GIS environment to simulate WTD vaccine effectiveness under conditions where unvaccinated cattle shared the landscape. Published and validated information on tick life cycle was used to build models describing tick mortality and developmental rates. Data from simulations were applied to a large territory in northeastern Mexico where cattle ticks are endemic and WTD and cattle share substantial portions of the habitat. WTD movements were simulated together with tick population dynamics considering the actual landscape and climatic features. The size of the vegetation patches and the distance between patches were critical for the successful control of tick infestations after WTD vaccination. The presence of well-connected, large vegetation patches proved essential for tick control, since the tick could persist in areas of highly fragmented habitat. The continued application of one yearly vaccination on days 1-70 for three years reduced tick abundance/animal/patch by a factor of 40 and 60 for R. annulatus and R. microplus, respectively when compared to non-vaccinated controls. The study showed that vaccination of WTD alone during three consecutive years could result in the reduction of cattle tick populations in northeastern Mexico. Furthermore, the results of the simulations suggested the possibility of using vaccines to prevent the spread and thus the re-introduction of cattle ticks into tick-free areas. PMID:25047078

Estrada-Pena, Agustin; Carreon, Diana; Almazan, Consuelo; de la Fuente, Jose

2014-01-01

26

Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in Wisconsin White-Tailed Deer: Implications for Disease Spread and Management  

PubMed Central

Few studies have evaluated the rate of infection or mode of transmission for wildlife diseases, and the implications of alternative management strategies. We used hunter harvest data from 2002 to 2013 to investigate chronic wasting disease (CWD) infection rate and transmission modes, and address how alternative management approaches affect disease dynamics in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer population. Uncertainty regarding demographic impacts of CWD on cervid populations, human and domestic animal health concerns, and potential economic consequences underscore the need for strategies to control CWD distribution and prevalence. Using maximum-likelihood methods to evaluate alternative multi-state deterministic models of CWD transmission, harvest data strongly supports a frequency-dependent transmission structure with sex-specific infection rates that are two times higher in males than females. As transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are an important and difficult-to-study class of diseases with major economic and ecological implications, our work supports the hypothesis of frequency-dependent transmission in wild deer at a broad spatial scale and indicates that effective harvest management can be implemented to control CWD prevalence. Specifically, we show that harvest focused on the greater-affected sex (males) can result in stable population dynamics and control of CWD within the next 50 years, given the constraints of the model. We also provide a quantitative estimate of geographic disease spread in southern Wisconsin, validating qualitative assessments that CWD spreads relatively slowly. Given increased discovery and distribution of CWD throughout North America, insights from our study are valuable to management agencies and to the general public concerned about the impacts of CWD on white-tailed deer populations. PMID:24658535

Jennelle, Christopher S.; Henaux, Viviane; Wasserberg, Gideon; Thiagarajan, Bala; Rolley, Robert E.; Samuel, Michael D.

2014-01-01

27

Alternative feeding strategies and potential disease transmission in Wisconsin white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We conducted experimental feeding using 3 feeding methods (pile, spread, trough) and 2 quantities (rationed, ad libitum) of shelled corn to compare deer activity and behavior with control sites and evaluate potential direct and indirect transmission of infectious disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in central Wisconsin, USA. Deer use was higher at 2 of the feeding sites than at natural feeding areas (P ??? 0.02). Deer spent a higher proportion of time (P < 0.01) feeding at pile (49%) and spread (61%) treatments than at natural feeding areas (36%). We found higher deer use for rationed than ad libitum feeding quantities and feeding intensity was greatest at rationed piles and lowest at ad libitum spreads. We also observed closer pairwise distances (???0.3 m) among deer when corn was provided in a trough relative to spread (P=0.03). Supplemental feeding poses risks for both direct and indirect disease transmission due to higher deer concentration and more intensive use relative to control areas. Concentrated feeding and contact among deer at feeding sites can also increase risk for disease transmission. Our results indicated that restrictions on feeding quantity would not mitigate the potential for disease transmission None of the feeding strategies we evaluated substantially reduced the potential risk for disease transmission and banning supplemental feeding to reduce transmission is warranted.

Thompson, A. K.; Samuel, M. D.; Van Deelen, T. R.

2008-01-01

28

SPATIAL EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN WISCONSIN WHITE-TAILED DEER  

E-print Network

of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and elk (Cervus elaphus in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Wisconsin to facilitate CWD management. We found that CWD

Mladenoff, David

29

Anaplasma odocoilei sp. nov. (family Anaplasmataceae) from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

PubMed Central

Recently, an undescribed Anaplasma sp. (also called Ehrlichia-like sp. or WTD agent) was isolated in ISE6 tick cells from captive white-tailed deer. The goal of the current study was to characterize this organism using a combination of experimental infection, morphologic, serologic, and molecular studies. Each of 6 experimentally inoculated white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) became chronically infected (100+ days) with the Anaplasma sp. by inoculation of either infected whole blood or culture. None of the deer showed evidence of clinical disease, but 3 of the 6 deer evaluated had multiple episodes of transient thrombocytopenia. Light microscopy of Giemsa-stained, thin blood smears revealed tiny, dark, spherical structures in platelets of acutely infected deer. Anaplasma sp. was detected in platelets of inoculated deer by polymerase chain reaction, transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization. Five of 6 deer developed antibodies reactive to Anaplasma sp. antigen, as detected by indirect fluorescent antibody testing. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, groESL, and gltA sequences confirmed the Anaplasma sp. is related to A. platys. Two attempts to transmit the Anaplasma sp. between deer by feeding Amblyomma americanum, a suspected tick vector, were unsuccessful. Based on its biologic, antigenic, and genetic characteristics, this organism is considered a novel species of Anaplasma, and the name Anaplasma odocoilei sp. nov. is proposed with UMUM76T (=CSUR-A1) as the type strain. PMID:23276749

Tate, Cynthia M.; Howerth, Elizabeth W.; Mead, Daniel G.; Dugan, Vivien G.; Luttrell, M. Page; Sahora, Alexandra I.; Munderloh, Ulrike G.; Davidson, William R.; Yabsley, Michael J.

2014-01-01

30

Anaplasma odocoilei sp. nov. (family Anaplasmataceae) from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Recently, an undescribed Anaplasma sp. (also called Ehrlichia-like sp. or WTD agent) was isolated in ISE6 tick cells from captive white-tailed deer. The goal of the current study was to characterize this organism using a combination of experimental infection, morphologic, serologic, and molecular studies. Each of 6 experimentally inoculated white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) became chronically infected (100+ days) with the Anaplasma sp. by inoculation of either infected whole blood or culture. None of the deer showed evidence of clinical disease, but 3 of the 6 deer evaluated had multiple episodes of transient thrombocytopenia. Light microscopy of Giemsa-stained, thin blood smears revealed tiny, dark, spherical structures in platelets of acutely infected deer. Anaplasma sp. was detected in platelets of inoculated deer by polymerase chain reaction, transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization. Five of 6 deer developed antibodies reactive to Anaplasma sp. antigen, as detected by indirect fluorescent antibody testing. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, groESL, and gltA sequences confirmed the Anaplasma sp. is related to A. platys. Two attempts to transmit the Anaplasma sp. between deer by feeding Amblyomma americanum, a suspected tick vector, were unsuccessful. Based on its biologic, antigenic, and genetic characteristics, this organism is considered a novel species of Anaplasma, and the name Anaplasma odocoilei sp. nov. is proposed with UMUM76(T) (=CSUR-A1) as the type strain. PMID:23276749

Tate, Cynthia M; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Mead, Daniel G; Dugan, Vivien G; Luttrell, M Page; Sahora, Alexandra I; Munderloh, Ulrike G; Davidson, William R; Yabsley, Michael J

2013-02-01

31

Short-tailed shrews as reservoirs of the agents of Lyme disease and human babesiosis.  

PubMed

To determine whether short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) serve as reservoir hosts for the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) and the agent of human babesiosis (Babesia microti), we examined nymphal ticks that had fed as larvae on shrews collected from 3 enzootic sites in coastal Massachusetts for evidence of infection by either or both of these agents. Xenodiagnosis indicated that 11 of 14 shrews were infected by B. burgdorferi. One of 3 piroplasm-infected shrews also infected ticks with B. microti. In a site where the piroplasm is endemic, 11 of 17 shrews showed patent parasitemias by thin blood smears. Of these, 4 had parasitemias exceeding 40%. Few immature ticks infested shrews, however, suggesting that B. brevicauda, although abundant in some endemic sites and serving as a competent reservoir, would contribute minimally to the population of infected nymphs. PMID:2213411

Telford, S R; Mather, T N; Adler, G H; Spielman, A

1990-10-01

32

Disease risk surface for Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence in white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

Coxiella burnetii is considered a re-emerging zoonosis in many countries. The bacterium is enzootic in livestock and wildlife in the United States, and environmental contamination is widespread. Despite the potential for exposure, the estimated prevalence of Q fever in humans and animals is not well elucidated, and reported human infections in the United States are relatively rare. Zoonotic transmission of the bacterium is usually associated with abortions in domestic ruminants, but other modes of transmission, such as contact with infected blood and/or milk during field dressing of infected wildlife, have not been thoroughly investigated. Studies of zoonotic pathogen transmission between animal reservoir hosts and humans are usually established in response to documented emergence or re-emergence of a zoonosis in a particular locale, and, as such, the prevalence of infection in wildlife is largely unknown for many zoonotic pathogens, including C. burnetii. The objective of this study was to create a disease risk surface for C. burnetii seroprevalence in wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New York State. Blood samples were collected from hunter-harvested deer from across New York State in 2009 and 2010. The samples were processed and tested for the presence of anti-C. burnetii antibodies via indirect microimmunofluorescence assays using phase II C. burnetii strain RSA439. Overall, 14.50% of the tested white-tailed deer were C. burnetii phase II seropositive. The dual Kernel density estimation method was used to create a smoothed disease risk surface, which revealed variation in seroprevalence ranging from 0% to 32.0%. Areas of higher seroprevalence were detected in four discrete areas of Central New York and in one additional area in the southwest corner of the northern part of the state. This suggests certain locales where humans may be at increased risk for exposure to the bacterium secondary to contact with potentially infected deer. PMID:23176671

Kirchgessner, M S; Dubovi, E J; Whipps, C M

2013-11-01

33

Demographic patterns and harvest vulnerability of chronic wasting disease infected white-tailed deer in Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) caused by transmissible protease-resistant prions. Since the discovery of CWD in southern Wisconsin in 2001, more than 20,000 deer have been removed from a >2,500-km2 disease eradication zone surrounding the three initial cases. Nearly all deer removed were tested for CWD infection and sex, age, and harvest location were recorded. Our analysis used data from a 310-km2 core study area where disease prevalence was higher than surrounding areas. We found no difference in harvest rates between CWD infected and noninfected deer. Our results show that the probability of infection increased with age and that adult males were more likely to be infected than adult females. Six fawns tested positive for CWD, five fawns from the core study area, including the youngest (5 months) free-ranging cervid to test positive. The increase in male prevalence with age is nearly twice the increase found in females. We concluded that CWD is not randomly distributed among deer and that differential transmission among sex and age classes is likely driving the observed patterns in disease prevalence. We discuss alternative hypotheses for CWD transmission and spread and, in addition, discuss several possible nonlinear relationships between prevalence and age. Understanding CWD transmission in free-ranging cervid populations will be essential to the development of strategies to manage this disease in areas where CWD is found, as well as for surveillance strategies in areas where CWD threatens to spread.

Grear, D. A.; Samuel, M. D.; Langenberg, J. A.; Keane, D.

2006-01-01

34

Chronic wasting disease in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer farm  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In September 2002, chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disorder of captive and wild cervids, was diagnosed in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from a captive farm in Wisconsin. The facility was subsequently quarantined, and in January 2006 the remaining 76 deer were depopulated. Sixty animals (79%) were found to be positive by immunohistochemical staining for the abnormal prion protein (PrPCWD) in at least one tissue; the prevalence of positive staining was high even in young deer. Although none of the deer displayed clinical signs suggestive of CWD at depopulation, 49 deer had considerable accumulation of the abnormal prion in the medulla at the level of the obex. Extraneural accumulation of the abnormal protein was observed in 59 deer, with accumulation in the retropharyngeal lymph node in 58 of 59 (98%), in the tonsil in 56 of 59 (95%), and in the rectal mucosal lymphoid tissue in 48 of 58 (83%). The retina was positive in 4 deer, all with marked accumulation of prion in the obex. One deer was considered positive for PrPCWD in the brain but not in the extraneural tissue, a novel observation in white-tailed deer. The infection rate in captive deer was 20-fold higher than in wild deer. Although weakly related to infection rates in extraneural tissues, prion genotype was strongly linked to progression of prion accumulation in the obex. Antemortem testing by biopsy of rectoanal mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (or other peripheral lymphoid tissue) may be a useful adjunct to tonsil biopsy for surveillance in captive herds at risk for CWD infection.

Keane, D. P.; Barr, D. J.; Bochsler, P. N.; Hall, S. M.; Gidlewski, T.; O'Rourke, K. I.; Spraker, T. R.; Samuel, M. D.

2008-01-01

35

Molecular characterization of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) spp. infecting cattle (Bos taurus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) in the United States.  

PubMed

In the United States, the generally non-pathogenic trypanosome of cattle is designated Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) theileri and is distinguished morphologically from Trypanosoma (M.) cervi, a trypanosome originally described in mule deer and elk. Phylogenetic studies of the Megatrypanum trypanosomes using various molecular markers reveal two lineages, designated TthI and TthII, with several genotypes within each. However, to date there is very limited genetic data for T. theileri, and none for the Megatrypanum trypanosomes found in wild ungulates, in the U.S. In this study U.S. isolates from cattle (Bos taurus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) (WTD), and elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) were compared by ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence analysis and their incidence in cattle and WTD in south Texas counties was investigated. Phylogenetic analyses showed clear separation of the bovine and cervine trypanosomes. Both lineages I and II were represented in the U.S. cattle and WTD parasites. Lineage I cattle isolates were of a previously described genotype, whereas WTD and elk isolates were of two new genotypes distinct from the cattle trypanosomes. The cattle isolate of lineage II was of a previously reported genotype and was divergent from the WTD isolate, which was of a new genotype. In La Salle, Starr, Webb, and Zapata counties in south Texas a total of 51.8% of white-tailed deer were positive for trypanosomes by 18S rDNA PCR. Of the cattle screened in Webb County, 35.4% were positive. Drought conditions prevailing in south Texas when the animals were screened suggest the possibility of a vector for Trypanosoma other than the ked (Lipoptena mazamae) and tabanid flies (Tabanus spp. and Haematopota spp.). PMID:23683651

Fisher, Amanda C; Schuster, Greta; Cobb, W Jacob; James, Andrea M; Cooper, Susan M; Peréz de León, Adalberto A; Holman, Patricia J

2013-10-18

36

Host culling as an adaptive management tool for chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer: a modelling study  

PubMed Central

Emerging wildlife diseases pose a significant threat to natural and human systems. Because of real or perceived risks of delayed actions, disease management strategies such as culling are often implemented before thorough scientific knowledge of disease dynamics is available. Adaptive management is a valuable approach in addressing the uncertainty and complexity associated with wildlife disease problems and can be facilitated by using a formal model. We developed a multi-state computer simulation model using age, sex, infection-stage, and seasonality as a tool for scientific learning and managing chronic wasting disease (CWD) in white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus. Our matrix model used disease transmission parameters based on data collected through disease management activities. We used this model to evaluate management issues on density- (DD) and frequency-dependent (FD) transmission, time since disease introduction, and deer culling on the demographics, epizootiology, and management of CWD. Both DD and FD models fit the Wisconsin data for a harvested white-tailed deer population, but FD was slightly better. Time since disease introduction was estimated as 36 (95% CI, 24–50) and 188 (41–>200) years for DD and FD transmission, respectively. Deer harvest using intermediate to high non-selective rates can be used to reduce uncertainty between DD and FD transmission and improve our prediction of long-term epidemic patterns and host population impacts. A higher harvest rate allows earlier detection of these differences, but substantially reduces deer abundance. Results showed that CWD has spread slowly within Wisconsin deer populations, and therefore, epidemics and disease management are expected to last for decades. Non-hunted deer populations can develop and sustain a high level of infection, generating a substantial risk of disease spread. In contrast, CWD prevalence remains lower in hunted deer populations, but at a higher prevalence the disease competes with recreational hunting to reduce deer abundance. Synthesis and applications. Uncertainty about density- or frequency-dependent transmission hinders predictions about the long-term impacts of chronic wasting disease on cervid populations and the development of appropriate management strategies. An adaptive management strategy using computer modelling coupled with experimental management and monitoring can be used to test model predictions, identify the likely mode of disease transmission, and evaluate the risks of alternative management responses. PMID:19536340

Wasserberg, Gideon; Osnas, Erik E; Rolley, Robert E; Samuel, Michael D

2009-01-01

37

Preclinical diagnosis of chronic wasting disease in captive mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) using tonsillar biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usefulness of tonsillar biopsy on live deer for preclinical diagnosis of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy chronic wasting disease (CWD) was evaluated. Disease was tracked in a CWD-endemic herd using serial tonsillar biopsies collected at 6 to 9 month intervals from 34 captive mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and five white-tailed deer (O. virginianus). Tonsillar biopsies were examined for accumulation of

Margaret A. Wild; Terry R. Spraker; Christina J. Sigurdson; Katherine I. O'Rourke; Michael W. Miller

38

White tail disease of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii: separation of the associated virions and characterization of MrNV as a new type of nodavirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

White tail disease of the farmed freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is the cause of mortali- ties in the French West Indies, China and India. Two different sized particles, both developing in the cytoplasm of target cells, are found associated with diseased animals. These two viruses were separated, purified and subsequently characterized. The larger one, called MrNV, is icosahedral in shape

J-R Bonami; Z Shi; D Qian; J Sri Widada

2005-01-01

39

Evaluating Spatial Overlap and Relatedness of White-tailed Deer in a Chronic Wasting Disease Management Zone  

PubMed Central

Wildlife disease transmission, at a local scale, can occur from interactions between infected and susceptible conspecifics or from a contaminated environment. Thus, the degree of spatial overlap and rate of contact among deer is likely to impact both direct and indirect transmission of infectious diseases such chronic wasting disease (CWD) or bovine tuberculosis. We identified a strong relationship between degree of spatial overlap (volume of intersection) and genetic relatedness for female white-tailed deer in Wisconsin’s area of highest CWD prevalence. We used volume of intersection as a surrogate for contact rates between deer and concluded that related deer are more likely to have contact, which may drive disease transmission dynamics. In addition, we found that age of deer influences overlap, with fawns exhibiting the highest degree of overlap with other deer. Our results further support the finding that female social groups have higher contact among related deer which can result in transmission of infectious diseases. We suggest that control of large social groups comprised of closely related deer may be an effective strategy in slowing the transmission of infectious pathogens, and CWD in particular. PMID:23437171

Magle, Seth B.; Samuel, Michael D.; Van Deelen, Timothy R.; Robinson, Stacie J.; Mathews, Nancy E.

2013-01-01

40

Molecular study of free-ranging mule deer and white-tailed deer from British Columbia, Canada, for evidence of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp.  

PubMed

Twenty-three free-ranging white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) and six mule deer (MD; Odocoileus hemionus) from south-central British Columbia, Canada, were tested for Anaplasma marginale by msp5 gene-specific PCR and Ehrlichia spp. by 16S rRNA or citrate synthase (gltA) gene-specific PCR, as well as by PCR with universal 16S rRNA primers detecting a wide range of bacteria. No deer tested positive for A. marginale. Amplification with universal 16S rRNA primers followed by sequencing of cloned fragments detected an Anaplasma sp. in one of 23 (4.3%) WTD and six of six (100%) MD and Bartonella sp. in four of 23 (17.4%) WTD. The Anaplasma sp. was genetically distinct from A. marginale and all other recognized members of the genus. Four of six (66.7%) MD and 0 of 23 (0%) WTD were Ehrlichia positive by PCR with primers for 16S rRNA and gltA genes. The sequences of gltA PCR fragments were identical to each other and to the respective region of the gltA gene of an Ehrlichia sp. which we detected previously in naturally infected cattle from the same area, suggesting the possibility of biological transmission of this rickettsia between cattle and wild cervids. Antibodies reactive with the MSP5 protein of A. marginale were detected using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in two of six (33.3%) MD, but not in WTD. The two seropositive MD were PCR positive for both the Anaplasma sp. and Ehrlichia sp. detected in this study, suggesting a reaction of antibodies against one or both of these rickettsias with the MSP5 antigen. PMID:21933360

Lobanov, V A; Gajadhar, A A; Al-Adhami, B; Schwantje, H M

2012-06-01

41

Precipitating antibodies to epizootic hemorrhagic disease and bluetongue viruses in white-tailed deer in the southeastern United States.  

PubMed

From 1981 to 1989, sera were collected from 3,077 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Georgia and from 1,749 deer from 12 additional states in the southeastern United States. In Georgia, prevalence of precipitating antibodies to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) and bluetongue virus (BTV), as determined by agar gel immunodiffusion tests, was dependent on physiographic region, age, and year. Overall prevalence of antibodies to EHDV and/or BTV was 11, 33, 48, and 14% for the Mountain, Piedmont, Coastal Plain, and Barrier Island regions, respectively. Results suggested varying patterns of EHDV and BTV activity throughout the state. Serologic results from other southeastern states were consistent with the Georgia sample; prevalence estimates (EHDV and/or BTV) for corresponding physiographic regions deviated by less than 10%. Over this larger geographical area, antibody prevalence in deer appeared to increase with decreasing latitude. PMID:1676762

Stallknecht, D E; Blue, J L; Rollor, E A; Nettles, V F; Davidson, W R; Pearson, J E

1991-04-01

42

Exploiting Heavy Tails in Training Times of Multilayer Perceptrons. A Case Study with the UCI Thyroid Disease Database  

E-print Network

The random initialization of weights of a multilayer perceptron makes it possible to model its training process as a Las Vegas algorithm, i.e. a randomized algorithm which stops when some required training error is obtained, and whose execution time is a random variable. This modelling is used to perform a case study on a well-known pattern recognition benchmark: the UCI Thyroid Disease Database. Empirical evidence is presented of the training time probability distribution exhibiting a heavy tail behavior, meaning a big probability mass of long executions. This fact is exploited to reduce the training time cost by applying two simple restart strategies. The first assumes full knowledge of the distribution yielding a 40% cut down in expected time with respect to the training without restarts. The second, assumes null knowledge, yielding a reduction ranging from 9% to 23%.

Cebrian, Manuel

2007-01-01

43

Intranasal Inoculation of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Lyophilized Chronic Wasting Disease Prion Particulate Complexed to Montmorillonite Clay  

PubMed Central

Chronic wasting disease (CWD), the only known prion disease endemic in wildlife, is a persistent problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations. This disease continues to spread and cases are found in new areas each year. Indirect transmission can occur via the environment and is thought to occur by the oral and/or intranasal route. Oral transmission has been experimentally demonstrated and although intranasal transmission has been postulated, it has not been tested in a natural host until recently. Prions have been shown to adsorb strongly to clay particles and upon oral inoculation the prion/clay combination exhibits increased infectivity in rodent models. Deer and elk undoubtedly and chronically inhale dust particles routinely while living in the landscape while foraging and rutting. We therefore hypothesized that dust represents a viable vehicle for intranasal CWD prion exposure. To test this hypothesis, CWD-positive brain homogenate was mixed with montmorillonite clay (Mte), lyophilized, pulverized and inoculated intranasally into white-tailed deer once a week for 6 weeks. Deer were euthanized at 95, 105, 120 and 175 days post final inoculation and tissues examined for CWD-associated prion proteins by immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that CWD can be efficiently transmitted utilizing Mte particles as a prion carrier and intranasal exposure. PMID:23671598

Nichols, Tracy A.; Spraker, Terry R.; Rigg, Tara D.; Meyerett-Reid, Crystal; Hoover, Clare; Michel, Brady; Bian, Jifeng; Hoover, Edward; Gidlewski, Thomas; Balachandran, Aru; O'Rourke, Katherine; Telling, Glenn C.; Bowen, Richard

2013-01-01

44

Aerosol Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in White-Tailed Deer  

PubMed Central

While the facile transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) remains incompletely elucidated, studies in rodents suggest that exposure of the respiratory mucosa may be an efficient pathway. The present study was designed to address this question in the native cervid host. Here, we demonstrate aerosol transmission of CWD to deer with a prion dose >20-fold lower than that used in previous oral inoculations. Inhalation of prions may facilitate transmission of CWD and, perhaps, other prion infections. PMID:23175370

Denkers, Nathaniel D.; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Anderson, Kelly R.; Seelig, Davis M.; Haley, Nicholas J.; Dahmes, Sallie J.; Osborn, David A.; Miller, Karl V.; Warren, Robert J.; Mathiason, Candace K.

2013-01-01

45

Demodectic mange, dermatophilosis, and other parasitic and bacterial dermatologic diseases in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the United States from 1975 to 2012.  

PubMed

The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is a common and widespread North American game species. To evaluate the incidence, clinical manifestations, demography, and pathology of bacterial and parasitic dermatologic diseases in white-tailed deer in the southeastern United States, we retrospectively evaluated white-tailed deer cases submitted to the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study from 1975 to 2012. Among 2569 deer examined, bacterial or parasitic dermatologic disease was diagnosed in 88 (3.4%) individuals, with Demodex spp (n = 37; 42.0%) and Dermatophilus congolensis (n = 19; 21.6%) as the most common causes. Demodicosis was significantly more common in deer older than 2 years and was most often detected in the fall; no statistically significant sex predilection was identified. Affected animals had patchy to generalized alopecia, often distributed over the head, neck, limbs, and trunk; microscopic lesions included epidermal crusts and cutaneous nodules with mild perifollicular, lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. Dermatophilosis was most common in males younger than 1 year that were often found dead. Crusting, erythema, and alopecia occurred on the face, ears, and distal extremities. Less commonly, infectious dermatologic diseases were associated with other bacteria (n = 13; 14.8%), fungi (n = 5; 5.7%), ectoparasites (chiggers, lice, mites, and ticks; n = 11; 12.5%), and larval nematodes (n = 7; 8.0%). Population-level effects of these diseases in white-tailed deer are likely minimal; however, due to their dramatic presentation, demodicosis, dermatophilosis, and other infectious skin diseases can be of concern to hunters and, in some cases, may have zoonotic potential. PMID:23912715

Nemeth, N M; Ruder, M G; Gerhold, R W; Brown, J D; Munk, B A; Oesterle, P T; Kubiski, S V; Keel, M K

2014-05-01

46

Prevalence of the Lyme disease spirochete in populations of white-tailed deer and white-footed mice.  

PubMed

The prevalence of the Ixodes dammini spirochete (IDS) in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) was studied on the eastern end of Long Island, New York. Both species commonly occur in a variety of habitats, are preferred hosts of Ixodes dammini, and can harbor the spirochetes in the blood. Each animal was examined for spirochetemia, tick infestation, and IDS infection rates in the ticks that were removed from it. The results obtained suggest that in winter deer can be infected by questing adult I. dammini. Adult ticks apparently are infected through transtadial transmission of spirochetes from subadult ticks which had fed earlier in their life history on infected animals. Deer are important hosts of adult ticks and the IDS in winter and probably are a reservoir host in other seasons. The patterns of spirochete prevalence suggest that deer and mice are reservoirs of the organism and thus are fundamental to the ecology of Lyme disease on Long Island. PMID:6516461

Bosler, E M; Ormiston, B G; Coleman, J L; Hanrahan, J P; Benach, J L

1984-01-01

47

Broad and fine-scale genetic analysis of white-tailed deer populations: estimating the relative risk of chronic wasting disease spread  

PubMed Central

Chronic wasting disease is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, similar to sheep scrapie that has only recently been detected in wild populations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) in western Canada. Relatively little is known about local transmission dynamics of the disease or the potential for long-distance spread. We analysed the population genetic structure of over 2000 white-tailed deer sampled from Alberta, British Columbia, and Saskatchewan using microsatellite profiles and mtDNA sequencing to assess the relative risk of disease spread. There was very little differentiation among subpopulations and a weak trend of increasing differentiation with geographic distance. This suggests that the potential for long-distance disease spread through the dispersal of infected individuals is possible, yet the risk of spread should gradually diminish with distance from infection foci. Within subpopulations, females were more related than expected by chance (R > 0) within a radius of approximately 500 m. Sex-biased philopatry and social interactions among related females may facilitate local disease transmission within social groups. Local herd reduction may therefore be an effective tool for reducing the disease prevalence when implemented at the appropriate spatial scale.

Cullingham, Catherine I; Merrill, Evelyn H; Pybus, Margo J; Bollinger, Trent K; Wilson, Gregory A; Coltman, David W

2011-01-01

48

Technical Basis for Radiological Emergency Plan Annex for WTD Emergency Response Plan: West Point Treatment Plant  

SciTech Connect

Staff of the King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into the combined sanitary and storm sewer system in King County, Washington. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) 2001). Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. This document, Volume 3 of PNNL-15163 is the technical basis for the Annex to the West Point Treatment Plant (WPTP) Emergency Response Plan related to responding to a radiological emergency at the WPTP. The plan primarily considers response to radioactive material that has been introduced in the other combined sanitary and storm sewer system from a radiological dispersion device, but is applicable to any accidental or deliberate introduction of materials into the system.

Hickey, Eva E.; Strom, Daniel J.

2005-08-01

49

Prion protein in cardiac muscle of elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) infected with chronic wasting disease.  

PubMed

To investigate the possible presence of disease-associated prion protein (PrP(d)) in striated muscle of chronic wasting disease (CWD)-affected cervids, samples of diaphragm, tongue, heart and three appendicular skeletal muscles from mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and moose (Alces alces shirasi) were examined by ELISA, Western immunoblot and immunohistochemistry (IHC). PrP(d) was detected in samples of heart muscle from seven of 16 CWD-infected white-tailed deer, including one free-ranging deer, and in 12 of 17 CWD-infected elk, but not in any of 13 mule deer samples, nor in the single CWD-infected moose. For white-tailed deer, PrP(d) was detected by Western blot at multiple sites throughout the heart; IHC results on ventricular sections of both elk and white-tailed deer showed positive staining in cardiac myocytes, but not in conduction tissues or nerve ganglia. Levels of PrP(d) in cardiac tissues were estimated from Western blot band intensity to be lower than levels found in brain tissue. PrP(d) was not detected in diaphragm, triceps brachii, semitendinosus, latissiumus dorsi or tongue muscles for any of the study subjects. This is the first report of PrP(d) in cardiac tissue from transmissible spongiform encephalopathy-infected ruminants in the human food chain and the first demonstration by immunological assays of PrP(d) in any striated muscle of CWD-infected cervids. PMID:17030881

Jewell, Jean E; Brown, Jeremy; Kreeger, Terry; Williams, Elizabeth S

2006-11-01

50

Diversity and distribution of white-tailed deer mtdna lineages in chronic wasting disease (cwd) outbreak areas in southern wisconsin, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting North American cervids. Because it is uniformly fatal, the disease is a major concern in the management of white-tailed deer populations. Management programs to control CWD require improved knowledge of deer interaction, movement, and population connectivity that could influence disease transmission and spread. Genetic methods were employed to evaluate connectivity among populations in the CWD management zone of southern Wisconsin. A 576-base-pair region of the mitochondrial DNA of 359 white-tailed deer from 12 sample populations was analyzed. Fifty-eight variable sites were detected within the sequence, defining 43 haplotypes. While most sample populations displayed similar levels of haplotype diversity, individual haplotypes were clustered on the landscape. Spatial clusters of different haplotypes were apparent in distinct ecoregions surrounding CWD outbreak areas. The spatial distribution of mtDNA haplotypes suggests that clustering of the deer matrilineal groups and population connectivity are associated with broad-scale geographic landscape features. These landscape characteristics may also influence the contact rates between groups and therefore the potential spread of CWD; this may be especially true of local disease spread between female social groups. Our results suggest that optimal CWD management needs to be tailored to fit gender-specific dispersal behaviors and regional differences in deer population connectivity. This information will help wildlife managers design surveillance and monitoring efforts based on population interactions and potential deer movement among CWD-affected and unaffected areas. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Rogers, K. G.; Robinson, S. J.; Samuel, M. D.; Grear, D. A.

2011-01-01

51

The Effects of Short Glass Fibre (SGF) Loading and a Silane Coupling Agent on Properties of Polypropylene\\/Waste Tyre Dust\\/Short Glass Fibre (PP\\/WTD\\/SGF) Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of polypropylene\\/waste tyre dust\\/short glass fibre (PP\\/WTD\\/SGF) composites at 0 to 20 php SGF loading, with and without a silane coupling agent, ?-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (?-APS) were studied. The results reveal that the equilibrium torque and Young's modulus increased while tensile strength and elongation at break decreased as SGF loading increased. SEM micrographs show poor adhesion of SGF-PP\\/WTD while FTIR analysis

Z. Zainal; H. Ismail

2011-01-01

52

Evaluating use of cattle winter feeding areas by elk and white-tailed deer: implications for managing bovine tuberculosis transmission risk from the ground up.  

PubMed

Transmission of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) among wildlife and livestock has created important risks for conservation and agriculture. Management strategies aimed at controlling TB have typically been top-down, regionally focused, and government-led programs that were at best only partially successful. The purpose of this study was to quantify co-mingling of elk and white-tailed deer (WTD) with cattle at multiple spatial scales (i.e., the regional farm scale and winter cattle feeding area patch) in southwestern Manitoba, Canada, to assess the potential for bovine tuberculosis transmission and identify alternative management strategies. For each spatial scale we quantified use of cattle farms by elk and white-tailed deer. We mailed questionnaires to rural households and then conducted personal interviews with 86 cattle farmers to map the spatial distribution of their cattle winter feeding areas at a fine scale. We deployed Global Positioning System (GPS) collars on 48 wild elk and 16 wild white-tailed deer from 2003 to 2011. Elk were observed on farms by 66% of cattle producers, including 5% and 20% who observed direct and indirect contact, respectively, between elk and cattle. Cattle producers consistently (?100%) observed white-tailed deer on their farms, including 11% and 47% whom observed direct and indirect contact, respectively, between white-tailed deer and cattle. A higher probability of white-tailed deer-cattle contact at the regional scale occurs on farms that (1) left crop residues specifically for wildlife, (2) had larger cattle herds, (3) used round bale feeders, and (4) were farther away from protected areas. None of the GPS-collared elk locations overlapped with cattle winter feeding areas. In contrast, 21% of GPS-collared white-tailed deer locations overlapped with winter cattle winter feeding areas (22% of these were from male WTD and 78% were from female WTD). White-tailed deer selected cattle winter feeding areas with higher (1) forage crop, (2) grassland/rangeland, and (3) forest cover around the cattle feeding area. Farmers overall expressed strongly negative attitudes toward eradicating the elk population or fencing the park to eradicate TB, but were generally supportive of less invasive and farm-based approaches. Our results suggested that management efforts to prevent TB transmission at the wildlife-agriculture interface can be effectively implemented using a 'bottom-up' approach that focuses on practical, farm-based mitigation strategies. This approach can be implemented by individual farm operators, is relatively low cost, and is generally well supported by farmers relative to other more extreme and controversial measures like wildlife eradication. PMID:22940061

Brook, Ryan K; Wal, Eric Vander; van Beest, Floris M; McLachlan, Stéphane M

2013-02-01

53

Chronic wasting disease infection patterns in female white-tailed deer related to demographics, genetic relationships, and spatial proximity of infected deer in southern Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) caused by transmissible protease resistant prions. Since the discovery of CWD in southern Wisconsin in 2001, more than 20,000 deer have been removed from a >2,500 km2 disease eradication zone surrounding the three initial cases. Nearly all deer removed were tested for CWD infection and sex, age, and harvest location were recorded. Our analysis used data from a 310 kin2 core study area where disease prevalence was higher than surrounding areas. We found no difference in harvest rates between CWD infected and non-infected deer. Ow results show that the probability of infection increased with age and that adult males were more likely to be infected than adult females. Six fawns tested positive for CWD, five fawns from the core study area, including the youngest (5 months) kee-ranging cervid to test positive. The increase in male prevalence with age is nearly twice the increase found in females. We concluded that CWD is not randomly distributed among deer and that differential transmission among sex and age classes is likely driving the observed patterns in disease prevalence. We discuss alternative hypotheses for CWD transmission and spread and, in addition, discuss several possible non-linear relationships between prevalence and age. Understanding CWD transmission in free-ranging cervid populations will be essential to the development of strategies to manage this disease in areas where CWD is found as well as for surveillance strategies in areas where CWD threatens to spread.

Grear, Daniel A.

2006-01-01

54

Evaluation of Serodiagnostic Assays for Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Elk, White-Tailed Deer, and Reindeer in the United States.  

PubMed

In 2011, the United States Department of Agriculture conducted a project in which elk (Cervus elaphus spp.), white-tailed deer (WTD) (Odocoileus virginianus), and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) were evaluated by the single cervical tuberculin test (SCT), comparative cervical tuberculin test (CCT), and serologic tests. The rapid antibody detection tests evaluated were the CervidTB Stat-Pak (Stat-Pak), and the Dual Path Platform VetTB (DPP). Blood was collected from presumably uninfected animals prior to tuberculin injection for the SCT. A total of 1,783 animals were enrolled in the project. Of these, 1,752 (98.3%) were classified as presumably uninfected, based on originating from a captive cervid herd with no history of exposure to TB. Stat-Pak specificity estimates were 92.4% in reindeer, 96.7% in WTD, and 98.3% in elk and were not significantly different from SCT specificity estimates. Using the DPP in series on Stat-Pak antibody-positive samples improved specificity in the three species. Thirty one animals were classified as confirmed infected, based on necropsy and laboratory results, and 27/31 were antibody positive on Stat-Pak for an estimated sensitivity of 87.1%. The study findings indicate that rapid serologic tests used in series are comparable to the SCT and CCT and may have a greater ability to detect TB-infected cervids. PMID:22792512

Nelson, Jeffrey T; Orloski, Kathleen A; Lloyd, Audra L; Camacho, Mark; Schoenbaum, Mark A; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Thomsen, Bruce V; Hall, S Mark

2012-01-01

55

Black-Tailed Prairie Dog  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Black-tailed prairie dogs are quite susceptible to sylvatic plague, but a new plague vaccine put in their food shows significant promise in the laboratory. The prairie dogs transmit the disease to endangered black-footed ferrets, who eat the prairie dogs and are also quite susceptible to the disease...

2009-08-03

56

Aberrant membrane insertion of a cytoplasmic tail deletion mutant of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoprotein of Newcastle disease virus.  

PubMed Central

The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a type II glycoprotein oriented in the plasma membrane with its amino terminus in the cytoplasm and its carboxy terminus external to the cell. We have previously shown that the membrane insertion of HN protein requires signal recognition particle SRP, occurs cotranslationally, and utilizes the same GTP-dependent step that has been described for secretory proteins, type I proteins, and multispanning proteins (C. Wilson, R. Gilmore, and T. Morrison, Mol. Cell. Biol. 7:1386-1392, 1987; C. Wilson, T. Connolly, T. Morrison, and R. Gilmore, J. Cell Biol. 107:69-77, 1988). The role of the amino-terminal cytoplasmic domain in the faithful membrane insertion of this type II protein was explored by characterizing the membrane integration of a mutant lacking 23 of the 26 amino acids of the cytoplasmic domain. The mutant protein was able to interact with SRP, resulting in translation inhibition, membrane targeting, and membrane translocation, but the efficiency of translocation was considerably lower than for the wild-type HN protein. In addition, a significant proportion of the mutant protein synthesized in the presence of SRP and microsomal membranes was associated with the membrane in an EDTA- and alkali-insensitive manner yet integrated into membranes with its carboxy-terminal domain on the cytoplasmic side of membrane vesicles. Membrane-integrated molecules with this reverse orientation were not detected when the mutant protein was synthesized in the absence of SRP or a functional SRP receptor. Truncated mRNAs encoding amino-terminal segments of the wild-type and mutant proteins were translated to prepare ribosomes bearing arrested nascent chains. The arrested mutant nascent chain, in contrast to the wild-type nascent chain, was also able to insert into membranes in a GTP- and SRP-independent manner. Results suggest that the cytoplasmic domain plays a role in the proper membrane insertion of this type II glycoprotein. Images PMID:2153915

Wilson, C; Gilmore, R; Morrison, T

1990-01-01

57

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease outbreak in a captive facility housing white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), bison (Bison bison), elk (Cervus elaphus), cattle (Bos taurus), and goats (Capra hircus) in Colorado, U.S.A.  

PubMed

An ungulate research facility in Fort Collins, Colorado, U.S.A., experienced mortality in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) because of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) infection from 20 August 2007 through 26 September 2007. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and virus isolation from the spleen and lung tissues of two white-tailed deer. Virus neutralization tests were performed on pre- and postoutbreak sera from other species maintained in the same facility, including bison (Bison bison), elk (Cervus elaphus), domestic cattle (Bos taurus), and domestic goats (Capra hircus), as well as postoutbreak sera from the surviving white-tailed deer. Serum samples that represented all species in the facility neutralized EHDV-1 and EHDV-2 either before or after the outbreak. The animals that neutralized EHDV-1 did not neutralize EHDV-2. No clinical signs attributable to EHDV infection were noted in any of the species other than the deer during the outbreak. Although experimental EHDV infections have been reported in bison and elk, natural exposures have not been previously documented in these species in North America. The roles that elk, bison, cattle, and goats might play in the epidemiology of EHDV in a close-contact multispecies situation remain unknown. PMID:20945651

Nol, Pauline; Kato, Cecilia; Reeves, Will K; Rhyan, Jack; Spraker, Terry; Gidlewski, Thomas; VerCauteren, Kurt; Salman, Mo

2010-09-01

58

Human Tail and Myelomeningocele  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human tail is rarely reported and is usually associated with underlying spina bifida occulta. A male newborn presenting a caudal appendage (human tail) with skin-covered myelomeningocele and tethered cord is described. Surgical excision of the human tail and repair of the myelomeningocele were performed 3 days after birth. After the operation, the patient had an uneventful convalescence and received

Pei-Jung Lin; Yu-Tang Chang; Hsing-I Tseng; Jan-You Lin; Yu-Sheng Huang

2007-01-01

59

Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks Tail Densities of Copulas  

E-print Network

Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks Tail Densities of Toronto, May 27 2014 Haijun Li Tail Densities of Copulas University of Toronto, May 27 2014 1 / 22 #12;Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks Let X = (X1

Li, Haijun

60

Research Article Spread of Plague Among Black-Tailed Prairie  

E-print Network

Sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) is an exotic pathogen that is highly virulent in black-tailed prairie-state, Program MARK, Yersinia pestis. Exotic zoonotic diseases pose a substantial threat to native wildlife is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Black-tailed prairie dogs are highly

Collinge, Sharon K.

61

Floods from tailings dam failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compiles the available information on historic tailings dam failures with the purpose to establish simple correlations between tailings ponds geometric parameters (e.g., dam height, tailings volume) and the hydraulic characteristics of floods resulting from released tailings. Following the collapse of a mining waste dam, only a part of tailings and polluted water stored at the dam is released,

M. Rico; G. Benito; A. Díez-Herrero

2008-01-01

62

Comparison of two automated immunohistochemical procedures for the diagnosis of scrapie in domestic sheep and chronic wasting disease in North American white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus).  

PubMed

Two commercially available automated immunohistochemistry platforms, Ventana NexES and DakoCytomation Autostainer Universal Staining System, were compared for diagnosing sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease. Both automated platforms used the same antiprion protein monoclonal primary antibodies, but different platform-specific linker and amplification reagents and procedures. Duplicate sections of brainstem (at the level of the obex) and lymphoid tissue (retropharyngeal lymph node or tonsil) from the same tissue block were immunostained for the comparison. Examination of 1,020 tissues from 796 sheep revealed 100% concordance of results between the Ventana NexES and DakoCytomation platforms for diagnosing sheep scrapie from lymphoid tissue (103/103 positive; 405/405 negative) and brainstem (120/120 positive; 392/392 negative). Similarly, examination of 1,008 tissues from 504 white-tailed deer revealed 100% concordance between the Ventana NexES and DakoCytomation platforms for diagnosing chronic wasting disease from lymphoid tissue (104/104 positive; 400/400 negative) and brainstem (104/104 positive; 400/400 negative). Examination of 1,152 tissues from 482 mule deer revealed a concordance of 98.6% in lymphoid tissue and 99.9% in brainstem between the Ventana NexES and DakoCytomation platforms for diagnosing chronic wasting disease. The results indicate equivalence or near equivalence between the DakoCytomation and Ventana NexES autostainer platforms for identification of the disease-associated prion protein (PrPd)-positive and PrPd-negative brain and lymphoid tissues in sheep, white-tailed deer, and mule deer. PMID:16617694

Baszler, T V; Kiupel, M; Williams, E S; Thomsen, B V; Gidlewski, T; Montgomery, D L; O'Rourke, K I; Hall, S M

2006-03-01

63

Helicopter tail rotor noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made of helicopter tail rotor noise, particularly that due to interactions with the main rotor tip vortices, and with the fuselage separation mean wake. The tail rotor blade-main rotor tip vortex interaction is modelled as an airfoil of infinite span cutting through a moving vortex. The vortex and the geometry information required by the analyses are obtained

S.-T. Chou; A. R. George

1986-01-01

64

Reported tailings dam failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed search and re-evaluation of the known historical cases of tailings dam failure was carried out. A corpus of 147 cases of worldwide tailings dam disasters, from which 26 located in Europe, was compiled in a database. This contains six sections, including dam location, its physical and constructive characteristics, actual and putative failure cause, sludge hydrodynamics, socio-economical consequences and

M. Rico; G. Benito; A. R. Salgueiro; A. D ´ õez-Herrero; H. G. Pereira

2008-01-01

65

Peer Reviewed White-Tailed Deer Harvest From the Chronic Wasting  

E-print Network

-ranging and captive wildlife including elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and white-tailed deer (O Chronic wasting disease (CWD) was discovered in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus chronic wasting disease, deer herd reduction, harvest, Odocoileus virginianus, white-tailed deer

Mladenoff, David

66

Study on thermal properties and crystallization behavior of electron beam irradiated ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)/waste tyre dust (WTD) blends in the presence of polyethylene graft maleic anhydride (PEgMAH)  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this article is to show the effects of the electron beam irradiation dose and presence of a compatibiliser on the thermal properties and crystallinity of EVA/WTD blends. The purpose of applying electron beam radiation with doses range 50 to 200 kGy and adding a compatibiliser was to enhance the compatibility of the studied blends and at the same time to investigate the possibility of using this technique in the process of recycling polymeric materials. As the compatibilisers, the polyethylene grafted maleic anhydride (PEgMAH) was utilized, they were added at the amounts of 1-5 phr respectively. The enhancement of thermal properties was accompanied by the following effects, discussed in this article: i) an irradiated EVA/WTD blend at 200kGy was found to improve the thermal properties of EVA, ii) the addition of PEgMAH in EVA/WTD blends and the subsequent irradiation allowed prevention of degradation mechanism. iii) the ?H{sub f} and crystallinity percentage decrease at higher PEgMAH content.

Ramli, Syuhada; Ahmad, S. H. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan (Malaysia); Ratnam, C. T. [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia); Athirah, Nurul [School of Materials and Mineral Resources, USM Engineering Campus (Malaysia)

2013-11-27

67

Study on thermal properties and crystallization behavior of electron beam irradiated ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)/waste tyre dust (WTD) blends in the presence of polyethylene graft maleic anhydride (PEgMAH)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this article is to show the effects of the electron beam irradiation dose and presence of a compatibiliser on the thermal properties and crystallinity of EVA/WTD blends. The purpose of applying electron beam radiation with doses range 50 to 200 kGy and adding a compatibiliser was to enhance the compatibility of the studied blends and at the same time to investigate the possibility of using this technique in the process of recycling polymeric materials. As the compatibilisers, the polyethylene grafted maleic anhydride (PEgMAH) was utilized, they were added at the amounts of 1-5 phr respectively. The enhancement of thermal properties was accompanied by the following effects, discussed in this article: i) an irradiated EVA/WTD blend at 200kGy was found to improve the thermal properties of EVA, ii) the addition of PEgMAH in EVA/WTD blends and the subsequent irradiation allowed prevention of degradation mechanism. iii) the ?Hf and crystallinity percentage decrease at higher PEgMAH content.

Ramli, Syuhada; Ratnam, C. T.; Ahmad, S. H.; Athirah, Nurul

2013-11-01

68

The Tail of BPM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Business process management suites (BPMS's) represent one of the fastest growing segments in the software industry as organizations automate their key business processes. As this market matures, it is interesting to compare it to Chris Anderson's 'Long Tail.' Although the 2004 "Long Tail" article in Wired magazine was primarily about the media and entertainment industries, it has since been applied (and perhaps misapplied) to other markets. Analysts describe a "Tail of BPM" market that is, perhaps, several times larger than the traditional BPMS product market. This paper will draw comparisons between the concepts in Anderson's article (and subsequent book) and the BPM solutions market.

Kruba, Steve; Meyer, Jim

69

Heads and Tails  

E-print Network

jHeads & tails M. Fae Glasgow Bene Dictum IV An X-Files Slash Zine Bene Dictum IV: Heads & Tails is an amateur publication, copyright ? February 1999 by Oblique Publications. All rights reserved. This copyright is not intended to infringe upon... novellas by Sebastian, Helen Raven, & M. Fae Glasgow) WARNING: THIS ANTHOLOGY CONTAINS SAME-SEX, ADULT-ORIENTED MATERIAL. IT WILL NOT BE SOLD TO ANYONE UNDER THE AGE OF EIGHTEEN. Bene Dictum IV: Heads & Tails an anthology of X-Files slash fiction...

Glasgow, M.F.

1999-01-01

70

Wagging tail vibration absorber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 750-foot cantilever length of extendible-tape boom (very low stiffness) was considered as the main system to be damped. A number of tail lengths were tried from 20 feet to 80 feet after which 40 feet was investigated further as a desirable compromise between performance and practical lengths. A 40-foot damping tail produced a damping effect on the main boom for the first mode equivalent in decay rate to 3.1 percent of critical damping. In this case the spring-hinge and tail were tuned to the main boom first mode frequency and the hinge damping was set at 30 percent of critical based on the tail properties. With this same setting, damping of the second mode was .4 percent and the third mode .1 percent.

Barclay, R. G.; Humphrey, P. W.

1969-01-01

71

Human tail and myelomeningocele.  

PubMed

The human tail is rarely reported and is usually associated with underlying spina bifida occulta. A male newborn presenting a caudal appendage (human tail) with skin-covered myelomeningocele and tethered cord is described. Surgical excision of the human tail and repair of the myelomeningocele were performed 3 days after birth. After the operation, the patient had an uneventful convalescence and received follow-up at our outpatient clinic without any neurological sequelae. To our knowledge, no similar case report exists in the literature. Like other skin-related lesions in the lumbosacral area, the present case of caudal appendage with myelomeningocele is only a cutaneous sign of underlying spinal dysraphism since the skin and nerve system are related by their similar ectodermal origin. After excision of the tail and repair of an underlying lesion, long-term follow-up of the neurological status is warranted. PMID:17627154

Lin, Pei-Jung; Chang, Yu-Tang; Tseng, Hsing-I; Lin, Jan-You; Huang, Yu-Sheng

2007-01-01

72

Genetic susceptibility to chronic wasting disease in free-ranging white-tailed deer: Complement component C1q and Prnp polymorphisms  

E-print Network

wasting disease Complement system Conditional logistic regression Prion Prnp Transmissible spongiform case­control design and conditional logistic regression to evaluate associations between polymorphisms

Mladenoff, David

73

"Tails" of Linguistic Survival  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the relatively short history of computerized corpora of spoken language, it is not surprising that few diachronic studies have been done on the grammatical features recently highlighted by the analysis of such corpora. This article, however, does take a diachronic perspective on one such feature: the syntactic feature of "tails" (Dik 1978).…

Timmis, Ivor

2010-01-01

74

Managing 'tail liability'.  

PubMed

To reduce and control their level of tail liability, hospitals should: Utilize a self-insurance vehicle; Consider combined limits between the hospital and physicians; Communicate any program changes to the actuary, underwriter, and auditor; Continue risk management and safety practices; Ensure credit is given to the organization's own medical malpractice program. PMID:24340649

Frese, Richard C; Weber, Ryan J

2013-11-01

75

Dr. G. Ward Wilson 1 Tailings Stability TAILINGS DAM STABILITY  

E-print Network

·construction costs occur over life of mine - lower discounted cash flow, lower cash requirements at startup of mine operator ·planning and scheduling of construction required #12;Dr. G. Ward Wilson 2 TailingsDr. G. Ward Wilson 1 Tailings Stability TAILINGS DAM STABILITY · Construction staged over the life

Boisvert, Jeff

76

Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks A tail density approach in extremal  

E-print Network

Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks A tail density of Mathematics Washington State University Munich, May 2011 Haijun Li A tail density approach in extremal dependence analysis for vine copulas Munich, May 2011 1 / 21 #12;Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail

Li, Haijun

77

Preventive Effect of Pine Bark Extract (Flavangenol) on Metabolic Disease in Western Diet-Loaded Tsumura Suzuki Obese Diabetes Mice  

PubMed Central

It is known that the metabolic syndrome has a multi-factorial basis involving both genetic and environmental risk factors. In this study, Tsumura Suzuki Obese Diabetes (TSOD) mice, a mouse model of multi-factorial, hereditary, obese type II diabetes, were given a Western diet (WTD) as an environmental factor to prepare a disease model (TSOD-WTD) and to investigate the preventive effects of Pine bark extract (Flavangenol) against obesity and various features of metabolic disease appearing in this animal model. In contrast to control Tsumura Suzuki Non-obesity (TSNO) mice, TSOD mice were obese and suffered from other metabolic complications. WTD-fed TSOD mice developed additional features such as hyperinsulinemia, abnormal glucose/lipid metabolism and fatty liver. The treatment with Flavangenol had a suppressive effect on increase in body weight and accumulation of visceral and subcutaneous fat, and also showed preventive effects on symptoms related to insulin resistance, abnormal glucose/lipid metabolism and hypertension. Flavangenol also increased the plasma concentration of adiponectin and decreased the plasma concentration of TNF-?. We next investigated the effect of Flavangenol on absorption of meal-derived lipids. Flavangenol suppressed absorption of neutral fat in an olive-oil-loading test (in vivo) and showed an inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase (in vitro). The above results suggest that Flavangenol has a preventive effect on severe metabolic disease due to multiple causes that involve both genetic and environmental risk factors. The mechanism of action might involve a partial suppressive effect of meal-derived lipids on absorption. PMID:21607011

Shimada, Tsutomu; Kosugi, Mitsutaka; Tokuhara, Daisuke; Tsubata, Masahito; Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Sameshima, Mayu; Nagamine, Rika; Takagaki, Kinya; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Aburada, Masaki

2011-01-01

78

WILDLIFE DISEASES SURVEILLANCE TO DETECT CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN  

E-print Network

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus of 2002 and 2003 to determine the distribution of CWD in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Deer wasting disease, disease surveillance, Odocoileus virginianus, white- tailed deer, Wisconsin. INTRODUCTION

Mladenoff, David

79

Teratoma in Human Tail Lipoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of a rare congenital teratoma that developed in a lipoma attached to a remnant human tail. A male newborn baby presented with a large, 3-cm mass with an open margin, which pedunculated from a tail attached to the midline skin of the coccygeal area. Magnetic resonance images demonstrated multiple sacral spinal bifida without cord tethering, and

Se-Hyuck Park; Jee Soon Huh; Ki Hong Cho; Yong Sam Shin; Se Hyck Kim; Young Hwan Ahn; Kyung Gi Cho; Soo Han Yoon

2005-01-01

80

Helicopter tail rotor noise analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made of helicopter tail rotor noise, particularly that due to interactions with the main rotor tip vortices, and with the fuselage separation mean wake. The tail rotor blade-main rotor tip vortex interaction is modelled as an airfoil of infinite span cutting through a moving vortex. The vortex and the geometry information required by the analyses are obtained

A. R. George; S. T. Chou

1986-01-01

81

NOISE IN THE GEOMAGNETIC TAIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present observations have revealed a variety of magnetic wave phenomena in the tail, from ULF to ELF frequencies. However, only VLF measurements of electric fields have been made. These measurements reveal that the tail is electrically quiet at VLF fre- quencies, except in the near Earth plasma sheet during substorm expansion phases. The mag- netic waves observed iocIude: waves with

CHRISTOPHER T. RUSSELL

1972-01-01

82

Trends in Tailing Dam Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent releases of tailing effluents and solids from containment facilities around the world, including Mary Spruitt (1994), Omai (1995) and Marcopper (1996), have heightened awareness that risks associated with tailing containment must be fully addressed during all phases of a facility life. Recent studies by independent international organizations (United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 1996; United Stated Committee on Large Dams

Iain G. Bruce; Clint Logue; Lori-Ann Wilchek

83

Lift generation by the avian tail.  

PubMed

Variation with tail spread of the lift generated by a bird tail was measured on mounted, frozen European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in a wind tunnel at a typical air speed and body and tail angle of attack in order to test predictions of existing aerodynamic theories modelling tail lift. Measured lift at all but the lowest tail spread angles was significantly lower than the predictions of slender wing, leading edge vortex and lifting line models of lift production. Instead, the tail lift coefficient based on tail area was independent of tail spread, tail aspect ratio and maximum tail span. Theoretical models do not predict bird tail lift reliably and, when applied to tail morphology, may underestimate the aerodynamic optimum tail feather length. Flow visualization experiments reveal that an isolated tail generates leading edge vortices as expected for a low-aspect ratio delta wing, but that in the intact bird body-tail interactions are critical in determining tail aerodynamics: lifting vortices shed from the body interact with the tail and degrade tail lift compared with that of an isolated tail. PMID:11454286

Maybury, W J; Rayner, J M; Couldrick, L B

2001-07-22

84

Lift generation by the avian tail.  

PubMed Central

Variation with tail spread of the lift generated by a bird tail was measured on mounted, frozen European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in a wind tunnel at a typical air speed and body and tail angle of attack in order to test predictions of existing aerodynamic theories modelling tail lift. Measured lift at all but the lowest tail spread angles was significantly lower than the predictions of slender wing, leading edge vortex and lifting line models of lift production. Instead, the tail lift coefficient based on tail area was independent of tail spread, tail aspect ratio and maximum tail span. Theoretical models do not predict bird tail lift reliably and, when applied to tail morphology, may underestimate the aerodynamic optimum tail feather length. Flow visualization experiments reveal that an isolated tail generates leading edge vortices as expected for a low-aspect ratio delta wing, but that in the intact bird body-tail interactions are critical in determining tail aerodynamics: lifting vortices shed from the body interact with the tail and degrade tail lift compared with that of an isolated tail. PMID:11454286

Maybury, W J; Rayner, J M; Couldrick, L B

2001-01-01

85

Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The source of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief passages is due to Mercury's proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet's lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute to Mercury's very brief Dungey cycle, approx. 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury's tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.

Slavin, James A.

2010-01-01

86

18 Sharp-tailed Grouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tympanuchus phasianellus (Linnaeus) 1858 Other vernacular names: Brush grouse, pintail grouse, prairie grouse, prairie pheasant, sharptail, speckle-belly, spike-tail, spring-tail, whitebelly, white-breasted grouse. Range: Currently from north central Alaska, Yukon, northern Mackenzie, northern Manitoba, northern Ontario, and central Quebec south to eastern Washington, extreme eastern Oregon, Idaho, northeastern Utah, Wyoming, and Colorado, and in the Great Plains from eastern Colorado and

Paul A. Johnsgard

2008-01-01

87

Morphogenesis of the T4 tail and tail fibers  

PubMed Central

Remarkable progress has been made during the past ten years in elucidating the structure of the bacteriophage T4 tail by a combination of three-dimensional image reconstruction from electron micrographs and X-ray crystallography of the components. Partial and complete structures of nine out of twenty tail structural proteins have been determined by X-ray crystallography and have been fitted into the 3D-reconstituted structure of the "extended" tail. The 3D structure of the "contracted" tail was also determined and interpreted in terms of component proteins. Given the pseudo-atomic tail structures both before and after contraction, it is now possible to understand the gross conformational change of the baseplate in terms of the change in the relative positions of the subunit proteins. These studies have explained how the conformational change of the baseplate and contraction of the tail are related to the tail's host cell recognition and membrane penetration function. On the other hand, the baseplate assembly process has been recently reexamined in detail in a precise system involving recombinant proteins (unlike the earlier studies with phage mutants). These experiments showed that the sequential association of the subunits of the baseplate wedge is based on the induced-fit upon association of each subunit. It was also found that, upon association of gp53 (gene product 53), the penultimate subunit of the wedge, six of the wedge intermediates spontaneously associate to form a baseplate-like structure in the absence of the central hub. Structure determination of the rest of the subunits and intermediate complexes and the assembly of the hub still require further study. PMID:21129200

2010-01-01

88

TAIL VEIN INJECTION (SOP-7) INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

TAIL VEIN INJECTION (SOP-7) INTRODUCTION Several techniques can be employed which allow within the vein. If the injection is placed subcutaneously, the tail may also blanch but the resistance, the tail can be warmed under a heat lamp. Warming the tail causes the veins to dilate. 3. Locate the right

Kleinfeld, David

89

Does climate have heavy tails?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When we speak about a distribution with heavy tails, we are referring to the probability of the existence of extreme values will be relatively large. Several heavy-tail models are constructed from Poisson processes, which are the most tractable models. Among such processes, one of the most important are the Lévy processes, which are those process with independent, stationary increments and stochastic continuity. If the random component of a climate process that generates the data exhibits a heavy-tail distribution, and if that fact is ignored by assuming a finite-variance distribution, then there would be serious consequences (in the form, e.g., of bias) for the analysis of extreme values. Yet, it appears that it is an open question to what extent and degree climate data exhibit heavy-tail phenomena. We present a study about the statistical inference in the presence of heavy-tail distribution. In particular, we explore (1) the estimation of tail index of the marginal distribution using several estimation techniques (e.g., Hill estimator, Pickands estimator) and (2) the power of hypothesis tests. The performance of the different methods are compared using artificial time-series by means of Monte Carlo experiments. We systematically apply the heavy tail inference to observed climate data, in particular we focus on time series data. We study several proxy and directly observed climate variables from the instrumental period, the Holocene and the Pleistocene. This work receives financial support from the European Commission (Marie Curie Initial Training Network LINC, No. 289447, within the 7th Framework Programme).

Bermejo, Miguel; Mudelsee, Manfred

2013-04-01

90

Tail use in bioinspired quadrupedal locomotion  

E-print Network

Tails are seen in nature to be used in an amazing number of different applications. Many of these applications seen in nature may be of use to bioinspired roboticists in the future. I have provided a brief review of tail ...

Briggs, Randall (Randall Miller)

2012-01-01

91

From metallurgical coal tailings to thermal fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

McIntyre Mines in Canada recover coal from washery tailings slurry. The tailings are dewatered in Bird screen bowl centrifuges and thermally dried in Joy Holo-Flite dryers. The coal recovered is burned in a power station.

van den Broek

1982-01-01

92

Progress in tail rotor noise analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helicopter tail rotor noise generated by interactions with the main rotor tip vortices and with the fuselage separation mean wake is investigated. The tail rotor blade-main rotor tip vortex interaction is modeled as an airfoil of infinite span cutting through a moving vortex. The present results are compared to the tail rotor loading and high speed thickness noise and are

S.-T. Chou; A. R. George

1986-01-01

93

Physical space and long-tail markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Internet is known to have had a powerful impact on on-line retailer strategies in markets characterised by long-tail distribution of sales [C. Anderson, Long Tail: Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More, Hyperion, New York, 2006]. Such retailers can exploit the long tail of the market, since they are effectively without physical limit on the number

R. Alexander Bentley; Mark E. Madsen; Paul Ormerod

2009-01-01

94

Natural Carbon Sequestration in Mine Tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have documented active sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) in chrysotile mine tailings at Clinton Creek, Yukon and Cassiar, British Columbia. Hydrated magnesium carbonate minerals develop in mine tailings as a natural consequence of the weathering process within the residues. Magnesium, leached from minerals, reacts with dissolved CO2 in rainwater, precipitating carbonates at the surface of tailings upon evaporation

S. A. Wilson; G. M. Dipple; M. Raudsepp; R. G. Anderson

2005-01-01

95

Direct actin binding to A- and B-type lamin tails and actin filament bundling by the lamin A tail  

PubMed Central

Nuclear intermediate filament networks formed by A- and B-type lamins are major components of the nucleoskeleton. Lamins have growing links to human physiology and disease including Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD), lipodystrophy, cardiomyopathy, neuropathy, cerebellar disorders and segmental accelerated ‘aging’ syndromes. How lamins interact with other nucleoskeletal components, and even the identities of these other components, are open questions. Previous studies suggested lamins might bind actin. We report that the recombinant C-terminal tail domain of human A- and B-type lamins binds directly to purified actin in high-speed pelleting assays. This interaction maps to a conserved Actin Binding site (AB-1) comprising lamin A residues 461–536 in the Ig-fold domain, which are 54% identical in lamin B1. Two EDMD-causing missense mutations (R527P and L530P) in lamin A that are predicted to disrupt the Ig-fold, each reduced F-actin binding by ?66%, whereas the surface-exposed lipodystrophy-causing R482Q mutation had no significant effect. The lamin A tail was unique among lamins in having a second actin-binding site (AB-2). This second site was mapped to lamin A tail residues 564–608, based on actin-binding results for the lamin C tail and internal deletions in the lamin A tail that cause Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (?35, ?50) or restrictive dermopathy (?90). Supporting the presence of two actin-binding sites, recombinant precursor (unmodified) and mature lamin A tails (not C or B1 tails) each bundled F-actin in vitro: furthermore F-actin bundling was reduced 25–40% by the R527P, L530P, ?35 and ?50 mutations, and was abolished by ?90. Unexpectedly, the mature lamin A tail bound F-actin significantly more efficiently than did the prelamin A tail; this suggested unmodified residues 647–664, unique to prelamin A, might auto-inhibit binding to actin (and potentially other partners). These biochemical results suggest direct mechanisms by which lamins, particularly lamin A, might impact the concentration of free actin in the nucleus or pathways including transcription, nuclear export, chromatin remodeling, chromatin movement and nuclear assembly that require nuclear myosin 1c and polymerizable actin. PMID:21327074

Simon, Dan N; Zastrow, Michael S

2010-01-01

96

Uranium mill tailings quarterly report, January-March 1982  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported on: radon barrier systems for uranium mill tailings; liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings; revegetation/rock cover for stabilization of inactive U-tailings sites; and application of long-term chemical biobarriers for uranium tailings.

Latkovich, J.M. (comp.)

1982-05-01

97

What Makes a Tidal Tail?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galaxy interactions are famous for creating some of the most visually stunning scenes in astronomy, particularly in the cases of tidal tails. These chaotic regions are known to house breeding grounds for young stellar clusters, as shown through past imaging and spectroscopic studies, but the underlying material remains a mystery. While we know that gas is easily stripped from the parent galaxies, what about the stars? The presence of an older stellar population is crucial to dynamical simulations of tidal tails, but has not yet been confirmed by observation. We use the twin tidal tails of NGC3256 as a case study for determining the presence of an old, underlying stellar population. Newly acquired ugriz Gemini data allows us to distinguish between young and old stars, while previous HST data pinpoints the locations of these objects. Deep imaging surveys have often been used to detect tidal features, including these ancient relics, but our survey will be the first to measure the colors of such objects. This will lead us to place constraints on the original composition of the material that was ejected from the interacting/merging galaxies, and the star formation history.

Rodruck, Michael; Konstantopoulos, I.; Charlton, J. C.

2014-01-01

98

Survival patterns in white-tailed and mule deer after oral inoculation with a standardized, conspecific prion dose.  

PubMed

We orally inoculated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) with a standardized, conspecific prion dose and collected biologic samples throughout the disease course. Mule deer (PRNP genotype 225SS) and PRNP genotype 96GG white-tailed deer succumbed along similar trajectories, but 96GS- and 96SS-genotype individuals tended to survive longer. PMID:22493138

Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L; Sirochman, Tracey M; Sirochman, Michael A; Jewell, Jean E; Williams, Elizabeth S

2012-04-01

99

WHITE-TAILED DEER INFECTED WITH STAPHYLOCOCCUS HYICUS IN SOUTH DAKOTA --On 25 November 2002, the South Dakota Department of  

E-print Network

177 NOTES WHITE-TAILED DEER INFECTED WITH STAPHYLOCOCCUS HYICUS IN SOUTH DAKOTA -- On 25 November plate was positive (Table 1). Based on these results, Staphylococcus hyicus was identified with white-tailed deer. Staphylococcus hyicus causes exudative epidermitis, or greasy pig disease, in young

100

The hydrogeology of a tailings impoundment formed by central discharge of thickened tailings: implications for tailings management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kidd Creek Cu-Zn sulfide mine is located near Timmins, Ontario. Mill tailings are thickened and deposited as a slurry in a circular impoundment with an area of approximately 1200 ha. Deposition of tailings as a thickened slurry from a central discharge ramp results in a conical-shaped tailings deposit with low perimeter dykes, a uniform grain-size distribution, uniform and low hydraulic conductivity, and a tension-saturated zone above the water table up to 5 to 6 m thick. These characteristics provide benefits over conventionally disposed tailings with respect to tailings management. The thick tension-saturated zone within the tailings limits the thickness of unsaturated tailings that are susceptible to rapid sulfide oxidation. The conical shape of the deposit results in the formation of a recharge area near the centre of the impoundment and discharge in the peripheral areas. In contrast, the elevated nature of many conventional, unthickened tailings impoundments results in recharge over most of the surface of the impoundment, with discharge occurring outside the impoundment through large containment dykes. Three-dimensional pore water flow modelling suggests that approximately 90% of the total discharge from the thickened tailings occurs within the tailings impoundment. When discharge is confined within the impoundment, there is improved control over low-quality effluent, and an opportunity to design passive control measures to reduce treatment costs and minimize environmental impacts.

Al, Tom A.; Blowes, David W.

1999-06-01

101

CAUSES OF MORTALITY IN WHITE-TAILED SEA EAGLES FROM GERMANY  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed Sea Eagles Haliaeetus albicilla found moribund or dead in the field were submitted for necropsy to the Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research (IZW) and to the Institute for Food, Drugs and Animal Diseases (ILAT), Berlin, Germany. The moribund eagles had died in rehabilitation stations or were euthanized. Onehundred-twenty White-tailed Sea Eagles were examined between 1990 and 2000, comprising

Oliver Krone; Torsten Langgemach; Paul Sömmer; Norbert Kenntner

102

The hydrogeology of a tailings impoundment formed by central discharge of thickened tailings: implications for tailings management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kidd Creek Cu–Zn sulfide mine is located near Timmins, Ontario. Mill tailings are thickened and deposited as a slurry in a circular impoundment with an area of approximately 1200 ha. Deposition of tailings as a thickened slurry from a central discharge ramp results in a conical-shaped tailings deposit with low perimeter dykes, a uniform grain-size distribution, uniform and low

Tom A Al; David W Blowes

1999-01-01

103

Active tails enhance arboreal acrobatics in geckos.  

PubMed

Geckos are nature's elite climbers. Their remarkable climbing feats have been attributed to specialized feet with hairy toes that uncurl and peel in milliseconds. Here, we report that the secret to the gecko's arboreal acrobatics includes an active tail. We examine the tail's role during rapid climbing, aerial descent, and gliding. We show that a gecko's tail functions as an emergency fifth leg to prevent falling during rapid climbing. A response initiated by slipping causes the tail tip to push against the vertical surface, thereby preventing pitch-back of the head and upper body. When pitch-back cannot be prevented, geckos avoid falling by placing their tail in a posture similar to a bicycle's kickstand. Should a gecko fall with its back to the ground, a swing of its tail induces the most rapid, zero-angular momentum air-righting response yet measured. Once righted to a sprawled gliding posture, circular tail movements control yaw and pitch as the gecko descends. Our results suggest that large, active tails can function as effective control appendages. These results have provided biological inspiration for the design of an active tail on a climbing robot, and we anticipate their use in small, unmanned gliding vehicles and multisegment spacecraft. PMID:18347344

Jusufi, Ardian; Goldman, Daniel I; Revzen, Shai; Full, Robert J

2008-03-18

104

Characteristics of wing/body/tail configurations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Package of computer programs determine longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of wing/body/tail combinations including effects of nonlinear aerodynamics of components and interference between components.

Dillenius, M. F. E.; Goodwin, F. K.; Kline, D. M.; Mendenhall, M. R.

1979-01-01

105

Tests for the Elimination of Tail Flutter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On various low-wing monoplanes the horizontal tail surfaces flutter in flight at large angles of attack and occasionally in curvilinear flight. This flutter leads to torsional vibrations of the rear end of the fuselage, as manifested by vibrations of the control stick. According to the earlier DVL investigations tail flutter is due to the influence, on horizontal tail surfaces, of eddies or vortices shed at large angles of attack by the upper surface of the wing root. The cause of tail flutter on a low-wing monoplane and the means of preventing it are investigated in the present report.

Biechteler, Curt

1933-01-01

106

Intracranial abscessation in white-tailed deer of North America.  

PubMed

From January 1996 through April 1997, the geographic distribution, etiology, demographics, seasonality, and prevalence of an intracranial abscessation/suppurative meningoencephalitits syndrome in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were evaluated by surveying wildlife disease diagnostic laboratories and by examining both natural mortality and hunter-harvested deer skulls from North America. Intracranial abscesses were diagnosed as the cause of death or illness in 97 of nearly 4,500 (2.2%) white-tailed deer examined from 12 states and four Canadian provinces by the diagnostic laboratories. The bacterium Arcanobacterium pyogenes was isolated from 61% of cases; 18 other genera of bacteria also were isolated. The disease was strongly gender-biased (P < 0.01) with 87% of cases occurring in males, and the overall prevalence among males was 4.9%. Cases were most common among antlered males (> or = 1 yr) with few cases among male fawns. Among antlered males, cases were seasonal, primarily occurring from September through April. Four hundred eighteen skulls from deer found dead in the field were examined from southeastern USA, and of the 119 used for further evaluation, 9% had characteristic lesions. Skulls from hunter-harvested males in the southeastern USA had a lesion prevalence of 1.4%. The similarity of disease prevalence among male deer found dead in the field (9.0%) and deer examined as southeastern diagnostic laboratory cases (8.4%) suggests that this disease accounts for slightly < 10% of the natural mortality for yearling and adult male white-tailed deer in the southeastern region. The strong bias for occurrence among males suggests this disease may affect quality deer management strategies. PMID:11763729

Baumann, C D; Davidson, W R; Roscoe, D E; Beheler-Amass, K

2001-10-01

107

A generalized female bias for long tails in a short-tailed widowbird.  

PubMed Central

Tail elongation in the polygynous widowbirds (Euplectes spp.) has evoked both adaptive and non-adaptive explanations. Female choice has been shown in the three longest tailed species (20-50 cm), whereas an agonistic function was proposed for a medium-tailed (10 cm) widowbird. To test the generality and directionality of sexual selection on tail length in widowbirds, we experimentally investigated selection in the relatively short-tailed (7 cm) red-shouldered widowbirds (E. axillaris). Prior to territory establishment, males were assigned to four tail-treatment groups; control, short, long and supernormal (similar to a sympatric long-tailed congener). No effects on male competition were detected as the groups were equally successful in acquiring territories of similar size and quality. However, mating success among the 92 territorial males was strongly skewed in favour of supernormal-tailed males (62% of active nests; 5.2 +/- 1.3 nests per territory). Long-tailed males also acquired more nests (1.9 +/- 0.7) than control (0.7 +/- 0.5) and short-tailed (0.5 +/- 0.3) males, while the latter two groups did not differ significantly. These results support a general, open-ended female preference for long tails in widowbirds and may represent a receiver bias that arose early in their divergence from the short-tailed weaverbirds (Ploceinae). PMID:12396489

Pryke, Sarah R; Andersson, Staffan

2002-01-01

108

Dewatering of coal plant tailings: Flocculation followed by filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sustainable alternative to tailings dam disposal of coal refuse is mechanical dewatering of tailings, which provides fast production of dry solids and water reuse. In this study, flocculation followed by filtration of coal plant tailings, a new concept in tailings dewatering is investigated in detail. This paper focuses on the effect of preconditioning tailings with varying flocculants and dosages

Naureen Alam; Orhan Ozdemir; Marc A. Hampton; Anh V. Nguyen

2011-01-01

109

DNA Inversion in the Tail Fiber Gene Alters the Host Range Specificity of Carotovoricin Er, a Phage-Tail-Like Bacteriocin of Phytopathogenic Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora Er  

PubMed Central

Carotovoricin Er is a phage-tail-like bacteriocin produced by Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora strain Er, a causative agent for soft rot disease in plants. Here we studied binding and killing spectra of carotovoricin Er preparations for various strains of the bacterium (strains 645Ar, EC-2, N786, and P7) and found that the preparations contain two types of carotovoricin Er with different host specificities; carotovoricin Era possessing a tail fiber protein of 68 kDa killed strains 645Ar and EC-2, while carotovoricin Erb with a tail fiber protein of 76 kDa killed strains N786 and P7. The tail fiber proteins of 68 and 76 kDa had identical N-terminal amino acid sequences for at least 11 residues. A search of the carotovoricin Er region in the chromosome of strain Er indicated the occurrence of a DNA inversion system for the tail fiber protein consisting of (i) two 26-bp inverted repeats inside and downstream of the tail fiber gene that flank a 790-bp fragment and (ii) a putative DNA invertase gene with a 90-bp recombinational enhancer sequence. In fact, when a 1,400-bp region containing the 790-bp fragment was amplified by a PCR using the chromosomal DNA of strain Er as the template, both the forward and the reverse nucleotide sequences of the 790-bp fragment were detected. DNA inversion of the 790-bp fragment also occurred in Escherichia coli DH5? when two compatible plasmids carrying either the 790-bp fragment or the invertase gene were cotransformed into the bacterium. Furthermore, hybrid carotovoricin CGE possessing the tail fiber protein of 68 or 76 kDa exhibited a host range specificity corresponding to that of carotovoricin Era or Erb, respectively. Thus, a DNA inversion altered the C-terminal part of the tail fiber protein of carotovoricin Er, altering the host range specificity of the bacteriocin. PMID:11591670

Nguyen, Hoa Anh; Tomita, Toshio; Hirota, Morihiko; Kaneko, Jun; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Kamio, Yoshiyuki

2001-01-01

110

VARIATION IN THE SHARP-TAILED SPARROWS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995, following Greenlaw (1993), the AOU split the Sharp-tailed Sparrow into two species, the Saltmarsh (Ammodramus caudacutus) and Nelson's (A. nelsoni) Sharp-tailed Sparrows. The former breeds in coastal saltmarshes of the central East Coast, the latter in the northern interior, around the southern coast of Hudson Bay, and along the northeastern seaboard. Both species winter along the southern Atlantic

STEVE N. G. HOWELL; DAVID A. SIBLEY

1998-01-01

111

Modeling river flows with heavy tails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in time series analysis provide alternative models for river flows in which the innovations have heavy tails, so that some of the moments do not exist. The probability of large fluctuations is much larger than for standard models. We survey some recent theoretical developments for heavy tail time series models and illustrate their practical application to river flow

Paul L. Anderson; Mark M. Meerschaert

1998-01-01

112

Tail and pelvis pathologies of ankylosaurian dinosaurs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ankylosaurid dinosaurs had modified distal caudal vertebrae (the handle) and large terminal caudal osteoderms (the knob), which together form the tail club. The tail club may have been used as a weapon. Ankylosaur pelvic and caudal elements were surveyed for evidence of healing wounds that may indicate traumatic injury, and which could support clubbing behaviour. No pathologies were found in

Victoria M. Arbour; Philip J. Currie

2011-01-01

113

Artificial Inoculation—Perspectives in Tailings Phytostabilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive mining and processing activities worldwide resulted in the generation of huge amounts of waste (tailings), generally characterized as toxic, radioactive, and\\/or hazardous. The exposure potential and, hence, the risk posed by such wastes is enhanced by a general lack of vegetation. Phytostabilization has proven to be efficient in reducing this risk. However, establishing vegetation on tailing dumps may be

Ioana G. Petrisor; Smaranda Dobrota; Kostas Komnitsas; Ioan Lazar; J. Michael Kuperberg; Mihai Serban

2004-01-01

114

Groundwater pollution due to a tailings dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1982, the Oman Mining Company (OMC) commenced copper mining and smelting operations in the area of Sohar (Wadi Suq), Sultanate of Oman. Seawater was used for mining operations until 1993. During this period, 11 million tonnes of tailings had been deposited behind an unlined tailings dam. This has resulted in a major groundwater pollution problem.This paper presents results from

R. S Sharma; T. S Al-Busaidi

2001-01-01

115

On tail estimation: An improved method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A step is described toward better statistical treatment of data for tail estimation. The classical extreme value theory together with its practical inefficiency for tail inference are discussed briefly. The threshold method that utilizes available information in a more efficient manner is described, and its relation to extreme value theory is mentioned. Some comparison is also made using two sets

G. R. Dargahi-Noubary

1989-01-01

116

Tail loss compromises immunity in the many-lined skink, Eutropis multifasciata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tail autotomy incurs energetic costs, and thus, a trade-off in resource allocation may lead to compromised immunity in lizards. We tested the hypothesis that tailless lizards will favor constitutive innate immunity responses over an energetically costly inflammatory response. The influence of fasting and colorful ornamentation was also investigated. We experimentally induced tail autotomy in the lizard Eutropis multifasciata and found that inflammation was suppressed by tail loss, but not further affected by fasting; the suppressive effect of colorful ornamentation was manifested only in males, but not in females. Constitutive innate immunity was not affected by any of these factors. As expected, only costly inflammation was compromised, and a less expensive constitutive innate immunity might be favored as a competent first-line defense during energetically demanding periods. After considering conventional trade-offs among tail regeneration and reproduction, further extending these studies to incorporate disease risk and how this influences escape responses to predators and future reproduction would make worthwhile studies.

Kuo, Chi-Chien; Yao, Chiou-Ju; Lin, Te-En; Liu, Hsu-Che; Hsu, Yu-Cheng; Hsieh, Ming-Kun; Huang, Wen-San

2013-04-01

117

On the flaring of cometary plasma tails  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Assuming that hypersonic pressure balance with the solar wind governs the shape of plasma tails, it is found that the gas pressure of tail ions and the magnetic field strength at the flanks of the ionopause control the flaring state. The gas pressure exhibits the larger effect: for constant pressures above a certain critical value, the tail flares essentially without limit, while for smaller values the tail flares only near the head (becoming cylindrical at greater distances). The influence of the magnetic field is that the tail flares to larger distances the higher the field strength at the flanks of the ionopause. The observed variability in flaring (and the implied differences in gas pressure and magnetic field) are throught to be the result of changes in the position and shape of the sunward cometary ionopause. Insertion of reasonable comet and solar wind parameters into the pressure balance equations is found to give good agreement with the observations.

Ershkovich, A. I.; Niedner, M. B., Jr.; Brandt, J. C.

1982-01-01

118

The Dust Tail of Asteroid (3200) Phaethon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the discovery of a comet-like tail on asteroid (3200) Phaethon when imaged at optical wavelengths near perihelion. In both 2009 and 2012, the tail appears gsim350'' (2.5 × 108 m) in length and extends approximately in the projected anti-solar direction. We interpret the tail as being caused by dust particles accelerated by solar radiation pressure. The sudden appearance and the morphology of the tail indicate that the dust particles are small, with an effective radius ~1 ?m and a combined mass ~3 × 105 kg. These particles are likely products of thermal fracture and/or desiccation cracking under the very high surface temperatures (~1000 K) experienced by Phaethon at perihelion. The existence of the tail confirms earlier inferences about activity in this body based on the detection of anomalous brightening. Phaethon, the presumed source of the Geminid meteoroids, is still active.

Jewitt, David; Li, Jing; Agarwal, Jessica

2013-07-01

119

Management and Conservation Note Alternative Feeding Strategies and Potential Disease  

E-print Network

, Odocoileus virginianus, supplemental feeding, white-tailed deer. Supplemental feeding contributes baiting of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) results in undesirable ecological effects (Casey and evaluate potential direct and indirect transmission of infectious disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus

Mladenoff, David

120

Shake a tail feather: the evolution of the theropod tail into a stiff aerodynamic surface.  

PubMed

Theropod dinosaurs show striking morphological and functional tail variation; e.g., a long, robust, basal theropod tail used for counterbalance, or a short, modern avian tail used as an aerodynamic surface. We used a quantitative morphological and functional analysis to reconstruct intervertebral joint stiffness in the tail along the theropod lineage to extant birds. This provides new details of the tail's morphological transformation, and for the first time quantitatively evaluates its biomechanical consequences. We observe that both dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness decreased along the non-avian theropod lineage (between nodes Theropoda and Paraves). Our results show how the tail structure of non-avian theropods was mechanically appropriate for holding itself up against gravity and maintaining passive balance. However, as dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness decreased, the tail may have become more effective for dynamically maintaining balance. This supports our hypothesis of a reduction of dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness in shorter tails. Along the avian theropod lineage (Avialae to crown group birds), dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness increased overall, which appears to contradict our null expectation. We infer that this departure in joint stiffness is specific to the tail's aerodynamic role and the functional constraints imposed by it. Increased dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness may have facilitated a gradually improved capacity to lift, depress, and swing the tail. The associated morphological changes should have resulted in a tail capable of producing larger muscular forces to utilise larger lift forces in flight. Improved joint mobility in neornithine birds potentially permitted an increase in the range of lift force vector orientations, which might have improved flight proficiency and manoeuvrability. The tail morphology of modern birds with tail fanning capabilities originated in early ornithuromorph birds. Hence, these capabilities should have been present in the early Cretaceous, with incipient tail-fanning capacity in the earliest pygostylian birds. PMID:23690987

Pittman, Michael; Gatesy, Stephen M; Upchurch, Paul; Goswami, Anjali; Hutchinson, John R

2013-01-01

121

Colonization of mine tailings by marine invertebrates.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to determine if a tailings substrate would inhibit recolonization of benthic macrofauna upon closure of a submarine tailings disposal (STD) operation. Trays of defaunated marine sediment, serving as a reference, and trays of tailings from a proposed gold mine were placed at 21 m depth on the ocean floor to allow colonization via settlement from the water column. Trays of reference sediment and tailings, and cores of ambient sediment were collected 9, 17, and 22 months after tray placement. Probable tray effects, which were desirable given the objectives of this study, precluded direct comparison of ecological succession in the tray sediments to the ambient assemblage. The ambient macrofauna assemblage was distinguishable from the reference sediment and tailings assemblages throughout the experiment and displayed more pronounced seasonality. Differences between the reference sediment and tailings assemblages were generally insignificant, including total abundance, total biomass, number of taxa, average size of individuals, numerically dominant taxa, abundance by ecological guilds, and overall community composition. Upon cessation of STD, recolonization of a benthic macrofauna community should not be inhibited by the presence of these tailings as a benthic substrate. PMID:11495492

Kline, E R; Stekoll, M S

2001-05-01

122

Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings  

SciTech Connect

The Grand Junction site has been reevaluated in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented herein range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $10,200,000 for stabilization in-place to about $39,500,000 for disposal in the DeBeque area, at a distance of about 35 mi, using transportation by rail. If transportation to DeBeque were by truck, the cost estimated to be about $41,900,000. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Grand Junction tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $150/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears not to be economically attractive.

Not Available

1981-07-01

123

Variation in Salamander Tail Regeneration Is Associated with Genetic Factors That Determine Tail Morphology  

PubMed Central

Very little is known about the factors that cause variation in regenerative potential within and between species. Here, we used a genetic approach to identify heritable genetic factors that explain variation in tail regenerative outgrowth. A hybrid ambystomatid salamander (Ambystoma mexicanum x A. andersoni) was crossed to an A. mexicanum and 217 offspring were induced to undergo metamorphosis and attain terrestrial adult morphology using thyroid hormone. Following metamorphosis, each salamander’s tail tip was amputated and allowed to regenerate, and then amputated a second time and allowed to regenerate. Also, DNA was isolated from all individuals and genotypes were determined for 187 molecular markers distributed throughout the genome. The area of tissue that regenerated after the first and second amputations was highly positively correlated across males and females. Males presented wider tails and regenerated more tail tissue during both episodes of regeneration. Approximately 66–68% of the variation in regenerative outgrowth was explained by tail width, while tail length and genetic sex did not explain a significant amount of variation. A small effect QTL was identified as having a sex-independent effect on tail regeneration, but this QTL was only identified for the first episode of regeneration. Several molecular markers significantly affected regenerative outgrowth during both episodes of regeneration, but the effect sizes were small (<4%) and correlated with tail width. The results show that ambysex and minor effect QTL explain variation in adult tail morphology and importantly, tail width. In turn, tail width at the amputation plane largely determines the rate of regenerative outgrowth. Because amputations in this study were made at approximately the same position of the tail, our results resolve an outstanding question in regenerative biology: regenerative outgrowth positively co-varies as a function of tail width at the amputation site. PMID:23843997

Voss, Gareth J.; Kump, D. Kevin; Walker, John A.; Voss, S. Randal

2013-01-01

124

Variation in salamander tail regeneration is associated with genetic factors that determine tail morphology.  

PubMed

Very little is known about the factors that cause variation in regenerative potential within and between species. Here, we used a genetic approach to identify heritable genetic factors that explain variation in tail regenerative outgrowth. A hybrid ambystomatid salamander (Ambystoma mexicanum x A. andersoni) was crossed to an A. mexicanum and 217 offspring were induced to undergo metamorphosis and attain terrestrial adult morphology using thyroid hormone. Following metamorphosis, each salamander's tail tip was amputated and allowed to regenerate, and then amputated a second time and allowed to regenerate. Also, DNA was isolated from all individuals and genotypes were determined for 187 molecular markers distributed throughout the genome. The area of tissue that regenerated after the first and second amputations was highly positively correlated across males and females. Males presented wider tails and regenerated more tail tissue during both episodes of regeneration. Approximately 66-68% of the variation in regenerative outgrowth was explained by tail width, while tail length and genetic sex did not explain a significant amount of variation. A small effect QTL was identified as having a sex-independent effect on tail regeneration, but this QTL was only identified for the first episode of regeneration. Several molecular markers significantly affected regenerative outgrowth during both episodes of regeneration, but the effect sizes were small (<4%) and correlated with tail width. The results show that ambysex and minor effect QTL explain variation in adult tail morphology and importantly, tail width. In turn, tail width at the amputation plane largely determines the rate of regenerative outgrowth. Because amputations in this study were made at approximately the same position of the tail, our results resolve an outstanding question in regenerative biology: regenerative outgrowth positively co-varies as a function of tail width at the amputation site. PMID:23843997

Voss, Gareth J; Kump, D Kevin; Walker, John A; Voss, S Randal

2013-01-01

125

Constraining dark halos with tidal tails  

E-print Network

Massive and extended dark halos can inhibit the formation of long tidal tails in galaxy collisions. We examine this effect using an extensive survey of simulations with different dark halo potentials to constrain halo properties of interacting galaxies. These constraints are compared to other observational limits and theoretical predictions of halo structure. The dark halos predicted by $\\Omega=1$ cosmological models like CDM are too massive and extended to produce the long tidal tails seen in nearby galaxy collisions. There is also a conflict with the halo potentials inferred from satellite kinematics; such halos would likewise inhibit tail formation in galaxy collisions.

John Dubinski; Chris Mihos; Lars Hernquist

1997-12-08

126

Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The sources of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief flybys certainly include Mercury’s proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet’s lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute. In particular, Mercury’s very brief Dungey cycle, ~ 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation, allows for very rapid transitions to new equilibrium states. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury’s magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury’s tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.

Slavin, J. A.

2010-12-01

127

A Christmas "E-Tail"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As the weather outside turns frightful, retail businesses with "e-tail" (electronic retail) Websites are hoping that consumers will turn to their home computers for their holiday shopping. A Forrester Research report estimates that seven million shoppers will spend close to $4 billion in online shopping, three times more than last year. However, this equals less than one percent of total holiday spending, estimated at $184 billion this holiday season. Most online retailers have increased the capacity and speed of their Websites in order to best serve holiday shoppers, hoping that this year's online shopping experiences will lead consumers to do a greater amount of next year's holiday shopping by way of the World Wide Web. While consumers are willing to try e-commerce sites, as many as 40 percent of experienced Internet users have found the process of online shopping confusing and complicated. This week's In the News examines the trend of online shopping with the following seven resources including news articles, advice, and related Websites.

Missner, Emily D.

128

Tail Reconnection Triggering Substorm Onset  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on simultaneous magnetotail measurements by THEMIS at multiple distances, at the time of substorm onset, which occured on Feb 26, 2008. Evidence for reconnection including bipolar magnetic field, inflow towards the neutral sheet and counterstreaming electrons was observed at P1 and P2, suggesting that the reconnection site was at 20 Re. Evidence for current disruption, including dipolarization, turbulence and plasma heating were observed at P3 and P4 at ~11Re. Remote sensing of the current disruption region onset was not possible but particle distributions suggest that the plasma had started moving Earthward ahead of the dipolarization, i.e., point towards a source tailward of the P3, P4 satellites. Auroral brightening and poleward expansion was observed after reconnection onset and before dipolarization onset, suggesting that this event was triggered by reconnection around 20Re. Observations from a number of similar events show that a consistent picture of onset is starting to emerge from the first tail season. We discuss implications for substorm models and for auroral particle acceleration.

Angelopoulos, V.; McFadden, J.; Larson, D.; Carlson, C.; Mende, S.; Frey, H.; Phan, T.; Sibeck, D.; Glassmeier, K.; Auster, U.; Donovan, E.; Mann, I.; Rae, J.; Russell, C.; Runov, A.; Zhou, X.; Kepko, L.

2008-12-01

129

The Distant Sodium Tail of Mercury  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Models of the sodium atmosphere of Mercury predict the possible existence of a cornet-like sodium tail. Detection and mapping of the predicted sodium tail would provide quantitative data on the energy of the process that produces sodium atoms from the planetary surface. Previous efforts to detect the sodium tail by means of observations done during daylight hours have been only partially successful because scattered sunlight obscured the weak sodium emissions in the tail. However, at greatest eastern elongation around the March equinox in the northern hemisphere, Mercury can be seen as an evening star in astronomical twilight. At this time, the intensity of scattered sunlight is low enough that sodium emissions as low as 500 Rayleighs can be detected. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.; Morgan, T. H.

2001-01-01

130

Physical space and long-tail markets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Internet is known to have had a powerful impact on on-line retailer strategies in markets characterised by long-tail distribution of sales [C. Anderson, Long Tail: Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More, Hyperion, New York, 2006]. Such retailers can exploit the long tail of the market, since they are effectively without physical limit on the number of choices on offer. Here we examine two extensions of this phenomenon. First, we introduce turnover into the long-tail distribution of sales. Although over any given period such as a week or a month, the distribution is right-skewed and often power law distributed, over time there is considerable turnover in the rankings of sales of individual products. Second, we establish some initial results on the implications for shelf-space and physical retailers in such markets.

Bentley, R. Alexander; Madsen, Mark E.; Ormerod, Paul

2009-03-01

131

OPERATING PLAN TAILINGS CELLS AND EVAPORATION PONDS  

E-print Network

OPERATING PLAN TAILINGS CELLS AND EVAPORATION PONDS PIÃ?ON RIDGE MILL Energy Fuels Resources ..........................................................................................4 3.0 EVAPORATION POND DESIGN....................................................................14 5.0 EVAPORATION PONDS OPERATING AND MONITORING PROCEDURES ....17 5.1 Standard Operating Procedures

132

Horizontal tail loads in maneuvering flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is given for determining the horizontal tail loads in maneuvering flight. The method is based upon the assignment of a load-factor variation with time and the determination of a minimum time to reach peak load factor. The tail load is separated into various components. Examination of these components indicated that one of the components was so small that it could be neglected for most conventional airplanes; therefore, the number of aerodynamic parameters needed in this computation of tail loads was reduced to a minimum. In order to illustrate the method, as well as to show the effect of the main variables, a number of examples are given. Some discussion is given regarding the determination of maximum tail loads, maximum pitching accelerations, and maximum pitching velocities obtainable.

Pearson, Henry A; Mcgowan, William A; Donegan, James J

1951-01-01

133

ATS Claus tail gas cleanup at Table Rock Tail Gas Plant. [Ammonium thiosulfate  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the Table Rock Processing Plant which consists of four major parts: the treating plant, the dew point control plant, a sulfur plant, and the tail gas plant. The tail gas plant uses the ammonium thiosulfate process to convert about 4 tons per day of sulfur to 60 tons per day of ATS. The brief discussion is presented under headings: the tail gas process; chemistry (chemical reaction and equipment); plant performance. 7 refs.

White, S.P.

1981-01-01

134

Generalized processor sharing with light-tailed and heavy-tailed input  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a queue fed by a mixture of light-tailed and heavy-tailed traffic. The two traffic flows are served in accordance with the generalized processor sharing (GPS) discipline. GPS-based scheduling algorithms, such as weighted fair queueing, have emerged as an important mechanism for achieving service differentiation in integrated networks. We derive the asymptotic workload behavior of the light-tailed traffic flow

Sem C. Borst; Michel Mandjes; Miranda van Uitert

2003-01-01

135

TIDAL TAILS OF MINOR MERGERS. II. COMPARING STAR FORMATION IN THE TIDAL TAILS OF NGC 2782  

SciTech Connect

The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a minor merger with a mass ratio {approx}4: 1 occurring {approx}200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and H I-rich, optically bright eastern tail and an H I-rich, optically faint western tail. Non-detection of CO in the western tail by Braine et al. suggested that star formation had not yet begun. However, deep UBVR and H{alpha} narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the western tail, though it lacks massive star clusters and cluster complexes. Using Herschel PACS spectroscopy, we discover 158 {mu}m [C II] emission at the location of the three most luminous H{alpha} sources in the eastern tail, but not at the location of the even brighter H{alpha} source in the western tail. The western tail is found to have a normal star formation efficiency (SFE), but the eastern tail has a low SFE. The lack of CO and [C II] emission suggests that the western tail H II region may have a low carbon abundance and be undergoing its first star formation. The western tail is more efficient at forming stars, but lacks massive clusters. We propose that the low SFE in the eastern tail may be due to its formation as a splash region where gas heating is important even though it has sufficient molecular and neutral gas to make massive star clusters. The western tail, which has lower gas surface density and does not form high-mass star clusters, is a tidally formed region where gravitational compression likely enhances star formation.

Knierman, Karen A.; Scowen, Paul; Veach, Todd; Groppi, Christopher [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, 550 E. Tyler Mall, Room PSF-686 (P.O. Box 871404), Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Mullan, Brendan; Charlton, Jane [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Penn State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA (United States); Konstantopoulos, Iraklis [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde NSW 1670 (Australia); Knezek, Patricia M., E-mail: karen.knierman@asu.edu, E-mail: paul.scowen@asu.edu, E-mail: tveach@asu.edu, E-mail: cgroppi@asu.edu, E-mail: mullan@astro.psu.edu, E-mail: iraklis@aao.gov.au, E-mail: pknezek@noao.edu [WIYN Consortium, Inc., 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

2013-09-10

136

The sodium tail of the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping “hot” component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience

M. Matta; S. Smith; J. Baumgardner; J. Wilson; C. Martinis; M. Mendillo

2009-01-01

137

The sodium tail of the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

2009-12-01

138

Reinforced terraced fields method for fine tailings disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

New mining technologies can exploit low-grade ores but they produce high volumes of waste, such as tailings. Further, current mineral processing techniques produce more and more fine tailings. How to dispose of these tailings is a key issue in the sustainable operation of a mine. A traditional method is to construct a settling or tailings pond for storage. Such a

Zuoan Wei; Guangzhi Yin; Guangzhi Li; J. G. Wang; Ling Wan; Louyan Shen

2009-01-01

139

Volume III, Chapter 13 Columbian White-tailed Deer  

E-print Network

-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus leucurus) ........................... 13-1 13.1 Introduction virginianus leucurus) 13.1 Introduction The Columbian white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus leucurus............................................................................. 13-20 #12;COLUMBIAN WHITE-TAILED DEER III, 13-1 May 2004 13.0 Columbian White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus

140

Flea Abundance on Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs ( Cynomys ludovicianus ) Increases During Plague Epizootics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) on the Great Plains of the United States are highly susceptible to plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, with mortality on towns during plague epizootics often ap- proaching 100%. The ability of flea-borne transmission to sustain disease spread has been questioned because of inefficiency of flea vectors. However, even with low individual efficiency, overall

Daniel W. Tripp; Kenneth L. Gage; John A. Montenieri; Michael F. Antolin

2009-01-01

141

Landscape Structure and Plague Occurrence in Black-tailed Prairie Dogs on Grasslands of the Western USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landscape structure influences the abundance and distribution of many species, including pathogens that cause infectious diseases. Black-tailed prairie dogs in the western USA have declined precipitously over the past 100 years, most recently due to grassland conversion and their susceptibility to sylvatic plague. We assembled and analyzed two long-term data sets on plague occurrence in black-tailed prairie dogs to explore the

Sharon K. Collinge; Whitney C. Johnson; Chris Ray; Randy Matchett; John Grensten; Jack F. Cully Jr.; Kenneth L. Gage; Michael Y. Kosoy; Jenella E. Loye; Andrew P. Martin

2005-01-01

142

Forest cover influences dispersal distance of white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Animal dispersal patterns influence gene flow, disease spread, population dynamics, spread of invasive species, and establishment of rare or endangered species. Although differences in dispersal distances among taxa have been reported, few studies have described plasticity of dispersal distance among populations of a single species. In 2002-2003, we radiomarked 308 juvenile (7- to 10-month-old), male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 2 study areas in Pennsylvania. By using a meta-analysis approach, we compared dispersal rates and distances from these populations together with published reports of 10 other nonmigratory populations of white-tailed deer. Population density did not influence dispersal rate or dispersal distance, nor did forest cover influence dispersal rate. However, average (r2 = 0.94, P < 0.001, d.f. = 9) and maximum (r2 = 0.86, P = 0.001, d.f. = 7) dispersal distances of juvenile male deer were greater in habitats with less forest cover. Hence, dispersal behavior of this habitat generalist varies, and use of landscape data to predict population-specific dispersal distances may aid efforts to model population spread, gene flow, or disease transmission. ?? 2005 American Society of Mammalogists.

Long, E.S.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Wallingford, B.D.; Grund, M.D.

2005-01-01

143

RNA-binding region of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus capsid protein.  

PubMed

White tail disease (WTD) kills prawn larvae and causes drastic losses to the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) industry. The main causative agent of WTD is Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV). The N-terminal end of the MrNV capsid protein is very rich in positively charged amino acids and is postulated to interact with RNA molecules. N-terminal and internal deletion mutagenesis revealed that the RNA-binding region is located at positions 20-29, where 80?% of amino acids are positively charged. Substitution of all these positively charged residues with alanine abolished the RNA binding. Mutants without the RNA-binding region still assembled into virus-like particles, suggesting that this region is not a part of the capsid assembly domain. This paper is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to report the specific RNA-binding region of MrNV capsid protein. PMID:24878641

Goh, Zee Hong; Mohd, Nur Azmina Syakirin; Tan, Soon Guan; Bhassu, Subha; Tan, Wen Siang

2014-09-01

144

Production and Application of Polyclonal Antibodies Against Recombinant Capsid Protein of Extra Small Virus of Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus along with a satellite virus, extra small virus (XSV) causes white tail disease (WTD) in the giant freshwater prawn M. rosenbergii. Infected M. rosenbergii postlarvae were collected from a hatchery in Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh. The gene coding the capsid protein of XSV was cloned in a bacterial expression vector pRSET A and the recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)pLysS cells. The recombinant protein was purified by Nickel affinity chromatography. Polyclonal antibodies were produced in mice against the recombinant protein and the antibodies reacted specifically with the recombinant protein and XSV in WTD-infected tissues. This is the first report of detection of XSV using antibodies against recombinant capsid protein. PMID:24293828

Neethi, V; Sivakumar, N; Kumar, Kundan; Rajendran, K V; Makesh, M

2012-12-01

145

An improved technique for tail-cuff blood pressure measurements with dark-tailed mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study of the genetics of hypertension has been facilitated greatly by the use of mice with modified genes that affect blood pressure. A current successful method for measuring blood pressure in mice relies on detection of light passing through the tail to determine the pressure in a tail-cuff necessary to stop pulsed flow. Success in obtaining reliable blood pressure measurements

J R Hagaman; S John; L Xu; O Smithies; N Maeda

2005-01-01

146

ATS Claus tail gas cleanup at Table Rock Tail Gas Plant. [Ammonium thiosulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the Table Rock Processing Plant which consists of four major parts: the treating plant, the dew point control plant, a sulfur plant, and the tail gas plant. The tail gas plant uses the ammonium thiosulfate process to convert about 4 tons per day of sulfur to 60 tons per day of ATS. The brief discussion is presented

1981-01-01

147

Tidal Tails of Minor Mergers: Star Formation Efficiency in the Western Tail of NGC 2782  

E-print Network

While major mergers and their tidal debris are well studied, they are less common than minor mergers (mass ratios ratio of ~4:1 occurring ~200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and H I-rich, optically bright eastern tail and an H I-rich, optically faint western tail. Non-detection of CO in the western tail by Braine et al. suggested that star formation had not yet begun to occur in that tidal tail. However, deep H{\\alpha} narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the western tail. Across the entire western tail, we find the global star formation rate per unit area ({\\Sigma}SFR) to be several orders of magnitude less than expected from the total gas density. Together with extended FUV+NUV emission from Galaxy Evolution Explorer along the tail, this indicates a low global star formation efficiency in the tidal tail producing lower mass star clusters. The H II region that we observed ...

Knierman, Karen; Scowen, Paul; Jansen, Rolf; Wehner, Elizabeth; 10.1088/2041-8205/749/1/L1

2012-01-01

148

On Splitting the Tails Unequally: A New Perspective on One-versus Two-Tailed Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The controversy regarding the admissibility of one-tailed tests of hypotheses was examined. Rather than taking a stand with regard to whether the one-or the two-tailed test is the most seriously flawed, a procedure is developed which can capitalize on the advantages of each. (RC)

Braver, Sanford L.

1975-01-01

149

NESTING HABITAT RELATIONSHIPS OF SYMPATRIC CRESTED CARACARAS, RED-TAILED HAWKS, ANDWHITE-TAILED HAWKS IN SOUTH TEXAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We quantified nesting-site habitats for sympatric White-tailed Hawks (Buteo albicaudatus )( n 40), Red-tailed Hawks (B. jamaicensis )( n 39), and Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway )( n 24) in the Coastal Sand Plain of south Texas. White-tailed Hawks and Crested Caracara nest sites occurred in savannas, whereas Red-tailed Hawk nest sites occurred in woodlands on the edge of savannas. White-tailed

Michael A. Actkinson; WILLIAM P. KUVLESKY JR; Clint W. Boal; Leonard A. Brennan; Fidel Hernandez

2007-01-01

150

THE DUST TAIL OF ASTEROID (3200) PHAETHON  

SciTech Connect

We report the discovery of a comet-like tail on asteroid (3200) Phaethon when imaged at optical wavelengths near perihelion. In both 2009 and 2012, the tail appears {approx}>350'' (2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} m) in length and extends approximately in the projected anti-solar direction. We interpret the tail as being caused by dust particles accelerated by solar radiation pressure. The sudden appearance and the morphology of the tail indicate that the dust particles are small, with an effective radius {approx}1 {mu}m and a combined mass {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} kg. These particles are likely products of thermal fracture and/or desiccation cracking under the very high surface temperatures ({approx}1000 K) experienced by Phaethon at perihelion. The existence of the tail confirms earlier inferences about activity in this body based on the detection of anomalous brightening. Phaethon, the presumed source of the Geminid meteoroids, is still active.

Jewitt, David; Li Jing [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California at Los Angeles, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States); Agarwal, Jessica, E-mail: jewitt@ucla.edu [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max-Planck-Str. 2, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany)

2013-07-10

151

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease in alberta, Canada.  

PubMed

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) virus serotype 2 was identified by reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) found dead in southern Alberta in September 2013. Field observations indicate at least 50 deer, primarily white-tailed deer, and three pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) died during a suspected localized EHD outbreak. PMID:24807363

Pybus, Margo J; Ravi, Madhu; Pollock, Colleen

2014-07-01

152

Design of tailing dam using red mud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Red mud, waste industrial product from aluminum industries produced approximately 75 million tonnes every year with less than half of this is used. Storage of this unutilized red mud takes vast tracts of usable land and pollutes, land, air and water. Construction of high embankments, under passes, flyovers, tailing dams uses vast tract of natural resources (top soil) is also matter of concern as its takes thousands of years to form the natural soil. This paper discusses use of red mud for construction of tailing dam based on laboratory findings and finite element analysis. The geotechnical properties such as plasticity, compaction, permeability, shear strength characteristics and dispersion of red mud are presented. Stability and seepage analysis of tailing dams as per finite element analysis using the above geotechnical parameters is presented.

Rout, Subrat K.; Sahoo, Tapaswini; Das, Sarat K.

2013-06-01

153

Plasma irregularities in the comet's tail  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scintillation theory is invoked to explain fluctuations in radio intensity observed during occultation of the extragalactic radio source PKS 2025-15 by the plasma tail of comet 1973 XII on Jan. 5, 1975. Plasma irregularities and turbulence in the tail of the comet (Kohoutek 1973f) are fitted to a Gaussian spectrum and to a Kolmogorov power-law spectrum in analyzing the scintillation data. The rms fluctuation of electron density in the cometary tail is reported at 80 electrons per cu mm, the inner scale of the fluctuation at 800 km, and the largest scale of fluctuation at possibly 400,000 km. A hump in the comet power-law spectrum is noted. Use of the power spectrum of electron density fluctuations to predict the power spectrum of magnetic field fluctuations for irregularities associated with hydromagnetic turbulence is recommended.

Lee, L. C.

1976-01-01

154

Use of washery tailings in hydrotechnical construction  

SciTech Connect

Dam fill material must be sufficiently homogeneous to with-stand selective displacement. Tests were carried out on typical tailings, involving incremental sampling over periods of one hour, one shift, and one day for analysis. The results showed that the mineral content in the samples taken over 1 hour had the greatest qualitative and quantitative variability; those taken over a 24 hour period, the least. It was found that the tailings showed up well enough in situ, regardless of angle of wetting and internal friction angle. Tailings from Avdeev plant used in a dam and compacted by 4-6 heavy dump truck traverses in 1978. Inspection in 1979 failed to show any cracks or displacement, and filtration was found to be at a low level.

Voznyi, G.F.; Preobazhenskii, B.P.; Mandryka, C.V.; Rozanov, N.N.

1981-01-01

155

Structure and stability of the lamin A tail domain and HGPS mutant  

PubMed Central

Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a premature aging syndrome caused by the expression and accumulation of a mutant form of lamin A, ?50 lamin A. As a component of the cell's nucleoskeleton, lamin A plays an important role in the mechanical stabilization of the nuclear envelope and in other nuclear functions. It is largely unknown how the characteristic 50 amino acid deletion affects the conformation of the mostly intrinsically disordered tail domain of lamin A. Here we perform replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of the tail domain and determine an ensemble of semi-stable structures. Based on these structures we show that the ZMPSTE 24 cleavage site on the precursor form of the lamin A tail domain orients itself in such a way as to facilitate cleavage during the maturation process. We confirm our simulated structures by comparing the thermodynamic properties of the ensemble structures to in vitro stability measurements. Using this combination of techniques, we compare the size, heterogeneity of size, thermodynamic stability of the Ig-fold, as well as the mechanisms of force-induced denaturation. Our data shows that the ?50 lamin A tail domain is more compact and displays less heterogeneity than the mature lamin A tail domain. Altogether these results suggest that the altered structure and stability of the tail domain can explain changed protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions and may represent an etiology of the disease. Also, this study provides the first molecular structure(s) of the lamin A tail domain, which is confirmed by thermodynamic tests. PMID:21635954

Qin, Zhao; Kalinowski, Agnieszka; Dahl, Kris Noel; Buehler, Markus J.

2011-01-01

156

Radial tail resolution in the SELEX RICH  

SciTech Connect

The authors use a 7 Million event data sample of 600 GeV/c single track pion events, where the pion track is reconstructed upstream and downstream of the SELEX RICH. They build the RICH ring radius histogram distribution and count the tail events that fall outside 5{sigma}, giving a fraction of 4 x 10{sup -5} events outside the Gaussian tails. This control of events establishes the ability of using the RICH as velocity spectrometer for high precision searches of the K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +} {nu}{bar {nu}} decay like it is planned in the CKM experiment.

Morelos, A.; Mata, J.; Cooper, P.S.; Engelfried, J.; Aguilera-Servin, J.L.; /San Luis Potosi U. /Fermilab

2005-01-01

157

Through the tail of a comet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The instrumentation, trajectory, and missions of the ISEE-3 spacecraft being sent to observe Comet Giacobini-Zimmer (GZ) are described. Originally parked at a libration point to observe the solar wind, ISEE-3 was directed to perform a complex series of flybys of the earth and the moon to move to a trajectory that will intersect the GZ tail in 1985. Renamed ICE, the spacecraft will record magnetic field and charged particle data on the interaction of the cometary tail with the solar wind.

Mclaughlin, W. I.

1984-01-01

158

Plasma irregularities in the Comet's tail  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fluctuations in the intensity of radio source PKS 2025-15 during its occultation by Comet Kohoutek (1973f) on January 5, 1974, can be interpreted as scintillations due to the turbulent plasma in the Comet's tail. It was found that the rms fluctuation of the electron density in the Comet's tail is about 200 electrons/cu cm, the inner scale of the fluctuation is about 8 x 10 to the 7th power cm and the largest scale of fluctuation may reach 6 x 10 to the 10th power cm.

Lee, L. C.

1976-01-01

159

An improved technique for tail-cuff blood pressure measurements with dark-tailed mice.  

PubMed

Study of the genetics of hypertension has been facilitated greatly by the use of mice with modified genes that affect blood pressure. A current successful method for measuring blood pressure in mice relies on detection of light passing through the tail to determine the pressure in a tail-cuff necessary to stop pulsed flow. Success in obtaining reliable blood pressure measurements in light-tailed strains of mice (e.g., C57BL/6J) has been excellent. However, in our and others' experience, mice having highly pigmented tails (e.g., 129S6/SvEvTac) have yielded less consistent measurements. We report here that simple modifications to the channel containing the pulse detection sensor can greatly improve the pulse detection of dark-tailed mice. The first modification--lining the sensor channel with four layers of clear plastic wrap--increased the frequency of successful blood pressure measurements of 129S6/SvEvTac mice twofold and reduced variability by one-third. The second modification--lining the sides of the channel with reflective foil--also improved the success rate with dark-tailed mice. Mean blood pressures were unaffected by these modifications, which enhance detection of the pulse wave and likely will be helpful in diverse applications in which blood pressure is measured in rodent strains with pigmented tails. PMID:16138782

Hagaman, John R; John, Simon; Xu, Lonquan; Smithies, Oliver; Maeda, Nobuyo

2005-09-01

160

Effect of Horizontal-Tail Span and Vertical Location on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Unswept Tail Assembly in Sideslip  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation has been conducted in the Langley stability tunnel on a vertical-tail model with a stub fuselage in combination with various horizontal tails to determine the effect of horizontal-tail span and vertical location of the horizontal tail relative to the vertical tail on the aerodynamic characteristics of an unswept tail assembly in sideslip. The results of the investigation indicated that the induced loading carried by the horizontal tail produced a rolling moment about the point of attachment to the vertical tail which was strongly influenced by horizontal-tail span and vertical locations. The greatest effect of horizontal-tail span on the rolling-moment derivative of the complete tail assembly was obtained for horizontal-tail locations near the top of the vertical tail. Span loadings which were reduced to the static-stability derivatives were calculated for each configuration tested by applying the well-known finite-step method used for wings to the intersecting surfaces of the vertical and horizontal tails. The finite-step method provides a simple and effective means of investigating the span loadings of intersecting surfaces.

Riley, Donald R

1954-01-01

161

Loss of Desmoplakin Tail Causes Lethal Acantholytic Epidermolysis Bullosa*  

PubMed Central

The cytoplasmic plaque protein desmoplakin (DP), which is located in desmosomes, plays a major role in epithelial and muscle cell adhesion by linking the transmembrane cadherins to the cytoplasmic intermediate filament network. Mutations of DP may cause striate palmoplantar keratoderma, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, skin fragility/woolly hair syndrome, Naxos-like disease, and Carvajal syndrome. DP must be indispensable, because DP-/- mice are early abortive. Here, we report a patient with severe fragility of skin and mucous membranes caused by genetic truncation of the DP tail. The new phenotype is lethal in the neonatal period because of immense transcutaneous fluid loss. The phenotype also comprised universal alopecia, neonatal teeth, and nail loss. Histology showed suprabasal clefting and acantholysis throughout the spinous layer, mimicking pemphigus. Electron microscopy revealed disconnection of keratin intermediate filaments from desmosomes. Immunofluorescence staining of DP showed a distinct punctate intercellular pattern in the patient’s skin. Protein analysis revealed expression of truncated DP polypeptides. Mutational analysis of the patient demonstrated compound heterozygosity for two DP mutations, 6079C?T (R1934X) and 6370delTT, respectively. Aberrant mRNA transcripts that predict premature termination of translation with loss of the three intermediate filament-binding subdomains in the DP tail were detected by RT-PCR. The new dramatic phenotype, which we named “lethal acantholytic epidermolysis bullosa,” underscores the paramount role of DP in epidermal integrity. PMID:16175511

Jonkman, Marcel F.; Pasmooij, Anna M. G.; Pasmans, Suzanne G. M. A.; van den Berg, Maarten P.; ter Horst, Henk J.; Timmer, Albertus; Pas, Hendri H.

2005-01-01

162

Flight costs of long, sexually selected tails in hummingbirds.  

PubMed

The elongated tails adorning many male birds have traditionally been thought to degrade flight performance by increasing body drag. However, aerodynamic interactions between the body and tail can be substantial in some contexts, and a short tail may actually reduce rather than increase overall drag. To test how tail length affects flight performance, we manipulated the tails of Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) by increasing their length with the greatly elongated tail streamers of the red-billed streamertail (Trochilus polytmus) and reducing their length by removing first the rectrices and then the entire tail (i.e. all rectrices and tail covert feathers). Flight performance was measured in a wind tunnel by measuring (i) the maximum forward speed at which the birds could fly and (ii) the metabolic cost of flight while flying at airspeeds from 0 to 14 m s(-1). We found a significant interaction effect between tail treatment and airspeed: an elongated tail increased the metabolic cost of flight by up to 11 per cent, and this effect was strongest at higher flight speeds. Maximum flight speed was concomitantly reduced by 3.4 per cent. Also, removing the entire tail decreased maximum flight speed by 2 per cent, suggesting beneficial aerodynamic effects for tails of normal length. The effects of elongation are thus subtle and airspeed-specific, suggesting that diversity in avian tail morphology is associated with only modest flight costs. PMID:19324747

Clark, Christopher James; Dudley, Robert

2009-06-01

163

Flight costs of long, sexually selected tails in hummingbirds  

PubMed Central

The elongated tails adorning many male birds have traditionally been thought to degrade flight performance by increasing body drag. However, aerodynamic interactions between the body and tail can be substantial in some contexts, and a short tail may actually reduce rather than increase overall drag. To test how tail length affects flight performance, we manipulated the tails of Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) by increasing their length with the greatly elongated tail streamers of the red-billed streamertail (Trochilus polytmus) and reducing their length by removing first the rectrices and then the entire tail (i.e. all rectrices and tail covert feathers). Flight performance was measured in a wind tunnel by measuring (i) the maximum forward speed at which the birds could fly and (ii) the metabolic cost of flight while flying at airspeeds from 0 to 14?m?s?1. We found a significant interaction effect between tail treatment and airspeed: an elongated tail increased the metabolic cost of flight by up to 11 per cent, and this effect was strongest at higher flight speeds. Maximum flight speed was concomitantly reduced by 3.4 per cent. Also, removing the entire tail decreased maximum flight speed by 2 per cent, suggesting beneficial aerodynamic effects for tails of normal length. The effects of elongation are thus subtle and airspeed-specific, suggesting that diversity in avian tail morphology is associated with only modest flight costs. PMID:19324747

James Clark, Christopher; Dudley, Robert

2009-01-01

164

Experiments on a Tail-wheel Shimmy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Model tests on the "running belt" and tests with a full-scale tail wheel were made on a rotating drum as well as on a runway in order to investigate the causes of the undesirable shimmy phenomena frequently occurring on airplane tail wheels, and the means of avoiding them. The small model (scale 1:10) permitted simulation of the mass, moments of inertia, and fuselage stiffness of the airplane and determination of their influence on the shimmy, whereas by means of the larger model with pneumatic tires (scale 1:2) more accurate investigations were made on the tail wheel itself. The results of drum and road tests show good agreement with one another and with model values. Detailed investigations were made regarding the dependence of the shimmy tendency on trail, rolling speed, load, size of tires, ground friction,and inclination of the swivel axis; furthermore, regarding the influence of devices with restoring effect on the tail wheel, and the friction damping required for prevention of shimmy. Finally observations from slow-motion pictures are reported and conclusions drawn concerning the influence of tire deformation.

Harling, R; Dietz, O

1954-01-01

165

Helicopter tail rotor orthogonal blade vortex interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerodynamic operating environment of the helicopter is particularly complex and, to some extent, dominated by the vortices trailed from the main and tail rotors. These vortices not only determine the form of the induced flow field but also interact with each other and with elements of the physical structure of the flight vehicle. Such interactions can have implications in

F. N. Coton; J. S. Marshall; R. A. Mc D. Galbraith; R. B. Green

2004-01-01

166

Dispersal in female white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seven of 35 yearling female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a migratory herd in northeastern Minnesota dispersed 18-168 km from natal ranges during late May through June. Dispersal as a proximate event appears voluntary and independent of deer density.

Nelson, M. E.; Mech, L. D.

1992-01-01

167

Magnetic field controls carbon arc tail flame  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polarity of two electromagnets placed near the exhaust flue cancels out a high carbon-arc field. The arc tail flame is correctly drawn to the exhaust flue and contamination is diverted. This device should reduce maintenance cycles on any arc-powered illuminator.

1965-01-01

168

VideoLab: Heads and Tails  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The flatworms known as planaria are proverbial for their ability to regenerate a head or tail properly when amputated (first clip in movie). But how does the organism "know" which end to regenerate? Gurley et al. found an answer in a molecular "switch", beta-catenin, a protein that regulates a variety of cell processes during development.

Kyle A. Gurley (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Utah School of Medicine;Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy); Jochen C. Rink (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Utah School of Medicine;Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy); Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Utah School of Medicine;Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy)

2008-01-18

169

The Long Tail Takes Over Music  

Microsoft Academic Search

Former software developer and independent musician Jonathan Coulton has forged a following and a living wage by leveraging the Internet, and he's still pondering how the new business model for the music industry will emerge. However, the music business's very foundation is antithetical to long-tail economics.

Greg Goth

2007-01-01

170

Disturbance propagation times to the far tail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneous data collection by IMP 8 in the near-Earth solar wind and Geotail in the distant tail make possible the correlation of solar wind disturbances with their effects in the distant tail. This paper discusses some of the possible propagation times between the two spacecrafts and compares them with observed times for a particular disturbance when Geotail was near the magnetopause. The best fit matches very closely with the solar wind velocity. Several other propagation mechanisms also match the observed delay times within the observational error. The conversion processes operating across the bow shock, through the magnetosheath, and through the tail tend to maintain the net propagation speed constant, which accounts for the empirical finding that the direct solar wind transit time between IMP 8 and Geotail works pretty well. There is little if any effect of a significant delay resulting from the flow slowing down in the subsonic dayside magnetosheath. The event cannot discriminate between a windsock response of the tail to the solar wind disturbance and a standing wave response without further quantitative modeling.

Kaymaz, Z.; Petschek, H. E.; Siscoe, G. L.; Frank, L. A.; Ackerson, K. L.; Paterson, W. R.

1995-12-01

171

Kinesin Tail Domains Are Intrinsically Disordered  

PubMed Central

Kinesin motor proteins transport a wide variety of molecular cargoes in a spatially and temporally regulated manner. Kinesin motor domains, which hydrolyze ATP to produce a directed mechanical force along a microtubule, are well conserved throughout the entire superfamily. Outside of the motor domains, kinesin sequences diverge along with their transport functions. The non-motor regions, particularly the tails, respond to a wide variety of structural and molecular cues that enable kinesins to carry specific cargoes in response to particular cellular signals. Here, we demonstrate that intrinsic disorder is a common structural feature of kinesins. A bioinformatics survey of the full-length sequences of all 43 human kinesins predicts that significant regions of intrinsically disordered residues are present in all kinesins. These regions are concentrated in the non-motor domains, particularly in the tails and near sites for ligand binding or post-translational modifications. In order to experimentally verify these predictions, we expressed and purified the tail domains of kinesins representing three different families (Kif5B, Kif10, and KifC3). Circular dichroism (CD) and NMR spectroscopy experiments demonstrate that the isolated tails are disordered in vitro, yet they retain their functional microtubule-binding activity. Based on these results, we propose that intrinsic disorder is a common structural feature that confers functional specificity to kinesins. PMID:22674872

Seeger, Mark A.; Zhang, Yongbo; Rice, Sarah E.

2012-01-01

172

Estimating Bivariate Tails Elena Di Bernardino  

E-print Network

Estimating Bivariate Tails Elena Di Bernardino Universit´e de Lyon, Universit´e Lyon 1, ISFA, Laboratoire SAF. E-mail : elena.di-bernardino@univ-lyon1.fr V´eronique Maume-Deschamps Universit´e de Lyon

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

173

Heavy Tails in Insurance Sren Asmussen  

E-print Network

distribution models used in fire, wind­storm or flood insurance and mention some insurance applications in insurance data, for instance in fire, wind­storm or flood insurance (collectively known as catastropheeqf21/008 Heavy Tails in Insurance Søren Asmussen Vicky Fasen and Claudia Klüppelberg Abstract

174

TAIL-MOUNTED RADIO TRANSMITTERS FOR WATERFOWL  

Microsoft Academic Search

We successfully tested tail-mounted radio transmitters on Pink-footed Geese (Anser brachyrhynchus), Barnacle Geese (Branta leucopsis), Brant (Branta bernicla) and Eur- asian Wigeon (Anas penelope). The range of detection of the transmitters was approximately 1 km and some birds were tracked for up to 4 mo. Movements and activity of the birds were not affected by the packages. We conclude that

JEAN-FRANCOIS GIROUX; DAVID V. BELL; STEVE PERCIVAL; RON W. SUMMERS

175

Molasses Tail in Dense Hard Core Fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long slow decaying potential part of the shear-stress autocorrelation function has been called the ``molasses tail'' to differentiate it from the hydrodynamic origin of the long time tail in the velocity autocorrelation function and to emphasize its relation to the highly viscous glassy state [1]. Some twenty years ago, the molasses tail in dense liquids near the solid-fluid transition point was speculated to be due to transient crystal nuclei formation [2].This slow decaying process of the OACF and its decomposition (pair, triplet, and quadruplet) is a key factor in understanding the onset of the glass transition. With additional computer power, we are now investigating the origin of the molasses tail using a modern fast algorithm based on event-driven Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation.We confirm the non-algebraic decay (stretched exponential) at intermediate times corresponding to the existence of various cluster sizes a solid cluster at high densities. The decay in dense systems thus consists of a three stage relaxation process, which are the kinetic regime, the molasses regime and the diffusional power regime[3]. [1] B. J. Alder, in Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Statistical-mechanical Systems, G. Ciccotti and W. G. Hoover, eds.(North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1986) 66. [2] A. J. C. Ladd, and B. J. Alder, J. Stat. Phys. 57, 473 (1989). [3] M. Isobe and B. J. Alder, Mol. Phys., 107, 609 (2009).

Isobe, Masaharu; Alder, Berni

2010-03-01

176

Approximating Tail Areas of Probability Distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general method for approximating tail areas is developed through an extension of the methodology of Andrews. This extension is applied to both continuous and discrete distributions. Examples of the approximations are given for the standard normal, $t$, and chi-square distributions in the continuous case and for the Poisson and binomial distributions in the discrete case. Errors of the approximations

Alan J. Gross; David W. Hosmer

1978-01-01

177

Investigation of environmental impacts of tailings dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining has been one of the key sectors for industrialisation of the world for centuries. As the mining activities enlarge, the amount of waste materials readily increases. Storage of waste materials or tailings disposal has become a serious matter for the mining industry due to its enlargement especially for the last 30 years. During the beneficiation of valuable metals and

Safak Ozkan; Bedri Ipekoglu

2002-01-01

178

A TALE OF FOUR UPSTREAM TAILINGS DAMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation and performance of four upstream-constructed tailings dams in South America are presented. All four dams were constructed beginning in the 1990's. The juxtaposition of the same design to four sites, each with unique site and operating conditions, led not surprisingly to four different outcomes. These outcomes ranged from outright failure, to construction of a toe buttress, slope flattening,

T. E. Martin; E. C. McRoberts; M. P. Davies

179

Study Of Helicopter-Tail-Rotor Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes findings of experiment in generation of impulsive noise and fluctuating blade loads by helicopter tail rotor interacting with vortexes from main rotor. Experiment used model rotor and isolated vortex and designed to isolate blade/vortex interaction noise from other types of rotor noise.

Ahmadi, Ali R.; Beranek, Bolt

1988-01-01

180

New Mixed Tail Triphenylene Discotic Liquid Crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some new mixed tail triphenylene discotic liquid crystals having three alkoxy and three alkanoyloxy chains have been prepared and characterized. Effects of unsymmetrical substitution by virtue of different alkyl chains in the periphery and their attachment to the core were studied. The synthesis was carried out by esterification of the symmetrical and unsymmetrical trihydroxy-tripentyloxytriphenylenes with various acid chlorides. All the

M. Manickam; Sandeep Kumar

1999-01-01

181

[Measurement and analysis of hematology and blood chemistry parameters in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina)].  

PubMed

The pig-tailed macaque is an important non-human primate experimental animal model that has been widely used in the research of AIDS and other diseases. Pig-tailed macaques include Mentawai macaques (Macaca pagensis), Sunda pig-tailed macaques (M. nemestrina) and northern pig-tailed macaques (M. leonina). Northern pig-tailed macaques inhabit China and surrounding Southeast Asia countries. To our knowledge, no reports have been published regarding the hematology and blood chemistry parameters of northern pig-tailed macaques, which are important for the objective evaluation of experimental results. We measured and analyzed 18 hematology parameters and 13 blood chemistry parameters in juvenile (aged 2-4 years) and adult (aged 5-10 years) northern pig-tailed macaques. We found that red blood cells, hemoglobin and alkaline phosphatase values were lower in female macaques than male macaques in both juvenile and adult groups. White blood cells, lymphocyte, monocytes, platelet distribution width, cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase values were higher in juvenile macaques than adult macaques, while creatinine and triglycerides values were lower in juvenile macaques. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin and creatinine values were positively correlated with weight in juvenile groups. In adult groups, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, percentage of granulocyte, hemoglobin and creatinine were also positively correlated with weight, and lymphocyte, percentage of lymphocyte, red cell distribution width, aspartate aminotransferase and cholesterol values were negatively correlated with weight. The results suggest that age, gender and weight of northern pig-tailed macaques affected their hematology and blood chemistry parameters. This hematological and blood chemistry study has great significance in biomedical research and animal models using northern pig-tailed macaque as an experimental animal. PMID:23572357

Pang, Wei; Lü, Long-Bao; Wang, Yun; Li, Gui; Huang, Dong-Ti; Lei, Ai-Hua; Zhang, Gao-Hong; Zheng, Yong-Tang

2013-04-01

182

Casein Kinase 2 Reverses Tail-Independent Inactivation of Kinesin-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kinesin-1 is a plus-end microtubule-based motor, and defects in kinesin-based transport are linked to diseases including neurodegeneration. Kinesin can auto-inhibit via a head-tail interaction, but is believed to be active otherwise. Here we report a tail-independent inactivation of kinesin, reversible by the disease-relevant signalling protein, casein kinase 2 (CK2). The majority of initially active kinesin (native or tail-less) loses its ability to interact with microtubules in vitro, and CK2 reverses this inactivation (approximately fourfold) without altering kinesin's single motor properties. This activation pathway does not require motor phosphorylation, and is independent of head--tail auto-inhibition. In cultured mammalian cells, reducing CK2 expression, but not its kinase activity, decreases the force required to stall lipid droplet transport, consistent with a decreased number of active kinesin motors. Our results (Nat. Commun., 3:754, 2012) provide the first direct evidence of a protein kinase upregulating kinesin-based transport, and suggest a novel pathway for regulating the activity of cargo-bound kinesin.

Xu, Jing

2013-03-01

183

Tail and Ionospheric Signatures of Tail Fast Flows Associated with PBIs and with Substorms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthward convection of the tail plasma sheet is often organized in bursts of fast ion flows restricted in azimuthally narrow channels. It has been shown that Auroral Poleward Boundary Intensifications (PBIs) are often the ionospheric signature of such fast flow channels in the midtail. Equatorward flow bursts have been observed in the ionosphere, and have been shown to be the ionospheric mapping of the tail fast flow channels in few case studies. We focus on identifying such ionospheric signatures and understanding the physics of this magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction via conjunctions of the THEMIS probes with the Sondrestrom radar. We find fundamental differences between the tail fast flows that are associated with substorm onsets and those associated with PBIs, as well as between their respective ionospheric flow signatures. The tail fast flows that produce PBIs are observed in the midtail. They do not typically penetrate to the inner magnetosphere and they are accompanied by plasma sheet expansion signatures in the mid tail. No dipolarization signatures are observed in the inner magnetosphere. The ionospheric signatures associated with such tail flows are PBI- type aurora and substantially enhanced equatorward flows. Tail fast flows that are associated with substorm onsets are typically observed only by the inner magnetosphere probes, only occasionally being seen also in the midtail. Clear dipolarizations are seen with such flows in the inner magnetosphere but not in the midtail. The ionospheric flow associated with such tail fast flows is far distinct, enhanced westward flows being occasionally seen at the higher latitude part of the Sondrestrom field of view with enhanced eastward flows observed at the lower latitudes. Enhanced equatorward flows are not seen.

Shi, Y.; Zesta, E.; Lyons, L.; Angelopoulos, V.; Donovan, E.; McFadden, J.; Carlson, C.; Glassmeier, K.; Mende, S.

2009-05-01

184

Aquatic Plant Establishment on Nickel Tailings Five Years After Flooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nickel tailings were deposited between 1978 and 1988 in Falconbridge's New Tailings Area located northeast of Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. In 1996, construction of a new dam and dredging split the site into an Upper Terrace (56 ha) and a Lower Terrace (30 ha) to facilitate flooding. Water covers minimize the oxidation of acid generating tailings but some oxidation and release

F. Wilkinson; P. J. Beckett

185

The Tail-less Cat in Free-Fall.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes four kinds of movement by a cat with or without angular momentum and tail or tail-less during free falling. Presents many pictures illustrating the movement. Supports the position that the angular momentum of the tail plays an important role in free fall. (YP)

Fredrickson, J. E.

1989-01-01

186

TECHNICAL NOTE Individual identification of Sitka black-tailed deer  

E-print Network

TECHNICAL NOTE Individual identification of Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis for extracting DNA from fecal pellets from Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) and evaluated. Keywords Alaska Á DNA Á Feces Á Microsatellites Á Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis Á Sitka black-tailed deer

187

G-tail telomere HPA: simple measurement of  

E-print Network

G-tail telomere HPA: simple measurement of human single-stranded telomeric overhangs Hidetoshi of telomeric 3¢-overhang (G-tail) lengths is essential for investigation of the biological effects of telomere dysfunction. G-tail telomere hybridization protection assay (Gt-telomere HPA) has the advantages of being

Cai, Long

188

REMEDIATION OF ACID MINE TAILINGS AND RECOVERY OF COPPER  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interdisciplinary team of students from New Mexico State University has developed a solution to Task I of the 1998 WERC Environmental Design Contest. The proposed process addresses the treatment of mine tailings which generate acid and the recovery of metals contained in the tailings. The objective of the design is to recover and transport the mine tailings in a

Ali Al-Matar; Jennifer Alwin; David Rockstraw

189

Environmental desulphurization of four Canadian mine tailings using froth flotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental desulphurization is an attractive alternative for management of acid generating tailings. This process placed at the end of the primary process treatment circuit will reduce a large amount of the problematic tailings by concentrating the sulphide fraction. To produce desulphurized tailings, non-selective froth flotation is the most adapted method. The desulphurization level is fixed by the sulphide content of

M Benzaazoua; B Bussière; M Kongolo; J McLaughlin; P Marion

2000-01-01

190

IMPACT PREDICTION OF THE REACTIVATION OF AN UNUSED TAILINGS DAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A frequent occurrence in areas with a long history of mining is the reactivation of mine residue deposits. This paper presents an impact prediction study conducted for the reactivation of a gold tailings dam. Two phases of new tailings deposition are proposed. The objective of the study was to assess the potential impact on downstream groundwater quality. The tailings dam

TERRY HARCK; BERNADETTE AZZIE; CATRIONA COYLE; TALITA GERMISHUYSE; RAVI VADAPALLI; ALBERT VAN ZYL

191

Management and Conservation Immobilization of White-Tailed Deer With  

E-print Network

and effective alternative for immobilization of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). During a 2-stage Society. KEY WORDS anesthesia, ketamine, Odocoileus virginianus, telazol, tolazoline, white-tailed deer and Wilson 2002). Currently, few drug combinations meet these criteria for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus

192

Population Ecology Spotlight Surveys for White-Tailed Deer  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT Many monitoring programs for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on both private and public, Odocoileus virginianus, spot- light surveys, variance components, white-tailed deer. One of the primary the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). A suite of approaches have been used to look at deer

Ditchkoff, Steve

193

Research Article Spotlight Surveys for White-Tailed Deer  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT Many monitoring programs for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on both private and public, Odocoileus virginianus, spot- light surveys, variance components, white-tailed deer. One of the primary the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). A suite of approaches have been used to look at deer

Ditchkoff, Steve

194

The tail of the Ordovician fish Sacabambaspis.  

PubMed

The tail of the earliest known articulated fully skeletonized vertebrate, the arandaspid Sacabambaspis from the Ordovician of Bolivia, is redescribed on the basis of further preparation of the only specimen in which it is most extensively preserved. The first, but soon discarded, reconstruction, which assumed the presence of a long horizontal notochordal lobe separating equal sized dorsal and ventral fin webs, appears to have considerable merit. Although the ventral web is significantly smaller than the dorsal one, the presence of a very long notochordal lobe bearing a small terminal web is confirmed. The discrepancy in the size of the ventral and dorsal webs rather suggests that the tail was hypocercal, a condition that would better accord with the caudal morphology of the living agnathans and the other jawless stem gnathostomes. PMID:17443969

Pradel, Alan; Sansom, Ivan J; Gagnier, Pierre-Yves; Cespedes, Ricardo; Janvier, Philippe

2007-02-22

195

Long-tail liability law reform.  

PubMed

There is a need for the law to evolve so that corporations are obliged to make proper provision for liabilities to unascertained future creditors. However, implementation of long-tail liabilities is far from straightforward and has many repercussions for both corporations and personal injury law. In October 2005 the Parliamentary Secretary to the Treasurer requested the Corporations and Markets Advisory Committee to consider a "referred proposal" designed to achieve comprehensive and principled law reform. Analysis of the referred proposal reveals many shortcomings, a number of which have been addressed by the Committee in its June 2007 Discussion Paper, Long-Tail Liabilities: The Treatment of Unascertained Future Personal Injury Claims. This editorial urges further and reflective analysis of the referred proposal and of the Committee's tentative suggestions in order to achieve a balance among the entitlements of unascertained future creditors, other known creditors, shareholders, corporations' financial viability, and the conceptual integrity of corporations law. PMID:18035836

Freckelton, Ian

2007-10-01

196

Adenocarcinoma associated with tail gut cyst  

PubMed Central

Primary adenocarcinomas of the presacral (retrorectal) space are rare. The diagnosis is usually delayed because of non-specific symptoms, and is made after a biopsy or surgery. These carcinomas arise from cystic lesions developing from remnants of the embryological postanal gut containing mucous-secreting epithelium, known as tail gut cysts. The potential for infection, perianal fistulas and most importantly, malignant change warrants an early complete surgical resection. From an oncologist’s perspective, the management of these carcinomas has varied, and has included adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. We describe here a rare case of adenocarcinoma associated with a tail gut cyst that was discovered incidentally and resected by a posterior approach (Kraske procedure). The patient has had clinical and periodic radiologic surveillance without any evidence of cancer recurrence for over a year and a half. PMID:23450681

Wise, Susannah; Maloney-Patel, Nell; Rezac, Craig; Poplin, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

197

Intervention to Improve the Quality of Life of a Bottlenose Dolphin That Developed Necrosis on the Tail Flukes  

PubMed Central

[Purpose, Case, and Methods] A female bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) in captivity developed necrosis of the tail flukes. Although the diseased site healed after surgical resection, the loss of approximately 75% of the tail greatly affected her swimming performance. To restore swimming ability, we developed artificial tail flukes as a prosthetic swimming aid and provided physical therapy that included swimming training from postoperative day 1 to day 1427. [Results] The prosthetic enabled the dolphin to recover swimming ability almost to the level prior to disease onset, but even acquire applied movement, and reestablish social relationships, thus greatly improving the animal's quality of life. [Conclusion] The results clearly demonstrate that, as in postoperative rehabilitation in humans, the use of prosthetic devices in physical therapy can be beneficial for marine animals such as dolphins. PMID:24259946

Ueda, Keiichi; Murakami, Masahito; Kato, Junichi; Miyahara, Hirokazu; Izumisawa, Yasuharu

2013-01-01

198

Modeling distribution of dispersal distances in male white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dispersal distances and their distribution pattern are important to understanding such phenomena as disease spread and gene flow, but oftentimes dispersal characteristics are modeled as a fixed trait for a given species. We found that dispersal distributions differ for spring and autumn dispersals of yearling male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) but that combined data can be adequately modeled based on a log-normal distribution. We modeled distribution of dispersal distances from 3 distinct populations in Pennsylvania and Maryland, USA, based on the relationship between percent forest cover and mean dispersal distance and the relationship between mean and variance of dispersal distances. Our results suggest distributions of distances for dispersing yearling male white-tailed deer can be modeled by simply measuring a readily obtained landscape metric, percent forest cover, which could be used to create generalized spatially explicit disease or gene.

Diefenbach, D.R.; Long, E.S.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Wallingford, B.D.; Smith, D.R.

2008-01-01

199

Prone view ultrasonography for pancreatic tail neoplasms.  

PubMed

Ultrasonography was performed in the prone and supine positions in six patients with neoplasms in the tail of the pancreas. The masses were either not apparent (three cases) or less well visualized on the supine scans. The value and indications of the prone position in the ultrasonic evaluation of masses in this portion of the pancreas are documented. Prone scanning is particularly useful when malignant ascites interferes with pancreatic visualization in the supine position. PMID:98000

Goldstein, H M; Katragadda, C S

1978-08-01

200

RED-TAILED HAWK (Buteo jamaicensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily fluctuations in resting heart rate (HR) were studied in a captive ? Red-tailed Hawk (Buteojamaicensis) using radiotelemetry. HR's were recorded hourly during 10 consecutive days while the hawk was housed in an outdoor pen. Daytime HR's averaged 202 beats\\/min and were significantly higher than the average nocturnal HR of 134 beats\\/min (P < 0.001). Maximum HR's ( >200 beats\\/min)

WILLIAM A. DEGRAw; N. C. CLAMPITT

201

Missile rolling tail brake torque system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apparatus for simulating varying levels of friction in the bearings of a free rolling tail afterbody on a canard-controlled missile to determine friction effects on aerodynamic control characteristics is described. A ring located between the missile body and the afterbody is utilized in a servo system to create varying levels of friction between the missile body and the afterbody to simulate bearing friction.

Davis, W. T.

1984-01-01

202

The Sulften System - Advanced tail gas treating  

SciTech Connect

The Sulften System is an advanced tail gas treating process that maximizes sulfur recovery efficiency by the combination of new and unique reaction and absorption technologies. The principal feature of the Sulften System is its ability to produce a sulfur plant vent gas effluent with a hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) concentration of less than 10 ppm on a dry and oxygen-free basis. Conventional tail gas treating processes typically produce a vent stream containing 100 to 250 ppm H/sub 2/S. The primary goal of the Sulften System is to meet the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) requirement that direct discharge of H/sub 2/S be limited to concentrations of less than 10 ppm. The resultant benefits of this technological breakthrough are a reduction in total sulfur discharge and incinerator thermal pollution, virtual elimination of incinerator fuel cost, reduction in tail gas treating unit (TGTU) operating cost, and potential reduction in incinerator capital investment for a grassroots unit, while providing the operating ease characteristic of amine-based TGTU processes.

Kroop, L.; Sigmund, P.W.; Taggart, G.W.

1985-01-01

203

On the variability of He+ suprathermal tails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interstellar neutral helium penetrates to well within 1 AU where it is ionized predominantly by UV from the Sun. These freshly created He+ pickup ions (PUI) are convected outward with the solar wind and subject to acceleration processes, for example in compression regions, corotating interaction regions, or CME-driven interplanetary shocks. These acceleration processes result in the formation of suprathermal tails in the PUI velocity distribution. The PLASTIC instruments on the STEREO spacecraft cover for pickup He the energy range of ~1-20 keV/nuc. They allow the determination of PUI velocity distribution functions from the source distribution to suprathermal energies. In this paper we study the suprathermal tails of He pickup ions during the period January to December 2008 that featured many corotating interaction regions. The PLASTIC observations for the He+ suprathermal tail show a large variability of the spectral index ? of the distribution function f(w)~w?, with w = V/Vsw, where V and Vsw are the particle velocity and the solar wind velocity, respectively. Incorporating a transformation from the spacecraft frame to the solar wind frame, the spectral index at velocities 1.5 <= w <= 5 (in the solar wind frame) ranges from ? ~ -5.7 at a forward shock to ? = -9 in the slow solar wind.

Popecki, M. A.; Klecker, B.; Simunac, K. D. C.; Galvin, A. B.; Kucharek, H.

2013-06-01

204

Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1979 annual report  

SciTech Connect

Uranium mill tailings are a source of low-level radiation and radioactive materials that may be released into the environment. Stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is necessary to minimize radon exhalation and other radioactive releases. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing uranium tailings is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory: the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other potentially hazardous materials in uranium tailings. Results of these studies indicate that radon flux from uranium tailings can be reduced by greater than 99% by covering the tailings with an asphalt emulsion that is poured on or sprayed on (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick), or mixed with some of the tailings and compacted to form an admixture seal (2.5 to 15.2 cm) containing 18 wt % residual asphalt.

Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.

1980-06-01

205

COLUMBIAN BLACK-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS COLUMBIANUS) AS HOSTS FOR BORRELIA SPP. IN NORTHERN CALIFORNIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of infection of Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) with Borrelia spp. was evaluated in an area of northwestern California (USA) where Lyme disease is endemic and the relapsing-fever group spirochete Borrelia coriaceae is enzootic, and in a far-removed comparison area having a disparate climate and lower density of vector ticks. Blood samples collected from both deer herds

Jeomhee Mun; John M. Parker; Marshall White

2005-01-01

206

Active Vertical Tail Buffeting Alleviation on a Twin-Tail Fighter Configuration in a Wind Tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 1/6-scale F-18 wind-tunnel model was tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of the Actively Controlled Response Of Buffet-Affected Tails (ACROBAT) program to assess the use of active controls in reducing vertical tail buffeting. The starboard vertical tail was equipped with an active rudder and other aerodynamic devices, and the port vertical tail was equipped with piezoelectric actuators. The tunnel conditions were atmospheric air at a dynamic pressure of 14 psf. By using single-input-single-output control laws at gains well below the physical limits of the control effectors, the power spectral density of the root strains at the frequency of the first bending mode of the vertical tail was reduced by as much as 60 percent up to angles of attack of 37 degrees. Root mean square (RMS) values of root strain were reduced by as much as 19 percent. Stability margins indicate that a constant gain setting in the control law may be used throughout the range of angle of attack tested.

Moses, Robert W.

1997-01-01

207

Survey of major histocompatibility complex class II diversity in pig-tailed macaques.  

PubMed

Pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) serve as important models for human infectious disease research. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules are important to this research since they present peptides to CD4+ T cells. Despite the importance of characterizing the MHC-II alleles expressed in model species like pig-tailed macaques, to date, less than 150 MHC-II alleles have been named for the six most common classical class II loci (DRA, DRB, DQA, DQB, DPA, and DPB) in this population. Additionally, only a small percentage of these alleles are full-length, making it impossible to use the known sequence for reagent development. To address this, we developed a fast, high-throughput method to discover full-length MHC-II alleles and used it to characterize alleles in 32 pig-tailed macaques. By this method, we identified 128 total alleles across all six loci. We also performed an exon 2-based genotyping assay to validate the full-length sequencing results; this genotyping assay could be optimized for use in determining MHC-II allele frequencies in large cohorts of pig-tailed macaques. PMID:25129472

Karl, Julie A; Heimbruch, Katelyn E; Vriezen, Claire E; Mironczuk, Cassandra J; Dudley, Dawn M; Wiseman, Roger W; O'Connor, David H

2014-11-01

208

ASSESSING FLAVIVIRUS, LENTIVIRUS, AND HERPESVIRUS EXPOSURE IN FREE-RANGING RING-TAILED LEMURS IN SOUTHWESTERN MADAGASCAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) is an endangered species found in southwestern Madagascar, and understanding infectious disease susceptibility is an essential step towards the preservation of wild and captive lemur populations. Lemurs are primates that are widely dispersed throughout the island of Madagascar and may serve as hosts or reservoirs for zoonotic infections. The aim of this study was to

Kerry Sondgeroth; Brad Blitvich; Carol Blair; Julie Terwee; Randall Junge; Michelle Sauther; Sue VandeWoude

209

Culture and Serologic Survey for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infection among Southeastern White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

From July 1998 through October 2002, radiometric culture (ileocecal lymph node, mesenteric lymph node, and feces) and serologic testing by enzyme-linked immunosor- bent assay (ELISA) were used to survey white- tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from the southeastern United States for infection by My- cobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Mptb), the causative agent of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease). Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was

William R. Davidson; Elizabeth J. B. Manning; Victor F. Nettles; D. B. Warnell

210

Efficacy of Oral and Parenteral Routes of Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guerin Vaccination Against Experimental Bovine Tuberculosis in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus): A Feasibility Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the efficacy of oral and parenteral Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin Danish strain 1331 (BCG) in its ability to protect white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) against disease caused by M. bovis infection. Twenty-two white-tailed deer were divided into four groups. One group (n=5) received 109 colony-forming units (cfu) BCG via a lipid-formulated oral bait; one group (n=5) received 109 cfu

P. Nol; M. V. Palmer; W. R. Waters; F. E. Aldwell; B. M. Buddle; J. M. Triantis; L. M. Linke; G. E. Phillips; T. C. Thacker; J. C. Rhyan; M. D. Salman; M. R. Dunbar

2008-01-01

211

Dwarf Galaxies Swimming in Tidal Tails  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This false-color infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows little 'dwarf galaxies' forming in the 'tails' of two larger galaxies that are colliding together. The big galaxies are at the center of the picture, while the dwarfs can be seen as red dots in the red streamers, or tidal tails. The two blue dots above the big galaxies are stars in the foreground.

Galaxy mergers are common occurrences in the universe; for example, our own Milky Way galaxy will eventually smash into the nearby Andromeda galaxy. When two galaxies meet, they tend to rip each other apart, leaving a trail, called a tidal tail, of gas and dust in their wake. It is out of this galactic debris that new dwarf galaxies are born.

The new Spitzer picture demonstrates that these particular dwarfs are actively forming stars. The red color indicates the presence of dust produced in star-forming regions, including organic molecules called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These carbon-containing molecules are also found on Earth, in car exhaust and on burnt toast, among other places. Here, the molecules are being heated up by the young stars, and, as a result, shine in infrared light.

This image was taken by the infrared array camera on Spitzer. It is a 4-color composite of infrared light, showing emissions from wavelengths of 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange), and 8.0 microns (red). Starlight has been subtracted from the orange and red channels in order to enhance the dust features.

2005-01-01

212

Centrifuge modeling of coal tailing embankments  

SciTech Connect

Centrifuge model studies were conducted on eight homogeneous dams with 1.75:1 slopes using coal tailings (waste coal, shale, fine sand, silt, and clay) to obtain experience on the behavior of this low-strength material in a laboratory setting and, further, to examine the accuracy of predictions of embankment failure by the simplified Bishop limit equilibrium method. The failure of four of the model embankments simulated typical features of slope failures observed in the field. Centrifuge modeling verified that the simplified Bishop method using standard measurements of soil strength properly indexed the dam safety but did not accurately locate the embankment failure surface. 20 refs.

Rechard, R.P.; Sutherland, H.J.; Heckes, A.A.

1986-03-01

213

Radiative Tail of Realistic Rotating Gravitational Collapse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An astrophysically realistic model of wave dynamics in black-hole spacetimes must involve a nonspherical background geometry with angular momentum. We consider the evolution of gravitational (and electromagnetic) perturbations in rotating Kerr spacetimes. We show that a rotating Kerr black hole becomes ``bald'' slower than the corresponding spherically symmetric Schwarzschild black hole. Moreover, our results turn over the traditional belief (which has been widely accepted during the last three decades) that the late-time tail of gravitational collapse is universal. Our results are also of importance both to the study of the no-hair conjecture and the mass-inflation scenario (stability of Cauchy horizons).

Hod, Shahar

2000-01-01

214

Structural roles of amphiphilic peptide tails on silica biomineralization.  

PubMed

De novo synthesized amphiphilic peptides can be easily designed to form various nanostructures. Natural biomineralization creates the most intricately stunning inorganic structures, such as diatoms and shells, in which peptides play an important role. Here, we present the biomineralization of three designed amphiphilic peptides, which have different types of hydrophobic tails. By changing the hydrophobic tails from a phenylalanine-serine tail to an alkyl-serine tail or a serine-only tail, the conformations of peptides varied from type II ?-turn to ?-helix or random coil, which gave rise to the silica biomineralization nanostructures with nanoribbons, nanofibers and hollow nanospheres, respectively. Figuring out the structural roles of hydrophobic tails of amphiphilic peptides can improve strategies toward the bottom-up synthesis of nanomaterials as well as peptide scaffold engineering. PMID:25146521

Huang, Zhehao; Jin, Haiying; Che, Shunai

2014-10-14

215

The head-tail radio galaxy B1610-605  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radio galaxy B1610-605 within the Abell cluster A3627 has a low-brightness tail extending at least 26 arcmin from the nucleus of the 14.5m galaxy. The structure of this tail has been explored using observations with the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope (MOST) and the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). We present details of the brightness, width and alignment of the tail. The single tail expands and brightens rapidly within 2 arcmin of the nucleus. Confinement by the pressure of the cluster medium maintains a low but constant brightness for the tail between 10 and 25 arcmin. There are indications of turbulence down the tail but the position of the ridge remains within 1.6 arcmin of the initial alignment throughout its length.

Jones, Paul A.; McAdam, W. Bruce

1994-04-01

216

Detection and Multigenic Characterization of a Herpesvirus Associated with Malignant Catarrhal Fever in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Missouri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1998 and 2001, tissues from four captive white-tailed deer were observed to have histologic lesions of systemic lymphocytic vasculitis. These lesions suggested malignant catarrhal fever, although epizootic hemorrhagic disease and bluetongue were included in the differential diagnosis. Initial diagnostic efforts, including virus isolation and reverse transcription-PCR for epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus and blue- tongue virus, failed to identify an

Steven B. Kleiboeker; Margaret A. Miller; Susan K. Schommer; Jose A. Ramos-Vara; Magalie Boucher; Susan E. Turnquist

2002-01-01

217

State of the marine environment at Little Bay Arm, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, 10 years after a "do nothing" response to a mine tailings spill.  

PubMed

In 1989, the tailings pond dam at the site of a former copper mine near Little Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, ruptured and tailings spilled into Little Bay Arm. At the time, no action was taken to arrest the flow of tailings or to mitigate the effects of the spill. To date, no action has been taken to repair the dam and tailings continue to flow into Little Bay Arm. As a result, the marine environment around Little Bay Arm has become contaminated with heavy metals from the tailings. However, the tailings are not the only source of heavy metals to the ecosystem. An old slag heap and what is presumably concentrated copper ore spilled during the loading of ore freighters, are also contributing to the ecosystem's metal load. Marine sediment throughout the Arm contained elevated concentrations of Cu, Ni, Zn, As, V, Co, and Mn. Beach material also contained elevated concentrations of metals with material near the slag heap being the most contaminated. At this site, Cu concentrations were in excess of 5000 mg kg(-1) dry weight, Zn greater than 3000 mg kg(-1) and Co concentrations exceeded 700 mg kg(-1). The highest concentrations of metals in biota were found near the slag heap, near the tailings dam breach, and at the site of the former concentrate loading dock. Despite elevated metal concentrations, the tailings and nearby sediment were not devoid of life. Bivalves and seaweed were abundant in the area and there were no obvious signs of tissue damage or disease in soft shell clams (Mya arenaria) living in the tailings. These clams may be suffering from chronic exposure to the tailings, however, evidence of lipid peroxidation in the clams was inconclusive. PMID:12948239

Veinott, Geoff; Sylvester, Paul; Hamoutene, Dounia; Anderson, M Robin; Meade, Jim; Payne, Jerry

2003-08-01

218

Suprema of compound Poisson processes with light tails  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that if the Lévy measure of a Lévy process X(t),0?t?1, is “heavy tailed”, then the right tails of sup0?t?1X(t) and X(1) are of the same rate of decay. One of the results of this note is a description of a class of compound Poisson processes with negative drift and “light” tails (which is a subclass of Lévy

Michael Braverman

2000-01-01

219

Geotechnical Characteristics of Copper Mine Tailings: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste management issue in mining industry has become increasingly important. In this regard, construction of tailings dams\\u000a plays a major role. Most of the tailings dams require some kinds of remedial actions during their operational lifetime, among\\u000a which heightening is the most common. In the first stage of the remedial provisions for Sarcheshmeh Copper Complex tailings\\u000a dam in Iran, it

Abolfazl Shamsai; Ali Pak; S. Mohyeddin Bateni; S. Amir Hossein Ayatollahi

2007-01-01

220

Phytoremediation of mine tailings in temperate and arid environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoremediation is an emerging technology for the remediation of mine tailings, a global problem for which conventional remediation\\u000a technologies are costly. There are two approaches to phytoremediation of mine tailings, phytoextraction and phytostabilization.\\u000a Phytoextraction involves translocation of heavy metals from mine tailings to the plant shoot biomass followed by plant harvest,\\u000a while phytostabilization focuses on establishing a vegetative cap that

Monica O. Mendez; Raina M. Maier

2008-01-01

221

Evaluating Target Cold Spots By the use of Tail EUDs  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To propose a new measure of target underdose that can be used in the evaluation and optimization of radiotherapy dose distributions. Methods and Materials: We compare various formulations of the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) and introduce a modification of existing EUD definitions, which we call tail EUD. Tail EUD is a measure of 'cold spots' below the prescription dose in the target dose distribution, using units of gray (Gy). We investigate the mathematical properties of various target EUD concepts, including tail EUD. We apply the tail EUD measure retrospectively to intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans from our plan database. We also use tail EUD as an optimization objective in the optimization of prostate, pancreas, and head-and-neck plans. Results: Tail EUD has desirable mathematical properties. In particular, it is convex and it leads to convex level sets (i.e., no local minima) if the EUD from which it is derived is concave. The tail EUD value is correlated with the subjective degree of target coverage. Constraining tail EUDs to a certain level in plan optimization leads to comparable target coverage in different plans and treatment sites. Conclusions: The newly introduced concept of tail EUD appears to be useful for both plan evaluation and optimization. In addition it can potentially be applied in the design of new clinical protocols.

Bortfeld, Thomas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: tbortfeld@partners.org; Craft, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Dempsey, James F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Halabi, Tarek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Romeijn, H. Edwin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

2008-07-01

222

Why do male snakes have longer tails than females?  

PubMed Central

In most snake species, males have longer tails than females of the same body length. The adaptive significance of this widespread dimorphism has attracted much speculation, but few tests. We took advantage of huge mating aggregations of red-sided gartersnakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) in southern Manitoba to test two (non-exclusive) hypotheses about the selective forces responsible for this dimorphism. Our data support both hypotheses. First, relative tail length affects the size of the male copulatory organs (hemipenes). Males with longer tails relative to body length have longer hemipenes, presumably because of the additional space available (the hemipenes are housed inside the tail base). Second, relative tail length affects male mating success. Males with partial tail loss (due to predation or misadventure) experienced a threefold reduction in mating success. Among males with intact tails, we detected strong stabilizing selection on relative tail length in one of the two years of our study. Thus, our data support the notion that sex divergence in tail length relative to body length in snakes reflects the action of sexual selection for male mating success.

Shine, R.; Olsson, M. M.; Moore, I. T.; LeMaster, M. P.; Mason, R. T.

1999-01-01

223

A Potential Role for Bat Tail Membranes in Flight Control  

PubMed Central

Wind tunnel tests conducted on a model based on the long-eared bat Plecotus auritus indicated that the positioning of the tail membrane (uropatagium) can significantly influence flight control. Adjusting tail position by increasing the angle of the legs ventrally relative to the body has a two-fold effect; increasing leg-induced wing camber (i.e., locally increased camber of the inner wing surface) and increasing the angle of attack of the tail membrane. We also used our model to examine the effects of flying with and without a tail membrane. For the bat model with a tail membrane increasing leg angle increased the lift, drag and pitching moment (nose-down) produced. However, removing the tail membrane significantly reduced the change in pitching moment with increasing leg angle, but it had no significant effect on the level of lift produced. The drag on the model also significantly increased with the removal of the tail membrane. The tail membrane, therefore, is potentially important for controlling the level of pitching moment produced by bats and an aid to flight control, specifically improving agility and manoeuvrability. Although the tail of bats is different from that of birds, in that it is only divided from the wings by the legs, it nonetheless, may, in addition to its prey capturing function, fulfil a similar role in aiding flight control. PMID:21479137

Gardiner, James D.; Dimitriadis, Grigorios; Codd, Jonathan R.; Nudds, Robert L.

2011-01-01

224

Hydrogen-bond rich ionic liquids with hydroxyl cationic tails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate if the amphiphilic feature exhibited in ionic liquids (ILs) with nonpolar cationic tails still exists in ILs with polar tails, by performing molecular dynamics simulations for 1-(8-hydroxyoctyl)-3-methyl-imidazolium nitrate (COH) and 1-octyl-3-methyl-imidazolium nitrate (C8), we found that, in COH, cationic tail groups can no longer aggregate to form separated nonpolar tail domains, instead hydroxyl groups form a rich number of hydrogen bonds with other groups, indicating that the hydroxyl substituent changes the IL system from an amphiphilic liquid to a polar liquid. Due to the large amount of hydrogen bonds, COH has slower dynamics than C8.

Deng, Li; Shi, Rui; Wang, Yanting; Ou-Yang, Zhong-Can

2013-02-01

225

Review of fugitive dust control for uranium mill tailings  

SciTech Connect

An immediate concern associated with the disposal of uranium mill tailings is that wind erosion of the tailings from an impoundment area will subsequently deposit tailings on surrounding areas. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is investigating the current technology for fugitive dust control. Different methods of fugitive dust control, including chemical, physical, and vegetative, have been used or tested on mill tailings piles. This report presents the results of a literature review and discussions with manufacturers and users of available stabilization materials and techniques.

Li, C.T.; Elmore, M.R.; Hartley, J.N.

1983-01-01

226

Tail loss and thermoregulation in the common lizard Zootoca vivipara  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tail autotomy in lizards is an adaptive strategy that has evolved to reduce the risk of predation. Since tail loss reduces body mass and moving ability—which in turn are expected to influence thermal balance—there is potential for a trade-off between tail autotomy and thermoregulation. To test this hypothesis, we studied a common lizard (Zootoca vivipara) population at high latitude, inhabiting a high-cost thermal environment. Z. vivipara is a small, non-territorial lizard known as a very accurate thermoregulator. We made two predictions: (1) the reduced body weight due to tail loss results in faster heating rate (a benefit), and (2) the reduction in locomotor ability after tail loss induces a shift to the use of thermally poorer microhabitats (a cost), thus decreasing the field body temperatures of active lizards. We did not find any effect of tail loss on heating rate in laboratory experiments conducted under different thermal conditions. Likewise, no significant relationship between tail condition and field body temperatures, or between tail condition and thermal microhabitat use, were detected. Thus, our results suggest that tail autotomy does not influence the accuracy of thermoregulation in small-bodied lizards.

Herczeg, Gábor; Kovács, Tibor; Tóth, Tamás; Török, János; Korsós, Zoltán; Merilä, Juha

2004-10-01

227

Research Article Survival of White-Tailed Deer Neonates  

E-print Network

, landscape, Minnesota, mortality, neonate, Odocoileus virginianus, predation, South Dakota, survival. Understanding white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population dynamics requires knowledge of survival

228

Macrophages modulate adult zebrafish tail fin regeneration.  

PubMed

Neutrophils and macrophages, as key mediators of inflammation, have defined functionally important roles in mammalian tissue repair. Although recent evidence suggests that similar cells exist in zebrafish and also migrate to sites of injury in larvae, whether these cells are functionally important for wound healing or regeneration in adult zebrafish is unknown. To begin to address these questions, we first tracked neutrophils (lyzC(+), mpo(+)) and macrophages (mpeg1(+)) in adult zebrafish following amputation of the tail fin, and detailed a migratory timecourse that revealed conserved elements of the inflammatory cell response with mammals. Next, we used transgenic zebrafish in which we could selectively ablate macrophages, which allowed us to investigate whether macrophages were required for tail fin regeneration. We identified stage-dependent functional roles of macrophages in mediating fin tissue outgrowth and bony ray patterning, in part through modulating levels of blastema proliferation. Moreover, we also sought to detail molecular regulators of inflammation in adult zebrafish and identified Wnt/?-catenin as a signaling pathway that regulates the injury microenvironment, inflammatory cell migration and macrophage phenotype. These results provide a cellular and molecular link between components of the inflammation response and regeneration in adult zebrafish. PMID:24961798

Petrie, Timothy A; Strand, Nicholas S; Tsung-Yang, Chao; Rabinowitz, Jeremy S; Moon, Randall T

2014-07-01

229

INTERPRETATION OF (596) SCHEILA'S TRIPLE DUST TAILS  

SciTech Connect

Strange-looking dust cloud around asteroid (596) Scheila was discovered on 2010 December 11.44-11.47. Unlike normal cometary tails, it consisted of three tails and faded within two months. We constructed a model to reproduce the morphology of the dust cloud based on the laboratory measurement of high-velocity impacts and the dust dynamics. As a result, we succeeded in reproducing the peculiar dust cloud by an impact-driven ejecta plume consisting of an impact cone and downrange plume. Assuming an impact angle of 45 Degree-Sign , our model suggests that a decameter-sized asteroid collided with (596) Scheila from the direction of ({alpha}{sub im}, {delta}{sub im}) = (60 Degree-Sign , -40 Degree-Sign ) in J2000 coordinates on 2010 December 3. The maximum ejection velocity of the dust particles exceeded 100 m s{sup -1}. Our results suggest that the surface of (596) Scheila consists of materials with low tensile strength.

Ishiguro, Masateru [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Hanayama, Hidekazu; Watanabe, Jun-ichi; Miyaji, Takeshi; Fukushima, Hideo [Ishigakijima Astronomical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Ishigaki, Okinawa 907-0024 (Japan); Hasegawa, Sunao; Sarugaku, Yuki [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), JAXA, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Fujiwara, Hideaki; Terada, Hiroshi [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Hsieh, Henry H. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Vaubaillon, Jeremie J. [Observatoire de Paris, I.M.C.C.E., Denfert Rochereau, Bat. A., FR-75014 Paris (France); Kawai, Nobuyuki [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Kuroda, Daisuke [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Asaguchi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Ohta, Kouji [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hamanowa, Hiromi [Hamanowa Astronomical Observatory, Motomiya, Fukushima 969-1204 (Japan); Kim, Junhan [Yangcheon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pyo, Jeonghyun [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Nakamura, Akiko M., E-mail: ishiguro@snu.ac.kr [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kobe University, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

2011-11-15

230

Macrophages modulate adult zebrafish tail fin regeneration  

PubMed Central

Neutrophils and macrophages, as key mediators of inflammation, have defined functionally important roles in mammalian tissue repair. Although recent evidence suggests that similar cells exist in zebrafish and also migrate to sites of injury in larvae, whether these cells are functionally important for wound healing or regeneration in adult zebrafish is unknown. To begin to address these questions, we first tracked neutrophils (lyzC+, mpo+) and macrophages (mpeg1+) in adult zebrafish following amputation of the tail fin, and detailed a migratory timecourse that revealed conserved elements of the inflammatory cell response with mammals. Next, we used transgenic zebrafish in which we could selectively ablate macrophages, which allowed us to investigate whether macrophages were required for tail fin regeneration. We identified stage-dependent functional roles of macrophages in mediating fin tissue outgrowth and bony ray patterning, in part through modulating levels of blastema proliferation. Moreover, we also sought to detail molecular regulators of inflammation in adult zebrafish and identified Wnt/?-catenin as a signaling pathway that regulates the injury microenvironment, inflammatory cell migration and macrophage phenotype. These results provide a cellular and molecular link between components of the inflammation response and regeneration in adult zebrafish. PMID:24961798

Petrie, Timothy A.; Strand, Nicholas S.; Tsung-Yang, Chao; Rabinowitz, Jeremy S.; Moon, Randall T.

2014-01-01

231

Oil sands tailings leachability and toxicity evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Fine tailings disposal and reclamation is a major issue facing the oil sands mining and extraction industry. Government regulations dictate that reclamation must return the site to a level of self-sustaining biological capability which approximates the natural condition. A two-phase laboratory program has been completed to investigate the suitability of alternative reclamation materials. For the first phase of the study, chemical and toxicological analyses were carried out on 13 different reclamation and reference materials (solid phase and extractions). Seedling emergence, nematode maturation, algal growth and bacterial luminescence for leachate samples showed a range of sensitivities in response to the tested materials, although phytotoxicity tests were generally the most sensitive. With the exception of one test material, high toxicity ratings were consistent with that expected from the chemical data. The second phase of the study focused on the evaluation of chemical and toxicological conditions in leachate water generated using bench-scale column percolation tests. Leachate water equivalent to 10 pore volume replacements was generated and temporal variations in toxicity and chemistry monitored. Similar to phase 1 findings, phytotoxicity tests were the most sensitive tests to leachate waters. For most materials tested, most toxicity was removed after 2--3 porewater replacements. More persistent toxicity was noted for samples containing bitumen (e.g., fine tails and oil sands). No clear correspondence was noted between chemical concentrations and toxicity in leachate waters.

Gulley, J.R. [Suncor Inc., Fort McMurray, Alberta (Canada). Oil Sands Group; Hamilton, H.R.; Taylor, B. [Golder Associates Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1995-12-31

232

A red-tailed hawk at KSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From the top of a utility pole, a red-tailed hawk launches into flight, perhaps after spotting prey, typically a small rodent. Ranging in height from 18 inches to 25 inches, the species has a stocky build with a whitish breast and rust-colored tail. It has a high-pitched descending scream with a hoarse quality. The hawk inhabits mainly deciduous forest and adjacent open country from Alaska and Nova Scotia south to Panama. KSC shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

2000-01-01

233

A red-tailed hawk at KSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At KSC, a red-tailed hawk waits on top of a utility pole for the slightest movement in the grass below. It feeds mostly on small rodents. Ranging in height from 18 inches to 25 inches, the species has a stocky build with a whitish breast and rust-colored tail. It has a high-pitched descending scream with a hoarse quality. The hawk inhabits mainly deciduous forest and adjacent open country from Alaska and Nova Scotia south to Panama. KSC shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

2000-01-01

234

Physiologic Reference Ranges for Captive Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus)  

PubMed Central

The black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) is a member of the order Rodentia and the family Sciuridae. Ecologically, prairie dogs are a keystone species in prairie ecology. This species is used as an animal model for human gallbladder disease and diseases caused by infection with Clostridium difficile, Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, and most recently, Orthopoxvirus. Despite increasing numbers of prairie dogs used in research and kept as pets, few data are available on their baseline physiology in animal facility housing conditions. To establish baseline physiologic reference ranges, we designed a study using 18 wild-caught black-tailed prairie dogs. Telemetry data were analyzed to establish circadian rhythms for activity and temperature. In addition, hematologic and serum chemistry analyses were performed. Baseline measurements were used to establish the mean for each animal, which then were compiled and analyzed to determine the reference ranges. Here we present physiologic data on serum chemistry and hematology profiles, as well as weight, core body temperature, and daily activity patterns for black-tailed prairie dogs. These results reflect the use of multiple measurements from species- and age-matched prairie dogs and likely will be useful to ecologists, scientists interested in using this animal model in research, and veterinarians caring for pet prairie dogs. PMID:20587156

Keckler, M Shannon; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia F; Langham, Gregory L; Damon, Inger K; Karem, Kevin L; Carroll, Darin S

2010-01-01

235

A scoring system for coat and tail condition in ringtailed lemurs, Lemur catta.  

PubMed

Coat condition can be influenced by a wide variety of disorders and thus provides a useful tool for noninvasive health and welfare assessments in wild and captive animals. Using Lemur catta as an exemplar, we offer a 6-step scoring system for coat and tail condition, ranging from perfectly fluffy to half or more of body and tail being hairless. The categories are described in detail and illustrated with sample pictures from a wild population in Berenty Reserve, Madagascar. Furthermore, we elaborate on intermediate conditions and discoloration of fur. Coat condition scoring allows the comparison between years, seasons, and the effect of toxin, disease or stress. Although this system was developed for wild L. catta, we believe it can also be of value for other species. We recommend scoring coat condition in healthy wild mammal populations to give a baseline on yearly and seasonal variations vs. deteriorating health conditions or pathology. PMID:19142988

Berg, Wiebke; Jolly, Alison; Rambeloarivony, Hajarimanitra; Andrianome, Vonjy; Rasamimanana, Hantanirina

2009-03-01

236

Novel hemotropic Mycoplasma species in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Globally, hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. are emerging or re-emerging zoonotic pathogens that affect livestock, wildlife, companion animals, and humans, potentially causing serious and economically important disease problems. Little is known about hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. prevalence, host-specificity, or route of transmission in most species, including wildlife. DNA amplification by PCR targeting the 16SrRNA and the RNaseP genes was used to establish the presence and prevalence of hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. in a white-tailed deer (O. virginianus) population in eastern North Carolina. Sixty-five deer (89%) tested positive for hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. where sequence analysis of the 16SsRNA and the RNaseP genes indicated the presence of at least three distinct species. This study represents the first detection of three distinct hemotropic Mycoplasma species in white-tailed deer and the first report of two novel hemotropic Mycoplasma species. PMID:24018179

Maggi, Ricardo G; Chitwood, M Colter; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne; DePerno, Christopher S

2013-12-01

237

THE NARROW X-RAY TAIL AND DOUBLE H? TAILS OF ESO 137-002 IN A3627  

SciTech Connect

We present the analysis of a deep Chandra observation of a ?2 L{sub *} late-type galaxy, ESO 137-002, in the closest rich cluster A3627. The Chandra data reveal a long (?>40 kpc) and narrow tail with a nearly constant width (?3 kpc) to the southeast of the galaxy, and a leading edge ?1.5 kpc from the galaxy center on the upstream side of the tail. The tail is most likely caused by the nearly edge-on stripping of ESO 137-002's interstellar medium (ISM) by ram pressure, compared to the nearly face-on stripping of ESO 137-001 discussed in our previous work. Spectral analysis of individual regions along the tail shows that the gas throughout it has a rather constant temperature, ?1 keV, very close to the temperature of the tails of ESO 137-001, if the same atomic database is used. The derived gas abundance is low (?0.2 solar with the single-kT model), an indication of the multiphase nature of the gas in the tail. The mass of the X-ray tail is only a small fraction (<5%) of the initial ISM mass of the galaxy, suggesting that the stripping is most likely at an early stage. However, with any of the single-kT, double-kT, and multi-kT models we tried, the tail is always 'over-pressured' relative to the surrounding intracluster medium (ICM), which could be due to the uncertainties in the abundance, thermal versus non-thermal X-ray emission, or magnetic support in the ICM. The H? data from the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research show a ?21 kpc tail spatially coincident with the X-ray tail, as well as a secondary tail (?12 kpc long) to the east of the main tail diverging at an angle of ?23° and starting at a distance of ?7.5 kpc from the nucleus. At the position of the secondary H? tail, the X-ray emission is also enhanced at the ?2? level. We compare the tails of ESO 137-001 and ESO 137-002, and also compare the tails to simulations. Both the similarities and differences of the tails pose challenges to the simulations. Several implications are briefly discussed.

Zhang, B.; Lin, X. B.; Kong, X. [Center for Astrophysics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Sun, M. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Ji, L. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210008 (China); Sarazin, C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Nulsen, P. E. J.; Forman, W.; Jones, C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Roediger, E. [Germany Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg, Gojensbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Donahue, M.; Voit, G. M., E-mail: xkong@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: mingsun.cluster@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

2013-11-10

238

Coevolution of caudal skeleton and tail feathers in birds.  

PubMed

Birds are capable of a wide range of aerial locomotor behaviors in part because of the derived structure and function of the avian tail. The tail apparatus consists of a several mobile (free) caudal vertebrae, a terminal skeletal element (the pygostyle), and an articulated fan of tail feathers that may be spread or folded, as well as muscular and fibroadipose structures that facilitate tail movements. Morphological variation in both the tail fan and the caudal skeleton that supports it are well documented. The structure of the tail feathers and the pygostyle each evolve in response to functional demands of differing locomotor behaviors. Here, I test whether the integument and skeleton coevolve in this important locomotor module. I quantified feather and skeletal morphology in a diverse sample of waterbirds and shorebirds using a combination of linear and geometric morphometrics. Covariation between tail fan shape and skeletal morphology was then tested using phylogenetic comparative methods. Pygostyle shape is found to be a good predictor of tail fan shape (e.g., forked, graduated), supporting the hypothesis that the tail fan and the tail skeleton have coevolved. This statistical relationship is used to reconstruct feather morphology in an exemplar fossil waterbird, Limnofregata azygosternon. Based on pygostyle morphology, this taxon is likely to have exhibited a forked tail fan similar to that of its extant sister clade Fregata, despite differing in inferred ecology and other aspects of skeletal anatomy. These methods may be useful in reconstructing rectricial morphology in other extinct birds and thus assist in characterizing the evolution of flight control surfaces in birds. J. Morphol. 275:1431-1440, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25139752

Felice, Ryan N

2014-12-01

239

Structural Characterization of the Bacteriophage T7 Tail Machinery*?  

PubMed Central

Most bacterial viruses need a specialized machinery, called “tail,” to inject their genomes inside the bacterial cytoplasm without disrupting the cellular integrity. Bacteriophage T7 is a well characterized member of the Podoviridae family infecting Escherichia coli, and it has a short noncontractile tail that assembles sequentially on the viral head after DNA packaging. The T7 tail is a complex of around 2.7 MDa composed of at least four proteins as follows: the connector (gene product 8, gp8), the tail tubular proteins gp11 and gp12, and the fibers (gp17). Using cryo-electron microscopy and single particle image reconstruction techniques, we have determined the precise topology of the tail proteins by comparing the structure of the T7 tail extracted from viruses and a complex formed by recombinant gp8, gp11, and gp12 proteins. Furthermore, the order of assembly of the structural components within the complex was deduced from interaction assays with cloned and purified tail proteins. The existence of common folds among similar tail proteins allowed us to obtain pseudo-atomic threaded models of gp8 (connector) and gp11 (gatekeeper) proteins, which were docked into the corresponding cryo-EM volumes of the tail complex. This pseudo-atomic model of the connector-gatekeeper interaction revealed the existence of a common molecular architecture among viruses belonging to the three tailed bacteriophage families, strongly suggesting that a common molecular mechanism has been favored during evolution to coordinate the transition between DNA packaging and tail assembly. PMID:23884409

Cuervo, Ana; Pulido-Cid, Mar; Chagoyen, Monica; Arranz, Rocio; Gonzalez-Garcia, Veronica A.; Garcia-Doval, Carmela; Caston, Jose R.; Valpuesta, Jose M.; van Raaij, Mark J.; Martin-Benito, Jaime; Carrascosa, Jose L.

2013-01-01

240

Unsaturated hydraulic properties of cemented tailings backfill that contains sodium silicate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling the mine waste (tailings) into cemented tailings backfill has economical and environmental advantages for the mining industry. One of the most recent types of cemented tailings backfill is gelfill (GF), a backfill that contains sodium silicate as chemical additive. GF is typically made of tailings, water, binder and chemical additives (sodium silicate gel). It is a promising mine tailings

N. Abdul-Hussain; M. Fall

2011-01-01

241

Mycobacteriosis in a black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) caused by Mycobacterium kansasii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An eviscerated hunter-harvested female black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) was submitted to the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. The deer was emaciated, devoid of adipose tissue, and the parietal surface of the thoracic cavity contained multiple granulomas. Acid-fast bacteria were detected histologically from the granulomas and were isolated and identified as Mycobacterium kansasii, a nontuberculous mycobacterium sporadically reported to cause tuberculosis-like disease in a variety of vertebrates. This was the first report of symptomatic disease caused by M. kansasii in free-ranging deer. This case indicates that atypical mycobacteria can cause tuberculosis-like disease in free-ranging deer and illustrates the importance of identifying causative agents of tuberculosis-like disease in wildlife. Copyright 2005 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

Hall, P.B.; Bender, L.C.; Garner, M.M.

2005-01-01

242

Tiger Tail Distillery alcohol plant starts up  

SciTech Connect

Tiger Tail Distillery plans to start construction in Jan. 1981 of an $89.9 million ethanol plant that would produce 50 million gal/yr of alcohol from 19 million bushels of corn. A $66.8 million loan guarantee from the U.S. Farmers Home Administration will aid the construction of the plant, which will be located on the Mississippi River west of Dyersburg, Tenn. The plant is scheduled for completion eight months after the start of construction. The production and marketing of the alcohol would cost an estimated $1.80/gal, and the cost of barging the alcohol to New Orleans and Memphis would be $0.01/gal and $0.0025/gal, respectively.

Not Available

1980-11-05

243

Heavy tailed risks and diversification effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme weather related events are characterized by complex dynamics and effects that systematically intersect across different insurance lines. A prerequisite for developing and testing risk-sharing and risk-mitigation arrangements is therefore to get the geophysical facts right. By definition, data on catastrophic losses are very limited, meaning that sophisticated estimation techniques are undermined by small sample sizes. We build on Bayesian decision theory and statistical process control to show how relevant information can be extracted from the available data and experts' opinion. We work with heavy-tailed distributions, and allow for the following particular aspects of catastrophic climatic events: regime changes, learning, spatial effects. We also analyze the effects of aggregating heterogeneous and correlated risk exposures: to what extent it is possible to enjoy diversification gains, and devise efficient risk transfer mechanisms in the presence of 'diversification traps'.

Biffis, Enrico; Distaso, Walter

2010-05-01

244

Hollywood blockbusters and long-tailed distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical data for all movies released in theaters in the USA during the period 1997-2003 are examined for the distribution of their popularity in terms of (i) the number of weeks they spent in the Top 60 according to the weekend earnings, and (ii) the box-office gross during the opening week, as well as, the total duration for which they were shown in theaters. These distributions show long tails where the most popular movies are located. Like the study of Redner [S. Redner, Eur. Phys. J. B 4, 131 (1998)] on the distribution of citations to individual papers, our results appear to be consistent with a power-law dependence of the rank distribution of gross revenues for the most popular movies with a exponent close to -1/2.

Sinha, S.; Raghavendra, S.

2004-11-01

245

The Tail of Integrins, Talin, and Kindlins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Integrins are transmembrane cellâÂÂadhesion molecules that carry signals from the outside to the inside of the cell and vice versa. Like other cell surface receptors, integrins signal in response to ligand binding; however, events within the cell can also regulate the affinity of integrins for ligands. This feature is important in physiological situations such as those in blood, in which cells are always in close proximity to their ligands, yet cell-ligand interactions occur only after integrin activation in response to specific external cues. This review focuses on the mechanisms whereby two key proteins, talin and the kindlins, regulate integrin activation by binding the tails of integrin-ò subunits.

Markus Moser (Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry;); Kyle Legate (Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry;); Roy Zent (Vanderbilt Medical Center and Veterans Affairs Hospital;); Reinhard Fässler (Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry;)

2009-05-15

246

NONINVASIVE, CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF RAT TAIL SKIN TEMPERATURE BY RADIOTELEMETRY.  

EPA Science Inventory

Tail skin temperature (Tsk) can provide a wealth of information on the thermoregulatory status of the rat. Drug- and toxic-induced changes in body temperature are often mediated by vasodilation or constriction of blood flow to the tail and Tsk can generally be used as an indica...

247

Adaptive Suction and Blowing for Twin-Tail Buffet Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adaptive active flow control for twin-tail buffet alleviation is investigated. The concept behind this technique is to place control ports on the tail outer and inner surfaces with flow suction or blowing applied through these ports in order to minimize the pressure difference across the tail. The suction or blowing volume flow rate from each port is proportional to the pressure difference across the tail at this location. A parametric study of the effects of the number and location of these ports on the buffet response is carried out. The computational model consists of a sharp-edged delta wing of aspect ratio one and swept-back flexible twin tail with taper ratio of 0.23. This complex multidisciplinary problem is solved sequentially using three sets of equations for the fluid flow, aeroelastic response and grid deformation, using a dynamic multi-block grid structure. The computational model is pitched at 30 deg angle of attack. The freestream Mach number and Reynolds number are 0.3 and 1.25 million, respectively. The model is investigated for the inboard position of the twin tails, which corresponds to a separation distance between the twin tails of 33% of the wing span. Comparison of the time history and power spectral density responses of the tails for various distributions of the control ports are presented and discussed.

Kandil, Osama A.; Yang, Zhi

1999-01-01

248

14 CFR 25.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...landing weight and altitudes in a hot day temperature of 41 degrees...considered to be acting at the main wheel axle centerline. (b) For...condition for airplanes with tail wheels, the main and tail wheels are assumed to contact...

2011-01-01

249

14 CFR 25.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.  

...landing weight and altitudes in a hot day temperature of 41 degrees...considered to be acting at the main wheel axle centerline. (b) For...condition for airplanes with tail wheels, the main and tail wheels are assumed to contact...

2014-01-01

250

14 CFR 25.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...landing weight and altitudes in a hot day temperature of 41 degrees...considered to be acting at the main wheel axle centerline. (b) For...condition for airplanes with tail wheels, the main and tail wheels are assumed to contact...

2012-01-01

251

14 CFR 25.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...landing weight and altitudes in a hot day temperature of 41 degrees...considered to be acting at the main wheel axle centerline. (b) For...condition for airplanes with tail wheels, the main and tail wheels are assumed to contact...

2010-01-01

252

14 CFR 25.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...landing weight and altitudes in a hot day temperature of 41 degrees...considered to be acting at the main wheel axle centerline. (b) For...condition for airplanes with tail wheels, the main and tail wheels are assumed to contact...

2013-01-01

253

LUNAR AND PLANETARY TAILS IN THE SOLAR WIND  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept that comets form tails in the solar wind is reasonably well estab- lished, but a suggestion that the moon and the inner planets also cast long shadows in the solar wind has met with objection, mainly on statistical grounds. A lunar or planetary tail would from its nature be difficult to detect, but it is more likely to

E. G. Bowen

1964-01-01

254

Thresher Sharks Use Tail-Slaps as a Hunting Strategy  

PubMed Central

The hunting strategies of pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) were investigated at Pescador Island in the Philippines. It has long been suspected that thresher sharks hunt with their scythe-like tails but the kinematics associated with the behaviour in the wild are poorly understood. From 61 observations recorded by handheld underwater video camera between June and October 2010, 25 thresher shark shunting events were analysed. Thresher sharks employed tail-slaps to debilitate sardines at all times of day. Hunting events comprised preparation, strike, wind-down recovery and prey item collection phases, which occurred sequentially. Preparation phases were significantly longer than the others, presumably to enable a shark to windup a tail-slap. Tail-slaps were initiated by an adduction of the pectoral fins, a manoeuvre that changed a thresher shark's pitch promoting its posterior region to lift rapidly, and stall its approach. Tail-slaps occurred with such force that they may have caused dissolved gas to diffuse out of the water column forming bubbles. Thresher sharks were able to consume more than one sardine at a time, suggesting that tail-slapping is an effective foraging strategy for hunting schooling prey. Pelagic thresher sharks appear to pursue sardines opportunistically by day and night, which may make them vulnerable to fisheries. Alopiids possess specialist pectoral and caudal fins that are likely to have evolved, at least in part, for tail-slapping. The evidence is now clear; thresher sharks really do hunt with their tails. PMID:23874415

Oliver, Simon P.; Turner, John R.; Gann, Klemens; Silvosa, Medel; D'Urban Jackson, Tim

2013-01-01

255

Shelf space strategy in long-tail markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Internet is known to have had a powerful impact on on-line retailer strategies in markets characterised by long-tail distribution of sales. Such retailers can exploit the long tail of the market, since they are effectively without physical limit on the number of choices on offer. Here we examine two extensions of this phenomenon. First, we introduce turnover into the

R. Alexander Bentley; Paul Ormerod; Mark E. Madsen

2008-01-01

256

Importance sampling for tail risk in discretely rebalanced portfolios  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop an importance sampling (IS) algorithm to estimate the lower tail of the distribution of returns for a discretely rebalanced portfolio-one in which portfolio weights are reset at regular intervals. We use a more tractable continuously rebalanced portfolio to design the IS estimator. We analyze a limiting regime based on estimating probabilities farther in the tail while letting the

Paul Glasserman; Xingbo Xu

2010-01-01

257

Thresher sharks use tail-slaps as a hunting strategy.  

PubMed

The hunting strategies of pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) were investigated at Pescador Island in the Philippines. It has long been suspected that thresher sharks hunt with their scythe-like tails but the kinematics associated with the behaviour in the wild are poorly understood. From 61 observations recorded by handheld underwater video camera between June and October 2010, 25 thresher shark shunting events were analysed. Thresher sharks employed tail-slaps to debilitate sardines at all times of day. Hunting events comprised preparation, strike, wind-down recovery and prey item collection phases, which occurred sequentially. Preparation phases were significantly longer than the others, presumably to enable a shark to windup a tail-slap. Tail-slaps were initiated by an adduction of the pectoral fins, a manoeuvre that changed a thresher shark's pitch promoting its posterior region to lift rapidly, and stall its approach. Tail-slaps occurred with such force that they may have caused dissolved gas to diffuse out of the water column forming bubbles. Thresher sharks were able to consume more than one sardine at a time, suggesting that tail-slapping is an effective foraging strategy for hunting schooling prey. Pelagic thresher sharks appear to pursue sardines opportunistically by day and night, which may make them vulnerable to fisheries. Alopiids possess specialist pectoral and caudal fins that are likely to have evolved, at least in part, for tail-slapping. The evidence is now clear; thresher sharks really do hunt with their tails. PMID:23874415

Oliver, Simon P; Turner, John R; Gann, Klemens; Silvosa, Medel; D'Urban Jackson, Tim

2013-01-01

258

Aircraft T-tail flutter predictions using computational fluid dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the application of computational aeroelasticity (CA) methods to the analysis of a T-tail stability in transonic regime. For this flow condition unsteady aerodynamics show a significant dependency from the aircraft equilibrium flight configuration, which rules both the position of shock waves in the flow field and the load distribution on the horizontal tail plane. Both these elements

A. Attorni; L. Cavagna; G. Quaranta

2011-01-01

259

Ectoderm to Mesoderm Lineage Switching During Axolotl Tail Regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foreign environments may induce adult stem cells to switch lineages and populate multiple tissue types, but whether this mechanism is used for tissue repair remains uncertain. Urodele amphibians can regenerate fully functional, multitissue structures including the limb and tail. To determine whether lineage switching is an integral feature of this regeneration, we followed individual spinal cord cells live during tail

Karen Echeverri; Elly M. Tanaka

2002-01-01

260

Water Recovery Study for Pampa Pabellon Tailings Impoundment, Collahuasi, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water recovery study has been completed for the Pampa de Pabellon tailings impoundment at Minera Doña Ines de Collahuasi, in the high Andes of northeastern Chile. The main objective of this study was to develop a water balance model, which could be used for prediction of future water losses under differ- ent tailings management scenarios. The study included (i)

C. Wels; A. Mac G. Robertson; P. M. Madariaga

261

Scour of Chinook Salmon Redds on Suction Dredge Tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured scour of the redds of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha on dredge tailings and natural substrates in three tributaries of the Klamath River, California. We measured maximum scour with scour chains and net scour by surveying before and after high winter flows. Scour of chinook salmon redds lo- cated on dredge tailings exceeded scour of redds on natural substrates,

Bret C. Harvey; Thomas E. Lisle

1999-01-01

262

Tail Probability of Avoiding Poisson Traps for Branching Brownian Motion  

E-print Network

Tail Probability of Avoiding Poisson Traps for Branching Brownian Motion Mehmet ¨Oz & Mine C¸aglar Department of Mathematics, Ko¸c University, Istanbul, Turkey Abstract We consider a branching Brownian motion asymptotics for the system. Keywords: branching process, random environment, Poisson traps, tail probability 1

Caglar, Mine

263

Resonant Column and Cyclic Triaxial Testing of Tailing Dam Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aseries of resonant column and cyclic triaxial tests has been conducted in the frame of the analysis of tailing dam stability during earthquakes, The investigation program for a silty sand fro m uranium tailings is presented. The paper describes the testing procedures and presents all significant results of these experiments, Single-stage and multi-stage resonant co­ lumn tests were performed in

S. A. Savidis; C. Vrettos

264

Primary vegetative growth on an old tailings dam, Zawar mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tailings containing toxic qualities of heavy metals are a potential source of pollution. Stabilisation by vegetative methods have been found the most effective. In an attempt to vegetate tailings dams it has been noted that while certain milky latex containing plants can be grown without any preconditioning of the soil, almost any plant can be grown after proper conditioning. However,

D. M. R. Sekhar; M. R. Jakhu

1983-01-01

265

Simulation on particle crushing of tailings material under high pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With continuous increase of the high tailings dam, it has an important practical and theoretical significance to study the mechanical characteristics of the tailings material under high pressures. It is indicated that strength envelopes of the tailings material have a remarkable nonlinear characteristics through the triaxial test under high pressures. A further study stated that the particle crushing has a critical effect on the mechanical behavior of the tailings material. In order to quantitatively research its influence, the grain size distribution of the tailings material is analyzed for pre-and post-test and the particle crushing of the tailings material is measured. The particle flow code is employed to simulate and monitor the sample during testing. Firstly, a model which considers the particle crushing is built under the plane strain condition. Then, a series of biaxial numerical tests of the tailings specimen are simulated by using the model. It is found that the simulation result agrees with the triaxial test. Finally, a law between the particle crushing and strain of the tailings material under different confining pressures is obtained.

Liu, Hai-ming; Liu, Yi-ming; Yang, Chun-he; Cao, Jing

2013-06-01

266

Geological impact of some tailings dams in Sardinia, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the results of a survey carried out in Sardinia on both active and abandoned tailings dams, and we also discuss the geological impact of tailings dams of two mines: the Masua mine, a large syngenetic Pb-Zn deposit located in Cambrian limestones, and the Montevecchio mine, a Pb-Zn vein deposit near a Hercynian granite intrusion. The characteristics

Felice Di Gregorio; Raniero Massoli-Novelli

1992-01-01

267

STATUS OF THE SHARP-TAILED SNAKE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT There have been nine confirmed sightings of Sharp-tailed Snakes ( Contia tenuis) in British Columbia, and three reliable reports; 11 of these sightings have been on the southern Gulf Islands and the southern tip of Vancouver Island, while one was recorded on the Thompson Plateau northeast of Kamloops. Sharp-tailed Snakes on the coast have been recorded from the drier

D. J. Spalding; Sharp-tailed Snake; Wildlife Branch

268

Wave-particle interactions in the Venus wake and tail  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first descriptions of combined tail measurements from the Pioneer Venus plasma analyzer, magnetometer, and plasma wave detector are presented. The analysis concentrates on those orbits which are representative of the first tail passage. Summary plasma analyzer parameters are used to show that waves occurring at the boundary of the magnetotail can be identified as Doppler-shifted ion acoustic oscillations. High-density

D. S. Intriligator; F. L. Scarf

1984-01-01

269

SPONTANEOUS CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS IN CAPTIVE WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In August 1994, cryptosporidiosis was diagnosed in a diarrheic fawn from a captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herd maintained for research purposes at The Uni- versity of Georgia's Warnell School of Forest Resources in Athens, Georgia (USA). From June through August 1995, 11 captive female white-tailed deer were housed in individual barn stalls where they gave birthto 18 fawns. Feces

Ronald Fayer; John R. Fischer; Christopher T. Sewell; Darrell M. Kavanaugh; David A. Osborn

270

A Glimpse of the genomic diversity of haloarchaeal tailed viruses  

PubMed Central

Tailed viruses are the most common isolates infecting prokaryotic hosts residing in hypersaline environments. Archaeal tailed viruses represent only a small portion of all characterized tailed viruses of prokaryotes. But even this small dataset revealed that archaeal tailed viruses have many similarities to their counterparts infecting bacteria, the bacteriophages. Shared functional homologs and similar genome organizations suggested that all microbial tailed viruses have common virion architectural and assembly principles. Recent structural studies have provided evidence justifying this thereby grouping archaeal and bacterial tailed viruses into a single lineage. Currently there are 17 haloarchaeal tailed viruses with entirely sequenced genomes. Nine viruses have at least one close relative among the 17 viruses and, according to the similarities, can be divided into three groups. Two other viruses share some homologs and therefore are distantly related, whereas the rest of the viruses are rather divergent (or singletons). Comparative genomics analysis of these viruses offers a glimpse into the genetic diversity and structure of haloarchaeal tailed virus communities. PMID:24659986

Sencilo, Ana; Roine, Elina

2014-01-01

271

Development in helicopter tail boom strake applications in the US  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of a strake or spoiler on a helicopter tail boom to beneficially change helicopter tail boom air loads was suggested in the United States in 1975. The anticipated benefits were a change of tail boom loads to reduce required tail rotor thrust and power and improve directional control. High tail boom air loads experienced by the YAH-64 and described in 1978 led to a wind tunnel investigation of the usefullness of strakes in altering such loads on the AH-64, UH-60, and UH-1 helicopters. The wind tunnel tests of 2-D cross sections of the tail boom of each demonstrated that a strake or strakes would be effective. Several limited test programs with the U.S. Army's OH-58A, AH-64, and UH-60A were conducted which showed the effects of strakes were modest for those helicopters. The most recent flight test program, with a Bell 204B, disclosed that for the 204B the tail boom strake or strakes would provide more than a modest improvement in directional control and reduction in tail rotor power.

Wilson, John C.; Kelley, Henry L.; Donahue, Cynthia C.; Yenni, Kenneth R.

1988-01-01

272

Behavioural and Brain Gene Expression Profiling in Pigs during Tail Biting Outbreaks - Evidence of a Tail Biting Resistant Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Abnormal tail biting behaviour is a major welfare problem for pigs receiving the behaviour, as well as an indication of decreased welfare in the pigs performing it. However, not all pigs in a pen perform or receive tail biting behaviour and it has recently been shown that these ‘neutral’ pigs not only differ in their behaviour, but also in their gene expression compared to performers and receivers of tail biting in the same pen. To investigate whether this difference was linked to the cause or a consequence of them not being involved in the outbreak of tail biting, behaviour and brain gene expression was compared with ‘control’ pigs housed in pens with no tail biting. It was shown that the pigs housed in control pens performed a wider variety of pig-directed abnormal behaviour (belly nosing 0.95±1.59, tail in mouth 0.31±0.60 and ‘other‘ abnormal 1.53±4.26; mean±S.D) compared to the neutral pigs (belly nosing 0.30±0.62, tail in mouth 0.13±0.50 and “other“ abnormal 0.42±1.06). With Affymetrix gene expression arrays, 107 transcripts were identified as differently expressed (p<0.05) between these two categories of pigs. Several of these transcripts had already been shown to be differently expressed in the neutral pigs when they were compared to performers and receivers of tail biting in the same pen in an earlier study. Hence, the different expression of these genes cannot be a consequence of the neutral pigs not being involved in tail biting behaviour, but rather linked to the cause contributing to why they were not involved in tail biting interactions. These neutral pigs seem to have a genetic and behavioural profile that somehow contributes to them being resistant to performing or receiving pig-directed abnormal behaviour, such as tail biting, even when housed in an environment that elicits that behaviour in other pigs. PMID:23824700

Brunberg, Emma; Jensen, Per; Isaksson, Anders; Keeling, Linda J.

2013-01-01

273

Interpretation of tails of X-ray bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four reasons for ruling out the Alcock and Hatchett (1978) proposal concerning the tails of X-ray bursts are advanced. This proposal suggests that the tails of X-ray bursts observed during burst decay are due to the small-angle scattering of the original pulse of X-rays on interstellar dust grains; grains with a typical size of approximately 3 microns are assumed. The arguments against this theory involve differences in burst tail sizes sometimes observed for bursts from the same source; the different kinds of bursts emitted by MXB 1730-335 (rapid burster); an indication that MXB 1730-335 bursts have tails less than 2 s long; and the lack of correlation between relative strength of burst tails and the interstellar absorption.

Van Paradijs, J.; Lewin, W. H. G.

1978-01-01

274

Heavy-tailed log hydraulic conductivity distributions imply heavy-tailed log velocity distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equations of contaminant transport describing non-Gaussian dispersion of solute in heterogeneous porous media have been developed by several authors (e.g., Berkowitz and Scher (1995, 1998), Benson (1998, 2001), Berkowitz et al. (2000), and Baeumer et al. (2005)). The equations assume that solute particle movement in time and\\/or space can be described by heavy-tailed probability distributions (e.g., Levy alpha stable distributions).

Matthew V. Kohlbecker; Stephen W. Wheatcraft; Mark M. Meerschaert

2006-01-01

275

Heavy-tailed log hydraulic conductivity distributions imply heavy-tailed log velocity distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equations of contaminant transport describing non-Gaussian dispersion of solute in heterogeneous porous media have been developed by several authors (e.g., Berkowitz and Scher (1995, 1998), Benson (1998, 2001), Berkowitz et al. (2000), and Baeumer et al. (2005)). The equations assume that solute particle movement in time and\\/or space can be described by heavy-tailed probability distributions (e.g., Levy ? stable distributions).

Matthew V. Kohlbecker; Stephen W. Wheatcraft; Mark M. Meerschaert

2006-01-01

276

Experimental vacuolar myelinopathy in red-tailed hawks.  

PubMed

Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) was recognized in 1994 as a cause of wild bird mortality when 29 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) succumbed to the disease at DeGray Lake, Arkansas (USA). The cause of AVM and its source remain undetermined despite extensive diagnostic and research investigations. Two years later, when AVM killed 26 eagles in the same area in Arkansas, it became apparent that American coots (Fulica americana) had identical neurologic signs and lesions, and it was hypothesized that eagles acquired AVM via ingestion of affected coots. In order to test this hypothesis, we fed coot tissues (brain, liver, kidney, muscle, fat, and intestinal tract) to rehabilitated, non-releasable red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). Five hawks received tissues from coots with AVM lesions, and one hawk received tissues from coots without brain lesions that had been collected at a site where AVM never has been documented. All hawks received 12-70 g/day (mean = 38 g) of coot tissues for 28 days. All six hawks remained clinically normal during the study. The birds were euthanatized on day 29 and microscopic lesions of AVM were found in all hawks that received tissues from affected coots, but not in the hawk that received tissues from unaffected coots. This marks the first time that AVM has been produced in birds under laboratory conditions and proves that birds of prey can acquire AVM via ingestion of tissues from affected coots. PMID:12910768

Fischer, John R; Lewis-Weis, Lynn A; Tate, Cynthia M

2003-04-01

277

Resistance to plague among black-tailed prairie dog populations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In some rodent species frequently exposed to plague outbreaks caused by Yersinia pestis, resistance to the disease has evolved as a population trait. As a first step in determining if plague resistance has developed in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), animals captured from colonies in a plague-free region (South Dakota) and two plague-endemic regions (Colorado and Texas) were challenged with Y. pestis at one of three doses (2.5, 250, or 2500 mouse LD50s). South Dakota prairie dogs were far more susceptible to plague than Colorado and Texas prairie dogs (p<0.001), with a mortality rate of nearly 100% over all doses. Colorado and Texas prairie dogs were quite similar in their response, with overall survival rates of 50% and 60%, respectively. Prairie dogs from these states were heterogenous in their response, with some animals dying at the lowest dose (37% and 20%, respectively) and some surviving even at the highest dose (29% and 40%, respectively). Microsatellite analysis revealed that all three groups were distinct genetically, but further studies are needed to establish a genetic basis for the observed differences in plague resistance. ?? 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Rocke, T.E.; Williamson, J.; Cobble, K.R.; Busch, J.D.; Antolin, M.F.; Wagner, D.M.

2012-01-01

278

Resistance to plague among black-tailed prairie dog populations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In some rodent species frequently exposed to plague outbreaks caused by Yersinia pestis, resistance to the disease has evolved as a population trait. As a first step in determining if plague resistance has developed in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), animals captured from colonies in a plague-free region (South Dakota) and two plague-endemic regions (Colorado and Texas) were challenged with Y. pestis at one of three doses (2.5, 250, or 2500 mouse LD50s). South Dakota prairie dogs were far more susceptible to plague than Colorado and Texas prairie dogs (p<0.001), with a mortality rate of nearly 100% over all doses. Colorado and Texas prairie dogs were quite similar in their response, with overall survival rates of 50% and 60%, respectively. Prairie dogs from these states were heterogenous in their response, with some animals dying at the lowest dose (37% and 20%, respectively) and some surviving even at the highest dose (29% and 40%, respectively). Microsatellite analysis revealed that all three groups were distinct genetically, but further studies are needed to establish a genetic basis for the observed differences in plague resistance.

Rocke, Tonie E.; Williamson, Judy; Cobble, Kacy R.; Busch, Joseph D.; Antolin, Michael F.; Wagner, David M.

2012-01-01

279

Resistance to Plague Among Black-Tailed Prairie Dog Populations  

PubMed Central

Abstract In some rodent species frequently exposed to plague outbreaks caused by Yersinia pestis, resistance to the disease has evolved as a population trait. As a first step in determining if plague resistance has developed in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), animals captured from colonies in a plague-free region (South Dakota) and two plague-endemic regions (Colorado and Texas) were challenged with Y. pestis at one of three doses (2.5, 250, or 2500 mouse LD50s). South Dakota prairie dogs were far more susceptible to plague than Colorado and Texas prairie dogs (p<0.001), with a mortality rate of nearly 100% over all doses. Colorado and Texas prairie dogs were quite similar in their response, with overall survival rates of 50% and 60%, respectively. Prairie dogs from these states were heterogenous in their response, with some animals dying at the lowest dose (37% and 20%, respectively) and some surviving even at the highest dose (29% and 40%, respectively). Microsatellite analysis revealed that all three groups were distinct genetically, but further studies are needed to establish a genetic basis for the observed differences in plague resistance. PMID:21923261

Williamson, Judy; Cobble, Kacy R.; Busch, Joseph D.; Antolin, Michael F.; Wagner, David M.

2012-01-01

280

Pattern of Tick Aggregation on Mice: Larger Than Expected Distribution Tail Enhances the Spread of Tick-Borne Pathogens  

PubMed Central

The spread of tick-borne pathogens represents an important threat to human and animal health in many parts of Eurasia. Here, we analysed a 9-year time series of Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on Apodemus flavicollis mice (main reservoir-competent host for tick-borne encephalitis, TBE) sampled in Trentino (Northern Italy). The tail of the distribution of the number of ticks per host was fitted by three theoretical distributions: Negative Binomial (NB), Poisson-LogNormal (PoiLN), and Power-Law (PL). The fit with theoretical distributions indicated that the tail of the tick infestation pattern on mice is better described by the PL distribution. Moreover, we found that the tail of the distribution significantly changes with seasonal variations in host abundance. In order to investigate the effect of different tails of tick distribution on the invasion of a non-systemically transmitted pathogen, we simulated the transmission of a TBE-like virus between susceptible and infective ticks using a stochastic model. Model simulations indicated different outcomes of disease spreading when considering different distribution laws of ticks among hosts. Specifically, we found that the epidemic threshold and the prevalence equilibria obtained in epidemiological simulations with PL distribution are a good approximation of those observed in simulations feed by the empirical distribution. Moreover, we also found that the epidemic threshold for disease invasion was lower when considering the seasonal variation of tick aggregation. PMID:25393293

Ferreri, Luca; Giacobini, Mario; Bajardi, Paolo; Bertolotti, Luigi; Bolzoni, Luca; Tagliapietra, Valentina; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Rosà, Roberto

2014-01-01

281

Magnetic properties of the high-latitude tail boundary - Draping of magnetosheath field lines and tail-aligned current  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetic properties of the high-latitude tail boundary are examined with IMP 8 magnetometer data. The high-latitude tail boundary separates the tail lobe from the magnetosheath. Magnetic fields are stable in the tail lobe, but very irregular in the magnetosheath. Boundary crossings are marked by the rotation of magnetic components parallel to the boundary plane. The magnetic component normal to the boundary, if any, is very small in comparison to this rotational change. Despite large magnetic fluctuations in the magnetosheath, the magnetosheath-side field orientation is consistent with the draping of the IMF against the magnetotail. The boundary current has a component parallel to the lobe field (tail-aligned current), as well as a circumferential component. The IMF orientation controls the sheath-side B(Y), while the lobe-side field has a more rigid configuration flaring antisunward.

Ohtani, S.; Kokubun, S.

1991-01-01

282

Basic chemical characteristics of fresh, non-packed and vacuum-packed sheep-tail and tail-fat stored frozen for different periods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty tails were obtained after the slaughter of Morkaraman sheep, which are a common breed of fatty-tailed sheep in Turkey. Fat obtained from sheep tails, (called tail-fat) is used either in fresh condition or after frozen storage. This fat is commonly used as a food source in many countries in which fat-tail sheep breeds are raised; but there has been

M. Ünsal; H. Y. Gökalp; S. Nas

1995-01-01

283

Effects of tail docking on behavior of confined feedlot cattle.  

PubMed

Tail tip injuries occur in some feedlot cattle housed in slatted-floor facilities typically found in the midwestern United States. The practice of tail docking cattle on entry into these feedlot facilities was initiated to prevent tail injuries. Tail docking is a welfare concern from the standpoint that an important method of fly avoidance is removed and the tail docking procedure is painful and often excludes local anesthesia or extended analgesia. The primary objective of this study was to describe the behavioral responses of feedlot cattle following tail docking. Thirty-six heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups: docked (DK) or control (CN). All calves received an epidural following surgical preparation of the sacrococcygeal area and postoperative intravenous flunixin meglumine. A portion of the tail of DK calves was removed using pruning shears. An elastrator band was placed near the tail tip for hemostasis and tail tips were sprayed with fly spray. IceQube accelerometers collected step counts, motion index, lying time, lying bouts, and lying bout duration during d -4 through 13. Direct observations of cattle behavior were performed on d 0, 1, and 2. Step counts of DK calves were increased (P < 0.05) on d 0, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 10, and 13, and motion index of DK calves was also increased (P < 0.05) on d 0, 3, 4, 9, 10, 11, and 13. Docked cattle performed rear foot stomp behavior more (P < 0.001) than CN on d 0, 1, and 2. Forty-eight hours after tail docking, DK calves had increased lying bouts per hour (1.7 vs. 0.9 on d 0; P < 0.001; 1.1 vs. 0.8 on d 1; P < 0.01) but reduced lying bout durations (12.6 vs. 47.1 min on d 0; P < 0.001; 22.6 vs. 44.7 min on d 1; P < 0.001). On d 0, DK calves twitched tails more (P < 0.05) and ruminated less (P < 0.001). Despite provision of perioperative and postoperative analgesia, we identified altered behavior in DK cattle that may reflect a compromised welfare state for tail-docked feedlot cattle. We recommend that alternative strategies to reduce tail tip injury be explored. PMID:25184836

Kroll, L K; Grooms, D L; Siegford, J M; Schweihofer, J P; Daigle, C L; Metz, K; Ladoni, M

2014-10-01

284

Acid drainage reassessment of mining tailings, Black Swan Nickel Mine, Kalgoorlie, Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the geochemical testing of mine tailings sourced from the Black Swan Ni Mine located near Kalgoorlie, Western Australia. Acid–base accounting was used to provide an indication of the acid generating capacity of two kinds of mining tailings: disseminated-ore tailings from the Cygnet Tailings Dam Storage Facility (CTDSF) and massive-ore tailings from the Silver Swan Tailings Dam Storage

Liangqi Lei; Ron Watkins

2005-01-01

285

STAR CLUSTERS IN THE TIDAL TAILS OF INTERACTING GALAXIES: CLUSTER POPULATIONS ACROSS A VARIETY OF TAIL ENVIRONMENTS  

SciTech Connect

We have searched for compact stellar structures within 17 tidal tails in 13 different interacting galaxies using F606W- and F814W-band images from the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on the Hubble Space Telescope. The sample of tidal tails includes a diverse population of optical properties, merging galaxy mass ratios, H I content, and ages. Combining our tail sample with Knierman et al., we find evidence of star clusters formed in situ with M{sub V} < -8.5 and V - I < 2.0 in 10 of 23 tidal tails; we are able to identify cluster candidates to M{sub V} = -6.5 in the closest tails. Three tails offer clear examples of 'beads on a string' star formation morphology in V - I color maps. Two tails present both tidal dwarf galaxy candidates and cluster candidates. Statistical diagnostics indicate that clusters in tidal tails may be drawn from the same power-law luminosity functions (with logarithmic slopes {approx}-2 to -2.5) found in quiescent spiral galaxies and interiors of interacting systems. We find that the tail regions with the largest number of observable clusters are relatively young ({approx}<250 Myr old) and bright (V {approx}< 24 mag arcsec{sup -2}), probably attributed to the strong bursts of star formation in interacting systems soon after periapse. Otherwise, we find no statistical difference between cluster-rich and cluster-poor tails in terms of many observable characteristics, though this analysis suffers from complex, unresolved gas dynamics and projection effects.

Mullan, B.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Lee, K. H.; Charlton, J. C.; Gronwall, C.; Hunsberger, S.; Palma, C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16803 (United States); Kepley, A. A.; Johnson, K. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Knierman, K. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Bateman Physical Sciences Center, Arizona State University, F-wing Room 686, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Bastian, N. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Chandar, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Durrell, P. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Youngstown State University, Youngstown, OH 44555 (United States); Elmegreen, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, Box 745, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States); English, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Gallagher, S. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7 (Canada); Hibbard, J. E. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States); Maybhate, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Trancho, G. [Gemini Observatory, Casilla 603, Colina el Pino S/N, La Serena (Chile); Vacca, W. D., E-mail: mullan@astro.psu.edu [Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy/Universities Space Research Association, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 144-2, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

2011-04-20

286

Tail Lobe Revisited: Magnetic Field Modeling Based on Plasma Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plasma data from the ISEE-1 and -2 spacecraft during 1977-1980 have been used to determine the distribution of data points in the magnetotail in the range of distances -20 < XGSM < --15, i.e. which of the records that were located in the current sheet, in the tail lobe, in the magnetosheath and in the boundary layers respectively. The ISEE-1 and -2 magnetic field data for the records in the tail lobe were then used to model the tail lobe magnetic field dependence on the solar wind dynamic pressure, on the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) and on the Dst index. The tail lobe magnetic field was assumed to be dependent on the square root of the dynamic pressure based on the balance between the total magnetic pressure in the tail lobes and the dynamic pressure of the solar wind. The IMF dependent terms, added to the pressure term, were sought in many different forms while the Dst dependence of the tail lobe magnetic field was assumed to be linear. The field shows a strong dependence on the square root of the dynamic pressure and the different IMF dependent terms all constitute a significant contribution to the total field. However, the dependence on the Dst index turned out to be very weak at those down-tail distances. The results of this study are intended to be used for parameterizing future versions of the data-based models of the global magnetospheric magnetic field.

Karlsson, S. B. P.; Tsyganenko, N. A.

1999-01-01

287

Cottongrass effects on trace elements in submersed mine tailings.  

PubMed

Phytostabilization may limit the leakage of metals and As from submersed mine tailings, thus treatment of acid mine drainage with lime could be reduced. Tall cottongrass (Eriophorum angustifolium Honckeny) and white cottongrass (E. scheuchzeri Hoppe) were planted in pots with unlimed (pH 5.0) and limed (pH 10.9) tailings (containing sulfides) amended with sewage sludge (SS) or a bioashsewage sludge mixture (ASM). Effects of the amendments on plant growth and plant element uptake were studied. Also, effects of plant growth on elements (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, and As), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and concentrations of SO4(2-), in the drainage water as well as dissolved oxygen in tailings, were measured. Both plant species grew better and the shoot element concentrations of white cottongrass were lower in SS than in ASM. Metal concentrations were lowest in drainage water from limed tailings, and plant establishment had little effect on metal release, except for an increase in Zn levels, even though SO4(2-) levels were increased. In unlimed tailings, plant growth increased SO4(2-) levels slightly; however, pH was increased and metal concentrations were low. Thus, metals were stabilized by plant uptake and high pH. Amendments or plants did not affect As levels in the drainage water from unlimed tailings. Thus, to reduce the use of lime for stabilizing metals, phytostabilization with tall cottongrass and white cottongrass on tailings is a sound possibility. PMID:12371164

Stoltz, Eva; Greger, Maria

2002-01-01

288

76 FR 30648 - Freshwater Crawfish Tail Meat From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Trade Administration [A-570-848] Freshwater Crawfish Tail Meat From the People's...2005-2006 administrative review of freshwater crawfish tail meat (``crawfish tail...2\\ See Freshwater Crawfish Tail Meat From the...

2011-05-26

289

Band tailing and efficiency limitation in kesterite solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that a fundamental performance bottleneck for hydrazine processed kesterite Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) solar cells with efficiencies reaching above 11% can be the formation of band-edge tail states, which quantum efficiency and photoluminescence data indicate is roughly twice as severe as in higher-performing Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 devices. Low temperature time-resolved photoluminescence data suggest that the enhanced tailing arises primarily from electrostatic potential fluctuations induced by strong compensation and facilitated by a lower CZTSSe dielectric constant. We discuss the implications of the band tails for the voltage deficit in these devices.

Gokmen, Tayfun; Gunawan, Oki; Todorov, Teodor K.; Mitzi, David B.

2013-09-01

290

"Pig Tail" technique in intradiscal electrothermal therapy.  

PubMed

To describe a new method of catheter insertion in intradiscal electrothermal therapy, which eliminates the need for reinsertion of the cannula and catheter from the contralateral side in those patients in whom optimal positioning is not achieved with the standard technique. This new technique has not been described before. In those patients in whom adequate catheter position cannot be achieved with the standard technique, instead of withdrawing the cannula after the initial treatment, we recommend rotating the cannula 180 degrees through its long axis. This will allow the catheter to hit the anterior anulus and deflect backwards toward the cannula. It can then be negotiated across the midline to adequately thermally treat the whole posterior anulus. We have performed our technique in 42 consecutive patients in whom initial navigation was difficult. This new method proved to be simple and did not cause patients additional discomfort. The "pig tail" technique is safe and effective in intradiscal electrothermal therapy of those patients with difficult navigation. It avoids the need for second needle insertion, therefore avoiding the use of more local anesthesia, further discomfort for the patient, and additional radiographic exposure. PMID:12792343

Narvani, A A; Tsiridis, E; Ishaque, M A; Wilson, L F

2003-06-01

291

Simulations of Instabilities in Tidal Tails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use graphics cards to run a hybrid test particle/N-body simulation to integrate 4 million massless particle trajectories within fully self-consistent N-body simulations of 128,000 - 256,000 particles. The number of massless particles allows us to resolve fine structure in the spatial distribution and phase space of a dwarf galaxy that is disrupted in the tidal field of a Milky Way type galaxy. The tidal tails exhibit clumping or a smoke-like appearance. By running simulations with different satellite particle mass, number of massive vs massless particles and with and without a galaxy disk, we have determined that the instabilities are not due to numerical noise or shocking as the satellite passes through the disk of the Galaxy. The instability is possibly a result of self-gravity which indicates it may be due to Jeans instabilities. Simulations involving different halo particle mass may suggest limitations on dark matter halo substructure. We find that the instabilities are visible in velocity space as well as real space and thus could be identified from velocity surveys as well as number counts.

Comparetta, Justin N.; Quillen, A. C.

2010-05-01

292

Periodic substorm activity in the geomagnetic tail  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On 19 May 1978 an anusual series of events is observed with the Quadrispherical LEPEDEA on board the ISEE-1 satellite in the Earth's geomagnetic tail. For 13 hours periodic bursts of both ions and electrons are seen in all the particle detectors on the spacecraft. On this day periodic activity is also seen on the ground, where multiple intensifications of the electrojets are observed. At the same time the latitudinal component of the interplanetary magnetic field shows a number of strong southward deflections. It is concluded that an extended period of substorm activity is occurring, which causes repeated thinnings and recoveries of the plasma sheet. These are detected by ISEE, which is situated in the plasma sheet boundary layer, as periodic dropouts and reappearances of the plasma. Comparisons of the observations at ISEE with those at IMP-8, which for a time is engulfed by the plasma sheet, indicate that the activity is relatively localized in spatial extent. For this series of events it is clear that a global approach to magnetospheric dynamics, e.g., reconnection, is inappropriate.

Huang, C. Y.; Eastman, T. E.; Frank, L. A.; Williams, D. J.

1983-01-01

293

Linking bovine tuberculosis on cattle farms to white-tailed deer and environmental variables using Bayesian hierarchical analysis.  

PubMed

Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on M. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type). Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovis identified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd factors and cattle farm prevalence is documented. PMID:24595231

Walter, W David; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; VerCauteren, Kurt C

2014-01-01

294

Linking Bovine Tuberculosis on Cattle Farms to White-Tailed Deer and Environmental Variables Using Bayesian Hierarchical Analysis  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on M. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type). Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovis identified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd factors and cattle farm prevalence is documented. PMID:24595231

Walter, W. David; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; VerCauteren, Kurt C.

2014-01-01

295

Roosting ecology and variation in adaptive and innate immune system function in the Brazilian free-tailed bat ( Tadarida brasiliensis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bats have recently been implicated as reservoirs of important emerging diseases. However, few studies have examined immune\\u000a responses in bats, and even fewer have evaluated these responses in an ecological context. We examined aspects of both innate\\u000a and adaptive immune response in adult female Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) at four maternity roosts (two natural caves and two human-made bridges)

Louise C. Allen; Amy S. Turmelle; Mary T. Mendonça; Kristen J. Navara; Thomas H. Kunz; Gary F. McCracken

2009-01-01

296

High prevalence of Yersinia pestis in black-tailed prairie dog colonies during an apparent enzootic phase of sylvatic plague  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) was introduced into North America over 100 years ago. The disease causes high mortality and extirpations in black-tailed\\u000a prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), which is of conservation concern because prairie dogs provide habitat for the critically endangered black-footed ferret\\u000a (Mustela nigripes). Our goal was to help elucidate the mechanism Y. pestis uses to persist in prairie ecosystems during

David A. Hanson; Hugh B. Britten; Marco Restani; Leigh R. Washburn

2007-01-01

297

Helicates: Making head-head-tails of it  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enantiomerically pure head-to-head-to-tail triple-stranded helicates synthesized using a subcomponent self-assembly approach possess high anticancer activities against cancer cell lines without significant damage to DNA and with low toxicity to bacteria.

Albrecht, Markus

2014-09-01

298

Reduction of unsteady underwater propeller forces via active tail articulation  

E-print Network

This study investigates the use of biologically-inspired tail articulation as a means to reduce unsteady propeller forces and by extension, noise due to stator wake blade interaction. This study is experimental in nature ...

James, Richard A. (Richard Alexander), 1982-

2006-01-01

299

Texas white-tailed deer Internet harvest model  

E-print Network

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is an intensively managed game species throughout Texas and the United States. Modeling is a tool that has been used to evaluate various management practices and their potential impacts on wildlife...

Garrett, Jennifer Nicole

2009-05-15

300

14 CFR 29.547 - Main and tail rotor structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Requirements Main Component Requirements § 29.547 Main and tail rotor structure. ...the rotor hub, blades, blade dampers... (ii) For the main rotor, the limit engine...distributed to the rotor blades. (Secs....

2010-01-01

301

14 CFR 29.547 - Main and tail rotor structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Requirements Main Component Requirements § 29.547 Main and tail rotor structure. ...the rotor hub, blades, blade dampers... (ii) For the main rotor, the limit engine...distributed to the rotor blades. (Secs....

2013-01-01

302

14 CFR 29.547 - Main and tail rotor structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Requirements Main Component Requirements § 29.547 Main and tail rotor structure. ...the rotor hub, blades, blade dampers... (ii) For the main rotor, the limit engine...distributed to the rotor blades. (Secs....

2012-01-01

303

14 CFR 29.547 - Main and tail rotor structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Requirements Main Component Requirements § 29.547 Main and tail rotor structure. ...the rotor hub, blades, blade dampers... (ii) For the main rotor, the limit engine...distributed to the rotor blades. (Secs....

2011-01-01

304

14 CFR 29.547 - Main and tail rotor structure.  

...Requirements Main Component Requirements § 29.547 Main and tail rotor structure. ...the rotor hub, blades, blade dampers... (ii) For the main rotor, the limit engine...distributed to the rotor blades. (Secs....

2014-01-01

305

Band tail recombination in polymer:fullerene organic solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recombination through band tail localized states is studied analytically and by measurement of the forward-bias dark current as a function of temperature in three different organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells. The Shockley-Read-Hall mechanism is analyzed for the specific case of recombination between mobile carriers and an exponential distribution of localized band tail states. The analysis gives a simple relation between the dark current ideality factor and the band tail slope. Assumptions of the model are verified by numerical drift-diffusion modeling. Diode current-voltage measurements give good agreement with the analytical model, confirming that the band tail recombination mechanism applies to at least some organic solar cells. Deep traps provide a secondary recombination channel in some devices.

Hawks, Steven A.; Li, Gang; Yang, Yang; Street, Robert A.

2014-08-01

306

Some considerations in the stability analysis of upstream tailings dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upstream constructed tailings dams represent a significant challenge to the geotechnical engineer in terms of analysis of their stability, in large part because the shear strength of the loose sands and fine grained or \\

T. E. Martin; E. C. McRoberts

307

STEREO Watches as Comet Encke Loses Its Tail  

NASA Video Gallery

As comet Encke dipped inside the orbit of Mercury, STEREO A recorded its tail getting ripped off by a solar eruption on April 20, 2007. The eruption that hit Encke was a coronal mass ejection (CME)...

308

3. VIEW EAST OF TAILINGS OF MERCURY RETORT. SCOOP FOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW EAST OF TAILINGS OF MERCURY RETORT. SCOOP FOR EXTRACTING MERCURY VISIBLE IN CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. (OCTOBER, 1995) - McCormick Group Mine, Mercury Retort, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

309

Central limit theorem for eigenvectors of heavy tailed matrices  

E-print Network

We consider the eigenvectors of symmetric matrices with independent heavy tailed entries, such as matrices with entries in the domain of attraction of ?-stable laws, or adjacencymatrices of Erdos-Renyi graphs. We denote ...

Benaych-Georges, Florent

310

Probing the Galactic Halo with Globular Cluster Tidal Tails  

E-print Network

We discuss recent observational and numerical work on tidal tails in globular clusters. Evidence of tidal tails has now been found in 16 Galactic globulars and 4 globulars in M31. Simulations indicate that mapping of these tidal tails over most of a typical cluster's orbit may be quite feasible. A relatively modest effort in this regard would yield reliable space velocities for those clusters whose tidal tails could be traced to angular separations of a few degrees or more. Mining of forthcoming databases should allow us to trace the individual orbital paths of globular clusters over large portions of the sky. This would enable us to better constrain models of the collapse of the Galaxy and to build up an accurate picture of the distribution of matter in the Galactic halo.

Carl J. Grillmair

1997-11-19

311

Influences of wetland plants on weathered acidic mine tailings.  

PubMed

Establishment of Carex rostrata, Eriophorum angustifolium and Phragmites australis on weathered, acidic mine tailings (pH approximately 3) and their effect on pH in tailings were investigated in a field experiment. The amendments, sewage sludge and an ashes-sewage sludge mixture, were used as plant nutrition and their influence on the metal and As concentrations of plant shoots was analysed. An additional experiment was performed in greenhouse with E. angustifolium and sewage sludge as amendments in both weathered and unweathered tailings. After one year, plants grew better in amendments containing ashes in the field, also in those plants the metal and As shoot concentrations were generally lower than in other treatments. After two years, the only surviving plants were found in sewage sludge mixed with ashes. No effect on pH by plants was found in weathered acidic mine tailings in either field- or greenhouse experiment. PMID:16584823

Stoltz, Eva; Greger, Maria

2006-11-01

312

J SERIES MAGAZINE. J 106 INTERIOR. BOMB TAILS ON LEFT. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

J SERIES MAGAZINE. J 106 INTERIOR. BOMB TAILS ON LEFT. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Inert Storehouse Type, Twelfth Street between Kwajulein & New Mexico Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

313

Colorful tails fade when lizards adopt less risky behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colorful tails that become cryptic during ontogeny are found in diverse taxa. Nevertheless, the evolutionary bases for this\\u000a change remain debated. Recent work suggests that colorful tails, deflective displays, and striped patterns may represent antipredator\\u000a mechanisms used by immature lizards to compensate for being more active and hence more vulnerable to predation (increased\\u000a movement hypothesis, IMH). I challenged the generality

Dror Hawlena

2009-01-01

314

ATS (ammonium thiosulfate) Claus tail-gas cleanup process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ATS (ammonium thiosulfate) Claus tail-gas cleanup process was developed by the Pritchard Corp. and installed for Colorado Interstate Gas Corp. (CIG) and Wycon Chemical Co. at CIG's Table Rock, Wyo., natural gas-treatment plant to process tail gas from an 80 ton\\/day Claus plant. The new unit will produce 18,140 tons\\/yr of ammonium thiosulfate fertilizer solution. In the first, absorption

A. Zey; S. White; D. Johnson

1980-01-01

315

RED-TAILED HAWK NEST SITES IN PUERTO RICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT.-We describe Red-tailed Hawk,(Buteo jamaicensis) nest sites in four habitats in Puerto Rico. Forty-nine nests were located in 2 1 species of trees. Red-tailed Hawks nested in trees that were taller than the mean,canopy,height of trees in surrounding,plots and that allowed a view of at least 50% of their territory. Most nests were in the upper,third of the tree on

Eduarixi Santana C; J Eddie N. Laboy; James A. Mosher; Stanley A. Temple

316

Misprescription and misuse of one-tailed tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-tailed statistical tests are often used in ecology, animal behaviour and in most other fields in the biologicalandsocialsciences.Herewereviewthefrequencyoftheiruseinthe1989and2005volumesoftwojournals (Animal Behaviour and Oecologia), their advantages and disadvantages, the extensive erroneous advice on them in both older and modern statistics texts and their utility in certain narrow areas of applied research. Of those articles with data sets susceptible to one-tailed tests, at

CELIA M. LOMBARDI; STUART H. HURLBERT

2009-01-01

317

Regulation of Coronaviral Poly(A) Tail Length during Infection  

PubMed Central

The positive-strand coronavirus genome of ~30 kilobase in length and subgenomic (sg) mRNAs of shorter lengths, are 5’ and 3’-co-terminal by virtue of a common 5’-capped leader and a common 3’-polyadenylated untranslated region. Here, by ligating head-to-tail viral RNAs from bovine coronavirus-infected cells and sequencing across the ligated junctions, it was learned that at the time of peak viral RNA synthesis [6 hours postinfection (hpi)] the 3’ poly(A) tail on genomic and sgmRNAs is ~65 nucleotides (nt) in length. Surprisingly, this length was found to vary throughout infection from ~45 nt immediately after virus entry (at 0 to 4 hpi) to ~65 nt later on (at 6 h to 9 hpi) and from ~65 nt (at 6 h to 9 hpi) to ~30 nt (at 120-144 hpi). With the same method, poly(U) sequences of the same lengths were simultaneously found on the ligated viral negative-strand RNAs. Functional analyses of poly(A) tail length on specific viral RNA species, furthermore, revealed that translation, in vivo, of RNAs with the longer poly(A) tail was enhanced over those with the shorter poly(A). Although the mechanisms by which the tail lengths vary is unknown, experimental results together suggest that the length of the poly(A) and poly(U) tails is regulated. One potential function of regulated poly(A) tail length might be that for the coronavirus genome a longer poly(A) favors translation. The regulation of coronavirus translation by poly(A) tail length resembles that during embryonal development suggesting there may be mechanistic parallels. PMID:23923003

Wu, Hung-Yi; Ke, Ting-Yung; Liao, Wei-Yu; Chang, Nai-Yun

2013-01-01

318

Tail Biting Trellis Representation of Codes: Decoding and Construction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents two new iterative algorithms for decoding linear codes based on their tail biting trellises, one is unidirectional and the other is bidirectional. Both algorithms are computationally efficient and achieves virtually optimum error performance with a small number of decoding iterations. They outperform all the previous suboptimal decoding algorithms. The bidirectional algorithm also reduces decoding delay. Also presented in the paper is a method for constructing tail biting trellises for linear block codes.

Shao. Rose Y.; Lin, Shu; Fossorier, Marc

1999-01-01

319

Influences of wetland plants on weathered acidic mine tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Establishment of Carex rostrata, Eriophorum angustifolium and Phragmites australis on weathered, acidic mine tailings (pH ?3) and their effect on pH in tailings were investigated in a field experiment. The amendments, sewage sludge and an ashes–sewage sludge mixture, were used as plant nutrition and their influence on the metal and As concentrations of plant shoots was analysed. An additional experiment

Eva Stoltz; Maria Greger

2006-01-01

320

Thermoregulatory control of sympathetic fibres supplying the rat's tail  

PubMed Central

We investigated the thermoregulatory responses of sympathetic fibres supplying the tail in urethane-anaesthetised rats. When skin and rectal temperatures were kept above 39 °C, tail sympathetic fibre activity was low or absent. When the trunk skin was cooled episodically by 2–7 °C by a water jacket, tail sympathetic activity increased in a graded fashion below a threshold skin temperature of 37.8 ± 0.6 °C, whether or not core (rectal) temperature changed. Repeated cooling episodes lowered body core temperature by 1.3–3.1 °C, and this independently activated tail sympathetic fibre activity, in a graded fashion, below a threshold rectal temperature of 38.4 ± 0.2 °C. Tail blood flow showed corresponding graded vasoconstrictor responses to skin and core cooling, albeit over a limited range. Tail sympathetic activity was more sensitive to core than to trunk skin cooling by a factor that varied widely (24-fold) between animals. Combined skin and core cooling gave additive or facilitatory responses near threshold but occlusive interactions with stronger stimuli. Unilateral warming of the preoptic area reversibly inhibited tail sympathetic activity. This was true for activity generated by either skin or core cooling. Single tail sympathetic units behaved homogeneously. Their sensitivity to trunk skin cooling was 0.3 ± 0.08 spikes s?1 °C?1 and to core cooling was 2.2 ± 0.5 spikes s?1° C?1. Their maximum sustained firing rate in the cold was 1.82 ± 0.35 spikes s?1. PMID:12231643

Owens, N C; Ootsuka, Y; Kanosue, K; McAllen, R M

2002-01-01

321

EGARCH models with fat tails, skewness and leverage  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE Cambridge Working Papers in Economics EGARCH models with fat tails, skewness and leverage Andrew Harvey and Genaro Sucarrat CWPE 1236 EGARCH models with fat tails, skewness and leverage Andrew Harvey and Genaro... , recent examples being Zhu and Zinde-Walsh (2009), Zhu and Galbraith (2010), and Gomez et al (2007). In the context of changing variance, Giot and Laurent(2003, 2004) show that a skewed-t GARCH model (with leverage) does very well in predicting Value...

Harvey, Andrew; Sucarrat, Genaro

2012-08-17

322

Biogeochemical phenomena induced by bacteria within sulfidic mine tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Mill tailings resulting from mining and metallurgical processes are usually disposed of into open-air impoundments, where they become subjected to chemical or microbial leaching. At the surface of the tailings, where oxic conditions prevail, acidophilic bacteria, such as thiobacilli, can oxidize sulfidic minerals (e.g. pyrite and pyrrhotite) and generate acidic metal-rich leachates as by-products of their metabolism. This, combined

D. Fortin; B. Davis; G. Southam; T. J. Beveridge

1995-01-01

323

Testing tail-mounted transmitters with Myocastor coypus (nutria)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We developed a tail-mounted radio-transmitter for Myocastor coypus (nutria) that offers a practical and efficient alternative to collar or implant methods. The mean retention time was 96 d (range 57-147 d, n = 7), making this a practical method for short-term studies. The tail-mounts were less injurious to animals than collars and easier for field researchers to implement than either collars or surgically implanted transmitters.

Merino, S.; Carter, J.; Thibodeaux, G.

2007-01-01

324

Experimental Determination of the Effect of Horizontal-Tail Size, Tail Length, and Vertical Location on Low-Speed Static Longitudinal Stability and Damping Pitch of a Model Having 45 Degree Sweptback Wing and Tail Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents the results of an investigation conducted in the Langley stability tunnel to determine the effects of horizontal tails of various sizes and at various tail lengths (when loaded on the fuselage center line) and also the effects of vertical location of the horizontal tail relative to the wing on the low-speed static longitudinal stability and on the steady-state rotary damping in pitch for a complete-model configuration. The wing and tail surfaces had the quarter-chord lines swept back 45 degrees and had aspect ratios of 4. The results of the investigation showed that, in agreement with analytical considerations, the contribution of the horizontal tail to static longitudinal stability was related directly to the tail size and length; whereas, its contribution to damping in pitch was related directly to tail size and the square of tail length.

Lichtenstein, Jacob H

1952-01-01

325

Postautotomy tail activity in the Balearic lizard, Podarcis lilfordi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Caudal autotomy is an effective antipredator strategy widespread among lizards. The shed tail thrashes vigorously for long periods to distract the predator and facilitate the lizard’s escape. This movement is maintained by energy supplied by the anaerobic conversion of glycogen into lactate. It has been suggested that lactate accumulation serves as an index for the vigor of tail thrashing. We made three predictions: (1) tail loss frequency should be higher under heavier predation regime, (2) the duration of postautotomy tail movement should be extended in populations under heavy predation pressure as an adaptation to the higher risk and the increased need for defense, and (3) as result, lactate in these tail tissues should be concentrated at higher levels. To eliminate the impact of phylogeny and environmental factors on the interpretation of our result, we focused exclusively on one species, the Balearic lizard ( Podarcis lilfordi). We studied three populations under different predation pressure but sharing the same climatic conditions. We found no differences among the studied populations either in postautotomy duration of tail movement or in levels of final lactate accumulation while autotomy frequency was higher where predation pressure was more intense. ?ail loss effectiveness is directly influenced by the level of predation, while secondary features of the trait appear to remain independent from the impact of environment.

Pafilis, Panayiotis; Pérez-Mellado, Valentín; Valakos, Efstratios

2008-03-01

326

Helicopter tail rotor blade-vortex interaction noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study is made of helicopter tail rotor noise, particularly that due to the interactions with main rotor tip vortices. Summarized here are present analysis, the computer codes, and the results of several test cases. Amiet's unsteady thin airfoil theory is used to calculate the acoustics of blade-vortex interaction. The noise source is modelled as a force dipole resulting from an airfoil of infinite span chopping through a skewed line vortex. To analyze the interactions between helicopter tail rotor and main rotor tip vortices, we developed a two-step approach: (1) the main rotor tip vortex system is obtained through a free wake geometry calculation of the main rotor using CAMRAD code; (2) acoustic analysis takes the results from the aerodynamic interaction analysis and calculates the farfield pressure signatures for the interactions. It is found that under a wide range of helicopter flight conditions, acoustic pressure fluctuations of significant magnitude can be generated by tail rotors due to a series of interactions with main rotor tip vortices. This noise mechanism depends strongly on the helicopter flight conditions and the relative location and phasing of the main and tail rotors. fluctuations of significant magnitude can be generated by tail rotors due to a series of interactions with main rotor tip vortices. This noise mechanism depends strongly upon the helicopter flight conditions and the relative location and phasing of the main and tail rotors.

George, Albert R.; Chou, S.-T.

1987-01-01

327

Native plant restoration of biosolids-amended copper mine tailings  

SciTech Connect

Copper mine tailings are difficult to revegetate due to nutrient deficiencies, high levels of acidity, and potential metal toxicities. An amendment of biosolids could ameliorate these harsh growing conditions through the addition of available nutrients, improvement of physical soil properties (e.g., increased water holding capacity), and possible lowering of toxic metal availability through complexation with organic matter. A study was conducted on mine tailings at Holden, WA to evaluate the effect of an amendment of biosolids on the survival and growth of five native plant species (Sitka alder, big leaf maple, fireweed, w. yarrow, and pearly everlasting). Plots were established in tailings, gravel over tailings (G/T), and biosolids plus gravel over tailings. Each of the native plant species, except maple, had their highest survival in the biosolids-amended plot with 3 species at 100% survival. The biosolids amendment was shown to improve the growth of all species except maple. Fireweed produced 62 times more biomass in the biosolids-amended plot compared to the unamended plot (G/T). Plant analysis revealed a dramatic increase in nutrient content with the amendment of biosolids. Biosolids improved the survival, growth, and nutritional status of native plant species on the copper mine tailings.

Kramer, P.A.; Zabowski, D. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Coll. of Forest Resources; Everett, R.L.; Scherer, G. [Forest Service, Wenatchee, WA (United States). PNW Forest Sciences Lab.

1998-12-31

328

Arsenic bioaccessibility in gold mine tailings of Delita, Cuba.  

PubMed

A bioaccessibility test was carried out in four tailings collected at a former mining area in Delita, Cuba. A previous risk assessment study identified arsenic (As) as the main critical contaminant in this area and showed that the tailings had high As concentrations (up to 3.5%). This study aimed at: (i) evaluating As bioaccessibility in four tailings (R1, R2, R3 and R4) from a gold mining area to obtain a better health risk estimate; and, (ii) identifying the mineral phases responsible for most of the bioaccessible As using XRD, SEM-EDS, and XAS. The results showed that bioaccessible As in the tailings ranged from 0.65 to 40.5%. The main factors influencing As bioaccessibility were a high occurrence of amorphous iron arsenate; occurrence, even at low content, of iron oxyhydroxides and stability of mineral phases in the environment of the gastrointestinal tract. Although arsenopyrite, arsenates and goethite were confirmed by mineralogical methods such as optical microscopy, XRD, and SEM-EDS, XAS showed that scorodite-oxidation state As(+V)-was dominant in most of the tailings. This confirms that the low bioaccessibility of As in most of the tailings is due to the slow kinetics of As release from scorodite. PMID:23428178

Toujaguez, R; Ono, F B; Martins, V; Cabrera, P P; Blanco, A V; Bundschuh, J; Guilherme, L R G

2013-11-15

329

Revegetation potential of acidic mill tailings in southwestern New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

A greenhouse project was conducted to examine the revegetation potential of acid mill tailings from an abandoned mill site near Silver City, Grant County, New Mexico. The tailings piles covered about 35 acres, had percent level concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb, an average pH of 2.2, and an average net neutralization potential of 120 tons calcium carbonate per kiloton tailings. To successfully revegetate the tailings, five problems must be overcome: (1) neutralization of current and future acidity, (2) immobilization of metals, (3) restoration of biological activity, (4) improvement of water holding capacity, and (5) increasing the supply of plant nutrients. Tailings material was mixed with crushed limestone and divided into greenhouse pots in a randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement of treatments, including nine plant species and four organic amendments. Fertilizer was added based on soil fertility analysis. Germination and growth characteristics of plant species, and physical and chemical characteristics of soil were examined. Liming effectively removed or moderated most chemical plant growth problems. Water soluble and plant available metals in neutralized tailings were slightly higher than in native soils.

Cornelius, J.M.; Beeson, D.L.; Gomez, M. [Ecology and Environment, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Lindemann, W.C. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Dept. of Agronomy and Horticulture; Whitford, W.G. [Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Environmental Monitoring Systems Lab.; Zehner, W.B. [Environmental Protection Agency, Houston, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

330

Molycorp Guadalupe Mountain tailings disposal facility. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Molycorp proposes to construct and operate a molybdenum tailings disposal facility on 1,230 acres of public land near Questa, New Mexico and has located mill site claims for this purpose. The project would consist of a 568-acre tailings pond in the saddle of Guadalupe Mountain. The pond would be formed by the construction of two rock-filled dams at either end of the saddle. Other facilities would include a tailings pump station, an extension of the tailings pipeline, tailings distribution lines, access roads and a patrol road, a powerline, a seepage collection pond, surface water diversion channels, and a decant water channel. The project would provide additional storage for approximately 200 million tons of tailings from Molycorp's molybdenum mine located approximately 12 miles east of Guadalupe Mountain. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) completed an Environmental Assessment (EA) for this project in February 1985. As a result of that EA, the BLM determined that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) would be required. The EIS analyzes and documents the environmental impacts of the proposed project through construction, operation, and closure.

Not Available

1989-11-01

331

Energetic cost of tail streamers in the barn swallow ( Hirundo rustica )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different hypotheses stress the importance of natural or sexual selection to explain the evolution and maintenance of long outermost tail feathers in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica). Since energy costs are predicted to arise from tail length manipulation, we measured the daily energy expenditure in three experimental groups (tail-shortened, tail-elongated, and control birds) with the doubly labelled water technique. Though

José Javier Cuervo; Florentino Lope; Anders Pape Møller; Juan Moreno

1996-01-01

332

Effects of submarine mine tailings disposal on juvenile yellowfin sole ( pleuronectes aspen): A laboratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behaviour, survival, and growth studies were conducted in the laboratory on juvenile yellowfin sole (Pleuronectes asper) exposed to mine tailings produced by a pilot plant for a gold mine near Juneau, Alaska. Fish avoided fresh tailings in favour of natural marine sediment (control) and weathered tailings (75 years old). Only when fresh tailings were covered with 2 cm of control

S. W. Johnson; D. Adam Moles

1998-01-01

333

Uranium mill tailings management: cover systems, containment migration and long-term stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uranium mill tailings, waste products of uranium extraction, contain hazardous constituents that if released into the atmosphere and groundwater could threaten our health and environment. To provide for safe disposal and control of these tailings, Congress enacted the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (Public Law 95-604). Subsequently, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established standards for tailings disposal

J. N. Hartley; M. G. Fluey; G. W. Gee

1984-01-01

334

Stability analysis of a copper tailings dam via laboratory model tests: A Chinese case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upstream method is a popular method for raising tailings dams. Currently in China there are more than 12,000 tailings impoundments and almost 95% of them use the upstream method for the construction of the dam. Statistical data has shown that the tailings impoundment is one of the main sources of risk in the mining industry. Failures of tailings impoundments

Guangzhi Yin; Guangzhi Li; Zuoan Wei; Ling Wan; Guohong Shui; Xiaofei Jing

2011-01-01

335

Antimicrobial susceptibility of Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated from the lungs of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with pneumonia.  

PubMed

In vitro susceptibilities of 29 strains of Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated from lung lesions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with pneumonia were determined using the broth microdilution method to ascertain efficacious treatment options for pneumonic white-tailed deer. All 29 A. pyogenes strains tested were susceptible to ceftiofur, spectinomycin, tiamulin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole but were resistant to both danofloxacin and sulfadimethoxine. Likewise, all 29 isolates were either fully susceptible or intermediately susceptible to gentamicin (25 susceptible; 4 intermediate) and tulathromycin (25 susceptible; 4 intermediate). At least one isolate of A. pyogenes tested was resistant to ampicillin, chlortetracycline, clindamycin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline, penicillin, and tilmicosin suggesting their ineffectiveness in treating A. pyogenes-associated lung infections in white-tailed deer. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) data for tylosin and neomycin could not be interpreted due to unavailability of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)-approved breakpoints for these 2 agents. In summary, based on MIC values, ceftiofur, spectinomycin, tiamulin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are more efficacious than other antimicrobial agents for treating A. pyogenes-related pneumonia in white-tailed deer. However, ceftiofur may be preferred over the other 4 drugs as it is being widely used to treat respiratory disease in cattle and other animal species, as well as is available for single dose parenteral administration. PMID:21908365

Tell, Lisa A; Brooks, Jason W; Lintner, Valerie; Matthews, Tammy; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie

2011-09-01

336

Drinking from tails: Social learning of a novel behaviour in a group of ring-tailed lemurs ( Lemur catta )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several examples have been documented of novel behaviours which have apparently arisen spontaneously in primate groups and\\u000a then spread through the group by learning. Here we describe the first recorded instance of such an acquired behaviour in a\\u000a prosimian. The behaviour, consisting of immersing the tail in water and then drinking from the wet tail, was observed in a\\u000a group

Geoffrey R. Hosey; Marie Jacques; Angela Pitts

1997-01-01

337

Tail growth tracks the ontogeny of prehensile tail use in capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons and C. apella).  

PubMed

Physical anthropologists have devoted considerable attention to the structure and function of the primate prehensile tail. Nevertheless, previous morphological studies have concentrated solely on adults, despite behavioral evidence that among many primate taxa, including capuchin monkeys, infants and juveniles use their prehensile tails during a greater number and greater variety of positional behaviors than do adults. In this study, we track caudal vertebral growth in a mixed longitudinal sample of white-fronted and brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons and Cebus apella). We hypothesized that young capuchins would have relatively robust caudal vertebrae, affording them greater tail strength for more frequent tail-suspension behaviors. Our results supported this hypothesis. Caudal vertebral bending strength (measured as polar section modulus at midshaft) scaled to body mass with negative allometry, while craniocaudal length scaled to body mass with positive allometry, indicating that infant and juvenile capuchin monkeys are characterized by particularly strong caudal vertebrae for their body size. These findings complement previous results showing that long bone strength similarly scales with negative ontogenetic allometry in capuchin monkeys and add to a growing body of literature documenting the synergy between postcranial growth and the changing locomotor demands of maturing animals. Although expanded morphometric data on tail growth and behavioral data on locomotor development are required, the results of this study suggest that the adult capuchin prehensile-tail phenotype may be attributable, at least in part, to selection on juvenile performance, a possibility that deserves further attention. PMID:21953012

Russo, Gabrielle A; Young, Jesse W

2011-11-01

338

Genetic linkage analysis using pooled DNA and infrared detection of tailed STRP primer patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mapping of a disease locus to a specific chromosomal region is an important step in the eventual isolation and analysis of a disease causing gene. Conventional mapping methods analyze large multiplex families and/or smaller nuclear families to find linkage between the disease and a chromosome marker that maps to a known chromosomal region. This analysis is time consuming and tedious, typically requiring the determination of 30,000 genotypes or more. For appropriate populations, we have instead utilized pooled DNA samples for gene mapping which greatly reduces the amount of time necessary for an initial chromosomal screen. This technique assumes a common founder for the disease locus of interest and searches for a region of a chromosome shared between affected individuals. Our analysis involves the PCR amplification of short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRP) to detect these shared regions. In order to reduce the cost of genotyping, we have designed unlabeled tailed PCR primers which, when combined with a labeled universal primer, provides for an alternative to synthesizing custom labeled primers. The STRP pattern is visualized with an infrared fluorescence based automated DNA sequencer and the patterns quantitated by densitometric analysis of the allele pattern. Differences in the distribution of alleles between pools of affected and unaffected individuals, including a reduction in the number of alleles in the affected pool, indicate the sharing of a region of a chromosome. We have found this method effective for markers 10 - 15 cM away from the disease locus for a recessive genetic disease.

Oetting, William S.; Wildenberg, Scott C.; King, Richard A.

1996-04-01

339

Slow inward tail currents in rabbit cardiac cells.  

PubMed Central

1. A whole-cell gigaseal suction microelectrode voltage-clamp technique has been used to study slow inward tail currents in single myocytes obtained by enzymatic dispersion of rabbit ventricle and atrium. A variety of stimulation protocols, Tyrode solutions and pharmacological agents have been used to test three hypotheses: (a) that the slow inward tail current is generated by an electrogenic Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger; (b) that a rise in [Ca2+]i, due to release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum can modulate the activity of this exchanger; and (c) that the uptake of calcium by the sarcoplasmic reticulum is a major determinant of the time course of the tail current. 2. As shown previously in amphibian atrium and guinea-pig ventricle, slow inward tail currents can be observed consistently under conditions in which action potentials and ionic currents are recorded using microelectrode constituents which only minimally disturb the intracellular milieu. 3. In ventricular cells, the envelope of these tail currents obtained by varying the duration of the preceding depolarizations shows that (a) the tail currents are activated by pulses as short as 10 ms, and reach a maximum for pulse durations of 100-200 ms, (b) the rate of decay of the tail current gradually increases as the activating depolarizations are prolonged, and (c) the tails cannot be due to deactivation of calcium currents, in agreement with other studies in frog heart. 4. When the mean level of [Ca2+]i is raised following inhibition of the Na(+)-K+ pump by strophanthidin (10(-5) M) or reductions in [K+]o (0.5 mM), the slow inward tail grows in size prior to the onset of a contracture or other signs of calcium-induced toxicity. 5. In a number of different preparations, replacement of [Ca2+]o with BaCl2 markedly or completely inhibits the Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger, whereas Sr2+ replacement does not have this effect. In myocytes from rabbit ventricle the slow inward tails are reduced significantly and decay more slowly in 0.5-2.2 mM-BaCl2 Tyrode solution, while in 2.2 mM SrCl2 these tails are not altered. 6. The slow inward tail also shows a dependence on [K+]o, corresponding to previous data on Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange in other tissues. Increasing [K+]o in the Tyrode solution to a final concentration of 10-15 mM results in a marked inhibition of the slow tails. This effect cannot be accounted for by changes in the inwardly rectifying potassium current, IK1. 7. The slow tail currents were changed significantly by increasing the temperature of the superfusing Tyrode solution.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2621605

Giles, W; Shimoni, Y

1989-01-01

340

Immune responses to HTLV-I(ACH) during acute infection of pig-tailed macaques.  

PubMed

Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) is causally linked to adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and a chronic progressive neurological disease, HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). A nonhuman primate model that reproduces disease symptoms seen in HTLV-I-infected humans might facilitate identification of initial immune responses to the virus and an understanding of pathogenic mechanisms in HTLV-I-related disease. Previously, we showed that infection of pig-tailed macaques with HTLV-I(ACH) is associated with multiple signs of disease characteristic of both HAM/TSP and ATL. We report here that within the first few weeks after HTLV-I(ACH) infection of pig-tailed macaques, serum concentrations of interferon (IFN)-alpha increased and interleukin-12 decreased transiently, levels of nitric oxide were elevated, and activation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes and CD16(+) natural killer cells in peripheral blood were observed. HTLV-I(ACH) infection elicited virus-specific antibodies in all four animals within 4 to 6 weeks; however, Tax-specific lymphoproliferative responses were not detected until 25-29 weeks after infection in all four macaques. IFN-gamma production by peripheral blood cells stimulated with a Tax or Gag peptide was detected to varying degrees in all four animals by ELISPOT assay. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from one animal that developed only a marginal antigen-specific cellular response were unresponsive to mitogen stimulation during the last few weeks preceding its death from a rapidly progressive disease syndrome associated with HTLV-I(ACH) infection of pig-tailed macaques. The results show that during the first few months after HTLV-I(ACH) infection, activation of both innate and adaptive immunity, limited virus-specific cellular responses, sustained immune system activation, and, in some cases, immunodeficiency were evident. Thus, this animal model might be valuable for understanding early stages of infection and causes of immune system dysregulation in HTLV-I-infected humans. PMID:15157363

McGinn, Therese M; Wei, Qing; Stallworth, Jackie; Fultz, Patricia N

2004-04-01

341

RECOVERY OF Co, Ni, AND Cu FROM THE TAILINGS OF DIVRIGI IRON ORE CONCENTRATOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Sivas-Divri?i Iron Ore Concentrator, 600,000 t of tailings are discarded annually. There are already 1 million t of tailings deposited in ponds from the previous production activities. The presence of Co, Ni, and Cu in the tailings makes the beneficiation of those tailings attractive. In the experimental work, sulphide concentrates were produced from these two types of tailings by

A. A. Sirkeci; A. Gül; G. Bulut; F. Arslan; G. Onal; A. E. Yuce

2006-01-01

342

Virgo Galaxies with Long One-sided H I Tails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a new H I imaging survey of Virgo galaxies (VIVA: VLA Imaging of Virgo galaxies in Atomic gas), we find seven spiral galaxies with long H I tails. The morphology varies, but all the tails are extended well beyond the optical radii on one side. These galaxies are found in intermediate- to low-density regions (0.6-1 Mpc in projection from M87). The tails are all pointing roughly away from M87, suggesting that these tails may have been created by a global cluster mechanism. While the tidal effects of the cluster potential are too small, a rough estimate suggests that simple ram pressure stripping could have indeed formed the tails in all but two cases. At least three systems show H I truncation to within the stellar disk, providing evidence of a gas-gas interaction. Although most of these galaxies do not appear disturbed optically, some have close neighbors, suggesting that tidal interactions may have moved gas outward, making it more susceptible to the intracluster medium ram pressure or viscosity. Indeed, a simulation study of one of the tail galaxies, NGC 4654, suggests that the galaxy is most likely affected by the combined effect of a gravitational interaction and ram pressure stripping. We conclude that these one-sided H I tail galaxies have recently arrived in the cluster, falling in on highly radial orbits. It appears that galaxies begin to lose their gas already at intermediate distances from the cluster center through ram pressure or turbulent viscous stripping and tidal interactions with their neighbors, or a combination of both.

Chung, Aeree; van Gorkom, J. H.; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P.; Vollmer, Bernd

2007-04-01

343

The Tail-Elicited Tail Withdrawal Reflex of "Aplysia" Is Mediated Centrally at Tail Sensory-Motor Synapses and Exhibits Sensitization across Multiple Temporal Domains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The defensive withdrawal reflexes of "Aplysia californica" have provided powerful behavioral systems for studying the cellular and molecular basis of memory formation. Among these reflexes the (T-TWR) has been especially useful. In vitro studies examining the monosynaptic circuit for the T-TWR, the tail sensory-motor (SN-MN) synapses, have…

Philips, Gary T.; Sherff, Carolyn M.; Menges, Steven A.; Carew, Thomas J.

2011-01-01

344

Effect of Horizontal-Tail Chord on the Calculated Subsonic Span Loads and Stability Derivatives of Isolated Unswept Tail Assemblies in Sideslip and Steady Roll  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Subsonic span loads and the resulting stability derivatives have been calculated using the discrete-horseshoe-vortex method for a systematic series of horizontal tails in combination with a vertical tail of aspect ratio 1.0 in order to provide information on the effect of varying the chord of the horizontal tail for isolated tail assemblies performing sideslip and steady-roll motions. In addition, the effects of horizontal-tail dihedral angle for the sideslip case were obtained. Each tail surface considered had a taper ratio of 0.5 and an unswept quarter-chord line. The investigation covered variations in horizontal-tail chord, horizontal-tail span, and vertical location of the horizontal tail. The span loads and the resulting total stability derivatives as well as the vertical- and horizontal-tail contributions to these tail-assembly derivatives are presented in the figures for the purpose of showing the influence of the geometric variables. The results of this investigation showed trends that were in agreement with the results of previous investigations for variations in horizontal-tail span and vertical location of the horizontal tail. Variations in horizontal-tail chord expressed herein in terms of the root-chord ratio, that is, the ratio of horizontal-tail root chord to vertical-tail root chord, were found to have a pronounced influence on most of the span loads and the resulting stability derivatives. For most of the cases considered, the rate of change of the span load coefficients and the stability derivatives with the root-chord ratio was found to be a maximum for small values of root-chord ratio and to decrease as root-chord ratio increased.

Booth, Katherine W.

1959-01-01

345

Kidney structure and function of obligate and facultative hibernators: the white-tailed prairie dog ( Cynomys leucurus ) and the black-tailed prairie dog ( Cynomys ludovicianus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The white-tailed prairie dog is an obligate hibernator that enters a heterothermic phase when maintained in the cold with low intensity light and ad libitum food and water. The black-tailed prairie dog (a facultative hibernator) will not hibernate under similar conditions. It has been suggested that the black tailed prairie dog remains active during the winter because it can conserve

H. J. Harlow; E. J. Braun

1995-01-01

346

Public health assessment for Richardson Flat Tailings, Park City, Summit County, Utah, Region 8. Cerclis No. UTD980952840. Addendum. Preliminary report  

SciTech Connect

The document is an addendum to the preliminary public health assessment prepared for the Richardson Flat Tailings site by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) in July 1990 (PB90-260092). ATSDR's Health Activities Recommendation Panel (HARP) has evaluated the data and information developed in the Richardson Flat Tailings Public Health Assessment. The panel determined that, because of the apparent lack of past and present public health hazards and community health concerns, no follow-up health activities are indicated at this time.

Not Available

1994-03-03

347

Head-Tail Sources in Poor Clusters of Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, several head-tail sources were discovered in poor clusters of galaxies, many more than had been expected from rich cluster studies and models for such morphologies. In this project we selected and observed four nearby poor cluster head-tail sources, using the Very Large Array of radio telescopes, at wavelengths of 6 cm and 20 cm. The data were processed and analyzed using the Astronomical Image Processing System software. The highly surprising result is that there is not much difference in the head-tail phenomenon between the rich and the poor cluster cases. Almost all physical parameters of head-tails studied in this project (jet luminosities, jet radii of curvature, density of the immediate environments, minimum pressures, spectral indices, fractional polarizations, magnetic field structures) are very similar between the two cases. We conclude that strikingly similar environments in both cases are the cause behind this result. Our conclusion implies relatively high galaxy velocities (?600 km s-1, 3 times the expected poor cluster average) for the poor cluster head-tail sources. We further conclude that such high velocities are the result of these poor clusters being dynamically young and still collapsing.

Venkatesan, T. C. A.

1997-10-01

348

Characterization of Emergent Data Networks Among Long-Tail Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data curation underpins data-driven scientific advancements. It manages the information flux across multiple users throughout data life cycle as well as increases data sustainability and reusability. The exponential growth in data production spanning across the Earth Science involving individual and small research groups, which is termed as log-tail data, increases the data-knowledge latency among related domains. It has become clear that an advanced framework-agnostic metadata and ontologies for long-tail data is required to increase their visibility to each other, and provide concise and meaningful descriptions that reveal their connectivity. Despite the advancement that has been achieved by various sophisticated data management models in different Earth Science disciplines, it is not always straightforward to derive relationships among long-tail data. Semantic data clustering algorithms and pre-defined logic rules that are oriented toward prediction of possible data relationships, is one method to address these challenges. Our work advances the connectivity of related long-tail data by introducing the design for an ontology-based knowledge management system. In this work, we present the system architecture, its components, and illustrate how it can be used to scrutinize the connectivity among datasets. To demonstrate the capabilities of this "data network" prototype, we implemented this approach within the Sustainable Environment Actionable Data (SEAD) environment, an open-source semantic content repository that provides a RDF database for long-tail data, and show how emergent relationships among datasets can be identified.

Elag, Mostafa; Kumar, Praveen; Hedstrom, Margaret; Myers, James; Plale, Beth; Marini, Luigi; McDonald, Robert

2014-05-01

349

Using Tidal Tails to Probe Dark Matter Halos  

E-print Network

We use simulations of merging galaxies to explore the sensitivity of the morphology of tidal tails to variations of the halo mass distributions in the parent galaxies. Our goal is to constrain the mass of dark halos in well-known merging pairs. We concentrate on prograde encounters between equal mass galaxies which represent the best cases for creating tidal tails, but also look at systems with different relative orientations, orbital energies and mass ratios. As the mass and extent of the dark halo increase in the model galaxies, the resulting tidal tails become shorter and less massive, even under the most favorable conditions for producing these features. Our simulations imply that the observed merging galaxies with long tidal tails ($\\sim 50-100$ kpc) such as NGC 4038/39 (the Antennae) and NGC 7252 probably have halo:disk+bulge mass ratios less than 10:1. These results conflict with the favored values of the dark halo mass of the Milky Way derived from satellite kinematics and the timing argument which give a halo:disk+bulge mass ratio of $\\sim 30:1$. However, the lower bound of the estimated dark halo mass in the Milky Way (mass ratio $\\sim 10:1$) is still consistent with the inferred tidal tail galaxy masses. Our results also conflict with the expectations of $\\Omega=1$ cosmologies such as CDM which predict much more massive and extended dark halos.

John Dubinski; J. Christopher Mihos; Lars Hernquist

1995-09-04

350

Discovery of the Dust Tail of Asteroid (3200) Phaethon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the discovery of a comet-like tail on asteroid (3200) Phaethon when imaged at optical wavelengths near perihelion. In both 2009 and 2012, the tail appears about 350?? (2.5 × 10^8 m) in length and extends approximately in the projected anti-solar direction. We interpret the tail as being caused by dust particles accelerated by solar radiation pressure. The sudden appearance and the morphology of the tail indicate that the dust particles are small, with an effective radius of 1 micron and a combined mass about 3 × 10^5 kg. These particles are likely products of thermal fracture and/or desiccation cracking under the very high (1000K) surface temperatures experienced by Phaethon at perihelion. The existence of the tail confirms our earlier inferences about activity in this body based on the detection of anomalous brightening. Phaethon, the presumed source of the Geminid meteoroids, is still active. The relation between the observed particles and those constituting the Geminid meteoroid stream will be discussed.

Jewitt, David; Li, J.; Agarwal, J.

2013-10-01

351

Liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Liner Evaluation for Uranium Mill Tailings Program was conducted to evaluate the need for and performance of prospective lining materials for the long-term management of inactive uranium mill tailings piles. On the basis of program results, two materials have been identified: natural foundation soil amended with 10% sodium bentonite; catalytic airblown asphalt membrane. The study showed that, for most situations, calcareous soils typical of Western US sites adequately buffer tailings leachates and prevent groundwater contamination without additional liner materials or amendments. Although mathematical modeling of disposal sites is recommended on a site-specific basis, there appears to be no reason to expect significant infiltration through the cover for most Western sites. The major water source through the tailings would be groundwater movement at sites with shallow groundwater tables. Even so column leaching studies showed that contaminant source terms were reduced to near maximum contaminant levels (MCL's) for drinking water within one or two pore volumes; thus, a limited source term for groundwater contamination exists. At sites where significant groundwater movement or infiltration is expected and the tailings leachates are alkaline, however, the sodium bentonite or asphalt membrane may be necessary.

Buelt, J.L. (comp.)

1983-09-01

352

Oxidation of sulphide in abandoned mine tailings by ferrate.  

PubMed

In this study, Fe(VI) was applied to treat three mine tailings containing different amounts of sulphides and heavy metals. Oxidation of sulphides by Fe(VI) was studied at pH 9.2 with variation of solid to solution ratio, Fe(VI) concentration and injection number of Fe(VI) solution. The major dissolved products from the treatment of mine tailings with Fe(VI) solution were sulphate and arsenic. Oxidation efficiency of sulphides was evaluated by reduction efficiency of Fe(VI) as well as by measurement of dissolved sulphate concentration. Even though inorganic composition of three mine tailings was different, reduction fraction of Fe(VI) was quite similar. This result can suggest that Fe(VI) was involved in several other reactions in addition to oxidation of sulphides. Oxidation of sulphides in mine tailing was greatly dependent on the total amount of sulphides as well as kinds of sulphides complexed with metals. Over the five consecutive injections of Fe(VI) solution, dissolved sulphate concentration was greatly decreased by each injection and no more dissolved sulphate was observed at the fifth injection. While dissolved arsenic was decreased lineally up to the fifth injection. Sulphate generation was slightly increased for all mine tailings as Fe(VI) concentration was increased; however, enhancement of oxidation efficiency of sulphides was not directly proportional to the initial Fe(VI) concentration. PMID:25413120

Lee, Yong-Hoon; Yu, Mok-Ryun; Chang, Yoon-Young; Kang, Seon-Hong; Yang, Jae-Kyu

2015-01-01

353

Thrust reversing effects on horizontal tail effectiveness of twin-engine fighter aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Langley Research Center has conducted an experimental program to determine the interference effects of thrust reversing on horizontal tail effectiveness of a twin engine, general research fighter model at approach (Mach number 0.15) and in-flight (Mach number 0.60 and 0.90) speeds. Twin vertical tails were tested at three longitudinal locations. Two nonaxisymmetric nozzle reverser concepts were studied. The effects of thrust reversing on horizontal tail effectiveness were found to be very dependent upon vertical tail locations. At approach speeds thrust reverser operation usually resulted in large variations in horizontal tail effectiveness as either nozzle pressure ratio or model angle of attack was varied. Either increases or decreases in tail effectiveness ocurred due to reverse operation depending upon tail location. At in-flight conditions there were always decreases in tail effectiveness due to reverser operation regardless of vertical tail location.

Capone, F. J.; Mason, M. L.; Carson, G. T., Jr.

1983-01-01

354

H2O/+/ in the tails of 13 comets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ratio of the surface brightness of the radiation of H2O(+) relative to that of CO(+) for the tail of each of 13 comets has been evaluated qualitatively and classed as 'high,' 'moderate,' or 'low,' primarily by comparison of direct photographs on blue-violet and red-sensitive emulsions. Five, four, and four comets were assigned to the respective classes. There is no evidence in this small sample for dependence of this ratio upon heliocentric distance, the 'age' of the comet, the presence of a bright type II tail, or, for comets observed after perihelion passage, the orbital parameter q. For the three comets for which the plates were suitable for an evaluation, there is no indication of a variation in the ratio from one part of the tail to another.

Miller, F. D.

1980-04-01

355

Empirical study of the tails of mutual fund size  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mutual fund industry manages about a quarter of the assets in the U.S. stock market and thus plays an important role in the U.S. economy. The question of how much control is concentrated in the hands of the largest players is best quantitatively discussed in terms of the tail behavior of the mutual fund size distribution. We study the distribution empirically and show that the tail is much better described by a log-normal than a power law, indicating less concentration than, for example, personal income. The results are highly statistically significant and are consistent across fifteen years. This contradicts a recent theory concerning the origin of the power law tails of the trading volume distribution. Based on the analysis in a companion paper, the log-normality is to be expected, and indicates that the distribution of mutual funds remains perpetually out of equilibrium.

Schwarzkopf, Yonathan; Farmer, J. Doyne

2010-06-01

356

Movements of flightless long-tailed ducks during wing molt  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the movements of flightless Long-tailed Ducks (Clangula hyemalis) during the wing molt in the near-shore lagoons of the Beaufort Sea in Alaska. Estimates of site fidelity during the 21-day flightless period ranged from 1-100%, with considerable variation among locations and within locations among years. There was no effect of low-level experimental disturbance or an underwater seismic survey on site fidelity of molting Long-tailed Ducks. Birds molting along a relatively consistent habitat gradient were more likely to move than those molting in a fragmented habitat. While flocks of birds are consistently observed in the same locations, these data suggest considerable turnover within these aggregations. These results, in conjunction with other studies, suggest that forage is relatively uniformly distributed within lagoons. We conclude that habitat selection by molting Long-tailed Ducks is likely influenced by protection from wind and associated waves.

Flint, P.L.; Lacroix, D.L.; Reed, J.A.; Lanctot, R.B.

2004-01-01

357

Curved tails in polymerization-based bacterial motility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The curved actin ``comet-tail'' of the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is a visually striking signature of actin polymerization-based motility. Similar actin tails are associated with Shigella flexneri, spotted-fever Rickettsiae, the Vaccinia virus, and vesicles and microspheres in related in vitro systems. We show that the torque required to produce the curvature in the tail can arise from randomly placed actin filaments pushing the bacterium or particle. We find that the curvature magnitude determines the number of actively pushing filaments, independent of viscosity and of the molecular details of force generation. The variation of the curvature with time can be used to infer the dynamics of actin filaments at the bacterial surface.

Rutenberg, Andrew D.; Grant, Martin

2001-08-01

358

Statistics of shocks in a toy model with heavy tails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the energy minimization for a particle in a quadratic well in the presence of short-ranged heavy-tailed disorder, as a toy model for an elastic manifold. The discrete model is shown to be described in the scaling limit by a continuum Poisson process model which captures the three universality classes. This model is solved in general, and we give, in the present case (Frechet class), detailed results for the distribution of the minimum energy and position, and the distribution of the sizes of the shocks (i.e., switches in the ground state) which arise as the position of the well is varied. All these distributions are found to exhibit heavy tails with modified exponents. These results lead to an "exotic regime" in Burgers turbulence decaying from a heavy-tailed initial condition.

Gueudré, Thomas; Le Doussal, Pierre

2014-04-01

359

Method for controlling flocculant addition to tar sand tailings  

SciTech Connect

The hot water extraction process for recovering bitumen from tar sand produces a large volume of solids-laden aqueous tailings as a waste product. The solids in the tailings stream may be flocculated by the addition of time and the components of the stream then separated into a water-free solids phase and a clarified water phase. During flocculation, the zeta potential of the stream is monitored. It rises from an initial negative zeta potential, as the lime is added. Flocculation is terminated when the zeta potential is about zero. At this point, the tailings are in optimum condition for separation into the water-free solids phase and the clarified water phase. Separation is preferably effected by vacuum filtration.

Fuhr, B.J.; Liu, J.K.

1981-08-04

360

The Anatomy of the Long Tail of Consumer Demand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long tail of consumer demand is consistent with two fundamentally different theories. The first, and more popular hypothesis, is that a majority of consumers have similar tastes and only few have any interest in niche content; the second, is that everyone is a bit eccentric, consuming both popular and niche products. By examining extensive data on user preferences for movies, music, web search, and web browsing, we found overwhelming support for the latter theory. Our investigation suggests an additional factor in the success of "infinite-inventory" retailers such as Netflix and Amazon: besides the significant revenue obtained from tail sales, tail availability may boost head sales by offering consumers the convenience of "one-stop shopping" for both their mainstream and niche interests.

Broder, Andrei

361

Measurements of atmospheric turbulence effects on tail rotor acoustics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results from an outdoor hover test of a full-scale Lynx tail rotor are presented. The investigation was designed to further the understanding of the acoustics of an isolated tail rotor hovering out-of-ground effect in atmospheric turbulence, without the effects of the main rotor wake or other helicopter components. Measurements include simultaneous rotor performance, noise, inflow, and far-field atmospheric turbulence. Results with grid-generated inflow turbulence are also presented. The effects of atmospheric turbulence ingestion on rotor noise are quantified. In contradiction to current theories, increasing rotor inflow and rotor thrust were found to increase turbulence ingestion noise. This is the final report of Task 13A--Helicopter Tail Rotor Noise, of the NASA/United Kingdom Defense Research Agency cooperative Aeronautics Research Program.

Hagen, Martin J.; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Signor, David B.; Mosher, Marianne

1994-01-01

362

Geological impact of some tailings dams in Sardinia, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article deals with the results of a survey carried out in Sardinia on both active and abandoned tailings dams, and we also discuss the geological impact of tailings dams of two mines: the Masua mine, a large syngenetic Pb-Zn deposit located in Cambrian limestones, and the Montevecchio mine, a Pb-Zn vein deposit near a Hercynian granite intrusion. The characteristics and metal content of material in the dams were analyzed. A high contamination of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu) was found both in the soils and water of Rio Montevecchio, a stream draining the tailings dams and other mining operations in the area. The study indicates that a control plan to minimize heavy metal pollution must be drawn up for all mines of the area, whether active or abandoned.

di Gregorio, Felice; Massoli-Novelli, Raniero

1992-05-01

363

AE/MA characteristics and behavior of mine tailings  

SciTech Connect

This study has focused on generating baseline AE/MA data from coal, iron, phosphate and copper tailings. Results of field tests using simulated signals have shown that signal strength, i.e., the amplitude of the emissions, varies from 0.01 g to 0.05 g, attenuation of the signal varies from 4 to 28 dB/m, and the dominant signal frequencies vary between 0.1 kHz and 12 kHz. The work also gave direct insight into the type and deployment of wave guides to be used for tailings monitoring by the method. Pickup sensors are recommended to be placed down-hole in pipes so that maximum sensor sensitivity and adequate shielding of background noise can be obtained. Our overall conclusion is that the AE/MA method is indeed a viable, and technically feasible method to monitor waste tailings for an assessment of their stability.

Koerner, R.M.; Lord, A.E. Jr.; McCabe W.M.; McElroy, J.J.

1984-01-01

364

Lead isotopes as seepage indicators around a uranium tailings dam  

SciTech Connect

Lead isotope ratios and lead concentrations have been measured in water from 26 bores around the Ranger uranium tailings dam, Northern Territory, Australia, and from the dam itself to determine possible migration of lead derived from the radioactive decay of uranium. Lead isotope compositions have also been measured for the particulates retained on selected filters. The concentration of lead in the bore waters is extremely low (usually < 1 ppb). The /sup 206/Pb//sup 204/Pb ratio measured in the bore waters differs by more than a factor of 100 from that in the tailings dam and shows no evidence of lead derived from a significant uranium accumulation. It may be possible to distinguish between lead from the tailings dam and that derived from a nearby uranium ore body.

Gulson, B.L.; Mizon, K.J.; Korsch, M.J.; Noller, B.N.

1989-03-01

365

Risk analysis for seismic design of (tailings dams)  

SciTech Connect

Probabilistic seismic risk analysis is a promising method for evaluating design options and establishing seismic design parameters. However, there have been few examples in the literature to guide practitioners in its use. (This paper demonstrates the value of risk analysis for mine tailings dams and provides a case-history application for a seismically active portion of Nevada. Risk analysis provided the basis for selecting among design options having varying liquefaction resistance, and for establishing input parameters for dynamic analysis. Ranges are presented for the quantity and cleanup cost of tailings released in seismic failures to aid in determining expected failure consequences. It is shown that for many tailings dams, accepted lifetime failure probabilities of a few percent may provide a reasonable basis for probabilistic determination of seismic design criteria.)

Vick, S.G.; Atkinson, G.M.; Wilmot, C.I.

1985-07-01

366

Endosonography and cytology in diagnosing and staging pancreatic body and tail carcinoma: Preliminary results of endosonographic guided puncture  

SciTech Connect

Endosonography was performed in diagnosing and staging pancreatic body and tail carcinoma in two patients. In the first case endoscopy, abdominal ultrasound, and computed tomography were nondiagnostic in diagnosing the origin of submucosal gastric abnormalities. Endosonography diagnosed a pancreatic tail carcinoma with submucosal gastric involvement, and this was confirmed by endosonographic-guided cytology. Fundus varices due to segmented splenic vein involvement were found. Surgery was not recommended due to the advanced disease. In the second case pancreatic body carcinoma was diagnosed by ERCP and computed tomography. Transcutaneous ultrasonographic-guided cytological puncture confirmed the diagnosis. Endosonography revealed additional information of segmental portal hypertension with fundic varices due to splenic vein involvement. Autopsy confirmed the endosonographic diagnosis. 18 refs., 5 figs.

Tio, T.L.; Sie, L.H.; Tytgat, G.N.J. (Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States) Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands))

1993-01-01

367

Reclamation of kyanite mine tailings with surface reconfiguration  

SciTech Connect

As part of the processing of kyanite from a pyritiferrous quartzite-kyanite one body in Georgia, several tailings ponds were created; the largest of which was 77 acres. The acidic tailings interstitial water (pH <2.7), coupled with the acid producing nature of the tailings, hampered reclamation efforts. A technique which has been recently developed, deals with the configuration of the surface of the tailings ponds into a series of ridges and furrows which creates a surface that provides for the successful establishment of vegetation. The first year of a test plot study, consisting of six plots 50{prime} x 100{prime} each, with various ridge orientations, soil amendments and treatments, demonstrated that using a plow to generate a surface ridge and furrow topography served to divert surface runoff into vertical infiltration. Initially, six inches of straw was incorporated into the top one foot of tailings and lime was applied at rates of 40 to 60 tons/acre. Ridges, approximately 1.5 ft. high and 2.5 ft. in diameter with corresponding sized furrows, were installed by lightweight farm equipment. The function of the reconfiguration was to allow for ponding of rain water within the furrow and the leaching of acidity from the ridges. The ridges and furrows were further amended by 600 lbs. acre of 10-10-10 fertilizer and seeded with an eleven seed mix. Lime and fertilizer have been reapplied during the last two seasons and vegetation has been successfully (>90%) established for three years. The study showed that the surface reconfiguration technique can be used to reclaim an acid producing tailings pond as indicated by: (1) the growth of the planted species, (2) the intrusion of volunteer species, (3) an increase in the pH of the runoff water (pH 5.5--7.5) and (4) a decrease in the surface water discharge due to increased evapotranspiration. These factors are integrated into an extended study.

Geidel, G.; Caruccio, F.T.; Dotson, E.R.

1999-07-01

368

Female white-tailed deer survival across ecoregions in minnesota and south dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Survival and cause-specific mortality of female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been well documented in forested and agricultural landscapes, but limited information has been collected in grassland habitats typical of the Northern Great Plains. Our objectives were to document and compare survival and cause-specific mortality of adult female white-tailed deer in four distinct ecoregions. We captured and radiocollared 190 (159 adult, 31 yearling) female white-tailed deer and monitored (including deer from a previous study) a total of 246 (215 adult, 31 yearling) deer from Jan. 2000 to Dec. 2007. We documented 113 mortalities; hunting (including wounding loss) accounted for 69.9% of all mortalities and vehicle collisions accounted for an additional 15.0%. Natural causes (e.g., disease, predation) of mortality were minor compared to human-related causes (e.g., hunting, vehicle collisions). We used known fate modeling in program MARK to estimate survival rates and compare ecoregions and seasons. Model Sseason (winter=summer) had the lowest AICc value suggesting that survival differed only between seasons where winter and summer survival was equal and differed with fall season. Annual and seasonal (summer, fall, winter) survival rates using the top model S season (summer=winter) were 0.76 (95% ci = 0.70-0.80), 0.97 (95% ci = 0.96-0.98), 0.80 (95% ci = 0.76-0.83) and 0.97 (95% ci = 0.96-0.98), respectively. High human-related mortality was likely associated with limited permanent cover, extensive road networks and high hunter density. Deer management in four distinct ecoregions relies on hunter harvest to maintain deer populations within state management goals. ?? 2011 American Midland Naturalist.

Grovenburg, T.W.; Swanson, C.C.; Jacques, C.N.; Deperno, C.S.; Klaver, R.W.; Jenks, J.A.

2011-01-01

369

Overexpression of the polycystin-1 C-tail enhances sensitivity of M-1 cells to ouabain.  

PubMed

Cells derived from renal cysts of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) are abnormally sensitive to ouabain, responding to physiological ouabain concentrations with enhanced proliferation and increased forskolin-induced transepithelial fluid secretion. This requires activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), Src kinase and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases MEK and ERK. Here, we have determined if the ADPKD phenotype obtained in mouse cortical collecting duct cells by stable overexpression of the C-terminal domain of polycystin-1 (PC-1 C-tail) also elicits the ADPKD-like response to ouabain in the cells. M-1 C20 cells expressing the PC-1 C-tail and M-1 C17 cells lacking expression of this construct were treated with physiological concentrations of ouabain, and cell proliferation, activation of the EGFR-Src-MEK-ERK pathway, forskolin-induced transepithelial Cl(-) secretion and the sensitivity of Na,K-ATPase to ouabain were explored. M-1 C20 cells responded to ouabain with increased cell proliferation and ERK phosphorylation. Ouabain also augmented forskolin-induced and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-mediated apical secretion of Cl(-) in M-1 C20 cells. These effects required activation of EGFR, Src and MEK. In contrast, ouabain had no significant effects on M-1 C17 cells. Interestingly, approximately 20% of the Na,K-ATPase from M-1 C20 cells presented an abnormally increased sensitivity to ouabain. Overexpression of PC-1 C-tail in M-1 C20 cells is associated with an ouabain-sensitive phenotype and an increased ability of the cells to proliferate and secrete anions upon ouabain stimulation. This phenotype mimics the ouabain sensitivity of ADPKD cells and may help promote their cystogenic potential. PMID:23784065

Jansson, Kyle; Magenheimer, Brenda S; Maser, Robin L; Calvet, James P; Blanco, Gustavo

2013-07-01

370

Wake patterns of the wings and tail of hovering hummingbirds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow fields of slowly flying bats and fasterflying birds differ in that bats produce two vortex loops during each stroke, one per wing, and birds produce a single vortex loop per stroke. In addition, the circulation at stroke transition approaches zero in bats but remains strong in birds. It is unknown if these difference derive from fundamental differences in wing morphology or are a consequence of flight speed. Here, we present an analysis of the horizontal flow field underneath hovering Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) to describe the wake of a bird flying at zero forward velocity. We also consider how the hummingbird tail interacts with the wake generated by the wings. High-speed image recording and analysis from three orthogonal perspectives revealed that the wing tips reach peak velocities in the middle of each stroke and approach zero velocity at stroke transition. Hummingbirds use complex tail kinematic patterns ranging from in phase to antiphase cycling with respect to the wings, covering several phase shifted patterns. We employed particle image velocimetry to attain detailed horizontal flow measurements at three levels with respect to the tail: in the tail, at the tail tip, and just below the tail. The velocity patterns underneath the wings indicate that flow oscillates along the ventral-dorsal axis in response to the down- and up-strokes and that the sideways flows with respect to the bird are consistently from the lateral to medial. The region around the tail is dominated by axial flows in dorsal to ventral direction. We propose that these flows are generated by interaction between the wakes of the two wings at the end of the upstroke, and that the tail actively defects flows to generate moments that contribute to pitch stability. The flow fields images also revealed distinct vortex loops underneath each wing, which were generated during each stroke. From these data, we propose a model for the primary flow structures of hummingbirds that more strongly resembles the bat model. Thus, pairs of unconnected vortex loops may be shared features of different animals during hovering and slow forward flight.

Altshuler, Douglas L.; Princevac, Marko; Pan, Hansheng; Lozano, Jesse

371

Wake patterns of the wings and tail of hovering hummingbirds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow fields of slowly flying bats and faster-flying birds differ in that bats produce two vortex loops during each stroke, one per wing, and birds produce a single vortex loop per stroke. In addition, the circulation at stroke transition approaches zero in bats but remains strong in birds. It is unknown if these difference derive from fundamental differences in wing morphology or are a consequence of flight speed. Here, we present an analysis of the horizontal flow field underneath hovering Anna’s hummingbirds ( Calypte anna) to describe the wake of a bird flying at zero forward velocity. We also consider how the hummingbird tail interacts with the wake generated by the wings. High-speed image recording and analysis from three orthogonal perspectives revealed that the wing tips reach peak velocities in the middle of each stroke and approach zero velocity at stroke transition. Hummingbirds use complex tail kinematic patterns ranging from in phase to antiphase cycling with respect to the wings, covering several phase shifted patterns. We employed particle image velocimetry to attain detailed horizontal flow measurements at three levels with respect to the tail: in the tail, at the tail tip, and just below the tail. The velocity patterns underneath the wings indicate that flow oscillates along the ventral-dorsal axis in response to the down- and up-strokes and that the sideways flows with respect to the bird are consistently from the lateral to medial. The region around the tail is dominated by axial flows in dorsal to ventral direction. We propose that these flows are generated by interaction between the wakes of the two wings at the end of the upstroke, and that the tail actively defects flows to generate moments that contribute to pitch stability. The flow fields images also revealed distinct vortex loops underneath each wing, which were generated during each stroke. From these data, we propose a model for the primary flow structures of hummingbirds that more strongly resembles the bat model. Thus, pairs of unconnected vortex loops may be shared features of different animals during hovering and slow forward flight.

Altshuler, Douglas L.; Princevac, Marko; Pan, Hansheng; Lozano, Jesse

2009-05-01

372

Ion acceleration in the Martian tail - PHOBOS observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurements carried out on the spacecraft Phobos-2 have revealed that the plasma sheet of the Martian magnetosphere consists mainly of ions of planetary origin, accelerated up to about 1 keV/q. Such an acceleration may result from the action of magnetic shear stresses of the draped field, the ion energy increasing toward the center of the tail where magnetic stresses are stronger. The energy gained by heavy ions does not depend on their mass and are proportional to the ion charge. The mechanism of the ion acceleration is related with the generation of a charge separation electric field, which extracts ions from 'ray' structures in the Martian tail.

Dubinin, E.; Lundin, R.; Norberg, O.; Pissarenko, N.

1993-03-01

373

Adoption in rock and white-tailed ptarmigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reports of adoption in birds are widespread, but few studies report rates of adoption or possible mechanisms for this phenomenon, particularly in the Order Galliformes. We report incidents of adoption in Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) and White-tailed Ptarmigan (L. leucura) from two sites in western Canada. Adoption rates for White-tailed Ptarmigan on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, and the Ruby Ranges, Yukon Territory were 13% (n = 16 broods) and 4% (n = 27), respectively, while rates for Rock Ptarmigan were 14% (n = 29) in the Ruby Ranges. Low brood densities may result in lower rates of adoption for ptarmigan. ?? 2009 The Wilson Ornithological Society.

Wong, M. M. L.; Fedy, B. C.; Wilson, S.; Martin, K. M.

2009-01-01

374

Health status of mule deer and white-tailed deer herds on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Mountain Arsenal is a fenced, 6,900-ha Superfund site under remediation by the US Army and the Shell Oil Company. A variety of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, metals, and nerve-gas-production by-products are in the soil or in the water on the site. The authors evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer (13 mule deer [Odocoileus hemionus] and 5 white-tailed deer [O. virginianus]) collected by gunshot. Prior to collection, more than 4,000 locations of the 18 deer were plotted during a period of more than 2 years. Blood samples from the euthanized animals were collected for serologic, hematologic, and contaminant evaluations. Necropsies were preformed and tissues collected for histopathologic examinations and environmental contaminants analyses. Results indicate that the physical conditions of the mule deer were fair/good and of the white-tailed deer were good. Antibody prevalence against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85% and bovine virus diarrhea 56%. Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. Three mule deer had alopecia with dermatitis and hyperkeratosis. Results of heavy metal, and organochlorine pesticide analyses from blood and tissue samples and other analyses will be presented.

Creekmore, T.E.; Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L. [National Wildlife Health Research Center, Madison, WI (United States); Griess, J.M.; Roy, R.R. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, CO (United States); Baker, D.L. [Colorado Division of Wildlife, Ft. Collins, CO (United States)

1994-12-31

375

Well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta).  

PubMed

A 16-year-old male ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) was presented with severe cachexia and an abdominal mass. The encapsulated, multilobular mass replaced the right medial lobe of the liver and compressed the adjacent gall bladder. Multiple haemorrhages and necrotic foci were found within the mass. Microscopically, neoplastic cells formed cords of moderately pleomorphic, polygonal cells with mild to moderate anaplasia. Immunohistochemical markers used for diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinomas in man were used to characterize the neoplastic cells, which expressed hepatocyte-specific antigen, but not glypican-3 or polyclonal carcinoembryonic antigen. Gross, microscopical and immunohistochemical features of the tumour were most consistent with a well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma. Although this tumour is common among prosimians, to the authors' knowledge this is the first documented case in a ring-tailed lemur. Hepatocellular carcinomas have been associated with hepatitis virus infections and excessive hepatic iron in man; however, no association was established between this tumour and viral infection or hepatic iron storage disease in the present case. PMID:22819017

Nemeth, N M; Blas-Machado, U; Cazzini, P; Oguni, J; Camus, M S; Dockery, K K; Butler, A M

2013-02-01

376

Casein Kinase 2 Reverses Tail-Independent Inhibition of Kinesin-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kinesin-1 is a plus-end microtubule-based molecular motor, and defects in kinesin transport are linked to diseases including neurodegeneration. Kinesin can auto-inhibit via a direct head-tail interaction, but is believed to be active otherwise. In contrast, this study uncovers a fast but reversible inhibition distinct from the canonical auto-inhibition pathway. The majority of the initially active kinesin (full-length or tail-less) loses its ability to bind/interact with microtubule, and Casein Kinase 2 (CK2) reverses this inactivation (up to 4-fold) without altering kinesin's single motor properties. Motor phosphorylation is not required for this CK2 -mediated kinesin activation. In cultured mammalian cells, knockdown of CK2 level, but not kinase activity, was sufficient to decrease the force required to stall lipid droplet transport, consistent with a reduction in the number of active motors. We propose that CK2 forms a positive regulating complex with the motor. This study provides the first direct evidence of a protein kinase positively regulating kinesin-transport, and uncovers a pathway whereby inactive cargo-bound kinesin can be activated.

Xu, Jing; Shu, Zhanyong; Anand, Preetha; Reddy, Babu; Cermelli, Silvia; Whisenant, Thomas; King, Stephen; Bardwell, Lee; Huang, Lan; Gross, Steven

2011-03-01

377

Evaluation of common anesthetic and analgesic techniques for tail biopsy in mice.  

PubMed

Tail biopsy in mice is a common procedure in genetically modified mouse colonies. We evaluated the anesthetic and analgesic effects of various agents commonly used to mitigate pain after tail biopsy. We used a hot-water immersion assay to evaluate the analgesic effects of isoflurane, ice-cold ethanol, ethyl chloride, buprenorphine, and 2-point local nerve blocks before studying their effects on mice receiving tail biopsies. Mice treated with ethyl chloride spray, isoflurane and buprenorphine, and 2-point local nerve blocks demonstrated increased tail-flick latency compared with that of untreated mice. When we evaluated the behavior of adult and preweanling mice after tail biopsy, untreated mice demonstrated behavioral changes immediately after tail biopsy that lasted 30 to 60 min before returning to normal. The use of isoflurane, isoflurane and buprenorphine, buprenorphine, 2-point nerve block, or ethyl chloride spray in adult mice did not significantly improve their behavioral response to tail biopsy. Similarly, the use of buprenorphine and ethyl chloride spray in preweanling mice did not improve their behavioral response to tail biopsy compared with that of the untreated group. However, immersion in bupivacaine for 30 s after tail biopsy decreased tail grooming behavior during the first 30 min after tail biopsy. The anesthetic and analgesic regimens tested provide little benefit in adult and preweanling mice. Given that tail biopsy results in pain that lasts 30 to 60 min, investigators should carefully consider the appropriate anesthetic or analgesic regimen to incorporate into tail-biopsy procedures for mice. PMID:23294888

Jones, Carissa P; Carver, Scott; Kendall, Lon V

2012-11-01

378

Use of gold mill tailings in making bricks: a feasibility study.  

PubMed

Mill tailings dumps at Kolar Gold Fields, Karnataka, are creating environmental problems. One of the solutions to these problems is to use the mill tailings for some useful purpose. This study examined the possibility of making bricks from the mill tailings with some additives in laboratory experiments. Samples of the mill tailings and the additives were analysed for particle size distribution, Atterberg limits and specific gravity. The plasticity index of the mill tailings being zero, they could not be used directly for making bricks. Therefore some additives that had plasticity or binding properties were mixed with the mill tailings. Ordinary Portland cement, black cotton soils and red soils were selected as additives. Each of the additives was mixed separately with the mill tailings in different proportions by weight and a large number of bricks were prepared using metallic moulds. The bricks were termed as cement-tailings bricks or soil-tailings bricks, depending on the additives used. The cement-tailings bricks were cured for different periods and their corresponding compressive strengths were determined. The bricks with 20% of cement and 14 days of curing were found to be suitable. The soil-tailings bricks were sun-dried and then fired in a furnace at different temperatures. The quality of bricks was assessed in terms of linear shrinkage, water absorption and compressive strength. The cost analysis revealed that cement-tailings bricks would be uneconomical whereas the soil-tailings bricks would be very economical. PMID:17985673

Roy, Surendra; Adhikari, Govind R; Gupta, Rama N

2007-10-01

379

Probability tails of wavelet coefficients of magnetometer records  

E-print Network

Probability tails of wavelet coefficients of magnetometer records P. Kokoszka,1 I. Maslova,1 J; published 8 June 2006. [1] The ground-based magnetometer network has long been a powerful tool new mathematical techniques have been developed to analyze magnetometer data and the wavelet technique

Kokoszka, Piotr

380

Cost of radon-barrier systems for uranium mill tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report deals specifically with the cost of three types of radon barrier systems, earthen covers, asphalt emulsion covers, and multilayer covers, which could meet standards proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency to stabilize uranium mill tailings located primarily in the western US. In addition, the report includes a sensitivity analysis of various factors which significantly effect the overall cost

E. G. Baker; J. N. Hartley

1982-01-01

381

Functional Morphology of the Radialis Muscle in Shark Tails  

E-print Network

. Electromyography of the caudal muscles of dogfish swimming steadily at 0.25 and 0.5 body lengths per second (L s21 of the functional internal anatomy of the tail fin. The caudal fin of sharks is the most prominent control surface. In support of the first possibility, high aspect ratio fins are only useful if they are stiff, otherwise

Lauder, George V.

382

Human tails: ownership and control of extended humanoid avatars.  

PubMed

This paper explores body ownership and control of an 'extended' humanoid avatar that features a distinct and flexible tail-like appendage protruding from its coccyx. Thirty-two participants took part in a between-groups study to puppeteer the avatar in an immersive CAVE™ -like system. Participants' body movement was tracked, and the avatar's humanoid body synchronously reflected this motion. However, sixteen participants experienced the avatar's tail moving around randomly and asynchronous to their own movement, while the other participants experienced a tail that they could, potentially, control accurately and synchronously through hip movement. Participants in the synchronous condition experienced a higher degree of body ownership and agency, suggesting that visuomotor synchrony enhanced the probability of ownership over the avatar body despite of its extra-human form. Participants experiencing body ownership were also more likely to be more anxious and attempt to avoid virtual threats to the tail and body. The higher task performance of participants in the synchronous condition indicates that people are able to quickly learn how to remap normal degrees of bodily freedom in order to control virtual bodies that differ from the humanoid form. We discuss the implications and applications of extended humanoid avatars as a method for exploring the plasticity of the brain's representation of the body and for gestural human-computer interfaces. PMID:23428442

Steptoe, William; Steed, Anthony; Slater, Mel

2013-04-01

383

Multi-Armed Bandit Problems with Heavy Tail Reward Distributions  

E-print Network

dependency of the regret order on the tail probabilities of the reward distributions. The proposed DSEE observations. Potential applications include dynamic spectrum access, multi- agent systems, Internet of applications including clinical trials, target tracking, dynamic spectrum access, Internet advertising and Web

Islam, M. Saif

384

Helicopter tail rotor blade-vortex interaction noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study is made of helicopter tail rotor noise, particularly that due to the interactions with main rotor tip vortices. Summarized here are present analysis, the computer codes, and the results of several test cases. Amiet's unsteady thin airfoil theory is used to calculate the acoustics of blade-vortex interaction. The noise source is modelled as a force dipole resulting from

Albert R. George; S.-T. Chou

1987-01-01

385

In helicopters the tail mainly serves to keep the aircraft  

E-print Network

In helicopters the tail mainly serves to keep the aircraft stable. The rotors are used to maneuver reduces the structural load on the main rotor, but also makes the helicopter easier to handle in forward flight helicopters can experience large and sometimes even unacceptable loads on the main rotor

Langendoen, Koen

386

Analysis of Imp-C data from the magnetospheric tail  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite magnetic field measurements in the geomagnetic tail current sheet are analyzed to determine the normal field component, and other CS parameters such as thickness, motion, vector current density, etc., and to make correlations with auroral activity as measured by the A sub e index. The satellite data used in the initial part of this study were from Explorer 28 and Explorer 34 satellites.

Speiser, T. W.

1973-01-01

387

Avian pox in a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Avian pox has been reported in at least 60 species of birds belonging to 20 different families. However, poxvirus infection in birds of prey is apparently uncommon. On 18 May 1981, an adult male red-tailed hawk was found on the US Department of Energy's Arid Land Ecology Reserve in Benton County, Washington. The bird was incapable of flight and was

R. E. Fitzner; R. A. Miller; C. A. R. A. Pierce; S. E. Rowe

1985-01-01

388

Lifshitz Tails for Generalized Alloy Type Random Schrodinger Operators  

E-print Network

V(x) = Zd V (x - ) on Rd, d 1, where · V0 is a periodic potential; · V is a compactly supported of studies. In particular, it is well known that the integrated density of states of the Hamiltonian admits a Lifshitz tail near E-, i.e., lim EE+ - log | log N(E)| log(E - E-)

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

389

Ion acceleration in the Martian tail - PHOBOS observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurements carried out on the spacecraft Phobos-2 have revealed that the plasma sheet of the Martian magnetosphere consists mainly of ions of planetary origin, accelerated up to about 1 keV\\/q. Such an acceleration may result from the action of magnetic shear stresses of the draped field, the ion energy increasing toward the center of the tail where magnetic stresses

E. Dubinin; R. Lundin; O. Norberg; N. Pissarenko

1993-01-01

390

Geo-Seismic Environmental Aspects Affecting Tailings Dams Failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic performance evaluations of tailings dams are essential for characterizing the geo- environmental risks posed by these earthen structures, which should include the geotechnical hazards implied by slope instability failure, free board loss and the potential release of contaminants. The observed damage is more important when liquefaction occurs on the dam body and foundation, which often leads to cracking, settlements,

Juan M. Mayoral; Miguel P. Romo

2008-01-01

391

Functional Characterization of Myosin I Tail Regions in Candida albicans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular motor myosin I is required for hyphal growth in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Specific myosin I functions were investigated by a deletion analysis of five neck and tail regions. Hyphal formation requires both the TH1 region and the IQ motifs. The TH2 region is important for optimal hyphal growth. All of the regions, except for the SH3

Ursula Oberholzer; Tatiana L. Iouk; David Y. Thomas; Malcolm Whiteway

2004-01-01

392

Moisture content analysis of covered uranium mill tailings  

SciTech Connect

The use of vegetation and rock covers to stabilize uranium mill tailings cover systems is being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. A modeling study of moisture movement through the tailings and cover layers was initiated to determine the effect of the stabilizing techniques. The cover system was simulated under climatic conditions occurring at Grand Junction, Colorado. The cover consisted of a layer of wet clay/gravel mix followed by a capillary barrier of washed rock and a surface layer of fill soil. Vegetation and rock were used to stabilize the surface layer. The simulation yielded moisture content and moisture storage values for the tailings and cover system along with information about moisture losses due to evaporation, transpiration, and drainage. The study demonstrates that different surface stabilization treatments lead to different degrees of moisture retention in the covered tailings pile. The evapotranspiration from vegetation can result in a relatively stable moisture content. Rock covers, however, may cause drainage to occur because they reduce evaporation and lead to a subsequent increase in moisture content. It is important to consider these effects when designing a surface stabilization treatment. Drainage may contribute to a groundwater pollution problem. A surface treatment that allows the cover system to dry out can increase the risk of atmospheric contamination through elevated radon emission rates.

Mayer, D.W.; Beedlow, P.A.; Cadwell, L.L.

1981-12-01

393

2. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE, SHOWING TAILING DUMP. THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE, SHOWING TAILING DUMP. THE ROAD IN FOREGROUND LEADS TO TOWN OF KEETLEY ON LEFT AND TO KEETLEY MINE COMPLEX ON UPPER RIGHT, BEYOND PICTURE FRAME. - Park Utah Mining Company: Keetley Mine Complex, 1 mile East of U.S. 40 at Keetley, Heber City, Wasatch County, UT

394

Mound Characteristics of White-Tailed Prairie Dog Maternity Burrows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mound size characteristics of 682 white-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys leucurus) burrows were examined in Carbon Co., Montana. Burrows containing litters had significanlty larger mounds than those which did not. Mounds of litter-occupied burrows contained accessory digging for 48 and 49 observed litters. Maternity burrows can be identified by size and presence of current accessory digging.

Dennis L. Flath; Ronald K. Paulick

1979-01-01

395

REPRODUCTIVE AND BEHAVIORAL BIOLOGY OF THE GRAY-TAILED VOLE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the reproductive biology of the gray-tailed vole and relates behavioral and morphological features in the mating system. he breeding season extended from March through December, mean litter size was 4.4 young, and hip (scent) glands were prominent in adult ma...

396

Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria for Phytostabilization of Mine Tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eolian dispersion of mine tailings in arid and semiarid environments is an emerging global issue for which economical remediation alternatives are needed. Phytostabilization, the revegetation of these sites with native plants, is one such alternative. Revegetation often requires the addition of bulky amendments such as compost which greatly increases cost. We report the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) to

C. J. Grandlic; M. O. Mendez; J. Chorover; B. Machado; R. M. Maier

2009-01-01

397

Learning Set Formation in Ring-Tailed Lemurs (Lemur catta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the study on nocturnal slow lorises (Nycticebus coucang), the visual discrimination learning set was tested on diurnal ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) under the almost same experimental condition as on slow lorises. Their performance was significantly higher than that of slow lorises (p < 0.005). And this suggested the importance of interspecific comparison among extensive prosimian species and the necessity

Hirohiko Ohta; Hidemi Ishida; Shozo Matano

1984-01-01

398

MOVEMENTS OF THE GREAT-TAILED GRACKLE IN TEXAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Great-tailed Grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus) is an interesting species in that it has expanded its distribution rather dramatically in the 20th century (Selander and Giller 1961, Oherholser 1974). The species has received much attention, including systematics (Selander and Giller 1961)) vocal behavior (Kok 1971)) food habits (Davis and Arnold 1972)) and growth rate and thermoregulation (Gotie and Kroll 1973). Little

KEITH A. ARNOLD; LEON J. FOLSE

399

Aberration angles of comet Bradfield 1987 29 plasma tail  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of thirteen large-scale exposures of comet Bradfield 1987 29 taken between 8 Nov. - 25 Dec. 1987 is evaluated. The observations were obtained with the 63\\/85\\/187 cm Maksutov telescope of the Klet Observatory. The studied plasma tail with visible plasma rays, kinks, and disconnection events on some exposures extends out of the field of the plates. Therefore, the

D. Kubacek; E. M. Pittich; J. Zvolankova; J. Ticha; M. Tichy

1995-01-01

400

Electron Ageing and Polarization in Tailed Radio Galaxies  

E-print Network

High-frequency observations of the tailed radio galaxies IC 310, NGC 1265, 3C 129, and 3C 465 have been performed with the Effelsberg 100-m telescope. For the radio galaxies IC 310, NGC 1265 and 3C 465, radio data obtained at low frequencies with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope are also available. These new radio data allow us to map the extended structure of the radio galaxies and obtain spectral and polarization information in the outermost regions. The multi-frequency spectra were used to study the synchrotron ageing of relativistic electrons with increasing distance from the active nucleus. We found that the spectrum in each radio galaxy progressively steepens with distance, and at each location it is steeper at high frequencies. The spectra are fitted by models involving synchrotron energy losses and the critical frequency is obtained at increasing distance from the core. Assuming that the magnetic field is the equipartition value, we obtain the radiating electron lifetimes and consequently their drift velocities. Our results imply the existence of reacceleration processes or bulk motions along the tails. The polarization data at 10.6 GHz give information on the intrinsic degree of polarized flux and the orientation of the magnetic field. We find that the polarization percentage increases along the tails, reflecting an increase of the degree of ordering of the magnetic field. The magnetic field in the tails is longitudinal.

L. Feretti; G. Giovannini; U. Klein; K. -H. Mack; L. G. Sijbring; G. Zech

1997-12-03

401

Muscle Responses to Stimulation of the Tadpole Tail  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes use of tail muscles and spinal cord in the tadpole as an alternative source for muscle-and-nerve experiments. Includes explanation of simple dissection and preparation of tadpole; instructions for experiments such as threshold, strength of stimulus, frequency of stimulus, single twitch, tetanus, fatigue, effects of temperature on…

Funkhouser, Anne

1976-01-01

402

Tail call elimination on the Java Virtual Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A problem that often has to be solved by compilers for functional languages target- ing the Java Virtual Machine is the elimination of tail calls. This paper explains how we solved it in our Funnel compiler and presents some experimental results about the impact our technique has on both performance and size of the compiled programs.

Michel Schinz; Martin Odersky

2001-01-01

403

Cottongrass Effects on Trace Elements in Submersed Mine Tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

will probably prevent the weathering of sulfides. Plants also reduce wind and wave erosion. This would reduce Phytostablization may limit the leakage of metals and As from the use of the lime treatment and might be a more submersed mine tailings, thus treatment of acid mine drainage with lime could be reduced. Tall cottongrass (Eriophorum angustifolium sustainable way to treat

Eva Stoltz; Maria Greger

2002-01-01

404

LEFT WING AND FUSELAGE FROM THIRD LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

LEFT WING AND FUSELAGE FROM THIRD LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK STAND. THE WING IS PREPARED FOR BASIC LUBRICATION WITH E SPOILER BOARDS UP AND ALL SAFETY LOCKS IN PLACE TO PROTECT MECHANICS FROM INJURY. ON THE WING AN INSPECTOR CHECKS THE ACTUATORS. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

405

An evaluation procedure for flocculation of coal preparation plant tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In solid–liquid separation of coal preparation plant tailings by flocculation, in addition to the type and amount of flocculants, the composition of waste materials including clay minerals must be determined in order to devise an effective and economic sedimentation system. In this study, the characterization of organic and inorganic impurities was made with the help of mineralogical data and instrumental

E. Sabah; I. Cengiz

2004-01-01

406

Risk analysis for seismic design of (tailings dams)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probabilistic seismic risk analysis is a promising method for evaluating design options and establishing seismic design parameters. However, there have been few examples in the literature to guide practitioners in its use. (This paper demonstrates the value of risk analysis for mine tailings dams and provides a case-history application for a seismically active portion of Nevada. Risk analysis provided the

Steven G. Vick; Gail M. Atkinson; Charles I. Wilmot

1985-01-01

407

1. OVERALL VIEW OF SPILLWAY SHOWING BAFFLE WALL AND TAIL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. OVERALL VIEW OF SPILLWAY SHOWING BAFFLE WALL AND TAIL WATERS, WITH POWERHOUSE (MI-98-C) AND SUBSTATION (MI-98-D) AT LEFT. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Cooke Hydroelectric Plant, Spillway, Cook Dam Road at Au Sable River, Oscoda, Iosco County, MI

408

Lead isotopes as seepage indicators around a uranium tailings dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead isotope ratios and lead concentrations have been measured in water from 26 bores around the Ranger uranium tailings dam, Northern Territory, Australia, and from the dam itself to determine possible migration of lead derived from the radioactive decay of uranium. Lead isotope compositions have also been measured for the particulates retained on selected filters. The concentration of lead in

Brian L. Gulson; Karen J. Mizon; Michael J. Korsch; Barry N. Noller

1989-01-01

409

Characterization of pore pressure conditions in upstream tailings dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional upstream tailings dams are unique structures in that their shear strength and pore pressure conditions are often difficult to characterize, particularly during the design stage. Selection of shear strength models based on understanding contractant versus dilatant, and drained versus undrained, behaviour in shear was the subject of a companion paper. This paper addresses the complexity of proper characterization of

T. E. Martin

410

White-tailed deer food habits in northeastern Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microhistological analysis of feces was used to estimate the selection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, Tex.) in the state of Nuevo Leon in northeastern Mexico. Browse was the main component of deer diets (94% annual mean). Major species were blackbrush acacia (Acacia rigidula Benth), guajillo (Acacia berlandieri Benth) soapbrush (Porlieria angustifolia Englem), cenizo (Leucophyllum texanus Benth), huisache (Acacia farnesiana L),

R. G. Ramírez; J. B. Quintanilla; J. Aranda

1997-01-01

411

Ehrlichia ewingii Infection in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two closely related zoonotic ehrlichiae, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. ewingii, are transmitted by Ambl- yomma americanum, the lone star tick. Because white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are critical hosts for all mobile stages of A. americanum and are important vertebrate reservoirs of E. chaffeensis, we investigated whether deer may be infected with E. ewingii, a cause of granulocytotropic ehrlichiosis in humans

Michael J. Yabsley; Andrea S. Varela; Cynthia M. Tate; Vivien G. Dugan; David E. Stallknecht; Susan E. Little; William R. Davidson

412

Practical Considerations of Pyrite Oxidation Control in Uranium Tailings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problems posed by the oxidation of pyrite in uranium tailings include the generation of sulfuric acid and acid sulfate metal salts. These have substantial negative impacts on watercourse biota by themselves, and the lowered pH levels tend to mobilize ...

1984-01-01

413

Hantavirus in northern short-tailed shrew, United States.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic analyses, based on partial medium- and large-segment sequences, support an ancient evolutionary origin of a genetically distinct hantavirus detected by reverse transcription-PCR in tissues of northern short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) captured in Minnesota in August 1998. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of hantaviruses harbored by shrews in the Americas. PMID:18252128

Arai, Satoru; Song, Jin-Won; Sumibcay, Laarni; Bennett, Shannon N; Nerurkar, Vivek R; Parmenter, Cheryl; Cook, Joseph A; Yates, Terry L; Yanagihara, Richard

2007-09-01

414

Hantavirus in Northern Short-tailed Shrew, United States  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic analyses, based on partial medium- and large-segment sequences, support an ancient evolutionary origin of a genetically distinct hantavirus detected by reverse transcription–PCR in tissues of northern short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) captured in Minnesota in August 1998. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of hantaviruses harbored by shrews in the Americas. PMID:18252128

Arai, Satoru; Song, Jin-Won; Sumibcay, Laarni; Bennett, Shannon N.; Nerurkar, Vivek R.; Parmenter, Cheryl; Cook, Joseph A.; Yates, Terry L.

2007-01-01

415

Constraining Dark Halo Potentials with Tidal Tails John Dubinski  

E-print Network

. 1. Introduction When disk galaxies collide, the strong mutual tidal fields of their interaction of colliding equal mass, co­planar disks in a direct encounter. This is the geometry of the first galaxy the formation of long tidal tails in galaxy collisions. We examine this effect using an extensive survey

Mihos, Chris

416

Element flows associated with marine shore mine tailings deposits.  

PubMed

From 1938 until 1975, flotation tailings from the Potrerillos--El Salvador mining district (porphyry copper deposits) were discharged into the El Salado valley and transported in suspension to the sea at Chaliaral Bay, Atacama Desert, northern Chile. Over 220 Mt of tailings, averaging 0.8 +/- 0.25 wt % of pyrite, were deposited into the bay, resulting in over a 1 kilometer seaward displacement of the shoreline and an estimated 10-15 m thick tailings accumulation covering a approximately 4 km2 surface area. The Chaniaral case was classified by the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) in 1983 as one of the most serious cases of marine contamination in the Pacific area. Since 1975, the tailings have been exposed to oxidation, resulting in a 70-188 cm thick low-pH (2.6-4) oxidation zone at the top with liberation of divalent metal cations, such as Cu2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+ (up to 2265 mg/L, 18.1 mg/L, and 20.3 mg/ L, respectively). Evaporation-induced transport capillarity led to metal enrichment atthe tailings surface (e.g. up to 2.4% Cu) in the form of secondary chlorides and/or sulfates (dominated by eriochalcite [CuCl.H2O] and halite). These, mainly water-soluble, secondary minerals were exposed to eolian transport in the direction of the Village of Chañaral by the predominant W-SW winds. Two element-flow directions (toward the tailings surface, via capillarity, and toward the sea) and two element groups with different geochemical behaviors (cations such as Cu, Zn, Ni, and oxyanions such as As and Mo) could be distinguished. It can be postulated, that the sea is mainly affected by the following: As, Mo, Cu, and Zn contamination, which were liberated from the oxidation zone from the tailings and mobilized through the tidal cycle, and by Cu and Zn from the subsurface waters flowing in the El Salado valley (up to 19 mg/L and 12 mg/L Zn, respectively), transported as chloro complexes at neutral pH. PMID:16509314

Dold, Bernhard

2006-02-01

417

Arsenic mobility in soils impacted by tailings at Zimapán, México  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Zimapán mining zone, in Central México is one of the worldwide sites known for As contamination. For more than 20 years and until recently, As-rich groundwater, mainly due to mineralization in a limestone aquifer, was an important source of As exposure to the inhabitants. In addition, decades of ore processing have produced hazardous wastes (tailings), many of them settled in the town outskirts. Although mineralogical and chemical differences exist among the various deposits; every one has high As contents (up to several thousands mg/kg) and other toxic elements that may be released to the nearby soils. To assess As mobility in soils impacted by tailings, total and sequential fractionation determinations were performed in 120 superficial and 40 cm depth samples collected at various distances near three of the impoundments. Higher total As concentrations were measured in the dry (up to 51,534 mg/kg) with respect to the rainy season (up to 23,570 mg/kg) indicating the occurrence of As wash off by rain. Although concentrations were lower in the deep regarding the superficial samples at most sites, As contents reached several thousands mg/kg at 40 cm depth indicating also its vertical transport that may reach the shallow aquifer. Sequential extractions showed differences between soils impacted by highly oxidized (red) tailings and low oxidized (gray) deposits. Most of the As occurs in the Fe-Mn oxides fraction (up to 92%) followed by the organic matter and sulfides fraction (up to 52 %) in soils close to red tailings, while organic matter and sulfide fraction contain most of the As (up to 95%) in soil samples close to low-oxidized deposits. Arsenic proportion in the residual fraction increased with distance from oxidized tailings. Low pH values (from 2.0 to 2.5) in superficial soils revealed the influence of acid mine drainage at distances up to 40 m from the red deposit. In contrast, the lowest pH was 7.1 in soils impacted by low-oxidized deposits, reflecting the limestone environment. Arsenic airborne transport was evidenced by the presence of a total As concentration of 30,780 mg/kg in soils collected at 120 m in front of the tailings crossing a ravine. Although sequential extraction showed that most of the As is present in relatively low-mobility fractions, total As concentrations indicate that tailings impoundments constitute another source of environmental As exposure.

Aurora Armienta, M.; Resendiz, Isabel; Múgica, Violeta; Cruz, Olivia; Aguayo, Alejandra; Ceniceros, Nora

2014-05-01

418

Plant selection for dewatering and reclamation of tailings  

SciTech Connect

A two-phase greenhouse experiment was conducted to identify the most suitable species for dewatering and reclamation of Composite Tailings (CT) from Alberta oil sands operated by Syncrude Canada Ltd. and Copper Mine Tailings (CMT) from the Kennecott site in Utah. A total of 15 and 9 plant species were selected for testing in CT and CMT, respectively. In Phase 1, distilled water was added weekly to simulate local precipitation. The initial solids content were 80% and 76% and the electrical conductivities were 1.1 dS/m and 3.2 dS/m for CT and CMT, respectively. All plants survived after a ten-week period. In Phase 2 only process water was added weekly to provide a worst case scenario of no precipitation and water recharge due only to process water being released from within the tailings. The initial solids contents were 65% and 76% for CT and CMT, respectively. Surface (0--3 in.) salinity increased dramatically due to the application of process water only; at the end of Phase 2 it had reached toxic levels of approximately 18.9 dS/m and 35.0 dS/m in CT and CMT, respectively. Many plants showed signs of stress due to the high salinity level. The plants which performed the best under both phases in Composite Tailings were creeping foxtail (Alopecurus arundinaceus), reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea), Altai wildrye (Elymus angustus), and red top (Agrostis stolonifera); and in Copper Mine Tailings were Altai wildrye, smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis) and creeping foxtail.

Silva, M.J.; Naeth, M.A.; Biggar, K.W.; Chanasyk, D.S.; Sego, D.C. [Univ of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)

1998-12-31

419

Tracing the tail of ubiquinone in mitochondrial complex I.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial complex I (proton pumping NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is the largest and most complicated component of the respiratory electron transfer chain. Despite its central role in biological energy conversion the structure and function of this membrane integral multiprotein complex is still poorly understood. Recent insights into the structure of complex I by X-ray crystallography have shown that iron-sulfur cluster N2, the immediate electron donor for ubiquinone, resides about 30Å above the membrane domain and mutagenesis studies suggested that the active site for the hydrophobic substrate is located next to this redox-center. To trace the path for the hydrophobic tail of ubiquinone when it enters the peripheral arm of complex I, we performed an extensive structure/function analysis of complex I from Yarrowia lipolytica monitoring the interaction of site-directed mutants with five ubiquinone derivatives carrying different tails. The catalytic activity of a subset of mutants was strictly dependent on the presence of intact isoprenoid moieties in the tail. Overall a consistent picture emerged suggesting that the tail of ubiquinone enters through a narrow path at the interface between the 49-kDa and PSST subunits. Most notably we identified a set of methionines that seems to form a hydrophobic gate to the active site reminiscent to the M-domains involved in the interaction with hydrophobic targeting sequences with the signal recognition particle of the endoplasmic reticulum. Interestingly, two of the amino acids critical for the interaction with the ubiquinone tail are different in bovine complex I and we could show that one of these exchanges is responsible for the lower sensitivity of Y. lipolytica complex I towards the inhibitor rotenone. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 17th European Bioenergetics Conference (EBEC 2012). PMID:22484275

Angerer, Heike; Nasiri, Hamid R; Niedergesäß, Vanessa; Kerscher, Stefan; Schwalbe, Harald; Brandt, Ulrich

2012-10-01

420

Erosion control on tailings dams using soil bioengineering  

SciTech Connect

Increased awareness of the complexity of ecosystems has generated the need to integrate all facets of mining into the development of sustainable environmental management plans. Environmental management goals that may previously have concentrated on final closure of the mine are now becoming part of the preliminary planning and day-to-day activities of new mines, and are being integrated into planning goals of established operations. These management goals must address all components of a mining operation, including those relating to long-term maintenance of tailings areas. The long-term maintenance of tailings dams presents a challenge to the operations and reclamation divisions of minesites. Reducing, and eventually eliminating long-term maintenance and monitoring of surface slope stability on tailings dams has been identified as a cost-effective measure that can lead to the diversification of natural systems. An application of bioengineering techniques on a tailings dam at the INCO Limited Copper Cliff tailings complex is the focus of this poster. Soil bioengineering is a slope stabilization technique that uses dormant live plant material as the major engineering component. Unrooted live vegetation is installed on the slope, which provides immediate stabilization. Roots and shoots then develop to form a permanent vegetative cover and root reinforcing matrix. Bioengineered slopes strengthen over time as the root matrix develops, and provide a microclimate for the invasion of natural species, thus encouraging biodiversity and successional development. Live fascines were installed in the fall of 1994 on the face of the dam to slow the velocity of surface water runoff and to facilitate subsurface water movement in saturated conditions. The structures performed extremely well during their first growing season, and are currently being monitored to assess long-term performance.

Miller, M.

1996-12-31

421

Waste for wastelands: Reclaiming taconite tailings basins with organic amendments  

SciTech Connect

Taconite tailings basins cover 10,500 hectares in northern Minnesota. Since these tailings are primarily quartz and iron oxides, water quality has not been an issue, but establishing vegetation on the coarse fraction of the tailings has been a major problem. Reclamation rules require that (1) percent cover must equal 90% after three to five years (depending on slope and aspect), and (2) vegetation must e self-sustaining after ten years. Typical cover on coarse tailings, even after five years, has ranged from 40 to 60%. Despite repeated application of seed and fertilizer, less than 10% of he coarse tailings areas meet standards. Application of 10 to 90 mt/ha of various organic amendments, including: peat; yard waste compost; municipal solid waste compost; and paper processing waste; have been shown to dramatically affect vegetative success. Although plots that received 90 mt/ha of peat were the most successful in meeting the three-year standard, some of the plots with as little as 10 mt/ha of amendment produced 90% cover after five years. Application of 22.4 to 89.6 mt/ha of waste from paper manufacturing was also effective in meeting long-term reclamation standards. Data from these studies suggest that the application of 22.4 to 44.8 mt/ha of organic amendment will meet reclamation standards within five years, and will be no more costly than the industry's current unsuccessful practices, if the source of the amendment is within 100 km of the mining area. In the fall of 1997, the first full scale application of organic amendments was made.

Eger, P.; Melchert, G.; Dewar, S.

1999-07-01

422

Discovery of Accelerating Plasmoids in the Tail of Comet Encke  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comet 2P/Encke was the second comet to have its return correctly predicted (in 1819). Encke is a Jupiter-family comet with a period of 3.30 years and a perihelion distance of 0.338 AU. The interaction between cometary plasma and the solar wind plasma provides the potential for remote monitoring of the solar wind. In this regard comet Encke is potentially a very useful probe of the solar wind because of its very short orbital period and therefore large number of close approaches to the Sun. However, for this reason it is likely to have exhausted most of its reserves of ice and therefore possess a less dense plasma tail. The comet could therefore respond faster and more dynamically to solar wind variations than the tail of a more active or higher gas production comet. The Heliospheric Imager (HI) of STEREO-A (HI-1A), observed comet 2P/Encke during April, 2007. The comet was predicted to have reached perihelion on April 19th 0 UT. This paper will only consider the observations obtained by HI-1A on April 25th to 27th, 2007. At this time the comet was around 0.63 AU from Earth and 0.39 AU from the Sun. The comet was seen to exhibit a distinct "flick" of its plasma tail on April 26th and a series of "whiplash" events. However, the most interest phenomena seen was a whole series of "plasmoids" that were observed to break off from the brighter part of the tail near the nucleus and accelerate along the tail for 4-5 million kilometres down-wind of the nucleus.

Kellett, B.; Bingham, R.; Davies, J. A.; Bewsher, D.; Harrison, R. A.; Davis, C. J.; Eyles, C. J.; Crothers, S. R.

2007-12-01

423

75 FR 64249 - Freshwater Crawfish Tail Meat From the People's Republic of China: Extension of the Final Results...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-848] Freshwater Crawfish Tail Meat From the People's...of the antidumping duty order on freshwater crawfish tail meat from the People's Republic of China. See Freshwater Crawfish Tail Meat From the...

2010-10-19

424

AGGRESSIVE DEFENSIVE BEHAVIOR BY FREE-RANGING WHITE-TAILED DEER  

E-print Network

ungulates (Lent 1974; Lingle et al. 2005; Smith 1987), including mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus male and female white- tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) defending neonates. Eleven (45. Key words: defensive behavior, maternal investment, neonate, Odocoileus virginianus, white-tailed deer

425

HEPATIC MINERALS OF WHITE-TAILED AND MULE DEER IN THE SOUTHERN BLACK HILLS, SOUTH DAKOTA  

E-print Network

concentrations from sympatric white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus status, and species. Key words: Black Hills, elements, fire, liver, mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus, Odocoileus virginianus, reproduction, South Dakota, white-tailed deer. INTRODUCTION Limited information

426

SOCIAL GROUP FISSION AND GENE DYNAMICS AMONG BLACK-TAILED PRAIRIE DOGS  

E-print Network

SOCIAL GROUP FISSION AND GENE DYNAMICS AMONG BLACK-TAILED PRAIRIE DOGS (CYNOMYS LUDOVICIANUS fission. Key words: coancestry, competition, cooperation, Cynomys ludovicianus, dispersal, fission, gene al. 1990). Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus; hereafter, simply ``prairie dogs

Foltz, David W.

427

Ecology and Seasonal Habitat Use Patterns of Columbian Sharp-Tailed Grouse in Northern Utah.  

E-print Network

??Columbian sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus: hereafter sharp-tailed grouse) populations have been declining. These declines have been attributed to a number of factors, including habitat… (more)

Greer, Ron D.

2010-01-01

428

Oneyear reserve risk including a tail factor: closed formula and bootstrap approaches  

E-print Network

1 Oneyear reserve risk including a tail factor: closed formula and bootstrap approaches reserve risk, and describe the bootstrap method providing an empirical distribution of a tail factor in the bootstrap procedure. We demonstrate the equivalence with existing analytical

429

Study on Adsorption of Inorganic-organic Hybrid Polymers and Flocculation of Oil Sands Tailings.  

E-print Network

??Two inorganic-organic hybrid polymers, Al(OH)3-polyacrylamide (Al-PAM) and Fe(OH)3-polyacrylamide (Fe-PAM) were synthesized and used in flocculating model tailings (5 wt% kaolin suspensions) and laboratory extraction tailings.… (more)

Wang, Shiqing

2013-01-01

430

Distant Tail Behavior During High Speed Solar Wind Streams and Magnetic Storms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have examined the ISEE 3 distant tail data during three intense magnetic storms and have identified the tail response to high-speed solar wind streams, interplanetary magnetic clouds, and near-Earth storms.

Ho, C. M.; Tsurutani, B. T.

1997-01-01

431

(abstract) The Distant Tail Behavior During High Speed Solar Wind Streams and Magnetic Storms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have examined the ISEE-3 distant tail data during three intense magnetic storms and have identified the tail response to high speed solar wind streams, interplanetary magnetic clouds, and near-Earth storms.

Ho, C. M.; Tsurutani, B. T.

1996-01-01

432

Flapping Tail Membrane in Bats Produces Potentially Important Thrust during Horizontal Takeoffs and Very  

E-print Network

upstrokes collapsed the tail-membrane thereby reducing its surface area and minimizing negative lift forces phase of the wing-beat cycle. The extent to which the tail-membrane was used during takeoffs differed

Adams, Rick

433

MOVEMENT OF FEMALE WHITE-TAILED DEER: EFFECTS OF CLIMATE AND INTENSIVE ROW-CROP AGRICULTURE  

E-print Network

Abstract: Movements (e.g., migration, dispersal) of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) vary greatly, Minnesota, movement, Odocoileus virginianus, white-tailed deer. Seasonal migration is common among cervids

434

Sharp-tailed Grouse Restoration; Colville Tribes Restore Habitat for Sharp-tailed Grouse, Annual Report 2002-2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Columbian Sharp-Tailed Grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus) (CSTG) are an important traditional and cultural species to the Colville Confederated Tribes (CCT), Spokane Tribe of Indians (STOI), and other Tribes in the Region. They were once the most abundant upland bird in the Region. Currently, the largest remaining population in Washington State occurs on the CCT Reservation in Okanogan County. Increasing agricultural

2004-01-01

435

Interplay of Phenology and Reproduction in Ring-Tailed Lemurs: Implications for Ring-Tailed Lemur Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data are presented on ring-tailed lemur feeding ecology and resource use at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve in southwestern Madagascar. The phenological availability of food resources was sampled monthly from 199 trees and 31 species. Results indicate that Lemur catta feeding ecology is finely tuned to the seasonal nature of specific food resources. Key species provide important food items during

Michelle L. Sauther

1998-01-01

436

The C-terminal unique region of desmoglein 2 inhibits its internalization via tail–tail interactions  

PubMed Central

Desmosomal cadherins, desmogleins (Dsgs) and desmocollins, make up the adhesive core of intercellular junctions called desmosomes. A critical determinant of epithelial adhesive strength is the level and organization of desmosomal cadherins on the cell surface. The Dsg subclass of desmosomal cadherins contains a C-terminal unique region (Dsg unique region [DUR]) with unknown function. In this paper, we show that the DUR of Dsg2 stabilized Dsg2 at the cell surface by inhibiting its internalization and promoted strong intercellular adhesion. DUR also facilitated Dsg tail–tail interactions. Forced dimerization of a Dsg2 tail lacking the DUR led to decreased internalization, supporting the conclusion that these two functions of the DUR are mechanistically linked. We also show that a Dsg2 mutant, V977fsX1006, identified in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy patients, led to a loss of Dsg2 tail self-association and underwent rapid endocytosis in cardiac muscle cells. Our observations illustrate a new mechanism desmosomal cadherins use to control their surface levels, a key factor in determining their adhesion and signaling roles. PMID:23128240

Chen, Jing; Nekrasova, Oxana E.; Patel, Dipal M.; Klessner, Jodi L.; Godsel, Lisa M.; Koetsier, Jennifer L.; Amargo, Evangeline V.; Desai, Bhushan V.

2012-01-01

437

Commingled uranium-tailings study. Volume I. Plan for stabilization and management of commingled uranium-mill tailings  

SciTech Connect

This report, prepared in accordance with Section 213 of Public Law 96-540, presents a plan for a cooperative program to provide assistance in the stabilization and management of commingled uranium mill tailings. The report is organized in two volumes, a summary report (Volume I) and a companion technical report (Volume II). Contents of Volume I are: summary; background; amount and condition of the tailings; regulatory requirements; stabilization cost estimates; costsharing alternatives; administrative options and plan implementation; standards and regulations. The DOE recommends that the standards and regulations for tailings stabilization be relaxed and that any program of stabilization be limited to prevention of migration and erosion of the tailings and inadvertent exposure to them. The plan presented here shows the effort and costs that would be incurred if the government were to implement such a plan. The Department makes no recommendation as to the advisability of actually implementing legislation authorizing an assistance program, and stands ready to respond to comments on the plan by Congress, other government agencies, or interested parties.

Not Available

1982-06-30

438

Long Tail or Steep Tail? A Field Investigation into How Online Popularity Information Affects the Distribution of Customer Choices  

E-print Network

The internet has made it easier for customers to find and buy a wide variety of products. This may lead to a "long tail" effect as more customers buy low-volume products. However, the internet has also made it easier for ...

Tucker, Catherine

2007-12-07

439

Experimental manipulation of tail ornament size affects the hematocrit of male barn swallows ( Hirundo rustica )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ornamental tail feathers of male barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) confer an advantage in sexual selection because long-tailed males are preferred by females. However, the size of tail ornaments\\u000a exceeds the natural selection optimum and males are predicted to pay an energetic cost for flying, directly related to tail\\u000a length. An increase in hematocrit is an adaptive response to enhance oxygen

Nicola Saino; José Javier Cuervo; Marco Krivacek; Florentino de Lope; Anders Pape Møller

1997-01-01

440

Fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia; an essential resource for smallholders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the historical development of fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia, the dynamics of production systems, production\\u000a and reproduction performances under farmers’ conditions, and roles of sheep in livelihoods. In the eighteenth and nineteenth\\u000a century, fat-tailed sheep from southwest Asia and Africander sheep from South Africa were introduced. Crossing of fat-tailed\\u000a sheep with the local thin-tailed sheep produced the Javanese

Henk Mathijs Johannes Udo; I. Gede Suparta Budisatria

2011-01-01

441

On the sodium tail of comet Hale-Bopp (C\\/1995 O1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of the sodium tail of comet Hale-Bopp (C\\/ 1995 O1) were made with the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite near perihelion. Observations of the dust continuum, H2O+ emissions, and sodium tail are reported. The measurements show the Na tail to be diffuse and located between the dust and ion tails. The midrange spatial scale of the MSX measurements (104

D. G. Kupperman; L. J. Paxton; J. Carbary; G. J. Romick; D. E. Anderson; C.-I. Meng; P. D. Feldman

1998-01-01

442

On the sodium tail of comet Hale-Bopp (C\\/1995 O1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of the sodium tail of comet Hale-Bopp (C\\/1995 O1) were made with the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite near perihelion. Observations of the dust continuum, H2O+ emissions, and sodium tail are reported. The measurements show the Na tail to be diffuse and located between the dust and ion tails. The midrange spatial scale of the MSX measurements (104 to

D. G. Kupperman; L. J. Paxton; J. Carbary; G. J. Romick; D. E. Anderson; C.-I. Meng; P. D. Feldman

1998-01-01

443

Interactions of tailings leachate with local liner materials found at Canonsburg, Pennsylvania.  

SciTech Connect

The mill tailings site at Canonsburg, Pennsylvania is the first mill site to receive remedial action under the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program. Part of this remedial action will require excavating the 53,500 m/sup 3/ (70,000 yd/sup 3/) of tailings on the site having a specific activity exceeding 100 pCi/g, and encapsulating these contaminated tailings in a clay-lined cell. As part of the remedial action effort, Pacific Northwest Laboratory has been studying the interactions of tailings and tailings leachate with locally occurring clays proposed for liner materials. These studies include physical and chemical characterization of amended and unamended local clays, chemical characterization of the tailings, column studies of tailings leached with deionized water, and column studies of clays contacted with tailings solutions to determine the attenuation properties of the proposed liner materials. Column studies of tailings leached with deionized water indicated that the Canonsburg tailings could represent a source of soluble radium-226 and uranium-238, several trace metals, cations, and the anions SO/sub 4/, NO/sub 3/, and Cl. Of these soluble contaminants, uranium-238, radium-226, the trace metals As and Mo, and the anions F and SO/sub 4/ were present at levels exceeding maximum concentration levels in the tailings leaching column effluents. However, local clays, both in amended and unamended form were effective in attenuating contaminant migration. The soil amendments tested failed to increase radium attenuation. The tailings leaching studies indicated that the tailings will produce leachates of neutral pH and relatively low contaminant levels for at least 200 years. We believe that compacting the tailings within the encapsulation cell will help to reduce leaching of contaminants from the liner system, since very low permeabilities (<10/sup -8/ cm/s) were observed for even slightly compacted tailings materials.

Dodson, M.E.; Gee, G.W.; Serne, R.J.

1984-04-01

444

Fractal character of lenticles and its influence on sediment state in tailings dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of tailings lenticles reflects the sediment state of tailing dam, and has a great influence on the stability\\u000a of the dam. In order to disclose the distribution law of tailings lenticles in theory, 12 geological cross-sections, including\\u000a 7 cross-sections of tailings dam constructed by the upstream method and 5 cross-sections by the middle line method, were analyzed\\u000a with

Wei-dong Jiang

2005-01-01

445

Demonstration of agglutinating antibodies against Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the yellow tail flounder (Limanda ferruginea).  

PubMed

Sera from the salt water fish (Yellow tail flounder) and the fresh water fish (rainbow trout) were tested for the presence of circulating antibodies against nine strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and one of V. alginolyticus. Thirteen out of 26 flounder sera tested gave agglutinating reactions against one specific strain of V. parahaemolyticus; strain No. 3525. Seven rainbow trout sera tested failed to agglutinate any of the strains tested. All agglutinating activity was lost upon boiling the antigen, therefore, the fish antibodies are due to surface antigens (K-antigens) and not to somatic antigens. The specific V. parahaemolyticus strain No. 3525 belongs to the serological type 03:K30, which might be common to the sea waters of the Eastern United States. The possibility that fish serve as a reservoir to Vibrio parahaemolyticus and its possible implication in the transmission of human disease are discussed. PMID:931748

Ortiz, J S; Decker, D L

1976-07-01

446

Experimental malignant catarrhal fever (African form) in white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were experimentally infected with the African form of malignant catarrhal fever (AMCF) virus by inoculation of whole blood from experimentally infected cattle, from whole blood obtained from a greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) and from virus isolated in cell culture. The incubation period from AMCF in experimentally infected deer ranged from 13 to 18 days. Clinical disease was characterized by lacrimation, an elevated body temperature, conjunctivitis and swelling of the external lymph nodes. Histologic lesions were primarily characterized by widespread vasculitis and lymphadenopathy. The organs most severely affected were liver, lymphoid tissue, brain and lungs. Successful recovery and identification of AMCF virus was accomplished from one experimentally infected deer. PMID:7310953

Whitenack, D L; Castro, A E; Kocan, A A

1981-07-01

447

Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 41(4), 2005, pp. 820824 Wildlife Disease Association 2005  

E-print Network

disease, mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus, O. virginianus, pri- on, tonsillar biopsy, tonsillar follicles@yahoo.com) ABSTRACT: Preclinical antemortem testing of deer (Odocoileus spp.) for chronic wasting dis- ease (CWD) can) in southeast and southwest Minnesota and white-tailed and mule deer (O. hemionus) in Wind Cave National Park

448

Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 44(1), 2008, pp. 181187 # Wildlife Disease Association 2008  

E-print Network

Status and Antibodies to Selected Pathogens in White- tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Southern (Odocoileus virginianus) were collected during January 2000­03 from multiple locations in southeast (SE by age-class or by geographic location. Key words: Infectious disease, Minnesota, Odocoileus virginianus