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Sample records for tail disease wtd

  1. Susceptibility of cattle to first-passage intracerebral inoculation with chronic wasting disease agent from white-tailed deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To compare clinicopathological findings of chronic wasting disease (CWD) from white-tailed deer (CWD**wtd) with other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies [transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), prion diseases) that have been shown to be experimentally transmissible to cattle [sheep scr...

  2. Experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) of elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) to white-tailed deer by intracerebral route

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To compare clinicopathological findings of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in a natural host, three groups (n = 5) of white-tailed deer (WTD) fawns were intracerebrally inoculated with WTD, mule deer or elk isolates of CWD. Three other uninoculated fawns served as controls. Approximately 10 months pos...

  3. Scrapie transmits to white-tailed deer by the oral route and has a molecular profile similar to chronic wasting disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this work was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer (WTD) to the agent of sheep scrapie and to compare the resultant PrPSc to that of the original inoculum and chronic wasting disease (CWD). We inoculated WTD by a natural route of exposure (concurrent oral and intranasal (I...

  4. Goats are a potential reservoir for the herpesvirus (MCFV-WTD),causing malignant catarrhal fever in deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the recent investigation of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) in a red brocket deer (Mazama americana) from a Texas zoo, the MCF viral DNA from the newly recognized herpesvirus causing disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) (termed MCFV-WTD) was detected. The epidemiology information...

  5. Characterization of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus from a bovine with clinical disease with high nucleotide sequence identity to white-tailed deer isolates.

    PubMed

    Anbalagan, Srivishnupriya; Hause, Ben M

    2014-10-01

    Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) was isolated from a pregnant cow in Indiana, USA, exhibiting excessive salivation, pyrexia and abortion. VP2, VP5, and VP7 sequences of the isolated bovine EHDV showed 97.7, 97.4, and 97.9 % identity to a serotype 2 reference virus. Bovine EHDV was closely related (>99.9 %) to white tailed deer (WTD) EHDV collected from Iowa in 2013 and showed less than 2.1 % divergence from EHDV collected from WTD across the USA in 2013. The high degree of sequence identity between bovine and WTD EHDV isolates demonstrates that similar viruses concurrently circulate in both species and suggests possible further incursions into bovines. PMID:24852073

  6. BLUETONGUE AND EPIZOOTIC HEMORRHAGIC DISEASE VIRUS INFECTIONS OF PULMONARY ARTERY ENDOTHELIAL CELLS FROM CATTLE, SHEEP AND DEER: COMPARISON OF REPLICATION KINETICS AND CELLULAR INJURY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Replication of Bluetongue (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHDV) viruses in pulmonary artery endothelial cells (ECs) cultured from cattle, sheep, black-tailed (BTD) and white-tailed (WTD) deer was compared Purified EC cultures from the pulmonary arteries of cattle, sheep, BTD and WTD were u...

  7. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as a potential sentinel for human Lyme disease in Indiana.

    PubMed

    Raizman, E A; Holland, J D; Shukle, J T

    2013-05-01

    We assessed the potential of white-tailed deer (WTD) (Odocoileus virginianus) to be a sentinel for human cases of Lyme disease (LD) in Indiana using location data from a 3-year survey of approximately 3400 hunted deer with associated tick Ixodes scapularis and Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) data. Data on human LD cases at the county level were obtained from the Indiana Department of Health. All data were assigned to county centroids to match the resolution of the LD data before creating optimized trend surfaces for LD incidence, hunted deer count, Ixodes scapularis and Bb prevalence. To determine whether LD was spatially associated with the areas of high densities of deer, deer with Ixodes scapularis and deer with ticks infected with Bb, we used spatial analysis with distance indices (SADIE). The SADIE analysis found significant spatial association between LD and the distribution of three organismal predictor variables, that is, WTD, Ixodes ticks and Bb. Lyme disease incident rate varied between 0.08 cases per 10,000 habitants (Johnson county) and 5.9 cases per 10,000 habitants (Warren county). In conclusion, WTD can be used as an accurate and cost-effective sentinel for human LD. This method will permit public health workers to identify potentially endemic areas independently of human case reports. PMID:22776734

  8. Initial sequencing and tissue distribution of Toll-like receptor 3 mRNA in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Vos, Seychelle M; Yabsley, Michael J; Howerth, Elizabeth W

    2009-07-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 recognizes double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and activates a signal transduction pathway that results in the release of a variety of chemokines and cytokines and apoptotic activity. Variability in TLR3 expression may play an important role in disease susceptibility of white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) to bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses, which are dsRNA viruses. Because little is known about TLR3 in WTD, our objective was to sequence WTD TLR3 mRNA and to determine baseline levels of tissue expression. A 209-base pair sequence of TLR3 mRNA was obtained from WTD peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Dot blots confirmed that the sequence obtained was part of total WTD mRNA. Variable expression or ligand binding of TLR3 may contribute to observed susceptibility differences between populations of WTD, so the level of TLR3 in small intestine, skin, spleen, heart, cecum, rumen, lymph node, lung, kidney, and liver from WTD fawns (n=2) was analyzed using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Tissue expression of TLR3 mRNA relative to the housekeeping gene beta-actin was highest in spleen, heart, skin, and lung. PMID:19617489

  9. A Virulent Babesia bovis Strain Failed to Infect White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Ueti, Massaro W; Olafson, Pia U; Freeman, Jeanne M; Johnson, Wendell C; Scoles, Glen A

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife are an important component in the vector-host-pathogen triangle of livestock diseases, as they maintain biological vectors that transmit pathogens and can serve as reservoirs for such infectious pathogens. Babesia bovis is a tick-borne pathogen, vectored by cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus spp., that can cause up to 90% mortality in naive adult cattle. While cattle are the primary host for cattle fever ticks, wild and exotic ungulates, including white-tailed deer (WTD), are known to be viable alternative hosts. The presence of cattle fever tick populations resistant to acaricides raises concerns regarding the possibility of these alternative hosts introducing tick-borne babesial parasites into areas free of infection. Understanding the B. bovis reservoir competence of these alternative hosts is critical to mitigating the risk of introduction. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that WTD are susceptible to infection with a B. bovis strain lethal to cattle. Two groups of deer were inoculated intravenously with either B. bovis blood stabilate or a larval extract supernatant containing sporozoites from infected R. microplus larvae. The collective data demonstrated that WTD are neither a transient host nor reservoir of B. bovis. This conclusion is supported by the failure of B. bovis to establish an infection in deer regardless of inoculum. Although specific antibody was detected for a short period in the WTD, the PCR results were consistently negative at multiple time points throughout the experiment and blood from WTD that had been exposed to parasite, transferred into naïve recipient susceptible calves, failed to establish infection. In contrast, naïve steers inoculated intravenously with either B. bovis blood stabilate or the larval extract supernatant containing sporozoites rapidly succumbed to disease. These findings provide evidence that WTD are not an epidemiological component in the maintenance of B. bovis infectivity to livestock. PMID:26083429

  10. A Virulent Babesia bovis Strain Failed to Infect White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Jeanne M.; Johnson, Wendell C.; Scoles, Glen A.

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife are an important component in the vector-host-pathogen triangle of livestock diseases, as they maintain biological vectors that transmit pathogens and can serve as reservoirs for such infectious pathogens. Babesia bovis is a tick-borne pathogen, vectored by cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus spp., that can cause up to 90% mortality in naive adult cattle. While cattle are the primary host for cattle fever ticks, wild and exotic ungulates, including white-tailed deer (WTD), are known to be viable alternative hosts. The presence of cattle fever tick populations resistant to acaricides raises concerns regarding the possibility of these alternative hosts introducing tick-borne babesial parasites into areas free of infection. Understanding the B. bovis reservoir competence of these alternative hosts is critical to mitigating the risk of introduction. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that WTD are susceptible to infection with a B. bovis strain lethal to cattle. Two groups of deer were inoculated intravenously with either B. bovis blood stabilate or a larval extract supernatant containing sporozoites from infected R. microplus larvae. The collective data demonstrated that WTD are neither a transient host nor reservoir of B. bovis. This conclusion is supported by the failure of B. bovis to establish an infection in deer regardless of inoculum. Although specific antibody was detected for a short period in the WTD, the PCR results were consistently negative at multiple time points throughout the experiment and blood from WTD that had been exposed to parasite, transferred into naïve recipient susceptible calves, failed to establish infection. In contrast, naïve steers inoculated intravenously with either B. bovis blood stabilate or the larval extract supernatant containing sporozoites rapidly succumbed to disease. These findings provide evidence that WTD are not an epidemiological component in the maintenance of B. bovis infectivity to livestock. PMID:26083429

  11. Blood Chemistry of Free-Ranging and Captive White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Smith, Melanie Love

    2012-07-16

    Blood samples were collected from 602 white-tailed deer (WTD) (Odocoileus virginianus) between October 2008 – October 2009, from 15 different counties throughout Texas. White-tailed deer were evaluated for serum biochemical ...

  12. Anatomical distribution of Mycobacterium bovis genotypes in experimentally infected white-tailed deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) causes tuberculosis in white-tailed deer (WTD). Natural infection of WTD with M. bovis is most closely mimicked by instilling inoculum into palatine tonsilar crypts. One hundred fifty days after intratonsilar inoculation, M. bovis was cultured from 30 tissues originati...

  13. Disease limits populations: plague and black-tailed prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Cully, Jack F; Johnson, Tammi L; Collinge, Sharon K; Ray, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Plague is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes mortality rates approaching 100% in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We mapped the perimeter of the active portions of black-tailed prairie dog colonies annually between 1999 and 2005 at four prairie dog colony complexes in areas with a history of plague, as well as at two complexes that were located outside the distribution of plague at the time of mapping and had therefore never been affected by the disease. We hypothesized that the presence of plague would significantly reduce overall black-tailed prairie dog colony area, reduce the sizes of colonies on these landscapes, and increase nearest-neighbor distances between colonies. Within the region historically affected by plague, individual colonies were smaller, nearest-neighbor distances were greater, and the proportion of potential habitat occupied by active prairie dog colonies was smaller than at plague-free sites. Populations that endured plague were composed of fewer large colonies (>100 ha) than populations that were historically plague free. We suggest that these differences among sites in colony size and isolation may slow recolonization after extirpation. At the same time, greater intercolony distances may also reduce intercolony transmission of pathogens. Reduced transmission among smaller and more distant colonies may ultimately enhance long-term prairie dog population persistence in areas where plague is present. PMID:20158327

  14. Disease limits populations: plague and black-tailed prairie dogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cully, Jack F., Jr.; Johnson, T.; Collinge, S.K.; Ray, C.

    2010-01-01

    Plague is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes mortality rates approaching 100% in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We mapped the perimeter of the active portions of black-tailed prairie dog colonies annually between 1999 and 2005 at four prairie dog colony complexes in areas with a history of plague, as well as at two complexes that were located outside the distribution of plague at the time of mapping and had therefore never been affected by the disease. We hypothesized that the presence of plague would significantly reduce overall black-tailed prairie dog colony area, reduce the sizes of colonies on these landscapes, and increase nearest-neighbor distances between colonies. Within the region historically affected by plague, individual colonies were smaller, nearest-neighbor distances were greater, and the proportion of potential habitat occupied by active prairie dog colonies was smaller than at plague-free sites. Populations that endured plague were composed of fewer large colonies (>100 ha) than populations that were historically plague free. We suggest that these differences among sites in colony size and isolation may slow recolonization after extirpation. At the same time, greater intercolony distances may also reduce intercolony transmission of pathogens. Reduced transmission among smaller and more distant colonies may ultimately enhance long-term prairie dog population persistence in areas where plague is present.

  15. Disease Limits Populations: Plague and Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Tammi L.; Collinge, Sharon K.; Ray, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Plague is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes mortality rates approaching 100% in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We mapped the perimeter of the active portions of black-tailed prairie dog colonies annually between 1999 and 2005 at four prairie dog colony complexes in areas with a history of plague, as well as at two complexes that were located outside the distribution of plague at the time of mapping and had therefore never been affected by the disease. We hypothesized that the presence of plague would significantly reduce overall black-tailed prairie dog colony area, reduce the sizes of colonies on these landscapes, and increase nearest-neighbor distances between colonies. Within the region historically affected by plague, individual colonies were smaller, nearest-neighbor distances were greater, and the proportion of potential habitat occupied by active prairie dog colonies was smaller than at plague-free sites. Populations that endured plague were composed of fewer large colonies (>100 ha) than populations that were historically plague free. We suggest that these differences among sites in colony size and isolation may slow recolonization after extirpation. At the same time, greater intercolony distances may also reduce intercolony transmission of pathogens. Reduced transmission among smaller and more distant colonies may ultimately enhance long-term prairie dog population persistence in areas where plague is present. PMID:20158327

  16. Experimental adenovirus hemorrhagic disease in white-tailed deer fawns.

    PubMed

    Woods, L W; Lehmkuhl, H D; Swift, P K; Chiu, P H; Hanley, R S; Nordhausen, R W; Stillian, M H; Drew, M L

    2001-01-01

    Infection with a newly described endotheliotropic adenovirus was the cause of a 1993 epizootic reminiscent of hemorrhagic disease in California mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus and O. hemionus hemionus). Pulmonary edema and intestinal luminal hemorrhage, or necrotizing stomatitis associated with systemic or localized vasculitis, respectively, were common lesions seen in animals that died during the epizootic. In order to determine if white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) also are susceptible to infection and fatal disease with the deer adenovirus, eight white-tailed deer fawns (4- to 6-mo-old) were inoculated with purified deer adenovirus. Four were inoculated intravenously and four were inoculated through the mucous membranes. Seven days post-inoculation, one of the fawns inoculated intravenously died. Pulmonary edema and hemorrhagic enteropathy were associated with pulmonary and intestinal vasculitis with systemic multiorgan distribution of endotheliotropic adenovirus as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Adenovirus was reisolated from lung homogenates of the fawn that died of adenovirus hemorrhagic disease. PMID:11272490

  17. Evaluation of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as natural sentinels for Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Vivien G; Yabsley, Michael J; Tate, Cynthia M; Mead, Daniel G; Munderloh, Ulrike G; Herron, Michael J; Stallknecht, David E; Little, Susan E; Davidson, William R

    2006-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of human granulocytotropic anaplasmosis, can infect white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus), and this species is a crucial host for adult Ixodes scapularis, the primary vector of A. phagocytophilum. The goal of this study was to determine the geographic distribution of A. phagocytophilum among WTD across a 19 state region and to evaluate the utility of WTD as natural sentinels. Serologic testing using the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) assay was conducted on WTD serum samples and molecular and xenodiagnostic tests were performed to confirm serologic results. The surveillance system was assessed through examination of vital attributes including WTD age and gender associations with serologic status, sample size adequacy for accurate infection status classification, and presence of the vector, I. scapularis. Six hundred thirty-three of 2,666 (24%) WTD in 17 states tested positive for antibodies (>or=128) when tested by IFA assay. Testing for p44 and/or 16S rRNA gene targets identified 73 (16%) PCR positive WTD among 458 animals tested, all of which originated from seropositive populations. Attempts to culture A. phagocytophilum from WTD were unsuccessful; however, xenodiagnostic mice inoculated with blood from 3 WTD became infected. Seroprevalence did not differ by deer age or gender; however, WTDWTD. Collectively, the results of this study demonstrate that WTD would be suitable natural sentinels for this emerging zoonotic pathogen. PMID:16796517

  18. Epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): occurrence, congenital transmission, correlates of infection, isolation, and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in white tailed deer (WTD) in the USA is high, but little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in this host. In the present study, we compared T. gondii seroprevalence from 531 WTD collected in 2012 and 2013 from a Metropolitan Park in Ohio, and and 485 W...

  19. Evaluation of a prototype Ehrlichia chaffeensis surveillance system using white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as natural sentinels.

    PubMed

    Yabsley, Michael J; Dugan, Vivien G; Stallknecht, David E; Little, Susan E; Lockhart, J Mitchell; Dawson, Jacqueline E; Davidson, William R

    2003-01-01

    The natural history of Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the causative agent of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis, includes the lone star tick (LST, Amblyomma americanum) as a vector and white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) as both a natural reservoir of E. chaffeensis and a major host of LST. The goal of the current study was to implement and evaluate a prototype surveillance system to delineate the geographic distribution of E. chaffeensis using WTD as natural sentinels. To accomplish this goal, serologic testing using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) test was performed on WTD serum samples, and to confirm serologic results, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and culture isolation were conducted. Considerations relevant to the applicability of a surveillance system utilizing WTD were analyzed (e.g., age and gender relationships to serologic status, adequacy of sample sizes needed to distinguish between uninfected and infected populations, presence of LST, and ability to detect stability and spread of E. chaffeensis in WTD populations). Of 3275 WTD serologically tested, 549 (47%) from 17 of 18 states had antibodies reactive to E. chaffeensis (IFA titer > or = 1:128). No difference between age groups or gender was noted with serologic testing, thus these variables would not be a concern for a surveillance system using WTD. Significantly more deer in younger age groups (< or = 1.5 yr) were PCR and culture positive, and 46% of 122 seropositive WTD populations were confirmed positive by PCR or culture isolation. A significant association between LST infestation and E. chaffeensis seroreactivity was noted. Furthermore, the surveillance system was able to detect stability of E. chaffeensis within WTD populations and also spread to new populations, both of which were associated with LST status. These data clearly demonstrate that WTD are useful as natural sentinels for this emerging human pathogen, and establish a prototypical framework for a WTD surveillance system. PMID:14733672

  20. Chronic wasting disease in free-ranging Wisconsin white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joly, D.O.; Ribic, C.A.; Langenberg, J.A.; Beheler, K.; Batha, C.A.; Dhuey, B.J.; Rolley, R.E.; Bartelt, G.; VanDeelen, T.R.; Samuel, M.D.

    2003-01-01

    Three White-tailed Deer shot within 5 km during the 2001 hunting season in Wisconsin tested positive for chronic wasting disease, a prion disease of cervids. Subsequent sampling within 18 km showed a 3% prevalence (n=476). This discovery represents an important range extension for chronic wasting disease into the eastern United States.

  1. Evaluating Spatial Overlap and Relatedness of White-tailed Deer in a Chronic Wasting Disease Management

    E-print Network

    (2): e56568. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056568 Editor: Justin David Brown, University of Georgia, UnitedEvaluating Spatial Overlap and Relatedness of White- tailed Deer in a Chronic Wasting Disease Management Zone Seth B. Magle1 *, Michael D. Samuel2 , Timothy R. Van Deelen3 , Stacie J. Robinson3 , Nancy E

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Robinsoniella peoriensis Strain WTD, Isolated from the Fecal Material of a Wood Turtle.

    PubMed

    Braasch, Jeanna L; Lapin, Carly N; Dowd, Scot E; McLaughlin, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome of Robinsoniella peoriensis strain WTD, which was isolated from the fecal material of a wood turtle. The genome size was 7,391,415 bp with 41.1 mol% G+C. PMID:25593266

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Robinsoniella peoriensis Strain WTD, Isolated from the Fecal Material of a Wood Turtle

    PubMed Central

    Braasch, Jeanna L.; Lapin, Carly N.; Dowd, Scot E.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome of Robinsoniella peoriensis strain WTD, which was isolated from the fecal material of a wood turtle. The genome size was 7,391,415 bp with 41.1 mol% G+C. PMID:25593266

  4. An adenovirus linked to mortality and disease in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollmén, Tuula E.; Franson, J.C.; Flint, P.L.; Grand, J.B.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Docherty, D.E.; Wilson, H.M.

    2003-01-01

    An adenovirus was isolated from intestinal samples of two long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) collected during a die-off in the Beaufort Sea off the north coast of Alaska in 2000. The virus was not neutralized by reference antiserum against known group I, II, or III avian adenoviruses and may represent a new serotype. The prevalence of the virus was determined in live-trapped long-tailed ducks at the mortality site and at a reference site 100 km away where no mortality was observed. Prevalence of adenovirus antibodies in serum samples at the mortality site was 86% compared to 10% at the reference site. Furthermore, 50% of cloacal swabs collected at the mortality site and only 7% of swabs from the reference site were positive for adenoviruses. In 2001, no mortality was observed at either of the study areas, and virus prevalence in both serum and cloacal samples was low, providing further evidence that the adenovirus was linked to the mortality event in 2000. The virus was used to infect long-tailed ducks under experimental conditions and resulted in lesions previously described for avian adenovirus infections and similar to those observed in long-tailed duck carcasses from the Beaufort Sea. The status of long-tailed ducks has recently become a concern in Alaska due to precipitous declines in breeding populations there since the mid-1970s. Our findings suggest that the newly isolated adenovirus is a disease agent and source of mortality in long-tailed ducks, and thus could be a contributing factor in population declines.

  5. Technical Basis for Radiological Emergency Plan Annex for WTD Emergency Response Plan: West Point Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, Eva E.; Strom, Daniel J.

    2005-08-01

    Staff of the King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into the combined sanitary and storm sewer system in King County, Washington. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) 2001). Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. This document, Volume 3 of PNNL-15163 is the technical basis for the Annex to the West Point Treatment Plant (WPTP) Emergency Response Plan related to responding to a radiological emergency at the WPTP. The plan primarily considers response to radioactive material that has been introduced in the other combined sanitary and storm sewer system from a radiological dispersion device, but is applicable to any accidental or deliberate introduction of materials into the system.

  6. A universal carrier test for the long tail of Mendelian disease.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Balaji S; Evans, Eric A; Flannick, Jason; Patterson, A Scott; Chang, Christopher C; Pham, Tuan; Young, Sharon; Kaushal, Amit; Lee, James; Jacobson, Jessica L; Patrizio, Pasquale

    2010-10-01

    Mendelian disorders are individually rare but collectively common, forming a 'long tail' of genetic disease. A single highly accurate assay for this long tail would allow the scaling up of the Jewish community's successful campaign of population screening for Tay-Sachs disease to the general population, thereby improving millions of lives, greatly benefiting minority health and saving billions of dollars. This need has been addressed by designing a universal carrier test: a non-invasive, saliva-based assay for more than 100 Mendelian diseases across all major population groups. The test has been exhaustively validated with a median of 147 positive and 525 negative samples per variant, demonstrating a multiplex assay whose performance compares favourably with the previous standard of care, namely blood-based single-gene carrier tests. Because the test represents a dramatic reduction in the cost and complexity of large-scale population screening, an end to many preventable genetic diseases is now in sight. Moreover, given that the assay is inexpensive and requires only a saliva sample, it is now increasingly feasible to make carrier testing a routine part of preconception care. PMID:20729146

  7. EPIZOOTIOLOGY OF CRANIAL ABSCESS DISEASE IN WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) OF GEORGIA, USA.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Bradley S; Belser, Emily H; Killmaster, Charlie H; Bowers, John W; Irwin, Brian J; Yabsley, Michael J; Miller, Karl V

    2015-07-01

    Intracranial abscess disease is a cause of natural mortality for mature male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Most cases of abscesses are associated with bacterial infection by Trueperella (Arcanobacterium) pyogenes, but a complete understanding of the epidemiology of this disease is lacking. We quantified the effects of individual characteristics, site-specific herd demographics, land cover, and soil variables in estimating the probability of this disease. We examined 7,545 white-tailed deer from 60 sites throughout Georgia US for signs of cranial abscesses, the predecessor of intracranial abscesses, and recorded the presence or absence of cranial abscesses for each individual examined. We detected no cranial abscesses in 2,562 female deer but 91 abscesses in 4,983 male deer examined (1.8%). A generalized linear mixed model, treating site as a random effect, was used to examine several potential explanatory risk factors including site-level landscape and soil characteristics (soil and forest type), demographic factors (deer density and male to female ratio), and individual host factors (deer sex and age). Model results indicated that the probability of a male having a cranial abscess increased with age and that adult sex ratio (male:female) was positively associated with this disease. Site-specific variables for land cover and soil types were not strongly associated with observations of the disease at the scale measured and a large amount of among-site variability remained. Given the demonstrated effect of age, gender, and local sex ratios but the remaining unexplained spatial variability, additional investigation into spatiotemporal variation of the presumed bacterial causative agent of cranial abscesses appears warranted. PMID:25984774

  8. Transmission of chronic wasting disease in Wisconsin white-tailed deer: implications for disease spread and management.

    PubMed

    Jennelle, Christopher S; Henaux, Viviane; Wasserberg, Gideon; Thiagarajan, Bala; Rolley, Robert E; Samuel, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the rate of infection or mode of transmission for wildlife diseases, and the implications of alternative management strategies. We used hunter harvest data from 2002 to 2013 to investigate chronic wasting disease (CWD) infection rate and transmission modes, and address how alternative management approaches affect disease dynamics in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer population. Uncertainty regarding demographic impacts of CWD on cervid populations, human and domestic animal health concerns, and potential economic consequences underscore the need for strategies to control CWD distribution and prevalence. Using maximum-likelihood methods to evaluate alternative multi-state deterministic models of CWD transmission, harvest data strongly supports a frequency-dependent transmission structure with sex-specific infection rates that are two times higher in males than females. As transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are an important and difficult-to-study class of diseases with major economic and ecological implications, our work supports the hypothesis of frequency-dependent transmission in wild deer at a broad spatial scale and indicates that effective harvest management can be implemented to control CWD prevalence. Specifically, we show that harvest focused on the greater-affected sex (males) can result in stable population dynamics and control of CWD within the next 50 years, given the constraints of the model. We also provide a quantitative estimate of geographic disease spread in southern Wisconsin, validating qualitative assessments that CWD spreads relatively slowly. Given increased discovery and distribution of CWD throughout North America, insights from our study are valuable to management agencies and to the general public concerned about the impacts of CWD on white-tailed deer populations. PMID:24658535

  9. Enterocytozoon bieneusi, giardia, and Cryptosporidium infecting white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Santin, Monica; Fayer, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Despite a white-tailed deer (WTD) population in the United States of approximately 32 million animals extremely little is known of the prevalence and species of the protists that infect these animals. This study was undertaken to determine the presence of potential human protist pathogens in culled WTD in central Maryland. Feces from fawns to adults were examined by molecular methods. The prevalence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia was determined by PCR. All PCR-positive specimens were sequenced to determine the species and genotype(s). Of specimens from 80 WTD, 26 (32.5%) contained 17 genotypes of E. bieneusi. Four genotypes were previously reported (I, J, WL4, LW1) and 13 novel genotypes were identified and named DeerEb1-DeerEb13. Genotypes I, J, and LW1 are known to infect humans. Ten (12.5%) specimens contained the Cryptosporidium deer genotype, and one (1.25%) contained Giardia duodenalis Assemblage A. The identification zoonotic G. duodenalis Assemblage A as well as four E. bieneusi genotypes previously identified in humans suggest that WTD could play a role in the transmission of those parasites to humans. PMID:25066778

  10. Proteomics Approach to the Study of Cattle Tick Adaptation to White Tailed Deer

    PubMed Central

    Popara, Marina; Villar, Margarita; Mateos-Hernández, Lourdes; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G.; de la Fuente, José

    2013-01-01

    Cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, are a serious threat to animal health and production. Some ticks feed on a single host species while others such as R. microplus infest multiple hosts. White tailed deer (WTD) play a role in the maintenance and expansion of cattle tick populations. However, cattle ticks fed on WTD show lower weight and reproductive performance when compared to ticks fed on cattle, suggesting the existence of host factors that affect tick feeding and reproduction. To elucidate these factors, a proteomics approach was used to characterize tick and host proteins in R. microplus ticks fed on cattle and WTD. The results showed that R. microplus ticks fed on cattle have overrepresented tick proteins involved in blood digestion and reproduction when compared to ticks fed on WTD, while host proteins were differentially represented in ticks fed on cattle or WTD. Although a direct connection cannot be made between differentially represented tick and host proteins, these results suggested that differentially represented host proteins together with other host factors could be associated with higher R. microplus tick feeding and reproduction observed in ticks fed on cattle. PMID:24364032

  11. Alternative feeding strategies and potential disease transmission in Wisconsin white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, A.K.; Samuel, M.D.; VanDeelen, T.R.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted experimental feeding using 3 feeding methods (pile, spread, trough) and 2 quantities (rationed, ad libitum) of shelled corn to compare deer activity and behavior with control sites and evaluate potential direct and indirect transmission of infectious disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in central Wisconsin, USA. Deer use was higher at 2 of the feeding sites than at natural feeding areas (P ??? 0.02). Deer spent a higher proportion of time (P < 0.01) feeding at pile (49%) and spread (61%) treatments than at natural feeding areas (36%). We found higher deer use for rationed than ad libitum feeding quantities and feeding intensity was greatest at rationed piles and lowest at ad libitum spreads. We also observed closer pairwise distances (???0.3 m) among deer when corn was provided in a trough relative to spread (P=0.03). Supplemental feeding poses risks for both direct and indirect disease transmission due to higher deer concentration and more intensive use relative to control areas. Concentrated feeding and contact among deer at feeding sites can also increase risk for disease transmission. Our results indicated that restrictions on feeding quantity would not mitigate the potential for disease transmission None of the feeding strategies we evaluated substantially reduced the potential risk for disease transmission and banning supplemental feeding to reduce transmission is warranted.

  12. Deer density and disease prevalence influence transmission of chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer

    E-print Network

    , landscape features, and soil clay content on transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in young (,2 frequency-dependent, density-dependent, and intermediate transmission models predicted CWD incidence rates and deer density, and distribution of disease among groups are important factors driving CWD infection

  13. Serum 25-Hydroxvitamin D Concentrations in Captive and Free-Ranging, White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ABSTRACT: Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were determined for free-ranging and captive white-tailed deer (WTD, Odocoileus virginianus). Effects of gender, season, and age on 25(OH)D concentrations were determined as well as comparisons to concentrations in serum from captive re...

  14. Head space analysis to non-invasively distinguish between vaccinated and bovine tuberculosis-infected white-tailed deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) can act as a reservoir for bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, and can be a source of infection in cattle. Presently, no method exists to noninvasively monitor the presence of bTB in wildlife. In addition, due to similarities betw...

  15. Demographic patterns and harvest vulnerability of chronic wasting disease infected white-tailed deer in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grear, D.A.; Samuel, M.D.; Langenberg, J.A.; Keane, D.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) caused by transmissible protease-resistant prions. Since the discovery of CWD in southern Wisconsin in 2001, more than 20,000 deer have been removed from a >2,500-km2 disease eradication zone surrounding the three initial cases. Nearly all deer removed were tested for CWD infection and sex, age, and harvest location were recorded. Our analysis used data from a 310-km2 core study area where disease prevalence was higher than surrounding areas. We found no difference in harvest rates between CWD infected and noninfected deer. Our results show that the probability of infection increased with age and that adult males were more likely to be infected than adult females. Six fawns tested positive for CWD, five fawns from the core study area, including the youngest (5 months) free-ranging cervid to test positive. The increase in male prevalence with age is nearly twice the increase found in females. We concluded that CWD is not randomly distributed among deer and that differential transmission among sex and age classes is likely driving the observed patterns in disease prevalence. We discuss alternative hypotheses for CWD transmission and spread and, in addition, discuss several possible nonlinear relationships between prevalence and age. Understanding CWD transmission in free-ranging cervid populations will be essential to the development of strategies to manage this disease in areas where CWD is found, as well as for surveillance strategies in areas where CWD threatens to spread.

  16. Spatial epidemiology of chronic wasting disease in Wisconsin white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joly, D.O.; Samuel, M.D.; Langenberg, J.A.; Blanchong, Julie A.; Batha, C.A.; Rolley, R.E.; Keane, D.P.; Ribic, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal, emerging disease of cervids associated with transmissible protease-resistant prion proteins. The potential for CWD to cause dramatic declines in deer and elk populations and perceived human health risks associated with consuming CWD-contaminated venison have led wildlife agencies to embark on extensive CWD control programs, typically involving culling to reduce deer populations. We characterized the spatial distribution of CWD in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Wisconsin to facilitate CWD management. We found that CWD prevalence declined with distance from a central location, was locally correlated at a scale of 3.6 km, and was correlated with deer habitat abundance. The latter result is consistent with patterns expected for a positive relationship between density and prevalence of CWD. We recommend management activities focused on culling in geographic areas with high prevalence to have the greatest probability of removing infected individuals. Further research is needed to elucidate the factors in envolved in CWD spread and infection rates, especially the role of density-dependent transmission. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2006.

  17. Surveillance to detect chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Joly, Damien O; Samuel, Michael D; Langenberg, Julia A; Rolley, Robert E; Keane, Delwyn P

    2009-10-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disease affecting North American cervids, has been discovered in at least 12 states and provinces throughout the continent. Since 2002, a number of states and provinces have initiated surveillance programs to detect CWD in native cervid populations. However, many questions remain about the appropriate methods, geographic scope, and number of samples required for an effective CWD surveillance program. We provide an improved statistical method to calculate the probability of detecting CWD in primary sample units (e.g., county or deer management unit) that also considers deer abundance and the nonrandom distribution of CWD and hunter harvests. We used this method to analyze data from a statewide CWD detection program conducted in Wisconsin during the autumns of 2002 and 2003 to determine the distribution of CWD in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Deer heads were collected at hunter registration stations, and brainstem (obex) and retropharyngeal lymph nodes were removed for disease testing. Our analysis includes samples from >35,000 deer collected outside the known affected area. The probability of detecting chronic wasting disease at a prevalence of 1% varied from 0.89 to > or =0.99 among the 56 primary sample units. Detection probabilities for 1% CWD prevalence were >0.9 in 55 primary sample units, and >0.99 in 10. Detection probabilities will be higher in areas where CWD prevalence exceeds 1%. CWD-positive deer were detected in eight primary sample units surrounding the known affected area during surveillance activities. Our approach provides a novel statistical technique to accommodate nonrandom sampling in wildlife disease surveillance programs. PMID:19901375

  18. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus in captive bison, elk, white-tailed deer, cattle, and goats from Colorado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A captive wildlife research facility in Fort Collins, Colorado experienced mortality in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) due to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) infection in late summer and early fall of 2007. RNA from EHDV was amplified by RT-PCR from the spleen and lung tissue...

  19. Chronic wasting disease in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer farm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keane, D.P.; Barr, D.J.; Bochsler, P.N.; Hall, S.M.; Gidlewski, T.; O'Rourke, K. I.; Spraker, T.R.; Samuel, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    In September 2002, chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disorder of captive and wild cervids, was diagnosed in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from a captive farm in Wisconsin. The facility was subsequently quarantined, and in January 2006 the remaining 76 deer were depopulated. Sixty animals (79%) were found to be positive by immunohistochemical staining for the abnormal prion protein (PrPCWD) in at least one tissue; the prevalence of positive staining was high even in young deer. Although none of the deer displayed clinical signs suggestive of CWD at depopulation, 49 deer had considerable accumulation of the abnormal prion in the medulla at the level of the obex. Extraneural accumulation of the abnormal protein was observed in 59 deer, with accumulation in the retropharyngeal lymph node in 58 of 59 (98%), in the tonsil in 56 of 59 (95%), and in the rectal mucosal lymphoid tissue in 48 of 58 (83%). The retina was positive in 4 deer, all with marked accumulation of prion in the obex. One deer was considered positive for PrPCWD in the brain but not in the extraneural tissue, a novel observation in white-tailed deer. The infection rate in captive deer was 20-fold higher than in wild deer. Although weakly related to infection rates in extraneural tissues, prion genotype was strongly linked to progression of prion accumulation in the obex. Antemortem testing by biopsy of rectoanal mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (or other peripheral lymphoid tissue) may be a useful adjunct to tonsil biopsy for surveillance in captive herds at risk for CWD infection.

  20. Spatial epidemiology of chronic wasting disease in Wisconsin white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Joly, Damien O; Samuel, Michael D; Langenberg, Julia A; Blanchong, Julie A; Batha, Carl A; Rolley, Robert E; Keane, Delwyn P; Ribic, Christine A

    2006-07-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal, emerging disease of cervids associated with transmissible protease-resistant prion proteins. The potential for CWD to cause dramatic declines in deer and elk populations and perceived human health risks associated with consuming CWD-contaminated venison have led wildlife agencies to embark on extensive CWD control programs, typically involving culling to reduce deer populations. We characterized the spatial distribution of CWD in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Wisconsin to facilitate CWD management. We found that CWD prevalence declined with distance from a central location, was locally correlated at a scale of 3.6 km, and was correlated with deer habitat abundance. The latter result is consistent with patterns expected for a positive relationship between density and prevalence of CWD. We recommend management activities focused on culling in geographic areas with high prevalence to have the greatest probability of removing infected individuals. Further research is needed to elucidate the factors involved in CWD spread and infection rates, especially the role of density-dependent transmission. PMID:17092889

  1. Seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii in white-tailed deer and free-roaming cats across a suburban to urban gradient in northeastern Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate zoonotic protozoan parasite infecting a variety of animals. White-tailed deer-(WTD, Odocoileus virginianus) serve as both a potential source for human infection as well as indicators of environmental risk factors for exposure to T. gondii. Here we determine the serop...

  2. Anaplasma odocoilei sp. nov. (family Anaplasmataceae) from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Cynthia M.; Howerth, Elizabeth W.; Mead, Daniel G.; Dugan, Vivien G.; Luttrell, M. Page; Sahora, Alexandra I.; Munderloh, Ulrike G.; Davidson, William R.; Yabsley, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, an undescribed Anaplasma sp. (also called Ehrlichia-like sp. or WTD agent) was isolated in ISE6 tick cells from captive white-tailed deer. The goal of the current study was to characterize this organism using a combination of experimental infection, morphologic, serologic, and molecular studies. Each of 6 experimentally inoculated white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) became chronically infected (100+ days) with the Anaplasma sp. by inoculation of either infected whole blood or culture. None of the deer showed evidence of clinical disease, but 3 of the 6 deer evaluated had multiple episodes of transient thrombocytopenia. Light microscopy of Giemsa-stained, thin blood smears revealed tiny, dark, spherical structures in platelets of acutely infected deer. Anaplasma sp. was detected in platelets of inoculated deer by polymerase chain reaction, transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization. Five of 6 deer developed antibodies reactive to Anaplasma sp. antigen, as detected by indirect fluorescent antibody testing. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, groESL, and gltA sequences confirmed the Anaplasma sp. is related to A. platys. Two attempts to transmit the Anaplasma sp. between deer by feeding Amblyomma americanum, a suspected tick vector, were unsuccessful. Based on its biologic, antigenic, and genetic characteristics, this organism is considered a novel species of Anaplasma, and the name Anaplasma odocoilei sp. nov. is proposed with UMUM76T (=CSUR-A1) as the type strain. PMID:23276749

  3. Demodectic Mange, Dermatophilosis, and other parasitic and bacterial dermatologic diseases in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the United States from 1975-2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is a common and widespread North American game species. To evaluate the incidence, clinical manifestations, demography, and pathology of bacterial and parasitic dermatologic diseases in white-tailed deer in the southeastern United States, we retrospecti...

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and Free-Roaming Cats (Felis catus) Across a Suburban to Urban Gradient in Northeastern Ohio.

    PubMed

    Ballash, Gregory A; Dubey, J P; Kwok, O C H; Shoben, Abigail B; Robison, Terry L; Kraft, Tom J; Dennis, Patricia M

    2015-06-01

    Felids serve as the definitive host of Toxoplasma gondii contaminating environments with oocysts. White-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) are used as sentinel species for contaminated environments as well as a potential source for human foodborne infection with T. gondii. Here we determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii in a WTD and felid population, and examine those risk factors that increase exposure to the parasite. Serum samples from 444 WTD and 200 free-roaming cats (Felis catus) from urban and suburban reservations were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 261 (58.8%) of 444 WTD, with 164 (66.1%) of 248 from urban and 97 (49.5%) of 196 from suburban regions. Significant risk factors for seroprevalence included increasing age (P < 0.0001), reservation type (P < 0.0001), and household densities within reservation (P < 0.0001). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 103 (51.5%) of 200 cats, with seroprevalences of 79 (51%) of 155 and 24 (53.3%) of 45 from areas surrounding urban and suburban reservations, respectively. Seroprevalence did not differ by age, gender, or reservation among the cats' sample. Results indicate WTD are exposed by horizontal transmission, and this occurs more frequently in urban environments. The difference between urban and suburban cat densities is the most likely the reason for an increased seroprevalence in urban WTD. These data have public health implications for individuals living near or visiting urban areas where outdoor cats are abundant as well as those individuals who may consume WTD venison. PMID:25269422

  5. Role of the Cytoplasmic Tail Amino Acid Sequences of Newcastle Disease Virus Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase Protein in Virion Incorporation, Cell Fusion, and Pathogenicity ?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shin-Hee; Yan, Yongqi; Samal, Siba K.

    2009-01-01

    To determine the role of amino acid sequences of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) cytoplasmic tail in Newcastle disease virus (NDV) replication and pathogenicity, we generated recombinant NDVs with a deletion or point mutation in the N-terminal cytoplasmic tail. The first 2-amino-acid deletion in the cytoplasmic tail did not affect the biological characteristics of NDV. However, a 4-amino-acid deletion and the substitution of alanine for serine at position 6 affected cell fusion, pathogenicity, and colocalization of the HN and M proteins of NDV, indicating that these residues of the HN cytoplasmic tail are critical for its specific incorporation into virions. PMID:19640990

  6. EXPERIMENTAL TRANSMISSION OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE (CWD) OF ELK (CERVUS ELAPHUS NELSONI), WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS), AND MULE DEER (ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS HEMIONUS) TO WHITE-TAILED DEER BY INTRACEREBRAL ROUTE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) affecting elk, white-tailed deer, and mule deer. Intra-species transmission of CWD is readily accomplished via oral administration of CWD-affected brain. And while the exact mode of natural transmission is unclear, ho...

  7. Chronic wasting disease in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer farm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease CWD is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease of deer and elk in North America. All diseases in this family are characterized by long preclinical incubation periods following by a relatively short clinical course. Endpoint disease is characterized by ext...

  8. Molecular genealogy tools for white-tailed deer with chronic wasting disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease of deer, elk, and moose. CWD is a fatal neurologic disease with a long preclinical incubation period, during which the disease is probably transmitted to healthy animals through direct exposure or environ...

  9. Detection of arenavirus in a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma in a red tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) with inclusion body disease.

    PubMed

    Hellebuyck, Tom; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Saey, Veronique; Martel, An

    2015-03-01

    A captive bred red tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) was presented with a large intraoral mass originating from the buccal gingiva, attached to the right dentary teeth row. Based on the clinical features and histological examination, the diagnosis of a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma was made. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, indistinguishable from those observed in inclusion body disease-affected snakes. Inclusion bodies were not observed in cells comprising the neoplastic mass. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), arenavirus was detected in the neoplastic tissue. Two years after surgical removal of the mass, recurrence of the neoplastic lesion was observed. Numerous large inclusion body disease inclusions were abundantly present in the neoplastic cells of the recurrent fibromyxoma. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few intracytoplasmic inclusions. The RT-PCR revealed the presence of arenavirus in blood, a liver biopsy, and neoplastic tissue. The present case describes the co-occurrence of an arenavirus infection and an odontogenic fibromyxoma in a red tail boa. PMID:25776548

  10. Anatomical distribution of Mycobacterium bovis genotypes in experimentally infected white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Tyler C; Palmer, Mitchell V; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Stuber, Tod P; Waters, W Ray

    2015-10-22

    Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) causes tuberculosis in white-tailed deer (WTD). Natural infection of WTD with M. bovis is most closely mimicked by instilling inoculum into palatine tonsillar crypts. One hundred fifty days after intratonsillar inoculation, M. bovis was cultured from 30 tissues originating from 14 deer. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on the original inoculum, single colonies subcultured from the original inoculum, and M. bovis isolated from each culture positive tissue. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified by comparing the derived sequences to the reference strain AF2122/97. Results indicate that the majority of the SNPs that were identified were homogeneous between the inoculum and the isolates from the tissues. The majority of individual tissues had different WGS genotypes from each other, suggesting that dissemination of M. bovis beyond the initial site of infection may require few mycobacteria representing a bottleneck. PMID:26243696

  11. Tail-flick test response in 3×Tg-AD mice at early and advanced stages of disease.

    PubMed

    Baeta-Corral, Raquel; Defrin, Ruti; Pick, Chagi G; Giménez-Llort, Lydia

    2015-07-23

    Despite the impact of pain in cognitive dysfunctions and affective disorders has been largely studied, the research that examines pain dimensions in cognitive impairment or dementia is still scarce. In patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementias, management of pain is challenging. While the sensory-discriminative dimension of pain is preserved, the cognitive-evaluative and the affective-motivational pain dimensions are affected. Due to the complexity of the disease and the poor self-reports, pain is underdiagnosed and undertreated. In confluence with an impaired thermoregulatory behavior, the patients' ability to confront environmental stressors such as cold temperature can put them at risk of fatal accidental hypothermia. Here, 3xTg-AD mice demonstrate that the sensorial-discriminative threshold to a noxious cold stimulus, as measured by the latency of tail-flicking, was preserved at early and advances stages of disease (7 and 11 month-old, respectively) as compared to age-matched (adulthood and middle aged, respectively) non-transgenic mice (NTg). In both genotypes, the sensory deterioration and poor thermoregulatory behavior associated to age was observed as an increase of tail-flick response and poor sensorimotor performance. At both stages studied, 3xTg-AD mice exhibited BPSD (Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia)-like alterations in the corner, open-field, dark-light box and the T-maze tests. In the adult NTg mice, this nociceptive withdrawal response was correlated with copying with stress-related behaviors. This integrative behavioral profile was lost in both groups of 3xTg-AD mice and middle aged controls, suggesting derangements in their subjacent networks and the complex interplay between the pain dimensions in the elderly with dementia. PMID:26091881

  12. Exploiting Heavy Tails in Training Times of Multilayer Perceptrons. A Case Study with the UCI Thyroid Disease Database

    E-print Network

    Cebrian, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    The random initialization of weights of a multilayer perceptron makes it possible to model its training process as a Las Vegas algorithm, i.e. a randomized algorithm which stops when some required training error is obtained, and whose execution time is a random variable. This modelling is used to perform a case study on a well-known pattern recognition benchmark: the UCI Thyroid Disease Database. Empirical evidence is presented of the training time probability distribution exhibiting a heavy tail behavior, meaning a big probability mass of long executions. This fact is exploited to reduce the training time cost by applying two simple restart strategies. The first assumes full knowledge of the distribution yielding a 40% cut down in expected time with respect to the training without restarts. The second, assumes null knowledge, yielding a reduction ranging from 9% to 23%.

  13. SPATIAL EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN WISCONSIN WHITE-TAILED DEER

    E-print Network

    Corresponding author (email: damien.joly@gov.ab.ca) ABSTRACT: Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal, emerging disease of cervids associated with transmissible protease-resistant prion proteins. The potential for CWD with consuming CWD- contaminated venison have led wildlife agencies to embark on extensive CWD control programs

  14. Intranasal Inoculation of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Lyophilized Chronic Wasting Disease Prion Particulate Complexed to Montmorillonite Clay

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Tracy A.; Spraker, Terry R.; Rigg, Tara D.; Meyerett-Reid, Crystal; Hoover, Clare; Michel, Brady; Bian, Jifeng; Hoover, Edward; Gidlewski, Thomas; Balachandran, Aru; O'Rourke, Katherine; Telling, Glenn C.; Bowen, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), the only known prion disease endemic in wildlife, is a persistent problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations. This disease continues to spread and cases are found in new areas each year. Indirect transmission can occur via the environment and is thought to occur by the oral and/or intranasal route. Oral transmission has been experimentally demonstrated and although intranasal transmission has been postulated, it has not been tested in a natural host until recently. Prions have been shown to adsorb strongly to clay particles and upon oral inoculation the prion/clay combination exhibits increased infectivity in rodent models. Deer and elk undoubtedly and chronically inhale dust particles routinely while living in the landscape while foraging and rutting. We therefore hypothesized that dust represents a viable vehicle for intranasal CWD prion exposure. To test this hypothesis, CWD-positive brain homogenate was mixed with montmorillonite clay (Mte), lyophilized, pulverized and inoculated intranasally into white-tailed deer once a week for 6 weeks. Deer were euthanized at 95, 105, 120 and 175 days post final inoculation and tissues examined for CWD-associated prion proteins by immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that CWD can be efficiently transmitted utilizing Mte particles as a prion carrier and intranasal exposure. PMID:23671598

  15. Mucosal immunization with an attenuated Salmonella vaccine partially protects white-tailed deer from chronic wasting disease.

    PubMed

    Goñi, Fernando; Mathiason, Candace K; Yim, Lucia; Wong, Kinlung; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Nalls, Amy; Peyser, Daniel; Estevez, Veronica; Denkers, Nathaniel; Xu, Jinfeng; Osborn, David A; Miller, Karl V; Warren, Robert J; Brown, David R; Chabalgoity, Jose A; Hoover, Edward A; Wisniewski, Thomas

    2015-01-29

    Prion disease is a unique category of illness, affecting both animals and humans, in which the underlying pathogenesis is related to a conformational change of a normal, self-protein called PrP(C) (C for cellular) to a pathological and infectious conformer known as PrP(Sc) (Sc for scrapie). Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), a prion disease believed to have arisen from feeding cattle with prion contaminated meat and bone meal products, crossed the species barrier to infect humans. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) infects large numbers of deer and elk, with the potential to infect humans. Currently no prionosis has an effective treatment. Previously, we have demonstrated we could prevent transmission of prions in a proportion of susceptible mice with a mucosal vaccine. In the current study, white-tailed deer were orally inoculated with attenuated Salmonella expressing PrP, while control deer were orally inoculated with vehicle attenuated Salmonella. Once a mucosal response was established, the vaccinated animals were boosted orally and locally by application of polymerized recombinant PrP onto the tonsils and rectal mucosa. The vaccinated and control animals were then challenged orally with CWD-infected brain homogenate. Three years post CWD oral challenge all control deer developed clinical CWD (median survival 602 days), while among the vaccinated there was a significant prolongation of the incubation period (median survival 909 days; p=0.012 by Weibull regression analysis) and one deer has remained CWD free both clinically and by RAMALT and tonsil biopsies. This negative vaccinate has the highest titers of IgA in saliva and systemic IgG against PrP. Western blots showed that immunoglobulins from this vaccinate react to PrP(CWD). We document the first partially successful vaccination for a prion disease in a species naturally at risk. PMID:25539804

  16. White-tailed deer harvest from the chronic wasting disease eradication zone in south-central Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Joly, D.O.; Samuel, M.D.; Langenberg, J.A.; Rolley, R.E.; Sausen, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) was discovered in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in south-central Wisconsin in 2002. The current control method for CWD in the state is the harvest of deer from affected areas to reduce population density and lower CWD transmission. We used spatial regression methods to identify factors associated with deer harvest across south-central Wisconsin. Harvest of deer by hunters was positively related to deer density (slope=0.003, 95% CI=0.0001-0.006), the number of landowners that requested harvest permits (slope=0.071, 95% CI=0.037-0.105), and proximity to the area of highest CWD infection (slope=-0.041, 95% CI=-0.056- -0.027). Concomitantly, harvest was not impacted in areas where landowners signed a petition protesting intensive deer reduction (slope=-0.00006, 95% CI=-0.0005-0.0003). Our results suggest that the success of programs designed to reduce deer populations for disease control or to reduce overabundance in Wisconsin are dependent on landowner and hunter participation. We recommend that programs or actions implemented to eradicate or mitigate the spread of CWD should monitor and assess deer population reduction and evaluate factors affecting program success to improve methods to meet management goals.

  17. From the field: Efficacy of detecting Chronic Wasting Disease via sampling hunter-killed white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diefenbach, D.R.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Boyd, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    Surveillance programs for Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in free-ranging cervids often use a standard of being able to detect 1% prevalence when determining minimum sample sizes. However, 1% prevalence may represent >10,000 infected animals in a population of 1 million, and most wildlife managers would prefer to detect the presence of CWD when far fewer infected animals exist. We wanted to detect the presence of CWD in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Pennsylvania when the disease was present in only 1 of 21 wildlife management units (WMUs) statewide. We used computer simulation to estimate the probability of detecting CWD based on a sampling design to detect the presence of CWD at 0.1% and 1.0% prevalence (23-76 and 225-762 infected deer, respectively) using tissue samples collected from hunter-killed deer. The probability of detection at 0.1% prevalence was <30% with sample sizes of ???6,000 deer, and the probability of detection at 1.0% prevalence was 46-72% with statewide sample sizes of 2,000-6,000 deer. We believe that testing of hunter-killed deer is an essential part of any surveillance program for CWD, but our results demonstrated the importance of a multifaceted surveillance approach for CWD detection rather than sole reliance on testing hunter-killed deer.

  18. Distribution of antibodies reactive to Borrelia lonestari and Borrelia burgdorferi in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Jessica H; Yabsley, Michael J; Little, Susan E; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; O'Connor, Thomas P; Caudell, Joe N; Huffman, Jane E; Langenberg, Julia A; Hollamby, Simon

    2009-12-01

    Southern tick-associated rash illness is a Lyme-like syndrome that occurs in the southern states. Borrelia lonestari, which has been suggested as a possible causative agent of southern tick-associated rash illness, naturally infects white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) and is transmitted by the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum). To better understand the prevalence and distribution of Borrelia exposure among WTD, we tested WTD from 21 eastern states for antibodies reactive to B. lonestari using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay and Borrelia burgdorferi using the IDEXX SNAP 4Dx test. A total of 107/714 (15%) had antibodies reactive to B. lonestari, and prevalence of antibodies was higher in deer from southern states (17.5%) than in deer from northern states (9.2%). Using the SNAP 4DX test, we found that 73/723 (10%) were positive for B. burgdorferi, and significantly more northern deer (23.9%) were positive compared with southern deer (3.8%). Our data demonstrate that WTD are exposed to both Borrelia species, but antibody prevalence for exposure to the two species differs regionally and distributions correlate with the presence of Ixodes scapularis and A. americanum ticks. PMID:19874183

  19. Distribution of Antibodies Reactive to Borrelia lonestari and Borrelia burgdorferi in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Populations in the Eastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Murdock, Jessica H.; Little, Susan E.; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; O'Connor, Thomas P.; Caudell, Joe N.; Huffman, Jane E.; Langenberg, Julia A.; Hollamby, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Southern tick-associated rash illness is a Lyme-like syndrome that occurs in the southern states. Borrelia lonestari, which has been suggested as a possible causative agent of southern tick-associated rash illness, naturally infects white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) and is transmitted by the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum). To better understand the prevalence and distribution of Borrelia exposure among WTD, we tested WTD from 21 eastern states for antibodies reactive to B. lonestari using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay and Borrelia burgdorferi using the IDEXX SNAP® 4Dx® test. A total of 107/714 (15%) had antibodies reactive to B. lonestari, and prevalence of antibodies was higher in deer from southern states (17.5%) than in deer from northern states (9.2%). Using the SNAP 4DX test, we found that 73/723 (10%) were positive for B. burgdorferi, and significantly more northern deer (23.9%) were positive compared with southern deer (3.8%). Our data demonstrate that WTD are exposed to both Borrelia species, but antibody prevalence for exposure to the two species differs regionally and distributions correlate with the presence of Ixodes scapularis and A. americanum ticks. PMID:19874183

  20. Demodectic mange, dermatophilosis, and other parasitic and bacterial dermatologic diseases in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the United States from 1975 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, N M; Ruder, M G; Gerhold, R W; Brown, J D; Munk, B A; Oesterle, P T; Kubiski, S V; Keel, M K

    2014-05-01

    The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is a common and widespread North American game species. To evaluate the incidence, clinical manifestations, demography, and pathology of bacterial and parasitic dermatologic diseases in white-tailed deer in the southeastern United States, we retrospectively evaluated white-tailed deer cases submitted to the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study from 1975 to 2012. Among 2569 deer examined, bacterial or parasitic dermatologic disease was diagnosed in 88 (3.4%) individuals, with Demodex spp (n = 37; 42.0%) and Dermatophilus congolensis (n = 19; 21.6%) as the most common causes. Demodicosis was significantly more common in deer older than 2 years and was most often detected in the fall; no statistically significant sex predilection was identified. Affected animals had patchy to generalized alopecia, often distributed over the head, neck, limbs, and trunk; microscopic lesions included epidermal crusts and cutaneous nodules with mild perifollicular, lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. Dermatophilosis was most common in males younger than 1 year that were often found dead. Crusting, erythema, and alopecia occurred on the face, ears, and distal extremities. Less commonly, infectious dermatologic diseases were associated with other bacteria (n = 13; 14.8%), fungi (n = 5; 5.7%), ectoparasites (chiggers, lice, mites, and ticks; n = 11; 12.5%), and larval nematodes (n = 7; 8.0%). Population-level effects of these diseases in white-tailed deer are likely minimal; however, due to their dramatic presentation, demodicosis, dermatophilosis, and other infectious skin diseases can be of concern to hunters and, in some cases, may have zoonotic potential. PMID:23912715

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa biopsy testing for chronic wasting disease within white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herds in North America:Effects of age,sex,polymorphism at PRNP codon 96,and disease progression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An effective live animal diagnostic test is needed to assist in the control of chronic wasting disease (CWD), which has spread through captive and wild herds of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Canada and the United States. In the present study, the diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa ...

  2. Broad and fine-scale genetic analysis of white-tailed deer populations: estimating the relative risk of chronic wasting disease spread

    PubMed Central

    Cullingham, Catherine I; Merrill, Evelyn H; Pybus, Margo J; Bollinger, Trent K; Wilson, Gregory A; Coltman, David W

    2011-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, similar to sheep scrapie that has only recently been detected in wild populations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) in western Canada. Relatively little is known about local transmission dynamics of the disease or the potential for long-distance spread. We analysed the population genetic structure of over 2000 white-tailed deer sampled from Alberta, British Columbia, and Saskatchewan using microsatellite profiles and mtDNA sequencing to assess the relative risk of disease spread. There was very little differentiation among subpopulations and a weak trend of increasing differentiation with geographic distance. This suggests that the potential for long-distance disease spread through the dispersal of infected individuals is possible, yet the risk of spread should gradually diminish with distance from infection foci. Within subpopulations, females were more related than expected by chance (R > 0) within a radius of approximately 500 m. Sex-biased philopatry and social interactions among related females may facilitate local disease transmission within social groups. Local herd reduction may therefore be an effective tool for reducing the disease prevalence when implemented at the appropriate spatial scale. PMID:25567957

  3. The impact of potential mitigation strategies on the predicted spread of foot and mouth disease in white-tailed deer in south Texas.

    PubMed

    Highfield, Linda D; Ward, Michael P; Laffan, Shawn W; Norby, Bo; Wagner, G Gale

    2010-05-01

    The United States has been free of FMD since the 1920s. Faced with an incursion of FMD virus that might involve wildlife species, it is crucial that appropriate mitigation strategies be applied rapidly to control the disease. Disease spread models can be used to evaluate the design of optimal strategies. Using a previously developed susceptible-infected-recovered geographic automata model (Sirca) to simulate the spread of FMD through white-tailed deer populations in south Texas, we conducted a series of experiments to determine how pre-emptive mitigation strategies applied to white-tailed deer populations might impact the predicted magnitude and distribution of outbreaks following FMD virus incursion. Based on previously derived deer distributions in the two ecoregions found within the study area, simulated outbreaks were evaluated by comparing the median number of deer predicted to be infected and the median area predicted affected for a baseline scenario and 3 mitigation strategies: targeted cull, random cull and targeted depopulation buffer. Substantial differences were observed in the predicted magnitude of outbreaks both by mitigation strategy and by ecoregion: depending on the ecoregion, the creation of a targeted depopulation buffer could reduce the number of deer predicted infected by up to 52%, and the area affected by up to 31%. Results suggest that the outcome of an FMD incursion that involves wildlife species, such as white-tailed deer in south Texas, might depend on both where the incursion occurs and the type of pre-emptive mitigation strategy applied. PMID:20181400

  4. Diversity and distribution of white-tailed deer mtDNA lineages in chronic wasting disease (CWD) outbreak areas in southern Wisconsin, USA.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Kip G; Robinson, Stacie J; Samuel, Michael D; Grear, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting North American cervids. Because it is uniformly fatal, the disease is a major concern in the management of white-tailed deer populations. Management programs to control CWD require improved knowledge of deer interaction, movement, and population connectivity that could influence disease transmission and spread. Genetic methods were employed to evaluate connectivity among populations in the CWD management zone of southern Wisconsin. A 576-base-pair region of the mitochondrial DNA of 359 white-tailed deer from 12 sample populations was analyzed. Fifty-eight variable sites were detected within the sequence, defining 43 haplotypes. While most sample populations displayed similar levels of haplotype diversity, individual haplotypes were clustered on the landscape. Spatial clusters of different haplotypes were apparent in distinct ecoregions surrounding CWD outbreak areas. The spatial distribution of mtDNA haplotypes suggests that clustering of the deer matrilineal groups and population connectivity are associated with broad-scale geographic landscape features. These landscape characteristics may also influence the contact rates between groups and therefore the potential spread of CWD; this may be especially true of local disease spread between female social groups. Our results suggest that optimal CWD management needs to be tailored to fit gender-specific dispersal behaviors and regional differences in deer population connectivity. This information will help wildlife managers design surveillance and monitoring efforts based on population interactions and potential deer movement among CWD-affected and unaffected areas. PMID:22043912

  5. Diversity and distribution of white-tailed deer mtdna lineages in chronic wasting disease (cwd) outbreak areas in southern wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, K.G.; Robinson, S.J.; Samuel, M.D.; Grear, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting North American cervids. Because it is uniformly fatal, the disease is a major concern in the management of white-tailed deer populations. Management programs to control CWD require improved knowledge of deer interaction, movement, and population connectivity that could influence disease transmission and spread. Genetic methods were employed to evaluate connectivity among populations in the CWD management zone of southern Wisconsin. A 576-base-pair region of the mitochondrial DNA of 359 white-tailed deer from 12 sample populations was analyzed. Fifty-eight variable sites were detected within the sequence, defining 43 haplotypes. While most sample populations displayed similar levels of haplotype diversity, individual haplotypes were clustered on the landscape. Spatial clusters of different haplotypes were apparent in distinct ecoregions surrounding CWD outbreak areas. The spatial distribution of mtDNA haplotypes suggests that clustering of the deer matrilineal groups and population connectivity are associated with broad-scale geographic landscape features. These landscape characteristics may also influence the contact rates between groups and therefore the potential spread of CWD; this may be especially true of local disease spread between female social groups. Our results suggest that optimal CWD management needs to be tailored to fit gender-specific dispersal behaviors and regional differences in deer population connectivity. This information will help wildlife managers design surveillance and monitoring efforts based on population interactions and potential deer movement among CWD-affected and unaffected areas. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  6. Epethelial presence of Trueperella pyogenes predicts site-level presence of cranial abscess disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Belser, Emily H; Cohen, Bradley S; Keeler, Shamus P; Killmaster, Charles H; Bowers, John W; Miller, Karl V

    2015-01-01

    Cranial/intracranial abscess disease is an emerging source of significant mortality for male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Most cases of cranial/intracranial abscess disease are associated with infection by the opportunistic pathogen Trueperella pyogenes although the relationship between the prevalence of the bacteria and occurrence of disease is speculative. We examined 5,612 hunter-harvested deer from 29 sites across all physiographic provinces in Georgia for evidence of cranial abscess disease and sampled the forehead, lingual, and nasal surfaces from 692 deer. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine presence of T. pyogenes from these samples. We found T. pyogenes prevalence at a site was a predictor for the occurrence of cranial abscess disease. Prevalence of T. pyogenes did not differ between samples from the nose or tongue although prevalence along the forehead was greater for males than females (p = 0.04), particularly at sites with high occurrence of this disease. Socio-sexual behaviors, bacterial prevalence, or physiological characteristics may predispose male deer to intracranial/cranial abscess disease. Determination of factors that affect T. pyogenes prevalence among sites may help explain the occurrence of this disease among populations. PMID:25803047

  7. Epethelial Presence of Trueperella pyogenes Predicts Site-Level Presence of Cranial Abscess Disease in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    PubMed Central

    Belser, Emily H.; Cohen, Bradley S.; Keeler, Shamus P.; Killmaster, Charles H.; Bowers, John W.; Miller, Karl V.

    2015-01-01

    Cranial/intracranial abscess disease is an emerging source of significant mortality for male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Most cases of cranial/intracranial abscess disease are associated with infection by the opportunistic pathogen Trueperella pyogenes although the relationship between the prevalence of the bacteria and occurrence of disease is speculative. We examined 5,612 hunter-harvested deer from 29 sites across all physiographic provinces in Georgia for evidence of cranial abscess disease and sampled the forehead, lingual, and nasal surfaces from 692 deer. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine presence of T. pyogenes from these samples. We found T. pyogenes prevalence at a site was a predictor for the occurrence of cranial abscess disease. Prevalence of T. pyogenes did not differ between samples from the nose or tongue although prevalence along the forehead was greater for males than females (p = 0.04), particularly at sites with high occurrence of this disease. Socio-sexual behaviors, bacterial prevalence, or physiological characteristics may predispose male deer to intracranial/cranial abscess disease. Determination of factors that affect T. pyogenes prevalence among sites may help explain the occurrence of this disease among populations. PMID:25803047

  8. Genetic susceptibility to chronic wasting disease in free-ranging white-tailed deer: complement component C1q and Prnp polymorphisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Scribner, Kim T.; Libants, Scot V.; Johnson, Chad; Aiken, Judd M.; Langenberg, Julia A.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    The genetic basis of susceptibility to chronic wasting disease (CWD) in free-ranging cervids is of great interest. Association studies of disease susceptibility in free-ranging populations, however, face considerable challenges including: the need for large sample sizes when disease is rare, animals of unknown pedigree create a risk of spurious results due to population admixture, and the inability to control disease exposure or dose. We used an innovative matched case–control design and conditional logistic regression to evaluate associations between polymorphisms of complement C1q and prion protein (Prnp) genes and CWD infection in white-tailed deer from the CWD endemic area in south-central Wisconsin. To reduce problems due to admixture or disease-risk confounding, we used neutral genetic (microsatellite) data to identify closely related CWD-positive (n = 68) and CWD-negative (n = 91) female deer to serve as matched cases and controls. Cases and controls were also matched on factors (sex, location, age) previously demonstrated to affect CWD infection risk. For Prnp, deer with at least one Serine (S) at amino acid 96 were significantly less likely to be CWD-positive relative to deer homozygous for Glycine (G). This is the first characterization of genes associated with the complement system in white-tailed deer. No tests for association between any C1q polymorphism and CWD infection were significant at p < 0.05. After controlling for Prnp, we found weak support for an elevated risk of CWD infection in deer with at least one Glycine (G) at amino acid 56 of the C1qC gene. While we documented numerous amino acid polymorphisms in C1q genes none appear to be strongly associated with CWD susceptibility.

  9. Study on thermal properties and crystallization behavior of electron beam irradiated ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)/waste tyre dust (WTD) blends in the presence of polyethylene graft maleic anhydride (PEgMAH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Syuhada; Ratnam, C. T.; Ahmad, S. H.; Athirah, Nurul

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this article is to show the effects of the electron beam irradiation dose and presence of a compatibiliser on the thermal properties and crystallinity of EVA/WTD blends. The purpose of applying electron beam radiation with doses range 50 to 200 kGy and adding a compatibiliser was to enhance the compatibility of the studied blends and at the same time to investigate the possibility of using this technique in the process of recycling polymeric materials. As the compatibilisers, the polyethylene grafted maleic anhydride (PEgMAH) was utilized, they were added at the amounts of 1-5 phr respectively. The enhancement of thermal properties was accompanied by the following effects, discussed in this article: i) an irradiated EVA/WTD blend at 200kGy was found to improve the thermal properties of EVA, ii) the addition of PEgMAH in EVA/WTD blends and the subsequent irradiation allowed prevention of degradation mechanism. iii) the ?Hf and crystallinity percentage decrease at higher PEgMAH content.

  10. Study on thermal properties and crystallization behavior of electron beam irradiated ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)/waste tyre dust (WTD) blends in the presence of polyethylene graft maleic anhydride (PEgMAH)

    SciTech Connect

    Ramli, Syuhada; Ahmad, S. H.; Ratnam, C. T.; Athirah, Nurul

    2013-11-27

    The aim of this article is to show the effects of the electron beam irradiation dose and presence of a compatibiliser on the thermal properties and crystallinity of EVA/WTD blends. The purpose of applying electron beam radiation with doses range 50 to 200 kGy and adding a compatibiliser was to enhance the compatibility of the studied blends and at the same time to investigate the possibility of using this technique in the process of recycling polymeric materials. As the compatibilisers, the polyethylene grafted maleic anhydride (PEgMAH) was utilized, they were added at the amounts of 1-5 phr respectively. The enhancement of thermal properties was accompanied by the following effects, discussed in this article: i) an irradiated EVA/WTD blend at 200kGy was found to improve the thermal properties of EVA, ii) the addition of PEgMAH in EVA/WTD blends and the subsequent irradiation allowed prevention of degradation mechanism. iii) the ?H{sub f} and crystallinity percentage decrease at higher PEgMAH content.

  11. Tail Buffeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdrashitov, G.

    1943-01-01

    An approximate theory of buffeting is here presented, based on the assumption of harmonic disturbing forces. Two cases of buffeting are considered: namely, for a tail angle of attack greater and less than the stalling angle, respectively. On the basis of the tests conducted and the results of foreign investigators, a general analysis is given of the nature of the forced vibrations the possible load limits on the tail, and the methods of elimination of buffeting.

  12. Epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): occurrence, congenital transmission, correlates of infection, isolation, and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Dennis, P M; Verma, S K; Choudhary, S; Ferreira, L R; Oliveira, S; Kwok, O C H; Butler, E; Carstensen, M; Su, C

    2014-05-28

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in white tailed deer (WTD) in the USA is high but little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in this host. In the present study, we compared T. gondii seroprevalence from 749 WTD collected in 2012 and 2013 from a Metropolitan Park in Ohio and 487 WTD deer shot in Minnesota during 2008, 2009, and 2010. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (cut-off titer, 25). Additionally myocardial samples from 123 seropositive WTD from Ohio were digested in pepsin and the digests were bioassayed for the isolation of T. gondii. Furthermore, to estimate transplacental rate of transmission, brains from 155 fetuses (included twins) from 148 deer from Minnesota were bioassayed in mice for the isolation of viable T. gondii. Seroprevalence of T. gondii varied with the year of collection, geography, and the age of deer. Of the Ohio deer sampled in 2012 and 2013 seroprevalences for the two years were similar (73.4% and 75.7%, respectively); remarkably 150 (66.1%) of 227 deer of <1 year of age were seropositive. Of the Minnesota deer, seroprevalence was lowest for the year 2008 (14.8%, 26/175) versus 2009 (27.7%, 59/213), and 2010 (25.2%, 25/99), thought to be related to environmental temperatures. Viable T. gondii was isolated in mice from the myocardium of four WTD from Ohio, and brain of one WTD fetus from Minnesota. Tachyzoites from infected mouse tissues were further propagated in cell culture. The DNA isolated from culture-derived tachyzoites of these five T. gondii isolates was characterized using 11 PCR-RFLP markers (SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico). Four genotypes were found, including ToxoDB genotype no. 1 (Type II), no. 2 (Type III), no. 3 (Type II variant) and no. 146. Results indicate fluctuating seroprevalence, probably related to weather and warrant further epidemiological studies. PMID:24582734

  13. Polymorphisms in the prion precursor functional gene but not the pseudogene are associated with susceptibility to chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Katherine I; Spraker, Terry R; Hamburg, Linda K; Besser, Thomas E; Brayton, Kelly A; Knowles, Donald P

    2004-05-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) status and PrP genotypes were determined for a group of 133 wild white-tailed deer in a 780 acre enclosure in western Nebraska, USA. Approximately half of the deer tested showed evidence of PrPd in the brainstem or lymphoid tissues. Four PRNP alleles encoding amino acid substitutions were identified, with substitutions at residues 95 (Q-->H), 96 (G-->S) or 116 (A-->G), each with serine (S) at residue 138. In addition, a processed pseudogene with two alleles encoding five or six copies of the octapeptide repeat was identified in 26 % of the deer. Both alleles encoded asparagine (N) at residue 138. The functional gene alleles sorted into five major diploid genotypes and four rare genotypes. Although all five major diploid genotypes were found in deer with CWD, unaffected deer were less likely to have the allele QGAS and more likely to have QSAS compared with CWD-affected deer. Late-stage disease (PrPd in brainstem) was noted in deer less than 1 year of age, although no single genotype was associated with this rapid neuroinvasion. Early-stage disease (PrPd distribution limited to the lymphoid system) was observed in deer estimated to be more than 5 years old, suggesting that they were infected as adults or that the incubation time might be extremely long in some individuals. The pseudogene was found in deer of all major PRNP genotypes and was not correlated with CWD status. The large number of susceptible genotypes and the possibility of adult-to-adult transmission suggest that much of the white-tailed deer population may be at risk for disease following exposure to CWD, despite the association of specific genotypes with CWD noted here. PMID:15105552

  14. Transmission of the agent of sheep scrapie to deer results in PrPSc with two distinct molecular profiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this work was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer (WTD) to the agent of sheep scrapie and to compare the resultant PrPSc to that of the original inoculum and chronic wasting disease (CWD). We inoculated WTD by a natural route of exposure (concurrent oral and intranasal (I...

  15. Influence of landscape factors and management decisions on spatial and temporal patterns of the transmission of chronic wasting disease transmission in white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    O'Hara Ruiz, Marilyn; Kelly, Amy C; Brown, William M; Novakofski, Jan E; Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra E

    2013-11-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) has been reported in white-tailed deer at the border of the US states of Illinois and Wisconsin since 2002. Transmission of infectious prions between animals and from the environment has resulted in spatial and temporal structure observable in the spatio-temporal patterns of reported cases. Case locations of 382 positive cases from 28,954 deer tested between 2002 and 2009 provided insight into the potential risk factors and landscape features associated with transmission using a combination of clustering, generalised linear modelling and descriptive evaluations of a risk map of predicted cases of CWD. A species distribution map of white-tailed deer developed using MaxEnt provided an estimate of deer locations. We found that deer probability increased in areas with larger forests and less urban and agricultural lands. Spatial clustering analysis revealed a core area of persistent CWD transmission in the northern part of the region. The regression model indicated that larger and more compact forests were associated with higher risk for CWD. High risk areas also had soils with less clay and more sand than other parts of the region. The transmission potential was higher where landscape features indicated the potential for higher deer concentrations. The inclusion of spatial lag variables improved the model. Of the 102 cases reported in the study area in the two years following the study period, 89 (87%) of those were in the 32% of the study area with the highest 50% of predicted risk of cases. PMID:24258897

  16. Prion protein gene heterogeneity in free-ranging white-tailed deer within the chronic wasting disease affected region of Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Chad; Johnson, Jody; Clayton, Murray; McKenzie, Debbie; Aiken, Judd

    2003-07-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) was first identified in Wisconsin (USA) in whitetailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in February 2002. To determine if prion protein gene (Prnp) allelic variability was associated with CWD in white-tailed deer from Wisconsin, we sequenced Prnp from 26 CWD-positive and 100 CWD-negative deer. Sequence analysis of Prnp suggests that at least 86-96% of the white-tailed deer in this region have Prnp allelic combinations that will support CWD infection. Four Prnp alleles were identified in the deer population, one of which, resulting in a glutamine to histidine change at codon 95, has not been previously reported. The predominant allele in the population encodes for glutamine at codon 95, glycine at codon 96, and serine at codon 138 (QGS). Less abundant alleles encoded QSS, QGN, and HGS at the three variable positions. Comparison of CWD-positive with CWD-negative deer suggested a trend towards an over-representation of the QGS allele and an under-representation of the QSS allele. PMID:14567218

  17. Chronic wasting disease infection patterns in female white-tailed deer related to demographics, genetic relationships, and spatial proximity of infected deer in southern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grear, Daniel A.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) caused by transmissible protease resistant prions. Since the discovery of CWD in southern Wisconsin in 2001, more than 20,000 deer have been removed from a >2,500 km2 disease eradication zone surrounding the three initial cases. Nearly all deer removed were tested for CWD infection and sex, age, and harvest location were recorded. Our analysis used data from a 310 kin2 core study area where disease prevalence was higher than surrounding areas. We found no difference in harvest rates between CWD infected and non-infected deer. Ow results show that the probability of infection increased with age and that adult males were more likely to be infected than adult females. Six fawns tested positive for CWD, five fawns from the core study area, including the youngest (5 months) kee-ranging cervid to test positive. The increase in male prevalence with age is nearly twice the increase found in females. We concluded that CWD is not randomly distributed among deer and that differential transmission among sex and age classes is likely driving the observed patterns in disease prevalence. We discuss alternative hypotheses for CWD transmission and spread and, in addition, discuss several possible non-linear relationships between prevalence and age. Understanding CWD transmission in free-ranging cervid populations will be essential to the development of strategies to manage this disease in areas where CWD is found as well as for surveillance strategies in areas where CWD threatens to spread.

  18. Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Outbreak in a Captive Facility Housing White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus), Bison (Bison Bison), Elk (Cervus Elaphus), Cattle (Bos Taurus) and Goats (Capra Hircus) in Colorado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A captive wildlife research facility in Fort Collins, Colorado experienced mortality in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) due to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) infection in late summer and early fall of 2007. RNA from EHDV was amplified by RT-PCR from the spleen and lung tissues...

  19. Black-Tailed Prairie Dog

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Black-tailed prairie dogs are quite susceptible to sylvatic plague, but a new plague vaccine put in their food shows significant promise in the laboratory. The prairie dogs transmit the disease to endangered black-footed ferrets, who eat the prairie dogs and are also quite susceptible to the disease...

  20. Evaluating use of cattle winter feeding areas by elk and white-tailed deer: implications for managing bovine tuberculosis transmission risk from the ground up.

    PubMed

    Brook, Ryan K; Wal, Eric Vander; van Beest, Floris M; McLachlan, Stéphane M

    2013-02-01

    Transmission of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) among wildlife and livestock has created important risks for conservation and agriculture. Management strategies aimed at controlling TB have typically been top-down, regionally focused, and government-led programs that were at best only partially successful. The purpose of this study was to quantify co-mingling of elk and white-tailed deer (WTD) with cattle at multiple spatial scales (i.e., the regional farm scale and winter cattle feeding area patch) in southwestern Manitoba, Canada, to assess the potential for bovine tuberculosis transmission and identify alternative management strategies. For each spatial scale we quantified use of cattle farms by elk and white-tailed deer. We mailed questionnaires to rural households and then conducted personal interviews with 86 cattle farmers to map the spatial distribution of their cattle winter feeding areas at a fine scale. We deployed Global Positioning System (GPS) collars on 48 wild elk and 16 wild white-tailed deer from 2003 to 2011. Elk were observed on farms by 66% of cattle producers, including 5% and 20% who observed direct and indirect contact, respectively, between elk and cattle. Cattle producers consistently (?100%) observed white-tailed deer on their farms, including 11% and 47% whom observed direct and indirect contact, respectively, between white-tailed deer and cattle. A higher probability of white-tailed deer-cattle contact at the regional scale occurs on farms that (1) left crop residues specifically for wildlife, (2) had larger cattle herds, (3) used round bale feeders, and (4) were farther away from protected areas. None of the GPS-collared elk locations overlapped with cattle winter feeding areas. In contrast, 21% of GPS-collared white-tailed deer locations overlapped with winter cattle winter feeding areas (22% of these were from male WTD and 78% were from female WTD). White-tailed deer selected cattle winter feeding areas with higher (1) forage crop, (2) grassland/rangeland, and (3) forest cover around the cattle feeding area. Farmers overall expressed strongly negative attitudes toward eradicating the elk population or fencing the park to eradicate TB, but were generally supportive of less invasive and farm-based approaches. Our results suggested that management efforts to prevent TB transmission at the wildlife-agriculture interface can be effectively implemented using a 'bottom-up' approach that focuses on practical, farm-based mitigation strategies. This approach can be implemented by individual farm operators, is relatively low cost, and is generally well supported by farmers relative to other more extreme and controversial measures like wildlife eradication. PMID:22940061

  1. Susceptibility of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to experimental infection with epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the fall of 2006, in Israel, epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) serotype 7 was the cause of an intense and widespread epizootic in domestic cattle that resulted in significant economic losses for the dairy industry. The susceptibility of potential North American vector and ruminant ho...

  2. Intranasal inoculation of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with lyophilized chronic wasting disease prion particulate complexed to montmorillonite clay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or TSE of deer and elk, occurring primarily in North America. The TSEs are fatal neurodegenerative disorders associated with conversion of a normal cell protein to a pathogenic and potentially infectious agent by post trans...

  3. Heavy Tails Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks Tail Densities of Copulas and Extremal

    E-print Network

    Li, Haijun

    Heavy Tails Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks Tail of Mathematics Washington State University MMR2011, Beijing Haijun Li Tail Densities of Copulas and Extremal Dependence MMR2011, Beijing 1 / 26 #12;Heavy Tails Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities

  4. Temporal and spatial dynamics of trypanosomes infecting the brush-tailed bettong (Bettongia penicillata): a cautionary note of disease-induced population decline

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The brush-tailed bettong or woylie (Bettongia penicillata) is on the brink of extinction. Its numbers have declined by 90% since 1999, with their current distribution occupying less than 1% of their former Australian range. Woylies are known to be infected with three different trypanosomes (Trypanosoma vegrandis, Trypanosoma copemani and Trypanosoma sp. H25) and two different strains of T. copemani that vary in virulence. However, the role that these haemoparasites have played during the recent decline of their host is unclear and is part of ongoing investigation. Methods Woylies were sampled from five locations in southern Western Australia, including two neighbouring indigenous populations, two enclosed (fenced) populations and a captive colony. PCR was used to individually identify the three different trypanosomes from blood and tissues of the host, and to investigate the temporal and spatial dynamics of trypanosome infections. Results The spatial pattern of trypanosome infection varied among the five study sites, with a greater proportion of woylies from the Perup indigenous population being infected with T. copemani than from the neighbouring Kingston indigenous population. For an established infection, T. copemani detection was temporally inconsistent. The more virulent strain of T. copemani appeared to regress at a faster rate than the less virulent strain, with the infection possibly transitioning from the acute to chronic phase. Interspecific competition may also exist between T. copemani and T. vegrandis, where an existing T. vegrandis infection may moderate the sequential establishment of the more virulent T. copemani. Conclusion In this study, we provide a possible temporal connection implicating T. copemani as the disease agent linked with the recent decline of the Kingston indigenous woylie population within the Upper Warren region of Western Australia. The chronic association of trypanosomes with the internal organs of its host may be potentially pathogenic and adversely affect their long term fitness and coordination, making the woylie more susceptible to predation. PMID:24708757

  5. Tail gut cyst.

    PubMed

    Rao, G Mallikarjuna; Haricharan, P; Ramanujacharyulu, S; Reddy, K Lakshmi

    2002-01-01

    The tail gut is a blind extension of the hindgut into the tail fold just distal to the cloacal membrane. Remnants of this structure may form tail gut cyst. We report a 14-year-old girl with tail gut cyst that presented as acute abdomen. The patient recovered after cyst excision. PMID:12546176

  6. Peer Reviewed White-Tailed Deer Harvest From the Chronic Wasting

    E-print Network

    Peer Reviewed White-Tailed Deer Harvest From the Chronic Wasting Disease Eradication Zone in South Chronic wasting disease (CWD) was discovered in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus chronic wasting disease, deer herd reduction, harvest, Odocoileus virginianus, white-tailed deer

  7. Acaricidal Treatment of White-Tailed Deer to Control Ixodes Scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in a New York Lyme Disease-Endemic Community

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 4-Poster device for the topical treatment of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann) against ticks using the acaricide amitraz was evaluated in a Lyme borreliosis endemic community in Connecticut. As part of a 5-year project from 1997 to 2002, 21–24 of the 4-Posters were distribut...

  8. When Heavy-Tailed and Light-Tailed Flows Compete: The Response Time Tail Under

    E-print Network

    Nair, Jayakrishnan U.

    When Heavy-Tailed and Light-Tailed Flows Compete: The Response Time Tail Under Generalized Max tail under generalized max-weight policies in settings where the traffic flows are highly asymmetric. Specifically, we study an extreme setting with two traffic flows, one heavy-tailed, and one light-tailed

  9. Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks Tail Densities of Copulas

    E-print Network

    Li, Haijun

    Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks Tail Densities of Toronto, May 27 2014 Haijun Li Tail Densities of Copulas University of Toronto, May 27 2014 1 / 22 #12;Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks Let X = (X1

  10. Genetic susceptibility to chronic wasting disease in free-ranging white-tailed deer: Complement component C1q and Prnp polymorphisms

    E-print Network

    -Madison, Madison, WI 53706, United States 1. Introduction Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal transmissible pathogenesis. In CWD, infection is typically first detectable in the peripheral lymphoid tissues. This is like (CWD) in free-ranging cervids is of great interest. Association studies of disease susceptibility

  11. Validation of Use of Rectoanal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue for Immunohistochemical Diagnosis of Chronic Wasting Disease in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are a family of fatal neurodegenerative diseases characterized by accumulation of abnormal prion proteins in the brain. The abnormal prion protein is the major constituent of the infectious agent and is a reliable marker for disease. The occurrence of ...

  12. A Mass in the Junction of the Body and Tail of the Pancreas with Negative IgG4 Serology: IgG4-Related Disease with Negative Serology

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Eduardo A.; Williams, Frederick K.

    2015-01-01

    Patient:Female, 55 Final Diagnosis: Autoimmune pancreatitis Symptoms: Abdominal pain • weight loss Medication: Prednisone Clinical Procedure: Admitted to the hospital Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Challenging differential diagnosis Background: Autoimmune pancreatitis is an IgG4-related fibroinflammatory condition often associated with obstructive jaundice, as most lesions are located at the head of the pancreas. IgG4 level can help in the diagnosis, but it is normal in nearly 30% of affected patients. Case Report: A 55-year-old woman presented with a 5-month history of 20-pound unintentional weight loss and intermittent abdominal pain. She had an unremarkable abdominal exam and significant findings included a small, non-mobile rubbery left axillary lymph node. Complete blood count, complete metabolic panel, amylase, anti-smooth muscle antibody, antimitochondrial antibody, carcinoembryonic antigen, Ca 19-9, complement C3 and C4, antinuclear antibody, anti-Smith double-strand antibody, and IgG4 were all within normal limits. CT of the abdomen showed a mass in the junction of the body and tail of the pancreas and endoscopic ultrasound showed it as encasing the splenic artery. Fine-needle aspiration cytology demonstrated follicular hyperplasia, obliterative phlebitis, storiform fibrosis, and negative staining for IgG4 and malignancy. Left axillary lymph node biopsy demonstrated follicular hyperplasia. PET scan revealed hypermetabolic uptake of the pancreas tail, bone marrow, and spleen, as well as diffuse lymphadenopathy. Bone marrow biopsy showed follicular hyperplasia and was negative for malignancy. The patient was started on 40 mg of oral prednisone for possible autoimmune disease. During follow-up, she reported progressive improvement and a repeat PET scan 6 months later showed marked improvement. Conclusions: A normal IgG4 value should not decrease the clinical suspicion of IgG4-related disease. If clinical, histological, and radiological findings coincide, glucocorticoids should be initiated with subsequent follow-up to evaluate for a response. PMID:26001036

  13. Human tails and pseudotails.

    PubMed

    Dao, A H; Netsky, M G

    1984-05-01

    A case of a tail in a 2-week-old infant is reported, and findings from a review of 33 previously reported cases of true tails and pseudotails are summarized. The true, or persistent, vestigial tail of humans arises from the most distal remnant of the embryonic tail. It contains adipose and connective tissue, central bundles of striated muscle, blood vessels, and nerves and is covered by skin. Bone, cartilage, notochord, and spinal cord are lacking. The true tail arises by retention of structures found normally in fetal development. It may be as long as 13 cm, can move and contract, and occurs twice as often in males as in females. A true tail is easily removed surgically, without residual effects. It is rarely familial. Pseudotails are varied lesions having in common a lumbosacral protrusion and a superficial resemblance to persistent vestigial tails. The most frequent cause of a pseudotail in a series of ten cases obtained from the literature was an anomalous prolongation of the coccygeal vertebrae. Additional lesions included two lipomas, and one each of teratoma, chondromegaly , glioma, and a thin, elongated parasitic fetus. PMID:6373560

  14. Wagging tail vibration absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, R. G.; Humphrey, P. W.

    1969-01-01

    A 750-foot cantilever length of extendible-tape boom (very low stiffness) was considered as the main system to be damped. A number of tail lengths were tried from 20 feet to 80 feet after which 40 feet was investigated further as a desirable compromise between performance and practical lengths. A 40-foot damping tail produced a damping effect on the main boom for the first mode equivalent in decay rate to 3.1 percent of critical damping. In this case the spring-hinge and tail were tuned to the main boom first mode frequency and the hinge damping was set at 30 percent of critical based on the tail properties. With this same setting, damping of the second mode was .4 percent and the third mode .1 percent.

  15. Between residual tail dependence and

    E-print Network

    Gilleland, Eric

    Between residual tail dependence and Hüsler­Reiss triangular arrays 1. Tail Dependence Parameters 2. Maxima of Normal Random Vectors 3. Testing Tail Dependence Based on Radial Component 4. An Application Between residual tail­dependence and Hüsler­Reiss triangular arrays R.­D. Reiss joint work with M. Frick

  16. Preliminary observations on the experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) from elk and white-tailed deer to fallow deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the transmissibility of chronic wasting disease (CWD) to fallow deer (Dama dama) and to provide information about clinical course, lesions and suitability of currently used diagnostic procedures for detection of CWD in this species, 13 fawns were inoculated intracerebrally with CWD brai...

  17. Uranium mill tailings stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.

    1980-02-01

    Uranium mill tailings pose a potential radiation health hazard to the public. Therefore, stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is needed to minimize radon exhalation and other environmental hazards. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing U tailings is the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other hazardous materials within uranium tailings. This approach is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Results of these studies indicate that a radon flux reduction of greater than 99% can be obtained using either a poured-on/sprayed-on seal (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick) or an admixture seal (2.5 to 12.7 cm thick) containing about 18 wt % residual asphalt. A field test was carried out in June 1979 at the Grand Junction tailings pile in order to demonstrate the sealing process. A reduction in radon flux ranging from 4.5 to greater than 99% (76% average) was achieved using a 15.2-cm (6-in.) admix seal with a sprayed-on top coat. A hydrostatic stabilizer was used to apply the admix. Following compaction, a spray coat seal was applied over the admix as the final step in construction of a radon seal. Overburden was applied to provide a protective soil layer over the seal. Included in part of the overburden was a herbicide to prevent root penetration.

  18. Modelling spread of foot-and-mouth disease in wild white-tailed deer and feral pig populations using a geographic-automata model and animal distributions.

    PubMed

    Ward, Michael P; Laffan, Shawn W; Highfield, Linda D

    2009-09-01

    We investigated how the size and distribution of wild deer and feral pigs - species that might act as potential foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus maintenance hosts - might affect the persistence and spread of FMD. We used a susceptible-latent-infected-recovered geographic-automata model and spatially referenced data from southern Texas, USA. Within this study area, 100 locations were randomly selected and FMD virus spread was simulated (50 simulations each) at each location. As expected, the predicted sizes (km(2)) of the wild deer outbreaks were highly correlated (r(SP)>0.95) with the number of deer at incursion locations, the total number of deer within 2 km of incursion locations, and the minimum and maximum deer herd size within 2 km of incursion locations. However, the predicted sizes of the feral pig outbreaks were only moderately correlated (r(SP) 0.63-0.67) with the total, maximum and variance of the number of feral pigs within 2 km of incursion locations. Lack of continuity within the feral pig herd distribution across the landscape makes predicting disease spread more difficult than for deer, a more homogenously distributed species. When assessing the potential of wild and feral animal species at a locality to act as maintenance hosts of FMD virus, estimates of the population size and distribution might serve as a useful indicator of potential outbreaks in some circumstances. PMID:19515439

  19. REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK STAND, SHOWING AIRCRAFT NUMBER (319), HORIZONTAL STABILIZER, TAIL CONE AND COOLING CTS FOR THE AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), MECHANIC PAUL RIDEOUT IS LOWERING THE BALANCE PANELS ON THE STABILIZERS FOR LUBRICATION AND INSPECTION. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  20. On tails of perpetuities

    E-print Network

    Hitczenko, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    We establish an upper bound on the tails of a random variable that arises as a solution of a stochastic difference equation. In the non--negative case our bound is similar to a lower bound obtained by Goldie and Gr\\"ubel in 1996.

  1. Surveillance for transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in scavengers of white-tailed deer carcasses in the chronic wasting disease area of wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jennelle, C.S.; Samuel, M.D.; Nolden, C.A.; Keane, D.P.; Barr, D.J.; Johnson, Chad; Vanderloo, J.P.; Aiken, Judd M.; Hamir, A.N.; Hoover, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a class of neurodegenerative transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) occurring in cervids, is found in a number of states and provinces across North America. Misfolded prions, the infectious agents of CWD, are deposited in the environment via carcass remains and excreta, and pose a threat of cross-species transmission. In this study tissues were tested from 812 representative mammalian scavengers, collected in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin, for TSE infection using the IDEXX HerdChek enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only four of the collected mammals tested positive using the ELISA, but these were negative when tested by Western blot. While our sample sizes permitted high probabilities of detecting TSE assuming 1% population prevalence in several common scavengers (93%, 87%, and 87% for raccoons, opossums, and coyotes, respectively), insufficient sample sizes for other species precluded similar conclusions. One cannot rule out successful cross-species TSE transmission to scavengers, but the results suggest that such transmission is not frequent in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin. The need for further surveillance of scavenger species, especially those known to be susceptible to TSE (e.g., cat, American mink, raccoon), is highlighted in both a field and laboratory setting.

  2. The geomagnetic tail

    SciTech Connect

    Birn, J. )

    1991-01-01

    A review is presented of the plasma sheet and lobe regions of the magnetotail, focusing principally on large-scale processes or microprocesses with some large-scale effects. Consideration is given to quiet and average structures, not necessarily related to activity phases, with quasi-steady convection aspects, and with the characteristics of dynamic phases including acceleration mechanisms and single particle aspects. Attention is given to various activity models, average and quiet time properties, properties and effects of magnetospheric convection, dynamics of the magnetotail, and the near tail, substorm current wedge.

  3. Perpetuities with thin tails revisited

    E-print Network

    Hitczenko, Pawe?; 10.1214/09-AAP603

    2009-01-01

    We consider the tail behavior of random variables $R$ which are solutions of the distributional equation $R\\stackrel{d}{=}Q+MR$, where $(Q,M)$ is independent of $R$ and $|M|\\le 1$. Goldie and Gr\\"{u}bel showed that the tails of $R$ are no heavier than exponential and that if $Q$ is bounded and $M$ resembles near 1 the uniform distribution, then the tails of $R$ are Poissonian. In this paper, we further investigate the connection between the tails of $R$ and the behavior of $M$ near 1. We focus on the special case when $Q$ is constant and $M$ is nonnegative.

  4. 3. VIEW OF WEST TAILING DAM, LARGE TANK, AND TAILING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF WEST TAILING DAM, LARGE TANK, AND TAILING, LOOKING NORTHEAST. A SIX-FOOT SCALE IS LOCATED AGAINST WALL ON LEFT. PURPOSE OF TANK IS UNKNOWN, BUT APPEARS TO HAVE FALLEN FROM ITS ORIGINAL LOCATION AT THE MILL SITE, UP AND TO THE RIGHT OF THIS VIEW. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  5. Helicopter tail rotor noise analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, A. R.; Chou, S. T.

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of helicopter tail rotor noise, particularly that due to interactions with the main rotor tip vortices, and with the fuselage separation mean wake. The tail rotor blade-main rotor tip vortex interaction is modelled as an airfoil of infinite span cutting through a moving vortex. The vortex and the geometry information required by the analyses are obtained through a free wake geometry analysis of the main rotor. The acoustic pressure-time histories for the tail rotor blade-vortex interactions are then calculated. These acoustic results are compared to tail rotor loading and thickness noise, and are found to be significant to the overall tail rotor noise generation. Under most helicopter operating conditions, large acoustic pressure fluctuations can be generated due to a series of skewed main rotor tip vortices passing through the tail rotor disk. The noise generation depends strongly upon the helicopter operating conditions and the location of the tail rotor relative to the main rotor.

  6. [Tail Plane Icing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Program initiated by NASA in 1997 has put greater emphasis in safety related research activities. Ice-contaminated-tailplane stall (ICTS) has been identified by the NASA Lewis Icing Technology Branch as an important activity for aircraft safety related research. The ICTS phenomenon is characterized as a sudden, often uncontrollable aircraft nose- down pitching moment, which occurs due to increased angle-of-attack of the horizontal tailplane resulting in tailplane stall. Typically, this phenomenon occurs when lowering the flaps during final approach while operating in or recently departing from icing conditions. Ice formation on the tailplane leading edge can reduce tailplane angle-of-attack range and cause flow separation resulting in a significant reduction or complete loss of aircraft pitch control. In 1993, the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) and NASA embarked upon a four-year research program to address the problem of tailplane stall and to quantify the effect of tailplane ice accretion on aircraft performance and handling characteristics. The goals of this program, which was completed in March 1998, were to collect aerodynamic data for an aircraft tail with and without ice contamination and to develop analytical methods for predicting the effects of tailplane ice contamination. Extensive dry air and icing tunnel tests which resulted in a database of the aerodynamic effects associated with tailplane ice contamination. Although the FAA/NASA tailplane icing program generated some answers regarding ice-contaminated-tailplane stall (ICTS) phenomena, NASA researchers have found many open questions that warrant further investigation into ICTS. In addition, several aircraft manufacturers have expressed interest in a second research program to expand the database to other tail configurations and to develop experimental and computational methodologies for evaluating the ICTS phenomenon. In 1998, the icing branch at NASA Lewis initiated a second multi-phase research program for tailplane icing (TIP II) to develop test methodologies and tailplane performance and handling qualities evaluation tools. The main objectives of this new NASA/Industry/Academia collaborative research programs were: (1) define and evaluate a sub-scale wind tunnel test methodology for determining tailplane performance degradation due to icing. (2) develop an experimental database of tailplane aerodynamic performance with and without ice contamination for a range of tailplane configurations. Wind tunnel tests were planned with representative general aviation aircraft, i.e., the Learjet 45, and a twin engine low speed aircraft. This report summarizes the research performed during the first year of the study, and outlines the work tasks for the second year.

  7. Heavy-tailed random matrices

    E-print Network

    Z. Burda; J. Jurkiewicz

    2009-11-08

    We discuss non-Gaussian random matrices whose elements are random variables with heavy-tailed probability distributions. In probability theory heavy tails of the distributions describe rare but violent events which usually have dominant influence on the statistics. They also completely change universal properties of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of random matrices. We concentrate here on the universal macroscopic properties of (1) Wigner matrices belonging to the Levy basin of attraction, (2) matrices representing stable free random variables and (3) a class of heavy-tailed matrices obtained by parametric deformations of standard ensembles.

  8. Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The source of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief passages is due to Mercury's proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet's lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute to Mercury's very brief Dungey cycle, approx. 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury's tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.

  9. Tail Risk Measures Heavy-Tail Asymptotics: Regular Variation Multivariate Risks Concluding Remarks Regularly Varying Asymptotics for Tail Risk

    E-print Network

    Li, Haijun

    Tail Risk Measures Heavy-Tail Asymptotics: Regular Variation Multivariate Risks Concluding Remarks Regularly Varying Asymptotics for Tail Risk Haijun Li Department of Mathematics Washington State University Humboldt Univ-Berlin Haijun Li Regularly Varying Asymptotics for Tail Risk Humboldt Univ-Berlin 1 / 26 #12

  10. Morphogenesis of the T4 tail and tail fibers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Remarkable progress has been made during the past ten years in elucidating the structure of the bacteriophage T4 tail by a combination of three-dimensional image reconstruction from electron micrographs and X-ray crystallography of the components. Partial and complete structures of nine out of twenty tail structural proteins have been determined by X-ray crystallography and have been fitted into the 3D-reconstituted structure of the "extended" tail. The 3D structure of the "contracted" tail was also determined and interpreted in terms of component proteins. Given the pseudo-atomic tail structures both before and after contraction, it is now possible to understand the gross conformational change of the baseplate in terms of the change in the relative positions of the subunit proteins. These studies have explained how the conformational change of the baseplate and contraction of the tail are related to the tail's host cell recognition and membrane penetration function. On the other hand, the baseplate assembly process has been recently reexamined in detail in a precise system involving recombinant proteins (unlike the earlier studies with phage mutants). These experiments showed that the sequential association of the subunits of the baseplate wedge is based on the induced-fit upon association of each subunit. It was also found that, upon association of gp53 (gene product 53), the penultimate subunit of the wedge, six of the wedge intermediates spontaneously associate to form a baseplate-like structure in the absence of the central hub. Structure determination of the rest of the subunits and intermediate complexes and the assembly of the hub still require further study. PMID:21129200

  11. Intra-annual patterns in adult band-tailed pigeon survival estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, Peter S.; Overton, Cory T.; Howe, Kristy

    2015-01-01

    Implications: We present the first inter-seasonal analysis of survival probability of the Pacific coast race of band-tailed pigeons and illustrate important temporal patterns that may influence future species management including harvest strategies and disease monitoring.

  12. SUBAQUEOUS DISPOSAL OF MILL TAILINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Neeraj K. Mendiratta; Roe-Hoan Yoon; Paul Richardson

    1999-09-03

    A study of mill tailings and sulfide minerals was carried out in order to understand their behavior under subaqueous conditions. A series of electrochemical experiments, namely, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanic coupling tests were carried out in artificial seawater and in pH 6.8 buffer solutions with chloride and ferric salts. Two mill tailings samples, one from the Kensington Mine, Alaska, and the other from the Holden Mine, Washington, were studied along with pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite and copper-activated sphalerite. SEM analysis of mill tailings revealed absence of sulfide minerals from the Kensington Mine mill tailings, whereas the Holden Mine mill tailings contained approximately 8% pyrite and 1% sphalerite. In order to conduct electrochemical tests, carbon matrix composite (CMC) electrodes of mill tailings, pyrite and galena were prepared and their feasibility was established by conducting a series of cyclic voltammetry tests. The cyclic voltammetry experiments carried out in artificial seawater and pH 6.8 buffer with chloride salts showed that chloride ions play an important role in the redox processes of sulfide minerals. For pyrite and galena, peaks were observed for the formation of chloride complexes, whereas pitting behavior was observed for the CMC electrodes of the Kensington Mine mill tailings. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy conducted in artificial seawater provided with the Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena. The Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena exhibited an inert range of potential indicating a slower rate of leaching of sulfide minerals in marine environments. The galvanic coupling experiments were carried out to study the oxidation of sulfide minerals in the absence of oxygen. It was shown that in the absence of oxygen, ferric (Fe3+) ions might oxidize the sulfide minerals, thereby releasing undesirable oxidation products in the marine environment. The source of Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions may be attributed to iron-bearing sulfide (and oxide) minerals present in the mill tailings. However, the concentration of available Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions can be reduced by the precipitation of insoluble ferric hydroxides (Fe(OH ){sub 3}) by seawater due to its near neutral pH. In such case, the oxidation of a sulfide mineral is inhibited due to the absence of an oxidizing agent (viz. oxygen and/or Fe{sup 3+} ions). The experiments carried out in this study provided a better understanding of behavior of sulfide minerals and mill tailings in subaqueous conditions and may be useful for further investigation of sulfide minerals and mill tailings in other environments.

  13. Tail Dependence for Heavy-Tailed Scale Mixtures of Multivariate Distributions

    E-print Network

    Li, Haijun

    Tail Dependence for Heavy-Tailed Scale Mixtures of Multivariate Distributions Haijun Li Yannan Sun September 2009 Abstract The tail dependence of multivariate distributions is frequently studied via the tool, to evaluate the tail dependence of heavy-tailed scale mixtures of multivariate distributions, whose copulas

  14. Tail Mean Estimation is More Efficient than Tail Median: Evidence From the Exponential Power Distribution

    E-print Network

    Pearce, Kent

    Tail Mean Estimation is More Efficient than Tail Median: Evidence From the Exponential Power the relative efficiency of the empirical "tail median" vs. "tail mean" as esti- mators of location under random that the quantile of the untruncated EPD (population tail median) and mean of the left-truncated EPD (population

  15. Observing the Moon's Sodium Tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matta, Majd; Smith, Steven; Martinis, Carlos R.; Wilson, Jody; Baumgardner, Jeffrey; Mendillo, Michael

    Observations of the sodium (Na) tail of the Moon were made near times of new Moon between April and November 2006. Filtered images (Na D1+D2) were made from the El Leoncito Observatory in Argentina using the Boston University All-Sky Imager (ASI). Four of the eight new Moon periods had clear skies, and images from those nights were calibrated to absolute brightness levels in Rayleighs (R) using standard stars. Results reveal variability in the brightness of the Moon's sodium tail that may be linked to enhanced contributions from meteor showers.

  16. Instanton Calculus of Lifshitz Tails

    E-print Network

    Sho Yaida

    2012-04-30

    For noninteracting particles moving in a Gaussian random potential, there exists a disagreement in the literature on the asymptotic expression for the density of states in the tail of the band. We resolve this discrepancy. Further we illuminate the physical facet of instantons appearing in replica and supersymmetric derivations with another derivation employing a Lagrange multiplier field.

  17. Tidal tails around globular clusters

    E-print Network

    M. Montuori; R. Capuzzo-Dolcetta; P. Di Matteo; P. Miocchi

    2007-09-04

    We present the results of detailed N-body simulations of clusters moving in a realistic Milky Way (MW) potential. The strong interaction with the bulge and the disk of the Galaxy leads to the formation of tidal tails, emanating from opposite sides of the cluster. Their orientation and morphology may be interpreted easily in terms of a comoving frame of coordinates.

  18. Tail use in bioinspired quadrupedal locomotion

    E-print Network

    Briggs, Randall (Randall Miller)

    2012-01-01

    Tails are seen in nature to be used in an amazing number of different applications. Many of these applications seen in nature may be of use to bioinspired roboticists in the future. I have provided a brief review of tail ...

  19. From metallurgical coal tailings to thermal fuel

    SciTech Connect

    van den Broek, J.J.M.

    1982-01-01

    McIntyre Mines in Canada recover coal from washery tailings slurry. The tailings are dewatered in Bird screen bowl centrifuges and thermally dried in Joy Holo-Flite dryers. The coal recovered is burned in a power station.

  20. Lobster Tail Ice Formation on Aerosurface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Glace Ice formation commonly refered to as 'Lobster Tail' by scientists and engineers, is caused to form on the leading edge of a aircraft tail section in the icing research tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio.

  1. Direct actin binding to A- and B-type lamin tails and actin filament bundling by the lamin A tail.

    PubMed

    Simon, Dan N; Zastrow, Michael S; Wilson, Katherine L

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear intermediate filament networks formed by A- and B-type lamins are major components of the nucleoskeleton. Lamins have growing links to human physiology and disease including Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD), lipodystrophy, cardiomyopathy, neuropathy, cerebellar disorders and segmental accelerated 'aging' syndromes. How lamins interact with other nucleoskeletal components, and even the identities of these other components, are open questions. Previous studies suggested lamins might bind actin. We report that the recombinant C-terminal tail domain of human A- and B-type lamins binds directly to purified actin in high-speed pelleting assays. This interaction maps to a conserved Actin Binding site (AB-1) comprising lamin A residues 461-536 in the Ig-fold domain, which are 54% identical in lamin B1. Two EDMD-causing missense mutations (R527P and L530P) in lamin A that are predicted to disrupt the Ig-fold, each reduced F-actin binding by ?66%, whereas the surface-exposed lipodystrophy-causing R482Q mutation had no significant effect. The lamin A tail was unique among lamins in having a second actin-binding site (AB-2). This second site was mapped to lamin A tail residues 564-608, based on actin-binding results for the lamin C tail and internal deletions in the lamin A tail that cause Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (?35, ?50) or restrictive dermopathy (?90). Supporting the presence of two actin-binding sites, recombinant precursor (unmodified) and mature lamin A tails (not C or B1 tails) each bundled F-actin in vitro: furthermore F-actin bundling was reduced 25-40% by the R527P, L530P, ?35 and ?50 mutations, and was abolished by ?90. Unexpectedly, the mature lamin A tail bound F-actin significantly more efficiently than did the prelamin A tail; this suggested unmodified residues 647-664, unique to prelamin A, might auto-inhibit binding to actin (and potentially other partners). These biochemical results suggest direct mechanisms by which lamins, particularly lamin A, might impact the concentration of free actin in the nucleus or pathways including transcription, nuclear export, chromatin remodeling, chromatin movement and nuclear assembly that require nuclear myosin 1c and polymerizable actin. PMID:21327074

  2. Clean Air Act Requirements: Uranium Mill Tailings

    E-print Network

    EPA'S Clean Air Act Requirements: Uranium Mill Tailings Radon Emissions Rulemaking Reid J. Rosnick requirements for operating uranium mill tailings (Subpart W) Status update on Subpart W activities Outreach/Communications #12;3 EPA Regulatory Requirements for Operating Uranium Mill Tailings (Clean Air Act) · 40 CFR 61

  3. Heavy Tails in Insurance Sren Asmussen

    E-print Network

    eqf21/008 Heavy Tails in Insurance Søren Asmussen Vicky Fasen and Claudia Klüppelberg Abstract. Keywords: compound Poisson process, Cramér-Lundberg model, integrated tail distribution, Pollaczek of heavy­tailed distribution functions, subexponential distribu- tion functions are a special class which

  4. Selective Tail Call Elimination Yasuhiko Minamide

    E-print Network

    Minamide, Yasuhiko

    Selective Tail Call Elimination Yasuhiko Minamide Institute of Information Sciences and Electronics University of Tsukuba and PRESTO, JST minamide@is.tsukuba.ac.jp Abstract. Tail calls are expected not to consume stack space in most functional languages. However, there is no support for tail calls in some

  5. Heavy Tails: Performance Models and Scheduling Disciplines

    E-print Network

    Núñez-Queija, Rudesindo

    Heavy Tails: Performance Models and Scheduling Disciplines Sindo N´u~nez-Queija based on joint ITC´u~nez-Queija CWI & TU/e #12;Heavy Tails: Performance Models and Scheduling Disciplines Part I ­ Introduction and Methodology Tales to tell: · traffic measurements and statistical analysis · traffic modeling · heavy-tailed

  6. Tales of the Tail: Hardware, OS, and Application-level Sources of Tail Latency

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Richard

    Tales of the Tail: Hardware, OS, and Application-level Sources of Tail Latency Jialin Li, Naveen Kr-scale parallel implemen- tations. To deliver fast responses, the median and tail laten- cies of a service tail latency in high throughput servers executing on multi-core machines. We model these network

  7. Telomeric G-Tail Length and Hospitalization for Cardiovascular Events in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hirashio, Shuma; Nakashima, Ayumu; Doi, Shigehiro; Anno, Kumiko; Aoki, Eriko; Shimamoto, Akira; Yorioka, Noriaki; Kohno, Nobuoki; Masaki, Takao

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Telomeric G-tails play a pivotal role in maintaining the intramolecular loop structure of telomeres. Previous in vitro studies have suggested that the erosion of telomeric G-tails triggers cellular senescence, leading to organ dysfunction and atherosclerosis. The authors recently established a method to measure telomeric G-tail length using a hybridization protection assay. Using this method, this study investigated whether telomeric G-tail length could be used as a novel predictor for future cardiovascular events in hemodialysis patients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A prospective observational study was performed involving a cohort of 203 Japanese hemodialysis patients to examine the lengths of telomeric G-tails and total telomeres and subsequent cardiovascular events during a median follow-up period of 48 months. The lengths of telomeric G-tails and total telomeres were also measured in 203 participants who did not have CKD and who were age- and sex-matched to hemodialysis patients. Results The lengths of telomeric G-tails and total telomeres were significantly shorter in hemodialysis patients than in control subjects. Telomeric G-tails, but not total telomeres, were independently and negatively associated with clinical history of cardiovascular disease. During follow-up, 80 cardiovascular events occurred. Total telomere length did not predict cardiovascular events. However, the length of telomeric G-tails was associated with new-onset cardiovascular events (hazard ratio per log luminescence signals, 0.12; 95% confidence interval, 0.12 to 0.50) that persisted after adjustment for age, sex, diabetes mellitus, clinical history of cardiovascular disease, inflammation, use of vitamin D, and serum levels of phosphate and intact parathyroid hormone. Conclusions Longer telomeric G-tail length is associated with a lower risk of future cardiovascular events in hemodialysis patients. PMID:25237070

  8. Monitoring pool-tail fines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunte, K.; Potyondy, J. P.; Abt, S. R.; Swingle, K. W.

    2010-12-01

    Fine sediment < 2 and < 6 mm deposited in pool-tail areas of mountain streams is often measured to monitor changes in the supply of fines (e.g., by dam removal, bank erosion, or watershed effects including fires and road building) or to assess the status and trend of aquatic ecosystems. Grid counts, pebble counts, and volumetric bedmaterial samples are typically used to quantify pool-tail fines. Grid-count results exhibit a high degree of variability not only among streams and among operators, but also among crews performing a nearly identical procedure (Roper et al. 2010). Variability is even larger when diverse methods are employed, each of which quantifies fines in a different way: grid counts visually count surface fines on small patches within the pool-tail area, pebble counts pick up and tally surface particles along (riffle) transects, and volumetric samples sieve out fines from small-scale bulk samples; and even when delimited to pool-tail areas, individual methods focus on different sampling locales. Two main questions were analyzed: 1) Do pool-tail fines exhibit patterns of spatial variability and are some grid count schemes more likely to provide accurate results than others. 2) How and why does the percentage of fines vary among grid counts, pebble counts, and volumetric samples. In a field study, grids were placed at 7 locales in two rows across the wetted width of 10 pool tails in a 14-m wide 3rd order coarse gravel-bed mountain stream with <4% sand and <8% < 6 mm. Several pebble count transects were placed across each pool-tail area, and three volumetric samples were collected in each of three pool tails. Pebble and grid counts both indicated a fining trend towards one or both banks, sometimes interrupted by a secondary peak of fines within the central half of the wetted width. Among the five sampling schemes tested, grid counts covering the wetted width with 7 locales produced the highest accuracy and the least variability among the pools of the reach. Pebble counts between the two waterlines indicated 2-3 times more fines than grid counts, likely because grid counts did not extend exactly up to the waterline. However, when confined to the central 50% of the wetted width, grid counts indicated 1.2 and 1.6 times more fines < 2 and < 6 mm than pebble counts, likely because the plexiglass viewer used with grid counts improved the visibility of the bed. Volumetric armor layer samples (particles > 90 mm removed) indicated 1.4 and 1.2 times more fines < 2 and < 6 mm than grid counts at the same locales, while subarmor samples had 8-9 times more fines. In conclusion, methodological differences and the specific sampling locales selected by a method affect comparability of sampling results. Grid count accuracy and precision may be improved by extending both the width coverage and the sample size within a pool tail.

  9. WHITE-TAILED DEER INFECTED WITH STAPHYLOCOCCUS HYICUS IN SOUTH DAKOTA --On 25 November 2002, the South Dakota Department of

    E-print Network

    177 NOTES WHITE-TAILED DEER INFECTED WITH STAPHYLOCOCCUS HYICUS IN SOUTH DAKOTA -- On 25 November plate was positive (Table 1). Based on these results, Staphylococcus hyicus was identified with white-tailed deer. Staphylococcus hyicus causes exudative epidermitis, or greasy pig disease, in young

  10. What Makes a Tidal Tail?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodruck, Michael; Konstantopoulos, I.; Charlton, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Galaxy interactions are famous for creating some of the most visually stunning scenes in astronomy, particularly in the cases of tidal tails. These chaotic regions are known to house breeding grounds for young stellar clusters, as shown through past imaging and spectroscopic studies, but the underlying material remains a mystery. While we know that gas is easily stripped from the parent galaxies, what about the stars? The presence of an older stellar population is crucial to dynamical simulations of tidal tails, but has not yet been confirmed by observation. We use the twin tidal tails of NGC3256 as a case study for determining the presence of an old, underlying stellar population. Newly acquired ugriz Gemini data allows us to distinguish between young and old stars, while previous HST data pinpoints the locations of these objects. Deep imaging surveys have often been used to detect tidal features, including these ancient relics, but our survey will be the first to measure the colors of such objects. This will lead us to place constraints on the original composition of the material that was ejected from the interacting/merging galaxies, and the star formation history.

  11. Wasting and neurologic signs associated with cerebrovascular mineralization in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileu virginianus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A case of wasting and neurologic syndrome (WANS) of white-tailed deer was evaluated by histopathology, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry for disease associated prion protein (PrP**d). Some of the clinical and pathological features of this case were similar to chronic wasting disease (CWD) of w...

  12. Control of Ticks on White-tailed Deer and Other Ungulate Wildlife - Host-targeted Control of Field Populations of Blacklegged and Lone Star Ticks to Reduce the Risk of Tick-borne Disease Transmission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the continuing progression of blacklegged ticks and the agents causing Lyme disease from infestations in Maryland southward into Virginia, many citizens living in northern Virginia have asked the Governor for ARS-Patented ‘4-Poster’ Deer Treatment Stations to be deployed as an aid in reducing t...

  13. Enhancing the safety of tailings management facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Meggyes, T.; Niederleithinger, E.; Witt, K.J.; Csovari, M.; Kreft-Burman, K.; Engels, J.; McDonald, C.; Roehl, K.E.

    2008-07-01

    Unsafe tailings management facilities (TMFs) have caused serious accidents in Europe threatening human health/life and the environment. While advanced design, construction and management procedures are available, their implementation requires greater emphasis. An integrated research project funded by the European Union was carried out between 2002 and 2005 with the overall goal of improving the safety of TMFs (Sustainable Improvement in Safety of Tailings Facilities - TAILSAFE, http://www.tailsafe.com/). The objective of TAILSAFE was to develop and apply methods of parameter evaluation and measurement for the assessment and improvement of the safety state of tailings facilities, with particular attention to the stability of tailings dams and slurries, the special risks inherent when such materials include toxic or hazardous wastes, and authorization and management procedures for tailings facilities. Aspects of tailings facilities design, water management and slurry transport, non-destructive and minimally intrusive testing methods, monitoring and the application of sensors, intervention and remediation options were considered in TAILSAFE. A risk reduction framework (the TAILSAFE Parameter Framework) was established to contribute to the avoidance of catastrophic accidents and hazards from tailings facilities. Tailings from the mining and primary processing of metals, minerals and coal were included within the scope of TAILSAFE. The project focused on the avoidance of hazards by developing procedures and methods for investigating and improving the stability of tailings dams and tailings bodies.

  14. Intracranial abscessation in white-tailed deer of North America.

    PubMed

    Baumann, C D; Davidson, W R; Roscoe, D E; Beheler-Amass, K

    2001-10-01

    From January 1996 through April 1997, the geographic distribution, etiology, demographics, seasonality, and prevalence of an intracranial abscessation/suppurative meningoencephalitits syndrome in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were evaluated by surveying wildlife disease diagnostic laboratories and by examining both natural mortality and hunter-harvested deer skulls from North America. Intracranial abscesses were diagnosed as the cause of death or illness in 97 of nearly 4,500 (2.2%) white-tailed deer examined from 12 states and four Canadian provinces by the diagnostic laboratories. The bacterium Arcanobacterium pyogenes was isolated from 61% of cases; 18 other genera of bacteria also were isolated. The disease was strongly gender-biased (P < 0.01) with 87% of cases occurring in males, and the overall prevalence among males was 4.9%. Cases were most common among antlered males (> or = 1 yr) with few cases among male fawns. Among antlered males, cases were seasonal, primarily occurring from September through April. Four hundred eighteen skulls from deer found dead in the field were examined from southeastern USA, and of the 119 used for further evaluation, 9% had characteristic lesions. Skulls from hunter-harvested males in the southeastern USA had a lesion prevalence of 1.4%. The similarity of disease prevalence among male deer found dead in the field (9.0%) and deer examined as southeastern diagnostic laboratory cases (8.4%) suggests that this disease accounts for slightly < 10% of the natural mortality for yearling and adult male white-tailed deer in the southeastern region. The strong bias for occurrence among males suggests this disease may affect quality deer management strategies. PMID:11763729

  15. Long-Tailed Distributions in Biological Systems:. Revisit to Lognormals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, N.; Kohyama, K.; Moriyama, O.; Sasaki, Y.; Matsushita, M.; Matsushita, S.

    2007-07-01

    Long-tailed distributions in biological systems have been studied. First, we found that lognormal distributions show excellent fit with various data for the duration distribution of disability in aged people, irrespective of their severity and gender. The robust lognormal distribution of disability implies that the incidence of diseases can be completed by many independent subprocesses in succession. Next, we studied food fragmentation by human mastication. A lognormal distribution well fits to the entire region for masticated food fragments for a small number of chewing strokes. Furthermore, the tail of the fragment-size distribution changes from the lognormal distribution to a power-law one as the chewing stroke number increases. The good data fitting by the lognormal and power-law distribution implies that two functions of mastication, a sequential fragmentation with cascade and randomness and a lower threshold for fragment size, may affect the size distribution of masticated food fragments.

  16. Abomasal ulcers in captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Palmer, M V; Waters, W R; Whipple, D L

    2001-01-01

    Abomasal ulceration was noted in 32 of 200 white-tailed deer. Ulceration was most common in the abomasal pylorus and at the abomasal-duodenal junction. Abomasal ulceration was characterized by focal to multifocal, sharply demarcated areas of coagulation necrosis and haemorrhage extending through the mucosa, with fibrin thrombi in mucosal blood vessels of small diameter. Ulcerated areas were often covered by a mixture of mucus, debris and neutrophils. Visible bacteria were not associated with ulcerative lesions. All deer with abomasal ulceration had intercurrent disease, including bacterial pneumonia, enterocolitis, intussusception, chronic diarrhoea, capture myopathy, or experimentally induced tuberculosis. The anatomical distribution of abomasal ulcers in this population of captive white-tailed deer resembled that seen in veal calves. PMID:11578141

  17. Ecotechnological approach for consolidation of uranium tailings.

    PubMed

    Soni, Prafulla; Singh, Lal

    2011-07-01

    Present study has been undertaken to consolidate radioactivity in uranium mill tailings at Jaduguda, Jharkhand, India.Tailings that remain after processing of ore are released in tailing ponds specially designed for the purpose. The degraded tailing ponds have been capped with 30 cm. thick soil cover. For cosolidation of radioactivity in the tailings firstly the selected plant species should not have any socioeconomic relevance in that area and secondly, uptake of uranium by selected plants has to be low to avoid its dissemination in any form in environment. Seven native plant species of forestry origin were used for experimental trials. Above ground growth has been measured for two years under ex- situ and in- situ conditions. Distribution and concentration of uranium have been evaluated in tailing pond soil as well as tailings. Uranium uptake by plants has been evaluated and discussed in this paper. The highest concentration of uranium has been found in the order as: in tailings > soil cover on tailings > roots of selected plant species > shoots of all the selected species. These results show that among seven species tried Jatropha gossypifolia and Furcraea foetida have lowest uptake (below detectable limit), while Saccharum spontaneum and Pogostemon benghalense have comparatively higher uptake among the studied species. PMID:23029938

  18. Wean-Tail Log.xls

    Cancer.gov

    A SP #: ________________ _ Investigator: _________________ WEAN / TAIL CLIP LOG Strain: ___________________ Room Number: ___________________ STRAIN CODE WEAN DATE # ? # ? COMMENTS WATER A OR B # CAGES DOB TAILCLIP DATE CAGE / LITTER

  19. Quantum scattering theory on graphs with tails

    E-print Network

    Martin Varbanov; Todd A. Brun

    2009-06-18

    We consider quantum walks on a finite graphs to which infinite tails are attached. We explore how the propagating and bound states depend on the structure of the finite graph. The S-matrix for such graphs is defined. Its unitarity is proved as well as some other of its properties such as its transformation under time reversal. A spectral decomposition of the identity for the Hamiltonian of the graph is derived using its eigenvectors. We derive formulas for the S-matrix of a graph under certain operation such as cutting a tail, attaching a tail or connecting two tails to form an edge.

  20. A Tale of Two Tails: Exploring Stellar Populations in the Tidal Tails of NGC 3256

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodruck, Michael; Charlton, Jane C.; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy interactions can inject material into the intergalactic medium via violent gravitational dynamics, often visualized in tidal tails. The composition of these tails has remained a mystery, as previous studies have focused on detecting tidal features, rather than the composite material itself. We have developed an observing program using deep, multiband imaging to probe the chaotic regions of tidal tails in search for an underlying stellar population. NGC 3256's twin tidal tails serve as a case study for this new technique. Our results show color values of u - g = 1.15 and r - i = 0.08 for the Western tail, and u - g = 1.33 and r - i = 0.22 for the Eastern tail, corresponding to discrepant ages between the tails of approximately 320 Myr and 785 Myr, respectively. With the interaction age of the system measured at 400 Myr, we find the stellar light in Western tail to be dominated by disrupted star clusters formed during and after the interaction, whereas the light from the Eastern tail is dominated by a 10 Gyr population originating from the host galaxies. We fit the Eastern tail color to a Mixed Stellar Population (MSP) model comprised 94% by mass of a 10 Gyr stellar population, and 6% of a 309 Myr population. We find 52% of the bolometric flux originating from this 10 Gyr population. We also detect a blue to red color gradient in each tail, running from galactic center to tail tip. In addition to tidal tail light, we detect 29 star cluster candidates (SCCs) in the Western tail and 19 in the Eastern, with mean ages of 282 Myr and 98 Myr respectively. Interestingly, we find an excess of very blue SCCs in the Eastern tail as compared to the Western tail, marking a recent, small episode of star formation.

  1. Shake a Tail Feather: The Evolution of the Theropod Tail into a Stiff Aerodynamic Surface

    PubMed Central

    Pittman, Michael; Gatesy, Stephen M.; Upchurch, Paul; Goswami, Anjali; Hutchinson, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Theropod dinosaurs show striking morphological and functional tail variation; e.g., a long, robust, basal theropod tail used for counterbalance, or a short, modern avian tail used as an aerodynamic surface. We used a quantitative morphological and functional analysis to reconstruct intervertebral joint stiffness in the tail along the theropod lineage to extant birds. This provides new details of the tail’s morphological transformation, and for the first time quantitatively evaluates its biomechanical consequences. We observe that both dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness decreased along the non-avian theropod lineage (between nodes Theropoda and Paraves). Our results show how the tail structure of non-avian theropods was mechanically appropriate for holding itself up against gravity and maintaining passive balance. However, as dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness decreased, the tail may have become more effective for dynamically maintaining balance. This supports our hypothesis of a reduction of dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness in shorter tails. Along the avian theropod lineage (Avialae to crown group birds), dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness increased overall, which appears to contradict our null expectation. We infer that this departure in joint stiffness is specific to the tail’s aerodynamic role and the functional constraints imposed by it. Increased dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness may have facilitated a gradually improved capacity to lift, depress, and swing the tail. The associated morphological changes should have resulted in a tail capable of producing larger muscular forces to utilise larger lift forces in flight. Improved joint mobility in neornithine birds potentially permitted an increase in the range of lift force vector orientations, which might have improved flight proficiency and manoeuvrability. The tail morphology of modern birds with tail fanning capabilities originated in early ornithuromorph birds. Hence, these capabilities should have been present in the early Cretaceous, with incipient tail-fanning capacity in the earliest pygostylian birds. PMID:23690987

  2. Tail loss compromises immunity in the many-lined skink, Eutropis multifasciata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Chi-Chien; Yao, Chiou-Ju; Lin, Te-En; Liu, Hsu-Che; Hsu, Yu-Cheng; Hsieh, Ming-Kun; Huang, Wen-San

    2013-04-01

    Tail autotomy incurs energetic costs, and thus, a trade-off in resource allocation may lead to compromised immunity in lizards. We tested the hypothesis that tailless lizards will favor constitutive innate immunity responses over an energetically costly inflammatory response. The influence of fasting and colorful ornamentation was also investigated. We experimentally induced tail autotomy in the lizard Eutropis multifasciata and found that inflammation was suppressed by tail loss, but not further affected by fasting; the suppressive effect of colorful ornamentation was manifested only in males, but not in females. Constitutive innate immunity was not affected by any of these factors. As expected, only costly inflammation was compromised, and a less expensive constitutive innate immunity might be favored as a competent first-line defense during energetically demanding periods. After considering conventional trade-offs among tail regeneration and reproduction, further extending these studies to incorporate disease risk and how this influences escape responses to predators and future reproduction would make worthwhile studies.

  3. A Dog Tail for Utility Robots Exploring Affective Properties of Tail Movement

    E-print Network

    A Dog Tail for Utility Robots Exploring Affective Properties of Tail Movement Ashish Singh, James E}@cs.umanitoba.ca Abstract. We present a dog-tail interface for utility robots, as a means of com- municating high-level robotic state through affect. This interface leverages peo- ple's general knowledge of dogs

  4. Tail Mean Estimation is More E#cient than Tail Median: Evidence From the Exponential Power Distribution

    E-print Network

    Pearce, Kent

    Tail Mean Estimation is More E#cient than Tail Median: Evidence From the Exponential Power the relative e#ciency of the empirical ``tail median'' vs. ''tail mean'' as esti­ mators of location under so that the quantile of the untruncated EPD (population tail median) and mean of the left

  5. Observing the Lunar Sodium Tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matta, Majd; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Smith, S.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

    2008-09-01

    One of the sources of Sodium gas from the lunar regolith is due to meteoroid impact. Near the time of New Moon, Sodium atoms escaping the Moon's exosphere are driven by photon pressure into the anti-sunward direction where they become gravitationally focused by the Earth forming a tail-like structure. Observations made from the El Leoncito Observatory in Argentina using a Boston University All Sky Imager show evidence of the this structure in the form of a spot. Observations were made between April 2006 and June 2008 on the nights nearest New Moon and the two nights that follow. The brightness of the spot was calibrated in Rayleighs using standard stars. A correction for geometry effects was made to account for the Sun-Earth-Moon angle. Data was analyzed for possible correlation with meteor showers.

  6. Tail reconnection triggering substorm onset.

    PubMed

    Angelopoulos, Vassilis; McFadden, James P; Larson, Davin; Carlson, Charles W; Mende, Stephen B; Frey, Harald; Phan, Tai; Sibeck, David G; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Auster, Uli; Donovan, Eric; Mann, Ian R; Rae, I Jonathan; Russell, Christopher T; Runov, Andrei; Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Kepko, Larry

    2008-08-15

    Magnetospheric substorms explosively release solar wind energy previously stored in Earth's magnetotail, encompassing the entire magnetosphere and producing spectacular auroral displays. It has been unclear whether a substorm is triggered by a disruption of the electrical current flowing across the near-Earth magnetotail, at approximately 10 R(E) (R(E): Earth radius, or 6374 kilometers), or by the process of magnetic reconnection typically seen farther out in the magnetotail, at approximately 20 to 30 R(E). We report on simultaneous measurements in the magnetotail at multiple distances, at the time of substorm onset. Reconnection was observed at 20 R(E), at least 1.5 minutes before auroral intensification, at least 2 minutes before substorm expansion, and about 3 minutes before near-Earth current disruption. These results demonstrate that substorms are likely initiated by tail reconnection. PMID:18653845

  7. Uranium mill tailings remedial action technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, J.N.; Gee, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    The uranium milling process involves the hydrometallurgical extraction of uranium from ores and the resultant generation of large quantities of waste referred to as tailings. Uranium mill tailings have been identified as requiring remediation because they contain residual radioactive material that is not removed in the milling process. Potential radiation exposure can result from direct contact with the tailings, from radon gas emitted by the tailings, and from radioactive contamination of groundwater. As a result, the technology developed under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Uranium Recovery Program have focused on radon control, groundwater contamination and the long-term protection of the containment system. This paper briefly summarizes the UMTRAP and NRC remedial action technology development. 33 references, 9 figures, 5 tables.

  8. Vortex control for tail buffet alleviation on a twin-tail fighter configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Dhanvada M.; Puram, C. K.; Shah, Gautam H.

    1989-01-01

    Two aerodynamic concepts proposed for alleviating high-alpha tail buffet characteristics of a LEX (Leading Edge Extension) vortex dominated twin-tail fighter configuration were explored in low-speed tunnel tests on generic models via flow visualizations, 6-component balance measurements and monitoring of tail dynamics. Passive dorsal-fin extensions of the vertical tails, and an active LEX arrangement with up-deflected edge sections were evaluated as independent means of re-structuring the adverse vortical flow environment in the tail region. Each of these techniques successfully reduced the buffet as measured by the root-mean-square of tail accelerometer output, particularly at post-stall angles of attack when the baseline configuration was characterized by high buffet intensity. Used in combination, the two concepts indicated significant tail buffet relief with relatively minor impact on the high-alpha configuration aerodynamics.

  9. Tail effects on yaw stability in birds.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Gottfried

    2007-12-01

    Bird tails, which are an aerodynamic surface in the horizontal plane, are treated with regard to their effects on yaw stability. Reference is made to wings of very small aspect ratio similar to the values of bird tails in order to identify features which are significant for the aerodynamic yawing moment characteristics due to sideslip. It is shown that there are yawing moments of considerable magnitude for this aspect ratio region. Furthermore, the lift coefficient, which also exerts an influence, is included in the treatment of yaw stability. To show more concretely the addressed effects for birds, the yawing moment characteristics of the wing-tail combination of a pigeon, which is considered as a representative example, are treated in detail. For this purpose, a sophisticated aerodynamic method capable to deal with the mutual flow interactions between the tail and the wing is used to compute results of high precision. The yawing moment characteristics of the pigeon wing-tail combination with respect to the sideslip angle and the lift coefficient are determined, with emphasis placed on the contribution of the tail. It is shown that there is a significant contribution of the tail to yaw stability. The findings of this paper on the contribution of the tail to the yawing moment characteristics are supported by an evaluation of existing experimental data. Furthermore, the physical mechanisms are considered which are the reasons for the stabilizing role of the tail. These effects concern the contribution of the drag acting at the tail to the yawing moment. In addition, it is shown that extended legs and feet, when exposed to the airflow, can contribute to yaw stability. PMID:17904581

  10. Wind-tunnel Investigation of End-plate Effects of Horizontal Tails on a Vertical Tail Compared with Available Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Harry E

    1946-01-01

    A vertical-tail model with stub fuselage was tested in combination with various simulated horizontal tails to determine the effect of horizontal-tail span and location on the aerodynamic characteristics of the vertical tail. Available theoretical data on end-plate effects were collected and presented in the form most suitable for design purposes. Reasonable agreement was obtained between the measured and theoretical end-plate effects of horizontal tails on vertical tails, and the data indicated that the end-plate effect was determined more by the location of the horizontal tail than by the span of the horizontal tail. The horizontal tail gave most end-plate effect when located near either tip of the vertical tail and, when located near the base of the vertical tail, the end-plate effect was increased by moving the horizontal tail rearward.

  11. 75 FR 62445 - Otter Tail Valley Railroad Company, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Otter Tail County, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ...TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. AB 330 (Sub-No. 4X)] Otter Tail Valley Railroad Company, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-- in Otter Tail County, MN Otter Tail Valley Railroad Company, Inc. (OTVR) filed a verified notice...

  12. Efficacy of Oral and Parenteral Routes of Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin Vaccination Against Experimental Bovine Tuberculosis in White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): A Feasibility Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the efficacy of oral and parenteral Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin Danish strain 1331 (BCG) in its ability to protect white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) against disease caused by M. bovis infection. Thirty white-tailed deer were divided into four groups. One gr...

  13. Phytoremediation of Alberta oil sand tailings using native plants and fungal endophytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repas, T.; Germida, J.; Kaminskyj, S.

    2012-04-01

    Fungal endophytes colonize host plants without causing disease. Some endophytes confer plant tolerance to harsh environments. One such endophyte, Trichoderma harzianum strain TSTh20-1, was isolated from a plant growing on Athabasca oil sand tailings. Tailing sands are a high volume waste product from oil sand extraction that the industry is required to remediate. Tailing sands are low in organic carbon and mineral nutrients, and are hydrophobic due to residual polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Typically, tailing sands are remediated by planting young trees in large quantities of mulch plus mineral fertilizer, which is costly and labour intensive. In greenhouse trials, TSTh20-1 supports growth of tomato seedlings on tailing sands without fertilizer. The potential use of TSTh20-1 in combination with native grasses and forbs to remediate under field conditions is being assessed. Twenty-three commercially available plant species are being screened for seed germination and growth on tailing sands in the presence of TSTh20-1. The best candidates from this group will be used in greenhouse and small scale field trials. Potential mechanisms that contribute to endophyte-induced plant growth promotion, such as plant hormone production, stress tolerance, mineral solubilization, and uptake are also being assessed. As well, TSTh20-1 appears to be remarkably frugal in its nutrient requirements and the possibility that this attribute is characteristic of other plant-fungal endophytes from harsh environments is under study.

  14. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Pybus, Margo J; Ravi, Madhu; Pollock, Colleen

    2014-07-01

    Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) virus serotype 2 was identified by reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) found dead in southern Alberta in September 2013. Field observations indicate at least 50 deer, primarily white-tailed deer, and three pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) died during a suspected localized EHD outbreak. PMID:24807363

  15. A de Sitter Farey Tail

    E-print Network

    Alejandra Castro; Nima Lashkari; Alexander Maloney

    2011-09-21

    We consider quantum Einstein gravity in three dimensional de Sitter space. The Euclidean path integral is formulated as a sum over geometries, including both perturbative loop corrections and non-perturbative instanton corrections coming from geometries with non-trivial topology. These non-trivial geometries have a natural physical interpretation. Conventional wisdom states that the sphere is the unique Euclidean continuation of de Sitter space. However, when considering physics only in the causal patch of a single observer other Euclidean geometries, in this case lens spaces, contribute to physical observables. This induces quantum gravitational effects which lead to deviations from the standard thermal behaviour obtained by analytic continuation from the three sphere. The sum over these geometries can be formulated as a sum over cosets of the modular group; this is the de Sitter analog of the celebrated "black hole Farey tail." We compute the vacuum partition function including the sum over these geometries. Perturbative quantum corrections are computed to all orders in perturbation theory using the relationship between Einstein gravity and Chern-Simons theory, which is checked explicitly at tree and one-loop level using heat kernel techniques. The vacuum partition function, including all instanton and perturbative corrections, is shown to diverge in a way which can not be regulated using standard field theory techniques.

  16. White-tailed Deer are Susceptible to Sheep Scrapie by Intracerebral Inoculation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. The purpose of this experiment was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer to scrapie after intracerebral inoculation and to compare clinical signs and lesi...

  17. White-Tailed Deer Susceptible to Scrapie by Natural Route of Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. Previous experiments demonstrated that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep-derived scrapie by intracranial inoculation. The purpose of this study was to determ...

  18. Update on vaccination of white-tailed deer with Mycobacterium bovis BCG: Safety and Efficacy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1994, white-tailed deer in northeast Michigan were found to be harboring Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of tuberculosis in most animals including humans. Although deer likely contracted tuberculosis from cattle in the early 20th century, when the disease was present in Michigan cattle, ...

  19. The Distant Sodium Tail of Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.; Morgan, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    Models of the sodium atmosphere of Mercury predict the possible existence of a cornet-like sodium tail. Detection and mapping of the predicted sodium tail would provide quantitative data on the energy of the process that produces sodium atoms from the planetary surface. Previous efforts to detect the sodium tail by means of observations done during daylight hours have been only partially successful because scattered sunlight obscured the weak sodium emissions in the tail. However, at greatest eastern elongation around the March equinox in the northern hemisphere, Mercury can be seen as an evening star in astronomical twilight. At this time, the intensity of scattered sunlight is low enough that sodium emissions as low as 500 Rayleighs can be detected. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. A WONDROUS TALE OF A SPERM TAIL

    E-print Network

    Lindemann, Charles

    energies to the study of sperm tails. It has al- ways been, and still is to this day, a minor source. program and continue to work in his research laboratory, and that is more or less the happy ending

  1. BIOMECHANICS. Why the seahorse tail is square.

    PubMed

    Porter, Michael M; Adriaens, Dominique; Hatton, Ross L; Meyers, Marc A; McKittrick, Joanna

    2015-07-01

    Whereas the predominant shapes of most animal tails are cylindrical, seahorse tails are square prisms. Seahorses use their tails as flexible grasping appendages, in spite of a rigid bony armor that fully encases their bodies. We explore the mechanics of two three-dimensional-printed models that mimic either the natural (square prism) or hypothetical (cylindrical) architecture of a seahorse tail to uncover whether or not the square geometry provides any functional advantages. Our results show that the square prism is more resilient when crushed and provides a mechanism for preserving articulatory organization upon extensive bending and twisting, as compared with its cylindrical counterpart. Thus, the square architecture is better than the circular one in the context of two integrated functions: grasping ability and crushing resistance. PMID:26138983

  2. OPERATING PLAN TAILINGS CELLS AND EVAPORATION PONDS

    E-print Network

    OPERATING PLAN TAILINGS CELLS AND EVAPORATION PONDS PIÑON RIDGE MILL Energy Fuels Resources ..........................................................................................4 3.0 EVAPORATION POND DESIGN....................................................................14 5.0 EVAPORATION PONDS OPERATING AND MONITORING PROCEDURES ....17 5.1 Standard Operating Procedures

  3. TIDAL TAILS OF MINOR MERGERS. II. COMPARING STAR FORMATION IN THE TIDAL TAILS OF NGC 2782

    SciTech Connect

    Knierman, Karen A.; Scowen, Paul; Veach, Todd; Groppi, Christopher; Mullan, Brendan; Charlton, Jane; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis; Knezek, Patricia M. E-mail: paul.scowen@asu.edu E-mail: cgroppi@asu.edu E-mail: iraklis@aao.gov.au

    2013-09-10

    The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a minor merger with a mass ratio {approx}4: 1 occurring {approx}200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and H I-rich, optically bright eastern tail and an H I-rich, optically faint western tail. Non-detection of CO in the western tail by Braine et al. suggested that star formation had not yet begun. However, deep UBVR and H{alpha} narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the western tail, though it lacks massive star clusters and cluster complexes. Using Herschel PACS spectroscopy, we discover 158 {mu}m [C II] emission at the location of the three most luminous H{alpha} sources in the eastern tail, but not at the location of the even brighter H{alpha} source in the western tail. The western tail is found to have a normal star formation efficiency (SFE), but the eastern tail has a low SFE. The lack of CO and [C II] emission suggests that the western tail H II region may have a low carbon abundance and be undergoing its first star formation. The western tail is more efficient at forming stars, but lacks massive clusters. We propose that the low SFE in the eastern tail may be due to its formation as a splash region where gas heating is important even though it has sufficient molecular and neutral gas to make massive star clusters. The western tail, which has lower gas surface density and does not form high-mass star clusters, is a tidally formed region where gravitational compression likely enhances star formation.

  4. Forest cover influences dispersal distance of white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, E.S.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Wallingford, B.D.; Grund, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    Animal dispersal patterns influence gene flow, disease spread, population dynamics, spread of invasive species, and establishment of rare or endangered species. Although differences in dispersal distances among taxa have been reported, few studies have described plasticity of dispersal distance among populations of a single species. In 2002-2003, we radiomarked 308 juvenile (7- to 10-month-old), male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 2 study areas in Pennsylvania. By using a meta-analysis approach, we compared dispersal rates and distances from these populations together with published reports of 10 other nonmigratory populations of white-tailed deer. Population density did not influence dispersal rate or dispersal distance, nor did forest cover influence dispersal rate. However, average (r2 = 0.94, P < 0.001, d.f. = 9) and maximum (r2 = 0.86, P = 0.001, d.f. = 7) dispersal distances of juvenile male deer were greater in habitats with less forest cover. Hence, dispersal behavior of this habitat generalist varies, and use of landscape data to predict population-specific dispersal distances may aid efforts to model population spread, gene flow, or disease transmission. ?? 2005 American Society of Mammalogists.

  5. The Sodium Tail of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

    2009-01-01

    During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

  6. The sodium tail of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

    2009-12-01

    During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

  7. Four Tails Problems for Dynamical Collapse Theories

    E-print Network

    Kelvin J. McQueen

    2015-01-23

    The primary quantum mechanical equation of motion entails that measurements typically do not have determinate outcomes, but result in superpositions of all possible outcomes. Dynamical collapse theories (e.g. GRW) supplement this equation with a stochastic Gaussian collapse function, intended to collapse the superposition of outcomes into one outcome. But the Gaussian collapses are imperfect in a way that leaves the superpositions intact. This is the tails problem. There are several ways of making this problem more precise. But many authors dismiss the problem without considering the more severe formulations. Here I distinguish four distinct tails problems. The first (bare tails problem) and second (structured tails problem) exist in the literature. I argue that while the first is a pseudo-problem, the second has not been adequately addressed. The third (multiverse tails problem) reformulates the second to account for recently discovered dynamical consequences of collapse. Finally the fourth (tails problem dilemma) shows that solving the third by replacing the Gaussian with a non-Gaussian collapse function introduces new conflict with relativity theory.

  8. EXPOSURE OF WHITE TAILED DEER TO BOVINE DIARRHEA VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The importance of white tail deer as a reservoir of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has been a point of controversy. The objective of this project was to observe the infectivity of BVDV white tail deer isolates in white tailed deer. Eight white tailed deer fawn 2-4 weeks in age were divided int...

  9. Fat tail statistics and beyond Joachim Peinke1

    E-print Network

    Peinke, Joachim

    Fat tail statistics and beyond Joachim Peinke1 , Malte Siefert1 , Stephan Barth1 , Christoph Renner analysis and fat tail statistics in the context of L´evy distributions are compared with a stochastic are governed by nongaussian statistics, displaying fat tails, also called heavy tails, have gained considerable

  10. A Dog Tail For Communicating Robotic States Ashish Singh

    E-print Network

    A Dog Tail For Communicating Robotic States Ashish Singh Department of Computer Science University University of Manitoba Winnipeg, MB, Canada young@cs.umanitoba.ca Abstract--We present a dog-tail interface basic dog tail language (e.g., tail wagging means happy). This knowledge can be leveraged to understand

  11. On Weak Tail Domination of Random Vectors Rafal Latala #

    E-print Network

    Latala, Rafal

    On Weak Tail Domination of Random Vectors Rafal Latala # Abstract Motivated by a question of Krzysztof Oleszkiewicz we study a no­ tion of weak tail domination of random vectors. We show that if the dominating random variable is su#ciently regular then weak tail dom­ ination implies strong tail domination

  12. Tail Distortion Risk and Its Asymptotic Analysis Revision: March 2012

    E-print Network

    Li, Haijun

    Tail Distortion Risk and Its Asymptotic Analysis Li Zhu Haijun Li May 2011 Revision: March 2012 of potential loss under a scenario probability measure. In this paper, the tail distortion risk measure is introduced to assess tail risks of excess losses modeled by the right tails of loss distributions

  13. Lattice-Search Runtime Distributions May Be Heavy-Tailed

    E-print Network

    Page Jr., C. David

    Lattice-Search Runtime Distributions May Be Heavy-Tailed Filip Zelezn´y1, Ashwin Srinivasan2, David than exponentially and have "heavy tails". Procedures characterized by heavy-tailed runtime domains that heavy-tailed phenomena can be observed in ILP, namely in the search for a clause

  14. A Tail-Recursive Machine with Stack Inspection

    E-print Network

    Tobin-Hochstadt, Sam

    A Tail-Recursive Machine with Stack Inspection JOHN CLEMENTS and MATTHIAS FELLEISEN Northeastern with a global tail call optimization policy; that an implementation of such a language must allocate memory for a source-code tail call, and a program that uses only tail calls (and no other memory- allocating construct

  15. Heavy-Tailed Phenomena in Satisfiability and Constraint Satisfaction Problems

    E-print Network

    Crato, Nuno

    Heavy-Tailed Phenomena in Satisfiability and Constraint Satisfaction Problems Carla P. Gomes (gomes characterized by very long tails or "heavy tails". We will show that these distributions are best characterized by Mandelbrot. We also show how random restarts can effectively eliminate heavy-tailed behavior. Furthermore

  16. Review Variance Tail Probabilities Markov's Inequality Chebyshev's Inequality Examples of Tail Bounds Multiple Random Variables CMPSCI 240: Reasoning about Uncertainty

    E-print Network

    McGregor, Andrew

    Review Variance Tail Probabilities Markov's Inequality Chebyshev's Inequality Examples of Tail Bounds Multiple Random Variables CMPSCI 240: Reasoning about Uncertainty Lecture 11: Variance and Tail Bounds Andrew McGregor University of Massachusetts Last Compiled: March 5, 2015 #12;Review Variance Tail

  17. Linker Histone Tails and N-Tails of Histone H3 Are Redundant: Scanning Force Microscopy Studies of Reconstituted Fibers

    E-print Network

    Leuba, Sanford

    Linker Histone Tails and N-Tails of Histone H3 Are Redundant: Scanning Force Microscopy Studies and the N-terminal tail of core histone H3 to extended chromatin fiber structure by scanning force of the linker histones and a structural redundancy of the tails of linker histones and of histone H3

  18. Plasma entry into the distant tail lobes - ISEE-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosling, J. T.; Baker, D. N.; Bame, S. J.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; Mccomas, D. J.; Zwickl, R. D.; Slavin, J. A.; Smith, E. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1984-01-01

    ISEE-3 measurements indicate that a broad mantle-like boundary layer plasma often exists within the distant geomagnetic tail lobes at all latitudes, directly adjacent to the tail magnetopause. The presence of this boundary layer at large tail distances indicates that plasma from the magnetosheath often crosses the magnetopause locally along much of the length of the tail, and is evidence that the tail is 'open'.

  19. Conformational Properties of R-Tubulin Tail Peptide: Implications for Tail-Body Interaction

    E-print Network

    Pal, Debnath

    Conformational Properties of R-Tubulin Tail Peptide: Implications for Tail-Body Interaction Debnath-terminal segments of the R/ -tubulins are flexible regions rich in acidic amino acid residues. It is generally believed that these regions play crucial roles in tubulin polymerization and interaction with many ligands

  20. Tail asymptotics for the supercritical GaltonWatson process in the heavy-tailed case 1

    E-print Network

    Korshunov, Dmitry

    classification: Primary: 60J80; Secondary: 60F10, 60G70 1 Introduction Let Zn be a supercritical Galton­WatsonTail asymptotics for the supercritical Galton­Watson process in the heavy-tailed case 1 Denis and University of Munich Abstract As well known, for a supercritical Galton­Watson process Zn whose off- spring

  1. Clean tailing reclamation: Tailing reprocessing for sulfide removal and vegetation establishment

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, S.R.; Kruegar, J.

    1997-12-31

    Mine wastes exhibiting elevated heavy metal concentrations are widespread causes of resource degradation in the western US and elsewhere. This problem is further exacerbated by the presence of pyrite that oxidizes upon exposure to the atmosphere resulting in acid generation. Since pyrite was not recovered as a mineral of economic value during mining, it was disposed of in waste piles and tailing ponds that are now a source of acid generation and release of metals to the environment. Tailing cleaning, or sulfide mineral recovery through reprocessing, was evaluated as an innovative reclamation technology. Tailing materials, from both operational and abandoned mines, were collected to evaluate the feasibility of sulfide mineral recovery. Successful mineral separation was performed resulting in a low volume metal sulfide concentrate and a high volume cleaned silicate media. Total metal concentrations were decreased in the cleaned tailing material and elevated in the sulfide concentrate compared with the original tailing chemistry. In greenhouse trials, vegetation establishment in cleaned tailing material was compared with plant growth in topsoil and lime-amended tailings. While vegetation performance was best in the topsoil control, both lime-amended and cleaned tailings displayed adequate plant growth.

  2. machinery can physically interact with this tail (911). Proteins that bind to this tail have

    E-print Network

    Graziano, Michael

    RNA amounts for these mutants are injected. Indeed, because of the nonlinearity of the oocyte expression acids 433 to 584) bound weakly to GST­N-Tail, but this binding was not in- hibited by the N­N-Tail peptide was added to a lysate of COS-7 cells [0.2% Triton X-100 in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS

  3. Observing The Extended Lunar Sodium Tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matta, Majd; Mendillo, M.

    2009-09-01

    A Boston University all-sky camera situated in the El Leoncito Observatory in Argentina has been monitoring the skies nightly since April 2006 to study mesospheric phenomena. One of the several filters used for this CCD camera system is for narrow-band sodium (D1 + D2) emission. In addition to terrestrial effects, observations capture low level brightness features traced to lunar origin. In what is considered to be the largest continuous dataset for lunar sodium, this work represents the results of over 3 years of monitoring the extended tail of the Moon. The extended lunar sodium tail can be observed by this method for a few nights centered on New Moon. The brightness of the extended lunar tail is calibrated in Rayleighs using standard stars. We use the time history of brightness variations, from month to month, as a proxy for studying variability in mechanisms responsible for the generation of lunar sodium capable of escape. The period of our observations of the extended lunar sodium tail overlaps with an epoch of minimal solar activity, as well as years of non-prominent meteor showers, resulting in minimal variations in some of the main source processes. Thus we see no strong correlations between tail brightness and potential sources (solar photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering, micro-meteor impacts). Further progress awaits a more favorable period of potential source variations.

  4. THE DUST TAIL OF ASTEROID (3200) PHAETHON

    SciTech Connect

    Jewitt, David; Li Jing; Agarwal, Jessica

    2013-07-10

    We report the discovery of a comet-like tail on asteroid (3200) Phaethon when imaged at optical wavelengths near perihelion. In both 2009 and 2012, the tail appears {approx}>350'' (2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} m) in length and extends approximately in the projected anti-solar direction. We interpret the tail as being caused by dust particles accelerated by solar radiation pressure. The sudden appearance and the morphology of the tail indicate that the dust particles are small, with an effective radius {approx}1 {mu}m and a combined mass {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} kg. These particles are likely products of thermal fracture and/or desiccation cracking under the very high surface temperatures ({approx}1000 K) experienced by Phaethon at perihelion. The existence of the tail confirms earlier inferences about activity in this body based on the detection of anomalous brightening. Phaethon, the presumed source of the Geminid meteoroids, is still active.

  5. X-ray Tail in NGC 7619

    E-print Network

    Dong-Woo Kim; Eunhyeuk Kim; Giuseppina Fabbiano; Ginevra Trinchieri

    2008-09-25

    We present new observational results of NGC 7619, an elliptical galaxy with a prominent X-ray tail and a dominant member of the Pegasus group. With Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, we confirm the presence of a long X-ray tail in the SW direction; moreover, we identify for the first time a sharp discontinuity of the X-ray surface brightness in the opposite (NE) side of the galaxy. The density, temperature and pressure jump at the NE discontinuity suggest a Mach number ~1, corresponding to a galaxy velocity of ~500 km s-1, relative to the surrounding hot gas. Spectral analysis of these data shows that the Iron abundance of the hot gaseous medium is much higher (1-2 solar) near the center of NGC 7619 and in the tail extending from the core than in the surrounding regions (tail is originated from the galaxy. The possible origin of the head-tail structure is either on-going ram-pressure stripping or sloshing. The morphology of the structure is more in line with a ram pressure stripping phenomenon, while the position of NGC 7619 at the center of the Pegasus I group, and its dominance, would prefer sloshing.

  6. The Tidal Tails of NGC 5466

    E-print Network

    M. Fellhauer; N. W. Evans; V. Belokurov; M. I. Wilkinson; G. Gilmore

    2007-06-18

    The study of substructure in the stellar halo of the Milky Way has made a lot of progress in recent years, especially with the advent of surveys like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Here, we study the newly discovered tidal tails of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 5466. By means of numerical simulations, we reproduce the shape, direction and surface density of the tidal tails, as well as the structural and kinematical properties of the present-day NGC 5466. Although its tails are very extended in SDSS data (> 45 degrees), NGC 5466 is only losing mass slowly at the present epoch and so can survive for probably a further Hubble time. The effects of tides at perigalacticon and disc crossing are the dominant causes of the slow dissolution of NGC 5466, accounting for about 60 % of the mass loss over the course of its evolution. The morphology of the tails provides a constraint on the proper motion -- the observationally determined proper motion has to be refined (within the stated error margins) to match the location of the tidal tails.

  7. Design of tailing dam using red mud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rout, Subrat; Sahoo, Tapaswini; Das, Sarat

    2013-06-01

    Red mud, waste industrial product from aluminum industries produced approximately 75 million tonnes every year with less than half of this is used. Storage of this unutilized red mud takes vast tracts of usable land and pollutes, land, air and water. Construction of high embankments, under passes, flyovers, tailing dams uses vast tract of natural resources (top soil) is also matter of concern as its takes thousands of years to form the natural soil. This paper discusses use of red mud for construction of tailing dam based on laboratory findings and finite element analysis. The geotechnical properties such as plasticity, compaction, permeability, shear strength characteristics and dispersion of red mud are presented. Stability and seepage analysis of tailing dams as per finite element analysis using the above geotechnical parameters is presented.

  8. The tidal tails of NGC 2298

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbinot, Eduardo; Santiago, Basílio X.; da Costa, Luiz N.; Makler, Martin; Maia, Marcio A. G.

    2011-09-01

    We present an implementation of the matched-filter technique to detect tidal tails of globular clusters. The method was tested using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data for the globular cluster Palomar 5 revealing its well-known tidal tails. We also ran a simulation of a globular cluster with a tidal tail where we successfully recover the tails for a cluster at the same position and with the same characteristics of NGC 2298. Based on the simulation we estimate that the matched-filter increases the contrast of the tail relative to the background of stars by a factor of 2.5 for the case of NGC 2298. We also present the photometry of the globular cluster NGC 2298 using the MOSAIC2 camera installed on the Cerro Tololo International Observatory (CTIO) 4-m telescope. The photometry covers ˜3 deg2 reaching V˜ 23. A fit of a King profile to the radial density profile of NGC 2298 shows that this cluster has a tidal radius of ? which is twice as in the literature. The application of the matched-filter to NGC 2298 reveals several extra-tidal structures, including a leading and trailing tail. We also find that NGC 2298 has extra-tidal structures stretching towards and against the Galactic disc, suggesting strong tidal interaction. Finally, we assess how the matched-filter performs when applied to a globular cluster with and without mass segregation taken into account. We find that disregarding the effects of mass segregation may significantly reduce the detection limit of the matched-filter.

  9. Radial tail resolution in the SELEX RICH

    SciTech Connect

    Morelos, A.; Mata, J.; Cooper, P.S.; Engelfried, J.; Aguilera-Servin, J.L.; /San Luis Potosi U. /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    The authors use a 7 Million event data sample of 600 GeV/c single track pion events, where the pion track is reconstructed upstream and downstream of the SELEX RICH. They build the RICH ring radius histogram distribution and count the tail events that fall outside 5{sigma}, giving a fraction of 4 x 10{sup -5} events outside the Gaussian tails. This control of events establishes the ability of using the RICH as velocity spectrometer for high precision searches of the K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +} {nu}{bar {nu}} decay like it is planned in the CKM experiment.

  10. Dynamics of Histone Tails within Chromatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernier, Morgan; North, Justin; Page, Michael; Jaroniec, Christopher; Hammel, Christopher; Poirier, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Genetic information in humans is encoded within DNA molecules that is wrapped around histone octamer proteins and compacted into a highly conserved structural polymer, chromatin. The physical and material properties of chromatin appear to influence gene expression by altering the accessibility of proteins to the DNA. The tails of the histones are flexible domains that are thought to play a role in regulating DNA accessibility and compaction; however the molecular mechanisms for these phenomena are not understood. I will present CW-EPR studies on site directed spin labeled nucleosomes that probe the structure and dynamics of these histone tails within nucleosomes.

  11. Intermittency for branching walks with heavy tails

    E-print Network

    A. Getan; S. Molchanov; B. Vainberg

    2015-09-25

    Branching random walks on multidimensional lattice with heavy tails and a constant branching rate are considered. It is shown that under these conditions (heavy tails and constant rate), the front propagates exponentially fast, but the particles inside of the front are distributed very non-uniformly. The particles exhibit intermittent behavior in a large part of the region behind the front (i.e., the particles are concentrated only in very sparse spots there). The zone of non-intermittency (were particles are distributed relatively uniformly) extends with a power rate. This rate is found.

  12. Casein Kinase 2 Reverses Tail-Independent Inactivation of Kinesin-1

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Reddy, Babu J. N.; Anand, Preetha; Shu, Zhanyong; Cermelli, Silvia; Mattson, Michelle K.; Tripathy, Suvranta K.; Hoss, Matthew T.; James, Nikita S.; King, Stephen J.; Huang, Lan; Bardwell, Lee; Gross, Steven P.

    2013-01-01

    Kinesin-1 is a plus-end microtubule-based motor, and defects in kinesin-based transport are linked to diseases including neurodegeneration. Kinesin can auto-inhibit via a head-tail interaction, but is believed to be active otherwise. Here we report a tail-independent inactivation of kinesin, reversible by the disease-relevant signaling protein, casein kinase 2 (CK2). The majority of initially active kinesin (native or tail-less) loses its ability to interact with microtubules in vitro, and CK2 reverses this inactivation (~ 4-fold) without altering kinesin’s single motor properties. This activation pathway does not require motor phosphorylation, and is independent of head-tail auto-inhibition. In cultured mammalian cells, reducing CK2 expression, but not its kinase activity, decreases the force required to stall lipid droplet transport, consistent with a decreased number of active kinesin motors. Our results provide the first direct evidence of a protein kinase up-regulating kinesin-based transport, and suggest a novel pathway for regulating the activity of cargo-bound kinesin. PMID:22453827

  13. Casein kinase 2 reverses tail-independent inactivation of kinesin-1.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Reddy, Babu J N; Anand, Preetha; Shu, Zhanyong; Cermelli, Silvia; Mattson, Michelle K; Tripathy, Suvranta K; Hoss, Matthew T; James, Nikita S; King, Stephen J; Huang, Lan; Bardwell, Lee; Gross, Steven P

    2012-01-01

    Kinesin-1 is a plus-end microtubule-based motor, and defects in kinesin-based transport are linked to diseases including neurodegeneration. Kinesin can auto-inhibit via a head-tail interaction, but is believed to be active otherwise. Here we report a tail-independent inactivation of kinesin, reversible by the disease-relevant signalling protein, casein kinase 2 (CK2). The majority of initially active kinesin (native or tail-less) loses its ability to interact with microtubules in vitro, and CK2 reverses this inactivation (approximately fourfold) without altering kinesin's single motor properties. This activation pathway does not require motor phosphorylation, and is independent of head-tail auto-inhibition. In cultured mammalian cells, reducing CK2 expression, but not its kinase activity, decreases the force required to stall lipid droplet transport, consistent with a decreased number of active kinesin motors. Our results provide the first direct evidence of a protein kinase upregulating kinesin-based transport, and suggest a novel pathway for regulating the activity of cargo-bound kinesin. PMID:22453827

  14. Flight costs of long, sexually selected tails in hummingbirds

    PubMed Central

    James Clark, Christopher; Dudley, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The elongated tails adorning many male birds have traditionally been thought to degrade flight performance by increasing body drag. However, aerodynamic interactions between the body and tail can be substantial in some contexts, and a short tail may actually reduce rather than increase overall drag. To test how tail length affects flight performance, we manipulated the tails of Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) by increasing their length with the greatly elongated tail streamers of the red-billed streamertail (Trochilus polytmus) and reducing their length by removing first the rectrices and then the entire tail (i.e. all rectrices and tail covert feathers). Flight performance was measured in a wind tunnel by measuring (i) the maximum forward speed at which the birds could fly and (ii) the metabolic cost of flight while flying at airspeeds from 0 to 14?m?s?1. We found a significant interaction effect between tail treatment and airspeed: an elongated tail increased the metabolic cost of flight by up to 11 per cent, and this effect was strongest at higher flight speeds. Maximum flight speed was concomitantly reduced by 3.4 per cent. Also, removing the entire tail decreased maximum flight speed by 2 per cent, suggesting beneficial aerodynamic effects for tails of normal length. The effects of elongation are thus subtle and airspeed-specific, suggesting that diversity in avian tail morphology is associated with only modest flight costs. PMID:19324747

  15. Chronic Wasting Disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richards, Bryan

    2007-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an always-fatal, neurological illness occurring in North American cervids (members of the deer family), including white-tailed deer, mule deer, elk and moose. Since its discovery in 1967, CWD has spread geographically and increased in prevalence locally. CWD is contagious; it can be transmitted freely within and among free-ranging populations. It is likely that diseased animals can transmit CWD to healthy animals long before they become clinically ill. Managing CWD in free-ranging populations is extremely difficult, therefore preventative measures designed to reduce the chance for disease spread are critically important.

  16. Molasses Tail in Dense Hard Core Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isobe, Masaharu; Alder, Berni

    2010-03-01

    The long slow decaying potential part of the shear-stress autocorrelation function has been called the ``molasses tail'' to differentiate it from the hydrodynamic origin of the long time tail in the velocity autocorrelation function and to emphasize its relation to the highly viscous glassy state [1]. Some twenty years ago, the molasses tail in dense liquids near the solid-fluid transition point was speculated to be due to transient crystal nuclei formation [2].This slow decaying process of the OACF and its decomposition (pair, triplet, and quadruplet) is a key factor in understanding the onset of the glass transition. With additional computer power, we are now investigating the origin of the molasses tail using a modern fast algorithm based on event-driven Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation.We confirm the non-algebraic decay (stretched exponential) at intermediate times corresponding to the existence of various cluster sizes a solid cluster at high densities. The decay in dense systems thus consists of a three stage relaxation process, which are the kinetic regime, the molasses regime and the diffusional power regime[3]. [1] B. J. Alder, in Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Statistical-mechanical Systems, G. Ciccotti and W. G. Hoover, eds.(North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1986) 66. [2] A. J. C. Ladd, and B. J. Alder, J. Stat. Phys. 57, 473 (1989). [3] M. Isobe and B. J. Alder, Mol. Phys., 107, 609 (2009).

  17. Experiments on a Tail-wheel Shimmy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harling, R; Dietz, O

    1954-01-01

    Model tests on the "running belt" and tests with a full-scale tail wheel were made on a rotating drum as well as on a runway in order to investigate the causes of the undesirable shimmy phenomena frequently occurring on airplane tail wheels, and the means of avoiding them. The small model (scale 1:10) permitted simulation of the mass, moments of inertia, and fuselage stiffness of the airplane and determination of their influence on the shimmy, whereas by means of the larger model with pneumatic tires (scale 1:2) more accurate investigations were made on the tail wheel itself. The results of drum and road tests show good agreement with one another and with model values. Detailed investigations were made regarding the dependence of the shimmy tendency on trail, rolling speed, load, size of tires, ground friction,and inclination of the swivel axis; furthermore, regarding the influence of devices with restoring effect on the tail wheel, and the friction damping required for prevention of shimmy. Finally observations from slow-motion pictures are reported and conclusions drawn concerning the influence of tire deformation.

  18. Dispersal in female white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

    1992-01-01

    Seven of 35 yearling female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a migratory herd in northeastern Minnesota dispersed 18-168 km from natal ranges during late May through June. Dispersal as a proximate event appears voluntary and independent of deer density.

  19. URANIUM MILL TAILINGS RADON FLUX CALCULATIONS

    E-print Network

    storage pad, and access roads. The mill is designed to process ore containing uranium and vanadiumURANIUM MILL TAILINGS RADON FLUX CALCULATIONS PIÑON RIDGE PROJECT MONTROSE COUNTY, COLORADO (EFRC) proposes to license, construct, and operate a conventional acid leach uranium and vanadium mill

  20. Mine Waste Technology Program Electrochemical Tailings Cover

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 40, Electrochemical Tailings Cover, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). MSE Technology A...

  1. Functional morphology of the aardvark tail.

    PubMed

    Endo, H; Mori, K; Koyabu, D; Kawada, S; Komiya, T; Itou, T; Koie, H; Kitagawa, M; Sakai, T

    2013-04-01

    The musculoskeletal system of the aardvark (Orycteropus afer) tail was morphologically examined in two adult specimens. The tail musculature comprised three muscular groups, viz. a dorsal sacrocaudal system that consisted of the irregularly oriented Musculus sacrocaudalis dorsalis medialis and M. sacrocaudalis dorsalis lateralis, a lateral inter-vertebral connecting system, and a ventral sacrocaudal system characterized by the thick M. sacrocaudalis ventralis lateralis and M. sacrocaudalis ventralis medialis. Both the dorsal and ventral systems possessed large tendon groups that strengthened the tail structure. Computed tomography (CT) examination showed the presence of large but homogeneous cartilaginous inter-vertebral discs, whereas V-shaped bones were situated at the ventral aspect of the caudal vertebrae at the level of the inter-vertebral discs. CT visualization of the tendons and V-shaped bones in various tail positions suggested that these structures contribute to the tunnel digging action by bearing the trunk weight and lending force when the aardvark are displacing the soil by means of the forelimbs. PMID:22713114

  2. The Tailocin Tale: Peeling off Phage Tails.

    PubMed

    Ghequire, Maarten G K; De Mot, René

    2015-10-01

    Bacteria produce a variety of particles resembling phage tails that are functional without an associated phage head. Acquired from diverse bacteriophage sources, these stand-alone units were sculpted to serve different ecological roles. Such tailocins mediate antagonism between related bacteria as well as interactions with eukaryotic cells. PMID:26433692

  3. Lifshits tails in the hierarchical Anderson model

    E-print Network

    Simon Kuttruf; Peter Müller

    2011-08-21

    We prove that the homogeneous hierarchical Anderson model exhibits a Lifshits tail at the upper edge of its spectrum. The Lifshits exponent is given in terms of the spectral dimension of the homogeneous hierarchical structure. Our approach is based on Dirichlet-Neumann bracketing for the hierarchical Laplacian and a large-deviation argument.

  4. On the structure of tidal tails

    E-print Network

    Andreas H. W. Küpper; Andrew Macleod; Douglas C. Heggie

    2008-04-15

    We examine the longitudinal distribution of the stars escaping from a cluster along tidal tails. Using both theory and simulations, we show that, even in the case of a star cluster in a circular galactic orbit, when the tide is steady, the distribution exhibits maxima at a distance of many tidal radii from the cluster.

  5. Maxillary lymphosarcoma in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Larsen, R Scott; Carpenter, James W; Kennedy, George A; Morales, N

    2002-07-01

    In 1996, lymphosarcoma was observed in a captive adult female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from northeastern Kansas (USA). A subcutaneous mass on the deer's left cheek was surgically removed and lymphosarcoma was diagnosed. The mass recurred within 3 wk. A second surgical removal was attempted but the tumor had grown much larger, had become intimately involved with the buccal mucosa, and was beginning to interfere with mastication. For these reasons, the deer was euthanized. At postmortem examination the only abnormal findings were the primary tumor and enlarged ipsilateral parotid and mandibular lymph nodes. Histologically these tissues demonstrated changes characteristic of lymphosarcoma but no other organs had evidence of neoplastic disease. A diagnosis of focal lymphosarcoma with local metastasis was made. The organ distribution of lymphosarcoma in this deer differs from previously described cases of lymphosarcoma in cervids. PMID:12238381

  6. Unique Structural Features Facilitate Lizard Tail Kristian W. Sanggaard1

    E-print Network

    Schierup, Mikkel Heide

    remains unclear. In the present study, we showed that tail shedding by the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko-imaging techniques demonstrated that the tail of Gekko gecko was pre-severed at distinct sites and that its

  7. 14. Credit PED. Downstream elevation, near completion, showing tail race ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Credit PED. Downstream elevation, near completion, showing tail race and trestle used to carry excavated rock and construction materials across tail race. Photo c. 1909. - Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Plant, Potomac River, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV

  8. UNDERSTANDING HEAVY TAILS IN A BOUNDED WORLD OR, IS A TRUNCATED HEAVY TAIL HEAVY OR

    E-print Network

    Samorodnitsky, Gennady

    areas as human travel (Brockmann et al. (2006)), earthquake analysis (Corral (2006)), ani- mal science the characteristic fea- tures of power tails? Answering this question is not straightforward. We start by pointing

  9. Tail-assisted pitch control in lizards, robots and dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Libby, Thomas; Moore, Talia Y; Chang-Siu, Evan; Li, Deborah; Cohen, Daniel J; Jusufi, Ardian; Full, Robert J

    2012-01-12

    In 1969, a palaeontologist proposed that theropod dinosaurs used their tails as dynamic stabilizers during rapid or irregular movements, contributing to their depiction as active and agile predators. Since then the inertia of swinging appendages has been implicated in stabilizing human walking, aiding acrobatic manoeuvres by primates and rodents, and enabling cats to balance on branches. Recent studies on geckos suggest that active tail stabilization occurs during climbing, righting and gliding. By contrast, studies on the effect of lizard tail loss show evidence of a decrease, an increase or no change in performance. Application of a control-theoretic framework could advance our general understanding of inertial appendage use in locomotion. Here we report that lizards control the swing of their tails in a measured manner to redirect angular momentum from their bodies to their tails, stabilizing body attitude in the sagittal plane. We video-recorded Red-Headed Agama lizards (Agama agama) leaping towards a vertical surface by first vaulting onto an obstacle with variable traction to induce a range of perturbations in body angular momentum. To examine a known controlled tail response, we built a lizard-sized robot with an active tail that used sensory feedback to stabilize pitch as it drove off a ramp. Our dynamics model revealed that a body swinging its tail experienced less rotation than a body with a rigid tail, a passively compliant tail or no tail. To compare a range of tails, we calculated tail effectiveness as the amount of tailless body rotation a tail could stabilize. A model Velociraptor mongoliensis supported the initial tail stabilization hypothesis, showing as it did a greater tail effectiveness than the Agama lizards. Leaping lizards show that inertial control of body attitude can advance our understanding of appendage evolution and provide biological inspiration for the next generation of manoeuvrable search-and-rescue robots. PMID:22217942

  10. Intervention to Improve the Quality of Life of a Bottlenose Dolphin That Developed Necrosis on the Tail Flukes

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Keiichi; Murakami, Masahito; Kato, Junichi; Miyahara, Hirokazu; Izumisawa, Yasuharu

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose, Case, and Methods] A female bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) in captivity developed necrosis of the tail flukes. Although the diseased site healed after surgical resection, the loss of approximately 75% of the tail greatly affected her swimming performance. To restore swimming ability, we developed artificial tail flukes as a prosthetic swimming aid and provided physical therapy that included swimming training from postoperative day 1 to day 1427. [Results] The prosthetic enabled the dolphin to recover swimming ability almost to the level prior to disease onset, but even acquire applied movement, and reestablish social relationships, thus greatly improving the animal's quality of life. [Conclusion] The results clearly demonstrate that, as in postoperative rehabilitation in humans, the use of prosthetic devices in physical therapy can be beneficial for marine animals such as dolphins. PMID:24259946

  11. Tissue fluid shift, forelimb loading, and tail tension in tail-suspended rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, A. R.; Steskal, J.; Johansson, C.; Tipton, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    The tail suspension model (head-down tilt) simulates hypogravity in terms of musculoskeletal loss in the rat. However, little is known of tissue fluid shifts and body weight distribution in this model. Tissue fluid pressures were measured by wick catheters in 12 Munich-Wistar rats before, during, and after 48 hrs of tail suspension (about 30 deg head-down tilt). Subcutaneous tissue fluid pressure in the neck increased from -2.2 + or - 0.4 (normal horizontal position) to +4.0 + or - 1.5 cm H2O during tail suspension, indicating a cephalic fluid shift and significant edema during head-down tilt. In a separate study, six rats were suspended at 30-70 deg, and forelimb load and tail tension were measured by a balance and force transducer, respectively. Approximately 50 percent of body weight (BW) was loaded on forelimbs at a head-down tilt angle of 30 deg and forelimb load declined linearly to 10 percent BW at 70 deg. Furthermore, tail tension increased from 50 percent BW at 30 deg to 85 percent BW at 70 deg. These results indicate that less than normal loads are applied to forelimbs of rats suspended at angles of less than 30 deg and that the tail bears an increasing proportion of the rat's body weight at head-down tilt angles of less than 30 deg.

  12. Modeling distribution of dispersal distances in male white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diefenbach, D.R.; Long, E.S.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Wallingford, B.D.; Smith, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Dispersal distances and their distribution pattern are important to understanding such phenomena as disease spread and gene flow, but oftentimes dispersal characteristics are modeled as a fixed trait for a given species. We found that dispersal distributions differ for spring and autumn dispersals of yearling male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) but that combined data can be adequately modeled based on a log-normal distribution. We modeled distribution of dispersal distances from 3 distinct populations in Pennsylvania and Maryland, USA, based on the relationship between percent forest cover and mean dispersal distance and the relationship between mean and variance of dispersal distances. Our results suggest distributions of distances for dispersing yearling male white-tailed deer can be modeled by simply measuring a readily obtained landscape metric, percent forest cover, which could be used to create generalized spatially explicit disease or gene.

  13. Orthopoxvirus variola infection of Cynomys ludovicianus (North American black tailed prairie dog).

    PubMed

    Carroll, Darin S; Olson, Victoria A; Smith, Scott K; Braden, Zach H; Patel, Nishi; Abel, Jason; Li, Yu; Damon, Inger K; Karem, Kevin L

    2013-09-01

    Since the eradication of Smallpox, researchers have attempted to study Orthopoxvirus pathogenesis and immunity in animal models in order to correlate results human smallpox. A solely human pathogen, Orthopoxvirus variola fails to produce authentic smallpox illness in any other animal species tested to date. In 2003, an outbreak in the USA of Orthopoxvirus monkeypox, revealed the susceptibility of the North American black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) to infection and fulminate disease. Prairie dogs infected with Orthopoxvirus monkeypox present with a clinical scenario similar to ordinary smallpox, including prodrome, rash, and high mortality. This study examines if Black-tailed prairie dogs can become infected with O. variola and serve as a surrogate model for the study of human smallpox disease. Substantive evidence of infection is found in immunological seroconversion of animals to either intranasal or intradermal challenges with O. variola, but in the absence of overt illness. PMID:23809939

  14. 14 CFR 23.481 - Tail down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tail down landing conditions. 23.481 Section 23.481 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Ground Loads § 23.481 Tail down landing conditions. (a) For a tail down landing, the airplane is...

  15. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nose/tail wheel steering. 23.745 Section 23... gear. Floats and Hulls...

  16. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nose/tail wheel steering. 23.745 Section 23... gear. Floats and Hulls...

  17. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nose/tail wheel steering. 23.745 Section 23... gear. Floats and Hulls...

  18. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nose/tail wheel steering. 23.745 Section 23... gear. Floats and Hulls...

  19. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nose/tail wheel steering. 23.745 Section 23... gear. Floats and Hulls...

  20. Submitted to Operations Research Is tail-optimal scheduling possible?

    E-print Network

    Low, Steven H.

    possible to obtain information about the tail of the distribution of the sojourn time of a job in a random Department of Computer Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125. adamw there are policies that are known to optimize the sojourn time tail under a large class of heavy-tailed job sizes (e

  1. 14. TIP TOP MINE. TAILINGS LOCATED DIRECTLY WEST FROM TIP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. TIP TOP MINE. TAILINGS LOCATED DIRECTLY WEST FROM TIP TOP HOUSE. ID-31-C-12 WOODEN STRUCTURE IS VISIBLE IN TOP LEFT. CABLES VISIBLE LEFT AND CENTER OF TAILINGS. HOUSE IS JUST OVER APEX OF TAILINGS. CAMERA POINTED EAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Tip Top Mine, West face Florida Mountain, approximately 150 feet below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  2. 14 CFR 25.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...3) The combination of vertical and drag components considered to be acting at the main wheel axle centerline. (b) For the tail-down...landing condition for airplanes with tail wheels, the main and tail wheels are assumed to contact the...

  3. One-Tailed F-Tests in Communication Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Timothy R.; Banas, John

    2002-01-01

    Documents the recent use of one-tailed F-tests in communication journals, and examines the arguments both for and against their use. Examines the use of these tests within the broader unresolved controversy surrounding the use of one-tailed tests. Recommends that future researchers should most often avoid one-tailed Fs, and generally exercise…

  4. 14 CFR 25.497 - Tail-wheel yawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tail-wheel yawing. 25.497 Section 25.497... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.497 Tail-wheel yawing. (a) A vertical ground reaction equal to the static load on the tail wheel, in combination with a side component of...

  5. 14 CFR 25.497 - Tail-wheel yawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tail-wheel yawing. 25.497 Section 25.497... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.497 Tail-wheel yawing. (a) A vertical ground reaction equal to the static load on the tail wheel, in combination with a side component of...

  6. G-tail telomere HPA: simple measurement of

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    G-tail telomere HPA: simple measurement of human single-stranded telomeric overhangs Hidetoshi of telomeric 3¢-overhang (G-tail) lengths is essential for investigation of the biological effects of telomere dysfunction. G-tail telomere hybridization protection assay (Gt-telomere HPA) has the advantages of being

  7. SPACE USE BY ROUND-TAILED MUSKRATS IN ISOLATED WETLANDS

    E-print Network

    Branch, Lyn C.

    SPACE USE BY ROUND-TAILED MUSKRATS IN ISOLATED WETLANDS ROBERT L. SCHOOLEY* AND LYN C. BRANCH at Urbana-Champaign, 1102 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, USA The round-tailed muskrat (Neofiber alleni radiotracked 23 round-tailed muskrats in isolated freshwater wetlands in central Florida. Muskrats used lodges

  8. Research Article Survival of White-Tailed Deer Neonates

    E-print Network

    Research Article Survival of White-Tailed Deer Neonates in Minnesota and South Dakota TROY W, and sex) and habitat factors on survival of neonate white-tailed deer improves understanding of population. Understanding white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population dynamics requires knowledge of survival

  9. Mark-Recapture of White-Tailed Deer Using DNA

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    Marker Behavior Introduction Population Estimates Why White-Tailed Deer? Keystone Species Competition11/10/2010 1 Mark-Recapture of White-Tailed Deer Using DNA Sampling from Scat Matthew J. Goode M;11/10/2010 3 Justification Economic and Environmental Importance of White-Tailed Deer Population Estimates

  10. Asymptotic Tail Probabilities of Sums of Dependent Subexponential Random Variables

    E-print Network

    Tang, Qihe

    Asymptotic Tail Probabilities of Sums of Dependent Subexponential Random Variables Jaap Geluk1 In this paper we study the asymptotic behavior of the tail probabilities of sums of dependent and real variation. We propose two general de- pendence assumptions under which the asymptotic behavior of the tail

  11. Multiple tail domain interactions stabilize nonmuscle myosin II bipolar filaments

    E-print Network

    Prehoda, Ken

    Multiple tail domain interactions stabilize nonmuscle myosin II bipolar filaments Derek Ricketson derives from its assembly into bipolar filaments. The coiled-coil tail domain of the myosin II heavy chain mediates filament assembly, although the mechanism is poorly understood. Tail domains contain

  12. BUCSTR2000017 1 TCP Congestion Control and Heavy Tails

    E-print Network

    BUCS­TR­2000­017 1 TCP Congestion Control and Heavy Tails LIANG GUO MARK CROVELLA IBRAHIM MATTA­ ies have shown that there is a close relationship between heavy­tailed distribution of various traffic traffic with heavy­tailed OFF, or idle, periods, and therefore introduces long­range de­ pendence

  13. Higher Order Tail Densities of Copulas and Hidden Regular Variation

    E-print Network

    Li, Haijun

    Higher Order Tail Densities of Copulas and Hidden Regular Variation Haijun Li Lei Hua December 2014 (2nd Revision) Abstract A notion of higher order tail densities for copulas is introduced using can then be studied in a unified fashion. We show that the tail of a multivariate density can

  14. TOP: Tail Optimization Protocol For Cellular Radio Resource Allocation

    E-print Network

    Mao, Zhuoqing Morley

    TOP: Tail Optimization Protocol For Cellular Radio Resource Allocation Feng Qian1 Zhaoguang Wang1 timers. However, the timeout value itself, also known as the tail time, can last up to 15 seconds due, we propose Tail Optimization Pro- tocol (TOP), which enables cooperation between the phone

  15. Exponential tail bounds for max-recursive sequences

    E-print Network

    Rüschendorf, Ludger

    Exponential tail bounds for max-recursive sequences Ludger R¨uschendorf and Eva-Maria Schopp University of Freiburg Abstract Exponential tail bounds are derived for solutions of max-recursive equa a characterization of exponential tail bounds due to Kasahara (1978). 1 Introduction Stochastic recursive equations

  16. Sums of Dependent Nonnegative Random Variables with Subexponential Tails

    E-print Network

    Tang, Qihe

    Sums of Dependent Nonnegative Random Variables with Subexponential Tails Bangwon Ko, Qihe Tang, U.S.A. December 6, 2007 Abstract In this paper we study the asymptotic tail probabilities of sums with tail independence. The results show that the subexponentiality of the summands eliminates the impact

  17. Experimental verification of a simplified vee-tail theory and analysis of available data on complete models with vee tails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purser, Paul E; Campbell, John P

    1945-01-01

    An analysis has been made of available data on vee tail surfaces. Previously published theoretical studies of vee tails have been extended to include the control effectiveness and control forces in addition to the stability. Tests of two isolated tail surfaces with various amounts of dihedral provided a check of the theory. Methods for designing vee tails were also developed and are given in the present paper.

  18. Bovine viral diarrhea virus multi-organ infection in two white-tailed deer in southeastern South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of wild ruminants especially cervids in the transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has remained an enigma. Two white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were submitted to the Animal Disease Research and Diagnostic Laboratory (ADRDL) in the fall of 2003 by the South Dakota Game ...

  19. The Modelling of Cometary Dust Tail Striae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, G. H.; Birkett, K.; Ramanjooloo, Y.; Battams, K.; Morrill, J.

    2013-09-01

    Several high-production rate comets have displayed dust tails containing numerous striae-near-linear regions of enhanced brightness. We present a study of the striae in the tail of C/2006 P1 (McNaught) during its perihelion passage in January-February 2007, and those in C/2002 V1 (NEAT) in January 2002. Both comets were observed by the LASCO coronagraph on the SOHO spacecraft; McNaught was also observed using the SECCHI instrument on the two STEREO spacecraft. Our simulations of striae successfully reproduce many aspects of their morphology and dynamics. The results are compared to those of other striae models. Initial fits to the complex striae of C/2011 L4 (PANSTARRS), observed by the STEREO-B spacecraft, are also presented. The inferences that can be made regarding the comets' dust populations are discussed.

  20. The Modelling of Cometary Dust Tail Striae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, G. H.; Birkett, K.; Ramanjooloo, Y.; Morrill, J. S.; Battams, K.

    2013-05-01

    Several high-production rate comets have displayed dust tails containing numerous striae - near-linear regions of enhanced brightness. We present a study of the striae in the tail of C/2006 P1 (McNaught) during its perihelion passage in January-February 2007, and those in C/2002 V1 (NEAT) in January 2002. Both comets were observed by the LASCO coronagraph on the SOHO spacecraft; McNaught was also observed using the SECCHI instrument on the two STEREO spacecraft. Our simulations of striae successfully reproduce many aspects of their morphology and dynamics. The results are compared to those of other striae models. The inferences that can be made regarding the comets' dust populations are discussed.

  1. Exposures from mining and mine tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Douglas B.; Cassaday, Valerie J.; Lowe, Leo M.

    The mining, milling and tailings management of uranium ores results in environmental radiation exposures. This paper describes the sources of radioactive emissions to the environment associated with these activities, reviews the basic approach used to estimate the resultant radiation exposures and presents examples of typical uranium mind and mill facilities. Similar concepts apply to radiation exposures associated with the mining of non-radioactive ores although the magnitudes of the exposures would normally be smaller than those associated with uranium mining.

  2. Tail Rotor Airfoils Stabilize Helicopters, Reduce Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Founded by former Ames Research Center engineer Jim Van Horn, Van Horn Aviation of Tempe, Arizona, built upon a Langley Research Center airfoil design to create a high performance aftermarket tail rotor for the popular Bell 206 helicopter. The highly durable rotor has a lifetime twice that of the original equipment manufacturer blade, reduces noise by 40 percent, and displays enhanced performance at high altitudes. These improvements benefit helicopter performance for law enforcement, military training, wildfire and pipeline patrols, and emergency medical services.

  3. Ecological aspects of microorganisms inhabiting uranium mill tailings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, C.L.; Landa, E.R.; Updegraff, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Numbers and types of microorganisms in uranium mill tailings were determined using culturing techniques. Arthrobacter were found to be the predominant microorganism inhabiting the sandy tailings, whereas Bacillus and fungi predominated in the slime tailings. Sulfate-reducing bacteria, capable of leaching radium, were isolated in low numbers from tailings samples but were isolated in significantly high numbers from topsoil in contact with the tailings. The results are placed in the context of the magnitude of uranium mill tailings in the United States, the hazards posed by the tailings, and how such hazards could be enhanced or diminished by microbial activities. Patterns in the composition of the microbial population are evaluated with respect to the ecological variables that influence microbial growth. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  4. Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1979 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.

    1980-06-01

    Uranium mill tailings are a source of low-level radiation and radioactive materials that may be released into the environment. Stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is necessary to minimize radon exhalation and other radioactive releases. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing uranium tailings is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory: the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other potentially hazardous materials in uranium tailings. Results of these studies indicate that radon flux from uranium tailings can be reduced by greater than 99% by covering the tailings with an asphalt emulsion that is poured on or sprayed on (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick), or mixed with some of the tailings and compacted to form an admixture seal (2.5 to 15.2 cm) containing 18 wt % residual asphalt.

  5. More on the structure of tidal tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küpper, Andreas H. W.; Lane, Richard R.; Heggie, Douglas C.

    2012-03-01

    We investigate the epicyclic motion of stars escaping from star clusters. Using streaklines, we visualize the path of escaping stars and show how epicyclic motion leads to over- and underdensities in tidal tails of star clusters moving on circular and eccentric orbits about a galaxy. Additionally, we investigate the effect of the cluster mass on the tidal tails, by showing that their structure is better matched when the perturbing effect of the cluster mass is included. By adjusting streaklines to results of N-body computations we can accurately and quickly reproduce all observed substructure, especially the streaky features often found in simulations which may be interpreted in observations as multiple tidal tails. Hence, we can rule out tidal shocks as the origin of such substructures. Finally, from the adjusted streakline parameters we can verify that for the star clusters we studied escape mainly happens from the tidal radius of the cluster, given by xL= (GM/(?2-?2?/?R2))1/3. We find, however, that there is another limiting radius, the 'edge' radius, which gives the smallest radius from which a star can escape during one cluster orbit about the galaxy. For eccentric cluster orbits the edge radius shrinks with increasing orbital eccentricity (for fixed apocentric distance) but is always significantly larger than the respective perigalactic tidal radius. In fact, the edge radii of the clusters we investigated, which are extended and tidally filling, agree well with their (fitted) King radii, which may indicate a fundamental connection between these two quantities.

  6. Development of a biologically inspired hydrobot tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Danielle; Janneh, Alhaji; Philen, Michael

    2014-04-01

    It has been hypothesized that Europa, one of the moons of Jupiter, has a large ocean underneath a thick layer of ice. In order to determine whether life exists, it has been proposed that an underwater glider (hydrobot) capable of propulsion could be sent to explore the vast ocean. In this research, we considered various smart materials to create a propulsion device inspired by dolphin tails. Dolphins are highly efficient and excellent gliders, which makes them the ideal candidate for ocean exploration. In order to select the best dolphin species, we began by reviewing literature and then utilized the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to compare the different species. Lagenorhynchus obliquidens (Pacific White-Sided Dolphin) was found to be the best choice for creating a bioinspired hydrobot. We then conducted literature review of various smart materials and using this knowledge constructed a hydrobot tail prototype. This prototype demonstrates that smart materials can be fashioned into suitable actuators to control a tail fashioned after a dolphin.

  7. Single-engine tail interference model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrier, Bobby L.

    1994-01-01

    The data presented in this contribution were obtained in the NASA Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. Multiple test entries were completed and the results have been completely reported in five NASA reports. The objective of the initial investigation was to determine the effect of empennage (tail) interference on the drag characteristics of an axisymmetric model with a single engine fighter aft-end with convergent divergent nozzles. Two nozzle power settings, dry and maximum afterburning, were investigated. Several empennage arrangements and afterbody modifications were investigated during the initial investigation. Subsequent investigations were used to determine the effects of other model variables including tail incidence, tail span, and nozzle shape. For the final investigation, extensive surface pressure instrumentation was added to the model in order to develop and understanding of the flow interactions associated with afterbody/empennage integration and also to provide data for code validation. Extensive computational analysis has been conducted on the staggered empennage configuration at a Mach number of 0.6 utilizing a three-dimensional Navier Stokes code. Most of the investigations were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.20 and at ratios of jet total pressure to free stream static pressure (nozzle pressure ratio) from 0.1 (jet off) to 8.0. Some angle of attack variation was obtained at jet off conditions.

  8. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Disease Limits Populations

    E-print Network

    Collinge, Sharon K.

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES Disease Limits Populations: Plague and Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs Jack F. Cully, Jr.,1­3, * Tammi L. Johnson,2,3, * Sharon K. Collinge,4,5 and Chris Ray4 Abstract Plague is an exotic in areas with a history of plague, as well as at two complexes that were located outside the distribution

  9. Passage of chronic wasting disease prion into transgenic mice expressing Rocky Mountain elk

    E-print Network

    Passage of chronic wasting disease prion into transgenic mice expressing Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus). Subsequently, the disease was diagnosed in black-tailed deer, Rocky Mountain elk (Williams & Young, 1982, 1992

  10. Active Vertical Tail Buffeting Alleviation on a Twin-Tail Fighter Configuration in a Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Robert W.

    1997-01-01

    A 1/6-scale F-18 wind-tunnel model was tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of the Actively Controlled Response Of Buffet-Affected Tails (ACROBAT) program to assess the use of active controls in reducing vertical tail buffeting. The starboard vertical tail was equipped with an active rudder and other aerodynamic devices, and the port vertical tail was equipped with piezoelectric actuators. The tunnel conditions were atmospheric air at a dynamic pressure of 14 psf. By using single-input-single-output control laws at gains well below the physical limits of the control effectors, the power spectral density of the root strains at the frequency of the first bending mode of the vertical tail was reduced by as much as 60 percent up to angles of attack of 37 degrees. Root mean square (RMS) values of root strain were reduced by as much as 19 percent. Stability margins indicate that a constant gain setting in the control law may be used throughout the range of angle of attack tested.

  11. Metal mobilization under alkaline conditions in ash-covered tailings.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jinmei; Alakangas, Lena; Wanhainen, Christina

    2014-06-15

    The aim of this study was to determine element mobilization and accumulation in mill tailings under alkaline conditions. The tailings were covered with 50 cm of fly ash, and above a sludge layer. The tailings were geochemically and mineralogically investigated. Sulfides, such as pyrrhotite, sphalerite and galena along with gangue minerals such as dolomite, calcite, micas, chlorite, epidote, Mn-pyroxene and rhodonite were identified in the unoxidized tailings. The dissolution of the fly ash layer resulted in a high pH (close to 12) in the underlying tailings. This, together with the presence of organic matter, increased the weathering of the tailings and mobilization of elements in the uppermost 47 cm of the tailings. All primary minerals were depleted, except quartz and feldspar which were covered by blurry secondary carbonates. Sulfide-associated elements such as Cd, Fe, Pb, S and Zn and silicate-associated elements such as Fe, Mg and Mn were released from the depletion zone and accumulated deeper down in the tailings where the pH decreased to circum-neutral. Sequential extraction suggests that Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, S and Zn were retained deeper down in the tailings and were mainly associated with the sulfide phase. Calcium, Cr, K and Ni released from the ash layer were accumulated in the uppermost depletion zone of the tailings. PMID:24681363

  12. State of the marine environment at Little Bay Arm, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, 10 years after a "do nothing" response to a mine tailings spill.

    PubMed

    Veinott, Geoff; Sylvester, Paul; Hamoutene, Dounia; Anderson, M Robin; Meade, Jim; Payne, Jerry

    2003-08-01

    In 1989, the tailings pond dam at the site of a former copper mine near Little Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, ruptured and tailings spilled into Little Bay Arm. At the time, no action was taken to arrest the flow of tailings or to mitigate the effects of the spill. To date, no action has been taken to repair the dam and tailings continue to flow into Little Bay Arm. As a result, the marine environment around Little Bay Arm has become contaminated with heavy metals from the tailings. However, the tailings are not the only source of heavy metals to the ecosystem. An old slag heap and what is presumably concentrated copper ore spilled during the loading of ore freighters, are also contributing to the ecosystem's metal load. Marine sediment throughout the Arm contained elevated concentrations of Cu, Ni, Zn, As, V, Co, and Mn. Beach material also contained elevated concentrations of metals with material near the slag heap being the most contaminated. At this site, Cu concentrations were in excess of 5000 mg kg(-1) dry weight, Zn greater than 3000 mg kg(-1) and Co concentrations exceeded 700 mg kg(-1). The highest concentrations of metals in biota were found near the slag heap, near the tailings dam breach, and at the site of the former concentrate loading dock. Despite elevated metal concentrations, the tailings and nearby sediment were not devoid of life. Bivalves and seaweed were abundant in the area and there were no obvious signs of tissue damage or disease in soft shell clams (Mya arenaria) living in the tailings. These clams may be suffering from chronic exposure to the tailings, however, evidence of lipid peroxidation in the clams was inconclusive. PMID:12948239

  13. Physiologic reference ranges for captive black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus).

    PubMed

    Keckler, M Shannon; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia F; Langham, Gregory L; Damon, Inger K; Karem, Kevin L; Carroll, Darin S

    2010-05-01

    The black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) is a member of the order Rodentia and the family Sciuridae. Ecologically, prairie dogs are a keystone species in prairie ecology. This species is used as an animal model for human gallbladder disease and diseases caused by infection with Clostridium difficile, Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, and most recently, Orthopoxvirus. Despite increasing numbers of prairie dogs used in research and kept as pets, few data are available on their baseline physiology in animal facility housing conditions. To establish baseline physiologic reference ranges, we designed a study using 18 wild-caught black-tailed prairie dogs. Telemetry data were analyzed to establish circadian rhythms for activity and temperature. In addition, hematologic and serum chemistry analyses were performed. Baseline measurements were used to establish the mean for each animal, which then were compiled and analyzed to determine the reference ranges. Here we present physiologic data on serum chemistry and hematology profiles, as well as weight, core body temperature, and daily activity patterns for black-tailed prairie dogs. These results reflect the use of multiple measurements from species- and age-matched prairie dogs and likely will be useful to ecologists, scientists interested in using this animal model in research, and veterinarians caring for pet prairie dogs. PMID:20587156

  14. Physiologic Reference Ranges for Captive Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus)

    PubMed Central

    Keckler, M Shannon; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia F; Langham, Gregory L; Damon, Inger K; Karem, Kevin L; Carroll, Darin S

    2010-01-01

    The black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) is a member of the order Rodentia and the family Sciuridae. Ecologically, prairie dogs are a keystone species in prairie ecology. This species is used as an animal model for human gallbladder disease and diseases caused by infection with Clostridium difficile, Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, and most recently, Orthopoxvirus. Despite increasing numbers of prairie dogs used in research and kept as pets, few data are available on their baseline physiology in animal facility housing conditions. To establish baseline physiologic reference ranges, we designed a study using 18 wild-caught black-tailed prairie dogs. Telemetry data were analyzed to establish circadian rhythms for activity and temperature. In addition, hematologic and serum chemistry analyses were performed. Baseline measurements were used to establish the mean for each animal, which then were compiled and analyzed to determine the reference ranges. Here we present physiologic data on serum chemistry and hematology profiles, as well as weight, core body temperature, and daily activity patterns for black-tailed prairie dogs. These results reflect the use of multiple measurements from species- and age-matched prairie dogs and likely will be useful to ecologists, scientists interested in using this animal model in research, and veterinarians caring for pet prairie dogs. PMID:20587156

  15. Dwarf Galaxies Swimming in Tidal Tails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This false-color infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows little 'dwarf galaxies' forming in the 'tails' of two larger galaxies that are colliding together. The big galaxies are at the center of the picture, while the dwarfs can be seen as red dots in the red streamers, or tidal tails. The two blue dots above the big galaxies are stars in the foreground.

    Galaxy mergers are common occurrences in the universe; for example, our own Milky Way galaxy will eventually smash into the nearby Andromeda galaxy. When two galaxies meet, they tend to rip each other apart, leaving a trail, called a tidal tail, of gas and dust in their wake. It is out of this galactic debris that new dwarf galaxies are born.

    The new Spitzer picture demonstrates that these particular dwarfs are actively forming stars. The red color indicates the presence of dust produced in star-forming regions, including organic molecules called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These carbon-containing molecules are also found on Earth, in car exhaust and on burnt toast, among other places. Here, the molecules are being heated up by the young stars, and, as a result, shine in infrared light.

    This image was taken by the infrared array camera on Spitzer. It is a 4-color composite of infrared light, showing emissions from wavelengths of 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange), and 8.0 microns (red). Starlight has been subtracted from the orange and red channels in order to enhance the dust features.

  16. TAIL-seq: genome-wide determination of poly(A) tail length and 3' end modifications.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hyeshik; Lim, Jaechul; Ha, Minju; Kim, V Narry

    2014-03-20

    Global investigation of the 3' extremity of mRNA (3'-terminome), despite its importance in gene regulation, has not been feasible due to technical challenges associated with homopolymeric sequences and relative paucity of mRNA. We here develop a method, TAIL-seq, to sequence the very end of mRNA molecules. TAIL-seq allows us to measure poly(A) tail length at the genomic scale. Median poly(A) length is 50-100 nt in HeLa and NIH 3T3 cells. Poly(A) length correlates with mRNA half-life, but not with translational efficiency. Surprisingly, we discover widespread uridylation and guanylation at the downstream of poly(A) tail. The U tails are generally attached to short poly(A) tails (<25 nt), while the G tails are found mainly on longer poly(A) tails (>40 nt), implicating their generic roles in mRNA stability control. TAIL-seq is a potent tool to dissect dynamic control of mRNA turnover and translational control, and to discover unforeseen features of RNA cleavage and tailing. PMID:24582499

  17. HERA Beam Tail Shaping by Tune Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montag, Christoph

    2003-12-01

    To study CP violation, the HERA-B experiment uses an internal wire target in the transverse halo of the stored HERA proton beam. Operational experience shows that the resulting interaction rates are extremely sensitive to tiny orbit jitter amplitudes. Various methods have been studied to stabilize these interaction rates by increasing diffusion in the transverse proton beam tails without affecting the luminosity at the electron-proton collider experiments ZEUS and H1. Tune modulation was found to be a promising method for this task. Experiments performed in recent years will be reported.

  18. A Farey tail for attractor black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Jan; Cheng, Miranda C. N.; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Manschot, Jan; Verlinde, Erik

    2006-11-01

    The microstates of 4d BPS black holes in IIA string theory compactified on a Calabi-Yau manifold are counted by a (generalized) elliptic genus of a (0,4) conformal field theory. By exploiting a spectral flow that relates states with different charges, and using the Rademacher formula, we find that the elliptic genus has an exact asymptotic expansion in terms of semi-classical saddle-points of the dual supergravity theory. This generalizes the known "Black Hole Farey Tail" of [1] to the case of attractor black holes.

  19. A Farey Tail for Attractor Black Holes

    E-print Network

    Jan de Boer; Miranda C. N. Cheng; Robbert Dijkgraaf; Jan Manschot; Erik Verlinde

    2008-04-22

    The microstates of 4d BPS black holes in IIA string theory compactified on a Calabi-Yau manifold are counted by a (generalized) elliptic genus of a (0,4) conformal field theory. By exploiting a spectral flow that relates states with different charges, and using the Rademacher formula, we find that the elliptic genus has an exact asymptotic expansion in terms of semi-classical saddle-points of the dual supergravity theory. This generalizes the known "Black Hole Farey Tail" of [1] to the case of attractor black holes.

  20. (de)Tails of Toda CFT

    E-print Network

    Nadav Drukker; Filippo Passerini

    2011-04-11

    The relation between the partition function of N=2 gauge theories in 4d and conformal Toda field theory in 2d is explained for the case where the 4d theory is a linear quiver with "quiver tails". That is when the 4d theory has gauge groups of different rank. We propose an identification of a subset of the states of Toda CFT which represent the Coulomb-branch parameters of the different rank gauge multiplets and study their three-point functions and descendants.

  1. Geochemistry of Metals from mine tailing in Taxco Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton-Bermea, O.; ARMIENTA, A.; BARRERA, M.; TALAVERA, O.; HERNANDEZ, E.

    2001-12-01

    The mining district of Taxco in Central Mexico has been exploited since prehispanic times. The processing of metals produced tailings with high heavy metal concentrations. Those tailings constitute a potential risk to the environment. To assess the effects of the mine tailing on water quality, tailing samples and water samples from rivers, wells and tailing effluents were collected and analyzed for Cu, Zn, As and Pb. Metals were analyzed with by ICP-MS. Tailing samples were leached with water to determine pH and sulfate concentration. The highest metal contents were found in the samples with a pH acid. As, Pb and Zn are over the drinking water standards in some of the water samples.

  2. 54. Photocopied August 1978. INTERIOR OF A TAIL PIT OR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Photocopied August 1978. INTERIOR OF A TAIL PIT OR TAIL RACE AT THE EAST END OF THE POWER HOUSE, SEPTEMBER 17, 1900. THE PRE-MOULDED BLOCKS WHICH FORMED THE SIDE WALLS AND THE ARCHED FOREBAY WALL ARE CLEARLY VISIBLE. THE MONOLITHIC FLOOR OF THE TAIL PIT, HOWEVER, HAS NOT YET BEEN POURED: NEITHER HAS THE MONOLITHIC ARCHED ROOF. (75) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  3. Utilization of gold tailings as an additive in Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Celik, Ozlem; Elbeyli, Iffet Yakar; Piskin, Sabriye

    2006-06-01

    Mine tailings are formed as an industrial waste during coal and ore mining and processing. In the investigated process, following the extraction of gold from the ore, the remaining tailings are subjected to a two-stage chemical treatment in order to destroy the free cyanide and to stabilize and coagulate heavy metals prior to discharge into the tailings pond. The aim of this study was the investigation of the feasibility of utilization of the tailings as an additive material in Portland cement production. For this purpose, the effects of the tailings on the compressive strength properties of the ordinary Portland cement were investigated. Chemical and physical properties, mineralogical composition, particle size distribution and microstructure of the tailings were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), particle size analyzer (Mastersizer) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Following the characterization of the tailings, cement mortars were prepared by intergrinding Portland cement with dried tailings. Composition of the cement clinkers were adjusted to contain 5, 15, 25% (wt/wt) dried tailings and also silica fume and fly ash samples (C and F type) were added to clinker in different ratios. The mortars produced with different amounts of tailings, silica fume, fly ashes and also mixtures of them were tested for compressive strength values after 2, 7, 28 and 56 days according to the European Standard (EN 196-1). The results indicated that gold tailings up to 25% in clinker could be beneficially used as an additive in Portland cement production. It is suggested that the gold tailings used in the cement are blended with silica fume and C-type fly ash to obtain higher compressive strength values. PMID:16784164

  4. Telomere G-tail Length is a Promising Biomarker Related to White Matter Lesions and Endothelial Dysfunction in Patients With Cardiovascular Risk: A Cross-sectional Study?

    PubMed Central

    Nezu, Tomohisa; Hosomi, Naohisa; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Anno, Kumiko; Aoki, Shiro; Shimamoto, Akira; Maruyama, Hirofumi; Hayashi, Tomonori; Matsumoto, Masayasu; Tahara, Hidetoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background The telomeric 3?-overhang (G-tail) length is essential for the biological effects of telomere dysfunction in vitro, but the association of length with aging and cardiovascular risk is unclear in humans. We investigated the association between the telomere G-tail length of leukocytes and cardiovascular risk, age-related white matter changes (ARWMCs), and endothelial function. Methods Patients with a history of cerebrovascular disease and comorbidity were enrolled (n = 102; 69 males and 33 females, 70.1 ± 9.2 years). Total telomere and telomere G-tail lengths were measured using a hybridization protection assay. Endothelial function was evaluated by ultrasound assessment of brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Findings Shortened telomere G-tail length was associated with age and Framingham risk score (P = 0.018 and P = 0.012). In addition, telomere G-tail length was positively correlated with FMD values (P = 0.031) and negatively with the severity of ARWMCs (P = 0.002). On multivariate regression analysis, telomere G-tail length was independently associated with FMD values (P = 0.022) and the severity of ARWMCs (P = 0.033), whereas total telomere length was not associated with these indicators. Interpretation Telomere G-tail length is associated with age and vascular risk factors, and might be superior to total telomere length as a marker of endothelial dysfunction and ARWMC severity. PMID:26425704

  5. A potential role for bat tail membranes in flight control.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, James D; Dimitriadis, Grigorios; Codd, Jonathan R; Nudds, Robert L

    2011-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests conducted on a model based on the long-eared bat Plecotus auritus indicated that the positioning of the tail membrane (uropatagium) can significantly influence flight control. Adjusting tail position by increasing the angle of the legs ventrally relative to the body has a two-fold effect; increasing leg-induced wing camber (i.e., locally increased camber of the inner wing surface) and increasing the angle of attack of the tail membrane. We also used our model to examine the effects of flying with and without a tail membrane. For the bat model with a tail membrane increasing leg angle increased the lift, drag and pitching moment (nose-down) produced. However, removing the tail membrane significantly reduced the change in pitching moment with increasing leg angle, but it had no significant effect on the level of lift produced. The drag on the model also significantly increased with the removal of the tail membrane. The tail membrane, therefore, is potentially important for controlling the level of pitching moment produced by bats and an aid to flight control, specifically improving agility and manoeuvrability. Although the tail of bats is different from that of birds, in that it is only divided from the wings by the legs, it nonetheless, may, in addition to its prey capturing function, fulfil a similar role in aiding flight control. PMID:21479137

  6. A Potential Role for Bat Tail Membranes in Flight Control

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, James D.; Dimitriadis, Grigorios; Codd, Jonathan R.; Nudds, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests conducted on a model based on the long-eared bat Plecotus auritus indicated that the positioning of the tail membrane (uropatagium) can significantly influence flight control. Adjusting tail position by increasing the angle of the legs ventrally relative to the body has a two-fold effect; increasing leg-induced wing camber (i.e., locally increased camber of the inner wing surface) and increasing the angle of attack of the tail membrane. We also used our model to examine the effects of flying with and without a tail membrane. For the bat model with a tail membrane increasing leg angle increased the lift, drag and pitching moment (nose-down) produced. However, removing the tail membrane significantly reduced the change in pitching moment with increasing leg angle, but it had no significant effect on the level of lift produced. The drag on the model also significantly increased with the removal of the tail membrane. The tail membrane, therefore, is potentially important for controlling the level of pitching moment produced by bats and an aid to flight control, specifically improving agility and manoeuvrability. Although the tail of bats is different from that of birds, in that it is only divided from the wings by the legs, it nonetheless, may, in addition to its prey capturing function, fulfil a similar role in aiding flight control. PMID:21479137

  7. Estimating Impact Forces of Tail Club Strikes by Ankylosaurid Dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Arbour, Victoria Megan

    2009-01-01

    Background It has been assumed that the unusual tail club of ankylosaurid dinosaurs was used actively as a weapon, but the biological feasibility of this behaviour has not been examined in detail. Ankylosaurid tail clubs are composed of interlocking vertebrae, which form the handle, and large terminal osteoderms, which form the knob. Methodology/Principal Findings Computed tomographic (CT) scans of several ankylosaurid tail clubs referred to Dyoplosaurus and Euoplocephalus, combined with measurements of free caudal vertebrae, provide information used to estimate the impact force of tail clubs of various sizes. Ankylosaurid tails are modeled as a series of segments for which mass, muscle cross-sectional area, torque, and angular acceleration are calculated. Free caudal vertebrae segments had limited vertical flexibility, but the tail could have swung through approximately 100° laterally. Muscle scars on the pelvis record the presence of a large M. longissimus caudae, and ossified tendons alongside the handle represent M. spinalis. CT scans showed that knob osteoderms were predominantly cancellous, which would have lowered the rotational inertia of the tail club and made it easier to wield as a weapon. Conclusions/Significance Large knobs could generate sufficient force to break bone during impacts, but average and small knobs could not. Tail swinging behaviour is feasible in ankylosaurids, but it remains unknown whether the tail was used for interspecific defense, intraspecific combat, or both. PMID:19707581

  8. Sorption of copper by vegetated copper-mine tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Coninck, A.; Karam, A.; Jaouich, A.

    2009-04-01

    The lixiviation of copper (Cu) from vegetated mine tailings may present an environmental risk because of the potential adverse effects it may pose to ground and surface water around mines. However, bonding of Cu to mine tailings can limit transfer to surrounding water. The main objective of the present study is to assess Cu sorption by cultivated Cu-mine tailings containing calcite (pH 7.7) as influenced by commercial peat moss-shrimp waste compost (PSC) and chelating solution. Fresh tailing and tailing that had been used in pot experiments were tested and compared. Samples (0.50 g) of tailings were equilibrated with 20 cm3 of 0.01 M CaCl2 solution containing 100 mg Cu dm-3, as CuCl2, for 72 h at room temperature. After equilibration period, the samples were centrifuged and filtered. Concentration of Cu in the equilibrium solution was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The sorption coefficient (Ks) was used to interpret the sorption data. The sorption experiment was replicated two times. Compost was the most effective organic amendment in enhancing Cu sorption. The Ks values were positively and significantly correlated with organic matter content and Cu associated with the organic fraction of tailing samples. The mineralogy and organic matter content can influence the sorption capacity of Cu-mine tailings. Calcite-containing mine tailings amended with PSC can be used to sorb Cu from chloride solutions.

  9. Review of fugitive dust control for uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.T.; Elmore, M.R.; Hartley, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    An immediate concern associated with the disposal of uranium mill tailings is that wind erosion of the tailings from an impoundment area will subsequently deposit tailings on surrounding areas. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is investigating the current technology for fugitive dust control. Different methods of fugitive dust control, including chemical, physical, and vegetative, have been used or tested on mill tailings piles. This report presents the results of a literature review and discussions with manufacturers and users of available stabilization materials and techniques.

  10. Evaluating Target Cold Spots By the use of Tail EUDs

    SciTech Connect

    Bortfeld, Thomas Craft, David; Dempsey, James F.; Halabi, Tarek; Romeijn, H. Edwin

    2008-07-01

    Purpose: To propose a new measure of target underdose that can be used in the evaluation and optimization of radiotherapy dose distributions. Methods and Materials: We compare various formulations of the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) and introduce a modification of existing EUD definitions, which we call tail EUD. Tail EUD is a measure of 'cold spots' below the prescription dose in the target dose distribution, using units of gray (Gy). We investigate the mathematical properties of various target EUD concepts, including tail EUD. We apply the tail EUD measure retrospectively to intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans from our plan database. We also use tail EUD as an optimization objective in the optimization of prostate, pancreas, and head-and-neck plans. Results: Tail EUD has desirable mathematical properties. In particular, it is convex and it leads to convex level sets (i.e., no local minima) if the EUD from which it is derived is concave. The tail EUD value is correlated with the subjective degree of target coverage. Constraining tail EUDs to a certain level in plan optimization leads to comparable target coverage in different plans and treatment sites. Conclusions: The newly introduced concept of tail EUD appears to be useful for both plan evaluation and optimization. In addition it can potentially be applied in the design of new clinical protocols.

  11. Exploring Stellar Populations in the Tidal Tails of NGC3256

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodruck, Michael; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis; Charlton, Jane C.

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy interactions can inject material into the intergalactic medium via violent gravitational dynamics, often visualized in tidal tails. The composition of these tails has remained a mystery, as previous studies have focused on detecting tidal features, rather than the composite material itself. With this in mind, we have developed an observing program using deep, multiband imaging to probe the chaotic regions of tidal tails in search for an underlying stellar population. NGC3256's Western and Eastern tidal tails serve as a case study for this new technique. Our results show median color values of u - g = 1.12 and r - i = 0.09 for the Western tail, and u - g = 1.29 and r - i = 0.21 for the Eastern tail, corresponding to ages of approximately 450 Myr and 900 Myr for the tails, respectively. A u - g color gradient is seen in the Western tail as well, running from 1.32 to 1.08 (~2000 Myr to 400 Myr), suggesting ages inside tidal tails can have significant variations.

  12. Chronic Wasting Disease Prions in Elk Antler Velvet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease of captive and free ranging white tailed deer, mule deer, Rocky Mountain elk and moose in the some parts of the United States and Canada. The presence of the disease has sharply curtailed movement of captive...

  13. Leverage Causes Fat Tails and Clustered Volatility

    E-print Network

    Thurner, Stefan; Geanakoplos, John

    2009-01-01

    We build a very simple model of leveraged asset purchases with margin calls. Investment funds use what is perhaps the most basic financial strategy, called 'value investing', i.e. systematically attempting to buy underpriced assets. When funds do not borrow, the price fluctuations of the asset are normally distributed and uncorrelated across time. All this changes when the funds are allowed to leverage, i.e. borrow from a bank, to purchase more assets than their wealth would otherwise permit. When funds use leverage, price fluctuations become heavy tailed and display clustered volatility, similar to what is observed in real markets. Previous explanations of fat tails and clustered volatility depended on 'irrational behavior', such as trend following. We show that the immediate cause of the increase in extreme risks in our model is the risk control policy of the banks: A prudent bank makes itself locally safer by putting a limit to leverage, so when a fund exceeds its leverage limit, it must partially repay it...

  14. A red-tailed hawk at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At KSC, a red-tailed hawk waits on top of a utility pole for the slightest movement in the grass below. It feeds mostly on small rodents. Ranging in height from 18 inches to 25 inches, the species has a stocky build with a whitish breast and rust-colored tail. It has a high-pitched descending scream with a hoarse quality. The hawk inhabits mainly deciduous forest and adjacent open country from Alaska and Nova Scotia south to Panama. KSC shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  15. A red-tailed hawk at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    From the top of a utility pole, a red-tailed hawk launches into flight, perhaps after spotting prey, typically a small rodent. Ranging in height from 18 inches to 25 inches, the species has a stocky build with a whitish breast and rust-colored tail. It has a high-pitched descending scream with a hoarse quality. The hawk inhabits mainly deciduous forest and adjacent open country from Alaska and Nova Scotia south to Panama. KSC shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  16. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 40(4), 2004, pp. 670681 Wildlife Disease Association 2004

    E-print Network

    Clayton, Dale H.

    670 Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 40(4), 2004, pp. 670­681 Wildlife Disease Association 2004 HAIR-LOSS.Bildfell@oregonstate.edu) ABSTRACT: A widespread hair-loss syndrome (HLS) has affected Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus., the first report of this genus of mites in BTD. We postulate that the hair loss is largely due to ectopar

  17. Effects of Tail Clipping on Larval Performance and Tail Regeneration Rates in the Near Eastern Fire Salamander, Salamandra infraimmaculata

    PubMed Central

    Segev, Ori; Polevikove, Antonina; Blank, Lior; Goedbloed, Daniel; Küpfer, Eliane; Gershberg, Anna; Koplovich, Avi; Blaustein, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Tail-tip clipping is a common technique for collecting tissue samples from amphibian larvae and adults. Surprisingly, studies of this invasive sampling procedure or of natural tail clipping – i.e., bites inflicted by predators including conspecifics - on the performance and fitness of aquatic larval stages of urodeles are scarce. We conducted two studies in which we assessed the effects of posterior tail clipping (~30 percent of tail) on Near Eastern fire salamander (Salamandra infraimmaculata) larvae. In a laboratory study, we checked regeneration rates of posterior tail-tip clipping at different ages. Regeneration rates were hump-shaped, peaking at the age of ~30 days and then decreasing. This variation in tail regeneration rates suggests tradeoffs in resource allocation between regeneration and somatic growth during early and advanced development. In an outdoor artificial pond experiment, under constant larval densities, we assessed how tail clipping of newborn larvae affects survival to, time to, and size at metamorphosis. Repeated measures ANOVA on mean larval survival per pond revealed no effect of tail clipping. Tail clipping had correspondingly no effect on larval growth and development expressed in size (mass and snout-vent length) at, and time to, metamorphosis. We conclude that despite the given variation in tail regeneration rates throughout larval ontogeny, clipping of 30% percent of the posterior tail area seems to have no adverse effects on larval fitness and survival. We suggest that future use of this imperative tool for the study of amphibian should take into account larval developmental stage during the time of application and not just the relative size of the clipped tail sample. PMID:26065683

  18. A proactive approach to sustainable management of mine tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edraki, Mansour; Baumgartl, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The reactive strategies to manage mine tailings i.e. containment of slurries of tailings in tailings storage facilities (TSF's) and remediation of tailings solids or tailings seepage water after the decommissioning of those facilities, can be technically inefficient to eliminate environmental risks (e.g. prevent dispersion of contaminants and catastrophic dam wall failures), pose a long term economic burden for companies, governments and society after mine closure, and often fail to meet community expectations. Most preventive environmental management practices promote proactive integrated approaches to waste management whereby the source of environmental issues are identified to help make a more informed decisions. They often use life cycle assessment to find the "hot spots" of environmental burdens. This kind of approach is often based on generic data and has rarely been used for tailings. Besides, life cycle assessments are less useful for designing operations or simulating changes in the process and consequent environmental outcomes. It is evident that an integrated approach for tailings research linked to better processing options is needed. A literature review revealed that there are only few examples of integrated approaches. The aim of this project is to develop new tailings management models by streamlining orebody characterization, process optimization and rehabilitation. The approach is based on continuous fingerprinting of geochemical processes from orebody to tailings storage facility, and benchmark the success of such proactive initiatives by evidence of no impacts and no future projected impacts on receiving environments. We present an approach for developing such a framework and preliminary results from a case study where combined grinding and flotation models developed using geometallurgical data from the orebody were constructed to predict the properties of tailings produced under various processing scenarios. The modelling scenarios based on the case study data provide the capacity to predict the composition of tailings and the resulting environmental management implications. For example, the type and content of clay minerals in tailings will affect the geotechnical stability and water recovery. Clay content will also influence decisions made for paste or thickened tailings and underground backfilling. It is possible by using an integrated assessment framework to evaluate more alternatives, including the production of additional saleable and benign streams, alternative tailings treatment and disposal, as well as options for reuse, recycling and pre-processing of existing tailings.

  19. Structural Characterization of the Bacteriophage T7 Tail Machinery*?

    PubMed Central

    Cuervo, Ana; Pulido-Cid, Mar; Chagoyen, Mónica; Arranz, Rocío; González-García, Verónica A.; Garcia-Doval, Carmela; Castón, José R.; Valpuesta, José M.; van Raaij, Mark J.; Martín-Benito, Jaime; Carrascosa, José L.

    2013-01-01

    Most bacterial viruses need a specialized machinery, called “tail,” to inject their genomes inside the bacterial cytoplasm without disrupting the cellular integrity. Bacteriophage T7 is a well characterized member of the Podoviridae family infecting Escherichia coli, and it has a short noncontractile tail that assembles sequentially on the viral head after DNA packaging. The T7 tail is a complex of around 2.7 MDa composed of at least four proteins as follows: the connector (gene product 8, gp8), the tail tubular proteins gp11 and gp12, and the fibers (gp17). Using cryo-electron microscopy and single particle image reconstruction techniques, we have determined the precise topology of the tail proteins by comparing the structure of the T7 tail extracted from viruses and a complex formed by recombinant gp8, gp11, and gp12 proteins. Furthermore, the order of assembly of the structural components within the complex was deduced from interaction assays with cloned and purified tail proteins. The existence of common folds among similar tail proteins allowed us to obtain pseudo-atomic threaded models of gp8 (connector) and gp11 (gatekeeper) proteins, which were docked into the corresponding cryo-EM volumes of the tail complex. This pseudo-atomic model of the connector-gatekeeper interaction revealed the existence of a common molecular architecture among viruses belonging to the three tailed bacteriophage families, strongly suggesting that a common molecular mechanism has been favored during evolution to coordinate the transition between DNA packaging and tail assembly. PMID:23884409

  20. Vertical tail buffeting of fighter aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, B. H. K.

    2000-04-01

    Vertical tail buffeting at high angles of attack is a phenomenon associated with the impact of vortical flows generated by the aircraft on the fins. This poses a serious problem for both single- and twin-tail fighter aircraft from the point of view of combat maneuverability and structural integrity. The research activities to understand the flow physics with an aim to alleviate buffet loads were quite intense during the period from the late 1970s to the early 1990s. Most of the investigations were carried out on the F/A-18 mainly because of two international programs involving countries that operate the F/A-18 in their air force. This review begins with a description of the water tunnel experiments showing some flow visualization results of the leading-edge extension (LEX) burst vortical flows. Wind tunnel studies on a 1/9 scale F/A-18 model in Australia, a 1/6.65 scale model in the United Kingdom, a 6% scale model in Canada, 12%, 16% and full-scale models in the United States are summarized. Scale effects can be deduced from the various sub- and full-scale models tested. Flight test results conducted on the High Alpha Research Vehicle in the United States and on an instrumented CF-18 test aircraft in Canada are presented. The accuracy of analytical methods utilizing wind tunnel data to predict buffet loads at flight conditions is discussed. The use of CFD to compute vertical fin buffeting is challenging and requires a large amount of computing power. A brief exposure to the methodology is given and results from the only available computational case study carried out by NASA Ames are compared with wind tunnel and flight test data. A short introduction to statistical non-stationary effects is given. Hysteresis effect of the LEX vortex burst on the buffet loads is discussed, and a statistical non-stationary buffet prediction method is outlined. This review provides a useful reference to the results collected from the High Alpha Technology Program, The Technical Cooperation Program and the International Follow-On Structural Test Project which together form an extremely valuable data base for vertical tail buffeting studies.

  1. Centrifugal modulation of the rat tail flick reflex evoked by graded noxious heating of the tail.

    PubMed

    Ness, T J; Gebhart, G F

    1986-10-29

    Centrifugal modulation from the midbrain, pons and medulla of the spinal nociceptive tail flick (TF) reflex evoked by graded noxious heating of the tail was studied in lightly pentobarbital-anaesthetized rats. In initial experiments, the relationship between the intensity of the noxious thermal stimulus and the TF latency was characterized. The thermal stimulus was provided by a lamp focused on the ventral surface of a rat's tail. Five different rates of heating of the tail were varied systematically by altering the voltage supplied to the lamp and were characterized using a thermocouple to measure the temperature of tissue exposed to the radiant heat. A linear stimulus-response function relating the inverse of the latency of the TF to the rate of heating of the tail was established. However, the mean cutaneous tissue temperature of the exposed tail at the time of the TF was found to be invariant and independent of the rate of heating. Focal electrical stimulation in the midbrain, pons and medulla modulated the TF reflex in two different ways, analogous to modulations of stimulus-response functions of single-cell recordings of spinal dorsal horn neurons. A Type I modulation, analogous to the parallel shift in response threshold seen in spinal dorsal horn neurons, was an absolute increase in the thermal threshold of the TF reflex. A Type II modulation, analogous to a change in slope or gain seen in spinal dorsal horn neurons, was a linear increase in the thermal threshold of the TF reflex as a function of the rate of heating. Type I modulations were produced by electrical stimulation in the ventromedial medulla (n. raphe magnus and n. reticularis gigantocellularis) and lateral periaqueductal gray of the midbrain. Type II modulations were produced by electrical stimulation in the dorsolateral pons, locus coeruleus-subcoeruleus and in the medial periaqueductal gray. This experimental approach has shown itself to be useful in the characterization of descending inhibition of nociception. Much simpler and less invasive than analogous spinal dorsal horn single cell electrophysiologic studies, it can be used to study the mechanisms of centrifugal modulation of nociceptive flexion reflexes and further establishes the utility of the lightly anaesthetized rat preparation for studies of nociception-antinociception. PMID:3779419

  2. Pattern of tick aggregation on mice: larger than expected distribution tail enhances the spread of tick-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ferreri, Luca; Giacobini, Mario; Bajardi, Paolo; Bertolotti, Luigi; Bolzoni, Luca; Tagliapietra, Valentina; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Rosà, Roberto

    2014-11-01

    The spread of tick-borne pathogens represents an important threat to human and animal health in many parts of Eurasia. Here, we analysed a 9-year time series of Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on Apodemus flavicollis mice (main reservoir-competent host for tick-borne encephalitis, TBE) sampled in Trentino (Northern Italy). The tail of the distribution of the number of ticks per host was fitted by three theoretical distributions: Negative Binomial (NB), Poisson-LogNormal (PoiLN), and Power-Law (PL). The fit with theoretical distributions indicated that the tail of the tick infestation pattern on mice is better described by the PL distribution. Moreover, we found that the tail of the distribution significantly changes with seasonal variations in host abundance. In order to investigate the effect of different tails of tick distribution on the invasion of a non-systemically transmitted pathogen, we simulated the transmission of a TBE-like virus between susceptible and infective ticks using a stochastic model. Model simulations indicated different outcomes of disease spreading when considering different distribution laws of ticks among hosts. Specifically, we found that the epidemic threshold and the prevalence equilibria obtained in epidemiological simulations with PL distribution are a good approximation of those observed in simulations feed by the empirical distribution. Moreover, we also found that the epidemic threshold for disease invasion was lower when considering the seasonal variation of tick aggregation. PMID:25393293

  3. Resistance to plague among black-tailed prairie dog populations.

    PubMed

    Rocke, Tonie E; Williamson, Judy; Cobble, Kacy R; Busch, Joseph D; Antolin, Michael F; Wagner, David M

    2012-02-01

    In some rodent species frequently exposed to plague outbreaks caused by Yersinia pestis, resistance to the disease has evolved as a population trait. As a first step in determining if plague resistance has developed in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), animals captured from colonies in a plague-free region (South Dakota) and two plague-endemic regions (Colorado and Texas) were challenged with Y. pestis at one of three doses (2.5, 250, or 2500 mouse LD50s). South Dakota prairie dogs were far more susceptible to plague than Colorado and Texas prairie dogs (p<0.001), with a mortality rate of nearly 100% over all doses. Colorado and Texas prairie dogs were quite similar in their response, with overall survival rates of 50% and 60%, respectively. Prairie dogs from these states were heterogeneous in their response, with some animals dying at the lowest dose (37% and 20%, respectively) and some surviving even at the highest dose (29% and 40%, respectively). Microsatellite analysis revealed that all three groups were distinct genetically, but further studies are needed to establish a genetic basis for the observed differences in plague resistance. PMID:21923261

  4. Resistance to Plague Among Black-Tailed Prairie Dog Populations

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Judy; Cobble, Kacy R.; Busch, Joseph D.; Antolin, Michael F.; Wagner, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In some rodent species frequently exposed to plague outbreaks caused by Yersinia pestis, resistance to the disease has evolved as a population trait. As a first step in determining if plague resistance has developed in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), animals captured from colonies in a plague-free region (South Dakota) and two plague-endemic regions (Colorado and Texas) were challenged with Y. pestis at one of three doses (2.5, 250, or 2500 mouse LD50s). South Dakota prairie dogs were far more susceptible to plague than Colorado and Texas prairie dogs (p<0.001), with a mortality rate of nearly 100% over all doses. Colorado and Texas prairie dogs were quite similar in their response, with overall survival rates of 50% and 60%, respectively. Prairie dogs from these states were heterogenous in their response, with some animals dying at the lowest dose (37% and 20%, respectively) and some surviving even at the highest dose (29% and 40%, respectively). Microsatellite analysis revealed that all three groups were distinct genetically, but further studies are needed to establish a genetic basis for the observed differences in plague resistance. PMID:21923261

  5. Resistance to plague among black-tailed prairie dog populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Williamson, Judy; Cobble, Kacy R.; Busch, Joseph D.; Antolin, Michael F.; Wagner, David M.

    2012-01-01

    In some rodent species frequently exposed to plague outbreaks caused by Yersinia pestis, resistance to the disease has evolved as a population trait. As a first step in determining if plague resistance has developed in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), animals captured from colonies in a plague-free region (South Dakota) and two plague-endemic regions (Colorado and Texas) were challenged with Y. pestis at one of three doses (2.5, 250, or 2500 mouse LD50s). South Dakota prairie dogs were far more susceptible to plague than Colorado and Texas prairie dogs (p<0.001), with a mortality rate of nearly 100% over all doses. Colorado and Texas prairie dogs were quite similar in their response, with overall survival rates of 50% and 60%, respectively. Prairie dogs from these states were heterogenous in their response, with some animals dying at the lowest dose (37% and 20%, respectively) and some surviving even at the highest dose (29% and 40%, respectively). Microsatellite analysis revealed that all three groups were distinct genetically, but further studies are needed to establish a genetic basis for the observed differences in plague resistance.

  6. Resistance to plague among black-tailed prairie dog populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Williamson, J.; Cobble, K.R.; Busch, J.D.; Antolin, M.F.; Wagner, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    In some rodent species frequently exposed to plague outbreaks caused by Yersinia pestis, resistance to the disease has evolved as a population trait. As a first step in determining if plague resistance has developed in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), animals captured from colonies in a plague-free region (South Dakota) and two plague-endemic regions (Colorado and Texas) were challenged with Y. pestis at one of three doses (2.5, 250, or 2500 mouse LD50s). South Dakota prairie dogs were far more susceptible to plague than Colorado and Texas prairie dogs (p<0.001), with a mortality rate of nearly 100% over all doses. Colorado and Texas prairie dogs were quite similar in their response, with overall survival rates of 50% and 60%, respectively. Prairie dogs from these states were heterogenous in their response, with some animals dying at the lowest dose (37% and 20%, respectively) and some surviving even at the highest dose (29% and 40%, respectively). Microsatellite analysis revealed that all three groups were distinct genetically, but further studies are needed to establish a genetic basis for the observed differences in plague resistance. ?? 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  7. 14 CFR 29.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tail-down landing conditions. 29.481 Section 29.481 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Tail-down landing conditions. (a) The rotorcraft is assumed to be in the maximum nose-up...

  8. 14 CFR 27.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tail-down landing conditions. 27.481 Section 27.481 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Tail-down landing conditions. (a) The rotorcraft is assumed to be in the maximum nose-up...

  9. Thresher sharks use tail-slaps as a hunting strategy.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Simon P; Turner, John R; Gann, Klemens; Silvosa, Medel; D'Urban Jackson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The hunting strategies of pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) were investigated at Pescador Island in the Philippines. It has long been suspected that thresher sharks hunt with their scythe-like tails but the kinematics associated with the behaviour in the wild are poorly understood. From 61 observations recorded by handheld underwater video camera between June and October 2010, 25 thresher shark shunting events were analysed. Thresher sharks employed tail-slaps to debilitate sardines at all times of day. Hunting events comprised preparation, strike, wind-down recovery and prey item collection phases, which occurred sequentially. Preparation phases were significantly longer than the others, presumably to enable a shark to windup a tail-slap. Tail-slaps were initiated by an adduction of the pectoral fins, a manoeuvre that changed a thresher shark's pitch promoting its posterior region to lift rapidly, and stall its approach. Tail-slaps occurred with such force that they may have caused dissolved gas to diffuse out of the water column forming bubbles. Thresher sharks were able to consume more than one sardine at a time, suggesting that tail-slapping is an effective foraging strategy for hunting schooling prey. Pelagic thresher sharks appear to pursue sardines opportunistically by day and night, which may make them vulnerable to fisheries. Alopiids possess specialist pectoral and caudal fins that are likely to have evolved, at least in part, for tail-slapping. The evidence is now clear; thresher sharks really do hunt with their tails. PMID:23874415

  10. 14 CFR 29.547 - Main and tail rotor structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01...false Main and tail rotor structure. 29.547 Section 29.547 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...547 Main and tail rotor structure. (a) A rotor...

  11. 14 CFR 29.547 - Main and tail rotor structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...false Main and tail rotor structure. 29.547 Section 29.547 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...547 Main and tail rotor structure. (a) A rotor...

  12. VIEW OF BOEING 737200 FUSELAGE FROM TOP LEVEL OF TAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BOEING 737-200 FUSELAGE FROM TOP LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK AND. A NEW SAFETY CABLE FROM THE TAIL DOCK WILL ALLOW INSPECTORS TO WALK UP AND DOWN THE FUSELAGE TO CHECK FOR CRACKS OR MISSING FASTENERS. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  13. 14 CFR 29.547 - Main and tail rotor structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (2) Any other critical condition expected in normal operation. (e) The rotor structure must be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Main and tail rotor structure. 29.547... Requirements § 29.547 Main and tail rotor structure. (a) A rotor is an assembly of rotating components,...

  14. 14 CFR 29.547 - Main and tail rotor structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (2) Any other critical condition expected in normal operation. (e) The rotor structure must be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Main and tail rotor structure. 29.547... Requirements § 29.547 Main and tail rotor structure. (a) A rotor is an assembly of rotating components,...

  15. 14 CFR 23.497 - Supplementary conditions for tail wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., the limit ground reaction obtained in the tail down landing condition is assumed to act up and aft.... (b) For the side load, a limit vertical ground reaction equal to the static load on the tail wheel, in combination with a side component of equal magnitude, is assumed. In addition— (1) If a swivel...

  16. 14 CFR 23.497 - Supplementary conditions for tail wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., the limit ground reaction obtained in the tail down landing condition is assumed to act up and aft.... (b) For the side load, a limit vertical ground reaction equal to the static load on the tail wheel, in combination with a side component of equal magnitude, is assumed. In addition— (1) If a swivel...

  17. 14 CFR 23.497 - Supplementary conditions for tail wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., the limit ground reaction obtained in the tail down landing condition is assumed to act up and aft.... (b) For the side load, a limit vertical ground reaction equal to the static load on the tail wheel, in combination with a side component of equal magnitude, is assumed. In addition— (1) If a swivel...

  18. 14 CFR 23.497 - Supplementary conditions for tail wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., the limit ground reaction obtained in the tail down landing condition is assumed to act up and aft.... (b) For the side load, a limit vertical ground reaction equal to the static load on the tail wheel, in combination with a side component of equal magnitude, is assumed. In addition— (1) If a swivel...

  19. PERPETUITIES WITH THIN TAILS CHARLES M. GOLDIE and RUDOLF GR

    E-print Network

    PERPETUITIES WITH THIN TAILS CHARLES M. GOLDIE and RUDOLF GR  UBEL Queen Mary & West#12;eld tail behaviour can arise. PERPETUITY; RANDOM AFFINE MAP; SELECTION ALGORITHM; STOCHASTIC DIFFER- ENCE in insurance mathematics, where it is called a perpetuity. The interpretation is that it represents the present

  20. Applied Probability Trust (31 August 2010) ON TAILS OF PERPETUITIES

    E-print Network

    Hitczenko, Pawel

    Applied Probability Trust (31 August 2010) ON TAILS OF PERPETUITIES PAWEl HITCZENKO, Drexel by Goldie and Gr¨ubel in 1996. Keywords: perpetuity, stochastic difference equation, tail behavior 2000-hand side and d = denotes the equality in distribution, is referred to as perpetuity and plays an important

  1. 6. UPPER NOTTINGHAM TAILING PILE LOOKING DOWN STREAM BED TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. UPPER NOTTINGHAM TAILING PILE LOOKING DOWN STREAM BED TO LOWER NOTTINGHAM. COLLAPSED BUILDINGS, 'B' AND 'C' AND TOP EDGE OF TAILING PILES ARE VISIBLE IN CENTRAL ARE OF PRINT. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHWEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Upper Nottingham Mine, West face of Florida Mountain, head of Jacobs Gulch, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  2. 3. VIEW OF EMPIRE STATE MINE WITH TAILING PILE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF EMPIRE STATE MINE WITH TAILING PILE IN BOTTOM LEFT AND COLLAPSED ADIT LOCATED BELOW DARK SHADOWS IN FAR RIGHT/LOWER THIRD. COLLAPSED BUILDING AND PARTIAL VIEW OF ORE CHUTE/BIN IS VISIBLE ON HILLSIDE ABOVE TAILINGS. CAMERA POINTED NORTH/NORTHWEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  3. Thresher Sharks Use Tail-Slaps as a Hunting Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Simon P.; Turner, John R.; Gann, Klemens; Silvosa, Medel; D'Urban Jackson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The hunting strategies of pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) were investigated at Pescador Island in the Philippines. It has long been suspected that thresher sharks hunt with their scythe-like tails but the kinematics associated with the behaviour in the wild are poorly understood. From 61 observations recorded by handheld underwater video camera between June and October 2010, 25 thresher shark shunting events were analysed. Thresher sharks employed tail-slaps to debilitate sardines at all times of day. Hunting events comprised preparation, strike, wind-down recovery and prey item collection phases, which occurred sequentially. Preparation phases were significantly longer than the others, presumably to enable a shark to windup a tail-slap. Tail-slaps were initiated by an adduction of the pectoral fins, a manoeuvre that changed a thresher shark's pitch promoting its posterior region to lift rapidly, and stall its approach. Tail-slaps occurred with such force that they may have caused dissolved gas to diffuse out of the water column forming bubbles. Thresher sharks were able to consume more than one sardine at a time, suggesting that tail-slapping is an effective foraging strategy for hunting schooling prey. Pelagic thresher sharks appear to pursue sardines opportunistically by day and night, which may make them vulnerable to fisheries. Alopiids possess specialist pectoral and caudal fins that are likely to have evolved, at least in part, for tail-slapping. The evidence is now clear; thresher sharks really do hunt with their tails. PMID:23874415

  4. Moth tails divert bat attack: evolution of acoustic deflection.

    PubMed

    Barber, Jesse R; Leavell, Brian C; Keener, Adam L; Breinholt, Jesse W; Chadwell, Brad A; McClure, Christopher J W; Hill, Geena M; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2015-03-01

    Adaptations to divert the attacks of visually guided predators have evolved repeatedly in animals. Using high-speed infrared videography, we show that luna moths (Actias luna) generate an acoustic diversion with spinning hindwing tails to deflect echolocating bat attacks away from their body and toward these nonessential appendages. We pit luna moths against big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and demonstrate a survival advantage of ? 47% for moths with tails versus those that had their tails removed. The benefit of hindwing tails is equivalent to the advantage conferred to moths by bat-detecting ears. Moth tails lured bat attacks to these wing regions during 55% of interactions between bats and intact luna moths. We analyzed flight kinematics of moths with and without hindwing tails and suggest that tails have a minimal role in flight performance. Using a robust phylogeny, we find that long spatulate tails have independently evolved four times in saturniid moths, further supporting the selective advantage of this anti-bat strategy. Diversionary tactics are perhaps more common than appreciated in predator-prey interactions. Our finding suggests that focusing on the sensory ecologies of key predators will reveal such countermeasures in prey. PMID:25730869

  5. Structural Conservation of the Myoviridae Phage Tail Sheath Protein Fold

    SciTech Connect

    Aksyuk, Anastasia A.; Kurochkina, Lidia P.; Fokine, Andrei; Forouhar, Farhad; Mesyanzhinov, Vadim V.; Tong, Liang; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2012-02-21

    Bacteriophage phiKZ is a giant phage that infects Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a human pathogen. The phiKZ virion consists of a 1450 {angstrom} diameter icosahedral head and a 2000 {angstrom}-long contractile tail. The structure of the whole virus was previously reported, showing that its tail organization in the extended state is similar to the well-studied Myovirus bacteriophage T4 tail. The crystal structure of a tail sheath protein fragment of phiKZ was determined to 2.4 {angstrom} resolution. Furthermore, crystal structures of two prophage tail sheath proteins were determined to 1.9 and 3.3 {angstrom} resolution. Despite low sequence identity between these proteins, all of these structures have a similar fold. The crystal structure of the phiKZ tail sheath protein has been fitted into cryo-electron-microscopy reconstructions of the extended tail sheath and of a polysheath. The structural rearrangement of the phiKZ tail sheath contraction was found to be similar to that of phage T4.

  6. NONINVASIVE, CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF RAT TAIL SKIN TEMPERATURE BY RADIOTELEMETRY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tail skin temperature (Tsk) can provide a wealth of information on the thermoregulatory status of the rat. Drug- and toxic-induced changes in body temperature are often mediated by vasodilation or constriction of blood flow to the tail and Tsk can generally be used as an indica...

  7. 14 CFR 23.497 - Supplementary conditions for tail wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the tail wheel and affected supporting structures, the following apply: (a) For the obstruction load... through the axle at 45 degrees. The shock absorber and tire may be assumed to be in their static positions. (b) For the side load, a limit vertical ground reaction equal to the static load on the tail...

  8. Gateways to Discovery: Cyberinfrastructure for the Long Tail of Science

    E-print Network

    and disciplines than just those at the peak of the HPC pyramid. Here we describe SDSC's Comet system, which expansive science community­ the "long tail of science". Comet will have a peak performance of 2 petaflop]. These are the users and communities that we refer to as the "long tail of science". SDSC's Comet system, scheduled

  9. APPLICATION FOR APPROVAL OF CONSTRUCTION PION RIDGE TAILINGS FACILITIES

    E-print Network

    Radon Flux Calculations by Golder Associates Inc. Attachment 3 Tailings Cell Design Report, Piñon Ridge, and provides better control of radon emissions by maintaining the tailings in a saturated state. Work Practice at landfills with large equipment working within lined areas and unsaturated materials exposed to the elements

  10. Management and Conservation Immobilization of White-Tailed Deer With

    E-print Network

    under anesthesia were within normal ranges for white-tailed deer; however, initial temperature rate declined (b anesthesia. Our results indicate that TKX may be useful for chemically Society. KEY WORDS anesthesia, ketamine, Odocoileus virginianus, telazol, tolazoline, white-tailed deer

  11. Nonlinear production of suprathermal tails in auroral electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, D. L.; Pongratz, M.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1976-01-01

    New rocket data on auroral electron energy spectra are presented. Two regions of the aurora are sharply defined: the peak energy region, called the beam, and a strongly altitude-dependent tail of slowed-down secondary and backscattered electrons. It is shown that the oscillating two-stream instability described by Papadopoulos and Coffey (1974) accounts for the observed features of the tail.

  12. Research Article Spread of Plague Among Black-Tailed Prairie

    E-print Network

    Sandercock, Brett K.

    Research Article Spread of Plague Among Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs Is Associated With Colony Spatial Sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) is an exotic pathogen that is highly virulent in black-tailed prairie investigated colony spatial characteristics that may influence inter-colony transmission of plague at 3 prairie

  13. Adaptive Suction and Blowing for Twin-Tail Buffet Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Yang, Zhi

    1999-01-01

    Adaptive active flow control for twin-tail buffet alleviation is investigated. The concept behind this technique is to place control ports on the tail outer and inner surfaces with flow suction or blowing applied through these ports in order to minimize the pressure difference across the tail. The suction or blowing volume flow rate from each port is proportional to the pressure difference across the tail at this location. A parametric study of the effects of the number and location of these ports on the buffet response is carried out. The computational model consists of a sharp-edged delta wing of aspect ratio one and swept-back flexible twin tail with taper ratio of 0.23. This complex multidisciplinary problem is solved sequentially using three sets of equations for the fluid flow, aeroelastic response and grid deformation, using a dynamic multi-block grid structure. The computational model is pitched at 30 deg angle of attack. The freestream Mach number and Reynolds number are 0.3 and 1.25 million, respectively. The model is investigated for the inboard position of the twin tails, which corresponds to a separation distance between the twin tails of 33% of the wing span. Comparison of the time history and power spectral density responses of the tails for various distributions of the control ports are presented and discussed.

  14. Lifshitz tails for the Interband Light Absorption Coefficient

    E-print Network

    W. Kirsch; M. Krishna

    2009-03-31

    In this paper we consider the Interband Light Absorption Coefficient for various models. We show that at the lower and upper edges of the spectrum the Lifshitz tails behaviour of the density of states implies similar behaviour for the ILAC at appropriate energies. The Lifshitz tails property is also exhibited at some points corresponding to the internal band edges of the density of states.

  15. 106. Photocopied August 1978. EXTENSION OF TAIL PIT WALLS, APRIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    106. Photocopied August 1978. EXTENSION OF TAIL PIT WALLS, APRIL 28, 1917. THE TIMBERWORK IN THE FOREGROUND WAS USED AS A COMBINATION COFFER DAM AND FORM FOR POURING THE CONCRETE TAIL RACE WALL EXTENSION. IN THE BACKGROUND ALONG THE POWER HOUSE SEVERAL COMPLETED WALL EXTENSIONS CAN BE SEEN DIMLY. (787) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  16. 12. Credit PED. View of tail race and dam showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Credit PED. View of tail race and dam showing dumping of construction rubble into river bed by rail car; and preparations for pouring a concrete cap onto tail race wall. Photo c. 1909. - Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Plant, Potomac River, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV

  17. Moth tails divert bat attack: Evolution of acoustic deflection

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Jesse R.; Leavell, Brian C.; Keener, Adam L.; Breinholt, Jesse W.; Chadwell, Brad A.; McClure, Christopher J. W.; Hill, Geena M.; Kawahara, Akito Y.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptations to divert the attacks of visually guided predators have evolved repeatedly in animals. Using high-speed infrared videography, we show that luna moths (Actias luna) generate an acoustic diversion with spinning hindwing tails to deflect echolocating bat attacks away from their body and toward these nonessential appendages. We pit luna moths against big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and demonstrate a survival advantage of ?47% for moths with tails versus those that had their tails removed. The benefit of hindwing tails is equivalent to the advantage conferred to moths by bat-detecting ears. Moth tails lured bat attacks to these wing regions during 55% of interactions between bats and intact luna moths. We analyzed flight kinematics of moths with and without hindwing tails and suggest that tails have a minimal role in flight performance. Using a robust phylogeny, we find that long spatulate tails have independently evolved four times in saturniid moths, further supporting the selective advantage of this anti-bat strategy. Diversionary tactics are perhaps more common than appreciated in predator–prey interactions. Our finding suggests that focusing on the sensory ecologies of key predators will reveal such countermeasures in prey. PMID:25730869

  18. Sulfur Biogeochemistry of Athabasca Oilsands Composite Tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, L. A.; Kendra, K. E.

    2013-12-01

    Oil sands tailings are important, globally relevant, S reservoirs, known to contain active and diverse microbial communities. As evidenced by increasing S emissions from the oil sands, active biogeochemical S cycling within composite tailings (CT, a mixture of tailings, post-processed sand and gypsum, used for dry reclamation), is likely; however the S biogeochemistry of these residues has not been investigated to date. With surface mining of Alberta's oil sands spanning over 142,000 square km and accelerated production, these tailings-based landscapes will become increasingly prevalent with the potential for significant environmental impacts. The objectives here, were thus to characterize depth dependent S biogeochemistry of a 40 meter CT deposit (Fort McMurray, AB, CANADA). Drill samples were collected in December of 2012 from 5 depths spanning 36 m in the CT deposit, for geochemical, metagenomic and functional enrichment analyses. Results establish widespread microbial S biogeochemical cycling within the CT deposit. Porewater H2S was detected extensively throughout the deposit with background levels ranging from 14-23 ?M and a concentrated pocket of 300 ?M occurring at depth. Porewater Fe(II) (1-40 ?M) was detected only within surficial depth samples. Current Fe(II) concentrations are not sufficient to sequester the levels of H2S generated by CT, indicating CT may become a net source of S emissions, as generated H2S at depth migrates to the surface, in untreated CT deposits. Metagenomic (454 pyrosequencing) characterization revealed highly diverse CT microbial communities, with 21 different phyla encountered overall and 1/3 of these presenting as candidate divisions. The cultivation independent identification of several known IRB and sulphate (SRB) reducing bacteria within these communities was consistent with observed positive growth in IRB and SRB functional metabolic enrichments. Furthermore, two depth dependent structurally distinct communities emerged: a surficial CT zone of Fe(III) reduction and an underlying zone of sulphate reduction, from multivariate statistical analyses of phylogenetic data (UniFrac http://bmf.colorado.edu/unifrac). The emergence of a distinct IRB surficial zone, despite ~65% of the total bacterial community putatively having the capacity for Fe(III) reduction over the entire deposit depth and evident and increasing Fe(III) sources down core, suggests limitation of Fe(III) reducing bacteria (IRB) through some other factor. Indeed UniFrac analyses identified that the differentiation in microbial communities occurring in these Fe and S zones was driven by environmental parameters of DOC, ORP and salinity; revealing that IRB may be unable to access the more complex OC constituents of these materials. Pilot reclamation for CT is currently focusing on capping CT with a freshwater fen, which may provide a more labile OC source for CT associated IRB, potentially stimulating greater H2S sequestration through FeS formation. These processes will be evaluated in the on-going assessment of S biogeochemistry within untreated and treated CT as pilot reclamation proceeds.

  19. The Logarithmic Tail of Néel Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melcher, Christof

    We study the multiscale problem of a parametrized planar 180° rotation of magnetization states in a thin ferromagnetic film. In an appropriate scaling and when the film thickness is comparable to the Bloch line width, the underlying variational principle has the form where the reduced stray-field operator Q approximates (-?)1/2 as the quality factor Q tends to zero. We show that the associated Néel wall profile u exhibits a very long logarithmic tail. The proof relies on limiting elliptic regularity methods on the basis of the associated Euler-Lagrange equation and symmetrization arguments on the basis of the variational principle. Finally we study the renormalized limit behavior as Q tends to zero.

  20. Tailings decommissioning at Wismut GmbH

    SciTech Connect

    Neudert, A.

    1993-12-31

    Uranium ore was processed in East Germany by SDAG Wismut until 1990. The operation was aimed at producing yellow cake. Uranium was the only resource. Uranium recovery was about 90%. Spoils from the hydrometallurgical processes were dumped in tailings disposal facilities. Besides residual uranium, these spoils also contain all daughter nuclides of uranium 235 and uranium 238. Other relevant contaminants are arsenic, sulfates, and chlorides. Pyrite is also present. Preparations for rehabilitation came only under way when uranium milling in East Germany was closed down. Until then no pertinent engineering operations had been undertaken and no bonds posted. Rehabilitation will be carried out according to current German legislation and regulations, recommendations issued by the Commission on Radiological Protection of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, and regulatory requirements. From case to case USEPA recommendations are used by way of comparison as noncommittal guidelines.

  1. The Mechanical Properties of Rat Tail Tendon

    PubMed Central

    Rigby, Bernard J.; Hirai, Nishio; Spikes, John D.; Eyring, Henry

    1959-01-01

    The load-strain and stress-relaxation behavior of wet rat tail tendon has been examined with respect to the parameters strain, rate of straining, and temperature. It is found that this mechanical behavior is reproducible after resting the tendon for a few minutes after each extension so long as the strain does not exceed about 4 per cent. If this strain is exceeded, the tendon becomes progressively easier to extend but its length still returns to the original value after each extension. Extensions of over 35 per cent can be reached in this way. Temperature has no effect upon the mechanical behavior over the range 0–37°C. Just above this temperature, important changes take place in the mechanical properties of the tendon which may have biological significance. The application of the techniques used here to studies of connective tissue disorders is suggested. Some of the mechanical properties of tendon have been interpreted with a simple model. PMID:19873525

  2. Accelerated aging tests of liners for uranium mill tailings disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, S.M.; Buelt, J.L.; Hale, V.Q.

    1981-11-01

    This document describes the results of accelerated aging tests to determine the long-term effectiveness of selected impoundment liner materials in a uranium mill tailings environment. The study was sponsored by the US Department of Energy under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project. The study was designed to evaluate the need for, and the performance of, several candidate liners for isolating mill tailings leachate in conformance with proposed Environmental Protection Agency and Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements. The liners were subjected to conditions known to accelerate the degradation mechanisms of the various liners. Also, a test environment was maintained that modeled the expected conditions at a mill tailings impoundment, including ground subsidence and the weight loading of tailings on the liners. A comparison of installation costs was also performed for the candidate liners. The laboratory testing and cost information prompted the selection of a catalytic airblown asphalt membrane and a sodium bentonite-amended soil for fiscal year 1981 field testing.

  3. Numerical investigation of tail buffet on F-18 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizk, Yehia M.; Guruswamy, Guru P.; Gee, Ken

    1992-01-01

    Numerical investigation of vortex induced tail buffet is conducted on the F-18 aircraft at high angles of attack. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are integrated using a time-accurate, implicit procedure. A generalized overset zonal grid scheme is used to decompose the computational space around the complete aircraft with faired-over inlet. A weak coupling between the aerodynamics and structures is assumed to compute the structural oscillation of the flexible vertical tail. Time-accurate computations of the turbulent flow around the F-18 aircraft at 30 degrees angle of attack show the surface and off-surface flowfield details, including the unsteadiness created by the vortex burst and its interaction with the vertical twin tail which causes the tail buffet. The effect of installing a LEX fence on modifying the vortex structure upstream of the tail is also examined.

  4. Wu-Tou Decoction Inhibits Chronic Inflammatory Pain in Mice: Participation of TRPV1 and TRPA1 Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Liu, Chunfang; Wan, Hongye; Sun, Danni; Xu, Tengfei; Yang, Yue; Qu, Yakun; Xu, Ying; Jing, Xianghong; Liu, Junling; Chen, Shuping; Liu, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Wu-tou decoction (WTD) is a classic traditional Chinese medicine formula and has been used effectively to treat joint diseases clinically. Previous reports indicated that WTD possesses anti-inflammatory activity; however, its actions on pain have not been clarified. Here, we investigated the antinociceptive activity of WTD in CFA-induced mice, and its possible mechanism of the action associated with transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels was also explored. Our results showed that 1.58, 3.15, and 6.30?g/kg WTD significantly attenuated mechanical, cold, and heat hypersensitivities. Moreover, WTD effectively inhibited spontaneous nociceptive responses to intraplantar injections of capsaicin and cinnamaldehyde, respectively. WTD also effectively suppressed jumping and wet-dog-shake behaviors to intraperitoneal injection of icilin. Additionally, WTD significantly reduced protein expression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in dorsal root ganglia and skins of injured paw. Collectively, our data demonstrate firstly that WTD exerts antinociceptive activity in inflammatory conditions by attenuating mechanical, cold, and heat hypersensitivities. This antinociceptive effect may result in part from inhibiting the activities of TRPV1, TRPA1, and TRPM8, and the suppression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 protein by WTD was also highly effective. These findings suggest that WTD might be an attractive and suitable therapeutic agent for the management of chronic inflammatory pain. PMID:25839032

  5. Radon emanation from backfilled mill tailings in underground uranium mine.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Patitapaban; Mishra, Devi Prasad; Panigrahi, Durga Charan; Jha, Vivekananda; Patnaik, R Lokeswara; Sethy, Narendra Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Coarser mill tailings used as backfill to stabilize the stoped out areas in underground uranium mines is a potential source of radon contamination. This paper presents the quantitative assessment of radon emanation from the backfilled tailings in Jaduguda mine, India using a cylindrical accumulator. Some of the important parameters such as (226)Ra activity concentration, bulk density, bulk porosity, moisture content and radon emanation factor of the tailings affecting radon emanation were determined in the laboratory. The study revealed that the radon emanation rate of the tailings varied in the range of 0.12-7.03 Bq m(-2) s(-1) with geometric mean of 1.01 Bq m(-2) s(-1) and geometric standard deviation of 3.39. An increase in radon emanation rate was noticed up to a moisture saturation of 0.09 in the tailings, after which the emanation rate gradually started declining with saturation due to low diffusion coefficient of radon in the saturated tailings. Radon emanation factor of the tailings varied in the range of 0.08-0.23 with the mean value of 0.21. The emanation factor of the tailings with moisture saturation level over 0.09 was found to be about three times higher than that of the absolutely dry tailings. The empirical relationship obtained between (222)Rn emanation rate and (226)Ra activity concentration of the tailings indicated a significant positive linear correlation (r = 0.95, p < 0.001). This relationship may be useful for quick prediction of radon emanation rate from the backfill material of similar nature. PMID:24412814

  6. Poly(A)-tail profiling reveals an embryonic switch in translational control

    E-print Network

    Subtelny, Alexander Orest

    Poly(A) tails enhance the stability and translation of most eukaryotic messenger RNAs, but difficulties in globally measuring poly(A)-tail lengths have impeded greater understanding of poly(A)-tail function. Here we describe ...

  7. Distal pancreatectomy with celiac axis resection for pancreatic body and tail cancer invading celiac axis

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Hyemin; Kim, Sang Geol; Ha, Heontak; Choi, Young Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Pancreatic body/tail cancer often involves the celiac axis (CA) and it is regarded as an unresectable disease. To treat the disease, we employed distal pancreatectomy with en bloc celiac axis resection (DP-CAR) and reviewed our experiences. Methods We performed DP-CAR for seven patients with pancreatic body/tail cancer involving the CA. The indications of DP-CAR initially included tumors with definite invasion of CA and were later expanded to include borderline resectable disease. To determine the efficacy of DP-CAR, the clinico-pathological data of patients who underwent DP-CAR were compared to both distal pancreatectomy (DP) group and no resection (NR) group. Results The R0 resection rate was 71.4% and was not statistically different compared to DP group. The operative time (P = 0.018) and length of hospital stay (P = 0.022) were significantly longer in DP-CAR group but no significant difference was found in incidence of the postoperative pancreatic fistula compared to DP group. In DP-CAR group, focal hepatic infarction and transient hepatopathy occurred in 1 patient and 3 patients, respectively. No mortality occurred in DP-CAR group. The median survival time (MST) was not statistically different compared to DP group. However, the MST of DP-CAR group was significantly longer than that of NR group (P < 0.001). Conclusion In our experience, DP-CAR was safe and offered high R0 resection rate for patients with pancreatic body/tail cancer with involvement of CA. The effect on survival of DP-CAR is comparable to DP and better than that of NR. However, the benefits need to be verified by further studies in the future. PMID:26446424

  8. Reduced West Nile Virus Transmission Around Communal Roosts of Great-Tailed Grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus).

    PubMed

    Komar, Nicholas; Colborn, James M; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Delorey, Mark; Biggerstaff, Brad; Damian, Dan; Smith, Kirk; Townsend, John

    2015-03-01

    West Nile virus has caused several outbreaks among humans in the Phoenix metropolitan area (Arizona, southwest USA) within the last decade. Recent ecologic studies have implicated Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tarsalis as the mosquito vectors and identified three abundant passerine birds-great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus), house sparrow (Passer domesticus), and house finch (Haemorhous mexicanus)-as key amplifiers among vertebrates. Nocturnal congregations of certain species have been suggested as critical for late summer West Nile virus amplification. We evaluated the hypothesis that house sparrow (P. domesticus) and/or great-tailed grackle (Q. mexicanus) communal roost sites (n = 22 and n = 5, respectively) in a primarily suburban environment were spatially associated with West Nile virus transmission indices during the 2010 outbreak of human neurological disease in metropolitan Phoenix. Spatial associations between human case residences and communal roosts were non-significant for house sparrows, and were negative for great-tailed grackle. Several theories that explain these observations are discussed, including the possibility that grackle communal roosts are protective. PMID:25480320

  9. STAR CLUSTERS IN THE TIDAL TAILS OF INTERACTING GALAXIES: CLUSTER POPULATIONS ACROSS A VARIETY OF TAIL ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Mullan, B.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Lee, K. H.; Charlton, J. C.; Gronwall, C.; Hunsberger, S.; Palma, C.; Kepley, A. A.; Johnson, K. E.; Knierman, K.; Bastian, N.; Chandar, R.; Durrell, P. R.; Elmegreen, D.; English, J.; Gallagher, S. C.; Hibbard, J. E.; Maybhate, A.; Trancho, G.

    2011-04-20

    We have searched for compact stellar structures within 17 tidal tails in 13 different interacting galaxies using F606W- and F814W-band images from the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on the Hubble Space Telescope. The sample of tidal tails includes a diverse population of optical properties, merging galaxy mass ratios, H I content, and ages. Combining our tail sample with Knierman et al., we find evidence of star clusters formed in situ with M{sub V} < -8.5 and V - I < 2.0 in 10 of 23 tidal tails; we are able to identify cluster candidates to M{sub V} = -6.5 in the closest tails. Three tails offer clear examples of 'beads on a string' star formation morphology in V - I color maps. Two tails present both tidal dwarf galaxy candidates and cluster candidates. Statistical diagnostics indicate that clusters in tidal tails may be drawn from the same power-law luminosity functions (with logarithmic slopes {approx}-2 to -2.5) found in quiescent spiral galaxies and interiors of interacting systems. We find that the tail regions with the largest number of observable clusters are relatively young ({approx}<250 Myr old) and bright (V {approx}< 24 mag arcsec{sup -2}), probably attributed to the strong bursts of star formation in interacting systems soon after periapse. Otherwise, we find no statistical difference between cluster-rich and cluster-poor tails in terms of many observable characteristics, though this analysis suffers from complex, unresolved gas dynamics and projection effects.

  10. Cassini in Titan's tail: CAPS observations of plasma escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, A. J.; Wellbrock, A.; Lewis, G. R.; Arridge, C. S.; Crary, F. J.; Young, D. T.; Thomsen, M. F.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Johnson, R. E.; Szego, K.; Bebesi, Z.; Jones, G. H.

    2012-05-01

    We present observations of CAPS electron and ion spectra during Titan distant tail crossings at 5,000-10,000 km altitude by the Cassini spacecraft. In common with closer tail encounters, we identify ionospheric plasma in the tail. Some of the electron spectra indicate a direct magnetic connection to Titan's dayside ionosphere due to the presence of ionospheric photoelectrons. Ion observations reveal heavy (m/q˜ 16 and 28) and light (m/q = 1-2) ion populations streaming into the tail. Using the distant tail encounters T9, T75 and T63, we estimate total plasma loss rates from Titan via this process of (4.2, 0.96 and 2.3) × 1024 ions s-1 respectively for the three encounters, values which are in agreement with some simulations but slightly lower than earlier estimates based on non-differential techniques. Using the mass-separated data, this corresponds to mass loss rates of (8.9, 1.6, 4.0) × 1025 amu s-1 for T9, T75 and T63 respectively, an average loss rate of ˜7 tonnes per Earth day. Remarkably, all of the tail encounters studied here indicate a split tail feature, indicating that this may be a common feature in Titan's interaction with Saturn's magnetosphere.

  11. Star formation in shocked cluster spirals and their tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roediger, E.; Brüggen, M.; Owers, M. S.; Ebeling, H.; Sun, M.

    2014-09-01

    Recent observations of ram pressure stripped spiral galaxies in clusters revealed details of the stripping process, i.e. the truncation of all interstellar medium phases and of star formation (SF) in the disc, and multiphase star-forming tails. Some stripped galaxies, in particular in merging clusters, develop spectacular star-forming tails, giving them a jellyfish-like appearance. In merging clusters, merger shocks in the intracluster medium (ICM) are thought to have overrun these galaxies, enhancing the ambient ICM pressure and thus triggering SF, gas stripping, and tail formation. We present idealized hydrodynamical simulations of this scenario, including standard descriptions for SF and stellar feedback. To aid the interpretation of recent and upcoming observations, we focus on particular structures and dynamics in SF patterns in the remaining gas disc and in the near tails, which are easiest to observe. The observed jellyfish morphology is qualitatively reproduced for, both, face-on and edge-on stripping. In edge-on stripping, the interplay between the ICM wind and the disc rotation leads to asymmetries along the ICM wind direction and perpendicular to it. The apparent tail is still part of a highly deformed gaseous and young stellar disc. In both geometries, SF takes place in knots throughout the tail, such that the stars in the tails show no ordered age gradients. Significant SF enhancement in the disc occurs only at radii where the gas will be stripped in due course.

  12. Dust tail striae: Lessons from recent comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, G.; Battams, K.

    2014-07-01

    Striae are features rarely observed in cometary dust tails. These are near-linear structures that, unlike synchronic bands, are not aligned with the nucleus position, and have only been clearly observed in a few high-production-rate comets, including C/1957 P1 (Mrkos), C/1962 C1 (Seki-Lines), C/1975 V1 (West), and C/1996 O1 (Hale-Bopp). The formation of striae is difficult to explain, but several scenarios for their creation have been proposed [1]. These include that of Sekanina & Farrell [2], who proposed that striae are the result of a two-step fragmentation process, where parent particles are released from the nucleus which, after a delay, all fragment over a very short period of time. The fragmentation products then separate according to their ? parameter, i.e., the degree to which the particles are influenced by radiation pressure force compared to gravitational force, to form the linear structures we observe as striae. Although there are issues with identifying a process through which many particles will collectively delay their break-up and then fragment within a short period, this scenario does fit many observations well [3]. Other proposed scenarios are more complex, including the formation of striae through a continuous cascade of fragmentation to ever smaller particle sizes [4]. As these formation scenarios result in different distributions of dust-particle sizes within individual striae, the processes occurring may therefore be identifiable if these distributions can be inferred. If the fragmentation processes taking place can be identified, then, in turn, more could be learnt about the structure of the original dust grains that go on to form these sometimes beautiful tail structures. Here, we present the analysis of striae in several comets observed from space by the SOHO LASCO coronagraph [5] and SECCHI heliospheric imagers aboard the twin STEREO spacecraft [6]. The comets studied are C/2002 V1 (NEAT) in January 2002, C/2006 P1 (McNaught) during its perihelion passage in January-February 2007, and the complex striae of C/2011 L4 (Pan-STARRS) in March 2013. We simulate the formation of individual striae in these comets, and successfully reproduce many aspects of their morphology and dynamics. The results are compared to those of other striae models, and we attempt to gauge the influence on non-gravitational forces acting on these comets' dust populations. The inferences that can be drawn regarding the comets' dust populations are discussed.

  13. Experimental oral transmission of chronic wasting disease to reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or TSE of wild and farmed cervid ruminants in the North America, including white tailed, black tailed and mule deer, Rocky Mountain elk and Shira's moose. CWD, like the other TSEs, is associated with accumulation of an abnorm...

  14. From dinosaurs to birds: a tail of evolution

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A particularly critical event in avian evolution was the transition from long- to short-tailed birds. Primitive bird tails underwent significant alteration, most notably reduction of the number of caudal vertebrae and fusion of the distal caudal vertebrae into an ossified pygostyle. These changes, among others, occurred over a very short evolutionary interval, which brings into focus the underlying mechanisms behind those changes. Despite the wealth of studies delving into avian evolution, virtually nothing is understood about the genetic and developmental events responsible for the emergence of short, fused tails. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the signaling pathways and morphological events that contribute to tail extension and termination and examine how mutations affecting the genes that control these pathways might influence the evolution of the avian tail. To generate a list of candidate genes that may have been modulated in the transition to short-tailed birds, we analyzed a comprehensive set of mouse mutants. Interestingly, a prevalent pleiotropic effect of mutations that cause fused caudal vertebral bodies (as in the pygostyles of birds) is tail truncation. We identified 23 mutations in this class, and these were primarily restricted to genes involved in axial extension. At least half of the mutations that cause short, fused tails lie in the Notch/Wnt pathway of somite boundary formation or differentiation, leading to changes in somite number or size. Several of the mutations also cause additional bone fusions in the trunk skeleton, reminiscent of those observed in primitive and modern birds. All of our findings were correlated to the fossil record. An open question is whether the relatively sudden appearance of short-tailed birds in the fossil record could be accounted for, at least in part, by the pleiotropic effects generated by a relatively small number of mutational events. PMID:25621146

  15. The relationship of GH and LEP gene polymorphisms with fat-tail measurements (fat-tail dimensions) in fat-tailed Makooei breed of Iranian sheep

    PubMed Central

    Hajihosseinlo, Abbas; Jafari, Shoja; Ajdary, Marziyeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study was designed to investigate the association of GH and LEP genes’ single-nucleotide polymorphisms with fat-tail measurements (fat-tail dimensions) in Makooei sheep. Materials and Methods: DNA was extracted from whole blood samples collected from 100 sheep. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were subjected to single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) denaturation and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Data were collected at the Makooei Sheep Breeding Station in Makoo (36°, 35?S and 48°, 22?E) of West Azerbaijan province. Climatically, this location has temperate summers and cold winters and receives a mean annual rainfall of about 400 mm. Ewes are raised in an annual breeding cycle starting in September. In general, the flock is managed under a semi-migratory system. Results: In the tested Makooei sheep population, significant statistical results were found in all traits of fat-tail measurements for GH and LEP genes. Individuals with the G4, L4 genotype of GH and LEP genes had lower tail length (rump length), fat thickness (the thick rump), and tail width (rump width) when compared to those of individuals with other genotypes (P < 0.05). In addition, the results demonstrated that individuals with the G5, L5 genotype of GH and LEP genes had superiority of tail length (rump length) and fat thickness (the thick rump) compared to those individuals with other genotypes (P < 0.05). Individuals with the G2, L2 genotype of GH and LEP genes had superiority of tail width (rump width) compared individuals with other genotypes (P < 0.05). Conclusion: These results confirmed potential usefulness of GH and LEP genes in marker-assisted selection programs of sheep breeding. PMID:26605211

  16. Linking Bovine Tuberculosis on Cattle Farms to White-Tailed Deer and Environmental Variables Using Bayesian Hierarchical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Walter, W. David; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; VerCauteren, Kurt C.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on M. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type). Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovis identified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd factors and cattle farm prevalence is documented. PMID:24595231

  17. Heavy-tailed Distributions In Stochastic Dynamical Models

    E-print Network

    Ph. Blanchard; T. Krueger; D. Volchenkov

    2011-05-06

    Heavy-tailed distributions are found throughout many naturally occurring phenomena. We have reviewed the models of stochastic dynamics that lead to heavy-tailed distributions (and power law distributions, in particular) including the multiplicative noise models, the models subjected to the Degree-Mass-Action principle (the generalized preferential attachment principle), the intermittent behavior occurring in complex physical systems near a bifurcation point, queuing systems, and the models of Self-organized criticality. Heavy-tailed distributions appear in them as the emergent phenomena sensitive for coupling rules essential for the entire dynamics.

  18. The tails in the Helix Nebula NGC 7293

    E-print Network

    J. E. Dyson; J. M. Pittard; J. Meaburn; S. A. E. G. Falle

    2006-07-03

    We have examined a stream-source model for the production of the cometary tails observed in the Helix Nebula NGC 7293 in which a transonic or moderately supersonic stream of ionized gas overruns a source of ionized gas. Hydrodynamic calculations reveal velocity structures which are in good agreement with the observational data on tail velocities and are consistent with observations of the nebular structure. The results also are indicative of a stellar atmosphere origin for the cometary globules. Tail remnants persist for timescales long enough for their identification with faint striations visible in the nebula gas to be plausible.

  19. Tail terms in gravitational radiation reaction via effective field theory

    E-print Network

    S. Foffa; R. Sturani

    2012-12-24

    Gravitational radiation reaction affects the dynamics of gravitationally bound binary systems. Here we focus on the leading "tail" term which modifies binary dynamics at fourth post-Newtonian order, as first computed by Blanchet and Damour. We re-produce this result using effective field theory techniques in the framework of the Lagrangian formalism suitably extended to include dissipation effects. We recover the known logarithmic tail term, consistently with the recent interpretation of the logarithmic tail term in the mass parameter as a renormalization group effect of the Bondi mass of the system.

  20. Periodic substorm activity in the geomagnetic tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, C. Y.; Eastman, T. E.; Frank, L. A.; Williams, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    On 19 May 1978 an anusual series of events is observed with the Quadrispherical LEPEDEA on board the ISEE-1 satellite in the Earth's geomagnetic tail. For 13 hours periodic bursts of both ions and electrons are seen in all the particle detectors on the spacecraft. On this day periodic activity is also seen on the ground, where multiple intensifications of the electrojets are observed. At the same time the latitudinal component of the interplanetary magnetic field shows a number of strong southward deflections. It is concluded that an extended period of substorm activity is occurring, which causes repeated thinnings and recoveries of the plasma sheet. These are detected by ISEE, which is situated in the plasma sheet boundary layer, as periodic dropouts and reappearances of the plasma. Comparisons of the observations at ISEE with those at IMP-8, which for a time is engulfed by the plasma sheet, indicate that the activity is relatively localized in spatial extent. For this series of events it is clear that a global approach to magnetospheric dynamics, e.g., reconnection, is inappropriate.

  1. Bump formation in the runaway electron tail

    E-print Network

    Decker, J; Fülöp, T

    2015-01-01

    Runaway electrons are generated in a magnetized plasma when the parallel electric field exceeds a critical value. For such electrons with energies typically reaching tens of MeV, the Abraham-Lorentz-Dirac (ALD) radiation force, in reaction to the synchrotron emission, is significant and can be the dominant process limiting the electron acceleration. The effect of the ALD-force on runaway electron dynamics in a homogeneous plasma is investigated using the relativistic finite-difference Fokker-Planck codes LUKE [Decker & Peysson, Report EUR-CEA-FC-1736, Euratom-CEA, (2004)] and CODE [Landreman et al, Comp. Phys. Comm. 185, 847 (2014)]. Under the action of the ALD force, we find that a bump is formed in the tail of the electron distribution function if the electric field is sufficiently large. We also observe that the energy of runaway electrons in the bump increases with the electric field amplitude, while the population increases with the bulk electron temperature. The presence of the bump divides the elec...

  2. Detection of PrP**CWD in retinal tissues in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with CWD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction. Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, has been reported in captive and free-ranging mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni). An abnormal isoform of a prion p...

  3. Diagnosis of preclinical CWD in farmed white-tailed deer in Canada by the immunohistochemical examination of recto-anal mucosa- associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report summarizes the comparative diagnostic performance of postmortem rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) sampling in two white-tailed deer farms from Saskatchewan, Canada. The apparent prevalence of disease in these two farms was 21% and 31%. None of these deer were demonstra...

  4. Efficacy of Oral and Parenteral Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG Danish Strain 1331) in Protecting White-tailed Deer (Odecoileus Virginianus) against Bovine Tuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wildlife Disease Association Annual Conference, August 6-10, 2006 Terry Amundson Student Presentation Award Oral Presentation EFFICACY OF ORAL AND PARENTERAL BACILLE CALMETTE-GUERIN (BCG DANISH STRAIN 1331) IN PROTECTING WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODECOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) AGAINST BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS Paulin...

  5. Wing-Fuselage Interference, Tail Buffeting, and Air Flow About the Tail of a Low-Wing Monoplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, James A; Hood, Manley J

    1935-01-01

    This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests on a Mcdonnell Douglas airplane to determine the wing-fuselage interference of a low-wing monoplane. The tests included a study of tail buffeting and the air flow in the region of the tail. The airplane was tested with and without the propeller slipstream, both in the original condition and with several devices designed to reduce or eliminate tail buffeting. The devices used were wing-fuselage fillets, a NACA cowling, reflexed trailing edge of the wing, and stub auxiliary airfoils.

  6. Genetic linkage analysis using pooled DNA and infrared detection of tailed STRP primer patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oetting, William S.; Wildenberg, Scott C.; King, Richard A.

    1996-04-01

    The mapping of a disease locus to a specific chromosomal region is an important step in the eventual isolation and analysis of a disease causing gene. Conventional mapping methods analyze large multiplex families and/or smaller nuclear families to find linkage between the disease and a chromosome marker that maps to a known chromosomal region. This analysis is time consuming and tedious, typically requiring the determination of 30,000 genotypes or more. For appropriate populations, we have instead utilized pooled DNA samples for gene mapping which greatly reduces the amount of time necessary for an initial chromosomal screen. This technique assumes a common founder for the disease locus of interest and searches for a region of a chromosome shared between affected individuals. Our analysis involves the PCR amplification of short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRP) to detect these shared regions. In order to reduce the cost of genotyping, we have designed unlabeled tailed PCR primers which, when combined with a labeled universal primer, provides for an alternative to synthesizing custom labeled primers. The STRP pattern is visualized with an infrared fluorescence based automated DNA sequencer and the patterns quantitated by densitometric analysis of the allele pattern. Differences in the distribution of alleles between pools of affected and unaffected individuals, including a reduction in the number of alleles in the affected pool, indicate the sharing of a region of a chromosome. We have found this method effective for markers 10 - 15 cM away from the disease locus for a recessive genetic disease.

  7. Mutations in the tail domain of DYNC1H1 cause dominant spinal muscular atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Harms, M.B.; Ori-McKenney, K.M.; Scoto, M.; Tuck, E.P.; Bell, S.; Ma, D.; Masi, S.; Allred, P.; Al-Lozi, M.; Reilly, M.M.; Miller, L.J.; Jani-Acsadi, A.; Pestronk, A.; Shy, M.E.; Muntoni, F.; Vallee, R.B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify the gene responsible for 14q32-linked dominant spinal muscular atrophy with lower extremity predominance (SMA-LED, OMIM 158600). Methods: Target exon capture and next generation sequencing was used to analyze the 73 genes in the 14q32 linkage interval in 3 SMA-LED family members. Candidate gene sequencing in additional dominant SMA families used PCR and pooled target capture methods. Patient fibroblasts were biochemically analyzed. Results: Regional exome sequencing of all candidate genes in the 14q32 interval in the original SMA-LED family identified only one missense mutation that segregated with disease state—a mutation in the tail domain of DYNC1H1 (I584L). Sequencing of DYNC1H1 in 32 additional probands with lower extremity predominant SMA found 2 additional heterozygous tail domain mutations (K671E and Y970C), confirming that multiple different mutations in the same domain can cause a similar phenotype. Biochemical analysis of dynein purified from patient-derived fibroblasts demonstrated that the I584L mutation dominantly disrupted dynein complex stability and function. Conclusions: We demonstrate that mutations in the tail domain of the heavy chain of cytoplasmic dynein (DYNC1H1) cause spinal muscular atrophy and provide experimental evidence that a human DYNC1H1 mutation disrupts dynein complex assembly and function. DYNC1H1 mutations were recently found in a family with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (type 2O) and in a child with mental retardation. Both of these phenotypes show partial overlap with the spinal muscular atrophy patients described here, indicating that dynein dysfunction is associated with a range of phenotypes in humans involving neuronal development and maintenance. PMID:22459677

  8. Experimental oral transmission of chronic wasting disease to red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus): Early detection and late stage distribution of protease-resistant prion protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease CWD is the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease of wild and farmed cervid ruminants, including Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), or moose (Alces alces). Reliable data ...

  9. Reduction of unsteady underwater propeller forces via active tail articulation

    E-print Network

    James, Richard A. (Richard Alexander), 1982-

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the use of biologically-inspired tail articulation as a means to reduce unsteady propeller forces and by extension, noise due to stator wake blade interaction. This study is experimental in nature ...

  10. 4. SULLIVAN TAILING PILE. CAMERA POINTED WEST. MINE ENTRANCE IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SULLIVAN TAILING PILE. CAMERA POINTED WEST. MINE ENTRANCE IS APPROXIMATELY 30 YARDS BEHIND CAMERA POSITION. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Sullivan Mine, East side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  11. Tailing RFID Tags for Clone Detection Davide Zanetti

    E-print Network

    Capkun, Srdjan

    Tailing RFID Tags for Clone Detection Davide Zanetti ETH Zurich, Switzerland zanettid, simply "wireless barcodes," themselves vulnerable to cloning and counterfeiting. While continuous monitoring can, in principle, detect cloning at- tacks, real-world supply chains often contain significant

  12. Western Red-tailed Skink Distribution in Southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, D. B. and Gergor, P. D.

    2011-11-01

    This slide show reports a study to: determine Western Red-tailed Skink (WRTS) distribution on Nevada National Security Site (NNSS); identify habitat where WRTS occur; learn more about WRTS natural history; and document distribution of other species.

  13. Final Report Review of Existing and Proposed Tailings Impoundment Technologies

    E-print Network

    ....................................................................... 3 4.0 Comparison of Uranium Tailings Disposal Technology with the Requirements of RCRA, Subtitle C ............................................................... 1 2.0 Profile of the Existing Industry........................................................................................... 2 3.0 Anticipated Changes in the Industry Profile

  14. Central limit theorem for eigenvectors of heavy tailed matrices

    E-print Network

    Benaych-Georges, Florent

    We consider the eigenvectors of symmetric matrices with independent heavy tailed entries, such as matrices with entries in the domain of attraction of ?-stable laws, or adjacencymatrices of Erdos-Renyi graphs. We denote ...

  15. A note on trans-Planckian tail effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graef, L. L.; Brandenberger, R.

    2015-09-01

    We study the proposal by Mersini et al. [1] that the observed dark energy might be explained by the back-reaction of the set of tail modes in a theory with a dispersion relation in which the mode frequency decays exponentially in the trans-Planckian regime. The matter tail modes are frozen out, however they induce metric fluctuations. The energy-momentum tensor with which the tail modes effect the background geometry obtains contributions from both metric and matter fluctuations. We calculate the equation of state induced by the tail modes taking into account the gravitational contribution. We find that, in contrast to the case of frozen super-Hubble cosmological fluctuations, in this case the matter perturbations dominate, and they yield an equation of state which to leading order takes the form of a positive cosmological constant.

  16. TAIL DISTRIBUTION MODELLING USING THE RICHTER AND POWER EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTIONS

    E-print Network

    Gales, Mark

    . A notable exception is Phillips' speech recognizer whose densities are mixtures of Laplacians [1]. However have sharp peaks and heavy tails. In the case of small powers special care must be taken when

  17. 3. VIEW EAST OF TAILINGS OF MERCURY RETORT. SCOOP FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW EAST OF TAILINGS OF MERCURY RETORT. SCOOP FOR EXTRACTING MERCURY VISIBLE IN CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. (OCTOBER, 1995) - McCormick Group Mine, Mercury Retort, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  18. J SERIES MAGAZINE. J 106 INTERIOR. BOMB TAILS ON LEFT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    J SERIES MAGAZINE. J 106 INTERIOR. BOMB TAILS ON LEFT. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Inert Storehouse Type, Twelfth Street between Kwajulein & New Mexico Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. Design of the Modulator the CTF3 Tail Clipper Kicker

    E-print Network

    Barnes, M J; Ravida, G; Ueda, A

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the present CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of specific key issues in the CLIC scheme. The extracted beam from the combiner ring (CR), of 35 A in magnitude and 140 ns duration, is sent to the new CLic EXperimental area (CLEX) facility. A Tail Clipper (TC) is required, in the CR to CLEX transfer line, to allow the duration of the extracted beam pulse to be adjusted. It is proposed to use a stripline kicker for the tail clipper, with each of the deflector plates driven to equal but opposite potential. The tail clipper kick must have a fast rise-time, of not more than 5 ns, in order to minimize uncontrolled beam loss. Several different options are being investigated to meet the demanding specifications for the modulator of the tail clipper. This paper discusses options considered for the fast, high voltage, semiconductor switches and shows results of initial tests on the switches.

  20. Thyroxine Induced Resorption of Xenopus Laevis Tail Tissue in Vitro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scadding, Steven R.

    1984-01-01

    A simple method of studying thyroxine-induced resorption of tadpole tails in vitro is described. This procedure demonstrates that resorption is dependent on thyroxine and requires protein synthesis. It introduces students to the use of tissue culture methods. (Author)

  1. Sandia's activities in uranium mill tailings remedial action

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, S.

    1980-01-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 requires that remedial action be taken at over 20 inactive uranium mill tailings sites in the United States. Standards promulgated by the EPA under this act are to be the operative standards for this activity. Proposed standards must still undergo internal review, public comment, and receive Nuclear Regulatory Commission concurrence before being finalized. Briefly reviewed, the standards deal separately with new disposal sites (Part A) and cleanup of soil and contaminated structures at existing locations (Part B). In several cases, the present sites are felt to be too close to human habitations or to be otherwise unacceptably located. These tailings will probably be relocated. New disposal sites for relocated tailings must satisfy certain standards. The salient features of these standards are summarized.

  2. Elucidating Internucleosome Interactions and the Roles of Histone Tails

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Steven C.; Andresen, Kurt; Jimenez-Useche, Isabel; Yuan, Chongli; Qiu, Xiangyun

    2013-01-01

    The nucleosome is the first level of genome organization and regulation in eukaryotes where negatively charged DNA is wrapped around largely positively charged histone proteins. Interaction between nucleosomes is dominated by electrostatics at long range and guided by specific contacts at short range, particularly involving their flexible histone tails. We have thus quantified how internucleosome interactions are modulated by salts (KCl, MgCl2) and histone tail deletions (H3, H4 N-terminal), using small-angle x-ray scattering and theoretical modeling. We found that measured effective charges at low salts are ?1/5th of the theoretically predicted renormalized charges and that H4 tail deletion suppresses the attraction at high salts to a larger extent than H3 tail deletion. PMID:23823239

  3. A Note on Trans-Planckian Tail Effects

    E-print Network

    Graef, L L

    2015-01-01

    We study the proposal by Mersini et al. that the observed dark energy might be explained by the back-reaction of the set of tail modes in a theory with a dispersion relation in which the mode frequency decays exponentially in the trans-Planckian regime. The matter tail modes are frozen out, however they induce metric fluctuations. The energy-momentum tensor with which the tail modes effect the background geometry obtains contributions from both metric and matter fluctuations. We calculate the equation of state induced by the tail modes taking into account the gravitational contribution. We find that, in contrast to the case of frozen super-Hubble cosmological fluctuations, in this case the matter perturbations dominate, and they yield an equation of state which to leading order takes the form of a positive cosmological constant.

  4. A Note on Trans-Planckian Tail Effects

    E-print Network

    L. L. Graef; R. Brandenberger

    2015-05-10

    We study the proposal by Mersini et al. that the observed dark energy might be explained by the back-reaction of the set of tail modes in a theory with a dispersion relation in which the mode frequency decays exponentially in the trans-Planckian regime. The matter tail modes are frozen out, however they induce metric fluctuations. The energy-momentum tensor with which the tail modes effect the background geometry obtains contributions from both metric and matter fluctuations. We calculate the equation of state induced by the tail modes taking into account the gravitational contribution. We find that, in contrast to the case of frozen super-Hubble cosmological fluctuations, in this case the matter perturbations dominate, and they yield an equation of state which to leading order takes the form of a positive cosmological constant.

  5. DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINESHAFTS, AND CONCENTRATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINESHAFTS, AND CONCENTRATION TABLES WITH SIX FOOT SCALE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  6. 5. NORTH ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL, LOOKING SOUTH. TAILINGS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. NORTH ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL, LOOKING SOUTH. TAILINGS IN FOREGROUND, DOWN SLOPE FROM SYANIDE PROCESSING TANKS. SEE CA-290-40 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  7. 42. FOUNDATIONS TAIL RACE, ETC., POWER HOUSE SANTA ANA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. FOUNDATIONS - TAIL RACE, ETC., POWER HOUSE SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2, EDISON ELECTRIC CO., NOV. 3, 1904. SCE drawing no. 5393. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  8. Survival of Columbian white-tailed deer in western Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ricca, M.A.; Anthony, R.G.; Jackson, D.H.; Wolfe, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    Columbian white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus leucurus; CWTD) are an endangered subspecies on which little demographic information exists. We determined survival rates and causes of mortality for 64 radiocollared adults from 1996 to 1998, and for 63 radiocollared neonatal fawns during the summer and fall months of 1996-2001 in Douglas County, Oregon, USA. Annual adult survival rates averaged 0.74 over 3 years, and most mortality (73%) occurred between fall and winter. Seasonal survival was lowest (0.75) for the fall-winter 1997-1998, and was ???0.90 during all spring-summer periods. Annual and seasonal survival rates did not differ by gender. Average annual survival was 0.77 for deer in wildland areas compared with 0.66 for deer in suburban areas, but these differences were not consistent between years and seasons. Survival over the entire 3-year study was low (0.38). Eight deer died from a combination of emaciation and disease, and almost all (92%) necropsied deer were in poor body condition. Fawn survival to 7 months was low (0.14, 95% CI = 0.02-0.26) and declined most rapidly during the first 1.5 months of life. Predation (n = 21) and abandonment (n = 6) were the most frequent known causes of death for fawns. Our results suggest that CWTD may have responded to density-dependent factors during this short-term study, although the effects of other environmental or intrinsic factors cannot be ignored. Fawn survival may be insufficient to produce enough recruits for population growth and eventual range expansion.

  9. Electromagnetic induction for mapping textural contrasts of mine tailing deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nearing, Grey S.; Tuller, Markus; Jones, Scott B.; Heinse, Robert; Meding, Mercer S.

    2013-02-01

    Mine tailings present an important legacy of past and present ore-extraction activities in the Desert Southwest. Inactive mine tailings have no immediate economic role in current mining operations, yet from an environmental point of view it is important that such deposits are stabilized to prevent mass movement, wind or water erosion, leaching of chemicals such as acid mine drainage, and to reduce visual blight. In the presented study, we assess the potential for inferring textural properties of mine tailing deposits with electromagnetic induction (EMI) mapping as a means of informing efforts to establish vegetation at mine waste sites. EMI measurements of apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) and tailing samples were collected at a mine waste site in Southern Arizona, USA and used to test empirical and theoretical relationships between ECa and physical and mineralogical properties using linear and Gaussian process regression. Sensitivity analyses of a semi-theoretical and a regression model of ECa as a function of tailing properties indicated that volumetric clay fraction in the top 60 cm was a primary influence on bulk electrical conductivity along with water content, conductivity of the soil water and the presence of conductive minerals hematite and pyrite. At this site, latitude and longitude were better predictors of clay content than ECa, and while it was possible to obtain information about the spatial distribution of tailing texture using EMI, simple Kriging of texture data was a more powerful textural mapping technique. We conclude that EMI is a useful tool for mapping tailing texture at waste deposit sites, but due to physical and chemical heterogeneity of tailing deposits, it is necessary to collect more in situ samples than are needed for agricultural applications.

  10. Molecular architecture of tailed double-stranded DNA phages

    PubMed Central

    Fokine, Andrei; Rossmann, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    The tailed double-stranded DNA bacteriophages, or Caudovirales, constitute ~96% of all the known phages. Although these phages come in a great variety of sizes and morphology, their virions are mainly constructed of similar molecular building blocks via similar assembly pathways. Here we review the structure of tailed double-stranded DNA bacteriophages at a molecular level, emphasizing the structural similarity and common evolutionary origin of proteins that constitute these virions. PMID:24616838

  11. PSR J0357+3205: THE TAIL OF THE TURTLE

    SciTech Connect

    Marelli, M.; De Luca, A.; Salvetti, D.; Sartore, N.; Sartori, A.; Caraveo, P.; Pizzolato, F.; Belfiore, A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.

    2013-03-01

    Using a new XMM-Newton observation, we have characterized the X-ray properties of the middle-aged radio-quiet {gamma}-ray pulsar J0357+3205 (named Morla) and its tail. The X-ray emission from the pulsar is consistent with a magnetospheric non-thermal origin plus a thermal emission from a hot spot (or hot spots). The lack of a thermal component from the whole surface makes Morla the coldest neutron star in its age range. We found marginal evidence for a double-peaked modulation of the X-ray emission. The study of the 9' long tail confirmed the lack of extended emission near the pulsar itself. The tail shows a very asymmetric brightness profile and its spectrum lacks any spatial variation. We found the nebular emission to be inconsistent with a classical bow shock, ram-pressure-dominated pulsar wind nebula. We propose thermal bremsstrahlung as an alternative mechanism for Morla's tail emission. In this scenario, the tail emission comes from the shocked interstellar medium (ISM) material heated up to X-ray temperatures. This can fully explain the peculiar features of the tail, assuming a hot, moderately dense ISM around the pulsar. For a bremsstrahlung-emitting tail, we can estimate the pulsar distance to be between 300 and 900 pc. A pulsar velocity of {approx}1900 km s{sup -1} is required, which would make Morla the pulsar with the largest velocity, and high inclination angles (>70 Degree-Sign ) are preferred. We propose Morla's nebula as the first example of a new 'turtle's tail' class of thermally emitting nebulae associated with high-velocity pulsars.

  12. A Yurok Story: How the Animals Got Their Tails.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripp, Maria

    This story was told to the author by her grandmother, a Yurok born at Pecwan in 1898. Long ago, at a council meeting, the animals decided to ask the Great Creator for tails. He agreed and promised to give each animal a tail the next morning. The first animal to get up would have first choice. Coyote built a big fire and tried hard to stay awake…

  13. Tail Biting Trellis Representation of Codes: Decoding and Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao. Rose Y.; Lin, Shu; Fossorier, Marc

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents two new iterative algorithms for decoding linear codes based on their tail biting trellises, one is unidirectional and the other is bidirectional. Both algorithms are computationally efficient and achieves virtually optimum error performance with a small number of decoding iterations. They outperform all the previous suboptimal decoding algorithms. The bidirectional algorithm also reduces decoding delay. Also presented in the paper is a method for constructing tail biting trellises for linear block codes.

  14. Speciation And Colloid Transport of Arsenic From Mine Tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Slowey, A.J.; Johnson, S.B.; Newville, M.; Brown, G.E., Jr.

    2007-07-13

    In addition to affecting biogeochemical transformations, the speciation of As also influences its transport from tailings at inoperative mines. The speciation of As in tailings from the Sulfur Bank Mercury Mine site in Clear Lake, California (USA) (a hot-spring Hg deposit) and particles mobilized from these tailings have been examined during laboratory-column experiments. Solutions containing two common, plant-derived organic acids (oxalic and citric acid) were pumped at 13 pore volumes d{sup -1} through 25 by 500 mm columns of calcined Hg ore, analogous to the pedogenesis of tailings. Chemical analysis of column effluent indicated that all of the As mobilized was particulate (1.5 mg, or 6% of the total As in the column through 255 pore volumes of leaching). Arsenic speciation was evaluated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), indicating the dominance of arsenate [As(V)] sorbed to poorly crystalline Fe(III)-(hydr)oxides and coprecipitated with jarosite [KFe{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}, AsO{sub 4}){sub 2}(OH){sub 6}] with no detectable primary or secondary minerals in the tailings and mobilized particles. Sequential chemical extractions (SCE) of <45 {micro}m mine tailings fractions also suggest that As occurs adsorbed to Fe (hydr)oxides (35%) and coprecipitated within poorly crystalline phases (45%). In addition, SCEs suggest that As is associated with 1 N acid-soluble phases such as carbonate minerals (20%) and within crystalline Fe-(hydr)oxides (10%). The finding that As is transported from these mine tailings dominantly as As(V) adsorbed to Fe (hydr)oxides or coprecipitated within hydroxysulfates such as jarosite suggests that As release from soils and sediments contaminated with tailings will be controlled by either organic acid-promoted dissolution or reductive dissolution of host phases.

  15. Power-like Tail Observed in Weight Distributions of Schoolchildren

    E-print Network

    Kuninaka, Hiroto

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the statistical properties of the weight distributions of Japanese children who were born in 1996, from recent data. The weights of 16- and 17-year-old male children have a lognormal distribution with a power-like tail, which is best modeled by the double Pareto distribution. The emergence of the power-like tail may be attributed to the low probability that an obese person will attain a normal weight.

  16. Characterization of 14-3-3-? Interactions with Integrin Tails

    PubMed Central

    Bonet, Roman; Vakonakis, Ioannis; Campbell, Iain D.

    2013-01-01

    Integrins are a family of heterodimeric (?+?) adhesion receptors that play key roles in many cellular processes. Integrins are unusual in that their functions can be modulated from both outside and inside the cell. Inside-out signaling is mediated by binding adaptor proteins to the flexible cytoplasmic tails of the ?- and ?-integrin subunits. Talin is one well-known intracellular activator, but various other adaptors bind to integrin tails, including 14-3-3-?, a member of the 14-3-3 family of dimeric proteins that have a preference for binding phosphorylated sequence motifs. Phosphorylation of a threonine in the ?2 integrin tail has been shown to modulate ?2/14-3-3-? interactions, and recently, the ?4 integrin tail was reported to bind to 14-3-3-? and associate with paxillin in a ternary complex that is regulated by serine phosphorylation. Here, we use a range of biophysical techniques to characterize interactions between 14-3-3-? and the cytoplasmic tails of ?4, ?1, ?2 and ?3 integrins. The X-ray structure of the 14-3-3-?/?4 complex indicates a canonical binding mode for the ?4 phospho-peptide, but unexpected features are also observed: residues outside the consensus 14-3-3-? binding motif are shown to be essential for an efficient interaction; in contrast, a short ?2 phospho-peptide is sufficient for high-affinity binding to 14-3-3-?. In addition, we report novel 14-3-3-?/integrin tail interactions that are independent of phosphorylation. Of the integrin tails studied, the strongest interaction with 14-3-3-? is observed for the ?1A variant. In summary, new insights about 14-3-3-?/integrin tail interactions that have implications for the role of these molecular associations in cells are described. PMID:23763993

  17. Assessment of Phytostabilization Success in Metalliferous Acid Mine Tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Root, R. A.; Hammond, C.; Amistadi, M. K.; Maier, R. M.; Chorover, J.

    2014-12-01

    Legacy mine tailings are a significant source of metal(loid)s due to wind and water erosion, especially in the arid southwest, and exposure to fugative dusts presents a health risk to surrounding populations. Compost assisted phytostabilization has been implemented to reduce off site emissions at the Iron King Mine U.S. Superfund Site in central Arizona, concurrent with a greenhouse mesocosm study for detailed study of subsurface mechanisms. Quantification of plant available toxic metal(loid)s in the amended tailings was accessed with a targeted single extraction of diethylenetriaminepentaactic acid (DTPA). Greenhouse mesocosms (1m dia, 0.4 m deep), run in triplicate, mimicked field treatments with: i) tailings only control (TO), ii) tailings plus 15 wt% compost (TC), iii) TC + quailbush seeds (TCA), and iv) TC + buffalo grass seeds (TCB). Core samples collected at 3-month intervals for 1 year were dissected by depth (10 cm each) for analysis. DTPA results indicated that compost treated samples decreased plant availability of Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Pb but increased Mn and Zn compared with TO. TCB decreased plant available metal(loid)s at all depths, whereas TCA plant available Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn increased in the deeper 20-30cm and 30-40 cm relative to TCB. Samples from the greenhouse were compared to tailings from both the field site and tailings impacted soils used to grow vegetables. Mineral transformations and metal complexation, in the pre- and post-extracted tailings were analyzed by synchrotron transmission XRD and FTIR spectroscopy. The temporal change in plant available metal(loid)s in response to phytostabilization indicates mineralogical alteration that improves soil quality by reducing plant available metal(loid)s. These results will aid in the understanding and efficacy of phytostabilization as a means of remediating and reducing toxicity on mine tailings as well as providing information on health risk management in the region.

  18. Lifshitz Tails of Scale-Invariant Theories with Electric Impurities

    E-print Network

    Sho Yaida

    2012-07-13

    We study scale-invariant systems in the presence of Gaussian quenched electric disorder, focusing on the tails of the energy spectra induced by disorder. For relevant disorder we derive asymptotic expressions for the densities of unit-charged states in the tails, positing the existence of saddle points in appropriate disorder integrals. The resultant scalings are dictated by spatial dimensions and dynamical exponents of the systems.

  19. DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINE SHAFTS, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINE SHAFTS, AND CONCENTRATION TABLES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. SLURRY EXITING THE BALL MILL WAS COLLECTED IN AN AMALGAMATION BOX (MISSING) FROM THE END OF THE MILL, AND INTRODUCED INTO THE CLASSIFIER. THE TAILINGS LAUDER IS ON THE GROUND AT LOWER RIGHT. THE LINE SHAFTING ABOVE PROVIDED POWER TO THE CONCENTRATION TABLES BELOW AT CENTER RIGHT. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  20. Structure-activity relationship studies of the lipophilic tail region of sphingosine kinase 2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Congdon, Molly D; Childress, Elizabeth S; Patwardhan, Neeraj N; Gumkowski, James; Morris, Emily A; Kharel, Yugesh; Lynch, Kevin R; Santos, Webster L

    2015-11-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a ubiquitous, endogenous small molecule that is synthesized by two isoforms of sphingosine kinase (SphK1 and 2). Intervention of the S1P signaling pathway has attracted significant attention because alteration of S1P levels is linked to several disease states including cancer, fibrosis, and sickle cell disease. While intense investigations have focused on developing SphK1 inhibitors, only a limited number of SphK2-selective agents have been reported. Herein, we report our investigations on the structure-activity relationship studies of the lipophilic tail region of SLR080811, a SphK2-selective inhibitor. Our studies demonstrate that the internal phenyl ring is a key structural feature that is essential in the SLR080811 scaffold. Further, we show the dependence of SphK2 activity and selectivity on alkyl tail length, suggesting a larger lipid binding pocket in SphK2 compared to SphK1. PMID:25862200

  1. Rare-earth occurrences in the Pea Ridge tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Vierrether, C.W.; Cornell, W.I.

    1993-01-01

    Tailings from the Pea Ridge iron mine contain significant amounts of apatite, which has rare-earth element values associated with it. In association with the recovery of rare-earth minerals as a secondary resource, the US Bureau of Mines conducted an investigation on the recoverability of the rare-earth minerals from the tailings. The mill tailings were subjected to a phosphate flotation to separate the apatite from other constituents. More than 70-pct recovery of the rare-earth values was achieved. Based on mineralogical characterization and prior analysis of rare-earth-bearing breccia pipe material at Pea Ridge, it is proposed that processing this phosphate concentrate on a vanner table would yield up to a 95-pct recovery of the rare earths in the concentrate, with the apatite reporting to the tailings. Intensive ore microscopy studies of the original tailings to the flotation products led to the identification of monazite, xenotime, and rare-earth-enriched apatite as the major rare-earth-bearing minerals in the tailings.

  2. Beneficiation of flotation tailing from Polish copper sulfide ores

    SciTech Connect

    Luszczkiewicz, A.; Sztaba, K.S.

    1995-12-31

    Flotation tailing of Polish copper sulfide ores represents more than 90% of the mass of run-of-mine ore. The tailing contains mainly quartz, dolomite, clay minerals, traces of sulfides, and some accessory minerals. Almost all minerals of the tailing are well liberated and, therefore, any further beneficiation process applied to the tailing is expected to be inexpensive. In this work, results of investigations on utilization of flotation tailing using classification and gravity concentration are presented. It is shown that due to classification of flotation tailing in hydrocyclones, the coarse fraction becomes suitable material for gravity separation providing backfill material for underground mines as well as heavy minerals, a source of valuable rare elements. It was also found that heavy minerals separated by gravity methods contain a significant amount of rare elements such as zirconium, titanium, silver, rare earth metals, and uranium. The light fraction of the gravity separation contains well deslimed quartz particles and meets strict requirements for hydraulic filling material used for structural support in underground mines. Evaluation of the cost of the proposed technology indicated that investment to implement the method would provide a return within 2--4 years.

  3. Large Variance and Fat Tail of Damage by Natural Disaster

    E-print Network

    Jo, Hang-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    In order to account for large variance and fat tail of damage by natural disaster, we study a simple model by combining distributions of disaster and population/property with their spatial correlation. We assume fat-tailed or power-law distributions for disaster and population/property exposed to the disaster, and a constant vulnerability for exposed population/property. Our model suggests that the fat tail property of damage can be determined either by that of disaster or by those of population/property depending on which tail is fatter. It is also found that the spatial correlations of population/property can enhance or reduce the variance of damage depending on how fat the tails of population/property are. In case of tornadoes in the United States, we show that the damage does have fat tail property. Our results support that the standard cost-benefit analysis would not be reliable for social investment in vulnerability reduction and disaster prevention.

  4. Synthesis process of forsterite refractory by iron ore tailings.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wang, Qi; Liu, Jihui; Li, Peng

    2009-01-01

    With mineral resources becoming gradually more deficient, as well as the issue of mine tailings causing environmental pollution, more and more people have realized the great significance of tailings utilization. Iron ore tailings, as a kind of secondary resource, have been developed in recycling industries. The feasibility to produce forsterite refractory from high-silicon iron tailings and high-magnesium raw materials were discussed. Also, the synthesis reaction processes were studied from the results of the laboratory experiments. The experiments showed that the synthesis processes can be separated into three steps when using iron tailings to synthesize forsterite: (1) produce magnesium iron sosoloid (Mg1-XFeXO) and magnesium metasilicate (MgSiO3), (2) form the fayalite, and (3) create the forsterite. The synthetic productions are primarily forsterite, hortonolite, and small amounts of magnesium metasilicate (MgSiO3). The hortonolite is wrapped around the surface of the forsterite particles and formed the cementing phase. In addition, the method to produce forsterite refractory and lightweight forsterite refractory from iron tailings were offered. PMID:25084443

  5. Location of the head-tail junction of myosin

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The tails of double-headed myosin molecules consist of an alpha- helical/coiled-coil structure composed of two identical polypeptides with a heptad repeat of hydrophobic amino acids that starts immediately after a conserved proline near position 847. Both muscle and nonmuscle myosins have this heptad repeat and it has been assumed that proline 847 is physically located at the head-tail junction. We present two lines of evidence that this assumption is incorrect. First, we localized the binding sites of several monoclonal antibodies on Acanthamoeba myosin-II both physically, by electron microscopy, and chemically, with a series of truncated myosin-II peptides produced in bacteria. These data indicate that the head-tail junction is located near residue 900. Second, we compared the lengths of two truncated recombinant myosin-II tails with native myosin-II. The distances from the NH2 termini to the tips of these short tails confirms the rise per residue (0.148 nm/residue) and establishes that the 86-nm tail of myosin-II must start near residue 900. We propose that the first 53 residues of heptad repeat of Acanthamoeba myosin-II and other myosins are located in the heads and the proteolytic separation of S-1 from rod occurs within the heads. PMID:2715178

  6. Long-term stabilization of uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Voorhees, L.D.; Sale, M.J.; Webb, J.W.; Mulholland, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    The primary hazard associated with uranium mill tailings is exposure to a radioactive gas, radon-222, the concentration of which has been correlated with the occurrence of lung cancer. Previous studies on radon attenuation conclude that the placement of earthen cover materials over the tailings is the most effective technique for reducing radioactive emissions and dispersal of tailings. The success of such a plan, however, is dependent on ensuring the long-term integrity of these cover materials. Soil erosion from water and wind is the major natural cause of destabilizing earthen cover materials. Field data related to the control of soil loss are limited and only indirectly apply to the problem of isolation of uranium mill tailings over very long time periods (up to 80,000 a). However, sufficient information is available to determine benefits that will result from the changes in specific design variables and to evaluate the need for different design strategies among potential disposal sites. The three major options available for stabilization of uranium mill tailings are: rock cover, soil and revegetation, or a combination of both on different portions of the tailings cover. The optimal choice among these alternatives depends on site-specific characteristics such as climate and local geomorphology and soils, and on design variables such as embankment, heights and slopes, modification of upstream drainage, and revegetation practices. Generally, geomorphic evidence suggests that use of soil and vegetation alone will not be adequate to reduce erosion on slopes greater than about 5 to 9%.

  7. Tail Emission of Prompt Gamma-Ray Burst Jets

    E-print Network

    Ryo Yamazaki; Kenji Toma; Kunihito Ioka; Takashi Nakamura

    2006-04-04

    Tail emission of the prompt gamma-ray burst (GRB) is discussed using a multiple emitting sub-shell (inhomogeneous jet, sub-jets or mini-jets) model, where the whole GRB jet consists of many emitting sub-shells. One may expect that such a jet with angular inhomogeneity should produce spiky tail emission. However, we found that the tail is not spiky but is decaying roughly monotonically. The global decay slope of the tail is not so much affected by the local angular inhomogeneity but affected by the global sub-shell energy distribution. The fact that steepening breaks appeared in some events prefers the structured jets. If the angular size of the emitting sub-shell is around 0.01-0.02 rad, some bumps or fluctuations appear in the tail emission observed frequently in long GRBs. If the parameter differences of sub-shell properties are large, the tail has frequent changes of the temporal slope observed in a few bursts. Therefore, the multiple emitting sub-shell model has the advantage of explaining the small-scale structure in the observed rapid decay phase.

  8. Arsenic bioaccessibility in gold mine tailings of Delita, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Toujaguez, R; Ono, F B; Martins, V; Cabrera, P P; Blanco, A V; Bundschuh, J; Guilherme, L R G

    2013-11-15

    A bioaccessibility test was carried out in four tailings collected at a former mining area in Delita, Cuba. A previous risk assessment study identified arsenic (As) as the main critical contaminant in this area and showed that the tailings had high As concentrations (up to 3.5%). This study aimed at: (i) evaluating As bioaccessibility in four tailings (R1, R2, R3 and R4) from a gold mining area to obtain a better health risk estimate; and, (ii) identifying the mineral phases responsible for most of the bioaccessible As using XRD, SEM-EDS, and XAS. The results showed that bioaccessible As in the tailings ranged from 0.65 to 40.5%. The main factors influencing As bioaccessibility were a high occurrence of amorphous iron arsenate; occurrence, even at low content, of iron oxyhydroxides and stability of mineral phases in the environment of the gastrointestinal tract. Although arsenopyrite, arsenates and goethite were confirmed by mineralogical methods such as optical microscopy, XRD, and SEM-EDS, XAS showed that scorodite-oxidation state As(+V)-was dominant in most of the tailings. This confirms that the low bioaccessibility of As in most of the tailings is due to the slow kinetics of As release from scorodite. PMID:23428178

  9. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action 1993 Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-18

    The 1993 Roadmap for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project office is a tool to assess and resolve issues. The US Department of Energy (DOE) UMTRA Project Office uses the nine-step roadmapping process as a basis for Surface and Groundwater Project planning. This is the second year the Roadmap document has been used to identify key issues and assumptions, develop logic diagrams, and outline milestones. This document is a key element of the DOE planning process. A multi-interest group used the nine-step process to focus on issues, root cause analysis and resolutions. This core group updated and incorporated comments on the basic assumptions, then used these assumptions to identify issues. The list of assumptions was categorized into the following areas: institutional, regulatory compliance, project management, human resource requirements, and other site-specific assumptions. The group identified 10 issues in the analysis phase. All of the issues are ranked according to importance. The number one issue from the 1992 Roadmap, ``Lack of sufficient human resources,`` remained the number one issue in 1993. The issues and their ranking are as follows: Lack of sufficient human resources; increasing regulatory requirements; unresolved groundwater issues; extension of UMTRCA through September 30, 1998; lack of post-UMTRA and post-cell closure policies; unpredictable amounts and timing of Federal funding; lack of regulatory compliance agreements; problem with states providing their share of remedial action costs; different interests and priorities among participants; and technology development/transfer. The issues are outlined and analyzed in detail in Section 8.0, with a schedule for resolution of these issues in Section 9.0.

  10. A Tail-Recursive Semantics for Stack Inspections John Clements, Matthias Felleisen

    E-print Network

    Strickland, Stevie

    A Tail-Recursive Semantics for Stack Inspections John Clements, Matthias Felleisen Northeastern inspection is incompatible with a global tail call optimization pol- icy. An implementation of such a language may have to allocate memory for a source-code tail call, and a program that uses only tail calls

  11. On Weak Tail Domination of Random Vectors Rafa_l Lata_la *

    E-print Network

    Latala, Rafal

    On Weak Tail Domination of Random Vectors Rafa_l Lata_la * Abstract Motivated by a question of Krzysztof Oleszkiewicz we study a no- tion of weak tail then weak tail dom- ination implies strong tail domination. In particular positive answer

  12. Applied Probability Trust (13 August 2010) LARGE DEVIATIONS FOR MINKOWSKI SUMS OF HEAVY-TAILED

    E-print Network

    Samorodnitsky, Gennady

    Applied Probability Trust (13 August 2010) LARGE DEVIATIONS FOR MINKOWSKI SUMS OF HEAVY-TAILED distribution. The result confirms the heavy-tailed large deviation heuristics: "large" values of the sum with heavy-tailed random elements. Large deviations results for sums of heavy-tailed random elements

  13. PDF tails and self-organization of shear flows Johan Anderson

    E-print Network

    PDF tails and self-organization of shear flows Johan Anderson Department of Applied Mathematics and motivation · Goal: To find the generic analytical expression for the PDF tails. · The tails are often close to Gaussian but reveals a significant deviation from Gaussianity at the tails (intermittency

  14. Differential expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, fatty acid synthase, and hormone-sensitive lipase in fat-tailed and thin-tailed sheep breeds.

    PubMed

    Xu, X C; Li, B B; Wei, X; Yang, Y X; Wang, X L; Chen, Y L

    2015-01-01

    Tail fat content affects meat quality, and it varies in different sheep breeds. Theoretically, lipid metabolism contributes to variation in tail fat content. Tail length, tail width, and tail girth were measured in live Tong sheep (with both short fat tail and long fat tail), Shaanbei fine wool sheep (long thin tail), Tan sheep (short fat tail), Kazakh sheep (hip fat tail), and Tibetan sheep (short thin tail). The expression levels of genes related to tail adipose tissue lipid metabolism were investigated, which included lipogenetic genes (PPAR? and FAS) and lipolytic gene (HSL). Differences were observed (P < 0.05) in PPAR? mRNA expression levels in the different breeds; FAS mRNA expression levels did not differ (P > 0.05) in Tong sheep with short fat tail, Tong sheep with long fat tail, Shaanbei fine wool sheep, and Tibetan sheep; HSL mRNA expression levels were not different (P > 0.05) in Tong sheep. PPAR? and HSL protein expression levels differed (P < 0.05) between the different breeds; FAS protein expression levels were different (P < 0.05) in Tong sheep with long fat tails, Tan sheep, Kazakh sheep, and Tibetan sheep, but did not differ (P > 0.05) in Tong sheep with short fat tails and Shaanbei fine wool sheep. These results provide useful information to further understand the function of PPAR?, FAS, and HSL in sheep tail lipid metabolism, which should be applicable to studies on the regulation of fat deposition and improvement of meat quality. PMID:26634530

  15. Tail-scope: Using friends to estimate heavy tails of degree distributions in large-scale complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Young-Ho; Jo, Hang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Many complex networks in natural and social phenomena have often been characterized by heavy-tailed degree distributions. However, due to rapidly growing size of network data and concerns on privacy issues about using these data, it becomes more difficult to analyze complete data sets. Thus, it is crucial to devise effective and efficient estimation methods for heavy tails of degree distributions in large-scale networks only using local information of a small fraction of sampled nodes. Here we propose a tail-scope method based on local observational bias of the friendship paradox. We show that the tail-scope method outperforms the uniform node sampling for estimating heavy tails of degree distributions, while the opposite tendency is observed in the range of small degrees. In order to take advantages of both sampling methods, we devise the hybrid method that successfully recovers the whole range of degree distributions. Our tail-scope method shows how structural heterogeneities of large-scale complex networks can be used to effectively reveal the network structure only with limited local information. PMID:25959097

  16. Virgo Galaxies with Long One-sided H I Tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Aeree; van Gorkom, J. H.; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P.; Vollmer, Bernd

    2007-04-01

    In a new H I imaging survey of Virgo galaxies (VIVA: VLA Imaging of Virgo galaxies in Atomic gas), we find seven spiral galaxies with long H I tails. The morphology varies, but all the tails are extended well beyond the optical radii on one side. These galaxies are found in intermediate- to low-density regions (0.6-1 Mpc in projection from M87). The tails are all pointing roughly away from M87, suggesting that these tails may have been created by a global cluster mechanism. While the tidal effects of the cluster potential are too small, a rough estimate suggests that simple ram pressure stripping could have indeed formed the tails in all but two cases. At least three systems show H I truncation to within the stellar disk, providing evidence of a gas-gas interaction. Although most of these galaxies do not appear disturbed optically, some have close neighbors, suggesting that tidal interactions may have moved gas outward, making it more susceptible to the intracluster medium ram pressure or viscosity. Indeed, a simulation study of one of the tail galaxies, NGC 4654, suggests that the galaxy is most likely affected by the combined effect of a gravitational interaction and ram pressure stripping. We conclude that these one-sided H I tail galaxies have recently arrived in the cluster, falling in on highly radial orbits. It appears that galaxies begin to lose their gas already at intermediate distances from the cluster center through ram pressure or turbulent viscous stripping and tidal interactions with their neighbors, or a combination of both.

  17. Tailings reprocessing as source control for acid rock drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Balderrama, R.M.

    1995-12-31

    Bench-scale laboratory flotation and gravity separation tests were conducted on tailings samples to remove the sulfidic material, mainly pyrite, the source of acid generation. A combination of xanthate collectors, promoters, and frothers were used during flotation. Pyrite recoveries were in the range of 42 to 97%, depending on the tailings being treated. Sulfide sulfur contents of 12.8 to 0.37% in the feeds were reduced to 8.68 to 0.01% in the treated tails. Flotation tests were conducted to evaluate the ARD potential as a function of percent pyrite remaining in the tails. Standard ARD predictive tests were used to evaluate the success of the treatment. In some cases, removal of only 50 to 55% of the pyritic fraction was required, thereby demonstrating the conversion of the waste material from acidic to non-acidic. A laboratory vanning table was used to evaluate the amenability of sulfide-bearing tailings samples to gravity separation. The pyrite recoveries varied from 38 to 86%. The sulfide sulfur content of 12.8 to 0.37% in the feeds was reduced to 6.0 to 0.14% in the treated tails. Predictive ARD tests performed on tailings before and after the gravity removal of pyrite showed that most samples changed from probably acid producing to the uncertain range. Data reported and analyzed int his paper demonstrate source control for ARD prevention through the removal of metal sulfides from sulfide-bearing wastes using conventional flotation and gravity separation techniques.

  18. Is rhizosphere remediation sufficient for sustainable revegetation of mine tailings?

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Longbin; Baumgartl, Thomas; Mulligan, David

    2012-01-01

    Background Revegetation of mine tailings (fine-grained waste material) starts with the reconstruction of root zones, consisting of a rhizosphere horizon (mostly topsoil and/or amended tailings) and the support horizon beneath (i.e. equivalent to subsoil – mostly tailings), which must be physically and hydro-geochemically stable. This review aims to discuss key processes involved in the development of functional root zones within the context of direct revegetation of tailings and introduces a conceptual process of rehabilitating structure and function in the root zones based on a state transition model. Scope Field studies on the revegetation of tailings (from processing base metal ore and bauxite residues) are reviewed. Particular focus is given to tailings' properties that limit remediation effectiveness. Aspects of root zone reconstruction and vegetation responses are also discussed. Conclusions When reconstructing a root zone system, it is critical to restore physical structure and hydraulic functions across the whole root zone system. Only effective and holistically restored systems can control hydro-geochemical mobility of acutely and chronically toxic factors from the underlying horizon and maintain hydro-geochemical stability in the rhizosphere. Thereafter, soil biological capacity and ecological linkages (i.e. carbon and nutrient cycling) may be rehabilitated to integrate the root zones with revegetated plant communities into sustainable plant ecosystems. A conceptual framework of system transitions between the critical states of root zone development has been proposed. This will illustrate the rehabilitation process in root zone reconstruction and development for direct revegetation with sustainable plant communities. Sustainable phytostabilization of tailings requires the systematic consideration of hydro-geochemical interactions between the rhizosphere and the underlying supporting horizon. It further requires effective remediation strategies to develop hydro-geochemically stable and biologically functional root zones, which can facilitate the recovery of the microbial community and ecological linkages with revegetated plant communities. PMID:22648878

  19. Virgo Galaxies with Long One-Sided HI Tails

    E-print Network

    Aeree Chung; J. H. van Gorkom; Jeffrey D. P. Kenney; Bernd Vollmer

    2007-04-03

    In a new HI imaging survey of Virgo galaxies (VIVA: VLA Imaging of Virgo galaxies in Atomic gas), we find 7 spiral galaxies with long HI tails. The morphology varies but all the tails are extended well beyond the optical radii on one side. These galaxies are found in intermediate-low density regions (0.6-1 Mpc in projection from M87). The tails are all pointing roughly away from M87, suggesting that these tails may have been created by a global cluster mechanism. While the tidal effects of the cluster potential are too small, a rough estimate suggests that simple ram-pressure stripping indeed could have formed the tails in all but two cases. At least three systems show HI truncation to within the stellar disk, providing evidence for a gas-gas interaction. Although most of these galaxies do not appear disturbed optically, some have close neighbors, suggesting that tidal interactions may have moved gas outwards making it more susceptible to the ICM ram-pressure or viscosity. Indeed, a simulation study of one of the tail galaxies, NGC 4654, suggests that the galaxy is most likely affected by the combined effect of a gravitational interaction and ram-pressure stripping. We conclude that these one-sided HI tail galaxies have recently arrived in the cluster, falling in on highly radial orbits. It appears that galaxies begin to lose their gas already at intermediate distances from the cluster center through ram-pressure or turbulent viscous stripping and tidal interactions with neighbours, or a combination of both.

  20. The Tail-Elicited Tail Withdrawal Reflex of "Aplysia" Is Mediated Centrally at Tail Sensory-Motor Synapses and Exhibits Sensitization across Multiple Temporal Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Gary T.; Sherff, Carolyn M.; Menges, Steven A.; Carew, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    The defensive withdrawal reflexes of "Aplysia californica" have provided powerful behavioral systems for studying the cellular and molecular basis of memory formation. Among these reflexes the (T-TWR) has been especially useful. In vitro studies examining the monosynaptic circuit for the T-TWR, the tail sensory-motor (SN-MN) synapses, have…

  1. The tail-elicited tail withdrawal reflex of Aplysia is mediated centrally at tail sensory-motor synapses and exhibits sensitization across multiple temporal domains.

    PubMed

    Philips, Gary T; Sherff, Carolyn M; Menges, Steven A; Carew, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    The defensive withdrawal reflexes of Aplysia californica have provided powerful behavioral systems for studying the cellular and molecular basis of memory formation. Among these reflexes the tail-elicited tail withdrawal reflex (T-TWR) has been especially useful. In vitro studies examining the monosynaptic circuit for the T-TWR, the tail sensory-motor (SN-MN) synapses, have identified the induction requirements and molecular basis of different temporal phases of synaptic facilitation that underlie sensitization in this system. They have also permitted more recent studies elucidating the role of synaptic and nuclear signaling during synaptic facilitation. Here we report the development of a novel, compartmentalized semi-intact T-TWR preparation that allows examination of the unique contributions of processing in the SN somatic compartment (the pleural ganglion) and the SN-MN synaptic compartment (the pedal ganglion) during the induction of sensitization. Using this preparation we find that the T-TWR is mediated entirely by central connections in the synaptic compartment. Moreover, the reflex is stably expressed for at least 24 h, and can be modified by tail shocks that induce sensitization across multiple temporal domains, as well as direct application of the modulatory neurotransmitter serotonin. This preparation now provides an experimentally powerful system in which to directly examine the unique and combined roles of synaptic and nuclear signaling in different temporal domains of memory formation. PMID:21450911

  2. Behcet's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    You are here: Home / Types of Vasculitis / Behcet’s Disease Behcet’s Disease First Description Who gets Behcet’s Disease (the “typical” patients)? Classic symptoms of Behcet’s Disease What causes Behcet’s Disease? ...

  3. Lyme Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Lyme Disease Lyme disease, or borreliosis, is caused by ... designed to increase our understanding of this disease. Lyme Disease A History of Lyme Disease, Symptoms, Diagnosis, ...

  4. Chronic wasting disease in bank voles: characterisation of the shortest incubation time model for prion diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to assess the susceptibility of bank voles to chronic wasting disease (CWD), we inoculated voles carrying isoleucine or methionine at codon 109 (Bv109I and Bv109M, respectively) with CWD isolates from elk, mule deer and white-tailed deer. Efficient transmission rate (100%) was observed with...

  5. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 44(3), 2008, pp. 724730 # Wildlife Disease Association 2007

    E-print Network

    Stapp, Paul

    of Small Rodents to Plague during Epizootics in Black-tailed Prairie Dogs Paul Stapp,1,5,6 Daniel J: pstapp@fullerton.edu) ABSTRACT: Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, causes die for plague, spreading disease during epizootics and maintaining the pathogen in the absence of prairie dogs

  6. Use of cemented paste backfill in arsenic-rich tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamberg, Roger; Maurice, Christian; Alakangas, Lena

    2015-04-01

    Gold is extracted by cyanide leaching from inclusions in arsenopyrite from a mine in the north of Sweden. The major ore mineral assemblage consists of pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite-loellingite. Effluents from the gold extraction were treated with Fe2(SO4)3, with the aim to form stable As-bearing Fe-precipitates (FEP). The use of the method called cemented paste backfill (CPB) is sometimes suggested for the management of tailings. In CPB, tailings are commonly mixed with low proportions (3 - 7 %) of cement and backfilled into underground excavated area. To reduce costs, amendments such as granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS), biofuel fly ash (BFA) and cement kiln dust (CKD) are used for partial replacement of cement in CPB due to their pozzolanic and alkaline properties. The objective for this study was to evaluate the leaching behaviour of As in CPB-mixtures with low proportions (1 - 3 %) of BFA and ordinary cement and unmodified tailings. The selection of CPB-recipies was made based on technical and economical criterias to adress the demands deriving from the mining operations. Speciation of the As in ore and tailings samples revealed that mining processes have dissolved the majority of the arsenopyrite in the ore, causing secondary As phases to co-precipitate with newly formed FEP:s. Tank leaching tests (TLT) and weathering cells (WCT) were used to compare leaching behaviour in a monolithic mass contra a crushed material. Quantification of the presumed benefit of CPB was made by calculation of the cumulative leaching of As. Results from the leaching tests (TLT and WCT) showed that the inclusion of As-rich tailings into a cementitious matrix increased leaching of As. This behaviour could partially be explained by an increase of pH. The addition of alkaline binder materials to tailings increased As leaching due to the relocation of desorbed As from FEPs into less acid-tolerant species such as Ca-arsenates and cementitious As-phases. Unmodified tailings generated an acidic environment in which As-bearing FEPs were stable. The addition of binders increased the tailings' acid-neutralizing capacity and introduced more Ca-ions and Fe-precipitates into the tailings matrix, both of which may facilitate As adsorption and reduce the potential for sulphide oxidation on a long-term basis.

  7. Long-Term Performance of Uranium Tailings Disposal Cells - 13340

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary; Pill, Ken; Tachiev, Georgio; Noosai, Nantaporn; Villamizar, Viviana

    2013-07-01

    Recently, there has been interest in the performance and evolution of Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cell covers because some sites are not compliant with groundwater standards. Field observations of UMTRA disposal cells indicate that rock covers tend to become vegetated and that saturated conductivities in the upper portion of radon barriers may increase due to freeze/thaw cycles and biointrusion. This paper describes the results of modeling that addresses whether these potential changes and transient drainage of moisture in the tailings affect overall performance of the disposal cells. A numerical unsaturated/saturated 3-dimensional flow model was used to simulate whether increases in saturated conductivities in radon barriers with rock covers affect the overall performance of the disposal cells using field data from the Shiprock, NM, UMTRA site. A unique modeling approach allowed simulation with daily climatic conditions to determine changes in moisture and moisture flux from the disposal cell. Modeling results indicated that increases in the saturated conductivity at the top of radon barrier do not influence flux from the tailings with time because the tailings behave similar hydraulically to the radon barrier. The presence of a thin layer of low conductivity material anywhere in the cover or tailings restricts flux in the worst case to the saturated conductivity of that material. Where materials are unsaturated at depth within the radon barrier of tailings slimes, conductivities are typically less than 10{sup -8} centimeters per second. If the low conductivity layer is deep within the disposal cell, its saturated properties are less likely to change with time. The significance of this modeling is that operation and maintenance of the disposal cells can be minimized if they are allowed to progress to a natural condition with some vegetation and soil genesis. Because the covers and underlying tailings have a very low saturated hydraulic conductivity after transient drainage, eventually the amount of moisture leaving the tailings has a negligible effect on groundwater quality. Although some of the UMTRA sites are not in compliance with the groundwater standards, the explanation may be legacy contamination from mining, or earlier higher fluxes from the tailings or unlined processing ponds. Investigation of other legacy sources at the UMTRA sites may help explain persistent groundwater contamination. (authors)

  8. A cross-sectional study of the causes of morbidity and mortality in farmed white-tailed deer

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Two questionnaires were designed and administered. The first was to a random sample of 340 farmers of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Canada and the United States. The second was a 10-year retrospective survey of deer submissions to veterinary diagnostic pathology laboratories in Canada and the United States. One-year rates of mortality and common causes of morbidity and mortality for the deer are reported. The primary diagnosis for each record was used to classify diseases into categories, such as parasitic, infectious, toxicological, and neoplastic. Submissions were further classified according to the anatomical location, the pathological change, and the etiology associated with each lesion. Trauma was the most important reported cause of farmed white-tailed deer mortality; necrobacillosis was a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in fawns. PMID:16048010

  9. Endosonography and cytology in diagnosing and staging pancreatic body and tail carcinoma: Preliminary results of endosonographic guided puncture

    SciTech Connect

    Tio, T.L.; Sie, L.H.; Tytgat, G.N.J. Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam )

    1993-01-01

    Endosonography was performed in diagnosing and staging pancreatic body and tail carcinoma in two patients. In the first case endoscopy, abdominal ultrasound, and computed tomography were nondiagnostic in diagnosing the origin of submucosal gastric abnormalities. Endosonography diagnosed a pancreatic tail carcinoma with submucosal gastric involvement, and this was confirmed by endosonographic-guided cytology. Fundus varices due to segmented splenic vein involvement were found. Surgery was not recommended due to the advanced disease. In the second case pancreatic body carcinoma was diagnosed by ERCP and computed tomography. Transcutaneous ultrasonographic-guided cytological puncture confirmed the diagnosis. Endosonography revealed additional information of segmental portal hypertension with fundic varices due to splenic vein involvement. Autopsy confirmed the endosonographic diagnosis. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Buelt, J.L.

    1983-09-01

    The Liner Evaluation for Uranium Mill Tailings Program was conducted to evaluate the need for and performance of prospective lining materials for the long-term management of inactive uranium mill tailings piles. On the basis of program results, two materials have been identified: natural foundation soil amended with 10% sodium bentonite; catalytic airblown asphalt membrane. The study showed that, for most situations, calcareous soils typical of Western US sites adequately buffer tailings leachates and prevent groundwater contamination without additional liner materials or amendments. Although mathematical modeling of disposal sites is recommended on a site-specific basis, there appears to be no reason to expect significant infiltration through the cover for most Western sites. The major water source through the tailings would be groundwater movement at sites with shallow groundwater tables. Even so column leaching studies showed that contaminant source terms were reduced to near maximum contaminant levels (MCL's) for drinking water within one or two pore volumes; thus, a limited source term for groundwater contamination exists. At sites where significant groundwater movement or infiltration is expected and the tailings leachates are alkaline, however, the sodium bentonite or asphalt membrane may be necessary.

  11. Oxidation of sulphide in abandoned mine tailings by ferrate.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Hoon; Yu, Mok-Ryun; Chang, Yoon-Young; Kang, Seon-Hong; Yang, Jae-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Fe(VI) was applied to treat three mine tailings containing different amounts of sulphides and heavy metals. Oxidation of sulphides by Fe(VI) was studied at pH 9.2 with variation of solid to solution ratio, Fe(VI) concentration and injection number of Fe(VI) solution. The major dissolved products from the treatment of mine tailings with Fe(VI) solution were sulphate and arsenic. Oxidation efficiency of sulphides was evaluated by reduction efficiency of Fe(VI) as well as by measurement of dissolved sulphate concentration. Even though inorganic composition of three mine tailings was different, reduction fraction of Fe(VI) was quite similar. This result can suggest that Fe(VI) was involved in several other reactions in addition to oxidation of sulphides. Oxidation of sulphides in mine tailing was greatly dependent on the total amount of sulphides as well as kinds of sulphides complexed with metals. Over the five consecutive injections of Fe(VI) solution, dissolved sulphate concentration was greatly decreased by each injection and no more dissolved sulphate was observed at the fifth injection. While dissolved arsenic was decreased lineally up to the fifth injection. Sulphate generation was slightly increased for all mine tailings as Fe(VI) concentration was increased; however, enhancement of oxidation efficiency of sulphides was not directly proportional to the initial Fe(VI) concentration. PMID:25413120

  12. OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT REMAINS, TAILINGS PILES, PARKING LOT, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT REMAINS, TAILINGS PILES, PARKING LOT, AND MINE MANAGER'S HOME, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. RIGHT, TAILINGS PILES ARE AT CENTER WITH CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS TO THE LEFT OF THE PILES. PARKING LOT IS AT UPPER LEFT. THE AREA BETWEEN THE COLLAPSED TANK AT CENTER LEFT AND THE REMAINS OF THE MANAGER'S HOUSE AT LOWER RIGHT IS A TAILINGS HOLDING AREA. TAILINGS FROM THE MILL WERE HELD HERE. THE LARGE SETTLING TANKS WERE CHARGED FROM THIS HOLDING AREA BY A TRAM ON RAILS AND BY A SLUICEWAY SEEN AS THE DARK SPOT ON THE CENTER LEFT EDGE OF THE FRAME. AFTER THE TAILINGS WERE LEACHED, THEY WERE DEPOSITED ON THE LARGE WASTE PILE AT CENTER RIGHT. THE TANK AT CENTER RIGHT EDGE IS WHERE THE WATER PIPELINE ENTERED THE WORKS. A STRAIGHT LINE OF POSTS IN THE GROUND GO ACROSS THE CENTER FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, WHICH ORIGINALLY SUSPENDED THE WATER PIPELINE GOING FROM THE WATER HOLDING TANK AT RIGHT UP TO THE SECONDARY WATER TANKS ABOVE THE MILL. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  13. On the polarization properties of magnetar giant flare pulsating tails

    E-print Network

    Yang, Yuan-Pei

    2015-01-01

    Three giant flares have been detected so far from soft gamma-ray repeaters, each characterized by an initial short hard spike and a pulsating tail. The observed pulsating tails are characterized by a duration of $\\sim100\\,\\rm{s}$, an isotropic energy of $\\sim 10^{44}\\,\\rm{erg}$, and a pulse period of a few seconds. The pulsating tail emission likely originates from the residual energy after the intense energy release during the initial spike, which forms a trapped fireball composed of a photon-pair plasma in a closed field line region of the magnetars. Observationally the spectra of pulsating tails can be fitted by the superposition of a thermal component and a power-law component, with the thermal component dominating the emission in the early and late stages of the pulsating tail observations. In this paper, assuming that the trapped fireball is from a closed field line region in the magnetosphere, we calculate the atmosphere structure of the optically-thick trapped fireball and the polarization properties ...

  14. Metallicity gradients in tidal tails and merging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Flores, S.; Scarano, S., Jr.; Olave, D.; Alfaro, M.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; de Mello, D. F.; Carrasco, E. R.; Amram, P.; Plana, H.

    2014-10-01

    We present an analysis of the metal distribution in the tidal tails of two interacting systems and in the main body of a galaxy merger: NGC92, NGC6845 and HCG31, respectively. Using Gemini/GMOS spectroscopic data, we found no metallicity gradients for the tail of NGC92. The abundances in the tail are similar to the values displayed by the central regions of NGC92. This fact suggests that gas mixing triggered by the interaction produces a flattening in the metallicity distribution of this system. For the system NGC6845, we found that regions located in the tail have similar abundances to one source located in the inner region of this galaxy, also suggesting a flat metal distribution. For HCG 31 we found an inhomogeneous metal distribution for the central region. Apparently, each star forming complex keeps its metal abundance despite the strong gravitational interaction that this system suffered. In the case of the tidal tails, our results support the scenario in which gas mixing produces a flattening in the metal distribution. However, we suggest that the star formation is an important mechanism in enhancing the oxygen abundance of these structures.

  15. Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria for Phytostabilization of Mine Tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Grandlic, C.J.; Mendez, M.O.; Chorover, J.; Machado, B.; Maier, R.M.

    2009-05-19

    Eolian dispersion of mine tailings in arid and semiarid environments is an emerging global issue for which economical remediation alternatives are needed. Phytostabilization, the revegetation of these sites with native plants, is one such alternative. Revegetation often requires the addition of bulky amendments such as compost which greatly increases cost. We report the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) to enhance the revegetation of mine tailings and minimize the need for compost amendment. Twenty promising PGPB isolates were used as seed inoculants in a series of greenhouse studies to examine revegetation of an extremely acidic, high metal content tailings sample previously shown to require 15% compost amendment for normal plant growth. Several isolates significantly enhanced growth of two native species, quailbush and buffalo grass, in tailings. In this study, PGPB/compost outcomes were plant specific; for quailbush, PGPB were most effective in combination with 10% compost addition while for buffalo grass, PGPB enhanced growth in the complete absence of compost. Results indicate that selected PGPB can improve plant establishment and reduce the need for compost amendment. Further, PGPB activities necessary for aiding plant growth in mine tailings likely include tolerance to acidic pH and metals.

  16. Preparation and combustion of high ash coal tailing slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Ziping; Zhang Wenfu; Fu Xiaoheng; Wang Zuna; Li Hui

    1998-12-31

    Flotation tailings from a coal preparation plant are known for their high ash, low heating value, high moisture content even after thickening and filtration, and difficult handability. However, they can be easily converted into a slurry fuel for boilers. Two flotation tailings, containing ash of 31.89% and 41.87% respectively, have been converted into slurry fuel with the following properties: solid content being 70.4% and 74.4% respectively; low heating value, 13,694kj/kg and 10,970kj/kg; and viscosity, 379 mPa.s and 180 mPa.s at a shear rate of 100s{sup {minus}1}. An eccentric slant jet coal slurry burner was installed at the boiler. Slurry atomizing nozzle operated at low pressure. Both slurries gave stable combustion without supporting fuel under the condition of cool air supply. A new way of flotation tailing utilization was demonstrated. China has more than 200 coal preparation plants washing more than 300 million tons of coal annually. These preparation plants generate more than 10 million tons of tailing annually, most of which is not currently being used, causing great environmental pollution and waste management difficulties for the enterprises. Comprehensive utilization of coal washer tailings is one of the key issues of environmental protection and energy saving in China.

  17. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. [UMTRA project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    The mission of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is explicitly stated and directed in the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978, hereinafter referred to as the Act.'' Title I of the Act authorizes the Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake remedial action at designated inactive uranium processing sites (Attachment 1 and 2) and associated vicinity properties containing uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials derived from the processing site. The purpose of the remedial actions is to stabilize and control such uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials in a safe and environmentally sound manner to minimize radiation health hazards to the public. The principal health hazards and environmental concerns are: the inhalation of air particulates contaminated as a result of the emanation of radon from the tailings piles and the subsequent decay of radon daughters; and the contamination of surface and groundwaters with radionuclides or other chemically toxic materials. This UMTRA Project Plan identifies the mission and objectives of the project, outlines the technical and managerial approach for achieving them, and summarizes the performance, cost, and schedule baselines which have been established to guide operational activity. Estimated cost increases by 15 percent, or if the schedule slips by six months. 4 refs.

  18. 75#EVKQPVQ%WTD)NQDCN9CTOKPI +U(GCUKDNGCPF#HHQTFCDNG

    E-print Network

    Gille, Sarah T.

    .................................................................................................................................... 15 #12;7 % 5 6 G N N W U # 5OCNN 2TKEG VQ 2C[ : he recent Kyoto Protocol mandates that the United: · Claims that compliance with the Kyoto Protocol would be prohibitively expensive and would seri- ously pollut- ants. · The United States can meet all or most of the Kyoto Protocol's mandated emissions

  19. Female white-tailed deer survival across ecoregions in minnesota and south dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grovenburg, T.W.; Swanson, C.C.; Jacques, C.N.; Deperno, C.S.; Klaver, R.W.; Jenks, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Survival and cause-specific mortality of female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been well documented in forested and agricultural landscapes, but limited information has been collected in grassland habitats typical of the Northern Great Plains. Our objectives were to document and compare survival and cause-specific mortality of adult female white-tailed deer in four distinct ecoregions. We captured and radiocollared 190 (159 adult, 31 yearling) female white-tailed deer and monitored (including deer from a previous study) a total of 246 (215 adult, 31 yearling) deer from Jan. 2000 to Dec. 2007. We documented 113 mortalities; hunting (including wounding loss) accounted for 69.9% of all mortalities and vehicle collisions accounted for an additional 15.0%. Natural causes (e.g., disease, predation) of mortality were minor compared to human-related causes (e.g., hunting, vehicle collisions). We used known fate modeling in program MARK to estimate survival rates and compare ecoregions and seasons. Model Sseason (winter=summer) had the lowest AICc value suggesting that survival differed only between seasons where winter and summer survival was equal and differed with fall season. Annual and seasonal (summer, fall, winter) survival rates using the top model S season (summer=winter) were 0.76 (95% ci = 0.70-0.80), 0.97 (95% ci = 0.96-0.98), 0.80 (95% ci = 0.76-0.83) and 0.97 (95% ci = 0.96-0.98), respectively. High human-related mortality was likely associated with limited permanent cover, extensive road networks and high hunter density. Deer management in four distinct ecoregions relies on hunter harvest to maintain deer populations within state management goals. ?? 2011 American Midland Naturalist.

  20. Flea abundance on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) increases during plague epizootics.

    PubMed

    Tripp, Daniel W; Gage, Kenneth L; Montenieri, John A; Antolin, Michael F

    2009-06-01

    Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) on the Great Plains of the United States are highly susceptible to plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, with mortality on towns during plague epizootics often approaching 100%. The ability of flea-borne transmission to sustain disease spread has been questioned because of inefficiency of flea vectors. However, even with low individual efficiency, overall transmission can be increased if flea abundance (the number of fleas on hosts) increases. Changes in flea abundance on hosts during plague outbreaks were recorded during a large-scale study of plague outbreaks in prairie dogs in north central Colorado during 3 years (2004-2007). Fleas were collected from live-trapped black-tailed prairie dogs before and during plague epizootics and tested by PCR for the presence of Y. pestis. The predominant fleas were two prairie dog specialists (Oropsylla hirsuta and Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris), and a generalist flea species (Pulex simulans) was also recorded from numerous mammals in the area. The three species differ in seasonal abundance, with greatest abundance in spring (February and March) and fall (September and October). Flea abundance and infestation intensity increased during epizootics and were highest on prairie dogs with Y. pestis-infected fleas. Seasonal occurrence of epizootics among black-tailed prairie dogs was found to coincide with seasonal peaks in flea abundance. Concentration of infected fleas on surviving animals may account for rapid spread of plague during epizootics. In particular, the role of the generalist flea P. simulans was previously underappreciated. PMID:19492944

  1. Ecological havoc, the rise of white-tailed deer, and the emergence of Amblyomma americanum-associated zoonoses in the United States.

    PubMed

    Paddock, C D; Yabsley, M J

    2007-01-01

    Two infectious diseases, and one presumably infectious disease, each vectored by or associated with the bite of the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum), were identified and characterized by clinicians and scientists in the United States during the 1980s and 1990s. These three conditions-human monocytic (or monocytotropic) ehrlichiosis (HME), Ehrlichia ewingii ehrlichiosis, and southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI)-undoubtedly existed in the United States prior to this time. However, the near-simultaneous recognition of these diseases is remarkable and suggests the involvement of a unifying process that thrust multiple pathogens into the sphere of human recognition. Previous works by other investigators have emphasized the pivotal role of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the emergence of Lyme disease, human babesiosis, and human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Because whitetails serve as a keystone host for all stages of lone star ticks, and an important reservoir host for Ehrlichia chaffeensis, E. ewingii, and Borrelia lonestari, the near-exponential growth of white-tailed deer populations that occurred in the eastern United States during the twentieth century is likely to have dramatically affected the frequency and distribution of A. americanum-associated zoonoses. This chapter describes the natural histories of the pathogens definitively or putatively associated with HME, E. ewingii ehrlichiosis, and STARI; the role of white-tailed deer as hosts to lone star ticks and the agents of these diseases; and the cascade of ecologic disturbances to the landscape of the United States that have occurred during the last 200 years that provided critical leverage in the proliferation of white-tailed deer, and ultimately resulted in the emergence of these diseases in human populations. PMID:17848069

  2. Empirical study of the tails of mutual fund size.

    PubMed

    Schwarzkopf, Yonathan; Farmer, J Doyne

    2010-06-01

    The mutual fund industry manages about a quarter of the assets in the U.S. stock market and thus plays an important role in the U.S. economy. The question of how much control is concentrated in the hands of the largest players is best quantitatively discussed in terms of the tail behavior of the mutual fund size distribution. We study the distribution empirically and show that the tail is much better described by a log-normal than a power law, indicating less concentration than, for example, personal income. The results are highly statistically significant and are consistent across fifteen years. This contradicts a recent theory concerning the origin of the power law tails of the trading volume distribution. Based on the analysis in a companion paper, the log-normality is to be expected, and indicates that the distribution of mutual funds remains perpetually out of equilibrium. PMID:20866484

  3. Movements of flightless long-tailed ducks during wing molt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, P.L.; Lacroix, D.L.; Reed, J.A.; Lanctot, Richard B.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the movements of flightless Long-tailed Ducks (Clangula hyemalis) during the wing molt in the near-shore lagoons of the Beaufort Sea in Alaska. Estimates of site fidelity during the 21-day flightless period ranged from 1-100%, with considerable variation among locations and within locations among years. There was no effect of low-level experimental disturbance or an underwater seismic survey on site fidelity of molting Long-tailed Ducks. Birds molting along a relatively consistent habitat gradient were more likely to move than those molting in a fragmented habitat. While flocks of birds are consistently observed in the same locations, these data suggest considerable turnover within these aggregations. These results, in conjunction with other studies, suggest that forage is relatively uniformly distributed within lagoons. We conclude that habitat selection by molting Long-tailed Ducks is likely influenced by protection from wind and associated waves.

  4. Understanding the Heavy Tailed Dynamics in Human Behavior

    E-print Network

    Ross, Gordon J

    2015-01-01

    The recent availability of electronic datasets containing large volumes of communication data has made it possible to study human behavior on a larger scale than ever before. From this, it has been discovered that across a diverse range of data sets, the inter-event times between consecutive communication events obey heavy tailed power law dynamics. Explaining this has proved controversial, and two distinct hypotheses have emerged. The first holds that these power laws are fundamental, and arise from the mechanisms such as priority queuing that humans use to schedule tasks. The second holds that they are a statistical artifact which only occur in aggregated data when features such as circadian rhythms and burstiness are ignored. We use a large social media data set to test these hypotheses, and find that although models that incorporate circadian rhythms and burstiness do explain part of the observed heavy tails, there is residual unexplained heavy tail behavior which suggests a more fundamental cause. Based ...

  5. Measurements of atmospheric turbulence effects on tail rotor acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagen, Martin J.; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Signor, David B.; Mosher, Marianne

    1994-01-01

    Results from an outdoor hover test of a full-scale Lynx tail rotor are presented. The investigation was designed to further the understanding of the acoustics of an isolated tail rotor hovering out-of-ground effect in atmospheric turbulence, without the effects of the main rotor wake or other helicopter components. Measurements include simultaneous rotor performance, noise, inflow, and far-field atmospheric turbulence. Results with grid-generated inflow turbulence are also presented. The effects of atmospheric turbulence ingestion on rotor noise are quantified. In contradiction to current theories, increasing rotor inflow and rotor thrust were found to increase turbulence ingestion noise. This is the final report of Task 13A--Helicopter Tail Rotor Noise, of the NASA/United Kingdom Defense Research Agency cooperative Aeronautics Research Program.

  6. Extreme values and fat tails of multifractal fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzy, J. F.; Bacry, E.; Kozhemyak, A.

    2006-06-01

    In this paper we discuss the problem of the estimation of extreme event occurrence probability for data drawn from some multifractal process. We also study the heavy (power-law) tail behavior of probability density function associated with such data. We show that because of strong correlations, the standard extreme value approach is not valid and classical tail exponent estimators should be interpreted cautiously. Extreme statistics associated with multifractal random processes turn out to be characterized by non-self-averaging properties. Our considerations rely upon some analogy between random multiplicative cascades and the physics of disordered systems and also on recent mathematical results about the so-called multifractal formalism. Applied to financial time series, our findings allow us to propose an unified framework that accounts for the observed multiscaling properties of return fluctuations, the volatility clustering phenomenon and the observed “inverse cubic law” of the return pdf tails.

  7. The Anatomy of the Long Tail of Consumer Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broder, Andrei

    The long tail of consumer demand is consistent with two fundamentally different theories. The first, and more popular hypothesis, is that a majority of consumers have similar tastes and only few have any interest in niche content; the second, is that everyone is a bit eccentric, consuming both popular and niche products. By examining extensive data on user preferences for movies, music, web search, and web browsing, we found overwhelming support for the latter theory. Our investigation suggests an additional factor in the success of "infinite-inventory" retailers such as Netflix and Amazon: besides the significant revenue obtained from tail sales, tail availability may boost head sales by offering consumers the convenience of "one-stop shopping" for both their mainstream and niche interests.

  8. Environmental Risk Assessment System for Phosphogypsum Tailing Dams

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xin; Tang, Xiaolong; Yi, Honghong; Li, Kai; Zhou, Lianbi; Xu, Xianmang

    2013-01-01

    This paper may be of particular interest to the readers as it provides a new environmental risk assessment system for phosphogypsum tailing dams. In this paper, we studied the phosphogypsum tailing dams which include characteristics of the pollution source, environmental risk characteristics and evaluation requirements to identify the applicable environmental risk assessment methods. Two analytical methods, that is, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy logic, were used to handle the complexity of the environmental and nonquantitative data. Using our assessment method, different risk factors can be ranked according to their contributions to the environmental risk, thereby allowing the calculation of their relative priorities during decision making. Thus, environmental decision-makers can use this approach to develop alternative management strategies for proposed, ongoing, and completed PG tailing dams. PMID:24382947

  9. Curved tails in polymerization-based bacterial motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutenberg, Andrew D.; Grant, Martin

    2001-08-01

    The curved actin ``comet-tail'' of the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is a visually striking signature of actin polymerization-based motility. Similar actin tails are associated with Shigella flexneri, spotted-fever Rickettsiae, the Vaccinia virus, and vesicles and microspheres in related in vitro systems. We show that the torque required to produce the curvature in the tail can arise from randomly placed actin filaments pushing the bacterium or particle. We find that the curvature magnitude determines the number of actively pushing filaments, independent of viscosity and of the molecular details of force generation. The variation of the curvature with time can be used to infer the dynamics of actin filaments at the bacterial surface.

  10. Correlation between length and tilt of lipid tails.

    PubMed

    Kopelevich, Dmitry I; Nagle, John F

    2015-10-21

    It is becoming recognized from simulations, and to a lesser extent from experiment, that the classical Helfrich-Canham membrane continuum mechanics model can be fruitfully enriched by the inclusion of molecular tilt, even in the fluid, chain disordered, biologically relevant phase of lipid bilayers. Enriched continuum theories then add a tilt modulus ?? to accompany the well recognized bending modulus ?. Different enrichment theories largely agree for many properties, but it has been noticed that there is considerable disagreement in one prediction; one theory postulates that the average length of the hydrocarbon chain tails increases strongly with increasing tilt and another predicts no increase. Our analysis of an all-atom simulation favors the latter theory, but it also shows that the overall tail length decreases slightly with increasing tilt. We show that this deviation from continuum theory can be reconciled by consideration of the average shape of the tails, which is a descriptor not obviously includable in continuum theory. PMID:26493917

  11. H4 tail interactions revealed by fluorescent fluctuation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurse, Nathan; Yuan, Chongli

    2015-03-01

    Post-translational modifications to histone tails nave been shown to play a large role in dictating the conformation of chromatin. Structural changes in chromatin can play a large role in gene expression as compact chromatin can occlude transcriptional machinery. The role of the flexible regions of H4 N terminal tails is investigated using fluorescent correlation spectroscopy and the photon counting histogram. The combination of these techniques allows for the distinction between intra-array and inter-array interactions, as well as reveals structural changes that result from these interactions. The H4 tail was found to partake in attractive intra-array interactions that compact the 6x167 nucleosome arrays but did not partake in inter-array interactions that lead to oligomerization.

  12. Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1980 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.; Buelt, J.L.; Nelson, D.A.; Elmore, M.R.

    1981-05-01

    Studies of asphalt emulsion sealants conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory have demonstrated that the sealants are effective in containing radon and other potentially hazardous material within uranium tailings. The laboratory and field studies have further demonstrated that radon exhalation from uranium tailings piles can be reduced by greater than 99% to near background levels. Field tests at the tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado, confirmed that an 8-cm admix seal containing 22 wt% asphalt could be effectively applied with a cold-mix paver. Other techniques were successfully tested, including a soil stabilizer and a hot, rubberized asphalt seal that was applied with a distributor truck. After the seals were applied and compacted, overburden was applied over the seal to protect the seal from ultraviolet degradation.

  13. Lifshitz Tails for Generalized Alloy Type Random Schrödinger Operators

    E-print Network

    Frédéric Klopp; Shu Nakamura

    2009-03-16

    We study Lifshitz tails for random Schr\\"odinger operators where the random potential is alloy type in the sense that the single site potentials are independent, identically distributed, but they may have various function forms. We suppose the single site potentials are distributed in a finite set of functions, and we show that under suitable symmetry conditions, they have Lifshitz tail at the bottom of the spectrum except for special cases. When the single site potential is symmetric with respect to all the axes, we give a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of Lifshitz tails. As an application, we show that certain random displacement models have Lifshitz singularity at the bottom of the spectrum, and also complete the study of continuous Anderson type models undertaken in arXiv : 0804.4079

  14. Correlation between length and tilt of lipid tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopelevich, Dmitry I.; Nagle, John F.

    2015-10-01

    It is becoming recognized from simulations, and to a lesser extent from experiment, that the classical Helfrich-Canham membrane continuum mechanics model can be fruitfully enriched by the inclusion of molecular tilt, even in the fluid, chain disordered, biologically relevant phase of lipid bilayers. Enriched continuum theories then add a tilt modulus ?? to accompany the well recognized bending modulus ?. Different enrichment theories largely agree for many properties, but it has been noticed that there is considerable disagreement in one prediction; one theory postulates that the average length of the hydrocarbon chain tails increases strongly with increasing tilt and another predicts no increase. Our analysis of an all-atom simulation favors the latter theory, but it also shows that the overall tail length decreases slightly with increasing tilt. We show that this deviation from continuum theory can be reconciled by consideration of the average shape of the tails, which is a descriptor not obviously includable in continuum theory.

  15. Matrix metalloproteinases mediate the dismantling of mesenchymal structures in the tadpole tail during thyroid hormone-induced tail resorption.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae-Chang; Leco, Kevin J; Edwards, Dylan R; Fini, M Elizabeth

    2002-03-01

    It has been suggested that a family of tissue remodelling enzymes called matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a causal role in the process of tail resorption during thyroid hormone-induced metamorphosis of the anuran tadpole; however, this hypothesis has never been directly substantiated. We cloned two new Xenopus MMPs, gelatinase A (MMP-2) and MT3-MMP (MMP-16), and the MMP inhibitor TIMP-2. These clones were used along with several others to perform a comprehensive expression study. We show that all MMPs and TIMP-2 are dramatically induced in the resorbing tail during spontaneous metamorphosis and are spatially coexpressed, primarily in the remodelling mesenchymal tissues. By Northern blotting, we show that all the examined MMPs/TIMP-2 are also induced by treatment of organ-cultured tails with thyroid hormone (T(3)). Using the organ culture model, we provide the first direct evidence that MMPs are required for T(3)-induced tail resorption by showing that a synthetic inhibitor of MMP activity/expression can specifically retard the resorption process. By gelatin zymography, we also show T(3) induction of a fifth MMP, preliminarily identified as gelatinase B (GelB; MMP-9). Moreover, T(3) not only induces MMP/TIMP expression but also MMP activation, and we provide evidence that TIMP-2 participates in the latter process. These findings suggest that MMPs and TIMPs act in concert to effect the dismantling of mesenchymal structures during T(3)-induced metamorphic tadpole tail resorption. PMID:11891989

  16. The fish tail motion forms an attached leading edge vortex

    PubMed Central

    Borazjani, Iman; Daghooghi, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    The tail (caudal fin) is one of the most prominent characteristics of fishes, and the analysis of the flow pattern it creates is fundamental to understanding how its motion generates locomotor forces. A mechanism that is known to greatly enhance locomotor forces in insect and bird flight is the leading edge vortex (LEV) reattachment, i.e. a vortex (separation bubble) that stays attached at the leading edge of a wing. However, this mechanism has not been reported in fish-like swimming probably owing to the overemphasis on the trailing wake, and the fact that the flow does not separate along the body of undulating swimmers. We provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence of the vortex reattachment at the leading edge of the fish tail using three-dimensional high-resolution numerical simulations of self-propelled virtual swimmers with different tail shapes. We show that at Strouhal numbers (a measure of lateral velocity to the axial velocity) at which most fish swim in nature (approx. 0.25) an attached LEV is formed, whereas at a higher Strouhal number of approximately 0.6 the LEV does not reattach. We show that the evolution of the LEV drastically alters the pressure distribution on the tail and the force it generates. We also show that the tail's delta shape is not necessary for the LEV reattachment and fish-like kinematics is capable of stabilising the LEV. Our results suggest the need for a paradigm shift in fish-like swimming research to turn the focus from the trailing edge to the leading edge of the tail. PMID:23407826

  17. Spectral induced polarization (SIP) response of mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Placencia-Gómez, Edmundo; Parviainen, Annika; Slater, Lee; Leveinen, Jussi

    2015-02-01

    Mine tailings impoundments are a source of leachates known as acid mine drainage (AMD) which can pose a contamination risk for surrounding surface and groundwater. Methodologies which can help management of this environmental issue are needed. We carried out a laboratory study of the spectral induced polarization (SIP) response of tailings from the Haveri Au-Cu mine, SW Finland. The primary objectives were, (1) to determine possible correlations between SIP parameters and textural properties associated with oxidative-weathering mechanisms, mineralogical composition and metallic content, and (2) to evaluate the effects of the pore water chemistry on SIP parameters associated with redox-inactive and redox-active electrolytes varying in molar concentration, conductivity and pH. The Haveri tailings exhibit well defined relaxation spectra between 100 and 10,000Hz. The relaxation magnitudes are governed by the in-situ oxidative-weathering conditions on sulphide mineral surfaces contained in the tailings, and decrease with the oxidation degree. The oxidation-driven textural variation in the tailings results in changes to the frequency peak of the phase angle, the imaginary conductivity and chargeability, when plotted versus the pore water conductivity. In contrast, the real and the formation electrical conductivity components show a single linear dependence on the pore water conductivity. The increase of the pore water conductivity (dominated by the increase of ions concentration in solution) along with a transition to acidic conditions shifts the polarization peak towards higher frequencies. These findings show the unique sensitivity of the SIP method to potentially discriminate AMD discharges from reactive oxidation zones in tailings, suggesting a significant advantage for monitoring threatened aquifers. PMID:25528133

  18. Spectral induced polarization (SIP) response of mine tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placencia-Gómez, Edmundo; Parviainen, Annika; Slater, Lee; Leveinen, Jussi

    2015-02-01

    Mine tailings impoundments are a source of leachates known as acid mine drainage (AMD) which can pose a contamination risk for surrounding surface and groundwater. Methodologies which can help management of this environmental issue are needed. We carried out a laboratory study of the spectral induced polarization (SIP) response of tailings from the Haveri Au-Cu mine, SW Finland. The primary objectives were, (1) to determine possible correlations between SIP parameters and textural properties associated with oxidative-weathering mechanisms, mineralogical composition and metallic content, and (2) to evaluate the effects of the pore water chemistry on SIP parameters associated with redox-inactive and redox-active electrolytes varying in molar concentration, conductivity and pH. The Haveri tailings exhibit well defined relaxation spectra between 100 and 10,000 Hz. The relaxation magnitudes are governed by the in-situ oxidative-weathering conditions on sulphide mineral surfaces contained in the tailings, and decrease with the oxidation degree. The oxidation-driven textural variation in the tailings results in changes to the frequency peak of the phase angle, the imaginary conductivity and chargeability, when plotted versus the pore water conductivity. In contrast, the real and the formation electrical conductivity components show a single linear dependence on the pore water conductivity. The increase of the pore water conductivity (dominated by the increase of ions concentration in solution) along with a transition to acidic conditions shifts the polarization peak towards higher frequencies. These findings show the unique sensitivity of the SIP method to potentially discriminate AMD discharges from reactive oxidation zones in tailings, suggesting a significant advantage for monitoring threatened aquifers.

  19. Adoption in rock and white-tailed ptarmigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, M.M.L.; Fedy, B.C.; Wilson, S.; Martin, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    Reports of adoption in birds are widespread, but few studies report rates of adoption or possible mechanisms for this phenomenon, particularly in the Order Galliformes. We report incidents of adoption in Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) and White-tailed Ptarmigan (L. leucura) from two sites in western Canada. Adoption rates for White-tailed Ptarmigan on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, and the Ruby Ranges, Yukon Territory were 13% (n = 16 broods) and 4% (n = 27), respectively, while rates for Rock Ptarmigan were 14% (n = 29) in the Ruby Ranges. Low brood densities may result in lower rates of adoption for ptarmigan. ?? 2009 The Wilson Ornithological Society.

  20. Weighted Kolmogorov-Smirnov test: accounting for the tails.

    PubMed

    Chicheportiche, Rémy; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe

    2012-10-01

    Accurate goodness-of-fit tests for the extreme tails of empirical distributions is a very important issue, relevant in many contexts, including geophysics, insurance, and finance. We have derived exact asymptotic results for a generalization of the large-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, well suited to testing these extreme tails. In passing, we have rederived and made more precise the approximate limit solutions found originally in unrelated fields, first in [L. Turban, J. Phys. A 25, 127 (1992)] and later in [P. L. Krapivsky and S. Redner, Am. J. Phys. 64, 546 (1996)]. PMID:23214537

  1. The power law distribution for lower tail cities in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devadoss, Stephen; Luckstead, Jeff; Danforth, Diana; Akhundjanov, Sherzod

    2016-01-01

    The city size distribution for lower tail cities has received scant attention because a small portion of the population lives in rural villages, particularly in developed countries, and data are not readily available for small cities. However, in developing countries much of the population inhabits rural areas. The purpose of this study is to test whether power law holds for small cities in India by using the most recent and comprehensive Indian census data for the year 2011. Our results show that lower tail cities for India do exhibit a power law.

  2. Late-time tails of self-gravitating skyrmions

    E-print Network

    Stanislaw Zajac

    2011-01-25

    We consider the long-time behaviour of spherically symmetric solutions in the Einstein-Skyrme model. Using nonlinear perturbation analysis we obtain the leading order estimation of the tail in the topologically trivial sector (B = 0) of the model. We show that solutions starting from small compactly supported initial data decay as 1/t^4 at future timelike infinity and as 1/u^2 at future null infinity. We also verified that long-time behaviour for the tail in Einstein-Skyrme model is exactly the same as it was obtained for wave maps.

  3. Enhanced window breakdown dynamics in a nanosecond microwave tail pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Chao; Zhu, Meng; Li, Shuang; Xie, Jialing; Yan, Kai; Luo, Tongding; Zhu, Xiaoxin; Verboncoeur, John

    2014-06-23

    The mechanisms of nanosecond microwave-driven discharges near a dielectric/vacuum interface were studied by measuring the time- and space-dependent optical emissions and pulse waveforms. The experimental observations indicate multipactor and plasma developing in a thin layer of several millimeters above interface. The emission brightness increases significantly after main pulse, but emission region widens little. The mechanisms are studied by analysis and simulation, revealing intense ionization concentrated in a desorbed high-pressure layer, leading to a bright light layer above surface; the lower-voltage tail after main pulse contributes to heat electron energy tails closer to excitation cross section peaks, resulting in brighter emission.

  4. Wake patterns of the wings and tail of hovering hummingbirds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altshuler, Douglas L.; Princevac, Marko; Pan, Hansheng; Lozano, Jesse

    The flow fields of slowly flying bats and fasterflying birds differ in that bats produce two vortex loops during each stroke, one per wing, and birds produce a single vortex loop per stroke. In addition, the circulation at stroke transition approaches zero in bats but remains strong in birds. It is unknown if these difference derive from fundamental differences in wing morphology or are a consequence of flight speed. Here, we present an analysis of the horizontal flow field underneath hovering Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) to describe the wake of a bird flying at zero forward velocity. We also consider how the hummingbird tail interacts with the wake generated by the wings. High-speed image recording and analysis from three orthogonal perspectives revealed that the wing tips reach peak velocities in the middle of each stroke and approach zero velocity at stroke transition. Hummingbirds use complex tail kinematic patterns ranging from in phase to antiphase cycling with respect to the wings, covering several phase shifted patterns. We employed particle image velocimetry to attain detailed horizontal flow measurements at three levels with respect to the tail: in the tail, at the tail tip, and just below the tail. The velocity patterns underneath the wings indicate that flow oscillates along the ventral-dorsal axis in response to the down- and up-strokes and that the sideways flows with respect to the bird are consistently from the lateral to medial. The region around the tail is dominated by axial flows in dorsal to ventral direction. We propose that these flows are generated by interaction between the wakes of the two wings at the end of the upstroke, and that the tail actively defects flows to generate moments that contribute to pitch stability. The flow fields images also revealed distinct vortex loops underneath each wing, which were generated during each stroke. From these data, we propose a model for the primary flow structures of hummingbirds that more strongly resembles the bat model. Thus, pairs of unconnected vortex loops may be shared features of different animals during hovering and slow forward flight.

  5. Wake patterns of the wings and tail of hovering hummingbirds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altshuler, Douglas L.; Princevac, Marko; Pan, Hansheng; Lozano, Jesse

    2009-05-01

    The flow fields of slowly flying bats and faster-flying birds differ in that bats produce two vortex loops during each stroke, one per wing, and birds produce a single vortex loop per stroke. In addition, the circulation at stroke transition approaches zero in bats but remains strong in birds. It is unknown if these difference derive from fundamental differences in wing morphology or are a consequence of flight speed. Here, we present an analysis of the horizontal flow field underneath hovering Anna’s hummingbirds ( Calypte anna) to describe the wake of a bird flying at zero forward velocity. We also consider how the hummingbird tail interacts with the wake generated by the wings. High-speed image recording and analysis from three orthogonal perspectives revealed that the wing tips reach peak velocities in the middle of each stroke and approach zero velocity at stroke transition. Hummingbirds use complex tail kinematic patterns ranging from in phase to antiphase cycling with respect to the wings, covering several phase shifted patterns. We employed particle image velocimetry to attain detailed horizontal flow measurements at three levels with respect to the tail: in the tail, at the tail tip, and just below the tail. The velocity patterns underneath the wings indicate that flow oscillates along the ventral-dorsal axis in response to the down- and up-strokes and that the sideways flows with respect to the bird are consistently from the lateral to medial. The region around the tail is dominated by axial flows in dorsal to ventral direction. We propose that these flows are generated by interaction between the wakes of the two wings at the end of the upstroke, and that the tail actively defects flows to generate moments that contribute to pitch stability. The flow fields images also revealed distinct vortex loops underneath each wing, which were generated during each stroke. From these data, we propose a model for the primary flow structures of hummingbirds that more strongly resembles the bat model. Thus, pairs of unconnected vortex loops may be shared features of different animals during hovering and slow forward flight.

  6. Tailings dam-break flow - Analysis of sediment transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleixo, Rui; Altinakar, Mustafa

    2015-04-01

    A common solution to store mining debris is to build tailings dams near the mining site. These dams are usually built with local materials such as mining debris and are more vulnerable than concrete dams (Rico et al. 2008). of The tailings and the pond water generally contain heavy metals and various toxic chemicals used in ore extraction. Thus, the release of tailings due to a dam-break can have severe ecological consequences in the environment. A tailings dam-break has many similarities with a common dam-break flow. It is highly transient and can be severely descructive. However, a significant difference is that the released sediment-water mixture will behave as a non-Newtonian flow. Existing numerical models used to simulate dam-break flows do not represent correctly the non-Newtonian behavior of tailings under a dam-break flow and may lead to unrealistic and incorrect results. The need for experiments to extract both qualitative and quantitative information regarding these flows is therefore real and actual. The present paper explores an existing experimental data base presented in Aleixo et al. (2014a,b) to further characterize the sediment transport under conditions of a severe transient flow and to extract quantitative information regarding sediment flow rate, sediment velocity, sediment-sediment interactions a among others. Different features of the flow are also described and analyzed in detail. The analysis is made by means of imaging techniques such as Particle Image Velocimetry and Particle Tracking Velocimetry that allow extracting not only the velocity field but the Lagrangian description of the sediments as well. An analysis of the results is presented and the limitations of the presented experimental approach are discussed. References Rico, M., Benito, G., Salgueiro, AR, Diez-Herrero, A. and Pereira, H.G. (2008) Reported tailings dam failures: A review of the European incidents in the worldwide context , Journal of Hazardous Materials, 152, 846-852 . Aleixo, R., Ozeren, Y., Altinakar, M. and Wren, D. (2014a) Velocity Measurements using Particle Tracking in Tailings dam Failure experiments, Proceedings of the 3rd IAHR-Europe conference, Porto, Portugal. Aleixo, R., Ozeren, Y., Altinakar, M. (2014b) Tailing dam-break analysis by means of a combined PIV-PTV tool, Proceedings of the River Flow Conference, Lausanne, Switzerland.

  7. Health status of mule deer and white-tailed deer herds on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    SciTech Connect

    Creekmore, T.E.; Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L.; Griess, J.M.; Roy, R.R.; Baker, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    The Rocky Mountain Arsenal is a fenced, 6,900-ha Superfund site under remediation by the US Army and the Shell Oil Company. A variety of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, metals, and nerve-gas-production by-products are in the soil or in the water on the site. The authors evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer (13 mule deer [Odocoileus hemionus] and 5 white-tailed deer [O. virginianus]) collected by gunshot. Prior to collection, more than 4,000 locations of the 18 deer were plotted during a period of more than 2 years. Blood samples from the euthanized animals were collected for serologic, hematologic, and contaminant evaluations. Necropsies were preformed and tissues collected for histopathologic examinations and environmental contaminants analyses. Results indicate that the physical conditions of the mule deer were fair/good and of the white-tailed deer were good. Antibody prevalence against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85% and bovine virus diarrhea 56%. Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. Three mule deer had alopecia with dermatitis and hyperkeratosis. Results of heavy metal, and organochlorine pesticide analyses from blood and tissue samples and other analyses will be presented.

  8. Well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Nemeth, N M; Blas-Machado, U; Cazzini, P; Oguni, J; Camus, M S; Dockery, K K; Butler, A M

    2013-02-01

    A 16-year-old male ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) was presented with severe cachexia and an abdominal mass. The encapsulated, multilobular mass replaced the right medial lobe of the liver and compressed the adjacent gall bladder. Multiple haemorrhages and necrotic foci were found within the mass. Microscopically, neoplastic cells formed cords of moderately pleomorphic, polygonal cells with mild to moderate anaplasia. Immunohistochemical markers used for diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinomas in man were used to characterize the neoplastic cells, which expressed hepatocyte-specific antigen, but not glypican-3 or polyclonal carcinoembryonic antigen. Gross, microscopical and immunohistochemical features of the tumour were most consistent with a well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma. Although this tumour is common among prosimians, to the authors' knowledge this is the first documented case in a ring-tailed lemur. Hepatocellular carcinomas have been associated with hepatitis virus infections and excessive hepatic iron in man; however, no association was established between this tumour and viral infection or hepatic iron storage disease in the present case. PMID:22819017

  9. Structure of MyTH4-FERM domains in myosin VIIa tail bound to cargo.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lin; Pan, Lifeng; Wei, Zhiyi; Zhang, Mingjie

    2011-02-11

    The unconventional myosin VIIa (MYO7A) is one of the five proteins that form a network of complexes involved in formation of stereocilia. Defects in these proteins cause syndromic deaf-blindness in humans [Usher syndrome I (USH1)]. Many disease-causing mutations occur in myosin tail homology 4-protein 4.1, ezrin, radixin, moesin (MyTH4-FERM) domains in the myosin tail that binds to another USH1 protein, Sans. We report the crystal structure of MYO7A MyTH4-FERM domains in complex with the central domain (CEN) of Sans at 2.8 angstrom resolution. The MyTH4 and FERM domains form an integral structural and functional supramodule binding to two highly conserved segments (CEN1 and 2) of Sans. The MyTH4-FERM/CEN complex structure provides mechanistic explanations for known deafness-causing mutations in MYO7A MyTH4-FERM. The structure will also facilitate mechanistic and functional studies of MyTH4-FERM domains in other myosins. PMID:21311020

  10. Metals in obex and retropharyngeal lymph nodes of Illinois white-tailed deer and their variations associated with CWD status.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Nelda A; Novakofski, Jan; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Kelly, Amy; Satterthwaite-Phillips, Damian; Ruiz, Marilyn O; Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra

    2015-01-01

    Prion proteins (PrP(C)) are cell membrane glycoproteins that can be found in many cell types, but specially in neurons. Many studies have suggested PrP(C)'s participation in metal transport and cellular protection against stress in the central nervous system (CNS). On the other hand PrP(Sc), the misfolded isoform of PrP(C) and the pathogenic agent in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), has been associated with brain metal dyshomeostasis in prion diseases. Thus, changes in metal concentration associated with protein misfolding and aggregation have been reported for human and animal prion diseases, as well as for other neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. The use of metal concentrations in tissues as surrogate markers for early detection of TSEs has been suggested. Studies on the accumulation of metals in free-ranging white-tailed deer have not been conducted. This study established concentrations of copper, iron, manganese, and magnesium in 2 diagnostic tissues used for CWD testing (obex and retropharyngeal lymph nodes (RLN)). We compared these concentrations between tissues and in relation to CWD status. We established reference intervals (RIs) for these metals and explored their ability to discriminate between CWD-positive and CWD-negative animals. Our results indicate that independent of CWD status, white-tailed deer accumulate higher concentrations of Fe, Mn and Mg in RLN than in obex. White-tailed deer infected with CWD accumulated significantly lower concentrations of Mn and Fe than CWD-negative deer. These patterns differed from other species infected with prion diseases. Overlapping values between CWD positive and negative groups indicate that evaluation of these metals in obex and RLN may not be appropriate as a diagnostic tool for CWD infection in white-tailed deer. Because the CWD-negative deer were included in constructing the RIs, high specificities were expected and should be interpreted with caution. Due to the low sensitivity derived from the RIs, we do not recommend using metal concentrations for disease discrimination. PMID:25695915

  11. Behcet's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    NINDS Behcet's Disease Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Behcet's Disease? Is there ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Behcet's Disease? Behcet's disease is a rare, chronic inflammatory ...

  12. Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NINDS NINDS Parkinson's Disease Information Page Clinical Trials Biomarkers of Risk of Parkinson Disease This study determines if people with biomarkers for Parkinson’s disease actually develop the disease during ...

  13. Lentil Diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Major lentil diseases around the world have been described and reviewed. The major diseases include Ascochyta blight, Fusarium wilt, Botrytis Gray Mold, Lentil rust, Stemphylium blight, Anthracnose, and virus diseases. The management practices for these diseases are also presented....

  14. Meningococcal Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gets meningococcal disease? Meningococcal disease most often causes meningitis and blood infections. It may start like a ... Science: Putting a Face on Meningococcal Disease National Meningitis Association Facts about Meningococcal Disease for Adults adultvaccination. ...

  15. Helping to Combat Chronic Wasting Disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2003-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a disease of the nervous system that results in distinctive brain lesions. CWD affects elk, white-tailed deer, and mule deer, but has not been documented in livestock or humans. The origins of the disease, as well as the modes of transmission, remain unknown. Infected deer and elk appear robust and healthy in the early stages of CWD; clinical signs might not show for years. Mortality typically occurs within months after the appearance of clinical signs. The route of transmission is unknown; likely routes include direct transmission between infected and noninfected animals and infected animals contaminating local environments.

  16. Head-Tail Modes for Strong Space Charge

    SciTech Connect

    Burov, Alexey

    2008-12-01

    Head-tail modes are described here for the space charge tune shift significantly exceeding the synchrotron tune. General equation for the modes is derived. Spatial shapes of the modes, their frequencies, and coherent growth rates are explored. The Landau damping rates are also found. Suppression of the transverse mode coupling instability by the space charge is explained.

  17. MIDDLE GORGE POWER PLANT, OWENS RIVER STREAM FLOWING OVER TAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MIDDLE GORGE POWER PLANT, OWENS RIVER STREAM FLOWING OVER TAIL RACE OF POWER PLANT AND PENSTOCK HEADGATE TO LOWER GORGE CONTROL PLANT. A MINIMAL FLOW OF RIVER WATER IS REQUIRED TO MAINTAIN FISH LIFE - Los Angeles Aqueduct, Middle Gorge Power Plant, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. Tail-Measurability in Monotone Latent Variable Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Jules L.; Junker, Brian W.

    1997-01-01

    Latent variable models for an infinite sequence (or universe) of manifest variables that may be discrete, continuous, or a combination of both, are considered. A main theorem is presented that characterizes when it is possible to construct latent variable models that satisfy unidimensionality, monotonicity, conditional independence, and tail

  19. Tails of the endpoint distribution of directed polymers

    E-print Network

    Jeremy Quastel; Daniel Remenik

    2012-09-06

    We prove that the random variable $\\ct=\\argmax_{t\\in\\rr}\\{\\aip(t)-t^2\\}$ has tails which decay like $e^{-ct^3}$. The distribution of $\\ct$ is a universal distribution which governs the rescaled endpoint of directed polymers in 1+1 dimensions for large time or temperature.

  20. 25. VIEW OF MILL FROM UPPER TAILINGS POND. SHOWS ROASTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW OF MILL FROM UPPER TAILINGS POND. SHOWS ROASTER ON LEFT EDGE OF VIEW. THE SECONDARY THICKENER No. 7 IS OFF VIEW TO THE RIGHT. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  1. Univariable Optimal Discriminant Analysis: One-Tailed Hypotheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltysik, Robert C.; Yarnold, Paul R.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the theoretical distribution of optima arising from two-category univariable optimal discriminant analysis (UniODA) of continuous random data for a one-tailed (directional) hypothesis. Directional UniODA is illustrated through an investigation of the relationship between depression and brain monoamine turnover. (SLD)

  2. head : Translate.Access tail : Translate.AccessList

    E-print Network

    Baumgartner, Gerald

    , 2000 Class Diagram: Translate / Main Page 1 #12;CONST value : int CONST() build() kids() LABEL label : Temp.La... LABEL() build() kids() NAME label : Temp.La... NAME() build() kids() Print tmap : Temp() kids() Stm Stm() build() kids() +left +right StmList StmList()+head +tail TEMP temp : Temp.T... TEMP

  3. North European short-tailed breeds of sheep: a review.

    PubMed

    Dýrmundsson, O R; Ni?nikowski, R

    2010-08-01

    The short-tailed sheep, native of an area stretching from Russia to Iceland, are generally considered a primitive type. These robust northern sheep seem to have been spread by Norse vikings to several countries in this area from the late eighth century to the middle of the eleventh century ad. They have several common characteristics in addition to the fluke-shaped and tapered short tail, such as a wide range of colour patterns, dual-coated wool and the ability to thrive under harsh environmental conditions, often in isolated marginal areas. While 34 short-tailed breeds of North European origin can still be identified, it is clear that their population sizes have declined in most cases and several of them are now rare and endangered. Although these breeds have mainly been confined to certain localities, some of them have gained considerable distribution due to their genetic merits, such as prolificacy. Of these, the Finnsheep and the Romanov are best known being exported to several countries in the world where their genetic material has been utilized through crossbreeding with local sheep. This has resulted in the production of some new synthetic breeds. Meat is now generally the main product of the North European short-tailed breeds and their crossbreds, whereas wool, skins and milk are normally regarded as byproducts, yet of considerable economic importance in some cases. Such breeds have clearly a role to play in sustainable grassland-based production systems in the future. PMID:22444647

  4. CD59 mediates cartilage patterning during spontaneous tail regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xue; Wang, Yingjie; Man, Lili; Zhang, Qing; Sun, Cheng; Hu, Wen; Liu, Yan; Liu, Mei; Gu, Xiaosong; Wang, Yongjun

    2015-01-01

    The regeneration-competent adult animals have ability to regenerate their lost complex appendages with a near-perfect replica, owing to the positional identity acquired by the progenitor cells in the blastema, i.e. the blastemal cells. CD59, a CD59/Ly6 family member, has been identified as a regulator of positional identity in the tail blastemal cells of Gekko japonicus. To determine whether this function of CD59 is unique to the regenerative amniote(s) and how CD59 mediates PD axis patterning during tail regeneration, we examined its protective role on the complement-mediated cell lysis and intervened CD59 expression in the tail blastemal cells using an in vivo model of adenovirus transfection. Our data revealed that gecko CD59 was able to inhibit complement-mediated cell lysis. Meanwhile, CD59 functioned on positional identity through expression in cartilage precursor cells. Intervening positional identity by overexpression or siRNA knockdown of CD59 resulted in abnormal cartilaginous cone patterning due to the decreased differentiation of blastemal cells to cartilage precursor cells. The cartilage formation-related genes were found to be under the regulation of CD59. These results indicate that CD59, an evolutionarily transitional molecule linking immune and regenerative regulation, affects tail regeneration by mediating cartilage patterning. PMID:26238652

  5. CD59 mediates cartilage patterning during spontaneous tail regeneration.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xue; Wang, Yingjie; Man, Lili; Zhang, Qing; Sun, Cheng; Hu, Wen; Liu, Yan; Liu, Mei; Gu, Xiaosong; Wang, Yongjun

    2015-01-01

    The regeneration-competent adult animals have ability to regenerate their lost complex appendages with a near-perfect replica, owing to the positional identity acquired by the progenitor cells in the blastema, i.e. the blastemal cells. CD59, a CD59/Ly6 family member, has been identified as a regulator of positional identity in the tail blastemal cells of Gekko japonicus. To determine whether this function of CD59 is unique to the regenerative amniote(s) and how CD59 mediates PD axis patterning during tail regeneration, we examined its protective role on the complement-mediated cell lysis and intervened CD59 expression in the tail blastemal cells using an in vivo model of adenovirus transfection. Our data revealed that gecko CD59 was able to inhibit complement-mediated cell lysis. Meanwhile, CD59 functioned on positional identity through expression in cartilage precursor cells. Intervening positional identity by overexpression or siRNA knockdown of CD59 resulted in abnormal cartilaginous cone patterning due to the decreased differentiation of blastemal cells to cartilage precursor cells. The cartilage formation-related genes were found to be under the regulation of CD59. These results indicate that CD59, an evolutionarily transitional molecule linking immune and regenerative regulation, affects tail regeneration by mediating cartilage patterning. PMID:26238652

  6. 3. Detail of airplane tail protruding out of hangar doors, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Detail of airplane tail protruding out of hangar doors, dock no. 491. Detail of canvas gasket allowing doors to close tightly around fuselage. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  7. 5. VIEW OF UPPER NOTTINGHAM TAILING PILES LOOKING TOWARDS ROCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF UPPER NOTTINGHAM TAILING PILES LOOKING TOWARDS ROCK WALL VISIBLE ON SLOPE JUST RIGHT OF CENTER. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Upper Nottingham Mine, West face of Florida Mountain, head of Jacobs Gulch, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  8. 1. VIEW OF EMPIRE MINE AREA WITH TAILINGS, ORE CHUTE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF EMPIRE MINE AREA WITH TAILINGS, ORE CHUTE, AND COLLAPSED BUILDINGS VISIBLE, AND BARE SWITCHBACK HILLSIDE FROM WHICH #4, #5 AND #6 WERE MADE. CAMERA IS POINTED NORTHWEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  9. In this issue: Does Coyote Predation Affect White-tailed

    E-print Network

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    In this issue: Does Coyote Predation Affect White-tailed Deer Populations in Florida? Got Longleaf Landowners and Resource Professionals Volume 18, No. 2 Summer - Fall 2011 Does Coyote Predation Negatively Selph In the mid to late 20th century the range of the coyote (Canis latrans) expanded dramatically

  10. Muscle Responses to Stimulation of the Tadpole Tail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funkhouser, Anne

    1976-01-01

    Describes use of tail muscles and spinal cord in the tadpole as an alternative source for muscle-and-nerve experiments. Includes explanation of simple dissection and preparation of tadpole; instructions for experiments such as threshold, strength of stimulus, frequency of stimulus, single twitch, tetanus, fatigue, effects of temperature on…

  11. 14 CFR 25.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... prescribed in § 25.473 with— (1) V L 1 equal to V S 0 (TAS) at the appropriate landing weight and in standard sea level conditions; and (2) V L 2 equal to V S 0 (TAS) at the appropriate landing weight and... components considered to be acting at the main wheel axle centerline. (b) For the tail-down landing...

  12. 14 CFR 25.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... prescribed in § 25.473 with— (1) V L 1 equal to V S 0 (TAS) at the appropriate landing weight and in standard sea level conditions; and (2) V L 2 equal to V S 0 (TAS) at the appropriate landing weight and... components considered to be acting at the main wheel axle centerline. (b) For the tail-down landing...

  13. 14 CFR 25.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... prescribed in § 25.473 with— (1) V L 1 equal to V S 0 (TAS) at the appropriate landing weight and in standard sea level conditions; and (2) V L 2 equal to V S 0 (TAS) at the appropriate landing weight and... components considered to be acting at the main wheel axle centerline. (b) For the tail-down landing...

  14. 14 CFR 25.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... prescribed in § 25.473 with— (1) V L 1 equal to V S 0 (TAS) at the appropriate landing weight and in standard sea level conditions; and (2) V L 2 equal to V S 0 (TAS) at the appropriate landing weight and... components considered to be acting at the main wheel axle centerline. (b) For the tail-down landing...

  15. 14 CFR 25.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... prescribed in § 25.473 with— (1) V L 1 equal to V S 0 (TAS) at the appropriate landing weight and in standard sea level conditions; and (2) V L 2 equal to V S 0 (TAS) at the appropriate landing weight and... components considered to be acting at the main wheel axle centerline. (b) For the tail-down landing...

  16. Experimental Investigations of Elastic Tail Propulsion at Low Reynolds Number

    E-print Network

    Tony S. Yu; Eric Lauga; A. E. Hosoi

    2006-06-20

    A simple way to generate propulsion at low Reynolds number is to periodically oscillate a passive flexible filament. Here we present a macroscopic experimental investigation of such a propulsive mechanism. A robotic swimmer is constructed and both tail shape and propulsive force are measured. Filament characteristics and the actuation are varied and resulting data are quantitatively compared with existing linear and nonlinear theories.

  17. The long X-ray tail in Zwicky 8338

    E-print Network

    Schellenberger, G

    2015-01-01

    The interaction processes in galaxy clusters between the hot ionized gas (ICM) and the member galaxies are of crucial importance in order to understand the dynamics in galaxy clusters, the chemical enrichment processes and the validity of their hydrostatic mass estimates. Recently, several X-ray tails associated to gas which was partly stripped of galaxies have been discovered. Here we report on the X-ray tail in the 3 keV galaxy cluster Zwicky 8338, which might be the longest ever observed. We derive the properties of the galaxy cluster environment and give hints on the substructure present in this X-ray tail, which is very likely associated to the galaxy CGCG254-021. The X-ray tail is extraordinarily luminous ($2\\times10^{42}$ erg/s), the thermal emission has a temperature of 0.8 keV and the X-ray luminous gas might be stripped off completely from the galaxy. From the assumptions on the 3D geometry we estimate the gas mass fraction (< 0.1%) and conclude that the gas has been compressed and/or heated.

  18. Does Gray-Tailed Vole Activity Affect Soil Quality?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Voles are well-known crop pests, especially when peak populations are present, but their role in soil fertility and impacts on agricultural sustainability are not well understood. Five months after the abrupt disappearance of a peak in a gray-tailed vole (Microtus canicaudus) population, we examined...

  19. The long X-ray tail in Zwicky 8338

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellenberger, G.; Reiprich, T. H.

    2015-11-01

    The interaction processes in galaxy clusters between the hot ionized gas (ICM) and the member galaxies are of crucial importance to understand the dynamics in galaxy clusters, the chemical enrichment processes, and the validity of their hydrostatic mass estimates. Recently, several X-ray tails associated with gas that was partly stripped of galaxies have been discovered. We report on the X-ray tail in the 3 keV galaxy cluster Zwicky 8338, which might be the longest galaxy-scale stripping process ever observed. We derive the properties of the galaxy cluster environment and give hints on the substructure present in this X-ray tail, which is very likely associated with the galaxy CGCG254-021. The X-ray tail is extraordinarily luminous (2 × 1042 erg s-1), the thermal emission has a temperature of 0.8 keV, and the X-ray luminous gas might be stripped off completely from the galaxy. From assumptions about the 3D geometry, we estimate the gas mass fraction (<0.1%) and conclude that the gas has been compressed and/or heated.

  20. Faun tail: a rare cutaneous sign of spinal dysraphism.

    PubMed

    Kurtipek, Gülcan Saylam; Cihan, Fatma Göksin; Öner, Vefa; Ataseven, Arzu; Özer, ?lkay; Akman, Zahide

    2015-01-01

    Faun tail is a triangle-shaped hypertrichosis of the lumbosacral region. It is a rare condition and it can be a cutaneous marker of underlying spinal cord anomaly. We report on a 17-year-old female patient with hypertrichosis on the lumbosacral area since birth that was later diagnosed with tethered cord in magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:25770308

  1. 1. VIEW OF THE MILL TAILINGS FACING NORTHWEST. SEDIMENT DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF THE MILL TAILINGS FACING NORTHWEST. SEDIMENT DAM AND POND IN THE FOREGROUND, AND WATER PUMP (FEATURE B-25) ON THE LOWER RIGHT SIDE OF PHOTO. - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF ASSEMBLAGE A GIARDIA IN WHITE-TAILED DEER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecal samples were collected from hunter killed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during a managed hunt in a central Maryland county. Fecal samples were cleaned of debris and concentrated by CsCl density gradient centrifugation and stained with MerIFluor reagents. Stained samples were exami...

  3. Perfect Simulation With Exponential Tails on the Running Time

    E-print Network

    Huber, Mark

    Perfect Simulation With Exponential Tails on the Running Time Mark Huber* Department of Mathematics; accepted 14 May 2007; received in final form 15 June 2007 Published online 2 April 2008 in Wiley Inter these distributions, but have a running time T that is itself an unbounded random variable. This article shows

  4. Probability tails of wavelet coefficients of magnetometer records

    E-print Network

    Kokoszka, Piotr

    Probability tails of wavelet coefficients of magnetometer records P. Kokoszka,1 I. Maslova,1 J; published 8 June 2006. [1] The ground-based magnetometer network has long been a powerful tool new mathematical techniques have been developed to analyze magnetometer data and the wavelet technique

  5. The Universal Gaussian in Soliton Tails David A. Kessler

    E-print Network

    Schiff, Jeremy

    x. The inverse scattering trans- form [4] tells us that the solution of KdV with generic initialThe Universal Gaussian in Soliton Tails David A. Kessler Minerva Center and Department of Physics Science, Bar­Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900, Israel We show that in a large class of equations, solitons

  6. Functional Morphology of the Radialis Muscle in Shark Tails

    E-print Network

    Flammang, Brooke

    Functional Morphology of the Radialis Muscle in Shark Tails Brooke E. Flammang* Museum of intrinsic caudal musculature in sharks has not been studied pre- viously, though the kinematics and function. This research gives the first anatomical description of the radialis muscle in sharks, and addresses

  7. Power-Law Tails from Dynamical Comptonization in Converging Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turolla, Roberto; Zane, Silvia; Titarchuk, Lev

    2002-09-01

    The effects of bulk motion Comptonization on the spectral formation in a converging flow onto a black hole are investigated. The problem is tackled by means of both a fully relativistic, angle-dependent transfer code and a semianalytical, diffusion approximation method. We find that a power-law high-energy tail is a ubiquitous feature in converging flows and that the two approaches produce consistent results at large enough accretion rates when photon diffusion holds. Our semianalytical approach is based on an expansion in eigenfunctions of the diffusion equation. Contrary to previous investigations based on the same method, we find that although the power-law tail at extremely large energies is always dominated by the flatter spectral mode, the slope of the hard X-ray portion of the spectrum is dictated by the second mode and it approaches ?=3 at large accretion rates, irrespective of the model parameters. The photon index in the tail is found to be largely independent on the spatial distribution of soft seed photons when the accretion rate is either quite low (<~5 in Eddington units) or sufficiently high (>~10). On the other hand, the spatial distribution of source photons controls the photon index at intermediate accretion rates, when ? switches from the first to the second mode. Our analysis confirms that a hard tail with photon index ?<3 is produced by the upscattering of primary photons onto infalling electrons if the central object is a black hole.

  8. LEFT WING AND FUSELAGE FROM THIRD LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LEFT WING AND FUSELAGE FROM THIRD LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK STAND. THE WING IS PREPARED FOR BASIC LUBRICATION WITH E SPOILER BOARDS UP AND ALL SAFETY LOCKS IN PLACE TO PROTECT MECHANICS FROM INJURY. ON THE WING AN INSPECTOR CHECKS THE ACTUATORS. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  9. Human tails: ownership and control of extended humanoid avatars.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, William; Steed, Anthony; Slater, Mel

    2013-04-01

    This paper explores body ownership and control of an 'extended' humanoid avatar that features a distinct and flexible tail-like appendage protruding from its coccyx. Thirty-two participants took part in a between-groups study to puppeteer the avatar in an immersive CAVE™ -like system. Participants' body movement was tracked, and the avatar's humanoid body synchronously reflected this motion. However, sixteen participants experienced the avatar's tail moving around randomly and asynchronous to their own movement, while the other participants experienced a tail that they could, potentially, control accurately and synchronously through hip movement. Participants in the synchronous condition experienced a higher degree of body ownership and agency, suggesting that visuomotor synchrony enhanced the probability of ownership over the avatar body despite of its extra-human form. Participants experiencing body ownership were also more likely to be more anxious and attempt to avoid virtual threats to the tail and body. The higher task performance of participants in the synchronous condition indicates that people are able to quickly learn how to remap normal degrees of bodily freedom in order to control virtual bodies that differ from the humanoid form. We discuss the implications and applications of extended humanoid avatars as a method for exploring the plasticity of the brain's representation of the body and for gestural human-computer interfaces. PMID:23428442

  10. 1. OVERALL VIEW OF SPILLWAY SHOWING BAFFLE WALL AND TAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERALL VIEW OF SPILLWAY SHOWING BAFFLE WALL AND TAIL WATERS, WITH POWERHOUSE (MI-98-C) AND SUBSTATION (MI-98-D) AT LEFT. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Cooke Hydroelectric Plant, Spillway, Cook Dam Road at Au Sable River, Oscoda, Iosco County, MI

  11. 1. Southwest front, dock no. 491. Aircraft tail extends through ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Southwest front, dock no. 491. Aircraft tail extends through gasket in center hangar doors. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  12. AFC-Enabled Vertical Tail System Integration Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooney, Helen P.; Brandt, John B.; Lacy, Douglas S.; Whalen, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    This document serves as the final report for the SMAAART AFC-Enabled Vertical Tail System Integration Study. Included are the ground rule assumptions which have gone into the study, layouts of the baseline and AFC-enabled configurations, critical sizing information, system requirements and architectures, and assumed system properties that result in an NPV assessment of the two candidate AFC technologies.

  13. Kinetic aspects of tail dynamics - Theory and simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speiser, T. W.

    1987-01-01

    Kinetic theories relevant to the geomagnetic tail are reviewed. The topics discussed include kinetic instabilities, simulations, and current-sheet particle acceleration. Tearing mode and reconnection theories are emphasized. Kinetic treatment is appropriate for these topics since the tail plasma is collisionless. Fluid calculations are appropriate when stochastic processes dominate and for studies where long wavelengths are important. However, fluid treatments of tearing modes and reconnection require a finite resistivity in the diffusion region. Thus, although 'anomalous resistivity' can be guessed or in some cases calculated, ideally the kinetic treatment is often to be preferred. Particle motion and acceleration in the current sheet can give rise to beam-like distributions in the plasma-sheet boundary layer. Studies of current-sheet particle motion have also been used as the basis for 'kinetic' tail equilibrium models. Furthermore, quite recently current-sheet particle motion is used directly in Coroniti's explosive tail reconnection model. The 'inertial conductivity' from the equilibrium models provides the 'dissipation' necessary for reconnection.

  14. Numerical simulation of oscillatons: extracting the radiating tail

    E-print Network

    P. Grandclement; G. Fodor; P. Forgacs

    2011-08-29

    Spherically symmetric, time-periodic oscillatons -- solutions of the Einstein-Klein-Gordon system (a massive scalar field coupled to gravity) with a spatially localized core -- are investigated by very precise numerical techniques based on spectral methods. In particular the amplitude of their standing-wave tail is determined. It is found that the amplitude of the oscillating tail is very small, but non-vanishing for the range of frequencies considered. It follows that exactly time-periodic oscillatons are not truly localized, and they can be pictured loosely as consisting of a well (exponentially) localized nonsingular core and an oscillating tail making the total mass infinite. Finite mass physical oscillatons with a well localized core -- solutions of the Cauchy-problem with suitable initial conditions -- are only approximately time-periodic. They are continuously losing their mass because the scalar field radiates to infinity. Their core and radiative tail is well approximated by that of time-periodic oscillatons. Moreover the mass loss rate of physical oscillatons is estimated from the numerical data and a semi-empirical formula is deduced. The numerical results are in agreement with those obtained analytically in the limit of small amplitude time-periodic oscillatons.

  15. 40. NORTH ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL, LOOKING SOUTH. TAILINGS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. NORTH ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL, LOOKING SOUTH. TAILINGS IN FOREGOUND, DOWN SLOPE FROM CYANIDE PROCESSING TANKS. SEE CA-290-5 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  16. Tails for the Einstein-Yang-Mills system

    E-print Network

    Michael Pürrer; Peter C Aichelburg

    2009-01-15

    We study numerically the late-time behaviour of the coupled Einstein Yang-Mills system. We restrict ourselves to spherical symmetry and employ Bondi-like coordinates with radial compactification. Numerical results exhibit tails with exponents close to -4 at timelike infinity $i^+$ and -2 at future null infinity \\Scri.

  17. Right tail expansion of Tracy-Widom beta laws

    E-print Network

    Gaëtan Borot; Céline Nadal

    2011-11-11

    Using loop equations, we compute the large deviation function of the maximum eigenvalue to the right of the spectrum in the Gaussian beta matrix ensembles, to all orders in 1/N. We then give a physical derivation of the all order asymptotic expansion of the right tail Tracy-Widom beta laws, for all positive beta, by studying the double scaling limit.

  18. 2. VIEW OF EAST TAILING DAM (FOREGROUND), LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF EAST TAILING DAM (FOREGROUND), LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST UP WASH TOWARD ORE BIN, OVERBURDEN, ADITS, AND ROAD SHOWN IN CA-290-1. MILL SITE IS UP AND TO THE RIGHT OF THIS VIEW. STANDARD FIFTY-GALLON DRUM IN FOREGROUND GIVES SCALE OF WALL. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  19. Power-law tails in triple system decay statistics

    E-print Network

    A. V. Bogomolov; S. A. Pavluchenko; A. V. Toporensky

    2011-04-16

    We have investigated the decay statistics of triple systems with different masses in Newtonial dynamics. We demonstrate that in a broad interval of mass ratios this statistics has good approximation by power-law tails. The power indices do not show any significant dependence on mass ratios.

  20. REPRODUCTIVE AND BEHAVIORAL BIOLOGY OF THE GRAY-TAILED VOLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the reproductive biology of the gray-tailed vole and relates behavioral and morphological features in the mating system. he breeding season extended from March through December, mean litter size was 4.4 young, and hip (scent) glands were prominent in adult ma...