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1

Experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) of elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) to white-tailed deer by intracerebral route  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To compare clinicopathological findings of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in a natural host, three groups (n = 5) of white-tailed deer (WTD) fawns were intracerebrally inoculated with WTD, mule deer or elk isolates of CWD. Three other uninoculated fawns served as controls. Approximately 10 months pos...

2

White Tail Disease of Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Macrobrachium rosenbergii is the most important cultured freshwater prawn in the world and it is now farmed on a large scale in many countries. Generally, freshwater prawn is considered to be tolerant to diseases but a disease of viral origin is responsible for severe mortalities in larval, post-larval and juvenile stages of prawn. This viral infection namely white tail disease (WTD) was reported in the island of Guadeloupe in 1995 and later in Martinique (FrenchWest Indies) in Taiwan, the People's Republic of China, India, Thailand, Australia and Malaysia. Two viruses, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus-like particle (XSV) have been identified as causative agents of WTD. MrNV is a small icosahedral non-enveloped particle, 26-27 nm in diameter, identified in the cytoplasm of connective cells. XSV is also an icosahedral virus and 15 nm in diameter. Clinical signs observed in the infected animals include lethargy, opaqueness of the abdominal muscle, degeneration of the telson and uropods, and up to 100 % within 4 days. The available diagnostic methods to detect WTD include RT-PCR, dot-blot hybridization, in situ hybridization and ELISA. In experimental infection, these viruses caused 100 % mortality in post-larvae but failed to cause mortality in adult prawns. The reported hosts for these viruses include marine shrimp, Artemia and aquatic insects. Experiments were carried out to determine the possibility of vertical transmission of MrNV and XSV in M. rosenbergii. The results indicate that WTD may be transferred from infected brooders to their offspring during spawning. Replication of MrNV and XSV was investigated in apparently healthy C6/36 Aedes albopictus and SSN-1 cell lines. The results revealed that C6/36 and SSN-1cells were susceptible to these viruses. No work has been carried out on control and prevention of WTD and dsRNA against protein B2 produced RNAi that was able to functionally prevent and reduce mortality in WTD-infected redclaw crayfish. PMID:23997437

Sahul Hameed, A S; Bonami, Jean-Robert

2012-09-01

3

Presence and Seeding Activity of Pathological Prion Protein (PrPTSE) in Skeletal Muscles of White-Tailed Deer Infected with Chronic Wasting Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a contagious, rapidly spreading transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), or prion disease, occurring in cervids such as white tailed-deer (WTD), mule deer or elk in North America. Despite efficient horizontal transmission of CWD among cervids natural transmission of the disease to other species has not yet been observed. Here, we report for the first time a

Martin L. Daus; Johanna Breyer; Katja Wagenfuehr; Wiebke M. Wemheuer; Achim Thomzig; Walter J. Schulz-Schaeffer; Michael Beekes

2011-01-01

4

Detection and phylogenetic profiling of nodavirus associated with white tail disease in Malaysian Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man.  

PubMed

White tail disease (WTD) is a serious viral disease in the hatcheries and nursery ponds of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in many parts of the world. A new disease similar to WTD was observed in larvae and post larvae of M. rosenbergii cultured in Malaysia. In the present study, RT-PCR assay was used to detect the causative agents of WTD, M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) using specific primers for MrNV RNA2 and XSV. The results showed the presence of MrNV in the samples with or without signs of WTD. However, XSV was only detected in some of the MrNV-positive samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the RNA2 of our Malaysian isolates were significantly different from the other isolates. Histopathological studies revealed myofiber degeneration of the tail muscles and liquefactive myopathy in the infected prawns. This was the first report on the occurrence of MrNV in the Malaysian freshwater prawn. PMID:22223294

Saedi, Tayebeh Azam; Moeini, Hassan; Tan, Wen Siang; Yusoff, Khatijah; Daud, Hassan Mohd; Chu, Kua Beng; Tan, Soon Guan; Bhassu, Subha

2012-05-01

5

A Nonluminescent and Highly Virulent Vibrio harveyi Strain Is Associated with “Bacterial White Tail Disease” of Litopenaeus vannamei Shrimp  

PubMed Central

Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by “white tail” and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905) was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN), white tail disease (WTD) or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD). To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of “white tail” but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as “bacterial white tail disease (BWTD)”. Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system. PMID:22383954

Zhou, Junfang; Fang, Wenhong; Yang, Xianle; Zhou, Shuai; Hu, Linlin; Li, Xincang; Qi, Xinyong; Su, Hang; Xie, Layue

2012-01-01

6

Goats are a potential reservoir for the herpesvirus (MCFV-WTD), causing malignant catarrhal fever in deer.  

PubMed

In the recent investigation of malignant catarrhal fever in a red brocket deer (Mazama americana) from a Texas zoo, the viral DNA from the herpesvirus termed MCFV-WTD, which causes disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), was detected. The epidemiology information revealed that the red brocket deer had been associated with a herd of pygmy goats (Capra hircus) at the zoo. MCFV-WTD DNA was also detected in one of these 12 goats that were malignant catarrhal fever viral antibody positive. The amplified herpesviral sequences from the affected deer and the MCFV-WTD-positive goat were identical, and matched the sequence in GenBank. Three of 123 DNA samples from various breeds of goats from different geographic locations in the United States were positive for MCFV-WTD DNA. The study shows that MCFV-WTD is capable of causing malignant catarrhal fever in other species of deer besides white-tailed deer and suggests that goats are a potential reservoir for the virus. PMID:23805572

Li, Hong; Cunha, Cristina W; Abbitt, Bruce; deMaar, Thomas W; Lenz, Stephen D; Hayes, Jeffrey R; Taus, Naomi S

2013-06-01

7

Quantitative relationship of two viruses (MrNV and XSV) in white-tail disease of Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) were purified from diseased freshwater prawns M. rosenbergii and used to infect healthy post-larvae (PL) by an immersion method. Three groups of prawns were challenged with various combined doses of MrNV and XSV. Signs of white-tail disease (WTD) were observed in Groups 1 and 2, which had been challenged with combinations containing relatively high proportions of MrNV and low proportions of XSV. By contrast there was little sign of WTD in Group 3, which had been challenged with a higher proportion of XSV than MrNV. A 2-step Taqman real-time RT-PCR was developed and applied to quantify viral copy numbers in each challenged PL. Results showed that genomic copies of both viruses were much higher in Groups 1 and 2 than they were in Group 3, indicating that MrNV plays a key role in WTD of M. rosenbergii. The linear correlation between MrNV and XSV genome copies in infected prawns demonstrated that XSV is a satellite virus, dependent on MrNV, but its role in pathogenicity of WTD remains unclear. PMID:16921996

Zhang, Huajun; Wang, Jianmin; Yuan, Junfa; Li, Lijuan; Zhang, Jianhong; Bonami, Jean-Robert; Shi, Zhengli

2006-07-11

8

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as a potential sentinel for human Lyme disease in Indiana.  

PubMed

We assessed the potential of white-tailed deer (WTD) (Odocoileus virginianus) to be a sentinel for human cases of Lyme disease (LD) in Indiana using location data from a 3-year survey of approximately 3400 hunted deer with associated tick Ixodes scapularis and Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) data. Data on human LD cases at the county level were obtained from the Indiana Department of Health. All data were assigned to county centroids to match the resolution of the LD data before creating optimized trend surfaces for LD incidence, hunted deer count, Ixodes scapularis and Bb prevalence. To determine whether LD was spatially associated with the areas of high densities of deer, deer with Ixodes scapularis and deer with ticks infected with Bb, we used spatial analysis with distance indices (SADIE). The SADIE analysis found significant spatial association between LD and the distribution of three organismal predictor variables, that is, WTD, Ixodes ticks and Bb. Lyme disease incident rate varied between 0.08 cases per 10,000 habitants (Johnson county) and 5.9 cases per 10,000 habitants (Warren county). In conclusion, WTD can be used as an accurate and cost-effective sentinel for human LD. This method will permit public health workers to identify potentially endemic areas independently of human case reports. PMID:22776734

Raizman, E A; Holland, J D; Shukle, J T

2013-05-01

9

White tail disease of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Thailand.  

PubMed

White tail disease (WTD) of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii has recently been the cause of high mortalities in Thai prawn farms. The causative agents of this disease in other countries are M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV), which are usually detected using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocols. Using RT-PCR, most Thai post-larvae (PL) samples showing gross signs of WTD tested positive for MrNV but only a few were positive for XSV. In contrast, all tested brooder samples were positive for both MrNV and XSV. The possibility that brooders infected with MrNV and XSV could transmit the viruses to larvae and PL should be examined. Cloning, sequencing and comparison of deduced amino acid sequences of RT-PCR amplicons of WTD samples from Thailand with those of MrNV and XSV previously reported from the French West Indies and China revealed that the MrNV were closely related but not identical while those from XSV were identical. This is the first report of MrNV and XSV from Thailand. PMID:16724570

Yoganandhan, Kalidoss; Leartvibhas, Manee; Sriwongpuk, Supamas; Limsuwan, Chalor

2006-04-01

10

Susceptibility of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to experimental infection with epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7.  

PubMed

During the fall of 2006, in Israel, epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) serotype 7 caused an intense and widespread epizootic in domestic cattle that resulted in significant economic losses for the dairy industry. The susceptibility of potential North American vector and ruminant hosts to infection with EHDV-7 is not known but is essential to understanding the potential for establishment of this exotic orbivirus in North America if it were introduced. Our primary objective was to determine whether white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) are susceptible to infection with EHDV-7. Six, 8-mo-old WTD were experimentally infected with EHDV-7, and all became infected and exhibited varying degrees of clinical disease. Clinical signs, clinicopathologic abnormalities, and postmortem findings were consistent with previous reports of orbiviral hemorrhagic disease (HD) in this species. Four of six animals died or were euthanized because of the severity of disease, one on postinoculation day (PID) 5 and the remaining WTD on PID 7. All deer had detectable viremia on PID 3, which peaked on PID 5 or 6 and persisted for as long as PID 46 in one animal. Deer surviving the acute phase of the disease seroconverted by PID 10. Based on the 67% mortality rate we observed, this strain of EHDV-7 is virulent in WTD, reaffirming their role as a sentinel species for the detection of endemic and nonendemic EHDV. Further, the observed disease was indistinguishable from previous reports of disease caused by North American EHDV and bluetongue virus serotypes, highlighting the importance of serotype-specific diagnostics during suspected HD outbreaks. PMID:22740533

Ruder, Mark G; Allison, Andrew B; Stallknecht, David E; Mead, Daniel G; McGraw, Sabrina M; Carter, Deborah L; Kubiski, Steven V; Batten, Carrie A; Klement, Eyal; Howerth, Elizabeth W

2012-07-01

11

Experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) of elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) to white-tailed deer by intracerebral route.  

PubMed

To compare clinical and pathologic findings of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in a natural host, 3 groups (n = 5) of white-tailed deer (WTD) fawns were intracerebrally inoculated with a CWD prion of WTD, mule deer, or elk origin. Three other uninoculated fawns served as controls. Approximately 10 months postinoculation (MPI), 1 deer from each of the 3 inoculated groups was necropsied and their tissues were examined for lesions of spongiform encephalopathy (SE) and for the presence of abnormal prion protein (PrP(d)) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot (WB). The remaining deer were allowed to live until they developed clinical signs of the disease which began approximately 18 MPI. By 26 MPI, all deer were euthanatized on humane grounds. Obvious differences in clinical signs or the incubation periods were not observed between the 3 groups of deer given CWD. In 1 of 3 nonclinical deer euthanatized at 10 MPI, minimal microscopic lesions of SE were seen in the central nervous system (CNS) tissues, and PrP(d) was observed by IHC in tissues of all 3 deer. In the clinical deer, CNS lesions of SE and PrP(d) accumulations were more severe and extensive. It is concluded that the 3 sources of CWD prion did not induce significant differences in time to clinical disease or qualitative differences in signs or lesions in WTD. However, this observation does not imply that these CWD agents would necessarily behave similarly in other recipient species. PMID:18487485

Hamir, A N; Richt, J A; Miller, J M; Kunkle, R A; Hall, S M; Nicholson, E M; O'Rourke, K I; Greenlee, J J; Williams, E S

2008-05-01

12

Initial sequencing and tissue distribution of Toll-like receptor 3 mRNA in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 recognizes double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and activates a signal transduction pathway that results in the release of a variety of chemokines and cytokines and apoptotic activity. Variability in TLR3 expression may play an important role in disease susceptibility of white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) to bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses, which are dsRNA viruses. Because little is known about TLR3 in WTD, our objective was to sequence WTD TLR3 mRNA and to determine baseline levels of tissue expression. A 209-base pair sequence of TLR3 mRNA was obtained from WTD peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Dot blots confirmed that the sequence obtained was part of total WTD mRNA. Variable expression or ligand binding of TLR3 may contribute to observed susceptibility differences between populations of WTD, so the level of TLR3 in small intestine, skin, spleen, heart, cecum, rumen, lymph node, lung, kidney, and liver from WTD fawns (n=2) was analyzed using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Tissue expression of TLR3 mRNA relative to the housekeeping gene beta-actin was highest in spleen, heart, skin, and lung. PMID:19617489

Vos, Seychelle M; Yabsley, Michael J; Howerth, Elizabeth W

2009-07-01

13

RT-PCR amplification and sequence analysis of extra small virus associated with white tail disease of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) cultured in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Post-larvae of Macrobrachium rosenbergii infected with white tail disease (WTD) have been reported in Taiwan. The causative agents have been identified as M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) associated with extra small virus (XSV). The present study is the first report confirming the presence of XSV virus in M. rosenbergii displaying WTD symptoms in Taiwan by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A 772 bp amplified product was obtained by RT-PCR, cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence analysis of the 772 bp DNA fragment revealed 98% and 97% identity with XSV isolated from China and India, respectively. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of the XSV partial genome showed strong homology (99% and 97%) with isolates from China and India. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the XSV-Taiwan isolate was more closely related to the Chinese rather than the Indian isolates. The results demonstrated the presence of XSV virus co-infection in M. rosenbergii cultured in Taiwan suffering from WTD. PMID:17352787

Wang, C S; Chang, J S; Shih, H H; Chen, S N

2007-03-01

14

Deer density and disease prevalence influence transmission of chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer  

E-print Network

Deer density and disease prevalence influence transmission of chronic wasting disease in white-tailed wasting disease in white-tailed deer. Ecosphere 4(1):10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/ES12-00141.1 Abstract- year-old) white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in south-central Wisconsin, USA. We evaluated how

15

Experimental infection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Northern European bluetongue virus serotype 8.  

PubMed

Bluetongue (BT) is an insect-transmitted, economically important disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Although only five of the 26 reported bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes are considered endemic to the USA, 10 exotic serotypes have been isolated primarily in the southeastern region of the country since 1999. For an exotic BTV serotype to become endemic there must be susceptible animal species and competent vectors. In the USA, sheep and white-tailed deer (WTD) are the primary sentinel livestock and wildlife species, respectively. In 2006, BTV-8 was introduced into Northern Europe and subsequently overwintered, causing unprecedented livestock disease and mortality during the 2006-2007 vector seasons. To assess the risk of the European strain of BTV-8 to North American WTD, and understand the role they could play after a similar introduction, eight bluetongue-seronegative WTD were inoculated with BTV-8. Body temperatures and clinical signs were recorded daily. Blood samples were analyzed for BTV RNA with quantitative real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), serum analyzed for BTV antibodies by cELISA, and tissues taken for histopathology and qRT-PCR. All eight deer became infected and developed moderate to severe clinical disease from days 8 to 15. Peak viremia was from day 7 to 10 with detectable titers through the end of the study (28 days) in most deer. Serum antibody was detected by day 6, peaked by day 10 and continued through day 28. We conclude that North American WTD are highly susceptible to BTV-8 and would act as clinical disease sentinels and amplifying hosts during an outbreak. PMID:23876932

Drolet, Barbara S; Reister, Lindsey M; Rigg, Tara D; Nol, Pauline; Podell, Brendan K; Mecham, James O; VerCauteren, Kurt C; van Rijn, Piet A; Wilson, William C; Bowen, Richard A

2013-10-25

16

Correlation of Cytokine Gene Expression with Pathology in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Infected with Mycobacterium bovis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium bovis-infected white-tailed deer (WTD) in northeast Michigan are a reservoir of mycobacteria that pose a threat to both domestic animals and humans. Relatively little work has been done to characterize the immune response of WTD to M. bovis infection; however, an understanding of the immune response to infection and pathogenesis may be critical to the development of an effective

Tyler C. Thacker; Mitchell V. Palmer; W. Ray Waters

2006-01-01

17

Occurrence, isolation, and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New Jersey  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

White tailed deer (WTD) is an important reservoir host for Toxoplasma gondii. Each yr hundreds of thousands WTD are hunted or die in road accidents in the U.S.A. Humans and animals can become infected with T. gondii by eating infected venison. Wild felids that eat infected deer tissues can shed oocy...

18

Disease Limits Populations: Plague and Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs  

PubMed Central

Abstract Plague is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes mortality rates approaching 100% in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We mapped the perimeter of the active portions of black-tailed prairie dog colonies annually between 1999 and 2005 at four prairie dog colony complexes in areas with a history of plague, as well as at two complexes that were located outside the distribution of plague at the time of mapping and had therefore never been affected by the disease. We hypothesized that the presence of plague would significantly reduce overall black-tailed prairie dog colony area, reduce the sizes of colonies on these landscapes, and increase nearest-neighbor distances between colonies. Within the region historically affected by plague, individual colonies were smaller, nearest-neighbor distances were greater, and the proportion of potential habitat occupied by active prairie dog colonies was smaller than at plague-free sites. Populations that endured plague were composed of fewer large colonies (>100 ha) than populations that were historically plague free. We suggest that these differences among sites in colony size and isolation may slow recolonization after extirpation. At the same time, greater intercolony distances may also reduce intercolony transmission of pathogens. Reduced transmission among smaller and more distant colonies may ultimately enhance long-term prairie dog population persistence in areas where plague is present. PMID:20158327

Johnson, Tammi L.; Collinge, Sharon K.; Ray, Chris

2010-01-01

19

Disease limits populations: plague and black-tailed prairie dogs.  

PubMed

Plague is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes mortality rates approaching 100% in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We mapped the perimeter of the active portions of black-tailed prairie dog colonies annually between 1999 and 2005 at four prairie dog colony complexes in areas with a history of plague, as well as at two complexes that were located outside the distribution of plague at the time of mapping and had therefore never been affected by the disease. We hypothesized that the presence of plague would significantly reduce overall black-tailed prairie dog colony area, reduce the sizes of colonies on these landscapes, and increase nearest-neighbor distances between colonies. Within the region historically affected by plague, individual colonies were smaller, nearest-neighbor distances were greater, and the proportion of potential habitat occupied by active prairie dog colonies was smaller than at plague-free sites. Populations that endured plague were composed of fewer large colonies (>100 ha) than populations that were historically plague free. We suggest that these differences among sites in colony size and isolation may slow recolonization after extirpation. At the same time, greater intercolony distances may also reduce intercolony transmission of pathogens. Reduced transmission among smaller and more distant colonies may ultimately enhance long-term prairie dog population persistence in areas where plague is present. PMID:20158327

Cully, Jack F; Johnson, Tammi L; Collinge, Sharon K; Ray, Chris

2010-01-01

20

Evaluating Spatial Overlap and Relatedness of White-tailed Deer in a Chronic Wasting Disease Management  

E-print Network

relatedness for female white-tailed deer in Wisconsin's area of highest CWD prevalence. We used volume Overlap and Relatedness of White-tailed Deer in a Chronic Wasting Disease Management Zone. PLoS ONE 8Evaluating Spatial Overlap and Relatedness of White- tailed Deer in a Chronic Wasting Disease

21

Epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): occurrence, congenital transmission, correlates of infection, isolation, and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in white tailed deer (WTD) in the USA is high, but little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in this host. In the present study, we compared T. gondii seroprevalence from 531 WTD collected in 2012 and 2013 from a Metropolitan Park in Ohio, and and 485 W...

22

T-cell mRNA Expression in Response to Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vaccination and Mycobacterium bovis Infection of White-tailed deer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Understanding immune responses of white-tailed deer (WTD) to infection with Mycobacterium bovis provides insight into mechanisms of pathogen control and may provide clues to development of effective vaccine strategies. WTD were vaccinated with either BCG strain Pasteur or BCG Danish. Both vaccinates...

23

Tick-borne disease agents in various wildlife from Mississippi.  

PubMed

Because tick-borne diseases are becoming increasingly important throughout the world, monitoring their causative agents in wildlife may serve as a useful indicator of potential human exposure. We assessed the presence of known and putative zoonotic, tick-borne agents in four wildlife species in Mississippi. Animals were tested for exposure to or infection with Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, Borrelia lonestari, Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Francisella tularensis. Whole blood and serum were tested from white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) and feral swine (Sus scrofa); serum was tested from raccoons (Procyon lotor) and opossums (Didelphis virginiana). We used polymerase chain reaction to detect all agents in blood, whereas an indirect fluorescent antibody assay was used to detect antibodies to E. chaffeensis, B. lonestari, and Rickettsia parkeri (spotted fever group rickettsiae) antigens in serum. Molecular evidence of infection with E. chaffeensis, B. lonestari, and An. phagocytophilum was detected only in WTD. Antibodies to E. chaffeensis antigen were detected in 43.9% of WTD, 32.8% of swine, 42.1% of raccoons, and 15.8% of opossums. Serologic evidence of exposure to B. lonestari antigen was found in 19.3% of WTD, 6.9% of swine, and 5.3% of raccoons, but not in opossums. Interestingly, the percent of animals with antibodies reactive to spotted fever group rickettsiae (R. parkeri antigen) was highest in raccoons (73.7%) and opossums (57.9%). These results support the role of WTD as reservoirs for E. chaffeensis, B. lonestari, and An. phagocytophilum, as well as provide additional evidence for exposure of raccoons and opossums to E. chaffeensis. Finally, we provide new data that feral swine may have antibodies to these agents. Thus, in general, these four wildlife species are exposed to tick-borne disease agents in Mississippi, suggesting that ticks carry and have the potential to transmit the agents to humans in the state. PMID:20846016

Castellaw, Ashley H; Chenney, Erle F; Varela-Stokes, Andrea S

2011-04-01

24

Tails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monte Carlo simulation software applied to ion beam analysis use the main scattering event (MSE) approximation. This approximation consist in generating ion trajectories in different directions, making the detection rate independent of the cross-section dependence on the scattering angle, therefore speeding up calculations by a factor 104-106. The event generated bear a probability weight proportional to the cross-section, so in the case of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), events generated with a small scattering angle bear a very large weight, sometimes producing few events with a very large amplitude in the spectrum. They are avoided by setting a cut-off angle, but the signal they represent is in fact an actual contribution to the background signal. Here, it is shown that experimental spectra that include a significant contribution from several wide-angle scattering, such as tails or background signal in heavy ion RBS can be reproduced by a combination of two simulations: one featuring at least one wide-angle scattering, simulated accurately within the MSE approximation, and a background signal part, corresponding to trajectories featuring a series of small-angle scattering, simulated without the MSE approximation; this second simulation is achieved in a few minutes by increasing the detector size and mean free path by large factors, typically 100 each. The events included from the two parts of the simulation are discriminated by the minimum angle of the MSE.

Schiettekatte, François

2014-08-01

25

Chronic wasting disease in free-ranging Wisconsin white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three White-tailed Deer shot within 5 km during the 2001 hunting season in Wisconsin tested positive for chronic wasting disease, a prion disease of cervids. Subsequent sampling within 18 km showed a 3% prevalence (n=476). This discovery represents an important range extension for chronic wasting disease into the eastern United States.

Joly, D.O.; Ribic, C.A.; Langenberg, J.A.; Beheler, K.; Batha, C.A.; Dhuey, B.J.; Rolley, R.E.; Bartelt, G.; VanDeelen, T.R.; Samuel, M.D.

2003-01-01

26

AN EPIZOOTIC OF ADENOVIRUS-INDUCED HEMORRHAGIC DISEASE IN CAPTIVE BLACK-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten fawns and four adult black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in a captive herd died as a result of adenovirus-induced hemorrhagic disease. Acute, systemic infections were characterized by hemorrhagic enteropathy, pulmonary edema, and occasional ulceration of the upper alimentary tract. Localized infections were limited to the upper alimentary tract and included stomatitis, pharyngitis, mandibular osteomyelitis, and rumenitis. In deer with acute,

Walter M. Boyce; Leslie W. Woods; M. Kevin Keel; N. James MacLachlan; Charles O. Porter; Howard D. Lehmkuhl

27

Bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease in ruminants in Georgia: survey by serotest and virologic isolation.  

PubMed

The frequencies of precipitating antibodies to bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) in domestic ruminants and white-tailed deer (WTD) in Georgia were 36% and 32%, respectively (n = 2,200). The frequencies of seropositivity to BTV and EHDV were high among cattle (47% and 42%, respectively [n = 1,068]) and less so in WTD (36% and 34% [n = 414]). The frequencies among sheep were 34% for BTV and 29% for EHDV (n = 286), whereas among goats, seropositivity was 8% for BTV and 7% for EHDV (n = 433). Serum samples from northeastern Georgia (1 of the 4 regions in the survey) had the highest frequency of precipitating antibodies for BTV (45%) and EHDV (38%). The lowest frequency was in southeastern Georgia, with 29% seropositivity for BTV and 24% seropositivity for EHDV. Of the 175 farms or herds in the serosurvey, 70% included animals that had BTV-precipitating antibodies, and 67% included animals which had EHDV-precipitating antibodies. Seventeen viral isolates were obtained from individual animals on 9 different farms. Fifteen of the isolates were BTV--8 from cattle, 4 from sheep, and 3 from WTD; 8 of them were serotype 11, and 7 were serotype 17. Viral isolates from each of 2 WTD were identified as EHDV serotype 1 and serotype 2. Of the total 17 isolates, 11 were from clinically healthy ruminants, and 6 were from animals with clinical signs of BT or EHD. Five of the viral isolates originated from northeastern Georgia, 7 from the northwestern region, and 5 from the southwestern region; none was obtained from specimens from the southeastern region. PMID:2998240

Odiawa, G; Blue, J L; Tyler, D E; Shotts, E B

1985-10-01

28

An adenovirus linked to mortality and disease in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) in Alaska.  

PubMed

An adenovirus was isolated from intestinal samples of two long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) collected during a die-off in the Beaufort Sea off the north coast of Alaska in 2000. The virus was not neutralized by reference antiserum against known group I, II, or III avian adenoviruses and may represent a new serotype. The prevalence of the virus was determined in live-trapped long-tailed ducks at the mortality site and at a reference site 100 km away where no mortality was observed. Prevalence of adenovirus antibodies in serum samples at the mortality site was 86% compared to 10% at the reference site. Furthermore, 50% of cloacal swabs collected at the mortality site and only 7% of swabs from the reference site were positive for adenoviruses. In 2001, no mortality was observed at either of the study areas, and virus prevalence in both serum and cloacal samples was low, providing further evidence that the adenovirus was linked to the mortality event in 2000. The virus was used to infect long-tailed ducks under experimental conditions and resulted in lesions previously described for avian adenovirus infections and similar to those observed in long-tailed duck carcasses from the Beaufort Sea. The status of long-tailed ducks has recently become a concern in Alaska due to precipitous declines in breeding populations there since the mid-1970s. Our findings suggest that the newly isolated adenovirus is a disease agent and source of mortality in long-tailed ducks, and thus could be a contributing factor in population declines. PMID:14708993

Hollmén, Tuula E; Franson, J Christian; Flint, Paul L; Grand, James B; Lanctot, Richard B; Docherty, Douglas E; Wilson, Heather M

2003-01-01

29

Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 40(1), 2004, pp. 133136 Wildlife Disease Association 2004  

E-print Network

(Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) in eastern and western South Dakota. A total of 2,848 white-tailed deer (WTD) were, South Dakota, white-tailed deer. Meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is a parasitic nematode of hunter-harvested deer (Odocoileus sp.) and elk (Cervus elaphus) were collected from meat processing

30

CORRELATION OF CYTOKINE GENE EXPRESSION WITH PATHOLOGY IN WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) INFECTED WITH MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mycobacterium bovis infected white-tailed deer (WTD) were detected in northeast Michigan in 1994. Subsequent surveys revealed a focus of infection that represents the first known reservoir of M. bovis in North America. Relatively little work has been done to characterize the immune response of white...

31

Head space analysis to non-invasively distinguish between vaccinated and bovine tuberculosis-infected white-tailed deer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

White-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) can act as a reservoir for bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, and can be a source of infection in cattle. Presently, no method exists to noninvasively monitor the presence of bTB in wildlife. In addition, due to similarities betw...

32

Serum 25-Hydroxvitamin D Concentrations in Captive and Free-Ranging, White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

ABSTRACT: Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were determined for free-ranging and captive white-tailed deer (WTD, Odocoileus virginianus). Effects of gender, season, and age on 25(OH)D concentrations were determined as well as comparisons to concentrations in serum from captive re...

33

ANTIBODY PREVALENCE OF EIGHT RUMINANT INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN CALIFORNIA MULE AND BLACK-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested 276 sera from 18 free-ranging black-tailed and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) herds in California (USA) collected from 1987 to 1991 in five biogeographical habitat types, for antibodies against eight infectious disease agents. Overall antibody prevalence was 56% for Anaplasma marginale, 31% for Borrelia burgdorferi, 16% for bluetongue virus serotype 17, 15% for epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, 7% for

Bruno B. Chomel; Marius L. Carniciu; Rickie W. Kasten; Paolo M. Castelli; Thierry M. Work; David A. Jessup

34

Serologic survey of selected zoonotic disease agents in black-tailed jack rabbits from western Texas.  

PubMed

A serologic survey for the agents of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) (Rickettsia rickettsii), Borrelia spp. including the causative agent for Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), and plague (Yersinia pestis) was conducted on blood samples collected from 30 and 46 black-tailed jack rabbits (Lepus californicus) from an urban environment in Lubbock, Texas (USA) during winter 1987 and the following spring 1988, respectively. Antibody titers to the agents of RMSF and borreliosis were detected in sera of 28 and 1% of the jack rabbits, respectively. Neither organisms (rickettsiae and/or spirochetes) nor their associated antigens were detected in any of the tissue or whole blood samples; plague antibodies were not detected in the 76 jack rabbits sampled. Four of 18 ticks (Dermacentor parumapertus) removed from 12 jack rabbits were positive for RMSF using the fluorescent antibody test. The black-tailed jack rabbit is a common wildlife species living in close proximity to higher density human populations in many areas of the southwestern United States. Our results indicate the potential importance of urban populations of this mammal as reservoirs for at least one important zoonotic disease, RMSF, in western Texas. PMID:2106044

Henke, S E; Pence, D B; Demarais, S; Johnson, J R

1990-01-01

35

Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in Wisconsin White-Tailed Deer: Implications for Disease Spread and Management  

PubMed Central

Few studies have evaluated the rate of infection or mode of transmission for wildlife diseases, and the implications of alternative management strategies. We used hunter harvest data from 2002 to 2013 to investigate chronic wasting disease (CWD) infection rate and transmission modes, and address how alternative management approaches affect disease dynamics in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer population. Uncertainty regarding demographic impacts of CWD on cervid populations, human and domestic animal health concerns, and potential economic consequences underscore the need for strategies to control CWD distribution and prevalence. Using maximum-likelihood methods to evaluate alternative multi-state deterministic models of CWD transmission, harvest data strongly supports a frequency-dependent transmission structure with sex-specific infection rates that are two times higher in males than females. As transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are an important and difficult-to-study class of diseases with major economic and ecological implications, our work supports the hypothesis of frequency-dependent transmission in wild deer at a broad spatial scale and indicates that effective harvest management can be implemented to control CWD prevalence. Specifically, we show that harvest focused on the greater-affected sex (males) can result in stable population dynamics and control of CWD within the next 50 years, given the constraints of the model. We also provide a quantitative estimate of geographic disease spread in southern Wisconsin, validating qualitative assessments that CWD spreads relatively slowly. Given increased discovery and distribution of CWD throughout North America, insights from our study are valuable to management agencies and to the general public concerned about the impacts of CWD on white-tailed deer populations. PMID:24658535

Jennelle, Christopher S.; Henaux, Viviane; Wasserberg, Gideon; Thiagarajan, Bala; Rolley, Robert E.; Samuel, Michael D.

2014-01-01

36

Occurrence, isolation, and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New Jersey.  

PubMed

The ingestion of uncooked infected white-tailed deer (WTD) tissues can transmit Toxoplasma gondii infection to humans and mesocarnivores, including cats. In the present study, we tested 264 WTD from New Jersey for T. gondii infection during the 2011-2012 hunting season. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (cutoff titer, 25); 76 (28.7%) of 264 WTD were seropositive. Heart muscle samples from 64 seropositive WTD were digested in pepsin, and the digests were bioassayed for the isolation of T. gondii . Viable T. gondii was isolated in mice from the myocardium of 9 WTD; tachyzoites from infected mouse tissues were further propagated in cell culture. One of the 9 strains was highly virulent for outbred Swiss Webster mice. The DNA isolated from culture-derived tachyzoites of these 9 T. gondii isolates was characterized using 11 PCR-RFLP markers (SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico). Six genotypes were found, including ToxoDB genotype no. 2 (Type III), no. 3 (Type II variant), no. 4 (Type 12), no. 216, no. 220, and no. 221. The last 2 were new genotypes that were reported for the first time. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in deer from this region of the United States. PMID:23574007

Dubey, J P; Randall, A R; Choudhary, S; Ferreira, L R; Verma, S K; Oliveira, S; Kwok, O C H; Su, C

2013-10-01

37

Short-tailed shrews as reservoirs of the agents of Lyme disease and human babesiosis.  

PubMed

To determine whether short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) serve as reservoir hosts for the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) and the agent of human babesiosis (Babesia microti), we examined nymphal ticks that had fed as larvae on shrews collected from 3 enzootic sites in coastal Massachusetts for evidence of infection by either or both of these agents. Xenodiagnosis indicated that 11 of 14 shrews were infected by B. burgdorferi. One of 3 piroplasm-infected shrews also infected ticks with B. microti. In a site where the piroplasm is endemic, 11 of 17 shrews showed patent parasitemias by thin blood smears. Of these, 4 had parasitemias exceeding 40%. Few immature ticks infested shrews, however, suggesting that B. brevicauda, although abundant in some endemic sites and serving as a competent reservoir, would contribute minimally to the population of infected nymphs. PMID:2213411

Telford, S R; Mather, T N; Adler, G H; Spielman, A

1990-10-01

38

SPATIAL EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN WISCONSIN WHITE-TAILED DEER  

E-print Network

in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Wisconsin to facilitate CWD management. We found that CWD of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and elk (Cervus elaphus

Mladenoff, David

39

Disease risk surface for Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence in white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

Coxiella burnetii is considered a re-emerging zoonosis in many countries. The bacterium is enzootic in livestock and wildlife in the United States, and environmental contamination is widespread. Despite the potential for exposure, the estimated prevalence of Q fever in humans and animals is not well elucidated, and reported human infections in the United States are relatively rare. Zoonotic transmission of the bacterium is usually associated with abortions in domestic ruminants, but other modes of transmission, such as contact with infected blood and/or milk during field dressing of infected wildlife, have not been thoroughly investigated. Studies of zoonotic pathogen transmission between animal reservoir hosts and humans are usually established in response to documented emergence or re-emergence of a zoonosis in a particular locale, and, as such, the prevalence of infection in wildlife is largely unknown for many zoonotic pathogens, including C. burnetii. The objective of this study was to create a disease risk surface for C. burnetii seroprevalence in wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New York State. Blood samples were collected from hunter-harvested deer from across New York State in 2009 and 2010. The samples were processed and tested for the presence of anti-C. burnetii antibodies via indirect microimmunofluorescence assays using phase II C. burnetii strain RSA439. Overall, 14.50% of the tested white-tailed deer were C. burnetii phase II seropositive. The dual Kernel density estimation method was used to create a smoothed disease risk surface, which revealed variation in seroprevalence ranging from 0% to 32.0%. Areas of higher seroprevalence were detected in four discrete areas of Central New York and in one additional area in the southwest corner of the northern part of the state. This suggests certain locales where humans may be at increased risk for exposure to the bacterium secondary to contact with potentially infected deer. PMID:23176671

Kirchgessner, M S; Dubovi, E J; Whipps, C M

2013-11-01

40

Chronic wasting disease in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer farm  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In September 2002, chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disorder of captive and wild cervids, was diagnosed in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from a captive farm in Wisconsin. The facility was subsequently quarantined, and in January 2006 the remaining 76 deer were depopulated. Sixty animals (79%) were found to be positive by immunohistochemical staining for the abnormal prion protein (PrPCWD) in at least one tissue; the prevalence of positive staining was high even in young deer. Although none of the deer displayed clinical signs suggestive of CWD at depopulation, 49 deer had considerable accumulation of the abnormal prion in the medulla at the level of the obex. Extraneural accumulation of the abnormal protein was observed in 59 deer, with accumulation in the retropharyngeal lymph node in 58 of 59 (98%), in the tonsil in 56 of 59 (95%), and in the rectal mucosal lymphoid tissue in 48 of 58 (83%). The retina was positive in 4 deer, all with marked accumulation of prion in the obex. One deer was considered positive for PrPCWD in the brain but not in the extraneural tissue, a novel observation in white-tailed deer. The infection rate in captive deer was 20-fold higher than in wild deer. Although weakly related to infection rates in extraneural tissues, prion genotype was strongly linked to progression of prion accumulation in the obex. Antemortem testing by biopsy of rectoanal mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (or other peripheral lymphoid tissue) may be a useful adjunct to tonsil biopsy for surveillance in captive herds at risk for CWD infection.

Keane, D.P.; Barr, D.J.; Bochsler, P.N.; Hall, S.M.; Gidlewski, T.; O'Rourke, K. I.; Spraker, T.R.; Samuel, M.D.

2008-01-01

41

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and Free-Roaming Cats (Felis catus) Across a Suburban to Urban Gradient in Northeastern Ohio.  

PubMed

Felids serve as the definitive host of Toxoplasma gondii contaminating environments with oocysts. White-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) are used as sentinel species for contaminated environments as well as a potential source for human foodborne infection with T. gondii. Here we determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii in a WTD and felid population, and examine those risk factors that increase exposure to the parasite. Serum samples from 444 WTD and 200 free-roaming cats (Felis catus) from urban and suburban reservations were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 261 (58.8%) of 444 WTD, with 164 (66.1%) of 248 from urban and 97 (49.5%) of 196 from suburban regions. Significant risk factors for seroprevalence included increasing age (P < 0.0001), reservation type (P < 0.0001), and household densities within reservation (P < 0.0001). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 103 (51.5%) of 200 cats, with seroprevalences of 79 (51%) of 155 and 24 (53.3%) of 45 from areas surrounding urban and suburban reservations, respectively. Seroprevalence did not differ by age, gender, or reservation among the cats' sample. Results indicate WTD are exposed by horizontal transmission, and this occurs more frequently in urban environments. The difference between urban and suburban cat densities is the most likely the reason for an increased seroprevalence in urban WTD. These data have public health implications for individuals living near or visiting urban areas where outdoor cats are abundant as well as those individuals who may consume WTD venison. PMID:25269422

Ballash, Gregory A; Dubey, J P; Kwok, O C H; Shoben, Abigail B; Robison, Terry L; Kraft, Tom J; Dennis, Patricia M

2014-10-01

42

Anaplasma odocoilei sp. nov. (family Anaplasmataceae) from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Recently, an undescribed Anaplasma sp. (also called Ehrlichia-like sp. or WTD agent) was isolated in ISE6 tick cells from captive white-tailed deer. The goal of the current study was to characterize this organism using a combination of experimental infection, morphologic, serologic, and molecular studies. Each of 6 experimentally inoculated white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) became chronically infected (100+ days) with the Anaplasma sp. by inoculation of either infected whole blood or culture. None of the deer showed evidence of clinical disease, but 3 of the 6 deer evaluated had multiple episodes of transient thrombocytopenia. Light microscopy of Giemsa-stained, thin blood smears revealed tiny, dark, spherical structures in platelets of acutely infected deer. Anaplasma sp. was detected in platelets of inoculated deer by polymerase chain reaction, transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization. Five of 6 deer developed antibodies reactive to Anaplasma sp. antigen, as detected by indirect fluorescent antibody testing. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, groESL, and gltA sequences confirmed the Anaplasma sp. is related to A. platys. Two attempts to transmit the Anaplasma sp. between deer by feeding Amblyomma americanum, a suspected tick vector, were unsuccessful. Based on its biologic, antigenic, and genetic characteristics, this organism is considered a novel species of Anaplasma, and the name Anaplasma odocoilei sp. nov. is proposed with UMUM76(T) (=CSUR-A1) as the type strain. PMID:23276749

Tate, Cynthia M; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Mead, Daniel G; Dugan, Vivien G; Luttrell, M Page; Sahora, Alexandra I; Munderloh, Ulrike G; Davidson, William R; Yabsley, Michael J

2013-02-01

43

Preclinical diagnosis of chronic wasting disease in captive mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) using tonsillar biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usefulness of tonsillar biopsy on live deer for preclinical diagnosis of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy chronic wasting disease (CWD) was evaluated. Disease was tracked in a CWD-endemic herd using serial tonsillar biopsies collected at 6 to 9 month intervals from 34 captive mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and five white-tailed deer (O. virginianus). Tonsillar biopsies were examined for accumulation of

Margaret A. Wild; Terry R. Spraker; Christina J. Sigurdson; Katherine I. O'Rourke; Michael W. Miller

44

Chronic wasting disease in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer farm  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chronic wasting disease CWD is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease of deer and elk in North America. All diseases in this family are characterized by long preclinical incubation periods following by a relatively short clinical course. Endpoint disease is characterized by ext...

45

Molecular genealogy tools for white-tailed deer with chronic wasting disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease of deer, elk, and moose. CWD is a fatal neurologic disease with a long preclinical incubation period, during which the disease is probably transmitted to healthy animals through direct exposure or environ...

46

Evaluating Spatial Overlap and Relatedness of White-tailed Deer in a Chronic Wasting Disease Management Zone  

PubMed Central

Wildlife disease transmission, at a local scale, can occur from interactions between infected and susceptible conspecifics or from a contaminated environment. Thus, the degree of spatial overlap and rate of contact among deer is likely to impact both direct and indirect transmission of infectious diseases such chronic wasting disease (CWD) or bovine tuberculosis. We identified a strong relationship between degree of spatial overlap (volume of intersection) and genetic relatedness for female white-tailed deer in Wisconsin’s area of highest CWD prevalence. We used volume of intersection as a surrogate for contact rates between deer and concluded that related deer are more likely to have contact, which may drive disease transmission dynamics. In addition, we found that age of deer influences overlap, with fawns exhibiting the highest degree of overlap with other deer. Our results further support the finding that female social groups have higher contact among related deer which can result in transmission of infectious diseases. We suggest that control of large social groups comprised of closely related deer may be an effective strategy in slowing the transmission of infectious pathogens, and CWD in particular. PMID:23437171

Magle, Seth B.; Samuel, Michael D.; Van Deelen, Timothy R.; Robinson, Stacie J.; Mathews, Nancy E.

2013-01-01

47

Molecular characterization of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) spp. infecting cattle (Bos taurus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) in the United States.  

PubMed

In the United States, the generally non-pathogenic trypanosome of cattle is designated Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) theileri and is distinguished morphologically from Trypanosoma (M.) cervi, a trypanosome originally described in mule deer and elk. Phylogenetic studies of the Megatrypanum trypanosomes using various molecular markers reveal two lineages, designated TthI and TthII, with several genotypes within each. However, to date there is very limited genetic data for T. theileri, and none for the Megatrypanum trypanosomes found in wild ungulates, in the U.S. In this study U.S. isolates from cattle (Bos taurus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) (WTD), and elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) were compared by ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence analysis and their incidence in cattle and WTD in south Texas counties was investigated. Phylogenetic analyses showed clear separation of the bovine and cervine trypanosomes. Both lineages I and II were represented in the U.S. cattle and WTD parasites. Lineage I cattle isolates were of a previously described genotype, whereas WTD and elk isolates were of two new genotypes distinct from the cattle trypanosomes. The cattle isolate of lineage II was of a previously reported genotype and was divergent from the WTD isolate, which was of a new genotype. In La Salle, Starr, Webb, and Zapata counties in south Texas a total of 51.8% of white-tailed deer were positive for trypanosomes by 18S rDNA PCR. Of the cattle screened in Webb County, 35.4% were positive. Drought conditions prevailing in south Texas when the animals were screened suggest the possibility of a vector for Trypanosoma other than the ked (Lipoptena mazamae) and tabanid flies (Tabanus spp. and Haematopota spp.). PMID:23683651

Fisher, Amanda C; Schuster, Greta; Cobb, W Jacob; James, Andrea M; Cooper, Susan M; Peréz de León, Adalberto A; Holman, Patricia J

2013-10-18

48

Draft Genome Sequence of Robinsoniella peoriensis Strain WTD, Isolated from the Fecal Material of a Wood Turtle  

PubMed Central

Here, we report the draft genome of Robinsoniella peoriensis strain WTD, which was isolated from the fecal material of a wood turtle. The genome size was 7,391,415 bp with 41.1 mol% G+C. PMID:25593266

Braasch, Jeanna L.; Lapin, Carly N.; Dowd, Scot E.

2015-01-01

49

Intranasal inoculation of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with lyophilized chronic wasting disease prion particulate complexed to montmorillonite clay.  

PubMed

Chronic wasting disease (CWD), the only known prion disease endemic in wildlife, is a persistent problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations. This disease continues to spread and cases are found in new areas each year. Indirect transmission can occur via the environment and is thought to occur by the oral and/or intranasal route. Oral transmission has been experimentally demonstrated and although intranasal transmission has been postulated, it has not been tested in a natural host until recently. Prions have been shown to adsorb strongly to clay particles and upon oral inoculation the prion/clay combination exhibits increased infectivity in rodent models. Deer and elk undoubtedly and chronically inhale dust particles routinely while living in the landscape while foraging and rutting. We therefore hypothesized that dust represents a viable vehicle for intranasal CWD prion exposure. To test this hypothesis, CWD-positive brain homogenate was mixed with montmorillonite clay (Mte), lyophilized, pulverized and inoculated intranasally into white-tailed deer once a week for 6 weeks. Deer were euthanized at 95, 105, 120 and 175 days post final inoculation and tissues examined for CWD-associated prion proteins by immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that CWD can be efficiently transmitted utilizing Mte particles as a prion carrier and intranasal exposure. PMID:23671598

Nichols, Tracy A; Spraker, Terry R; Rigg, Tara D; Meyerett-Reid, Crystal; Hoover, Clare; Michel, Brady; Bian, Jifeng; Hoover, Edward; Gidlewski, Thomas; Balachandran, Aru; O'Rourke, Katherine; Telling, Glenn C; Bowen, Richard; Zabel, Mark D; VerCauteren, Kurt C

2013-01-01

50

Intranasal Inoculation of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Lyophilized Chronic Wasting Disease Prion Particulate Complexed to Montmorillonite Clay  

PubMed Central

Chronic wasting disease (CWD), the only known prion disease endemic in wildlife, is a persistent problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations. This disease continues to spread and cases are found in new areas each year. Indirect transmission can occur via the environment and is thought to occur by the oral and/or intranasal route. Oral transmission has been experimentally demonstrated and although intranasal transmission has been postulated, it has not been tested in a natural host until recently. Prions have been shown to adsorb strongly to clay particles and upon oral inoculation the prion/clay combination exhibits increased infectivity in rodent models. Deer and elk undoubtedly and chronically inhale dust particles routinely while living in the landscape while foraging and rutting. We therefore hypothesized that dust represents a viable vehicle for intranasal CWD prion exposure. To test this hypothesis, CWD-positive brain homogenate was mixed with montmorillonite clay (Mte), lyophilized, pulverized and inoculated intranasally into white-tailed deer once a week for 6 weeks. Deer were euthanized at 95, 105, 120 and 175 days post final inoculation and tissues examined for CWD-associated prion proteins by immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that CWD can be efficiently transmitted utilizing Mte particles as a prion carrier and intranasal exposure. PMID:23671598

Nichols, Tracy A.; Spraker, Terry R.; Rigg, Tara D.; Meyerett-Reid, Crystal; Hoover, Clare; Michel, Brady; Bian, Jifeng; Hoover, Edward; Gidlewski, Thomas; Balachandran, Aru; O'Rourke, Katherine; Telling, Glenn C.; Bowen, Richard

2013-01-01

51

Mucosal immunization with an attenuated Salmonella vaccine partially protects white-tailed deer from chronic wasting disease.  

PubMed

Prion disease is a unique category of illness, affecting both animals and humans, in which the underlying pathogenesis is related to a conformational change of a normal, self-protein called PrP(C) (C for cellular) to a pathological and infectious conformer known as PrP(Sc) (Sc for scrapie). Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), a prion disease believed to have arisen from feeding cattle with prion contaminated meat and bone meal products, crossed the species barrier to infect humans. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) infects large numbers of deer and elk, with the potential to infect humans. Currently no prionosis has an effective treatment. Previously, we have demonstrated we could prevent transmission of prions in a proportion of susceptible mice with a mucosal vaccine. In the current study, white-tailed deer were orally inoculated with attenuated Salmonella expressing PrP, while control deer were orally inoculated with vehicle attenuated Salmonella. Once a mucosal response was established, the vaccinated animals were boosted orally and locally by application of polymerized recombinant PrP onto the tonsils and rectal mucosa. The vaccinated and control animals were then challenged orally with CWD-infected brain homogenate. Three years post CWD oral challenge all control deer developed clinical CWD (median survival 602 days), while among the vaccinated there was a significant prolongation of the incubation period (median survival 909 days; p=0.012 by Weibull regression analysis) and one deer has remained CWD free both clinically and by RAMALT and tonsil biopsies. This negative vaccinate has the highest titers of IgA in saliva and systemic IgG against PrP. Western blots showed that immunoglobulins from this vaccinate react to PrP(CWD). We document the first partially successful vaccination for a prion disease in a species naturally at risk. PMID:25539804

Goñi, Fernando; Mathiason, Candace K; Yim, Lucia; Wong, Kinlung; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Nalls, Amy; Peyser, Daniel; Estevez, Veronica; Denkers, Nathaniel; Xu, Jinfeng; Osborn, David A; Miller, Karl V; Warren, Robert J; Brown, David R; Chabalgoity, Jose A; Hoover, Edward A; Wisniewski, Thomas

2015-01-29

52

Aerosol Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in White-Tailed Deer  

PubMed Central

While the facile transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) remains incompletely elucidated, studies in rodents suggest that exposure of the respiratory mucosa may be an efficient pathway. The present study was designed to address this question in the native cervid host. Here, we demonstrate aerosol transmission of CWD to deer with a prion dose >20-fold lower than that used in previous oral inoculations. Inhalation of prions may facilitate transmission of CWD and, perhaps, other prion infections. PMID:23175370

Denkers, Nathaniel D.; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Anderson, Kelly R.; Seelig, Davis M.; Haley, Nicholas J.; Dahmes, Sallie J.; Osborn, David A.; Miller, Karl V.; Warren, Robert J.; Mathiason, Candace K.

2013-01-01

53

Molecular study of free-ranging mule deer and white-tailed deer from British Columbia, Canada, for evidence of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp.  

PubMed

Twenty-three free-ranging white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) and six mule deer (MD; Odocoileus hemionus) from south-central British Columbia, Canada, were tested for Anaplasma marginale by msp5 gene-specific PCR and Ehrlichia spp. by 16S rRNA or citrate synthase (gltA) gene-specific PCR, as well as by PCR with universal 16S rRNA primers detecting a wide range of bacteria. No deer tested positive for A. marginale. Amplification with universal 16S rRNA primers followed by sequencing of cloned fragments detected an Anaplasma sp. in one of 23 (4.3%) WTD and six of six (100%) MD and Bartonella sp. in four of 23 (17.4%) WTD. The Anaplasma sp. was genetically distinct from A. marginale and all other recognized members of the genus. Four of six (66.7%) MD and 0 of 23 (0%) WTD were Ehrlichia positive by PCR with primers for 16S rRNA and gltA genes. The sequences of gltA PCR fragments were identical to each other and to the respective region of the gltA gene of an Ehrlichia sp. which we detected previously in naturally infected cattle from the same area, suggesting the possibility of biological transmission of this rickettsia between cattle and wild cervids. Antibodies reactive with the MSP5 protein of A. marginale were detected using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in two of six (33.3%) MD, but not in WTD. The two seropositive MD were PCR positive for both the Anaplasma sp. and Ehrlichia sp. detected in this study, suggesting a reaction of antibodies against one or both of these rickettsias with the MSP5 antigen. PMID:21933360

Lobanov, V A; Gajadhar, A A; Al-Adhami, B; Schwantje, H M

2012-06-01

54

Polymorphisms in the prion precursor functional gene but not the pseudogene are associated with susceptibility to chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) status and PrP genotypes were determined for a group of 133 wild white-tailed deer in a 780 acre enclosure in western Nebraska, USA. Approximately half of the deer tested showed evidence of PrPd in the brainstem or lymphoid tissues. Four PRNP alleles encoding amino acid substitutions were identified, with substitutions at residues 95 (QRH), 96 (GRS)

Katherine I. O'Rourke; Terry R. Spraker; Linda K. Hamburg; Thomas E. Besser; Kelly A. Brayton; Donald P. Knowles

2004-01-01

55

Broad and fine-scale genetic analysis of white-tailed deer populations: estimating the relative risk of chronic wasting disease spread  

PubMed Central

Chronic wasting disease is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, similar to sheep scrapie that has only recently been detected in wild populations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) in western Canada. Relatively little is known about local transmission dynamics of the disease or the potential for long-distance spread. We analysed the population genetic structure of over 2000 white-tailed deer sampled from Alberta, British Columbia, and Saskatchewan using microsatellite profiles and mtDNA sequencing to assess the relative risk of disease spread. There was very little differentiation among subpopulations and a weak trend of increasing differentiation with geographic distance. This suggests that the potential for long-distance disease spread through the dispersal of infected individuals is possible, yet the risk of spread should gradually diminish with distance from infection foci. Within subpopulations, females were more related than expected by chance (R > 0) within a radius of approximately 500 m. Sex-biased philopatry and social interactions among related females may facilitate local disease transmission within social groups. Local herd reduction may therefore be an effective tool for reducing the disease prevalence when implemented at the appropriate spatial scale.

Cullingham, Catherine I; Merrill, Evelyn H; Pybus, Margo J; Bollinger, Trent K; Wilson, Gregory A; Coltman, David W

2011-01-01

56

Technical Basis for Radiological Emergency Plan Annex for WTD Emergency Response Plan: West Point Treatment Plant  

SciTech Connect

Staff of the King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into the combined sanitary and storm sewer system in King County, Washington. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) 2001). Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. This document, Volume 3 of PNNL-15163 is the technical basis for the Annex to the West Point Treatment Plant (WPTP) Emergency Response Plan related to responding to a radiological emergency at the WPTP. The plan primarily considers response to radioactive material that has been introduced in the other combined sanitary and storm sewer system from a radiological dispersion device, but is applicable to any accidental or deliberate introduction of materials into the system.

Hickey, Eva E.; Strom, Daniel J.

2005-08-01

57

Prion protein in cardiac muscle of elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) infected with chronic wasting disease.  

PubMed

To investigate the possible presence of disease-associated prion protein (PrP(d)) in striated muscle of chronic wasting disease (CWD)-affected cervids, samples of diaphragm, tongue, heart and three appendicular skeletal muscles from mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and moose (Alces alces shirasi) were examined by ELISA, Western immunoblot and immunohistochemistry (IHC). PrP(d) was detected in samples of heart muscle from seven of 16 CWD-infected white-tailed deer, including one free-ranging deer, and in 12 of 17 CWD-infected elk, but not in any of 13 mule deer samples, nor in the single CWD-infected moose. For white-tailed deer, PrP(d) was detected by Western blot at multiple sites throughout the heart; IHC results on ventricular sections of both elk and white-tailed deer showed positive staining in cardiac myocytes, but not in conduction tissues or nerve ganglia. Levels of PrP(d) in cardiac tissues were estimated from Western blot band intensity to be lower than levels found in brain tissue. PrP(d) was not detected in diaphragm, triceps brachii, semitendinosus, latissiumus dorsi or tongue muscles for any of the study subjects. This is the first report of PrP(d) in cardiac tissue from transmissible spongiform encephalopathy-infected ruminants in the human food chain and the first demonstration by immunological assays of PrP(d) in any striated muscle of CWD-infected cervids. PMID:17030881

Jewell, Jean E; Brown, Jeremy; Kreeger, Terry; Williams, Elizabeth S

2006-11-01

58

Diversity and distribution of white-tailed deer mtdna lineages in chronic wasting disease (cwd) outbreak areas in southern wisconsin, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting North American cervids. Because it is uniformly fatal, the disease is a major concern in the management of white-tailed deer populations. Management programs to control CWD require improved knowledge of deer interaction, movement, and population connectivity that could influence disease transmission and spread. Genetic methods were employed to evaluate connectivity among populations in the CWD management zone of southern Wisconsin. A 576-base-pair region of the mitochondrial DNA of 359 white-tailed deer from 12 sample populations was analyzed. Fifty-eight variable sites were detected within the sequence, defining 43 haplotypes. While most sample populations displayed similar levels of haplotype diversity, individual haplotypes were clustered on the landscape. Spatial clusters of different haplotypes were apparent in distinct ecoregions surrounding CWD outbreak areas. The spatial distribution of mtDNA haplotypes suggests that clustering of the deer matrilineal groups and population connectivity are associated with broad-scale geographic landscape features. These landscape characteristics may also influence the contact rates between groups and therefore the potential spread of CWD; this may be especially true of local disease spread between female social groups. Our results suggest that optimal CWD management needs to be tailored to fit gender-specific dispersal behaviors and regional differences in deer population connectivity. This information will help wildlife managers design surveillance and monitoring efforts based on population interactions and potential deer movement among CWD-affected and unaffected areas. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Rogers, K.G.; Robinson, S.J.; Samuel, M.D.; Grear, D.A.

2011-01-01

59

Animal Tails  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Call it tail envy. With only a vestigial nub to show for ourselves, perhaps it's no wonder that animal tails capture our attention. The following Web sites present some of the more interesting tails to be found in the animal kingdom. The first Web site contains a recent article from Discovery News describing new findings that at least one species of scorpion produces two distinct types of tail venom, which have completely different effects on their victims (1). The next site from Singapore Zoological Gardens introduces the cebids (our New World monkey cousins), some of which have amazing prehensile tails that are used like a fifth limb (2). The rattlesnake is another famously-tailed creature, highlighted in the following site from the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum (3). The site covers the main aspects of rattlesnake natural history, including a section on how the rattle forms. The Great Plains Nature Center in Wichita, Kansas, offers a Web page devoted to the beaver, including tail trivia and an audio clip of a resident beaver surprised in his den at the Kansas Wildlife Exhibit (4). Anyone who has witnessed the freakishly fascinating spectacle of a gecko leaving its tail behind to distract a would-be predator will appreciate this brief bio of the Tokay gecko, presented by ReptileCenter.com, the Herpetologist's Portal (5). Stacy's Wag'N'Train -- offering dog-training classes in San Jose, California -- provides this online guide to dog body language, which would have a very limited vocabulary without the tail (6). So, how did the peacock get its tail? It's a simple question that has driven zoologists crazy for over a century. The next Web site (7) contains an in-depth article on the subject from the Independent (London), offered through National Geographic News. And finally, the bizarre gulper eel -- able to tie its tail in several knots -- gets is own Web page on Pangea, the Web server for the Department of Educational Leadership and Technology at Southeastern Louisiana University (8). This deep-sea curiosity uses its bioluminescent tail tip to lure hapless prey into its impossibly gigantic mouth.

Sohmer, Rachel.

2003-01-01

60

Epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): occurrence, congenital transmission, correlates of infection, isolation, and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in white tailed deer (WTD) in the USA is high but little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in this host. In the present study, we compared T. gondii seroprevalence from 749 WTD collected in 2012 and 2013 from a Metropolitan Park in Ohio and 487 WTD deer shot in Minnesota during 2008, 2009, and 2010. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (cut-off titer, 25). Additionally myocardial samples from 123 seropositive WTD from Ohio were digested in pepsin and the digests were bioassayed for the isolation of T. gondii. Furthermore, to estimate transplacental rate of transmission, brains from 155 fetuses (included twins) from 148 deer from Minnesota were bioassayed in mice for the isolation of viable T. gondii. Seroprevalence of T. gondii varied with the year of collection, geography, and the age of deer. Of the Ohio deer sampled in 2012 and 2013 seroprevalences for the two years were similar (73.4% and 75.7%, respectively); remarkably 150 (66.1%) of 227 deer of <1 year of age were seropositive. Of the Minnesota deer, seroprevalence was lowest for the year 2008 (14.8%, 26/175) versus 2009 (27.7%, 59/213), and 2010 (25.2%, 25/99), thought to be related to environmental temperatures. Viable T. gondii was isolated in mice from the myocardium of four WTD from Ohio, and brain of one WTD fetus from Minnesota. Tachyzoites from infected mouse tissues were further propagated in cell culture. The DNA isolated from culture-derived tachyzoites of these five T. gondii isolates was characterized using 11 PCR-RFLP markers (SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico). Four genotypes were found, including ToxoDB genotype no. 1 (Type II), no. 2 (Type III), no. 3 (Type II variant) and no. 146. Results indicate fluctuating seroprevalence, probably related to weather and warrant further epidemiological studies. PMID:24582734

Dubey, J P; Dennis, P M; Verma, S K; Choudhary, S; Ferreira, L R; Oliveira, S; Kwok, O C H; Butler, E; Carstensen, M; Su, C

2014-05-28

61

Genetic susceptibility to chronic wasting disease in free-ranging white-tailed deer: Complement component C1q and Prnp polymorphisms  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The genetic basis of susceptibility to chronic wasting disease (CWD) in free-ranging cervids is of great interest. Association studies of disease susceptibility in free-ranging populations, however, face considerable challenges including: the need for large sample sizes when disease is rare, animals of unknown pedigree create a risk of spurious results due to population admixture, and the inability to control disease exposure or dose. We used an innovative matched case-control design and conditional logistic regression to evaluate associations between polymorphisms of complement C1q and prion protein (Prnp) genes and CWD infection in white-tailed deer from the CWD endemic area in south-central Wisconsin. To reduce problems due to admixture or disease-risk confounding, we used neutral genetic (microsatellite) data to identify closely related CWD-positive (n = 68) and CWD-negative (n = 91) female deer to serve as matched cases and controls. Cases and controls were also matched on factors (sex, location, age) previously demonstrated to affect CWD infection risk. For Prnp, deer with at least one Serine (S) at amino acid 96 were significantly less likely to be CWD-positive relative to deer homozygous for Glycine (G). This is the first characterization of genes associated with the complement system in white-tailed deer. No tests for association between any C1q polymorphism and CWD infection were significant at p < 0.05. After controlling for Prnp, we found weak support for an elevated risk of CWD infection in deer with at least one Glycine (G) at amino acid 56 of the C1qC gene. While we documented numerous amino acid polymorphisms in C1q genes none appear to be strongly associated with CWD susceptibility. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Blanchong, J.A.; Heisey, D.M.; Scribner, K.T.; Libants, S.V.; Johnson, C.; Aiken, J.M.; Langenberg, J.A.; Samuel, M.D.

2009-01-01

62

Anaplasma phagocytophilum in White-tailed Deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the reservoir potential of white-tailed deer for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Results suggest that white-tailed deer harbor a variant strain not associated with human infection, but contrary to published reports, white- tailed deer are not a reservoir for strains that cause human disease. These results will affect surveillance studies of vector and reservoir populations.

Robert F. Massung; Joshua W. Courtney; Shannon L. Hiratzka; Virginia E. Pitzer; Gary Smith; Richard L. Dryden

63

Safety of Tailings Dams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Contains information on different aspects of tailings dams; tailings dam properties, disasters, failure modes, slurry waves, stability analysis, and safe tailings disposal. Also includes a slope stability calculator and a tailings flow slide calculator.

2008-08-25

64

Chronic wasting disease infection patterns in female white-tailed deer related to demographics, genetic relationships, and spatial proximity of infected deer in southern Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) caused by transmissible protease resistant prions. Since the discovery of CWD in southern Wisconsin in 2001, more than 20,000 deer have been removed from a >2,500 km2 disease eradication zone surrounding the three initial cases. Nearly all deer removed were tested for CWD infection and sex, age, and harvest location were recorded. Our analysis used data from a 310 kin2 core study area where disease prevalence was higher than surrounding areas. We found no difference in harvest rates between CWD infected and non-infected deer. Ow results show that the probability of infection increased with age and that adult males were more likely to be infected than adult females. Six fawns tested positive for CWD, five fawns from the core study area, including the youngest (5 months) kee-ranging cervid to test positive. The increase in male prevalence with age is nearly twice the increase found in females. We concluded that CWD is not randomly distributed among deer and that differential transmission among sex and age classes is likely driving the observed patterns in disease prevalence. We discuss alternative hypotheses for CWD transmission and spread and, in addition, discuss several possible non-linear relationships between prevalence and age. Understanding CWD transmission in free-ranging cervid populations will be essential to the development of strategies to manage this disease in areas where CWD is found as well as for surveillance strategies in areas where CWD threatens to spread.

Grear, Daniel A.

2006-01-01

65

Evaluating use of cattle winter feeding areas by elk and white-tailed deer: implications for managing bovine tuberculosis transmission risk from the ground up.  

PubMed

Transmission of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) among wildlife and livestock has created important risks for conservation and agriculture. Management strategies aimed at controlling TB have typically been top-down, regionally focused, and government-led programs that were at best only partially successful. The purpose of this study was to quantify co-mingling of elk and white-tailed deer (WTD) with cattle at multiple spatial scales (i.e., the regional farm scale and winter cattle feeding area patch) in southwestern Manitoba, Canada, to assess the potential for bovine tuberculosis transmission and identify alternative management strategies. For each spatial scale we quantified use of cattle farms by elk and white-tailed deer. We mailed questionnaires to rural households and then conducted personal interviews with 86 cattle farmers to map the spatial distribution of their cattle winter feeding areas at a fine scale. We deployed Global Positioning System (GPS) collars on 48 wild elk and 16 wild white-tailed deer from 2003 to 2011. Elk were observed on farms by 66% of cattle producers, including 5% and 20% who observed direct and indirect contact, respectively, between elk and cattle. Cattle producers consistently (?100%) observed white-tailed deer on their farms, including 11% and 47% whom observed direct and indirect contact, respectively, between white-tailed deer and cattle. A higher probability of white-tailed deer-cattle contact at the regional scale occurs on farms that (1) left crop residues specifically for wildlife, (2) had larger cattle herds, (3) used round bale feeders, and (4) were farther away from protected areas. None of the GPS-collared elk locations overlapped with cattle winter feeding areas. In contrast, 21% of GPS-collared white-tailed deer locations overlapped with winter cattle winter feeding areas (22% of these were from male WTD and 78% were from female WTD). White-tailed deer selected cattle winter feeding areas with higher (1) forage crop, (2) grassland/rangeland, and (3) forest cover around the cattle feeding area. Farmers overall expressed strongly negative attitudes toward eradicating the elk population or fencing the park to eradicate TB, but were generally supportive of less invasive and farm-based approaches. Our results suggested that management efforts to prevent TB transmission at the wildlife-agriculture interface can be effectively implemented using a 'bottom-up' approach that focuses on practical, farm-based mitigation strategies. This approach can be implemented by individual farm operators, is relatively low cost, and is generally well supported by farmers relative to other more extreme and controversial measures like wildlife eradication. PMID:22940061

Brook, Ryan K; Wal, Eric Vander; van Beest, Floris M; McLachlan, Stéphane M

2013-02-01

66

Experimental Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) from Elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to Fallow Deer (Dama dama) by Intracerebral Route: Final Report  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this communication we report final observations on experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) from elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to fallow deer (Dama dama). The study was terminated 5 years after it was initiated. Thirteen fawns were i...

67

Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Outbreak in a Captive Facility Housing White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus), Bison (Bison Bison), Elk (Cervus Elaphus), Cattle (Bos Taurus) and Goats (Capra Hircus) in Colorado  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A captive wildlife research facility in Fort Collins, Colorado experienced mortality in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) due to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) infection in late summer and early fall of 2007. RNA from EHDV was amplified by RT-PCR from the spleen and lung tissues...

68

Morphological and Genetic Comparisons between Babesia bovis and Trypanosoma spp. Found in Cattle and White-tailed Deer  

E-print Network

together with cattle isolates and the WTD sequences aligned closely with elk (Cervus canadensis) sequences, indicating that wild ungulates (WTD and elk) and cattle most likely have separate trypanosome species. On distribution analysis there was a trend...

Fisher, Amanda

2012-10-19

69

Evaluation of Serodiagnostic Assays for Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Elk, White-Tailed Deer, and Reindeer in the United States  

PubMed Central

In 2011, the United States Department of Agriculture conducted a project in which elk (Cervus elaphus spp.), white-tailed deer (WTD) (Odocoileus virginianus), and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) were evaluated by the single cervical tuberculin test (SCT), comparative cervical tuberculin test (CCT), and serologic tests. The rapid antibody detection tests evaluated were the CervidTB Stat-Pak (Stat-Pak), and the Dual Path Platform VetTB (DPP). Blood was collected from presumably uninfected animals prior to tuberculin injection for the SCT. A total of 1,783 animals were enrolled in the project. Of these, 1,752 (98.3%) were classified as presumably uninfected, based on originating from a captive cervid herd with no history of exposure to TB. Stat-Pak specificity estimates were 92.4% in reindeer, 96.7% in WTD, and 98.3% in elk and were not significantly different from SCT specificity estimates. Using the DPP in series on Stat-Pak antibody-positive samples improved specificity in the three species. Thirty one animals were classified as confirmed infected, based on necropsy and laboratory results, and 27/31 were antibody positive on Stat-Pak for an estimated sensitivity of 87.1%. The study findings indicate that rapid serologic tests used in series are comparable to the SCT and CCT and may have a greater ability to detect TB-infected cervids. PMID:22792512

Nelson, Jeffrey T.; Orloski, Kathleen A.; Lloyd, Audra L.; Camacho, Mark; Schoenbaum, Mark A.; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Thomsen, Bruce V.; Hall, S. Mark

2012-01-01

70

Length of Magnetospheric Tail  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that hydromagnetic waves, through the action of radiation pressure, can prevent the tail of the magnetosphere from closing near the earth. It is argued that the tail of the magnetosphere may be 20 to 50 AU long. The tail can close at such heliocentric distances in the charge-exchange boundary shell where the solar wind is terminated and

A. J. Dessler

1964-01-01

71

Acaricidal Treatment of White-Tailed Deer to Control Ixodes Scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in a New York Lyme Disease-Endemic Community  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The 4-Poster device for the topical treatment of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann) against ticks using the acaricide amitraz was evaluated in a Lyme borreliosis endemic community in Connecticut. As part of a 5-year project from 1997 to 2002, 21–24 of the 4-Posters were distribut...

72

Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks Tail Densities of Copulas  

E-print Network

Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks Tail Densities of Toronto, May 27 2014 Haijun Li Tail Densities of Copulas University of Toronto, May 27 2014 1 / 22 #12;Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks Let X = (X1

Li, Haijun

73

Tail posture predicts tail damage among weaned piglets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tail biting in pigs is a widespread behavioural vice with significant animal welfare and economic consequences. All too often, tail biting is not diagnosed nor dealt with until tail damage is present. To effectively reduce the negative effects of tail biting, it must be diagnosed in an early stage. So far no predictors for tail damage have been found. Predictors

Johan J. Zonderland; Johan W. van Riel; Marc B. M. Bracke; Bas Kemp; Leo A. den Hartog; Hans A. M. Spoolder

2009-01-01

74

Peer Reviewed White-Tailed Deer Harvest From the Chronic Wasting  

E-print Network

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) was discovered in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus chronic wasting disease, deer herd reduction, harvest, Odocoileus virginianus, white-tailed deer-ranging and captive wildlife including elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and white-tailed deer (O

Mladenoff, David

75

Tails of Lorenz curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lorenz dominance criterion is the centre piece of inequality analysis. Yet, the appeal of this criterion, which requires considering Lorenz curves in their entirety, is undermined by the practical problem that many sample Lorenz curves intersect in the tails. The commonly used inferential methods, based on central limit theorem arguments, do not apply to the tails since these contain

Christian Schluter; Mark Trede

2002-01-01

76

Helicopter tail rotor noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was made of helicopter tail rotor noise, particularly that due to interactions with the main rotor tip vortices, and with the fuselage separation mean wake. The tail rotor blade-main rotor tip vortex interaction is modelled as an airfoil of infinite span cutting through a moving vortex. The vortex and the geometry information required by the analyses are obtained through a free wake geometry analysis of the main rotor. The acoustic pressure-time histories for the tail rotor blade-vortex interactions are then calculated. These acoustic results are compared to tail rotor loading and thickness noise, and are found to be significant to the overall tail rotor noise generation. Under most helicopter operating conditions, large acoustic pressure fluctuations can be generated due to a series of skewed main rotor tip vortices passing through the tail rotor disk. The noise generation depends strongly upon the helicopter operating conditions and the location of the tail rotor relative to the main rotor.

Chou, S.-T.; George, A. R.

1986-01-01

77

Study on thermal properties and crystallization behavior of electron beam irradiated ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)/waste tyre dust (WTD) blends in the presence of polyethylene graft maleic anhydride (PEgMAH)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this article is to show the effects of the electron beam irradiation dose and presence of a compatibiliser on the thermal properties and crystallinity of EVA/WTD blends. The purpose of applying electron beam radiation with doses range 50 to 200 kGy and adding a compatibiliser was to enhance the compatibility of the studied blends and at the same time to investigate the possibility of using this technique in the process of recycling polymeric materials. As the compatibilisers, the polyethylene grafted maleic anhydride (PEgMAH) was utilized, they were added at the amounts of 1-5 phr respectively. The enhancement of thermal properties was accompanied by the following effects, discussed in this article: i) an irradiated EVA/WTD blend at 200kGy was found to improve the thermal properties of EVA, ii) the addition of PEgMAH in EVA/WTD blends and the subsequent irradiation allowed prevention of degradation mechanism. iii) the ?Hf and crystallinity percentage decrease at higher PEgMAH content.

Ramli, Syuhada; Ratnam, C. T.; Ahmad, S. H.; Athirah, Nurul

2013-11-01

78

Validation of Use of Rectoanal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue for Immunohistochemical Diagnosis of Chronic Wasting Disease in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are a family of fatal neurodegenerative diseases characterized by accumulation of abnormal prion proteins in the brain. The abnormal prion protein is the major constituent of the infectious agent and is a reliable marker for disease. The occurrence of ...

79

ABNORMAL PRION PROTEIN IN ECTOPIC LYMPHOID TISSUE IN A KIDNEY OF AN ASYMPTOMATIC WHITE-TAILED DEER EXPERIMENTALLY INOCULATED WITH THE AGENT OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of deer and elk is one of a group of fatal, neurologic disease that affects several mammalian species, including human beings. Infection by the causative agent induces accumulations of an abnormal form of prion protein (...

80

Flea Abundance on Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) Increases During Plague Epizootics  

E-print Network

Flea Abundance on Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) Increases During Plague-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) on the Great Plains of the United States are highly susceptible-tailed prairie dog--Cynomys ludovicianus--Plague--Yersinia. Introduction Plague, the disease caused

Antolin, Michael F.

81

Human tail: nature's aberration.  

PubMed

Human tail refers to a congenital cutaneous appendix protruding from the lumbosacral region. It is usually associated with an underlying spina bifida occulta, a form of spinal dysraphism. A contiguous fibrolipoma can sometimes be seen extending from the subcutaneous portion of the tail into the inferior spinal cord, resulting in tethered cord syndrome. Management of such lesions includes complete neurologic examination and magnetic resonance imaging. Early diagnosis and microsurgical intervention can prevent development or progression of severe neurologic defects in later life. PMID:22241711

Kumar, Dipti; Kapoor, Akshay

2012-07-01

82

WILDLIFE DISEASES SURVEILLANCE TO DETECT CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN  

E-print Network

of 2002 and 2003 to determine the distribution of CWD in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Deer wasting disease, disease surveillance, Odocoileus virginianus, white- tailed deer, Wisconsin. INTRODUCTION), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and elk (Cervus elaphus) associated with the presence

Mladenoff, David

83

Crocodile Skeleton - Tail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The crocodile is a reptile that has a long and narrow skeleton. The backbone (a gliding joint) of this animal extends into a powerful tail, allowing it to swim through water. The ribs of the crocodile are small and serve to protect its inner organs.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Science)

2007-07-14

84

Dolphin Skeleton - Tail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The dolphin is built to be sleek. Its body is made of almost entirely backbone (a gliding joint) which makes it very flexible under water. The ribs protect the inner organs of the dolphin and the tail beats from side to side, thrusting the animal forward.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-07-14

85

"Tails" of Linguistic Survival  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the relatively short history of computerized corpora of spoken language, it is not surprising that few diachronic studies have been done on the grammatical features recently highlighted by the analysis of such corpora. This article, however, does take a diachronic perspective on one such feature: the syntactic feature of "tails" (Dik 1978).…

Timmis, Ivor

2010-01-01

86

REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK STAND, SHOWING AIRCRAFT NUMBER (319), HORIZONTAL STABILIZER, TAIL CONE AND COOLING CTS FOR THE AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), MECHANIC PAUL RIDEOUT IS LOWERING THE BALANCE PANELS ON THE STABILIZERS FOR LUBRICATION AND INSPECTION. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

87

HGMS of tin ore tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two samples of Bolivian tin ore tailings have been subjected to High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) for the purpose of increasing the tin content, and reducing the iron content which interferes with smelting. The Colavi mine tailing was the discarded product of a froth flotation process and contains about 0.7% by weight of valuable tin. The Atoroma tailing was the

M. Arellano; D. Kelland

1979-01-01

88

Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks A tail density approach in extremal  

E-print Network

Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks A tail density of Mathematics Washington State University Munich, May 2011 Haijun Li A tail density approach in extremal dependence analysis for vine copulas Munich, May 2011 1 / 21 #12;Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail

Li, Haijun

89

Surveillance for transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in scavengers of white-tailed deer carcasses in the chronic wasting disease area of wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a class of neurodegenerative transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) occurring in cervids, is found in a number of states and provinces across North America. Misfolded prions, the infectious agents of CWD, are deposited in the environment via carcass remains and excreta, and pose a threat of cross-species transmission. In this study tissues were tested from 812 representative mammalian scavengers, collected in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin, for TSE infection using the IDEXX HerdChek enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only four of the collected mammals tested positive using the ELISA, but these were negative when tested by Western blot. While our sample sizes permitted high probabilities of detecting TSE assuming 1% population prevalence in several common scavengers (93%, 87%, and 87% for raccoons, opossums, and coyotes, respectively), insufficient sample sizes for other species precluded similar conclusions. One cannot rule out successful cross-species TSE transmission to scavengers, but the results suggest that such transmission is not frequent in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin. The need for further surveillance of scavenger species, especially those known to be susceptible to TSE (e.g., cat, American mink, raccoon), is highlighted in both a field and laboratory setting.

Jennelle, C.S.; Samuel, M.D.; Nolden, C.A.; Keane, D.P.; Barr, D.J.; Johnson, C.; Vanderloo, J.P.; Aiken, J.M.; Hamir, A.N.; Hoover, E.A.

2009-01-01

90

Floods from tailings dam failures.  

PubMed

This paper compiles the available information on historic tailings dam failures with the purpose to establish simple correlations between tailings ponds geometric parameters (e.g., dam height, tailings volume) and the hydraulic characteristics of floods resulting from released tailings. Following the collapse of a mining waste dam, only a part of tailings and polluted water stored at the dam is released, and this outflow volume is difficult to estimate prior the incident. In this study, tailings' volume stored at the time of failure was shown to have a good correlation (r2=0.86) with the tailings outflow volume, and the volume of spilled tailings was correlated with its run-out distance (r2=0.57). An envelope curve was drawn encompassing the majority of data points indicating the potential maximum downstream distance affected by a tailings' spill. The application of the described regression equations for prediction purposes needs to be treated with caution and with support of on-site measurement and observations. However, they may provide a universal baseline approximation on tailing outflow characteristics (even if detailed dam information is unavailable), which is of a great importance for risk analysis purposes. PMID:18096316

Rico, M; Benito, G; Díez-Herrero, A

2008-06-15

91

The geomagnetic tail  

SciTech Connect

A review is presented of the plasma sheet and lobe regions of the magnetotail, focusing principally on large-scale processes or microprocesses with some large-scale effects. Consideration is given to quiet and average structures, not necessarily related to activity phases, with quasi-steady convection aspects, and with the characteristics of dynamic phases including acceleration mechanisms and single particle aspects. Attention is given to various activity models, average and quiet time properties, properties and effects of magnetospheric convection, dynamics of the magnetotail, and the near tail, substorm current wedge.

Birn, J. (USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States))

1991-01-01

92

Uranium mill tailings and radon  

SciTech Connect

The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

Hanchey, L A

1981-01-01

93

Preventive Effect of Pine Bark Extract (Flavangenol) on Metabolic Disease in Western Diet-Loaded Tsumura Suzuki Obese Diabetes Mice  

PubMed Central

It is known that the metabolic syndrome has a multi-factorial basis involving both genetic and environmental risk factors. In this study, Tsumura Suzuki Obese Diabetes (TSOD) mice, a mouse model of multi-factorial, hereditary, obese type II diabetes, were given a Western diet (WTD) as an environmental factor to prepare a disease model (TSOD-WTD) and to investigate the preventive effects of Pine bark extract (Flavangenol) against obesity and various features of metabolic disease appearing in this animal model. In contrast to control Tsumura Suzuki Non-obesity (TSNO) mice, TSOD mice were obese and suffered from other metabolic complications. WTD-fed TSOD mice developed additional features such as hyperinsulinemia, abnormal glucose/lipid metabolism and fatty liver. The treatment with Flavangenol had a suppressive effect on increase in body weight and accumulation of visceral and subcutaneous fat, and also showed preventive effects on symptoms related to insulin resistance, abnormal glucose/lipid metabolism and hypertension. Flavangenol also increased the plasma concentration of adiponectin and decreased the plasma concentration of TNF-?. We next investigated the effect of Flavangenol on absorption of meal-derived lipids. Flavangenol suppressed absorption of neutral fat in an olive-oil-loading test (in vivo) and showed an inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase (in vitro). The above results suggest that Flavangenol has a preventive effect on severe metabolic disease due to multiple causes that involve both genetic and environmental risk factors. The mechanism of action might involve a partial suppressive effect of meal-derived lipids on absorption. PMID:21607011

Shimada, Tsutomu; Kosugi, Mitsutaka; Tokuhara, Daisuke; Tsubata, Masahito; Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Sameshima, Mayu; Nagamine, Rika; Takagaki, Kinya; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Aburada, Masaki

2011-01-01

94

The Earth and Comets' Tails  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN spite of the unreserved predictions of astronomers, the earth did not pass through the tail of Halley's comet on May 18-19, nor subsequently. The tail as seen in the morning sky, previous to the transit of the comet across the sun's disc, appeared like a long and straight beam of light stretching from the horizon to Aquila. It was

R. T. A. Innes

1910-01-01

95

Runaway tails in magnetized plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of a runaway tail driven by a dc electric field in a magnetized plasma is analyzed. Depending on the strength of the electric field and the ratio of plasma to gyrofrequency, there are three different regimes in the evolution of the tail. The tail can be (1) stable with electrons accelerated to large parallel velocities, (2) unstable to Cerenkov resonance because of the depletion of the bulk and the formation of a positive slope, (3) unstable to the anomalous Doppler resonance instability driven by the large velocity anisotropy in the tail. Once an instability is triggered (Cerenkov or anomalous Doppler resonance) the tail relaxes into an isotropic distribution. The role of a convection type loss term is also discussed.

Moghaddam-Taaheri, E.; Vlahos, L.; Rowland, H. L.; Papadopoulos, K.

1985-11-01

96

Helicopter tail rotor noise analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was made of helicopter tail rotor noise, particularly that due to interactions with the main rotor tip vortices, and with the fuselage separation mean wake. The tail rotor blade-main rotor tip vortex interaction is modelled as an airfoil of infinite span cutting through a moving vortex. The vortex and the geometry information required by the analyses are obtained through a free wake geometry analysis of the main rotor. The acoustic pressure-time histories for the tail rotor blade-vortex interactions are then calculated. These acoustic results are compared to tail rotor loading and thickness noise, and are found to be significant to the overall tail rotor noise generation. Under most helicopter operating conditions, large acoustic pressure fluctuations can be generated due to a series of skewed main rotor tip vortices passing through the tail rotor disk. The noise generation depends strongly upon the helicopter operating conditions and the location of the tail rotor relative to the main rotor.

George, A. R.; Chou, S. T.

1986-01-01

97

[Tail Plane Icing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aviation Safety Program initiated by NASA in 1997 has put greater emphasis in safety related research activities. Ice-contaminated-tailplane stall (ICTS) has been identified by the NASA Lewis Icing Technology Branch as an important activity for aircraft safety related research. The ICTS phenomenon is characterized as a sudden, often uncontrollable aircraft nose- down pitching moment, which occurs due to increased angle-of-attack of the horizontal tailplane resulting in tailplane stall. Typically, this phenomenon occurs when lowering the flaps during final approach while operating in or recently departing from icing conditions. Ice formation on the tailplane leading edge can reduce tailplane angle-of-attack range and cause flow separation resulting in a significant reduction or complete loss of aircraft pitch control. In 1993, the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) and NASA embarked upon a four-year research program to address the problem of tailplane stall and to quantify the effect of tailplane ice accretion on aircraft performance and handling characteristics. The goals of this program, which was completed in March 1998, were to collect aerodynamic data for an aircraft tail with and without ice contamination and to develop analytical methods for predicting the effects of tailplane ice contamination. Extensive dry air and icing tunnel tests which resulted in a database of the aerodynamic effects associated with tailplane ice contamination. Although the FAA/NASA tailplane icing program generated some answers regarding ice-contaminated-tailplane stall (ICTS) phenomena, NASA researchers have found many open questions that warrant further investigation into ICTS. In addition, several aircraft manufacturers have expressed interest in a second research program to expand the database to other tail configurations and to develop experimental and computational methodologies for evaluating the ICTS phenomenon. In 1998, the icing branch at NASA Lewis initiated a second multi-phase research program for tailplane icing (TIP II) to develop test methodologies and tailplane performance and handling qualities evaluation tools. The main objectives of this new NASA/Industry/Academia collaborative research programs were: (1) define and evaluate a sub-scale wind tunnel test methodology for determining tailplane performance degradation due to icing. (2) develop an experimental database of tailplane aerodynamic performance with and without ice contamination for a range of tailplane configurations. Wind tunnel tests were planned with representative general aviation aircraft, i.e., the Learjet 45, and a twin engine low speed aircraft. This report summarizes the research performed during the first year of the study, and outlines the work tasks for the second year.

1997-01-01

98

Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The source of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief passages is due to Mercury's proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet's lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute to Mercury's very brief Dungey cycle, approx. 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury's tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.

Slavin, James A.

2010-01-01

99

Tail Risk Measures Heavy-Tail Asymptotics: Regular Variation Multivariate Risks Concluding Remarks Regularly Varying Asymptotics for Tail Risk  

E-print Network

Tail Risk Measures Heavy-Tail Asymptotics: Regular Variation Multivariate Risks Concluding Remarks Regularly Varying Asymptotics for Tail Risk Haijun Li Department of Mathematics Washington State University Humboldt Univ-Berlin Haijun Li Regularly Varying Asymptotics for Tail Risk Humboldt Univ-Berlin 1 / 26 #12

Li, Haijun

100

Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 41(4), 2005, pp. 820824 Wildlife Disease Association 2005  

E-print Network

Tonsillar Biopsy Test for Chronic Wasting Disease: Two Sampling Approaches in Mule Deer and White-tailed investigating disease prevalence. Between Jan- uary 2003 and January 2005, white-tailed deer (O. virginianus) in southeast and southwest Minnesota and white-tailed and mule deer (O. hemionus) in Wind Cave National Park

101

Research Article Spread of Plague Among Black-Tailed Prairie  

E-print Network

dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) and causes widespread colony losses and individual mortality rates >95%. We 2011 The Wildlife Society. KEY WORDS Cynomys ludovicianus, disease, epizootic, mark­recapture, multi these challenges by studying a conspicuous, highly social colonial rodent, the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys

Collinge, Sharon K.

102

18 Sharp-tailed Grouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tympanuchus phasianellus (Linnaeus) 1858 Other vernacular names: Brush grouse, pintail grouse, prairie grouse, prairie pheasant, sharptail, speckle-belly, spike-tail, spring-tail, whitebelly, white-breasted grouse. Range: Currently from north central Alaska, Yukon, northern Mackenzie, northern Manitoba, northern Ontario, and central Quebec south to eastern Washington, extreme eastern Oregon, Idaho, northeastern Utah, Wyoming, and Colorado, and in the Great Plains from eastern Colorado and

Paul A. Johnsgard

2008-01-01

103

Theseus Tail Being Unloaded  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tail of the Theseus prototype research aircraft is seen here being unloaded at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in May of 1996. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global environmental change measurements. Dryden's Project Manager was John Del Frate.

1996-01-01

104

SUBAQUEOUS DISPOSAL OF MILL TAILINGS  

SciTech Connect

A study of mill tailings and sulfide minerals was carried out in order to understand their behavior under subaqueous conditions. A series of electrochemical experiments, namely, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanic coupling tests were carried out in artificial seawater and in pH 6.8 buffer solutions with chloride and ferric salts. Two mill tailings samples, one from the Kensington Mine, Alaska, and the other from the Holden Mine, Washington, were studied along with pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite and copper-activated sphalerite. SEM analysis of mill tailings revealed absence of sulfide minerals from the Kensington Mine mill tailings, whereas the Holden Mine mill tailings contained approximately 8% pyrite and 1% sphalerite. In order to conduct electrochemical tests, carbon matrix composite (CMC) electrodes of mill tailings, pyrite and galena were prepared and their feasibility was established by conducting a series of cyclic voltammetry tests. The cyclic voltammetry experiments carried out in artificial seawater and pH 6.8 buffer with chloride salts showed that chloride ions play an important role in the redox processes of sulfide minerals. For pyrite and galena, peaks were observed for the formation of chloride complexes, whereas pitting behavior was observed for the CMC electrodes of the Kensington Mine mill tailings. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy conducted in artificial seawater provided with the Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena. The Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena exhibited an inert range of potential indicating a slower rate of leaching of sulfide minerals in marine environments. The galvanic coupling experiments were carried out to study the oxidation of sulfide minerals in the absence of oxygen. It was shown that in the absence of oxygen, ferric (Fe3+) ions might oxidize the sulfide minerals, thereby releasing undesirable oxidation products in the marine environment. The source of Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions may be attributed to iron-bearing sulfide (and oxide) minerals present in the mill tailings. However, the concentration of available Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions can be reduced by the precipitation of insoluble ferric hydroxides (Fe(OH ){sub 3}) by seawater due to its near neutral pH. In such case, the oxidation of a sulfide mineral is inhibited due to the absence of an oxidizing agent (viz. oxygen and/or Fe{sup 3+} ions). The experiments carried out in this study provided a better understanding of behavior of sulfide minerals and mill tailings in subaqueous conditions and may be useful for further investigation of sulfide minerals and mill tailings in other environments.

Neeraj K. Mendiratta; Roe-Hoan Yoon; Paul Richardson

1999-09-03

105

The tail of integrin activation  

PubMed Central

Integrins are essential adhesion receptors found on the surfaces of all metazoan cells. As regulators of cell migration and extracellular matrix assembly, these membrane-spanning heterodimers are critical for embryonic development, tissue repair and immune responses. Signals transmitted by integrins from outside to inside the cell promote cell survival and proliferation, but integrin affinity for extracellular ligands can also be controlled by intracellular cues. This bidirectional signaling is mediated by the short cytoplasmic tails of the two integrin subunits. Recent structural and functional studies of various integrin fragments and complexes between the cytoplasmic tails and intracellular proteins, such as talin, have provided new insight into the signaling processes centered around the tails, particularly inside-out integrin activation. PMID:21216149

Anthis, Nicholas J; Campbell, Iain D

2010-01-01

106

Magnetospheric Substorms and Tail Dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This grant funded several studies of magnetospheric substorms and their effect on the dynamics of the earth's geomagnetic tail. We completed an extensive study of plasmoids, plasma/magnetic field structures that travel rapidly down the tail, using data from the ISEE 3 and IMP 8 spacecraft. This study formed the PhD thesis of Mark Moldwin. We found that magnetically plasmoids are better described as flux-ropes (twisted magnetic flux tubes) rather than plasma bubbles, as had been generally regarded up to that point (Moldwin and Hughes, 1990; 1991). We published several examples of plasmoids observed first in the near tail by IMP 8 and later in the distant tail by ISEE 3, confirming their velocities down tail. We showed how the passage of plasmoids distorts the plasma sheet. We completed the first extensive statistical survey of plasmoids that showed how plasmoids evolve as they move down tail from their formation around 30 RE to ISEE 3 apogee at 240 RE. We established a one-to-one correspondence between the observation of plasmoids in the distant tail and substorm onsets at earth or in the near tail. And we showed that there is a class of plasmoid-like structures that move slowly earthward, especially following weak substorms during northward IMF. Collectively this work constituted the most extensive study of plasmoids prior to the work that has now been done with the GEOTAIL spacecraft. Following our work on plasmoids, we turned our attention to signatures of substorm onset observed in the inner magnetosphere near geosynchronous orbit, especially signatures observed by the CRRES satellite. Using data from the magnetometer, electric field probe, plasma wave instrument, and low energy plasma instrument on CRRES we were able to better document substorm onsets in the inner magnetosphere than had been possible previously. Detailed calculation of the Poynting flux showed energy exchange between the magnetosphere and ionosphere, and a short burst of tailward convective flow just prior to onset, suggesting the active role of the ionosphere in the onset process, and adding credibility to the ballooning instability theory of substorm onset. This grant also supported a number of other substorm studies and reviews. These are represented by the list of publications and meeting presentations resulting out of this grant.

Hughes, W. Jeffrey

1998-01-01

107

COMPARISON OF TWO AUTOMATED IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL PROCEDURES FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF SCRAPIE IN DOMESTIC SHEEP AND CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN NORTH AMERICAN WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) AND MULE DEER (ODOCOILEUS HEMI  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Scrapie and chronic wasting disease are transmissible spongiform encephalopathies of sheep and cervid ruminants respectively. These diseases are often diagnosed by immunohistochemistry using one or a cocktail of two monoclonal antibodies on an automated immunostainer that delivers commercially avai...

108

Secondary structures of the core histone N-terminal tails: their role in regulating chromatin structure.  

PubMed

The core histone N-terminal tails dissociate from their binding positions in nucleosomes at moderate salt concentrations, and appear unstructured in the crystal. This suggested that the tails contributed minimally to chromatin structure. However, in vitro studies have shown that the tails were involved in a range of intra- and inter-nucleosomal as well as inter-fibre contacts. The H4 tail, which is essential for chromatin compaction, was shown to contact an adjacent nucleosome in the crystal. Acetylation of H4K16 was shown to abolish the ability of a nucleosome array to fold into a 30 nm fibre. The application of secondary structure prediction software has suggested the presence of extended structured regions in the histone tails. Molecular Dynamics studies have further shown that sections of the H3 and H4 tails assumed ?-helical and ?-strand content that was enhanced by the presence of DNA, and that post-translational modifications of the tails had a major impact on these structures. Circular dichroism and NMR showed that the H3 and H4 tails exhibited significant ?-helical content, that was increased by acetylation of the tail. There is thus strong evidence, both from biophysical and from computational approaches, that the core histones tails, particularly that of H3 and H4, are structured, and that these structures are influenced by post-translational modifications. This chapter reviews studies on the position, binding sites and secondary structures of the core histone tails, and discusses the possible role of the histone tail structures in the regulation of chromatin organization, and its impact on human disease. PMID:23150245

du Preez, Louis L; Patterton, Hugh-G

2013-01-01

109

Lobster Tail Ice Formation on Aerosurface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Glace Ice formation commonly refered to as 'Lobster Tail' by scientists and engineers, is caused to form on the leading edge of a aircraft tail section in the icing research tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio.

1999-01-01

110

Descending from infinity: Convergence of tailed distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the relaxation of long-tailed distributions under stochastic dynamics that do not support such tails. Linear relaxation is found to be a borderline case in which long tails are exponentially suppressed in time but not eliminated. Relaxation stronger than linear suppresses long tails immediately, but may lead to strong transient peaks in the probability distribution. We also find that a ? -function initial distribution under stronger than linear decay displays not one but two different regimes of diffusive spreading.

Van den Broeck, Christian; Harbola, Upendra; Toral, Raul; Lindenberg, Katja

2015-01-01

111

An acceleration mechanism for cometary plasma tails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cometary plasma tail formation by the interaction between the solar wind plasma flow and the plasma at the head of the coma is discussed using the unipolar electric generation theory. The plasma in the 'plasma tail' is almost directly accelerated from the cometary ionopause along the sun-nucleus line where the tail current flows. For steady state solar wind conditions, the

Shigeyuki Minami; R. S. White

1986-01-01

112

Uranium mill tailings quarterly report, January-March 1982  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported on: radon barrier systems for uranium mill tailings; liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings; revegetation/rock cover for stabilization of inactive U-tailings sites; and application of long-term chemical biobarriers for uranium tailings.

Latkovich, J.M. (comp.)

1982-05-01

113

Environmentally safe design of tailing dams for the management of iron ore tailings in Indian context.  

PubMed

The need for the disposal of iron ore tailings in an enviornmentally firiendly manner is of great concern. This paper investigates the soil engineering properties for the construction of iron ore tailing dam, its foundation, construction materials and design data used for the construction analysis of the tailing dam. Geophysical investigations were carried out to establish the bedrock below the spillway. A computer programme taking into account the Swedish Slip Circle Method of analysis was used in the stability analysis of dam. It also focuses on the charactierstics of the tailings reponsible for the determination of optimum size of tailing pond for the containment of the tailings. The studies on the settling characteristics of tailings indicate much less area in comparison to the area provided in the existing tailing ponds in India. In the proposed scheme, it is suggested to provide an additional unit of sedimentation tank before the disposal of tailings to the tailing pond. PMID:17051916

Ghose, Mrinal K; Sen, P K

2005-10-01

114

Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 44(1), 2008, pp. 181187 # Wildlife Disease Association 2008  

E-print Network

ungulates, livestock, and humans, serum samples from 114 (94 adults, 20 fawns) female white-tailed deer, selenium, serology, white-tailed deer. Development of appropriate manage- ment recommendations requires. White-tailed deer can serve as sentinels for livestock and human diseases, making epidemiologic

115

Survival patterns in white-tailed and mule deer after oral inoculation with a standardized, conspecific prion dose.  

PubMed

We orally inoculated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) with a standardized, conspecific prion dose and collected biologic samples throughout the disease course. Mule deer (PRNP genotype 225SS) and PRNP genotype 96GG white-tailed deer succumbed along similar trajectories, but 96GS- and 96SS-genotype individuals tended to survive longer. PMID:22493138

Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L; Sirochman, Tracey M; Sirochman, Michael A; Jewell, Jean E; Williams, Elizabeth S

2012-04-01

116

Extracting aluminum from dross tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminum dross tailings, an industrial waste, from the Egyptian Aluminium Company (Egyptalum) was used to produce two types of alums: aluminum-sulfate alum [itAl2(SO4)3.12H2O] and ammonium-aluminum alum [ (NH 4)2SO4AL2(SO4)3.24H2O]. This was carried out in two processes. The first process is leaching the impurities using diluted H2SO4 with different solid/liquid ratios at different temperatures to dissolve the impurities present in the starting material in the form of solute sulfates. The second process is the extraction of aluminum (as aluminum sulfate) from the purifi ed aluminum dross tailings thus produced. The effects of temperature, time of reaction, and acid concentration on leaching and extraction processes were studied. The product alums were analyzed using x-ray diffraction and thermal analysis techniques.

Amer, A. M.

2002-11-01

117

Enhancing the safety of tailings management facilities  

SciTech Connect

Unsafe tailings management facilities (TMFs) have caused serious accidents in Europe threatening human health/life and the environment. While advanced design, construction and management procedures are available, their implementation requires greater emphasis. An integrated research project funded by the European Union was carried out between 2002 and 2005 with the overall goal of improving the safety of TMFs (Sustainable Improvement in Safety of Tailings Facilities - TAILSAFE, http://www.tailsafe.com/). The objective of TAILSAFE was to develop and apply methods of parameter evaluation and measurement for the assessment and improvement of the safety state of tailings facilities, with particular attention to the stability of tailings dams and slurries, the special risks inherent when such materials include toxic or hazardous wastes, and authorization and management procedures for tailings facilities. Aspects of tailings facilities design, water management and slurry transport, non-destructive and minimally intrusive testing methods, monitoring and the application of sensors, intervention and remediation options were considered in TAILSAFE. A risk reduction framework (the TAILSAFE Parameter Framework) was established to contribute to the avoidance of catastrophic accidents and hazards from tailings facilities. Tailings from the mining and primary processing of metals, minerals and coal were included within the scope of TAILSAFE. The project focused on the avoidance of hazards by developing procedures and methods for investigating and improving the stability of tailings dams and tailings bodies.

Meggyes, T.; Niederleithinger, E.; Witt, K.J.; Csovari, M.; Kreft-Burman, K.; Engels, J.; McDonald, C.; Roehl, K.E. [BAM, Berlin (Germany). Federal Institute for Material Research & Testing

2008-07-01

118

Four Tails Problems for Dynamical Collapse Theories  

E-print Network

The primary quantum mechanical equation of motion entails that measurements typically do not have determinate outcomes, but result in superpositions of all possible outcomes. Dynamical collapse theories (e.g. GRW) supplement this equation with a stochastic Gaussian collapse function, intended to collapse the superposition of outcomes into one outcome. But the Gaussian collapses are imperfect in a way that leaves the superpositions intact. This is the tails problem. There are several ways of making this problem more precise. But many authors dismiss the problem without considering the more severe formulations. Here I distinguish four distinct tails problems. The first (bare tails problem) and second (structured tails problem) exist in the literature. I argue that while the first is a pseudo-problem, the second has not been adequately addressed. The third (multiverse tails problem) reformulates the second to account for recently discovered dynamical consequences of collapse. Finally the fourth (tails problem di...

McQueen, Kelvin J

2015-01-01

119

Control of Ticks on White-tailed Deer and Other Ungulate Wildlife - Host-targeted Control of Field Populations of Blacklegged and Lone Star Ticks to Reduce the Risk of Tick-borne Disease Transmission  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

With the continuing progression of blacklegged ticks and the agents causing Lyme disease from infestations in Maryland southward into Virginia, many citizens living in northern Virginia have asked the Governor for ARS-Patented ‘4-Poster’ Deer Treatment Stations to be deployed as an aid in reducing t...

120

Thermal stabilization of uranium mill tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of uranium mill tailings by high-temperature sintering (>1050°C) has been investigated as a means of controlling the release of ²²²Rn and leachable contaminants. Thermal stabilization in laboratory trials at 1200°C reduced the radon emanation of various tailings by factors ranging from 37 to 1400 depending on the mineralogy of the tailings. The leachability of most contaminants (e.g., Al,

David R. Dreesen; Edward J. Cokal; Lawrence E. Wangen; Joel M. Williams; Edward F. Thode

1984-01-01

121

Wean-Tail Log.xls  

Cancer.gov

A SP #: ________________ _ Investigator: _________________ WEAN / TAIL CLIP LOG Strain: ___________________ Room Number: ___________________ STRAIN CODE WEAN DATE # ? # ? COMMENTS WATER A OR B # CAGES DOB TAILCLIP DATE CAGE / LITTER

122

Shake a Tail Feather: The Evolution of the Theropod Tail into a Stiff Aerodynamic Surface  

PubMed Central

Theropod dinosaurs show striking morphological and functional tail variation; e.g., a long, robust, basal theropod tail used for counterbalance, or a short, modern avian tail used as an aerodynamic surface. We used a quantitative morphological and functional analysis to reconstruct intervertebral joint stiffness in the tail along the theropod lineage to extant birds. This provides new details of the tail’s morphological transformation, and for the first time quantitatively evaluates its biomechanical consequences. We observe that both dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness decreased along the non-avian theropod lineage (between nodes Theropoda and Paraves). Our results show how the tail structure of non-avian theropods was mechanically appropriate for holding itself up against gravity and maintaining passive balance. However, as dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness decreased, the tail may have become more effective for dynamically maintaining balance. This supports our hypothesis of a reduction of dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness in shorter tails. Along the avian theropod lineage (Avialae to crown group birds), dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness increased overall, which appears to contradict our null expectation. We infer that this departure in joint stiffness is specific to the tail’s aerodynamic role and the functional constraints imposed by it. Increased dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness may have facilitated a gradually improved capacity to lift, depress, and swing the tail. The associated morphological changes should have resulted in a tail capable of producing larger muscular forces to utilise larger lift forces in flight. Improved joint mobility in neornithine birds potentially permitted an increase in the range of lift force vector orientations, which might have improved flight proficiency and manoeuvrability. The tail morphology of modern birds with tail fanning capabilities originated in early ornithuromorph birds. Hence, these capabilities should have been present in the early Cretaceous, with incipient tail-fanning capacity in the earliest pygostylian birds. PMID:23690987

Pittman, Michael; Gatesy, Stephen M.; Upchurch, Paul; Goswami, Anjali; Hutchinson, John R.

2013-01-01

123

A Dog Tail for Utility Robots Exploring Affective Properties of Tail Movement  

E-print Network

A Dog Tail for Utility Robots Exploring Affective Properties of Tail Movement Ashish Singh, James E}@cs.umanitoba.ca Abstract. We present a dog-tail interface for utility robots, as a means of com- municating high-level robotic state through affect. This interface leverages peo- ple's general knowledge of dogs

124

Volume III, Chapter 13 Columbian White-tailed Deer  

E-print Network

Volume III, Chapter 13 Columbian White-tailed Deer #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS 13.0 Columbian White-tailed............................................................................. 13-20 #12;COLUMBIAN WHITE-TAILED DEER III, 13-1 May 2004 13.0 Columbian White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus leucurus) 13.1 Introduction The Columbian white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus leucurus

125

Tail loss compromises immunity in the many-lined skink, Eutropis multifasciata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tail autotomy incurs energetic costs, and thus, a trade-off in resource allocation may lead to compromised immunity in lizards. We tested the hypothesis that tailless lizards will favor constitutive innate immunity responses over an energetically costly inflammatory response. The influence of fasting and colorful ornamentation was also investigated. We experimentally induced tail autotomy in the lizard Eutropis multifasciata and found that inflammation was suppressed by tail loss, but not further affected by fasting; the suppressive effect of colorful ornamentation was manifested only in males, but not in females. Constitutive innate immunity was not affected by any of these factors. As expected, only costly inflammation was compromised, and a less expensive constitutive innate immunity might be favored as a competent first-line defense during energetically demanding periods. After considering conventional trade-offs among tail regeneration and reproduction, further extending these studies to incorporate disease risk and how this influences escape responses to predators and future reproduction would make worthwhile studies.

Kuo, Chi-Chien; Yao, Chiou-Ju; Lin, Te-En; Liu, Hsu-Che; Hsu, Yu-Cheng; Hsieh, Ming-Kun; Huang, Wen-San

2013-04-01

126

VARIATION IN THE SHARP-TAILED SPARROWS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995, following Greenlaw (1993), the AOU split the Sharp-tailed Sparrow into two species, the Saltmarsh (Ammodramus caudacutus) and Nelson's (A. nelsoni) Sharp-tailed Sparrows. The former breeds in coastal saltmarshes of the central East Coast, the latter in the northern interior, around the southern coast of Hudson Bay, and along the northeastern seaboard. Both species winter along the southern Atlantic

STEVE N. G. HOWELL; DAVID A. SIBLEY

1998-01-01

127

Ionospheric Signatures of Plasmaspheric Tails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present direct comparisons between GPS maps of total electron content (TEC) over the North American continent with Millstone Hill radar observations of storm enhanced density and low and high-altitude satellite measurements of the perturbation of the outer plasmasphere during the March 31, 2001 geomagnetic storm. We find that storm enhanced density (SED) [Foster, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 1675, 1993] and plumes of greatly-elevated TEC result from the erosion of the outer plasmasphere by penetration jet electric fields. Boundaries of the SED/TEC plumes identified at low altitude map directly onto the magnetospheric determination of the boundaries of the plasmapause and plasmaspheric tail determined by EUV imaging from the IMAGE spacecraft. Ground-based GPS observations and radar scans are used to present 2-D snapshots of the ionospheric SED, while DMSP overflights identify the magnetospheric boundaries and mechanisms which contribute to these events. During this event, sunward-convecting plumes of high-TEC plasmaspheric material span the continent from New England to the Canadian Yukon and are responsible for significant ionospheric space weather effects including steep TEC gradients [Vo and Foster, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 21555, 2001] and the occurrence of mid-latitude radio scintillation. Characteristics of the SED/TEC plumes/tails for the March 31, 2001 event are. TEC ~100 TECu; F-region (300 km - 1000 km altitude) sunward velocity ~1000 m/s; sunward flux ~ 5*E24 ions s-1. Total transport to dayside magnetopause/merging region (3-hr event) is ~ 5*E28 ions.

Foster, J. C.; Coster, A. J.; Erickson, P. J.; Goldstein, J.; Rich, F. J.

2002-05-01

128

14 CFR 23.497 - Supplementary conditions for tail wheels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...a tail wheel, bumper, or an energy absorption device is provided to show compliance...the tail wheel, bumper, or energy absorption device; and (2) The supporting...the tail wheel, bumper, or energy absorption device must be designed to...

2012-01-01

129

14 CFR 23.497 - Supplementary conditions for tail wheels.  

...a tail wheel, bumper, or an energy absorption device is provided to show compliance...the tail wheel, bumper, or energy absorption device; and (2) The supporting...the tail wheel, bumper, or energy absorption device must be designed to...

2014-01-01

130

75 FR 62445 - Otter Tail Valley Railroad Company, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Otter Tail County, MN  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. AB 330 (Sub-No. 4X)] Otter Tail Valley Railroad Company, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-- in Otter Tail County, MN Otter Tail Valley Railroad Company, Inc. (OTVR) filed a verified notice...

2010-10-08

131

Thermal stabilization of uranium mill tailings  

SciTech Connect

The sintering of tailings at high temperatures (1200/sup 0/C) has shown promise as a conditioning approach that greatly reduces the /sup 222/Rn emanation of uranium mill tailings. The structure of thermally stabilized tailings has been appreciably altered producing a material that will have minimal management requirements and will be applicable to on-site processing and disposal. The mineralogy of untreated tailings is presented to define the structure of the original materials. Quartz predominates in most tailings samples; however, appreciable quantities of gypsum, clay, illite, or albites are found in some tailings. Samples from the Durango and Shiprock sites have plagioclase-type aluminosilicates and non-aluminum silicates as major components. The iron-rich vanadium tailings from the Salt Lake City site contain appreciable quantities of ..cap alpha..-hematite and chloroapatite. The reduction in radon emanation power and changes in mineralogy as a function of sintering temperature (500 to 1200(NiAsS) are considered possible species for consideraed. The calculated activity data of the various carbonate, sulfate and hydroxide species in the Li/sup +/Na/sup +/K/sup +//CO/sub 3/ = SO/sub 4/ = OH/sup -/ system have been combined f liquidus surfaces, and estimated error limits are given for each system. A comng payback period, but as the initial cost of the SAHPS is reduced and fuel prices increase, the payback period of a SAHPS will be shorter and could be competitive with other conventional heating/cooling systems.

Dreesen, D.R.; Williams, J.M.; Cokal, E.J.

1981-01-01

132

Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings  

SciTech Connect

The Grand Junction site has been reevaluated in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented herein range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $10,200,000 for stabilization in-place to about $39,500,000 for disposal in the DeBeque area, at a distance of about 35 mi, using transportation by rail. If transportation to DeBeque were by truck, the cost estimated to be about $41,900,000. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Grand Junction tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $150/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears not to be economically attractive.

Not Available

1981-07-01

133

Tidal Tails of Minor Mergers II: Comparing Star Formation in the Tidal Tails of NGC 2782  

E-print Network

The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a minor merger with a mass ratio ~4:1 occurring ~200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and HI rich, optically bright Eastern tail and an HI-rich, optically faint Western tail. Non-detection of CO in the Western Tail by Braine et al. (2001) suggested that star formation had not yet begun. However, deep UBVR and H-alpha narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the Western tail, though it lacks massive star clusters and cluster complexes. Using Herschel PACS spectroscopy, we discover 158 micron [CII] emission at the location of the three most luminous H-alpha sources in the Eastern tail, but not at the location of the even brighter H-alpha source in the Western tail. The Western tail is found to have a normal star formation efficiency (SFE), but the Eastern tail has a low SFE. The lack of CO and [CII] emission suggests the Western tail HII region may have a low carbon abundance and be undergoing its first star formation. The Western tail is...

Knierman, Karen; Veach, Todd; Groppi, Christopher; Mullan, Brendan; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis; Knezek, Patricia M; Charlton, Jane

2013-01-01

134

Variation in salamander tail regeneration is associated with genetic factors that determine tail morphology.  

PubMed

Very little is known about the factors that cause variation in regenerative potential within and between species. Here, we used a genetic approach to identify heritable genetic factors that explain variation in tail regenerative outgrowth. A hybrid ambystomatid salamander (Ambystoma mexicanum x A. andersoni) was crossed to an A. mexicanum and 217 offspring were induced to undergo metamorphosis and attain terrestrial adult morphology using thyroid hormone. Following metamorphosis, each salamander's tail tip was amputated and allowed to regenerate, and then amputated a second time and allowed to regenerate. Also, DNA was isolated from all individuals and genotypes were determined for 187 molecular markers distributed throughout the genome. The area of tissue that regenerated after the first and second amputations was highly positively correlated across males and females. Males presented wider tails and regenerated more tail tissue during both episodes of regeneration. Approximately 66-68% of the variation in regenerative outgrowth was explained by tail width, while tail length and genetic sex did not explain a significant amount of variation. A small effect QTL was identified as having a sex-independent effect on tail regeneration, but this QTL was only identified for the first episode of regeneration. Several molecular markers significantly affected regenerative outgrowth during both episodes of regeneration, but the effect sizes were small (<4%) and correlated with tail width. The results show that ambysex and minor effect QTL explain variation in adult tail morphology and importantly, tail width. In turn, tail width at the amputation plane largely determines the rate of regenerative outgrowth. Because amputations in this study were made at approximately the same position of the tail, our results resolve an outstanding question in regenerative biology: regenerative outgrowth positively co-varies as a function of tail width at the amputation site. PMID:23843997

Voss, Gareth J; Kump, D Kevin; Walker, John A; Voss, S Randal

2013-01-01

135

Variation in Salamander Tail Regeneration Is Associated with Genetic Factors That Determine Tail Morphology  

PubMed Central

Very little is known about the factors that cause variation in regenerative potential within and between species. Here, we used a genetic approach to identify heritable genetic factors that explain variation in tail regenerative outgrowth. A hybrid ambystomatid salamander (Ambystoma mexicanum x A. andersoni) was crossed to an A. mexicanum and 217 offspring were induced to undergo metamorphosis and attain terrestrial adult morphology using thyroid hormone. Following metamorphosis, each salamander’s tail tip was amputated and allowed to regenerate, and then amputated a second time and allowed to regenerate. Also, DNA was isolated from all individuals and genotypes were determined for 187 molecular markers distributed throughout the genome. The area of tissue that regenerated after the first and second amputations was highly positively correlated across males and females. Males presented wider tails and regenerated more tail tissue during both episodes of regeneration. Approximately 66–68% of the variation in regenerative outgrowth was explained by tail width, while tail length and genetic sex did not explain a significant amount of variation. A small effect QTL was identified as having a sex-independent effect on tail regeneration, but this QTL was only identified for the first episode of regeneration. Several molecular markers significantly affected regenerative outgrowth during both episodes of regeneration, but the effect sizes were small (<4%) and correlated with tail width. The results show that ambysex and minor effect QTL explain variation in adult tail morphology and importantly, tail width. In turn, tail width at the amputation plane largely determines the rate of regenerative outgrowth. Because amputations in this study were made at approximately the same position of the tail, our results resolve an outstanding question in regenerative biology: regenerative outgrowth positively co-varies as a function of tail width at the amputation site. PMID:23843997

Voss, Gareth J.; Kump, D. Kevin; Walker, John A.; Voss, S. Randal

2013-01-01

136

A Christmas "E-Tail"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As the weather outside turns frightful, retail businesses with "e-tail" (electronic retail) Websites are hoping that consumers will turn to their home computers for their holiday shopping. A Forrester Research report estimates that seven million shoppers will spend close to $4 billion in online shopping, three times more than last year. However, this equals less than one percent of total holiday spending, estimated at $184 billion this holiday season. Most online retailers have increased the capacity and speed of their Websites in order to best serve holiday shoppers, hoping that this year's online shopping experiences will lead consumers to do a greater amount of next year's holiday shopping by way of the World Wide Web. While consumers are willing to try e-commerce sites, as many as 40 percent of experienced Internet users have found the process of online shopping confusing and complicated. This week's In the News examines the trend of online shopping with the following seven resources including news articles, advice, and related Websites.

Missner, Emily D.

137

Efficacy of Oral and Parenteral Routes of Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin Vaccination Against Experimental Bovine Tuberculosis in White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): A Feasibility Study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We investigated the efficacy of oral and parenteral Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin Danish strain 1331 (BCG) in its ability to protect white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) against disease caused by M. bovis infection. Thirty white-tailed deer were divided into four groups. One gr...

138

Differential Pathogenicity of SHIVSF162 P4 Infection in Pig-tailed and Rhesus Macaques  

PubMed Central

Background Differential pathogenicity has been observed in cynomolgus and rhesus macaques following primate lentivirus infection. However, little is known about the comparative susceptibility of pig-tailed macaques to lentivirus infection and diseases. Methods We compared the in vivo infectivity and pathogenicity of a CCR5-tropic SHIVSF162 P4 after intravenous, intravaginal or intrarectal inoculation in rhesus and pig-tailed macaques. Plasma viral load, peripheral blood CD4+ T cell counts and clinical signs were monitored. Results Both rhesus and pig-tailed macaques are similarly susceptible to SHIVSF162 P4 infection by intravenous and mucosal routes. However, SHIV replication was significantly more robust in pig-tailed macaques than in rhesus, resulting in persistent viremia in 9/21 pig-tails vs. 2/24 rhesus (p<0.013) and severe CD4+ T-cell depletion in 2/21 pig-tails (vs. none in rhesus). Conclusions Together with earlier observations, our findings underscore the importance of considering host genetic and immunological factors when comparing vaccine efficacy in different macaque species. PMID:19187427

Polacino, Patricia; Larsen, Kay; Galmin, Lindsey; Suschak, John; Kraft, Zane; Stamatatos, Leonides; Anderson, David; Barnett, Susan W.; Pal, Ranajit; Bost, Kristen; Bandivdekar, A. H.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hu, Shiu-Lok

2009-01-01

139

MOTOR UNIT NUMBER ESTIMATION IN THE RAT TAIL USING A MODIFIED MULTIPOINT STIMULATION TECHNIQUE  

PubMed Central

Motor unit number estimation (MUNE) of the rodent hindlimb has been used mainly for following the progression of motor neuron disorders. By performing MUNE in the tail, however, progression of axonal neuropathy could also be assessed, as both proximal and distal regions would be available for study. In this investigation, three raters performed a modified multipoint stimulation MUNE technique in the tails of 14 healthy adult rats. The technique was straightforward to perform, with a relatively narrow range of motor unit number estimates of 40 ± 16 (standard deviation) for the proximal tail and 21 ± 11 for the distal tail. Intrarater reliability coefficients were 0.31 (P = 0.033) and 0.32 (P = 0.028) for the proximal and distal tail, respectively. Interrater reliability coefficients were 0.22 (P = 0.086) and 0.44 (P = 0.004). These reliability assessments, along with the relatively low motor unit estimates and narrow range of values, support the idea that rat tail MUNE may have utility in the evaluation of rodent models of neuromuscular disease, including length-dependent neuropathy. PMID:19533644

KASSELMAN, LORA J.; SHEFNER, JEREMY M.; RUTKOVE, SEWARD B.

2009-01-01

140

Phytoremediation of Alberta oil sand tailings using native plants and fungal endophytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fungal endophytes colonize host plants without causing disease. Some endophytes confer plant tolerance to harsh environments. One such endophyte, Trichoderma harzianum strain TSTh20-1, was isolated from a plant growing on Athabasca oil sand tailings. Tailing sands are a high volume waste product from oil sand extraction that the industry is required to remediate. Tailing sands are low in organic carbon and mineral nutrients, and are hydrophobic due to residual polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Typically, tailing sands are remediated by planting young trees in large quantities of mulch plus mineral fertilizer, which is costly and labour intensive. In greenhouse trials, TSTh20-1 supports growth of tomato seedlings on tailing sands without fertilizer. The potential use of TSTh20-1 in combination with native grasses and forbs to remediate under field conditions is being assessed. Twenty-three commercially available plant species are being screened for seed germination and growth on tailing sands in the presence of TSTh20-1. The best candidates from this group will be used in greenhouse and small scale field trials. Potential mechanisms that contribute to endophyte-induced plant growth promotion, such as plant hormone production, stress tolerance, mineral solubilization, and uptake are also being assessed. As well, TSTh20-1 appears to be remarkably frugal in its nutrient requirements and the possibility that this attribute is characteristic of other plant-fungal endophytes from harsh environments is under study.

Repas, T.; Germida, J.; Kaminskyj, S.

2012-04-01

141

Experimental vertical transmission of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) from brooders to progeny in Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Artemia.  

PubMed

White tail disease (WTD) is a serious problem in hatcheries and nursery ponds of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in India. Experiments were carried out to determine the possibility of vertical transmission of M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) in M. rosenbergii and Artemia. Prawn broodstock inoculated with MrNV and XSV by oral or immersion challenge survived without any clinical signs of WTD. The brooders spawned 5-7 days after inoculation and the eggs hatched. The survival rate of larvae gradually decreased, and 100% mortality was observed at the post-larvae (PL) stage. Whitish muscle, the typical sign of WTD, was seen in advanced larval developmental stages. The ovarian tissue and fertilized eggs were found to be positive for MrNV/XSV by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) whereas the larval stages showed positive by RT nested PCR (nRT-PCR). In Artemia, reproductive cysts and nauplii derived from challenged brooders were normal and survival rates were within the expected range for normal rearing conditions. The reproductive cysts were found to be positive for MrNV/XSV by RT-PCR whereas the nauplii showed MrNV/XSV-positive by nRT-PCR. The PL of M. rosenbergii fed nauplii derived from challenged Artemia brooders died at 9 days post-inoculum with clinical signs of WTD. PMID:17241402

Sudhakaran, R; Ishaq Ahmed, V P; Haribabu, P; Mukherjee, S C; Sri Widada, J; Bonami, J R; Sahul Hameed, A S

2007-01-01

142

OPERATING PLAN TAILINGS CELLS AND EVAPORATION PONDS  

E-print Network

OPERATING PLAN TAILINGS CELLS AND EVAPORATION PONDS PIÃ?ON RIDGE MILL Energy Fuels Resources ..........................................................................................4 3.0 EVAPORATION POND DESIGN....................................................................14 5.0 EVAPORATION PONDS OPERATING AND MONITORING PROCEDURES ....17 5.1 Standard Operating Procedures

143

Unique Structural Features Facilitate Lizard Tail Autotomy  

PubMed Central

Autotomy refers to the voluntary shedding of a body part; a renowned example is tail loss among lizards as a response to attempted predation. Although many aspects of lizard tail autotomy have been studied, the detailed morphology and mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we showed that tail shedding by the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) and the associated extracellular matrix (ECM) rupture were independent of proteolysis. Instead, lizard caudal autotomy relied on biological adhesion facilitated by surface microstructures. Results based on bio-imaging techniques demonstrated that the tail of Gekko gecko was pre-severed at distinct sites and that its structural integrity depended on the adhesion between these segments. PMID:23284771

Sanggaard, Kristian W.; Danielsen, Carl Chr.; Wogensen, Lise; Vinding, Mads S.; Rydtoft, Louise M.; Mortensen, Martin B.; Karring, Henrik; Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Wang, Tobias; Thøgersen, Ida B.; Enghild, Jan J.

2012-01-01

144

White-tailed Deer are Susceptible to Sheep Scrapie by Intracerebral Inoculation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. The purpose of this experiment was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer to scrapie after intracerebral inoculation and to compare clinical signs and lesi...

145

Update on vaccination of white-tailed deer with Mycobacterium bovis BCG: Safety and Efficacy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 1994, white-tailed deer in northeast Michigan were found to be harboring Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of tuberculosis in most animals including humans. Although deer likely contracted tuberculosis from cattle in the early 20th century, when the disease was present in Michigan cattle, ...

146

THE USE OF TOXICANTS IN BLACK-TAILED PRAIRIE DOG MANAGEMENT: AN OVERVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black-tailed prairie dogs pose management challenges to landowners and resource managers. They are viewed as either a pest when they cause damage to vegetation or property or pose a disease hazard or, conversely, as a valuable Akeystone@ species representative of reasonably intact prairie ecosystems. When conflicts arise with prairie dog colonies, the two main options are capture and relocation or

Gary W. Witmer; Kathleen A. Fagerstone

2003-01-01

147

Flea Abundance on Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs ( Cynomys ludovicianus ) Increases During Plague Epizootics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) on the Great Plains of the United States are highly susceptible to plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, with mortality on towns during plague epizootics often ap- proaching 100%. The ability of flea-borne transmission to sustain disease spread has been questioned because of inefficiency of flea vectors. However, even with low individual efficiency, overall

Daniel W. Tripp; Kenneth L. Gage; John A. Montenieri; Michael F. Antolin

2009-01-01

148

Tidal Tails of Minor Mergers. II. Comparing Star Formation in the Tidal Tails of NGC 2782  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a minor merger with a mass ratio ~4: 1 occurring ~200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and H I-rich, optically bright eastern tail and an H I-rich, optically faint western tail. Non-detection of CO in the western tail by Braine et al. suggested that star formation had not yet begun. However, deep UBVR and H? narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the western tail, though it lacks massive star clusters and cluster complexes. Using Herschel PACS spectroscopy, we discover 158 ?m [C II] emission at the location of the three most luminous H? sources in the eastern tail, but not at the location of the even brighter H? source in the western tail. The western tail is found to have a normal star formation efficiency (SFE), but the eastern tail has a low SFE. The lack of CO and [C II] emission suggests that the western tail H II region may have a low carbon abundance and be undergoing its first star formation. The western tail is more efficient at forming stars, but lacks massive clusters. We propose that the low SFE in the eastern tail may be due to its formation as a splash region where gas heating is important even though it has sufficient molecular and neutral gas to make massive star clusters. The western tail, which has lower gas surface density and does not form high-mass star clusters, is a tidally formed region where gravitational compression likely enhances star formation. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

Knierman, Karen A.; Scowen, Paul; Veach, Todd; Groppi, Christopher; Mullan, Brendan; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis; Knezek, Patricia M.; Charlton, Jane

2013-09-01

149

TIDAL TAILS OF MINOR MERGERS. II. COMPARING STAR FORMATION IN THE TIDAL TAILS OF NGC 2782  

SciTech Connect

The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a minor merger with a mass ratio {approx}4: 1 occurring {approx}200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and H I-rich, optically bright eastern tail and an H I-rich, optically faint western tail. Non-detection of CO in the western tail by Braine et al. suggested that star formation had not yet begun. However, deep UBVR and H{alpha} narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the western tail, though it lacks massive star clusters and cluster complexes. Using Herschel PACS spectroscopy, we discover 158 {mu}m [C II] emission at the location of the three most luminous H{alpha} sources in the eastern tail, but not at the location of the even brighter H{alpha} source in the western tail. The western tail is found to have a normal star formation efficiency (SFE), but the eastern tail has a low SFE. The lack of CO and [C II] emission suggests that the western tail H II region may have a low carbon abundance and be undergoing its first star formation. The western tail is more efficient at forming stars, but lacks massive clusters. We propose that the low SFE in the eastern tail may be due to its formation as a splash region where gas heating is important even though it has sufficient molecular and neutral gas to make massive star clusters. The western tail, which has lower gas surface density and does not form high-mass star clusters, is a tidally formed region where gravitational compression likely enhances star formation.

Knierman, Karen A.; Scowen, Paul; Veach, Todd; Groppi, Christopher [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, 550 E. Tyler Mall, Room PSF-686 (P.O. Box 871404), Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Mullan, Brendan; Charlton, Jane [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Penn State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA (United States); Konstantopoulos, Iraklis [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde NSW 1670 (Australia); Knezek, Patricia M., E-mail: karen.knierman@asu.edu, E-mail: paul.scowen@asu.edu, E-mail: tveach@asu.edu, E-mail: cgroppi@asu.edu, E-mail: mullan@astro.psu.edu, E-mail: iraklis@aao.gov.au, E-mail: pknezek@noao.edu [WIYN Consortium, Inc., 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

2013-09-10

150

Asbestos tailings as aggregates for asphalt mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

To use many asbestos tailings collected in Ya-Lu highway, and to explore the feasibility of using asbestos tailings as aggregates\\u000a in common asphalt mixtures, and properties of some asphalt mixtures were evaluated as well. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray\\u000a fluorescent (XRF), and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) were employed to determine the solid waste content of copper,\\u000a zinc, lead, and cadmium. Volume

Xiaoming Liu; Linrong Xu

2011-01-01

151

Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings.  

PubMed

Mining activities in Chile have generated large amounts of solid waste, which have been deposited in mine tailing impoundments. These impoundments cause concern to the communities due to dam failures or natural leaching to groundwater and rivers. This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. The results show that electric current could remove copper from watery tailing if the potential gradient was higher than 2 V/cm during 21 days. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was enhanced because the pH decreased to around 4, and the copper by this reason was released in the solution. Furthermore, with acidic tailing the potential gradient was less than 2 V/cm. The maximum copper removal reached in the anode side was 53% with addition of sulphuric acid in 21 days experiment at 20 V using approximately 1.8 kg mine tailing on dry basis. In addition, experiments with acidic tailing show that the copper removal is proportional with time. PMID:15629576

Hansen, Henrik K; Rojo, Adrián; Ottosen, Lisbeth M

2005-01-31

152

The sodium tail of the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

2009-12-01

153

Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings using bipolar electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work an electrodialytic remediation (EDR) cell for copper mine tailings with bipolar stainless steel plates was analyzed. The bipolar plates were inserted inside the tailings, dividing it into independent electrochemical cells or sections, in order to increase the copper removal efficiency from mine tailings. The bipolar plates design was tested on acidic copper mine tailings with a fixed:

Adrián Rojo; Luis Cubillos

2009-01-01

154

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease in alberta, Canada.  

PubMed

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) virus serotype 2 was identified by reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) found dead in southern Alberta in September 2013. Field observations indicate at least 50 deer, primarily white-tailed deer, and three pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) died during a suspected localized EHD outbreak. PMID:24807363

Pybus, Margo J; Ravi, Madhu; Pollock, Colleen

2014-07-01

155

Malignant mesenchymal tumors in two white-tailed jack rabbits (Lepus townsendii).  

PubMed

Two white-tailed jack rabbits (Lepus townsendii) with proliferative lesions in their internal organs were submitted to the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre (Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada) for necropsy because of concern that dogs that had contact with the hares might have been exposed to an infectious disease. In both hares, the primary diagnosis was neoplasia. One hare had metastatic leiomyosarcoma and uterine fibroma, the other had metastatic mesenchymal tumors involving the liver and mesentery. These cases represent the only reports of malignant mesenchymal tumors in white-tailed jack rabbits that we have found in the literature. PMID:15650095

Jardine, Claire; Wobeser, Gary A; Simko, Elemir

2004-10-01

156

Tidal Tails of Minor Mergers: Star Formation Efficiency in the Western Tail of NGC 2782  

E-print Network

While major mergers and their tidal debris are well studied, they are less common than minor mergers (mass ratios < 0.3). The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a merger between two disk galaxies with a mass ratio of ~4:1 occurring ~200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and H I-rich, optically bright eastern tail and an H I-rich, optically faint western tail. Non-detection of CO in the western tail by Braine et al. suggested that star formation had not yet begun to occur in that tidal tail. However, deep H{\\alpha} narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the western tail. Across the entire western tail, we find the global star formation rate per unit area ({\\Sigma}SFR) to be several orders of magnitude less than expected from the total gas density. Together with extended FUV+NUV emission from Galaxy Evolution Explorer along the tail, this indicates a low global star formation efficiency in the tidal tail producing lower mass star clusters. The H II region that we observed ...

Knierman, Karen; Scowen, Paul; Jansen, Rolf; Wehner, Elizabeth; 10.1088/2041-8205/749/1/L1

2012-01-01

157

Why do Birds have Tails? The Tail as a Drag Reducing Flap, and Trim Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Birds have tails, bats do not. Does this fundamental difference in flight morphology reveal a difference in flight capability, and if so are birds or bats better fliers? I use Munk's stagger theorem, and Prandtl's relation for the induced drag of a biplane to show that for a given lift, and given wingspan, the induced drag of the wing-tail combination

Adrian L. R. Thomas

1996-01-01

158

NESTING HABITAT RELATIONSHIPS OF SYMPATRIC CRESTED CARACARAS, RED-TAILED HAWKS, ANDWHITE-TAILED HAWKS IN SOUTH TEXAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We quantified nesting-site habitats for sympatric White-tailed Hawks (Buteo albicaudatus )( n 40), Red-tailed Hawks (B. jamaicensis )( n 39), and Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway )( n 24) in the Coastal Sand Plain of south Texas. White-tailed Hawks and Crested Caracara nest sites occurred in savannas, whereas Red-tailed Hawk nest sites occurred in woodlands on the edge of savannas. White-tailed

Michael A. Actkinson; WILLIAM P. KUVLESKY JR; Clint W. Boal; Leonard A. Brennan; Fidel Hernandez

2007-01-01

159

X-Ray Tail in NGC 7619  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new observational results of NGC 7619, an elliptical galaxy with a prominent X-ray tail and a dominant member of the Pegasus group. With Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, we confirm the presence of a long X-ray tail in the southwest direction; moreover, we identify for the first time a sharp discontinuity of the X-ray surface brightness in the opposite (northeast) side of the galaxy. The density, temperature, and pressure jump at the northeast discontinuity suggest a Mach number ~1, corresponding to a galaxy velocity of ~500 km s-1, relative to the surrounding hot gas. Spectral analysis of these data shows that the iron abundance of the hot gaseous medium is much higher (1-2 solar) near the center of NGC 7619 and in the tail extending from the core than in the surrounding regions (<=1/2 solar), indicating that the gas in the tail is originated from the galaxy. The possible origin of the head-tail structure is either ongoing ram pressure stripping or sloshing. The morphology of the structure is more in line with a ram pressure stripping phenomenon, while the position of NGC 7619 at the center of the Pegasus I group, and its dominance, would prefer sloshing.

Kim, Dong-Woo; Kim, Eunhyeuk; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Trinchieri, Ginevra

2008-12-01

160

Orphan Stars Found in Long Galaxy Tail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers have found evidence that stars have been forming in a long tail of gas that extends well outside its parent galaxy. This discovery suggests that such "orphan" stars may be much more prevalent than previously thought. The comet-like tail was observed in X-ray light with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and in optical light with the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope in Chile. The feature extends for more than 200,000 light years and was created as gas was stripped from a galaxy called ESO 137-001 that is plunging toward the center of Abell 3627, a giant cluster of galaxies. "This is one of the longest tails like this we have ever seen," said Ming Sun of Michigan State University, who led the study. "And, it turns out that this is a giant wake of creation, not of destruction." Chandra X-ray Image of ESO 137-001 and Tail in Abell 3627 Chandra X-ray Image of ESO 137-001 and Tail in Abell 3627 The observations indicate that the gas in the tail has formed millions of stars. Because the large amounts of gas and dust needed to form stars are typically found only within galaxies, astronomers have previously thought it unlikely that large numbers of stars would form outside a galaxy. "This isn't the first time that stars have been seen to form between galaxies," said team member Megan Donahue, also of MSU. "But the number of stars forming here is unprecedented." The evidence for star formation in this tail includes 29 regions of ionized hydrogen glowing in optical light, thought to be from newly formed stars. These regions are all downstream of the galaxy, located in or near the tail. Two Chandra X-ray sources are near these regions, another indication of star formation activity. The researchers believe the orphan stars formed within the last 10 million years or so. The stars in the tail of this fast-moving galaxy, which is some 220 million light years away, would be much more isolated than the vast majority of stars in galaxies. H-alpha Image of ESO 137-001 and Tail in Abell 3627 H-alpha Image of ESO 137-001 and Tail in Abell 3627 "By our galactic standards, these are extremely lonely stars," said Mark Voit, another team member from MSU. "If life was to form out there on a planet a few billion years from now, they would have very dark skies." The gas that formed the orphan stars was stripped out of its parent galaxy by the pressure induced by the motion of the galaxy through the multimillion degree gas that pervades the intergalactic space of the galaxy cluster. Eventually most of the gas will be scoured from the galaxy, depleting the raw material for new stars, and effectively stopping further star formation in the galaxy. This process may represent an important but short-lived stage in the transformation of a galaxy. Although apparently rare in the present-day universe, galactic tails of gas and orphan stars may have been more common billions of years ago when galaxies were younger and richer in star-forming gas. These results will appear in the December 10th issue of The Astrophysical Journal. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for the agency's Science Mission Directorate. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations from the Chandra X-ray Center in Cambridge, Mass. The SOAR (Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope) is a joint project of Michigan State University, Conselho Nacional de Pesquisas Científicas e Tecnológicas (CNPq-Brazil), The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory.

2007-09-01

161

Design of tailing dam using red mud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Red mud, waste industrial product from aluminum industries produced approximately 75 million tonnes every year with less than half of this is used. Storage of this unutilized red mud takes vast tracts of usable land and pollutes, land, air and water. Construction of high embankments, under passes, flyovers, tailing dams uses vast tract of natural resources (top soil) is also matter of concern as its takes thousands of years to form the natural soil. This paper discusses use of red mud for construction of tailing dam based on laboratory findings and finite element analysis. The geotechnical properties such as plasticity, compaction, permeability, shear strength characteristics and dispersion of red mud are presented. Stability and seepage analysis of tailing dams as per finite element analysis using the above geotechnical parameters is presented.

Rout, Subrat; Sahoo, Tapaswini; Das, Sarat

2013-06-01

162

TIDAL TAILS OF MINOR MERGERS: STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCY IN THE WESTERN TAIL OF NGC 2782  

SciTech Connect

While major mergers and their tidal debris are well studied, they are less common than minor mergers (mass ratios {approx}< 0.3). The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a merger between two disk galaxies with a mass ratio of {approx}4: 1 occurring {approx}200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and H I-rich, optically bright eastern tail and an H I-rich, optically faint western tail. Non-detection of CO in the western tail by Braine et al. suggested that star formation had not yet begun to occur in that tidal tail. However, deep H{alpha} narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the western tail. Across the entire western tail, we find the global star formation rate per unit area ({Sigma}{sub SFR}) to be several orders of magnitude less than expected from the total gas density. Together with extended FUV+NUV emission from Galaxy Evolution Explorer along the tail, this indicates a low global star formation efficiency in the tidal tail producing lower mass star clusters. The H II region that we observed has a local (few-kiloparsec scale) {Sigma}{sub SFR} from H{alpha} that is less than that expected from the total gas density, which is consistent with other observations of tidal debris. The star formation efficiency of this H II region inferred from the total gas density is low, but normal when inferred from the molecular gas density. These results suggest the presence of a very small, locally dense region in the western tail of NGC 2782 or of a low-metallicity and/or low-pressure star-forming region.

Knierman, Karen; Scowen, Paul; Jansen, Rolf A. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, 550 East Tyler Mall, Room PSF-686 (P.O. Box 871404), Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Knezek, Patricia M. [WIYN Consortium, Inc., 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Wehner, Elizabeth, E-mail: karen.knierman@asu.edu, E-mail: paul.scowen@asu.edu, E-mail: rolf.jansen@asu.edu, E-mail: pknezek@noao.edu, E-mail: ewehner@haverford.edu [Department of Astronomy, Haverford College, Haverford, PA 19041 (United States)

2012-04-10

163

Flight costs of long, sexually selected tails in hummingbirds.  

PubMed

The elongated tails adorning many male birds have traditionally been thought to degrade flight performance by increasing body drag. However, aerodynamic interactions between the body and tail can be substantial in some contexts, and a short tail may actually reduce rather than increase overall drag. To test how tail length affects flight performance, we manipulated the tails of Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) by increasing their length with the greatly elongated tail streamers of the red-billed streamertail (Trochilus polytmus) and reducing their length by removing first the rectrices and then the entire tail (i.e. all rectrices and tail covert feathers). Flight performance was measured in a wind tunnel by measuring (i) the maximum forward speed at which the birds could fly and (ii) the metabolic cost of flight while flying at airspeeds from 0 to 14 m s(-1). We found a significant interaction effect between tail treatment and airspeed: an elongated tail increased the metabolic cost of flight by up to 11 per cent, and this effect was strongest at higher flight speeds. Maximum flight speed was concomitantly reduced by 3.4 per cent. Also, removing the entire tail decreased maximum flight speed by 2 per cent, suggesting beneficial aerodynamic effects for tails of normal length. The effects of elongation are thus subtle and airspeed-specific, suggesting that diversity in avian tail morphology is associated with only modest flight costs. PMID:19324747

Clark, Christopher James; Dudley, Robert

2009-06-01

164

Flight costs of long, sexually selected tails in hummingbirds  

PubMed Central

The elongated tails adorning many male birds have traditionally been thought to degrade flight performance by increasing body drag. However, aerodynamic interactions between the body and tail can be substantial in some contexts, and a short tail may actually reduce rather than increase overall drag. To test how tail length affects flight performance, we manipulated the tails of Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) by increasing their length with the greatly elongated tail streamers of the red-billed streamertail (Trochilus polytmus) and reducing their length by removing first the rectrices and then the entire tail (i.e. all rectrices and tail covert feathers). Flight performance was measured in a wind tunnel by measuring (i) the maximum forward speed at which the birds could fly and (ii) the metabolic cost of flight while flying at airspeeds from 0 to 14?m?s?1. We found a significant interaction effect between tail treatment and airspeed: an elongated tail increased the metabolic cost of flight by up to 11 per cent, and this effect was strongest at higher flight speeds. Maximum flight speed was concomitantly reduced by 3.4 per cent. Also, removing the entire tail decreased maximum flight speed by 2 per cent, suggesting beneficial aerodynamic effects for tails of normal length. The effects of elongation are thus subtle and airspeed-specific, suggesting that diversity in avian tail morphology is associated with only modest flight costs. PMID:19324747

James Clark, Christopher; Dudley, Robert

2009-01-01

165

Casein Kinase 2 Reverses Tail-Independent Inactivation of Kinesin-1  

PubMed Central

Kinesin-1 is a plus-end microtubule-based motor, and defects in kinesin-based transport are linked to diseases including neurodegeneration. Kinesin can auto-inhibit via a head-tail interaction, but is believed to be active otherwise. Here we report a tail-independent inactivation of kinesin, reversible by the disease-relevant signaling protein, casein kinase 2 (CK2). The majority of initially active kinesin (native or tail-less) loses its ability to interact with microtubules in vitro, and CK2 reverses this inactivation (~ 4-fold) without altering kinesin’s single motor properties. This activation pathway does not require motor phosphorylation, and is independent of head-tail auto-inhibition. In cultured mammalian cells, reducing CK2 expression, but not its kinase activity, decreases the force required to stall lipid droplet transport, consistent with a decreased number of active kinesin motors. Our results provide the first direct evidence of a protein kinase up-regulating kinesin-based transport, and suggest a novel pathway for regulating the activity of cargo-bound kinesin. PMID:22453827

Xu, Jing; Reddy, Babu J. N.; Anand, Preetha; Shu, Zhanyong; Cermelli, Silvia; Mattson, Michelle K.; Tripathy, Suvranta K.; Hoss, Matthew T.; James, Nikita S.; King, Stephen J.; Huang, Lan; Bardwell, Lee; Gross, Steven P.

2013-01-01

166

Kinesin Tail Domains Are Intrinsically Disordered  

PubMed Central

Kinesin motor proteins transport a wide variety of molecular cargoes in a spatially and temporally regulated manner. Kinesin motor domains, which hydrolyze ATP to produce a directed mechanical force along a microtubule, are well conserved throughout the entire superfamily. Outside of the motor domains, kinesin sequences diverge along with their transport functions. The non-motor regions, particularly the tails, respond to a wide variety of structural and molecular cues that enable kinesins to carry specific cargoes in response to particular cellular signals. Here, we demonstrate that intrinsic disorder is a common structural feature of kinesins. A bioinformatics survey of the full-length sequences of all 43 human kinesins predicts that significant regions of intrinsically disordered residues are present in all kinesins. These regions are concentrated in the non-motor domains, particularly in the tails and near sites for ligand binding or post-translational modifications. In order to experimentally verify these predictions, we expressed and purified the tail domains of kinesins representing three different families (Kif5B, Kif10, and KifC3). Circular dichroism (CD) and NMR spectroscopy experiments demonstrate that the isolated tails are disordered in vitro, yet they retain their functional microtubule-binding activity. Based on these results, we propose that intrinsic disorder is a common structural feature that confers functional specificity to kinesins. PMID:22674872

Seeger, Mark A.; Zhang, Yongbo; Rice, Sarah E.

2012-01-01

167

Behavioural observations of puppies undergoing tail docking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behaviour of 50 puppies of traditionally docked breeds was recorded during and after the procedure of tail docking at the University of Queensland Companion Animal Veterinary Hospital. The behaviours were recorded at the time of the procedure and then in 5 second intervals for the first minute followed by 10 second intervals until the pup settled to sleep. All

G. J. Noonan; J. S. Rand; J. K. Blackshaw; J. Priest

1996-01-01

168

TAIL-MOUNTED RADIO TRANSMITTERS FOR WATERFOWL  

Microsoft Academic Search

We successfully tested tail-mounted radio transmitters on Pink-footed Geese (Anser brachyrhynchus), Barnacle Geese (Branta leucopsis), Brant (Branta bernicla) and Eur- asian Wigeon (Anas penelope). The range of detection of the transmitters was approximately 1 km and some birds were tracked for up to 4 mo. Movements and activity of the birds were not affected by the packages. We conclude that

JEAN-FRANCOIS GIROUX; DAVID V. BELL; STEVE PERCIVAL; RON W. SUMMERS

169

Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID) tail camera video  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID) was a joint research project by NASA and the FAA to test a survivable aircraft impact using a remotely piloted Boeing 720 aircraft. The tail camera movie is one shot running 27 seconds. It shows the impact from the perspective of a camera mounted high on the vertical stabilizer, looking forward over the fuselage and wings.

1984-01-01

170

Dispersal in female white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seven of 35 yearling female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a migratory herd in northeastern Minnesota dispersed 18-168 km from natal ranges during late May through June. Dispersal as a proximate event appears voluntary and independent of deer density.

Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

1992-01-01

171

MODELING SERVICETIME DISTRIBUTIONS WITH NONEXPONENTIAL TAILS  

E-print Network

­tail distributions, beta distribution, confluent hypergeometric function, Tricomi function, Laguerre series expan distributions functions, Laplace transforms, moments and asymptotics by exploiting connections to the Tricomi­ sions, special functions, random splitting, products of independent random variables ABSTRACT Motivated

Whitt, Ward

172

Fluidized-bed combustion of flotation tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

After mechanical water removal, the flotation tailings containing about 30% moisture are stored in silo (1) which is specially designed for this purpose. The lime required for desulphurizing the flue gas is stored in silo (2) Special silo-discharge device and weigh-feeders pass the two materials to the mixing screw in proportional rates in accordance with the sulphur content and guaranteed

Belting

1979-01-01

173

Experiments on a Tail-wheel Shimmy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Model tests on the "running belt" and tests with a full-scale tail wheel were made on a rotating drum as well as on a runway in order to investigate the causes of the undesirable shimmy phenomena frequently occurring on airplane tail wheels, and the means of avoiding them. The small model (scale 1:10) permitted simulation of the mass, moments of inertia, and fuselage stiffness of the airplane and determination of their influence on the shimmy, whereas by means of the larger model with pneumatic tires (scale 1:2) more accurate investigations were made on the tail wheel itself. The results of drum and road tests show good agreement with one another and with model values. Detailed investigations were made regarding the dependence of the shimmy tendency on trail, rolling speed, load, size of tires, ground friction,and inclination of the swivel axis; furthermore, regarding the influence of devices with restoring effect on the tail wheel, and the friction damping required for prevention of shimmy. Finally observations from slow-motion pictures are reported and conclusions drawn concerning the influence of tire deformation.

Harling, R; Dietz, O

1954-01-01

174

The mine tailing accident in Aznalcollar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Massive amounts of acidic waters and mud (pH?3) containing toxic metals such as zinc, lead, arsenic, copper, antimony, cobalt, thallium, bismuth, cadmium, silver, mercury and selenium were released in the surroundings of Doñana Park as a consequence of the mine tailings spill accident in Aznalcollar (SW Spain). This introductory paper describes the main characteristics of Doñana Park, the mine activities

Joan O Grimalt; Miguel Ferrer; Enrique Macpherson

1999-01-01

175

VideoLab: Heads and Tails  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The flatworms known as planaria are proverbial for their ability to regenerate a head or tail properly when amputated (first clip in movie). But how does the organism "know" which end to regenerate? Gurley et al. found an answer in a molecular "switch", beta-catenin, a protein that regulates a variety of cell processes during development.

Kyle A. Gurley (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Utah School of Medicine;Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy); Jochen C. Rink (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Utah School of Medicine;Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy); Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Utah School of Medicine;Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy)

2008-01-18

176

Transverse tails and higher order moments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tails that may be engendered in a beam's transverse phase space distribution by, e.g., intrabunch wakefields and nonlinear magnetic fields, are an important diagnostic and object of tuning in linear colliders. Wire scanners or phosphorescent screen monitors yield one dimensional projected spatial profiles of such beams that are generically asymmetric around their centroids, and therefore require characterization by the

W. L. Spence; F.-J. Decker; M. D. Woodley

1993-01-01

177

Functional morphology of the aardvark tail.  

PubMed

The musculoskeletal system of the aardvark (Orycteropus afer) tail was morphologically examined in two adult specimens. The tail musculature comprised three muscular groups, viz. a dorsal sacrocaudal system that consisted of the irregularly oriented Musculus sacrocaudalis dorsalis medialis and M. sacrocaudalis dorsalis lateralis, a lateral inter-vertebral connecting system, and a ventral sacrocaudal system characterized by the thick M. sacrocaudalis ventralis lateralis and M. sacrocaudalis ventralis medialis. Both the dorsal and ventral systems possessed large tendon groups that strengthened the tail structure. Computed tomography (CT) examination showed the presence of large but homogeneous cartilaginous inter-vertebral discs, whereas V-shaped bones were situated at the ventral aspect of the caudal vertebrae at the level of the inter-vertebral discs. CT visualization of the tendons and V-shaped bones in various tail positions suggested that these structures contribute to the tunnel digging action by bearing the trunk weight and lending force when the aardvark are displacing the soil by means of the forelimbs. PMID:22713114

Endo, H; Mori, K; Koyabu, D; Kawada, S; Komiya, T; Itou, T; Koie, H; Kitagawa, M; Sakai, T

2013-04-01

178

Correlations in quantum plasmas. II. Algebraic tails  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a system of point charges that interact through the three-dimensional electrostatic Coulomb potential (without any regularization) and obey the laws of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics with Bose or Fermi statistics, the static correlations between particles are shown to have a 1\\/r6 tail, at least at distances that are large with respect to the length of exponential screening. After a review

F. Cornu

1996-01-01

179

URANIUM MILL TAILINGS RADON FLUX CALCULATIONS  

E-print Network

URANIUM MILL TAILINGS RADON FLUX CALCULATIONS PIÃ?ON RIDGE PROJECT MONTROSE COUNTY, COLORADO (EFRC) proposes to license, construct, and operate a conventional acid leach uranium and vanadium mill storage pad, and access roads. The mill is designed to process ore containing uranium and vanadium

180

Histone H2A mobility is regulated by its tails and acetylation of core histone tails  

SciTech Connect

Histone tail domains play important roles in cellular processes, such as replication, transcription, and chromosome condensation. Histone H2A has one central and two tail domains, and their functions have mainly been studied from a biochemical perspective. In addition, analyses based on visualization have been employed for functional analysis of some chromatin proteins. In this study, we analyzed histone H2A mobility in vivo by two-photon FRAP, and elucidated that the histone H2A N- and C-terminal tails regulate its mobility. We found that histone H2A mobility was increased following treatment of host cells with a histone deacetylase inhibitor. Our results support a model in which core histone tails directly regulate transcription by interacting with nucleosome DNA via electrostatic interactions.

Higashi, Tsunehito [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 567-0871 (Japan); Matsunaga, Sachihiro [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 567-0871 (Japan); Isobe, Keisuke [Department of Material and Life Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Morimoto, Akihiro [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 567-0871 (Japan); Shimada, Tomoko [Department of Material and Life Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kataoka, Shogo [Department of Material and Life Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Watanabe, Wataru [Department of Material and Life Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Uchiyama, Susumu [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 567-0871 (Japan); Itoh, Kazuyoshi [Department of Material and Life Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Fukui, Kiichi [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 567-0871 (Japan)]. E-mail: kfukui@bio.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

2007-06-08

181

14. Credit PED. Downstream elevation, near completion, showing tail race ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Credit PED. Downstream elevation, near completion, showing tail race and trestle used to carry excavated rock and construction materials across tail race. Photo c. 1909. - Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Plant, Potomac River, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV

182

Production and Application of Polyclonal Antibodies Against Recombinant Capsid Protein of Extra Small Virus of Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus along with a satellite virus, extra small virus (XSV) causes white tail disease (WTD) in the giant freshwater prawn M. rosenbergii. Infected M. rosenbergii postlarvae were collected from a hatchery in Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh. The gene coding the capsid protein of XSV was cloned in a bacterial expression vector pRSET A and the recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)pLysS cells. The recombinant protein was purified by Nickel affinity chromatography. Polyclonal antibodies were produced in mice against the recombinant protein and the antibodies reacted specifically with the recombinant protein and XSV in WTD-infected tissues. This is the first report of detection of XSV using antibodies against recombinant capsid protein. PMID:24293828

Neethi, V; Sivakumar, N; Kumar, Kundan; Rajendran, K V; Makesh, M

2012-12-01

183

RNA-binding region of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus capsid protein.  

PubMed

White tail disease (WTD) kills prawn larvae and causes drastic losses to the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) industry. The main causative agent of WTD is Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV). The N-terminal end of the MrNV capsid protein is very rich in positively charged amino acids and is postulated to interact with RNA molecules. N-terminal and internal deletion mutagenesis revealed that the RNA-binding region is located at positions 20-29, where 80?% of amino acids are positively charged. Substitution of all these positively charged residues with alanine abolished the RNA binding. Mutants without the RNA-binding region still assembled into virus-like particles, suggesting that this region is not a part of the capsid assembly domain. This paper is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to report the specific RNA-binding region of MrNV capsid protein. PMID:24878641

Goh, Zee Hong; Mohd, Nur Azmina Syakirin; Tan, Soon Guan; Bhassu, Subha; Tan, Wen Siang

2014-09-01

184

Individual piglets' contribution to the development of tail biting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conflicting hypotheses exist about the contribution of individual pigs to the development of a tail-biting outbreak, but there is limited quantitative information to support or dismiss them. This study aims to quantify the development of tail-biting behaviour at pen and individual piglet level, before and after the first visible tail damage. Video recordings of 14 pens with tail-biting outbreaks and

J. J. Zonderland; B. Kemp; M. B. M. Bracke; Hartog den L. A; H. A. M. Spoolder

2011-01-01

185

Tail-assisted pitch control in lizards, robots and dinosaurs.  

PubMed

In 1969, a palaeontologist proposed that theropod dinosaurs used their tails as dynamic stabilizers during rapid or irregular movements, contributing to their depiction as active and agile predators. Since then the inertia of swinging appendages has been implicated in stabilizing human walking, aiding acrobatic manoeuvres by primates and rodents, and enabling cats to balance on branches. Recent studies on geckos suggest that active tail stabilization occurs during climbing, righting and gliding. By contrast, studies on the effect of lizard tail loss show evidence of a decrease, an increase or no change in performance. Application of a control-theoretic framework could advance our general understanding of inertial appendage use in locomotion. Here we report that lizards control the swing of their tails in a measured manner to redirect angular momentum from their bodies to their tails, stabilizing body attitude in the sagittal plane. We video-recorded Red-Headed Agama lizards (Agama agama) leaping towards a vertical surface by first vaulting onto an obstacle with variable traction to induce a range of perturbations in body angular momentum. To examine a known controlled tail response, we built a lizard-sized robot with an active tail that used sensory feedback to stabilize pitch as it drove off a ramp. Our dynamics model revealed that a body swinging its tail experienced less rotation than a body with a rigid tail, a passively compliant tail or no tail. To compare a range of tails, we calculated tail effectiveness as the amount of tailless body rotation a tail could stabilize. A model Velociraptor mongoliensis supported the initial tail stabilization hypothesis, showing as it did a greater tail effectiveness than the Agama lizards. Leaping lizards show that inertial control of body attitude can advance our understanding of appendage evolution and provide biological inspiration for the next generation of manoeuvrable search-and-rescue robots. PMID:22217942

Libby, Thomas; Moore, Talia Y; Chang-Siu, Evan; Li, Deborah; Cohen, Daniel J; Jusufi, Ardian; Full, Robert J

2012-01-12

186

The Power Principle and Tail-Fatness Uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

When insurance claims are governed by fat-tailed distributions, gross uncertainty about the value of the tail-fatness index is virtually inescapable. In this paper a new premium principle (the power principle) analogous to the exponential principle for thin-tailed claims, is discussed. Pareto premiums determined under the principle have a transparent ratio structure, cater convincingly for uncertainty in the tail-fatness index, and

Roger Gay

2004-01-01

187

Tissue fluid shift, forelimb loading, and tail tension in tail-suspended rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tail suspension model (head-down tilt) simulates hypogravity in terms of musculoskeletal loss in the rat. However, little is known of tissue fluid shifts and body weight distribution in this model. Tissue fluid pressures were measured by wick catheters in 12 Munich-Wistar rats before, during, and after 48 hrs of tail suspension (about 30 deg head-down tilt). Subcutaneous tissue fluid pressure in the neck increased from -2.2 + or - 0.4 (normal horizontal position) to +4.0 + or - 1.5 cm H2O during tail suspension, indicating a cephalic fluid shift and significant edema during head-down tilt. In a separate study, six rats were suspended at 30-70 deg, and forelimb load and tail tension were measured by a balance and force transducer, respectively. Approximately 50 percent of body weight (BW) was loaded on forelimbs at a head-down tilt angle of 30 deg and forelimb load declined linearly to 10 percent BW at 70 deg. Furthermore, tail tension increased from 50 percent BW at 30 deg to 85 percent BW at 70 deg. These results indicate that less than normal loads are applied to forelimbs of rats suspended at angles of less than 30 deg and that the tail bears an increasing proportion of the rat's body weight at head-down tilt angles of less than 30 deg.

Hargens, A. R.; Steskal, J.; Johansson, C.; Tipton, C. M.

1984-01-01

188

In this issue: Does Coyote Predation Affect White-tailed  

E-print Network

In this issue: Does Coyote Predation Affect White-tailed Deer Populations in Florida? Got Longleaf Affect White-tailed Deer Populations in Florida? By Emma Willcox, William Giuliano, John Olson, and Jim are concerned about the negative effects coyotes may have on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus

Watson, Craig A.

189

14. TIP TOP MINE. TAILINGS LOCATED DIRECTLY WEST FROM TIP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. TIP TOP MINE. TAILINGS LOCATED DIRECTLY WEST FROM TIP TOP HOUSE. ID-31-C-12 WOODEN STRUCTURE IS VISIBLE IN TOP LEFT. CABLES VISIBLE LEFT AND CENTER OF TAILINGS. HOUSE IS JUST OVER APEX OF TAILINGS. CAMERA POINTED EAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Tip Top Mine, West face Florida Mountain, approximately 150 feet below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

190

The Action of Waving Cylindrical Tails in Propelling Microscopic Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The action of the tail of a spermatozoon is discussed from the hydrodynamical point of view. The tail is assumed to be a flexible cylinder which is distorted by waves of lateral displacement propagated along its length. The resulting stress and motion in the surrounding fluid is analyzed mathematically. Waves propagated backwards along the tail give rise to a forward

Geoffrey Taylor

1952-01-01

191

Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project surface project management plan  

SciTech Connect

This Project Management Plan describes the planning, systems, and organization that shall be used to manage the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA). US DOE is authorized to stabilize and control surface tailings and ground water contamination at 24 inactive uranium processing sites and associated vicinity properties containing uranium mill tailings and related residual radioactive materials.

Not Available

1994-09-01

192

G-tail telomere HPA: simple measurement of  

E-print Network

G-tail telomere HPA: simple measurement of human single-stranded telomeric overhangs Hidetoshi of telomeric 3¢-overhang (G-tail) lengths is essential for investigation of the biological effects of telomere dysfunction. G-tail telomere hybridization protection assay (Gt-telomere HPA) has the advantages of being

Cai, Long

193

Aspects of the permanent storage of uranium tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uranium tailings are generated as solid and liquid wastes in uranium mining\\/milling operations. Since most of the uranium deposits in the world have low grades, millions of tonnes of such wastes are produced annually. Often, the uranium tailings are locally disposed of, using sites with suitable conditions to construct tailings basins. The main concern during the operation of a disposal

A. Al-Hashimi; G. J. Evans; B. Cox

1996-01-01

194

Aquatic Plant Establishment on Nickel Tailings Five Years After Flooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nickel tailings were deposited between 1978 and 1988 in Falconbridge's New Tailings Area located northeast of Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. In 1996, construction of a new dam and dredging split the site into an Upper Terrace (56 ha) and a Lower Terrace (30 ha) to facilitate flooding. Water covers minimize the oxidation of acid generating tailings but some oxidation and release

F. Wilkinson; P. J. Beckett

195

TECHNICAL NOTE Individual identification of Sitka black-tailed deer  

E-print Network

TECHNICAL NOTE Individual identification of Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis for extracting DNA from fecal pellets from Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) and evaluated. Keywords Alaska Á DNA Á Feces Á Microsatellites Á Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis Á Sitka black-tailed deer

196

Unique Structural Features Facilitate Lizard Tail Kristian W. Sanggaard1  

E-print Network

Unique Structural Features Facilitate Lizard Tail Autotomy Kristian W. Sanggaard1 , Carl Chr shedding of a body part; a renowned example is tail loss among lizards as a response to attempted predation. Although many aspects of lizard tail autotomy have been studied, the detailed morphology and mechanism

Schierup, Mikkel Heide

197

The toxicity of antiprion antibodies is mediated by the flexible tail of the prion protein.  

PubMed

Prion infections cause lethal neurodegeneration. This process requires the cellular prion protein (PrP(C); ref. 1), which contains a globular domain hinged to a long amino-proximal flexible tail. Here we describe rapid neurotoxicity in mice and cerebellar organotypic cultured slices exposed to ligands targeting the ?1 and ?3 helices of the PrP(C) globular domain. Ligands included seven distinct monoclonal antibodies, monovalent Fab1 fragments and recombinant single-chain variable fragment miniantibodies. Similar to prion infections, the toxicity of globular domain ligands required neuronal PrP(C), was exacerbated by PrP(C) overexpression, was associated with calpain activation and was antagonized by calpain inhibitors. Neurodegeneration was accompanied by a burst of reactive oxygen species, and was suppressed by antioxidants. Furthermore, genetic ablation of the superoxide-producing enzyme NOX2 (also known as CYBB) protected mice from globular domain ligand toxicity. We also found that neurotoxicity was prevented by deletions of the octapeptide repeats within the flexible tail. These deletions did not appreciably compromise globular domain antibody binding, suggesting that the flexible tail is required to transmit toxic signals that originate from the globular domain and trigger oxidative stress and calpain activation. Supporting this view, various octapeptide ligands were not only innocuous to both cerebellar organotypic cultured slices and mice, but also prevented the toxicity of globular domain ligands while not interfering with their binding. We conclude that PrP(C) consists of two functionally distinct modules, with the globular domain and the flexible tail exerting regulatory and executive functions, respectively. Octapeptide ligands also prolonged the life of mice expressing the toxic PrP(C) mutant, PrP(?94-134), indicating that the flexible tail mediates toxicity in two distinct PrP(C)-related conditions. Flexible tail-mediated toxicity may conceivably play a role in further prion pathologies, such as familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans bearing supernumerary octapeptides. PMID:23903654

Sonati, Tiziana; Reimann, Regina R; Falsig, Jeppe; Baral, Pravas Kumar; O'Connor, Tracy; Hornemann, Simone; Yaganoglu, Sine; Li, Bei; Herrmann, Uli S; Wieland, Barbara; Swayampakula, Mridula; Rahman, Muhammad Hafizur; Das, Dipankar; Kav, Nat; Riek, Roland; Liberski, Pawel P; James, Michael N G; Aguzzi, Adriano

2013-09-01

198

Intervention to Improve the Quality of Life of a Bottlenose Dolphin That Developed Necrosis on the Tail Flukes  

PubMed Central

[Purpose, Case, and Methods] A female bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) in captivity developed necrosis of the tail flukes. Although the diseased site healed after surgical resection, the loss of approximately 75% of the tail greatly affected her swimming performance. To restore swimming ability, we developed artificial tail flukes as a prosthetic swimming aid and provided physical therapy that included swimming training from postoperative day 1 to day 1427. [Results] The prosthetic enabled the dolphin to recover swimming ability almost to the level prior to disease onset, but even acquire applied movement, and reestablish social relationships, thus greatly improving the animal's quality of life. [Conclusion] The results clearly demonstrate that, as in postoperative rehabilitation in humans, the use of prosthetic devices in physical therapy can be beneficial for marine animals such as dolphins. PMID:24259946

Ueda, Keiichi; Murakami, Masahito; Kato, Junichi; Miyahara, Hirokazu; Izumisawa, Yasuharu

2013-01-01

199

Orthopoxvirus variola infection of Cynomys ludovicianus (North American black tailed prairie dog).  

PubMed

Since the eradication of Smallpox, researchers have attempted to study Orthopoxvirus pathogenesis and immunity in animal models in order to correlate results human smallpox. A solely human pathogen, Orthopoxvirus variola fails to produce authentic smallpox illness in any other animal species tested to date. In 2003, an outbreak in the USA of Orthopoxvirus monkeypox, revealed the susceptibility of the North American black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) to infection and fulminate disease. Prairie dogs infected with Orthopoxvirus monkeypox present with a clinical scenario similar to ordinary smallpox, including prodrome, rash, and high mortality. This study examines if Black-tailed prairie dogs can become infected with O. variola and serve as a surrogate model for the study of human smallpox disease. Substantive evidence of infection is found in immunological seroconversion of animals to either intranasal or intradermal challenges with O. variola, but in the absence of overt illness. PMID:23809939

Carroll, Darin S; Olson, Victoria A; Smith, Scott K; Braden, Zach H; Patel, Nishi; Abel, Jason; Li, Yu; Damon, Inger K; Karem, Kevin L

2013-09-01

200

COLUMBIAN BLACK-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS COLUMBIANUS) AS HOSTS FOR BORRELIA SPP. IN NORTHERN CALIFORNIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of infection of Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) with Borrelia spp. was evaluated in an area of northwestern California (USA) where Lyme disease is endemic and the relapsing-fever group spirochete Borrelia coriaceae is enzootic, and in a far-removed comparison area having a disparate climate and lower density of vector ticks. Blood samples collected from both deer herds

Jeomhee Mun; John M. Parker; Marshall White

2005-01-01

201

Cassini in Titan's tail: CAPS observations of plasma escape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present observations of CAPS electron and ion spectra during Titan distant tail crossings by the Cassini spacecraft. In common with closer tail encounters, we identify ionospheric plasma in the tail. Some of the electron spectra indicate a direct magnetic connection to Titan's dayside ionosphere due to the presence of ionospheric photoelectrons. Ion observations reveal heavy and light ion populations streaming into the tail. Using the distant tail encounters T9, T75 and T63, we estimate total plasma loss rates from Titan via this process.

Coates, A. J.; Wellbrock, A.; Lewis, G. R.; Crary, F. J.; Thomsen, M. F.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Szego, K.; Bebesi, Z.; Arridge, C. S.; Jones, G. H.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Johnson, R. E.

2012-04-01

202

Structure of the tail fin in teleosts.  

PubMed

A morphologic study of the structure of the tail fin in eight species of teleosts was performed by aid of the Picrosirius-polarization method, which is a specific histochemical method for the detection of collagen in tissue sections. This structure is composed mainly of skeletal elements, the fin rays, covered by skin. Fin rays are bound to each other and to the surrounding tissues by a series of collagenous ligaments forming a complex, highly pliable and resistant structure. Although the general structural pattern of tail fins was consistent in all species studied, the comparative aspects reported in this paper show that variations in the form and size of their components are responsible for the morphologic diversities which are closely related to specific functional adaptations. Morphometric data on the number and size of actinotrichia in normal adult specimens are presented. PMID:6850759

Becerra, J; Montes, G S; Bexiga, S R; Junqueira, L C

1983-01-01

203

Adenocarcinoma associated with tail gut cyst  

PubMed Central

Primary adenocarcinomas of the presacral (retrorectal) space are rare. The diagnosis is usually delayed because of non-specific symptoms, and is made after a biopsy or surgery. These carcinomas arise from cystic lesions developing from remnants of the embryological postanal gut containing mucous-secreting epithelium, known as tail gut cysts. The potential for infection, perianal fistulas and most importantly, malignant change warrants an early complete surgical resection. From an oncologist’s perspective, the management of these carcinomas has varied, and has included adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. We describe here a rare case of adenocarcinoma associated with a tail gut cyst that was discovered incidentally and resected by a posterior approach (Kraske procedure). The patient has had clinical and periodic radiologic surveillance without any evidence of cancer recurrence for over a year and a half. PMID:23450681

Wise, Susannah; Maloney-Patel, Nell; Rezac, Craig; Poplin, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

204

Automated registration of tail bleeding in rats.  

PubMed

An automated system for registration of tail bleeding in rats using a camera and a user-designed PC-based software program has been developed. The live and processed images are displayed on the screen and are exported together with a text file for later statistical processing of the data allowing calculation of e.g. number of bleeding episodes, bleeding times and bleeding areas. Proof-of-principle was achieved when the camera captured the blood stream after infusion of rat whole blood into saline. Suitability was assessed by recording of bleeding profiles in heparin-treated rats, demonstrating that the system was able to capture on/off bleedings and that the data transfer and analysis were conducted successfully. Then, bleeding profiles were visually recorded by two independent observers simultaneously with the automated recordings after tail transection in untreated rats. Linear relationships were found in the number of bleedings, demonstrating, however, a statistically significant difference in the recording of bleeding episodes between observers. Also, the bleeding time was longer for visual compared to automated recording. No correlation was found between blood loss and bleeding time in untreated rats, but in heparinized rats a correlation was suggested. Finally, the blood loss correlated with the automated recording of bleeding area. In conclusion, the automated system has proven suitable for replacing visual recordings of tail bleedings in rats. Inter-observer differences can be eliminated, monotonous repetitive work avoided, and a higher through-put of animals in less time achieved. The automated system will lead to an increased understanding of the nature of bleeding following tail transection in different rodent models. PMID:18449428

Johansen, Peter B; Henriksen, Lars; Andresen, Per R; Lauritzen, Brian; Jensen, Kåre L; Juhl, Trine N; Tranholm, Mikael

2008-05-01

205

RED-TAILED HAWK (Buteo jamaicensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily fluctuations in resting heart rate (HR) were studied in a captive ? Red-tailed Hawk (Buteojamaicensis) using radiotelemetry. HR's were recorded hourly during 10 consecutive days while the hawk was housed in an outdoor pen. Daytime HR's averaged 202 beats\\/min and were significantly higher than the average nocturnal HR of 134 beats\\/min (P < 0.001). Maximum HR's ( >200 beats\\/min)

WILLIAM A. DEGRAw; N. C. CLAMPITT

206

Power-law tailed spectra from equilibrium  

E-print Network

We propose that power-law tailed hadron spectra may be viewed as stemming from a matter in an unconventional equilibrium state typical for non-extensive thermodynamics. A non-extensive Boltzmann equation, which is able to form such spectra as a stationary solution, is utilized as a rough model of quark matter hadronization. Basic ideas about non-extensive simulation of the QCD equation of state on the lattice are presented.

T. S. Biro; G. Purcsel; G. Gyorgyi; A. Jakovac; Zs. Schram

2005-10-03

207

Decommissioning of the old pyritic tailings facility previously used in a talc operation, eastern Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Luikonlahti tailings facility was originally constructed for tailings from an old copper mine operation and was later used for tailings from talc processing. Geochemical partitioning showed that the pyritic tailings were only partially oxidized in dried layers under the magnesite tailings at the edges of the impoundment, whereas water saturated layers below these edges and the tailings in the

Marja Liisa Räisänen; Petri Juntunen

208

Development of a biologically inspired hydrobot tail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been hypothesized that Europa, one of the moons of Jupiter, has a large ocean underneath a thick layer of ice. In order to determine whether life exists, it has been proposed that an underwater glider (hydrobot) capable of propulsion could be sent to explore the vast ocean. In this research, we considered various smart materials to create a propulsion device inspired by dolphin tails. Dolphins are highly efficient and excellent gliders, which makes them the ideal candidate for ocean exploration. In order to select the best dolphin species, we began by reviewing literature and then utilized the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to compare the different species. Lagenorhynchus obliquidens (Pacific White-Sided Dolphin) was found to be the best choice for creating a bioinspired hydrobot. We then conducted literature review of various smart materials and using this knowledge constructed a hydrobot tail prototype. This prototype demonstrates that smart materials can be fashioned into suitable actuators to control a tail fashioned after a dolphin.

Moore, Danielle; Janneh, Alhaji; Philen, Michael

2014-04-01

209

Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1979 annual report  

SciTech Connect

Uranium mill tailings are a source of low-level radiation and radioactive materials that may be released into the environment. Stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is necessary to minimize radon exhalation and other radioactive releases. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing uranium tailings is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory: the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other potentially hazardous materials in uranium tailings. Results of these studies indicate that radon flux from uranium tailings can be reduced by greater than 99% by covering the tailings with an asphalt emulsion that is poured on or sprayed on (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick), or mixed with some of the tailings and compacted to form an admixture seal (2.5 to 15.2 cm) containing 18 wt % residual asphalt.

Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.

1980-06-01

210

Ecological aspects of microorganisms inhabiting uranium mill tailings  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Numbers and types of microorganisms in uranium mill tailings were determined using culturing techniques. Arthrobacter were found to be the predominant microorganism inhabiting the sandy tailings, whereas Bacillus and fungi predominated in the slime tailings. Sulfate-reducing bacteria, capable of leaching radium, were isolated in low numbers from tailings samples but were isolated in significantly high numbers from topsoil in contact with the tailings. The results are placed in the context of the magnitude of uranium mill tailings in the United States, the hazards posed by the tailings, and how such hazards could be enhanced or diminished by microbial activities. Patterns in the composition of the microbial population are evaluated with respect to the ecological variables that influence microbial growth. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

Miller, C.L.; Landa, E.R.; Updegraff, D.M.

1987-01-01

211

Culture and Serologic Survey for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infection among Southeastern White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

From July 1998 through October 2002, radiometric culture (ileocecal lymph node, mesenteric lymph node, and feces) and serologic testing by enzyme-linked immunosor- bent assay (ELISA) were used to survey white- tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from the southeastern United States for infection by My- cobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Mptb), the causative agent of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease). Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was

William R. Davidson; Elizabeth J. B. Manning; Victor F. Nettles; D. B. Warnell

212

Efficacy of Oral and Parenteral Routes of Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guerin Vaccination Against Experimental Bovine Tuberculosis in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus): A Feasibility Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the efficacy of oral and parenteral Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin Danish strain 1331 (BCG) in its ability to protect white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) against disease caused by M. bovis infection. Twenty-two white-tailed deer were divided into four groups. One group (n=5) received 109 colony-forming units (cfu) BCG via a lipid-formulated oral bait; one group (n=5) received 109 cfu

P. Nol; M. V. Palmer; W. R. Waters; F. E. Aldwell; B. M. Buddle; J. M. Triantis; L. M. Linke; G. E. Phillips; T. C. Thacker; J. C. Rhyan; M. D. Salman; M. R. Dunbar

2008-01-01

213

Detection and Multigenic Characterization of a Herpesvirus Associated with Malignant Catarrhal Fever in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Missouri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1998 and 2001, tissues from four captive white-tailed deer were observed to have histologic lesions of systemic lymphocytic vasculitis. These lesions suggested malignant catarrhal fever, although epizootic hemorrhagic disease and bluetongue were included in the differential diagnosis. Initial diagnostic efforts, including virus isolation and reverse transcription-PCR for epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus and blue- tongue virus, failed to identify an

Steven B. Kleiboeker; Margaret A. Miller; Susan K. Schommer; Jose A. Ramos-Vara; Magalie Boucher; Susan E. Turnquist

2002-01-01

214

State of the marine environment at Little Bay Arm, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, 10 years after a "do nothing" response to a mine tailings spill.  

PubMed

In 1989, the tailings pond dam at the site of a former copper mine near Little Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, ruptured and tailings spilled into Little Bay Arm. At the time, no action was taken to arrest the flow of tailings or to mitigate the effects of the spill. To date, no action has been taken to repair the dam and tailings continue to flow into Little Bay Arm. As a result, the marine environment around Little Bay Arm has become contaminated with heavy metals from the tailings. However, the tailings are not the only source of heavy metals to the ecosystem. An old slag heap and what is presumably concentrated copper ore spilled during the loading of ore freighters, are also contributing to the ecosystem's metal load. Marine sediment throughout the Arm contained elevated concentrations of Cu, Ni, Zn, As, V, Co, and Mn. Beach material also contained elevated concentrations of metals with material near the slag heap being the most contaminated. At this site, Cu concentrations were in excess of 5000 mg kg(-1) dry weight, Zn greater than 3000 mg kg(-1) and Co concentrations exceeded 700 mg kg(-1). The highest concentrations of metals in biota were found near the slag heap, near the tailings dam breach, and at the site of the former concentrate loading dock. Despite elevated metal concentrations, the tailings and nearby sediment were not devoid of life. Bivalves and seaweed were abundant in the area and there were no obvious signs of tissue damage or disease in soft shell clams (Mya arenaria) living in the tailings. These clams may be suffering from chronic exposure to the tailings, however, evidence of lipid peroxidation in the clams was inconclusive. PMID:12948239

Veinott, Geoff; Sylvester, Paul; Hamoutene, Dounia; Anderson, M Robin; Meade, Jim; Payne, Jerry

2003-08-01

215

Correlation between aggregation structure and tailing mineral crystallinity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct reduction is an emerging technology for the utilization of refractory iron ore. With this technology, iron oxides in the ore can be reduced to recoverable elemental iron. The structure of granular aggregates in direct reduction products was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that iron is mainly generated as a shell in the outer edge of the aggregates. The thermal conductivity of the iron shell is higher than that of other minerals. Thus, minerals close to the iron shell cool faster than those in the inner shells and do not crystallize well. These minerals mainly become stage 2 tailings. Hence the XRD intensity of stage 2 tailings is lower than that of stage 1 tailings. When iron is mainly generated in the interior of the aggregates, the crystallinity of stage 2 tailings will be higher than that of stage 1 tailings. This indicates that the crystallinity of tailings can be used as a marker for the aggregate structure.

Hu, Wen-tao; Li, Xin-wei; Wang, Hua-jun; Sun, Chuan-yao; Duan, Xu-qin

2014-09-01

216

Radical resection and outcome for malignant tumors of the pancreatic body and tail  

PubMed Central

AIM: To analyze the factors influencing radical (R0) resection rate and surgical outcome for malignant tumor of the pancreatic body and tail. METHODS: The clinical and operative data and follow-up results of 214 pancreatic body and tail cancer patients were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty/214 pancreatic body and tail cancer patients underwent surgical treatment; the overall resection rate was 59.2% (71/120), and the R0 resection rate was 40.8% (49/120). Compared with non-R0 treatment, the patients receiving an R0 resection had smaller size tumor (P < 0.01), cystadenocarcinoma (P < 0.01), less lymph node metastasis (P < 0.01), less peri-pancreatic organ involvement (P < 0.01) and earlier stage disease (P < 0.01). The overall 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates for pancreatic body and tail cancer patients were 12.7% (25/197), 7.6% (15/197) and 2.5% (5/197), respectively, and ductal adenocarcinoma patients had worse survival rates [15.0% (9/60), 6.7% (4/60) and 1.7% (1/60), respectively] than cystadenocarcinoma patients [53.8% (21/39), 28.2% (11/39) and 10.3% (4/39)] (P < 0.01). Moreover, the 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival rates in patients with R0 resection were 55.3% (26/47), 31.9% (15/47) and 10.6% (5/47), respectively, significantly better than those in patients with palliative resection [9.5% (2/21), 0 and 0] and in patients with bypass or laparotomy [1.2% (1/81), 0 and 0] (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Early diagnosis is crucial for increasing the radical resection rate, and radical resection plays an important role in improving survival for pancreatic body and tail cancer patients. PMID:19908345

Han, Shao-Liang; Zhang, Wei-Jian; Zheng, Xiao-Feng; Shen, Xian; Zeng, Qi-Qiang; Ke, Qing-Hong

2009-01-01

217

Physiologic reference ranges for captive black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus).  

PubMed

The black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) is a member of the order Rodentia and the family Sciuridae. Ecologically, prairie dogs are a keystone species in prairie ecology. This species is used as an animal model for human gallbladder disease and diseases caused by infection with Clostridium difficile, Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, and most recently, Orthopoxvirus. Despite increasing numbers of prairie dogs used in research and kept as pets, few data are available on their baseline physiology in animal facility housing conditions. To establish baseline physiologic reference ranges, we designed a study using 18 wild-caught black-tailed prairie dogs. Telemetry data were analyzed to establish circadian rhythms for activity and temperature. In addition, hematologic and serum chemistry analyses were performed. Baseline measurements were used to establish the mean for each animal, which then were compiled and analyzed to determine the reference ranges. Here we present physiologic data on serum chemistry and hematology profiles, as well as weight, core body temperature, and daily activity patterns for black-tailed prairie dogs. These results reflect the use of multiple measurements from species- and age-matched prairie dogs and likely will be useful to ecologists, scientists interested in using this animal model in research, and veterinarians caring for pet prairie dogs. PMID:20587156

Keckler, M Shannon; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia F; Langham, Gregory L; Damon, Inger K; Karem, Kevin L; Carroll, Darin S

2010-05-01

218

POST-FLIGHT TAIL-WAGGING IN THE MALLARD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tail-wagging is a display in the Mallard (Arias platyrhynchos) hypothesized to have evolved from a maintenance activity elicited by water on the tail. Birds taking off from or landing upon water show high occurrences (->84%) of tail-wagging in the post-flight sequences of activities. In a simple field experiment eliciting takeoff from and landing on land were found a statisiically indistinguishable

P. HAILMAN; JEFFREY R. BAYLIS

219

Research Article Survival of White-Tailed Deer Neonates  

E-print Network

, landscape, Minnesota, mortality, neonate, Odocoileus virginianus, predation, South Dakota, survival. Understanding white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population dynamics requires knowledge of survival

220

Exploring Stellar Populations in the Tidal Tails of NGC3256  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galaxy interactions can inject material into the intergalactic medium via violent gravitational dynamics, often visualized in tidal tails. The composition of these tails has remained a mystery, as previous studies have focused on detecting tidal features, rather than the composite material itself. With this in mind, we have developed an observing program using deep, multiband imaging to probe the chaotic regions of tidal tails in search for an underlying stellar population. NGC3256's Western and Eastern tidal tails serve as a case study for this new technique. Our results show median color values of u - g = 1.12 and r - i = 0.09 for the Western tail, and u - g = 1.29 and r - i = 0.21 for the Eastern tail, corresponding to ages of approximately 450 Myr and 900 Myr for the tails, respectively. A u - g color gradient is seen in the Western tail as well, running from 1.32 to 1.08 (~2000 Myr to 400 Myr), suggesting ages inside tidal tails can have significant variations.

Rodruck, Michael; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis; Charlton, Jane C.

2015-01-01

221

Sorption of copper by vegetated copper-mine tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lixiviation of copper (Cu) from vegetated mine tailings may present an environmental risk because of the potential adverse effects it may pose to ground and surface water around mines. However, bonding of Cu to mine tailings can limit transfer to surrounding water. The main objective of the present study is to assess Cu sorption by cultivated Cu-mine tailings containing calcite (pH 7.7) as influenced by commercial peat moss-shrimp waste compost (PSC) and chelating solution. Fresh tailing and tailing that had been used in pot experiments were tested and compared. Samples (0.50 g) of tailings were equilibrated with 20 cm3 of 0.01 M CaCl2 solution containing 100 mg Cu dm-3, as CuCl2, for 72 h at room temperature. After equilibration period, the samples were centrifuged and filtered. Concentration of Cu in the equilibrium solution was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The sorption coefficient (Ks) was used to interpret the sorption data. The sorption experiment was replicated two times. Compost was the most effective organic amendment in enhancing Cu sorption. The Ks values were positively and significantly correlated with organic matter content and Cu associated with the organic fraction of tailing samples. The mineralogy and organic matter content can influence the sorption capacity of Cu-mine tailings. Calcite-containing mine tailings amended with PSC can be used to sorb Cu from chloride solutions.

de Coninck, A.; Karam, A.; Jaouich, A.

2009-04-01

222

Why do male snakes have longer tails than females?  

PubMed Central

In most snake species, males have longer tails than females of the same body length. The adaptive significance of this widespread dimorphism has attracted much speculation, but few tests. We took advantage of huge mating aggregations of red-sided gartersnakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) in southern Manitoba to test two (non-exclusive) hypotheses about the selective forces responsible for this dimorphism. Our data support both hypotheses. First, relative tail length affects the size of the male copulatory organs (hemipenes). Males with longer tails relative to body length have longer hemipenes, presumably because of the additional space available (the hemipenes are housed inside the tail base). Second, relative tail length affects male mating success. Males with partial tail loss (due to predation or misadventure) experienced a threefold reduction in mating success. Among males with intact tails, we detected strong stabilizing selection on relative tail length in one of the two years of our study. Thus, our data support the notion that sex divergence in tail length relative to body length in snakes reflects the action of sexual selection for male mating success.

Shine, R.; Olsson, M. M.; Moore, I. T.; LeMaster, M. P.; Mason, R. T.

1999-01-01

223

Evaluating Target Cold Spots By the use of Tail EUDs  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To propose a new measure of target underdose that can be used in the evaluation and optimization of radiotherapy dose distributions. Methods and Materials: We compare various formulations of the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) and introduce a modification of existing EUD definitions, which we call tail EUD. Tail EUD is a measure of 'cold spots' below the prescription dose in the target dose distribution, using units of gray (Gy). We investigate the mathematical properties of various target EUD concepts, including tail EUD. We apply the tail EUD measure retrospectively to intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans from our plan database. We also use tail EUD as an optimization objective in the optimization of prostate, pancreas, and head-and-neck plans. Results: Tail EUD has desirable mathematical properties. In particular, it is convex and it leads to convex level sets (i.e., no local minima) if the EUD from which it is derived is concave. The tail EUD value is correlated with the subjective degree of target coverage. Constraining tail EUDs to a certain level in plan optimization leads to comparable target coverage in different plans and treatment sites. Conclusions: The newly introduced concept of tail EUD appears to be useful for both plan evaluation and optimization. In addition it can potentially be applied in the design of new clinical protocols.

Bortfeld, Thomas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: tbortfeld@partners.org; Craft, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Dempsey, James F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Halabi, Tarek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Romeijn, H. Edwin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

2008-07-01

224

A red-tailed hawk at KSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From the top of a utility pole, a red-tailed hawk launches into flight, perhaps after spotting prey, typically a small rodent. Ranging in height from 18 inches to 25 inches, the species has a stocky build with a whitish breast and rust-colored tail. It has a high-pitched descending scream with a hoarse quality. The hawk inhabits mainly deciduous forest and adjacent open country from Alaska and Nova Scotia south to Panama. KSC shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

2000-01-01

225

A red-tailed hawk at KSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At KSC, a red-tailed hawk waits on top of a utility pole for the slightest movement in the grass below. It feeds mostly on small rodents. Ranging in height from 18 inches to 25 inches, the species has a stocky build with a whitish breast and rust-colored tail. It has a high-pitched descending scream with a hoarse quality. The hawk inhabits mainly deciduous forest and adjacent open country from Alaska and Nova Scotia south to Panama. KSC shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

2000-01-01

226

Measurements of uranium mill tailings consolidation characteristics  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments were conducted on uranium mill tailings from the tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado, to determine their consolidation characteristics. Three materials (sand, sand/slimes mix, slimes) were loaded under saturated conditions to determine their saturated consolidated behavior. During a separate experiment, samples of the slimes material were kept under a constant load while the pore pressure was increased to determine the partially saturated consolidation behavior. Results of the saturated tests compared well with published data. Sand consolidated the least, while slimes consolidated the most. As each material consolidated, the measured hydraulic conductivity decreased in a linear fashion with respect to the void ratio. Partially saturated experiments with the slimes indicated that there was little consolidation as the pore pressure was increased progressively above 7 kPa. The small amount of consolidation that did occur was only a fraction of the amount of saturated consolidation. Preliminary measurements between pore pressures of 0 and 7 kPa indicated that measurable consolidation could occur in this range of pore pressure, but only if there was no load. 13 references, 13 figures.

Fayer, M J

1985-02-01

227

Novel hemotropic Mycoplasma species in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Globally, hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. are emerging or re-emerging zoonotic pathogens that affect livestock, wildlife, companion animals, and humans, potentially causing serious and economically important disease problems. Little is known about hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. prevalence, host-specificity, or route of transmission in most species, including wildlife. DNA amplification by PCR targeting the 16SrRNA and the RNaseP genes was used to establish the presence and prevalence of hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. in a white-tailed deer (O. virginianus) population in eastern North Carolina. Sixty-five deer (89%) tested positive for hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. where sequence analysis of the 16SsRNA and the RNaseP genes indicated the presence of at least three distinct species. This study represents the first detection of three distinct hemotropic Mycoplasma species in white-tailed deer and the first report of two novel hemotropic Mycoplasma species. PMID:24018179

Maggi, Ricardo G; Chitwood, M Colter; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne; DePerno, Christopher S

2013-12-01

228

THE NARROW X-RAY TAIL AND DOUBLE H? TAILS OF ESO 137-002 IN A3627  

SciTech Connect

We present the analysis of a deep Chandra observation of a ?2 L{sub *} late-type galaxy, ESO 137-002, in the closest rich cluster A3627. The Chandra data reveal a long (?>40 kpc) and narrow tail with a nearly constant width (?3 kpc) to the southeast of the galaxy, and a leading edge ?1.5 kpc from the galaxy center on the upstream side of the tail. The tail is most likely caused by the nearly edge-on stripping of ESO 137-002's interstellar medium (ISM) by ram pressure, compared to the nearly face-on stripping of ESO 137-001 discussed in our previous work. Spectral analysis of individual regions along the tail shows that the gas throughout it has a rather constant temperature, ?1 keV, very close to the temperature of the tails of ESO 137-001, if the same atomic database is used. The derived gas abundance is low (?0.2 solar with the single-kT model), an indication of the multiphase nature of the gas in the tail. The mass of the X-ray tail is only a small fraction (<5%) of the initial ISM mass of the galaxy, suggesting that the stripping is most likely at an early stage. However, with any of the single-kT, double-kT, and multi-kT models we tried, the tail is always 'over-pressured' relative to the surrounding intracluster medium (ICM), which could be due to the uncertainties in the abundance, thermal versus non-thermal X-ray emission, or magnetic support in the ICM. The H? data from the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research show a ?21 kpc tail spatially coincident with the X-ray tail, as well as a secondary tail (?12 kpc long) to the east of the main tail diverging at an angle of ?23° and starting at a distance of ?7.5 kpc from the nucleus. At the position of the secondary H? tail, the X-ray emission is also enhanced at the ?2? level. We compare the tails of ESO 137-001 and ESO 137-002, and also compare the tails to simulations. Both the similarities and differences of the tails pose challenges to the simulations. Several implications are briefly discussed.

Zhang, B.; Lin, X. B.; Kong, X. [Center for Astrophysics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Sun, M. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Ji, L. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210008 (China); Sarazin, C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Nulsen, P. E. J.; Forman, W.; Jones, C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Roediger, E. [Germany Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg, Gojensbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Donahue, M.; Voit, G. M., E-mail: xkong@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: mingsun.cluster@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

2013-11-10

229

Coevolution of caudal skeleton and tail feathers in birds.  

PubMed

Birds are capable of a wide range of aerial locomotor behaviors in part because of the derived structure and function of the avian tail. The tail apparatus consists of a several mobile (free) caudal vertebrae, a terminal skeletal element (the pygostyle), and an articulated fan of tail feathers that may be spread or folded, as well as muscular and fibroadipose structures that facilitate tail movements. Morphological variation in both the tail fan and the caudal skeleton that supports it are well documented. The structure of the tail feathers and the pygostyle each evolve in response to functional demands of differing locomotor behaviors. Here, I test whether the integument and skeleton coevolve in this important locomotor module. I quantified feather and skeletal morphology in a diverse sample of waterbirds and shorebirds using a combination of linear and geometric morphometrics. Covariation between tail fan shape and skeletal morphology was then tested using phylogenetic comparative methods. Pygostyle shape is found to be a good predictor of tail fan shape (e.g., forked, graduated), supporting the hypothesis that the tail fan and the tail skeleton have coevolved. This statistical relationship is used to reconstruct feather morphology in an exemplar fossil waterbird, Limnofregata azygosternon. Based on pygostyle morphology, this taxon is likely to have exhibited a forked tail fan similar to that of its extant sister clade Fregata, despite differing in inferred ecology and other aspects of skeletal anatomy. These methods may be useful in reconstructing rectricial morphology in other extinct birds and thus assist in characterizing the evolution of flight control surfaces in birds. PMID:25139752

Felice, Ryan N

2014-12-01

230

Sulfur Biogeochemistry of Athabasca Oilsands Composite Tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil sands tailings are important, globally relevant, S reservoirs, known to contain active and diverse microbial communities. As evidenced by increasing S emissions from the oil sands, active biogeochemical S cycling within composite tailings (CT, a mixture of tailings, post-processed sand and gypsum, used for dry reclamation), is likely; however the S biogeochemistry of these residues has not been investigated to date. With surface mining of Alberta's oil sands spanning over 142,000 square km and accelerated production, these tailings-based landscapes will become increasingly prevalent with the potential for significant environmental impacts. The objectives here, were thus to characterize depth dependent S biogeochemistry of a 40 meter CT deposit (Fort McMurray, AB, CANADA). Drill samples were collected in December of 2012 from 5 depths spanning 36 m in the CT deposit, for geochemical, metagenomic and functional enrichment analyses. Results establish widespread microbial S biogeochemical cycling within the CT deposit. Porewater H2S was detected extensively throughout the deposit with background levels ranging from 14-23 ?M and a concentrated pocket of 300 ?M occurring at depth. Porewater Fe(II) (1-40 ?M) was detected only within surficial depth samples. Current Fe(II) concentrations are not sufficient to sequester the levels of H2S generated by CT, indicating CT may become a net source of S emissions, as generated H2S at depth migrates to the surface, in untreated CT deposits. Metagenomic (454 pyrosequencing) characterization revealed highly diverse CT microbial communities, with 21 different phyla encountered overall and 1/3 of these presenting as candidate divisions. The cultivation independent identification of several known IRB and sulphate (SRB) reducing bacteria within these communities was consistent with observed positive growth in IRB and SRB functional metabolic enrichments. Furthermore, two depth dependent structurally distinct communities emerged: a surficial CT zone of Fe(III) reduction and an underlying zone of sulphate reduction, from multivariate statistical analyses of phylogenetic data (UniFrac http://bmf.colorado.edu/unifrac). The emergence of a distinct IRB surficial zone, despite ~65% of the total bacterial community putatively having the capacity for Fe(III) reduction over the entire deposit depth and evident and increasing Fe(III) sources down core, suggests limitation of Fe(III) reducing bacteria (IRB) through some other factor. Indeed UniFrac analyses identified that the differentiation in microbial communities occurring in these Fe and S zones was driven by environmental parameters of DOC, ORP and salinity; revealing that IRB may be unable to access the more complex OC constituents of these materials. Pilot reclamation for CT is currently focusing on capping CT with a freshwater fen, which may provide a more labile OC source for CT associated IRB, potentially stimulating greater H2S sequestration through FeS formation. These processes will be evaluated in the on-going assessment of S biogeochemistry within untreated and treated CT as pilot reclamation proceeds.

Warren, L. A.; Kendra, K. E.

2013-12-01

231

Resistance to plague among black-tailed prairie dog populations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In some rodent species frequently exposed to plague outbreaks caused by Yersinia pestis, resistance to the disease has evolved as a population trait. As a first step in determining if plague resistance has developed in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), animals captured from colonies in a plague-free region (South Dakota) and two plague-endemic regions (Colorado and Texas) were challenged with Y. pestis at one of three doses (2.5, 250, or 2500 mouse LD50s). South Dakota prairie dogs were far more susceptible to plague than Colorado and Texas prairie dogs (p<0.001), with a mortality rate of nearly 100% over all doses. Colorado and Texas prairie dogs were quite similar in their response, with overall survival rates of 50% and 60%, respectively. Prairie dogs from these states were heterogenous in their response, with some animals dying at the lowest dose (37% and 20%, respectively) and some surviving even at the highest dose (29% and 40%, respectively). Microsatellite analysis revealed that all three groups were distinct genetically, but further studies are needed to establish a genetic basis for the observed differences in plague resistance.

Rocke, Tonie E.; Williamson, Judy; Cobble, Kacy R.; Busch, Joseph D.; Antolin, Michael F.; Wagner, David M.

2012-01-01

232

Resistance to plague among black-tailed prairie dog populations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In some rodent species frequently exposed to plague outbreaks caused by Yersinia pestis, resistance to the disease has evolved as a population trait. As a first step in determining if plague resistance has developed in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), animals captured from colonies in a plague-free region (South Dakota) and two plague-endemic regions (Colorado and Texas) were challenged with Y. pestis at one of three doses (2.5, 250, or 2500 mouse LD50s). South Dakota prairie dogs were far more susceptible to plague than Colorado and Texas prairie dogs (p<0.001), with a mortality rate of nearly 100% over all doses. Colorado and Texas prairie dogs were quite similar in their response, with overall survival rates of 50% and 60%, respectively. Prairie dogs from these states were heterogenous in their response, with some animals dying at the lowest dose (37% and 20%, respectively) and some surviving even at the highest dose (29% and 40%, respectively). Microsatellite analysis revealed that all three groups were distinct genetically, but further studies are needed to establish a genetic basis for the observed differences in plague resistance. ?? 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Rocke, T.E.; Williamson, J.; Cobble, K.R.; Busch, J.D.; Antolin, M.F.; Wagner, D.M.

2012-01-01

233

Experimental vacuolar myelinopathy in red-tailed hawks.  

PubMed

Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) was recognized in 1994 as a cause of wild bird mortality when 29 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) succumbed to the disease at DeGray Lake, Arkansas (USA). The cause of AVM and its source remain undetermined despite extensive diagnostic and research investigations. Two years later, when AVM killed 26 eagles in the same area in Arkansas, it became apparent that American coots (Fulica americana) had identical neurologic signs and lesions, and it was hypothesized that eagles acquired AVM via ingestion of affected coots. In order to test this hypothesis, we fed coot tissues (brain, liver, kidney, muscle, fat, and intestinal tract) to rehabilitated, non-releasable red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). Five hawks received tissues from coots with AVM lesions, and one hawk received tissues from coots without brain lesions that had been collected at a site where AVM never has been documented. All hawks received 12-70 g/day (mean = 38 g) of coot tissues for 28 days. All six hawks remained clinically normal during the study. The birds were euthanatized on day 29 and microscopic lesions of AVM were found in all hawks that received tissues from affected coots, but not in the hawk that received tissues from unaffected coots. This marks the first time that AVM has been produced in birds under laboratory conditions and proves that birds of prey can acquire AVM via ingestion of tissues from affected coots. PMID:12910768

Fischer, John R; Lewis-Weis, Lynn A; Tate, Cynthia M

2003-04-01

234

Resistance to plague among black-tailed prairie dog populations.  

PubMed

In some rodent species frequently exposed to plague outbreaks caused by Yersinia pestis, resistance to the disease has evolved as a population trait. As a first step in determining if plague resistance has developed in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), animals captured from colonies in a plague-free region (South Dakota) and two plague-endemic regions (Colorado and Texas) were challenged with Y. pestis at one of three doses (2.5, 250, or 2500 mouse LD50s). South Dakota prairie dogs were far more susceptible to plague than Colorado and Texas prairie dogs (p<0.001), with a mortality rate of nearly 100% over all doses. Colorado and Texas prairie dogs were quite similar in their response, with overall survival rates of 50% and 60%, respectively. Prairie dogs from these states were heterogeneous in their response, with some animals dying at the lowest dose (37% and 20%, respectively) and some surviving even at the highest dose (29% and 40%, respectively). Microsatellite analysis revealed that all three groups were distinct genetically, but further studies are needed to establish a genetic basis for the observed differences in plague resistance. PMID:21923261

Rocke, Tonie E; Williamson, Judy; Cobble, Kacy R; Busch, Joseph D; Antolin, Michael F; Wagner, David M

2012-02-01

235

SPONTANEOUS CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS IN CAPTIVE WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In August 1994, cryptosporidiosis was diagnosed in a diarrheic fawn from a captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herd maintained for research purposes at The Uni- versity of Georgia's Warnell School of Forest Resources in Athens, Georgia (USA). From June through August 1995, 11 captive female white-tailed deer were housed in individual barn stalls where they gave birthto 18 fawns. Feces

Ronald Fayer; John R. Fischer; Christopher T. Sewell; Darrell M. Kavanaugh; David A. Osborn

236

VIEW OF BOEING 737200 FUSELAGE FROM TOP LEVEL OF TAIL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF BOEING 737-200 FUSELAGE FROM TOP LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK AND. A NEW SAFETY CABLE FROM THE TAIL DOCK WILL ALLOW INSPECTORS TO WALK UP AND DOWN THE FUSELAGE TO CHECK FOR CRACKS OR MISSING FASTENERS. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

237

12. Credit PED. View of tail race and dam showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Credit PED. View of tail race and dam showing dumping of construction rubble into river bed by rail car; and preparations for pouring a concrete cap onto tail race wall. Photo c. 1909. - Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Plant, Potomac River, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV

238

6. UPPER NOTTINGHAM TAILING PILE LOOKING DOWN STREAM BED TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. UPPER NOTTINGHAM TAILING PILE LOOKING DOWN STREAM BED TO LOWER NOTTINGHAM. COLLAPSED BUILDINGS, 'B' AND 'C' AND TOP EDGE OF TAILING PILES ARE VISIBLE IN CENTRAL ARE OF PRINT. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHWEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Upper Nottingham Mine, West face of Florida Mountain, head of Jacobs Gulch, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

239

Simulation on particle crushing of tailings material under high pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With continuous increase of the high tailings dam, it has an important practical and theoretical significance to study the mechanical characteristics of the tailings material under high pressures. It is indicated that strength envelopes of the tailings material have a remarkable nonlinear characteristics through the triaxial test under high pressures. A further study stated that the particle crushing has a critical effect on the mechanical behavior of the tailings material. In order to quantitatively research its influence, the grain size distribution of the tailings material is analyzed for pre-and post-test and the particle crushing of the tailings material is measured. The particle flow code is employed to simulate and monitor the sample during testing. Firstly, a model which considers the particle crushing is built under the plane strain condition. Then, a series of biaxial numerical tests of the tailings specimen are simulated by using the model. It is found that the simulation result agrees with the triaxial test. Finally, a law between the particle crushing and strain of the tailings material under different confining pressures is obtained.

Liu, Hai-ming; Liu, Yi-ming; Yang, Chun-he; Cao, Jing

2013-06-01

240

Responses to Tail Docking in Calves and Heifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this study was to determine the behavioral and physiological effects of tail banding and atrophy using rubber rings 2 to 4 mo before first parturition in dairy heifers either with or without the use of epidural anesthesia. The secondary objective was to determine behavioral responses to tail banding using rubber rings in calves 7 to 42

D. A. Schreiner; P. L. Ruegg

2002-01-01

241

Using the moon to probe the geomagnetic tail lobe plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have detected the presence of plasma in the lobes of the geomagnetic tail from observations of magnetic induction in the moon forced by time variations of the earth's magnetotail lobe field. The magnitude of the moon's tangential electromagnetic transfer function when the moon is in the lobes of the geomagnetic tail is less than that when the moon is

G. Schubert; C. P. Sonett; B. F. Smith; D. S. Colburn; K. Schwartz

1975-01-01

242

14 CFR 23.497 - Supplementary conditions for tail wheels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...be assumed to be in their static positions. (b) For...ground reaction equal to the static load on the tail wheel, in...are assumed to be in their static positions. (c) If a tail wheel, bumper, or an energy absorption device is...

2013-01-01

243

Strategic inventory deployment for retail and e-tail stores  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study a supply chain comprising one manufacturer and one retailer. Customers can make purchases either from the retailer or directly from the manufacturer via an e-tail channel. From the manufacturer's perspective of managing the two channels, we study three different inventory strategies, namely centralized inventory strategy, a Stackelberg inventory strategy, and a strategy where the e-tail

Dong-Qing Yao; Xiaohang Yue; Samar K. Mukhopadhyay; Ziping Wang

2009-01-01

244

A Glimpse of the genomic diversity of haloarchaeal tailed viruses  

PubMed Central

Tailed viruses are the most common isolates infecting prokaryotic hosts residing in hypersaline environments. Archaeal tailed viruses represent only a small portion of all characterized tailed viruses of prokaryotes. But even this small dataset revealed that archaeal tailed viruses have many similarities to their counterparts infecting bacteria, the bacteriophages. Shared functional homologs and similar genome organizations suggested that all microbial tailed viruses have common virion architectural and assembly principles. Recent structural studies have provided evidence justifying this thereby grouping archaeal and bacterial tailed viruses into a single lineage. Currently there are 17 haloarchaeal tailed viruses with entirely sequenced genomes. Nine viruses have at least one close relative among the 17 viruses and, according to the similarities, can be divided into three groups. Two other viruses share some homologs and therefore are distantly related, whereas the rest of the viruses are rather divergent (or singletons). Comparative genomics analysis of these viruses offers a glimpse into the genetic diversity and structure of haloarchaeal tailed virus communities. PMID:24659986

Sen?ilo, Ana; Roine, Elina

2014-01-01

245

NONINVASIVE, CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF RAT TAIL SKIN TEMPERATURE BY RADIOTELEMETRY.  

EPA Science Inventory

Tail skin temperature (Tsk) can provide a wealth of information on the thermoregulatory status of the rat. Drug- and toxic-induced changes in body temperature are often mediated by vasodilation or constriction of blood flow to the tail and Tsk can generally be used as an indica...

246

Thresher sharks use tail-slaps as a hunting strategy.  

PubMed

The hunting strategies of pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) were investigated at Pescador Island in the Philippines. It has long been suspected that thresher sharks hunt with their scythe-like tails but the kinematics associated with the behaviour in the wild are poorly understood. From 61 observations recorded by handheld underwater video camera between June and October 2010, 25 thresher shark shunting events were analysed. Thresher sharks employed tail-slaps to debilitate sardines at all times of day. Hunting events comprised preparation, strike, wind-down recovery and prey item collection phases, which occurred sequentially. Preparation phases were significantly longer than the others, presumably to enable a shark to windup a tail-slap. Tail-slaps were initiated by an adduction of the pectoral fins, a manoeuvre that changed a thresher shark's pitch promoting its posterior region to lift rapidly, and stall its approach. Tail-slaps occurred with such force that they may have caused dissolved gas to diffuse out of the water column forming bubbles. Thresher sharks were able to consume more than one sardine at a time, suggesting that tail-slapping is an effective foraging strategy for hunting schooling prey. Pelagic thresher sharks appear to pursue sardines opportunistically by day and night, which may make them vulnerable to fisheries. Alopiids possess specialist pectoral and caudal fins that are likely to have evolved, at least in part, for tail-slapping. The evidence is now clear; thresher sharks really do hunt with their tails. PMID:23874415

Oliver, Simon P; Turner, John R; Gann, Klemens; Silvosa, Medel; D'Urban Jackson, Tim

2013-01-01

247

14 CFR 29.547 - Main and tail rotor structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Main and tail rotor structure. 29.547 Section 29.547 Aeronautics...Requirements § 29.547 Main and tail rotor structure. (a) A rotor is an assembly...their occurrence. (c) The rotor structure must be designed to withstand the...

2010-01-01

248

Resonant Column and Cyclic Triaxial Testing of Tailing Dam Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aseries of resonant column and cyclic triaxial tests has been conducted in the frame of the analysis of tailing dam stability during earthquakes, The investigation program for a silty sand fro m uranium tailings is presented. The paper describes the testing procedures and presents all significant results of these experiments, Single-stage and multi-stage resonant co­ lumn tests were performed in

S. A. Savidis; C. Vrettos

249

TheFundamentalsofHeavyTails Properties, Emergence, & Identification  

E-print Network

Normal, Weibull, Zipf, Cauchy, Student's t, Frechet, ... Canonical Example: The Pareto Distribution a classesfocus on light-tailed distributions Simple, appealing statistical approaches have BIG problems #12;Heavy, & Controversial 1. Properties 2. Emergence 3. Identification #12;What is a heavy-tailed distribution

Wierman, Adam

250

Mixed Poisson distributions tail equivalent to their mixing distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixed Poisson distribution can have an upper tail asymptotically equal to the upper tail of its mixing distribution. Two broad classes of mixing distributions that generate mixed Poisson distributions with this property are identified: unbounded, non-negative distributions with mild regularity conditions that satisfy either (a) the von Mises condition for the Fréchet extreme value domain of attraction; or (b)

Richard Perline

1998-01-01

251

3. VIEW OF EMPIRE STATE MINE WITH TAILING PILE IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW OF EMPIRE STATE MINE WITH TAILING PILE IN BOTTOM LEFT AND COLLAPSED ADIT LOCATED BELOW DARK SHADOWS IN FAR RIGHT/LOWER THIRD. COLLAPSED BUILDING AND PARTIAL VIEW OF ORE CHUTE/BIN IS VISIBLE ON HILLSIDE ABOVE TAILINGS. CAMERA POINTED NORTH/NORTHWEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

252

Changes in the distant tail configuration during geomagnetic storms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the structure of the distant tail associated with geomagnetic storms are studied by using plasma and magnetic field data obtained from Geotail. Thirteen storm intervals between October 1993 and October 1994 are examined when the satellite was located in the distant tail between X=-83RE and X=-210RE. Geotail observed the magnetosheath during all storms including those when the satellite

R. Nakamura; S. Kokubun; T. Mukai; T. Yamamoto

1997-01-01

253

Thresher Sharks Use Tail-Slaps as a Hunting Strategy  

PubMed Central

The hunting strategies of pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) were investigated at Pescador Island in the Philippines. It has long been suspected that thresher sharks hunt with their scythe-like tails but the kinematics associated with the behaviour in the wild are poorly understood. From 61 observations recorded by handheld underwater video camera between June and October 2010, 25 thresher shark shunting events were analysed. Thresher sharks employed tail-slaps to debilitate sardines at all times of day. Hunting events comprised preparation, strike, wind-down recovery and prey item collection phases, which occurred sequentially. Preparation phases were significantly longer than the others, presumably to enable a shark to windup a tail-slap. Tail-slaps were initiated by an adduction of the pectoral fins, a manoeuvre that changed a thresher shark's pitch promoting its posterior region to lift rapidly, and stall its approach. Tail-slaps occurred with such force that they may have caused dissolved gas to diffuse out of the water column forming bubbles. Thresher sharks were able to consume more than one sardine at a time, suggesting that tail-slapping is an effective foraging strategy for hunting schooling prey. Pelagic thresher sharks appear to pursue sardines opportunistically by day and night, which may make them vulnerable to fisheries. Alopiids possess specialist pectoral and caudal fins that are likely to have evolved, at least in part, for tail-slapping. The evidence is now clear; thresher sharks really do hunt with their tails. PMID:23874415

Oliver, Simon P.; Turner, John R.; Gann, Klemens; Silvosa, Medel; D'Urban Jackson, Tim

2013-01-01

254

Behavioural and Brain Gene Expression Profiling in Pigs during Tail Biting Outbreaks – Evidence of a Tail Biting Resistant Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Abnormal tail biting behaviour is a major welfare problem for pigs receiving the behaviour, as well as an indication of decreased welfare in the pigs performing it. However, not all pigs in a pen perform or receive tail biting behaviour and it has recently been shown that these ‘neutral’ pigs not only differ in their behaviour, but also in their gene expression compared to performers and receivers of tail biting in the same pen. To investigate whether this difference was linked to the cause or a consequence of them not being involved in the outbreak of tail biting, behaviour and brain gene expression was compared with ‘control’ pigs housed in pens with no tail biting. It was shown that the pigs housed in control pens performed a wider variety of pig-directed abnormal behaviour (belly nosing 0.95±1.59, tail in mouth 0.31±0.60 and ‘other‘ abnormal 1.53±4.26; mean±S.D) compared to the neutral pigs (belly nosing 0.30±0.62, tail in mouth 0.13±0.50 and “other“ abnormal 0.42±1.06). With Affymetrix gene expression arrays, 107 transcripts were identified as differently expressed (p<0.05) between these two categories of pigs. Several of these transcripts had already been shown to be differently expressed in the neutral pigs when they were compared to performers and receivers of tail biting in the same pen in an earlier study. Hence, the different expression of these genes cannot be a consequence of the neutral pigs not being involved in tail biting behaviour, but rather linked to the cause contributing to why they were not involved in tail biting interactions. These neutral pigs seem to have a genetic and behavioural profile that somehow contributes to them being resistant to performing or receiving pig-directed abnormal behaviour, such as tail biting, even when housed in an environment that elicits that behaviour in other pigs. PMID:23824700

Brunberg, Emma; Jensen, Per; Isaksson, Anders; Keeling, Linda J.

2013-01-01

255

SEMI-MELANISTIC WHITE-TAILED DEER IN NORTHERN WISCONSIN --Melanistic color morphs of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are  

E-print Network

125 SEMI-MELANISTIC WHITE-TAILED DEER IN NORTHERN WISCONSIN -- Melanistic color morphs of white-tailed melanin and is considered rare in white-tailed deer populations (Severinghaus and Cheatum 1956, Sauer 1984 records of melanism in white-tailed deer existed prior to 1929 (Seton 1929). Melanism has since been

256

ELECTROCUTION OF AN ADULT WHITE-TAILED DEER --On 16 May 2002, an adult female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) died after  

E-print Network

47 ELECTROCUTION OF AN ADULT WHITE-TAILED DEER -- On 16 May 2002, an adult female white-tailed deer entanglements occur, they do not account for significant losses in white-tailed deer populations (Matschke et al fencing has been shown to be effective in deterring movement of white-tailed deer (George et al. 1983), we

257

Pattern of tick aggregation on mice: larger than expected distribution tail enhances the spread of tick-borne pathogens.  

PubMed

The spread of tick-borne pathogens represents an important threat to human and animal health in many parts of Eurasia. Here, we analysed a 9-year time series of Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on Apodemus flavicollis mice (main reservoir-competent host for tick-borne encephalitis, TBE) sampled in Trentino (Northern Italy). The tail of the distribution of the number of ticks per host was fitted by three theoretical distributions: Negative Binomial (NB), Poisson-LogNormal (PoiLN), and Power-Law (PL). The fit with theoretical distributions indicated that the tail of the tick infestation pattern on mice is better described by the PL distribution. Moreover, we found that the tail of the distribution significantly changes with seasonal variations in host abundance. In order to investigate the effect of different tails of tick distribution on the invasion of a non-systemically transmitted pathogen, we simulated the transmission of a TBE-like virus between susceptible and infective ticks using a stochastic model. Model simulations indicated different outcomes of disease spreading when considering different distribution laws of ticks among hosts. Specifically, we found that the epidemic threshold and the prevalence equilibria obtained in epidemiological simulations with PL distribution are a good approximation of those observed in simulations feed by the empirical distribution. Moreover, we also found that the epidemic threshold for disease invasion was lower when considering the seasonal variation of tick aggregation. PMID:25393293

Ferreri, Luca; Giacobini, Mario; Bajardi, Paolo; Bertolotti, Luigi; Bolzoni, Luca; Tagliapietra, Valentina; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Rosà, Roberto

2014-11-01

258

Pattern of Tick Aggregation on Mice: Larger Than Expected Distribution Tail Enhances the Spread of Tick-Borne Pathogens  

PubMed Central

The spread of tick-borne pathogens represents an important threat to human and animal health in many parts of Eurasia. Here, we analysed a 9-year time series of Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on Apodemus flavicollis mice (main reservoir-competent host for tick-borne encephalitis, TBE) sampled in Trentino (Northern Italy). The tail of the distribution of the number of ticks per host was fitted by three theoretical distributions: Negative Binomial (NB), Poisson-LogNormal (PoiLN), and Power-Law (PL). The fit with theoretical distributions indicated that the tail of the tick infestation pattern on mice is better described by the PL distribution. Moreover, we found that the tail of the distribution significantly changes with seasonal variations in host abundance. In order to investigate the effect of different tails of tick distribution on the invasion of a non-systemically transmitted pathogen, we simulated the transmission of a TBE-like virus between susceptible and infective ticks using a stochastic model. Model simulations indicated different outcomes of disease spreading when considering different distribution laws of ticks among hosts. Specifically, we found that the epidemic threshold and the prevalence equilibria obtained in epidemiological simulations with PL distribution are a good approximation of those observed in simulations feed by the empirical distribution. Moreover, we also found that the epidemic threshold for disease invasion was lower when considering the seasonal variation of tick aggregation. PMID:25393293

Ferreri, Luca; Giacobini, Mario; Bajardi, Paolo; Bertolotti, Luigi; Bolzoni, Luca; Tagliapietra, Valentina; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Rosà, Roberto

2014-01-01

259

Tail aggregation and domain diffusion in ionic liquids.  

PubMed

An extended multiscale coarse-graining model for ionic liquids is used to investigate the liquid crystal-like phase in certain ionic liquids. The tail groups of the cations with a sufficient side-chain length are found to aggregate, forming spatially heterogeneous domains, due to the competition between the electrostatic interactions between the charged head groups and the anions and the collective short-range interactions between the neutral tail groups. With a sufficiently long alkyl chain at a low enough temperature, the tail domains remain relatively stable, despite the diffusion of individual ions in the liquid phase. With increasing temperature, the average tail domains begin to diffuse, while beyond a transition temperature, their average density has an almost uniform distribution, although the tail groups still form instantaneous domains. PMID:16970489

Wang, Yanting; Voth, Gregory A

2006-09-21

260

The ticking tail: daily oscillations in mRNA poly(A) tail length drive circadian cycles in protein synthesis  

PubMed Central

In this issue of Genes & Development, Kojima and colleagues (pp. 2724–2736) examined the impact of mRNA poly(A) tail length on circadian gene expression. Their study demonstrates how dynamic changes in transcript poly(A) tail length can lead to rhythmic protein expression, irrespective of whether mRNA accumulation is circadian or constitutive. PMID:23249731

Gotic, Ivana; Schibler, Ueli

2012-01-01

261

Evaluation of host preferences by helminths and ectoparasites among black-tailed jackrabbits in northern California.  

PubMed

Fifty-four black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus) (five juvenile males, 22 adult males, five juvenile females, and 22 adult females) from Humboldt County, California (USA) were evaluated for sex and age-specific differences in parasite prevalences and intensities, 26 February through 30 October 1996. Nematodes found included Biogastranema leporis in 42 hares (78% prevalence), Rauschia triangularis in 26 hares (48%), Trichostrongylus calcaratus in 14 hares (26%), and Trichuris sylvilagi in two hares (4%). Cestodes found included Taenia sp. cysticerci in five hares (9%) and Taenia sp. coenurus found in one hare (2%). Ectoparasites found included the ticks Dermacentor variabilis on 10 hares (19%) and Ixodes spinipalpis (= Ixodes neotomae) on nine hares (17%), as well as the anoplurid louse Haemodipsus setoni on 12 hares (22%). No significant differences in the parasite prevalences or intensities were found between male and female jackrabbits; this was for all males and females collectively, juvenile males and females only, as well as adult males and females only. Combining male and female hosts, adult jackrabbits had a significantly higher prevalence of B. leporis and R. triangularis compared to juveniles. This is the first known report of Trichostrongylus calcaratus, Rauschia triangularis, Trichuris sylvilagi, and Dermacentor variabilis among black-tailed jackrabbits and the first known report of T. calcaratus and T. sylvilagi in the western USA. This is the first published report of I. spinipalpis, the vector for Lyme disease in California, on black-tailed jackrabbits. PMID:10941744

Clemons, C; Rickard, L G; Keirans, J E; Botzler, R G

2000-07-01

262

Effects of tail docking on behavior of confined feedlot cattle.  

PubMed

Tail tip injuries occur in some feedlot cattle housed in slatted-floor facilities typically found in the midwestern United States. The practice of tail docking cattle on entry into these feedlot facilities was initiated to prevent tail injuries. Tail docking is a welfare concern from the standpoint that an important method of fly avoidance is removed and the tail docking procedure is painful and often excludes local anesthesia or extended analgesia. The primary objective of this study was to describe the behavioral responses of feedlot cattle following tail docking. Thirty-six heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups: docked (DK) or control (CN). All calves received an epidural following surgical preparation of the sacrococcygeal area and postoperative intravenous flunixin meglumine. A portion of the tail of DK calves was removed using pruning shears. An elastrator band was placed near the tail tip for hemostasis and tail tips were sprayed with fly spray. IceQube accelerometers collected step counts, motion index, lying time, lying bouts, and lying bout duration during d -4 through 13. Direct observations of cattle behavior were performed on d 0, 1, and 2. Step counts of DK calves were increased (P < 0.05) on d 0, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 10, and 13, and motion index of DK calves was also increased (P < 0.05) on d 0, 3, 4, 9, 10, 11, and 13. Docked cattle performed rear foot stomp behavior more (P < 0.001) than CN on d 0, 1, and 2. Forty-eight hours after tail docking, DK calves had increased lying bouts per hour (1.7 vs. 0.9 on d 0; P < 0.001; 1.1 vs. 0.8 on d 1; P < 0.01) but reduced lying bout durations (12.6 vs. 47.1 min on d 0; P < 0.001; 22.6 vs. 44.7 min on d 1; P < 0.001). On d 0, DK calves twitched tails more (P < 0.05) and ruminated less (P < 0.001). Despite provision of perioperative and postoperative analgesia, we identified altered behavior in DK cattle that may reflect a compromised welfare state for tail-docked feedlot cattle. We recommend that alternative strategies to reduce tail tip injury be explored. PMID:25184836

Kroll, L K; Grooms, D L; Siegford, J M; Schweihofer, J P; Daigle, C L; Metz, K; Ladoni, M

2014-10-01

263

STAR CLUSTERS IN THE TIDAL TAILS OF INTERACTING GALAXIES: CLUSTER POPULATIONS ACROSS A VARIETY OF TAIL ENVIRONMENTS  

SciTech Connect

We have searched for compact stellar structures within 17 tidal tails in 13 different interacting galaxies using F606W- and F814W-band images from the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on the Hubble Space Telescope. The sample of tidal tails includes a diverse population of optical properties, merging galaxy mass ratios, H I content, and ages. Combining our tail sample with Knierman et al., we find evidence of star clusters formed in situ with M{sub V} < -8.5 and V - I < 2.0 in 10 of 23 tidal tails; we are able to identify cluster candidates to M{sub V} = -6.5 in the closest tails. Three tails offer clear examples of 'beads on a string' star formation morphology in V - I color maps. Two tails present both tidal dwarf galaxy candidates and cluster candidates. Statistical diagnostics indicate that clusters in tidal tails may be drawn from the same power-law luminosity functions (with logarithmic slopes {approx}-2 to -2.5) found in quiescent spiral galaxies and interiors of interacting systems. We find that the tail regions with the largest number of observable clusters are relatively young ({approx}<250 Myr old) and bright (V {approx}< 24 mag arcsec{sup -2}), probably attributed to the strong bursts of star formation in interacting systems soon after periapse. Otherwise, we find no statistical difference between cluster-rich and cluster-poor tails in terms of many observable characteristics, though this analysis suffers from complex, unresolved gas dynamics and projection effects.

Mullan, B.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Lee, K. H.; Charlton, J. C.; Gronwall, C.; Hunsberger, S.; Palma, C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16803 (United States); Kepley, A. A.; Johnson, K. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Knierman, K. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Bateman Physical Sciences Center, Arizona State University, F-wing Room 686, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Bastian, N. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Chandar, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Durrell, P. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Youngstown State University, Youngstown, OH 44555 (United States); Elmegreen, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, Box 745, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States); English, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Gallagher, S. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7 (Canada); Hibbard, J. E. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States); Maybhate, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Trancho, G. [Gemini Observatory, Casilla 603, Colina el Pino S/N, La Serena (Chile); Vacca, W. D., E-mail: mullan@astro.psu.edu [Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy/Universities Space Research Association, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 144-2, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

2011-04-20

264

Identification of a Novel Mouse Brachyury ( T ) Allele Causing a Short Tail Mutation in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations in T-box genes are associated with numerous disease states in humans. The objective of this paper was to characterize\\u000a the T\\u000a \\u000a shao\\u000a , a specific T-box mutation, in mice. T\\u000a \\u000a shao\\u000a , a short-tailed mutant mouse strain in a B6 background, was obtained by ethylnitrosourea mutagenesis. Microsatellite genomic\\u000a scans mapped the location of the mutation. RT–PCR was used to

Baojin WuYixiang; Yixiang Shao; Bing Chen; Chun Liu; Zhengfeng Xue; Peilin Wu; Houda Li

2010-01-01

265

Cassini in Titan's tail: CAPS observations of plasma escape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present observations of CAPS electron and ion spectra during Titan distant tail crossings at 5,000-10,000 km altitude by the Cassini spacecraft. In common with closer tail encounters, we identify ionospheric plasma in the tail. Some of the electron spectra indicate a direct magnetic connection to Titan's dayside ionosphere due to the presence of ionospheric photoelectrons. Ion observations reveal heavy (m/q˜ 16 and 28) and light (m/q = 1-2) ion populations streaming into the tail. Using the distant tail encounters T9, T75 and T63, we estimate total plasma loss rates from Titan via this process of (4.2, 0.96 and 2.3) × 1024 ions s-1 respectively for the three encounters, values which are in agreement with some simulations but slightly lower than earlier estimates based on non-differential techniques. Using the mass-separated data, this corresponds to mass loss rates of (8.9, 1.6, 4.0) × 1025 amu s-1 for T9, T75 and T63 respectively, an average loss rate of ˜7 tonnes per Earth day. Remarkably, all of the tail encounters studied here indicate a split tail feature, indicating that this may be a common feature in Titan's interaction with Saturn's magnetosphere.

Coates, A. J.; Wellbrock, A.; Lewis, G. R.; Arridge, C. S.; Crary, F. J.; Young, D. T.; Thomsen, M. F.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Johnson, R. E.; Szego, K.; Bebesi, Z.; Jones, G. H.

2012-05-01

266

Cottongrass effects on trace elements in submersed mine tailings.  

PubMed

Phytostabilization may limit the leakage of metals and As from submersed mine tailings, thus treatment of acid mine drainage with lime could be reduced. Tall cottongrass (Eriophorum angustifolium Honckeny) and white cottongrass (E. scheuchzeri Hoppe) were planted in pots with unlimed (pH 5.0) and limed (pH 10.9) tailings (containing sulfides) amended with sewage sludge (SS) or a bioashsewage sludge mixture (ASM). Effects of the amendments on plant growth and plant element uptake were studied. Also, effects of plant growth on elements (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, and As), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and concentrations of SO4(2-), in the drainage water as well as dissolved oxygen in tailings, were measured. Both plant species grew better and the shoot element concentrations of white cottongrass were lower in SS than in ASM. Metal concentrations were lowest in drainage water from limed tailings, and plant establishment had little effect on metal release, except for an increase in Zn levels, even though SO4(2-) levels were increased. In unlimed tailings, plant growth increased SO4(2-) levels slightly; however, pH was increased and metal concentrations were low. Thus, metals were stabilized by plant uptake and high pH. Amendments or plants did not affect As levels in the drainage water from unlimed tailings. Thus, to reduce the use of lime for stabilizing metals, phytostabilization with tall cottongrass and white cottongrass on tailings is a sound possibility. PMID:12371164

Stoltz, Eva; Greger, Maria

2002-01-01

267

Star formation in shocked cluster spirals and their tails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent observations of ram pressure stripped spiral galaxies in clusters revealed details of the stripping process, i.e. the truncation of all interstellar medium phases and of star formation (SF) in the disc, and multiphase star-forming tails. Some stripped galaxies, in particular in merging clusters, develop spectacular star-forming tails, giving them a jellyfish-like appearance. In merging clusters, merger shocks in the intracluster medium (ICM) are thought to have overrun these galaxies, enhancing the ambient ICM pressure and thus triggering SF, gas stripping, and tail formation. We present idealized hydrodynamical simulations of this scenario, including standard descriptions for SF and stellar feedback. To aid the interpretation of recent and upcoming observations, we focus on particular structures and dynamics in SF patterns in the remaining gas disc and in the near tails, which are easiest to observe. The observed jellyfish morphology is qualitatively reproduced for, both, face-on and edge-on stripping. In edge-on stripping, the interplay between the ICM wind and the disc rotation leads to asymmetries along the ICM wind direction and perpendicular to it. The apparent tail is still part of a highly deformed gaseous and young stellar disc. In both geometries, SF takes place in knots throughout the tail, such that the stars in the tails show no ordered age gradients. Significant SF enhancement in the disc occurs only at radii where the gas will be stripped in due course.

Roediger, E.; Brüggen, M.; Owers, M. S.; Ebeling, H.; Sun, M.

2014-09-01

268

Improved Tail-Current Representation in the Rice Field Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rice Field Model (RFM) represents the magnetic field of the steady-state open magnetosphere. In order to improve the mapping of field lines in the near Earth region, the simple Harris-sheet field representing the cross-tail current is replaced near the Earth by a more flexible tail current model developed by Hilmer and Voigt In the far-tail region the tail current and expansion fan fields are modified to allow for variations in the IMF and the interconnection field down the tail. The new tail-current is completely shielded by the magnetopause current system. The effects of time-dependent IMF on the polar cap potential pattern are explored by propagating a Northward turning down the tail. To evaluate the new tail-current in the near Earth region, magnetometer data from the GOES-8 satellite (in geosynchronous orbit) for the period of March 9-17, 1998 is compared to model predictions. The combination of RFM shielding with the Hilmer-Voigt tail-current proves significantly more accurate in determining the magnetic field at GEO than either of the two models alone. Ding, C., T. W. Hill, and F. R. Toffoletto. Improvement of the Toffoletto-Hill Open Magnetospheric Model, in Physics of Space Plasmas (1995): Proceedings of the 1995 Cambridge Syposium/Workshop in Geoplasma Physics on "Multiscale Phenomena in Space Plasmas", edited by T. Chang, and J.R. Jasperse, pp. 639-644, MIT Center for Theoretical Geo/Cosmo Plasma Physics, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1996.

Naehr, S.; Toffoletto, F. R.

2001-05-01

269

From dinosaurs to birds: a tail of evolution.  

PubMed

A particularly critical event in avian evolution was the transition from long- to short-tailed birds. Primitive bird tails underwent significant alteration, most notably reduction of the number of caudal vertebrae and fusion of the distal caudal vertebrae into an ossified pygostyle. These changes, among others, occurred over a very short evolutionary interval, which brings into focus the underlying mechanisms behind those changes. Despite the wealth of studies delving into avian evolution, virtually nothing is understood about the genetic and developmental events responsible for the emergence of short, fused tails. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the signaling pathways and morphological events that contribute to tail extension and termination and examine how mutations affecting the genes that control these pathways might influence the evolution of the avian tail. To generate a list of candidate genes that may have been modulated in the transition to short-tailed birds, we analyzed a comprehensive set of mouse mutants. Interestingly, a prevalent pleiotropic effect of mutations that cause fused caudal vertebral bodies (as in the pygostyles of birds) is tail truncation. We identified 23 mutations in this class, and these were primarily restricted to genes involved in axial extension. At least half of the mutations that cause short, fused tails lie in the Notch/Wnt pathway of somite boundary formation or differentiation, leading to changes in somite number or size. Several of the mutations also cause additional bone fusions in the trunk skeleton, reminiscent of those observed in primitive and modern birds. All of our findings were correlated to the fossil record. An open question is whether the relatively sudden appearance of short-tailed birds in the fossil record could be accounted for, at least in part, by the pleiotropic effects generated by a relatively small number of mutational events. PMID:25621146

Rashid, Dana J; Chapman, Susan C; Larsson, Hans Ce; Organ, Chris L; Bebin, Anne-Gaelle; Merzdorf, Christa S; Bradley, Roger; Horner, John R

2014-01-01

270

From dinosaurs to birds: a tail of evolution  

PubMed Central

A particularly critical event in avian evolution was the transition from long- to short-tailed birds. Primitive bird tails underwent significant alteration, most notably reduction of the number of caudal vertebrae and fusion of the distal caudal vertebrae into an ossified pygostyle. These changes, among others, occurred over a very short evolutionary interval, which brings into focus the underlying mechanisms behind those changes. Despite the wealth of studies delving into avian evolution, virtually nothing is understood about the genetic and developmental events responsible for the emergence of short, fused tails. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the signaling pathways and morphological events that contribute to tail extension and termination and examine how mutations affecting the genes that control these pathways might influence the evolution of the avian tail. To generate a list of candidate genes that may have been modulated in the transition to short-tailed birds, we analyzed a comprehensive set of mouse mutants. Interestingly, a prevalent pleiotropic effect of mutations that cause fused caudal vertebral bodies (as in the pygostyles of birds) is tail truncation. We identified 23 mutations in this class, and these were primarily restricted to genes involved in axial extension. At least half of the mutations that cause short, fused tails lie in the Notch/Wnt pathway of somite boundary formation or differentiation, leading to changes in somite number or size. Several of the mutations also cause additional bone fusions in the trunk skeleton, reminiscent of those observed in primitive and modern birds. All of our findings were correlated to the fossil record. An open question is whether the relatively sudden appearance of short-tailed birds in the fossil record could be accounted for, at least in part, by the pleiotropic effects generated by a relatively small number of mutational events.

2014-01-01

271

Tail terms in gravitational radiation reaction via effective field theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravitational radiation reaction affects the dynamics of gravitationally bound binary systems. Here we focus on the leading “tail” term which modifies binary dynamics at fourth post-Newtonian order, as first computed by Blanchet and Damour. We reproduce this result using effective field theory techniques in the framework of the Lagrangian formalism suitably extended to include dissipation effects. We recover the known logarithmic tail term, consistently with the recent interpretation of the logarithmic tail term in the mass parameter, as a renormalization group effect of the Bondi mass of the system.

Foffa, Stefano; Sturani, Riccardo

2013-02-01

272

Assessment of computational prediction of tail buffeting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Assessments of the viability of computational methods and the computer resource requirements for the prediction of tail buffeting are made. Issues involved in the use of Euler and Navier-Stokes equations in modeling vortex-dominated and buffet flows are discussed and the requirement for sufficient grid density to allow accurate, converged calculations is stressed. Areas in need of basic fluid dynamics research are highlighted: vorticity convection, vortex breakdown, dynamic turbulence modeling for free shear layers, unsteady flow separation for moderately swept, rounded leading-edge wings, vortex flows about wings at high subsonic speeds. An estimate of the computer run time for a buffeting response calculation for a full span F-15 aircraft indicates that an improvement in computer and/or algorithm efficiency of three orders of magnitude is needed to enable routine use of such methods. Attention is also drawn to significant uncertainties in the estimates, in particular with regard to nonlinearities contained within the modeling and the question of the repeatability or randomness of buffeting response.

Edwards, John W.

1990-01-01

273

Periodic substorm activity in the geomagnetic tail  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On 19 May 1978 an anusual series of events is observed with the Quadrispherical LEPEDEA on board the ISEE-1 satellite in the Earth's geomagnetic tail. For 13 hours periodic bursts of both ions and electrons are seen in all the particle detectors on the spacecraft. On this day periodic activity is also seen on the ground, where multiple intensifications of the electrojets are observed. At the same time the latitudinal component of the interplanetary magnetic field shows a number of strong southward deflections. It is concluded that an extended period of substorm activity is occurring, which causes repeated thinnings and recoveries of the plasma sheet. These are detected by ISEE, which is situated in the plasma sheet boundary layer, as periodic dropouts and reappearances of the plasma. Comparisons of the observations at ISEE with those at IMP-8, which for a time is engulfed by the plasma sheet, indicate that the activity is relatively localized in spatial extent. For this series of events it is clear that a global approach to magnetospheric dynamics, e.g., reconnection, is inappropriate.

Huang, C. Y.; Eastman, T. E.; Frank, L. A.; Williams, D. J.

1983-01-01

274

Comet Tail Disconnections Observed by SMEI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) was launched into orbit in January 2003 with the primary mission of detecting and tracking coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The three-camera SMEI system produces a nearly complete image of the sky every 100 minutes. Providing nearly continuous monitoring of the sky, SMEI is in a unique position to make serendipitous observations of transient astronomical phenomena. From mid-April to late May 2004 SMEI observed three bright comets, Bradfield (C/2004 F4), LINEAR (C/2002 T7), and NEAT (C/2001 Q4), traversing the inner solar system. During this period both NEAT and LINEAR experienced spectacular tail disconnections. Since SMEI was designed to be sensitive to the very low level of emission from CMEs, it was able to observe and track the very faint comet remnants over much longer time and spatial scales not possible from the ground. We present these comet observations, compare them with the projected interplanetary solar magnetic fields, and discuss the possible disconnection causes including current sheet crossings and disruption from a CME front.

Kuchar, T. A.; Mizuno, D.; Arge, C. N.; Webb, D. F.; Kahler, S. W.; Johnston, J. C.

2004-12-01

275

High prevalence of Yersinia pestis in black-tailed prairie dog colonies during an apparent enzootic phase of sylvatic plague  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) was introduced into North America over 100 years ago. The disease causes high mortality and extirpations in black-tailed\\u000a prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), which is of conservation concern because prairie dogs provide habitat for the critically endangered black-footed ferret\\u000a (Mustela nigripes). Our goal was to help elucidate the mechanism Y. pestis uses to persist in prairie ecosystems during

David A. Hanson; Hugh B. Britten; Marco Restani; Leigh R. Washburn

2007-01-01

276

Linking bovine tuberculosis on cattle farms to white-tailed deer and environmental variables using Bayesian hierarchical analysis.  

PubMed

Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on M. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type). Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovis identified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd factors and cattle farm prevalence is documented. PMID:24595231

Walter, W David; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; VerCauteren, Kurt C

2014-01-01

277

Linking Bovine Tuberculosis on Cattle Farms to White-Tailed Deer and Environmental Variables Using Bayesian Hierarchical Analysis  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on M. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type). Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovis identified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd factors and cattle farm prevalence is documented. PMID:24595231

Walter, W. David; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; VerCauteren, Kurt C.

2014-01-01

278

Texas white-tailed deer Internet harvest model  

E-print Network

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is an intensively managed game species throughout Texas and the United States. Modeling is a tool that has been used to evaluate various management practices and their potential impacts on wildlife...

Garrett, Jennifer Nicole

2009-05-15

279

42. FOUNDATIONS TAIL RACE, ETC., POWER HOUSE SANTA ANA ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. FOUNDATIONS - TAIL RACE, ETC., POWER HOUSE SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2, EDISON ELECTRIC CO., NOV. 3, 1904. SCE drawing no. 5393. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

280

4. SULLIVAN TAILING PILE. CAMERA POINTED WEST. MINE ENTRANCE IS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. SULLIVAN TAILING PILE. CAMERA POINTED WEST. MINE ENTRANCE IS APPROXIMATELY 30 YARDS BEHIND CAMERA POSITION. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Sullivan Mine, East side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

281

MODELING SERVICE-TIME DISTRIBUTIONS WITH NON-EXPONENTIAL TAILS  

E-print Network

-tail distributions, beta distribution, confluent hypergeometric function, Tricomi function, Laguerre series expan distributions functions, Laplace transforms, moments and asymptotics by exploiting connections to the Tricomi- sions, special functions, random splitting, products of independent random variables ABSTRACT Motivated

Whitt, Ward

282

3. VIEW EAST OF TAILINGS OF MERCURY RETORT. SCOOP FOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW EAST OF TAILINGS OF MERCURY RETORT. SCOOP FOR EXTRACTING MERCURY VISIBLE IN CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. (OCTOBER, 1995) - McCormick Group Mine, Mercury Retort, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

283

Influences of wetland plants on weathered acidic mine tailings.  

PubMed

Establishment of Carex rostrata, Eriophorum angustifolium and Phragmites australis on weathered, acidic mine tailings (pH approximately 3) and their effect on pH in tailings were investigated in a field experiment. The amendments, sewage sludge and an ashes-sewage sludge mixture, were used as plant nutrition and their influence on the metal and As concentrations of plant shoots was analysed. An additional experiment was performed in greenhouse with E. angustifolium and sewage sludge as amendments in both weathered and unweathered tailings. After one year, plants grew better in amendments containing ashes in the field, also in those plants the metal and As shoot concentrations were generally lower than in other treatments. After two years, the only surviving plants were found in sewage sludge mixed with ashes. No effect on pH by plants was found in weathered acidic mine tailings in either field- or greenhouse experiment. PMID:16584823

Stoltz, Eva; Greger, Maria

2006-11-01

284

Sums of Dependent Nonnegative Random Variables with Subexponential Tails  

E-print Network

Sums of Dependent Nonnegative Random Variables with Subexponential Tails Bangwon Ko, Qihe Tang coordinate-wise increasing functions f and g for which the covariance exists. Tang (2008) relaxed 0 Tang and Tsitsiashvili (2003) observed

Tang, Qihe

285

14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel...exceptional pilot skill during takeoff and landing, in crosswinds, or in the event...retraction or extension of the landing gear. [Doc. No. 27806, 61...

2010-01-01

286

14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel...exceptional pilot skill during takeoff and landing, in crosswinds, or in the event...retraction or extension of the landing gear. [Doc. No. 27806, 61...

2011-01-01

287

Western Red-tailed Skink Distribution in Southern Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This slide show reports a study to: determine Western Red-tailed Skink (WRTS) distribution on Nevada National Security Site (NNSS); identify habitat where WRTS occur; learn more about WRTS natural history; and document distribution of other species.

Hall, D. B. and Gergor, P. D.

2011-11-01

288

Star formation in shocked cluster spirals and their tails  

E-print Network

Recent observations of ram pressure stripped spiral galaxies in clusters revealed details of the stripping process, i.e., the truncation of all interstellar medium (ISM) phases and of star formation (SF) in the disk, and multiphase star-forming tails. Some stripped galaxies, in particular in merging clusters, develop spectacular star-forming tails, giving them a jellyfish-like appearance. In merging clusters, merger shocks in the intra-cluster medium (ICM) are thought to have overrun these galaxies, enhancing the ambient ICM pressure and thus triggering SF, gas stripping and tail formation. We present idealised hydrodynamical simulations of this scenario, including standard descriptions for SF and stellar feedback. To aid the interpretation of recent and upcoming observations, we focus on particular structures and dynamics in SF patterns in the remaining gas disk and in the near tails, which are easiest to observe. The observed jellyfish morphology is qualitatively reproduced for, both, face-on and edge-on st...

Roediger, E; Owers, M S; Ebeling, H; Sun, M

2014-01-01

289

Final Report Review of Existing and Proposed Tailings Impoundment Technologies  

E-print Network

....................................................................... 3 4.0 Comparison of Uranium Tailings Disposal Technology with the Requirements of RCRA, Subtitle C ............................................................... 1 2.0 Profile of the Existing Industry........................................................................................... 2 3.0 Anticipated Changes in the Industry Profile

290

Thyroxine Induced Resorption of Xenopus Laevis Tail Tissue in Vitro.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple method of studying thyroxine-induced resorption of tadpole tails in vitro is described. This procedure demonstrates that resorption is dependent on thyroxine and requires protein synthesis. It introduces students to the use of tissue culture methods. (Author)

Scadding, Steven R.

1984-01-01

291

Efficacy of Oral and Parenteral Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG Danish Strain 1331) in Protecting White-tailed Deer (Odecoileus Virginianus) against Bovine Tuberculosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wildlife Disease Association Annual Conference, August 6-10, 2006 Terry Amundson Student Presentation Award Oral Presentation EFFICACY OF ORAL AND PARENTERAL BACILLE CALMETTE-GUERIN (BCG DANISH STRAIN 1331) IN PROTECTING WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODECOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) AGAINST BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS Paulin...

292

Electromagnetic induction for mapping textural contrasts of mine tailing deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mine tailings present an important legacy of past and present ore-extraction activities in the Desert Southwest. Inactive mine tailings have no immediate economic role in current mining operations, yet from an environmental point of view it is important that such deposits are stabilized to prevent mass movement, wind or water erosion, leaching of chemicals such as acid mine drainage, and to reduce visual blight. In the presented study, we assess the potential for inferring textural properties of mine tailing deposits with electromagnetic induction (EMI) mapping as a means of informing efforts to establish vegetation at mine waste sites. EMI measurements of apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) and tailing samples were collected at a mine waste site in Southern Arizona, USA and used to test empirical and theoretical relationships between ECa and physical and mineralogical properties using linear and Gaussian process regression. Sensitivity analyses of a semi-theoretical and a regression model of ECa as a function of tailing properties indicated that volumetric clay fraction in the top 60 cm was a primary influence on bulk electrical conductivity along with water content, conductivity of the soil water and the presence of conductive minerals hematite and pyrite. At this site, latitude and longitude were better predictors of clay content than ECa, and while it was possible to obtain information about the spatial distribution of tailing texture using EMI, simple Kriging of texture data was a more powerful textural mapping technique. We conclude that EMI is a useful tool for mapping tailing texture at waste deposit sites, but due to physical and chemical heterogeneity of tailing deposits, it is necessary to collect more in situ samples than are needed for agricultural applications.

Nearing, Grey S.; Tuller, Markus; Jones, Scott B.; Heinse, Robert; Meding, Mercer S.

2013-02-01

293

Influences of wetland plants on weathered acidic mine tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Establishment of Carex rostrata, Eriophorum angustifolium and Phragmites australis on weathered, acidic mine tailings (pH ?3) and their effect on pH in tailings were investigated in a field experiment. The amendments, sewage sludge and an ashes–sewage sludge mixture, were used as plant nutrition and their influence on the metal and As concentrations of plant shoots was analysed. An additional experiment

Eva Stoltz; Maria Greger

2006-01-01

294

The dynamics of tidal tails from massive satellites  

E-print Network

(Abbreviated) We investigate the dynamical mechanisms responsible for producing tidal tails from dwarf satellites using N-body simulations. We identify two important dynamical co-conspirators: 1) the points where the attractive force of the host halo and satellite are balanced do not occur at equal distances from the satellite centre or at the same equipotential value for massive satellites, breaking the morphological symmetry of the leading and trailing tails; and 2) the escaped ejecta in the leading (trailing) tail continues to be decelerated (accelerated) by the satellite's gravity leading to large offsets of the ejecta orbits from the satellite orbit. The effect of the satellite's self gravity decreases only weakly with a decreasing ratio of satellite mass to host halo mass, demonstrating the importance of these effects over a wide range of subhalo masses. Not only will the morphology of the leading and trailing tails for massive satellites be different, but the observed radial velocities of the tails will be displaced from that of the satellite orbit; both the displacement and the peak radial velocity is proportional to satellite mass. If the tails are assumed to follow the progenitor satellite orbits, the tails from satellites with masses greater than 0.0001 of the host halo virial mass in a spherical halo will appear to indicate a flattened halo. Therefore, a constraint on the Milky Way halo shape using tidal streams requires mass-dependent modelling. Similarly, we compute the the distribution of tail orbits both in E_{r}-r^{-2} space and in E-L_{z} space, advocated for identifying satellite stream relics. The acceleration of ejecta by a massive satellite during escape spreads the velocity distribution and obscures the signature of a well-defined ``moving group'' in phase space.

Jun-Hwan Choi; Martin D. Weinberg; Neal Katz

2007-02-14

295

Tail Biting Trellis Representation of Codes: Decoding and Construction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents two new iterative algorithms for decoding linear codes based on their tail biting trellises, one is unidirectional and the other is bidirectional. Both algorithms are computationally efficient and achieves virtually optimum error performance with a small number of decoding iterations. They outperform all the previous suboptimal decoding algorithms. The bidirectional algorithm also reduces decoding delay. Also presented in the paper is a method for constructing tail biting trellises for linear block codes.

Shao. Rose Y.; Lin, Shu; Fossorier, Marc

1999-01-01

296

PSR J0357+3205: THE TAIL OF THE TURTLE  

SciTech Connect

Using a new XMM-Newton observation, we have characterized the X-ray properties of the middle-aged radio-quiet {gamma}-ray pulsar J0357+3205 (named Morla) and its tail. The X-ray emission from the pulsar is consistent with a magnetospheric non-thermal origin plus a thermal emission from a hot spot (or hot spots). The lack of a thermal component from the whole surface makes Morla the coldest neutron star in its age range. We found marginal evidence for a double-peaked modulation of the X-ray emission. The study of the 9' long tail confirmed the lack of extended emission near the pulsar itself. The tail shows a very asymmetric brightness profile and its spectrum lacks any spatial variation. We found the nebular emission to be inconsistent with a classical bow shock, ram-pressure-dominated pulsar wind nebula. We propose thermal bremsstrahlung as an alternative mechanism for Morla's tail emission. In this scenario, the tail emission comes from the shocked interstellar medium (ISM) material heated up to X-ray temperatures. This can fully explain the peculiar features of the tail, assuming a hot, moderately dense ISM around the pulsar. For a bremsstrahlung-emitting tail, we can estimate the pulsar distance to be between 300 and 900 pc. A pulsar velocity of {approx}1900 km s{sup -1} is required, which would make Morla the pulsar with the largest velocity, and high inclination angles (>70 Degree-Sign ) are preferred. We propose Morla's nebula as the first example of a new 'turtle's tail' class of thermally emitting nebulae associated with high-velocity pulsars.

Marelli, M.; De Luca, A.; Salvetti, D.; Sartore, N.; Sartori, A.; Caraveo, P.; Pizzolato, F.; Belfiore, A. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica Milano, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy)] [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica Milano, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Saz Parkinson, P. M., E-mail: marelli@iasf-milano.inaf.it [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

2013-03-01

297

Characterization of 14-3-3-? Interactions with integrin tails.  

PubMed

Integrins are a family of heterodimeric (?+?) adhesion receptors that play key roles in many cellular processes. Integrins are unusual in that their functions can be modulated from both outside and inside the cell. Inside-out signaling is mediated by binding adaptor proteins to the flexible cytoplasmic tails of the ?- and ?-integrin subunits. Talin is one well-known intracellular activator, but various other adaptors bind to integrin tails, including 14-3-3-?, ?a member of the 14-3-3 family of dimeric proteins that have a preference for binding phosphorylated sequence motifs. Phosphorylation of a threonine in the ?2 integrin tail has been shown to modulate ?2/14-3-3-? interactions, and recently, the ?4 integrin tail was reported to bind to 14-3-3-? and associate with paxillin in a ternary complex that is regulated by serine phosphorylation. Here, we use a range of biophysical techniques to characterize interactions between 14-3-3-? and the cytoplasmic tails of ?4, ?1, ?2 and ?3 integrins. The X-ray structure of the 14-3-3-?/?4 complex indicates a canonical binding mode for the ?4 phospho-peptide, but unexpected features are also observed: residues outside the consensus 14-3-3-? binding motif are shown to be essential for an efficient interaction; in contrast, a short ?2 phospho-peptide is sufficient for high-affinity binding to 14-3-3-?. In addition, we report novel 14-3-3-?/integrin tail interactions that are independent of phosphorylation. Of the integrin tails studied, the strongest interaction with 14-3-3-? is observed for the ?1A variant. In summary, new insights about 14-3-3-?/integrin tail interactions that have implications for the role of these molecular associations in cells are described. PMID:23763993

Bonet, Roman; Vakonakis, Ioannis; Campbell, Iain D

2013-09-01

298

RED-TAILED HAWK NEST SITES IN PUERTO RICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT.-We describe Red-tailed Hawk,(Buteo jamaicensis) nest sites in four habitats in Puerto Rico. Forty-nine nests were located in 2 1 species of trees. Red-tailed Hawks nested in trees that were taller than the mean,canopy,height of trees in surrounding,plots and that allowed a view of at least 50% of their territory. Most nests were in the upper,third of the tree on

Eduarixi Santana C; J Eddie N. Laboy; James A. Mosher; Stanley A. Temple

299

A Yurok Story: How the Animals Got Their Tails.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This story was told to the author by her grandmother, a Yurok born at Pecwan in 1898. Long ago, at a council meeting, the animals decided to ask the Great Creator for tails. He agreed and promised to give each animal a tail the next morning. The first animal to get up would have first choice. Coyote built a big fire and tried hard to stay awake…

Tripp, Maria

300

DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINE SHAFTS, AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINE SHAFTS, AND CONCENTRATION TABLES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. SLURRY EXITING THE BALL MILL WAS COLLECTED IN AN AMALGAMATION BOX (MISSING) FROM THE END OF THE MILL, AND INTRODUCED INTO THE CLASSIFIER. THE TAILINGS LAUDER IS ON THE GROUND AT LOWER RIGHT. THE LINE SHAFTING ABOVE PROVIDED POWER TO THE CONCENTRATION TABLES BELOW AT CENTER RIGHT. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

301

Testing tail-mounted transmitters with Myocastor coypus (nutria)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We developed a tail-mounted radio-transmitter for Myocastor coypus (nutria) that offers a practical and efficient alternative to collar or implant methods. The mean retention time was 96 d (range 57-147 d, n = 7), making this a practical method for short-term studies. The tail-mounts were less injurious to animals than collars and easier for field researchers to implement than either collars or surgically implanted transmitters.

Merino, S.; Carter, J.; Thibodeaux, G.

2007-01-01

302

Speciation And Colloid Transport of Arsenic From Mine Tailings  

SciTech Connect

In addition to affecting biogeochemical transformations, the speciation of As also influences its transport from tailings at inoperative mines. The speciation of As in tailings from the Sulfur Bank Mercury Mine site in Clear Lake, California (USA) (a hot-spring Hg deposit) and particles mobilized from these tailings have been examined during laboratory-column experiments. Solutions containing two common, plant-derived organic acids (oxalic and citric acid) were pumped at 13 pore volumes d{sup -1} through 25 by 500 mm columns of calcined Hg ore, analogous to the pedogenesis of tailings. Chemical analysis of column effluent indicated that all of the As mobilized was particulate (1.5 mg, or 6% of the total As in the column through 255 pore volumes of leaching). Arsenic speciation was evaluated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), indicating the dominance of arsenate [As(V)] sorbed to poorly crystalline Fe(III)-(hydr)oxides and coprecipitated with jarosite [KFe{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}, AsO{sub 4}){sub 2}(OH){sub 6}] with no detectable primary or secondary minerals in the tailings and mobilized particles. Sequential chemical extractions (SCE) of <45 {micro}m mine tailings fractions also suggest that As occurs adsorbed to Fe (hydr)oxides (35%) and coprecipitated within poorly crystalline phases (45%). In addition, SCEs suggest that As is associated with 1 N acid-soluble phases such as carbonate minerals (20%) and within crystalline Fe-(hydr)oxides (10%). The finding that As is transported from these mine tailings dominantly as As(V) adsorbed to Fe (hydr)oxides or coprecipitated within hydroxysulfates such as jarosite suggests that As release from soils and sediments contaminated with tailings will be controlled by either organic acid-promoted dissolution or reductive dissolution of host phases.

Slowey, A.J.; Johnson, S.B.; Newville, M.; Brown, G.E., Jr.

2007-07-13

303

Experimental oral transmission of chronic wasting disease to reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or TSE of wild and farmed cervid ruminants in the North America, including white tailed, black tailed and mule deer, Rocky Mountain elk and Shira's moose. CWD, like the other TSEs, is associated with accumulation of an abnorm...

304

Structure and function of tuna tail tendons.  

PubMed

The caudal tendons in tunas and other scombrid fish link myotomal muscle directly to the caudal fin rays, and thus serve to transfer muscle power to the hydrofoil-like tail during swimming. These robust collagenous tendons have structural and mechanical similarity to tendons found in other vertebrates, notably the leg tendons of terrestrial mammals. Biochemical studies indicate that tuna tendon collagen is composed of the (alpha1)(2),alpha2 heterotrimer that is typical of vertebrate Type I collagen, while tuna skin collagen has the unusual alpha1,alpha2,alpha3 trimer previously described in the skin of some other teleost species. Tuna collagen, like that of other fish, has high solubility due to the presence of an acid-labile intermolecular cross-link. Unlike collagen in mammalian tendons, no differences related to cross-link maturation were detected among tendons in tuna ranging from 0.05 to 72 kg (approx. 0.25-6 years). Tendons excised post-mortem were subjected to load cycling to determine the modulus of elasticity and resilience (mean of 1.3 GPa and 90%, respectively). These material properties compare closely to those of leg tendons from adult mammals that can function as effective biological springs in terrestrial locomotion, but the breaking strength is substantially lower. Peak tendon forces recorded during steady swimming appear to impose strains of much less than 1% of tendon length, and no more than 1.5% during bursts. Thus, the caudal tendons in tunas do not appear to function as elastic storage elements, even at maximal swimming effort. PMID:12485695

Shadwick, Robert E; Rapoport, H Scott; Fenger, Joelle M

2002-12-01

305

Revegetation potential of acidic mill tailings in southwestern New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

A greenhouse project was conducted to examine the revegetation potential of acid mill tailings from an abandoned mill site near Silver City, Grant County, New Mexico. The tailings piles covered about 35 acres, had percent level concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb, an average pH of 2.2, and an average net neutralization potential of 120 tons calcium carbonate per kiloton tailings. To successfully revegetate the tailings, five problems must be overcome: (1) neutralization of current and future acidity, (2) immobilization of metals, (3) restoration of biological activity, (4) improvement of water holding capacity, and (5) increasing the supply of plant nutrients. Tailings material was mixed with crushed limestone and divided into greenhouse pots in a randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement of treatments, including nine plant species and four organic amendments. Fertilizer was added based on soil fertility analysis. Germination and growth characteristics of plant species, and physical and chemical characteristics of soil were examined. Liming effectively removed or moderated most chemical plant growth problems. Water soluble and plant available metals in neutralized tailings were slightly higher than in native soils.

Cornelius, J.M.; Beeson, D.L.; Gomez, M. [Ecology and Environment, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Lindemann, W.C. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Dept. of Agronomy and Horticulture; Whitford, W.G. [Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Environmental Monitoring Systems Lab.; Zehner, W.B. [Environmental Protection Agency, Houston, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

306

Tail venting for enhanced yaw damping at spinning conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted in the NASA Langley 20-ft Vertical Spin Tunnel to determine the spin and spin-recovery characteristics of a 1/11-scale model of a low-wing general aviation airplane with a horizontal tail modified with variable-size gaps to allow ventilation of the vertical stabilizer and rudder. Erect spins at symmetric loadings were tested with varying gap sizes on either or both sides of the horizontal tail. The model results indicate that the basic airplane (with no gaps) exhibits a fast, flat spin from which no recoveries can be obtained. The airplane with the modified tail has either a fast, flat spin from which no recoveries or poor recoveries may be made, or a slower, steeper spin from which fair to excellent recoveries may be obtained, depending on the size and orientation of the tail gaps. The major contribution to spin recovery was from the gap on the leeward side of the tail. Gap widths of 15-25 percent of the tail semispan were needed to produce satisfactory recovery from the flat spin.

Stough, H. P., III; Whipple, Raymond D.; Fremaux, C. M.

1991-01-01

307

Long-term stabilization of uranium mill tailings  

SciTech Connect

The primary hazard associated with uranium mill tailings is exposure to a radioactive gas, radon-222, the concentration of which has been correlated with the occurrence of lung cancer. Previous studies on radon attenuation conclude that the placement of earthen cover materials over the tailings is the most effective technique for reducing radioactive emissions and dispersal of tailings. The success of such a plan, however, is dependent on ensuring the long-term integrity of these cover materials. Soil erosion from water and wind is the major natural cause of destabilizing earthen cover materials. Field data related to the control of soil loss are limited and only indirectly apply to the problem of isolation of uranium mill tailings over very long time periods (up to 80,000 a). However, sufficient information is available to determine benefits that will result from the changes in specific design variables and to evaluate the need for different design strategies among potential disposal sites. The three major options available for stabilization of uranium mill tailings are: rock cover, soil and revegetation, or a combination of both on different portions of the tailings cover. The optimal choice among these alternatives depends on site-specific characteristics such as climate and local geomorphology and soils, and on design variables such as embankment, heights and slopes, modification of upstream drainage, and revegetation practices. Generally, geomorphic evidence suggests that use of soil and vegetation alone will not be adequate to reduce erosion on slopes greater than about 5 to 9%.

Voorhees, L.D.; Sale, M.J.; Webb, J.W.; Mulholland, P.J.

1983-01-01

308

Rare-earth occurrences in the Pea Ridge tailings  

SciTech Connect

Tailings from the Pea Ridge iron mine contain significant amounts of apatite, which has rare-earth element values associated with it. In association with the recovery of rare-earth minerals as a secondary resource, the US Bureau of Mines conducted an investigation on the recoverability of the rare-earth minerals from the tailings. The mill tailings were subjected to a phosphate flotation to separate the apatite from other constituents. More than 70-pct recovery of the rare-earth values was achieved. Based on mineralogical characterization and prior analysis of rare-earth-bearing breccia pipe material at Pea Ridge, it is proposed that processing this phosphate concentrate on a vanner table would yield up to a 95-pct recovery of the rare earths in the concentrate, with the apatite reporting to the tailings. Intensive ore microscopy studies of the original tailings to the flotation products led to the identification of monazite, xenotime, and rare-earth-enriched apatite as the major rare-earth-bearing minerals in the tailings.

Vierrether, C.W.; Cornell, W.I.

1993-01-01

309

Postautotomy tail activity in the Balearic lizard, Podarcis lilfordi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Caudal autotomy is an effective antipredator strategy widespread among lizards. The shed tail thrashes vigorously for long periods to distract the predator and facilitate the lizard’s escape. This movement is maintained by energy supplied by the anaerobic conversion of glycogen into lactate. It has been suggested that lactate accumulation serves as an index for the vigor of tail thrashing. We made three predictions: (1) tail loss frequency should be higher under heavier predation regime, (2) the duration of postautotomy tail movement should be extended in populations under heavy predation pressure as an adaptation to the higher risk and the increased need for defense, and (3) as result, lactate in these tail tissues should be concentrated at higher levels. To eliminate the impact of phylogeny and environmental factors on the interpretation of our result, we focused exclusively on one species, the Balearic lizard ( Podarcis lilfordi). We studied three populations under different predation pressure but sharing the same climatic conditions. We found no differences among the studied populations either in postautotomy duration of tail movement or in levels of final lactate accumulation while autotomy frequency was higher where predation pressure was more intense. ?ail loss effectiveness is directly influenced by the level of predation, while secondary features of the trait appear to remain independent from the impact of environment.

Pafilis, Panayiotis; Pérez-Mellado, Valentín; Valakos, Efstratios

2008-03-01

310

Energetic cost of tail streamers in the barn swallow ( Hirundo rustica )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different hypotheses stress the importance of natural or sexual selection to explain the evolution and maintenance of long outermost tail feathers in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica). Since energy costs are predicted to arise from tail length manipulation, we measured the daily energy expenditure in three experimental groups (tail-shortened, tail-elongated, and control birds) with the doubly labelled water technique. Though

José Javier Cuervo; Florentino Lope; Anders Pape Møller; Juan Moreno

1996-01-01

311

Stability analysis of a copper tailings dam via laboratory model tests: A Chinese case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upstream method is a popular method for raising tailings dams. Currently in China there are more than 12,000 tailings impoundments and almost 95% of them use the upstream method for the construction of the dam. Statistical data has shown that the tailings impoundment is one of the main sources of risk in the mining industry. Failures of tailings impoundments

Guangzhi Yin; Guangzhi Li; Zuoan Wei; Ling Wan; Guohong Shui; Xiaofei Jing

2011-01-01

312

REGIONS OF BACKPROJECTION AND COMET TAIL ARTIFACTS FOR -LINE RECONSTRUCTION FORMULAS IN TOMOGRAPHY  

E-print Network

REGIONS OF BACKPROJECTION AND COMET TAIL ARTIFACTS FOR -LINE RECONSTRUCTION FORMULAS IN TOMOGRAPHY in the reconstruction, called a comet tail artifact. We propose that the comet tail artifact is closely related. Furthermore it is demonstrated that a strong comet tail artifact appears in numerical reconstructions from

Faridani, Adel

313

Myosin-II Tails Confer Unique Functions in Schizosaccharomyces pombe: Characterization of a Novel Myosin-II Tail  

PubMed Central

Schizosaccharomyces pombe has two myosin-IIs, Myo2p and Myp2p, which both concentrate in the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis. We studied the phenotype of mutant myosin-II strains to examine whether these myosins have overlapping functions in the cell. myo2+ is essential. myp2+ cannot rescue loss of myo2+ even at elevated levels of expression. myp2+ is required under specific nutritional conditions; thus myo2+ cannot rescue under these conditions. Studies with chimeras show that the tails rather than the structurally similar heads determine the gene-specific functions of myp2+ and myo2+. The Myo2p tail is a rod-shaped coiled-coil dimer that aggregates in low salt like other myosin-II tails. The Myp2p tail is monomeric in high salt and is insoluble in low salt. Biophysical properties of the full-length Myp2p tail and smaller subdomains indicate that two predicted coiled-coil regions fold back on themselves to form a rod-shaped antiparallel coiled coil. This suggests that Myp2p is the first type II myosin with only one head. The C-terminal two-thirds of Myp2p tail are essential for function in vivo and may interact with components of the salt response pathway. PMID:10637292

Bezanilla, Magdalena; Pollard, Thomas D.

2000-01-01

314

RECOVERY OF Co, Ni, AND Cu FROM THE TAILINGS OF DIVRIGI IRON ORE CONCENTRATOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Sivas-Divri?i Iron Ore Concentrator, 600,000 t of tailings are discarded annually. There are already 1 million t of tailings deposited in ponds from the previous production activities. The presence of Co, Ni, and Cu in the tailings makes the beneficiation of those tailings attractive. In the experimental work, sulphide concentrates were produced from these two types of tailings by

A. A. Sirkeci; A. Gül; G. Bulut; F. Arslan; G. Onal; A. E. Yuce

2006-01-01

315

Is rhizosphere remediation sufficient for sustainable revegetation of mine tailings?  

PubMed Central

Background Revegetation of mine tailings (fine-grained waste material) starts with the reconstruction of root zones, consisting of a rhizosphere horizon (mostly topsoil and/or amended tailings) and the support horizon beneath (i.e. equivalent to subsoil – mostly tailings), which must be physically and hydro-geochemically stable. This review aims to discuss key processes involved in the development of functional root zones within the context of direct revegetation of tailings and introduces a conceptual process of rehabilitating structure and function in the root zones based on a state transition model. Scope Field studies on the revegetation of tailings (from processing base metal ore and bauxite residues) are reviewed. Particular focus is given to tailings' properties that limit remediation effectiveness. Aspects of root zone reconstruction and vegetation responses are also discussed. Conclusions When reconstructing a root zone system, it is critical to restore physical structure and hydraulic functions across the whole root zone system. Only effective and holistically restored systems can control hydro-geochemical mobility of acutely and chronically toxic factors from the underlying horizon and maintain hydro-geochemical stability in the rhizosphere. Thereafter, soil biological capacity and ecological linkages (i.e. carbon and nutrient cycling) may be rehabilitated to integrate the root zones with revegetated plant communities into sustainable plant ecosystems. A conceptual framework of system transitions between the critical states of root zone development has been proposed. This will illustrate the rehabilitation process in root zone reconstruction and development for direct revegetation with sustainable plant communities. Sustainable phytostabilization of tailings requires the systematic consideration of hydro-geochemical interactions between the rhizosphere and the underlying supporting horizon. It further requires effective remediation strategies to develop hydro-geochemically stable and biologically functional root zones, which can facilitate the recovery of the microbial community and ecological linkages with revegetated plant communities. PMID:22648878

Huang, Longbin; Baumgartl, Thomas; Mulligan, David

2012-01-01

316

Virgo Galaxies with Long One-sided H I Tails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a new H I imaging survey of Virgo galaxies (VIVA: VLA Imaging of Virgo galaxies in Atomic gas), we find seven spiral galaxies with long H I tails. The morphology varies, but all the tails are extended well beyond the optical radii on one side. These galaxies are found in intermediate- to low-density regions (0.6-1 Mpc in projection from M87). The tails are all pointing roughly away from M87, suggesting that these tails may have been created by a global cluster mechanism. While the tidal effects of the cluster potential are too small, a rough estimate suggests that simple ram pressure stripping could have indeed formed the tails in all but two cases. At least three systems show H I truncation to within the stellar disk, providing evidence of a gas-gas interaction. Although most of these galaxies do not appear disturbed optically, some have close neighbors, suggesting that tidal interactions may have moved gas outward, making it more susceptible to the intracluster medium ram pressure or viscosity. Indeed, a simulation study of one of the tail galaxies, NGC 4654, suggests that the galaxy is most likely affected by the combined effect of a gravitational interaction and ram pressure stripping. We conclude that these one-sided H I tail galaxies have recently arrived in the cluster, falling in on highly radial orbits. It appears that galaxies begin to lose their gas already at intermediate distances from the cluster center through ram pressure or turbulent viscous stripping and tidal interactions with their neighbors, or a combination of both.

Chung, Aeree; van Gorkom, J. H.; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P.; Vollmer, Bernd

2007-04-01

317

The tail-elicited tail withdrawal reflex of Aplysia is mediated centrally at tail sensory-motor synapses and exhibits sensitization across multiple temporal domains  

PubMed Central

The defensive withdrawal reflexes of Aplysia californica have provided powerful behavioral systems for studying the cellular and molecular basis of memory formation. Among these reflexes the tail-elicited tail withdrawal reflex (T-TWR) has been especially useful. In vitro studies examining the monosynaptic circuit for the T-TWR, the tail sensory-motor (SN-MN) synapses, have identified the induction requirements and molecular basis of different temporal phases of synaptic facilitation that underlie sensitization in this system. They have also permitted more recent studies elucidating the role of synaptic and nuclear signaling during synaptic facilitation. Here we report the development of a novel, compartmentalized semi-intact T-TWR preparation that allows examination of the unique contributions of processing in the SN somatic compartment (the pleural ganglion) and the SN-MN synaptic compartment (the pedal ganglion) during the induction of sensitization. Using this preparation we find that the T-TWR is mediated entirely by central connections in the synaptic compartment. Moreover, the reflex is stably expressed for at least 24 h, and can be modified by tail shocks that induce sensitization across multiple temporal domains, as well as direct application of the modulatory neurotransmitter serotonin. This preparation now provides an experimentally powerful system in which to directly examine the unique and combined roles of synaptic and nuclear signaling in different temporal domains of memory formation. PMID:21450911

Philips, Gary T.; Sherff, Carolyn M.; Menges, Steven A.; Carew, Thomas J.

2011-01-01

318

Kidney structure and function of obligate and facultative hibernators: the white-tailed prairie dog ( Cynomys leucurus ) and the black-tailed prairie dog ( Cynomys ludovicianus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The white-tailed prairie dog is an obligate hibernator that enters a heterothermic phase when maintained in the cold with low intensity light and ad libitum food and water. The black-tailed prairie dog (a facultative hibernator) will not hibernate under similar conditions. It has been suggested that the black tailed prairie dog remains active during the winter because it can conserve

H. J. Harlow; E. J. Braun

1995-01-01

319

Long-Term Performance of Uranium Tailings Disposal Cells - 13340  

SciTech Connect

Recently, there has been interest in the performance and evolution of Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cell covers because some sites are not compliant with groundwater standards. Field observations of UMTRA disposal cells indicate that rock covers tend to become vegetated and that saturated conductivities in the upper portion of radon barriers may increase due to freeze/thaw cycles and biointrusion. This paper describes the results of modeling that addresses whether these potential changes and transient drainage of moisture in the tailings affect overall performance of the disposal cells. A numerical unsaturated/saturated 3-dimensional flow model was used to simulate whether increases in saturated conductivities in radon barriers with rock covers affect the overall performance of the disposal cells using field data from the Shiprock, NM, UMTRA site. A unique modeling approach allowed simulation with daily climatic conditions to determine changes in moisture and moisture flux from the disposal cell. Modeling results indicated that increases in the saturated conductivity at the top of radon barrier do not influence flux from the tailings with time because the tailings behave similar hydraulically to the radon barrier. The presence of a thin layer of low conductivity material anywhere in the cover or tailings restricts flux in the worst case to the saturated conductivity of that material. Where materials are unsaturated at depth within the radon barrier of tailings slimes, conductivities are typically less than 10{sup -8} centimeters per second. If the low conductivity layer is deep within the disposal cell, its saturated properties are less likely to change with time. The significance of this modeling is that operation and maintenance of the disposal cells can be minimized if they are allowed to progress to a natural condition with some vegetation and soil genesis. Because the covers and underlying tailings have a very low saturated hydraulic conductivity after transient drainage, eventually the amount of moisture leaving the tailings has a negligible effect on groundwater quality. Although some of the UMTRA sites are not in compliance with the groundwater standards, the explanation may be legacy contamination from mining, or earlier higher fluxes from the tailings or unlined processing ponds. Investigation of other legacy sources at the UMTRA sites may help explain persistent groundwater contamination. (authors)

Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary; Pill, Ken [Professional Project Services, Inc., 1100 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN, 37922 (United States)] [Professional Project Services, Inc., 1100 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN, 37922 (United States); Tachiev, Georgio; Noosai, Nantaporn; Villamizar, Viviana [Florida International University, 10555 W. Flagler St., EC 2100, Miami FL, 33174 (United States)] [Florida International University, 10555 W. Flagler St., EC 2100, Miami FL, 33174 (United States)

2013-07-01

320

PSR J0357+3205: the tail of the turtle  

E-print Network

Using a new XMM-Newton observation, we have characterized the X-ray properties of the middle-aged radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsar J0357+3205 (named Morla) and its tail. The X-ray emission from the pulsar is consistent with a magnetospheric non-thermal origin plus a thermal emission from a hot spot (or hot spots). The lack of a thermal component from the whole surface makes Morla the coldest neutron star in its age range. We found marginal evidence for a double-peaked modulation of the X-ray emission. The study of the 9'-long tail confirmed the lack of extended emission near the pulsar itself. The tail shows a very asymmetric brightness profile and its spectrum lacks any spatial variation. We found the nebular emission to be inconsistent with a classical bow-shock, ram-pressure dominated pulsar wind nebula. We propose thermal bremsstrahlung as an alternative mechanism for Morla's tail emission. In this scenario, the tail emission comes from the shocked interstellar medium (ISM) material heated up to X-ray tempera...

Marelli, Martino; Salvetti, David; Sartore, Nicola; Sartori, Angelica; Caraveo, Patrizia; Pizzolato, Fabio; Parkinson, Pablo M Saz; Belfiore, Andrea

2013-01-01

321

Oxidation of sulphide in abandoned mine tailings by ferrate.  

PubMed

In this study, Fe(VI) was applied to treat three mine tailings containing different amounts of sulphides and heavy metals. Oxidation of sulphides by Fe(VI) was studied at pH 9.2 with variation of solid to solution ratio, Fe(VI) concentration and injection number of Fe(VI) solution. The major dissolved products from the treatment of mine tailings with Fe(VI) solution were sulphate and arsenic. Oxidation efficiency of sulphides was evaluated by reduction efficiency of Fe(VI) as well as by measurement of dissolved sulphate concentration. Even though inorganic composition of three mine tailings was different, reduction fraction of Fe(VI) was quite similar. This result can suggest that Fe(VI) was involved in several other reactions in addition to oxidation of sulphides. Oxidation of sulphides in mine tailing was greatly dependent on the total amount of sulphides as well as kinds of sulphides complexed with metals. Over the five consecutive injections of Fe(VI) solution, dissolved sulphate concentration was greatly decreased by each injection and no more dissolved sulphate was observed at the fifth injection. While dissolved arsenic was decreased lineally up to the fifth injection. Sulphate generation was slightly increased for all mine tailings as Fe(VI) concentration was increased; however, enhancement of oxidation efficiency of sulphides was not directly proportional to the initial Fe(VI) concentration. PMID:25413120

Lee, Yong-Hoon; Yu, Mok-Ryun; Chang, Yoon-Young; Kang, Seon-Hong; Yang, Jae-Kyu

2015-01-01

322

Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria for Phytostabilization of Mine Tailings  

SciTech Connect

Eolian dispersion of mine tailings in arid and semiarid environments is an emerging global issue for which economical remediation alternatives are needed. Phytostabilization, the revegetation of these sites with native plants, is one such alternative. Revegetation often requires the addition of bulky amendments such as compost which greatly increases cost. We report the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) to enhance the revegetation of mine tailings and minimize the need for compost amendment. Twenty promising PGPB isolates were used as seed inoculants in a series of greenhouse studies to examine revegetation of an extremely acidic, high metal content tailings sample previously shown to require 15% compost amendment for normal plant growth. Several isolates significantly enhanced growth of two native species, quailbush and buffalo grass, in tailings. In this study, PGPB/compost outcomes were plant specific; for quailbush, PGPB were most effective in combination with 10% compost addition while for buffalo grass, PGPB enhanced growth in the complete absence of compost. Results indicate that selected PGPB can improve plant establishment and reduce the need for compost amendment. Further, PGPB activities necessary for aiding plant growth in mine tailings likely include tolerance to acidic pH and metals.

Grandlic, C.J.; Mendez, M.O.; Chorover, J.; Machado, B.; Maier, R.M.

2009-05-19

323

Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. [UMTRA project  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is explicitly stated and directed in the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978, hereinafter referred to as the Act.'' Title I of the Act authorizes the Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake remedial action at designated inactive uranium processing sites (Attachment 1 and 2) and associated vicinity properties containing uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials derived from the processing site. The purpose of the remedial actions is to stabilize and control such uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials in a safe and environmentally sound manner to minimize radiation health hazards to the public. The principal health hazards and environmental concerns are: the inhalation of air particulates contaminated as a result of the emanation of radon from the tailings piles and the subsequent decay of radon daughters; and the contamination of surface and groundwaters with radionuclides or other chemically toxic materials. This UMTRA Project Plan identifies the mission and objectives of the project, outlines the technical and managerial approach for achieving them, and summarizes the performance, cost, and schedule baselines which have been established to guide operational activity. Estimated cost increases by 15 percent, or if the schedule slips by six months. 4 refs.

Not Available

1989-09-01

324

EFFECTS OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE ON REPRODUCTION AND FAWN HARVEST VULNERABILITY IN WISCONSIN  

E-print Network

(Odocoileus virginianus) fawns born in spring 2002 and evaluate the effects of CWD infection on reproduction, Odocoileus virginianus, parentage, white-tailed deer. INTRODUCTION Infectious diseases are now recognized

Mladenoff, David

325

Evaluation of the antipsoriatic activity of Aloe vera leaf extract using a mouse tail model of psoriasis.  

PubMed

Aloe vera gel is used traditionally for the treatment of skin diseases, including psoriasis. An ethanolic extract of the gel was assessed for antipsoriatic activity using a mouse tail model of psoriasis. The extract produced a significant differentiation in the epidermis, as seen from its degree of orthokeratosis (85.07 ± 3.36%) when compared with the negative control (17.30 ± 4.09%). This was equivalent to the effect of the standard positive control, tazarotene (0.1%) gel, which showed a 90.03 ± 2.00% degree of orthokeratosis. The ethanolic extract of Aloe vera leaf gel also produced a significant increase in relative epidermal thickness when compared with the control group, whereas the standard tazarotene showed no change. Taken together, the extract showed an overall antipsoriatic activity of 81.95%, compared with 87.94 for tazarotene, in the mouse tail model for psoriasis. PMID:21915932

Dhanabal, S P; Priyanka Dwarampudi, L; Muruganantham, N; Vadivelan, R

2012-04-01

326

Female white-tailed deer survival across ecoregions in minnesota and south dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Survival and cause-specific mortality of female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been well documented in forested and agricultural landscapes, but limited information has been collected in grassland habitats typical of the Northern Great Plains. Our objectives were to document and compare survival and cause-specific mortality of adult female white-tailed deer in four distinct ecoregions. We captured and radiocollared 190 (159 adult, 31 yearling) female white-tailed deer and monitored (including deer from a previous study) a total of 246 (215 adult, 31 yearling) deer from Jan. 2000 to Dec. 2007. We documented 113 mortalities; hunting (including wounding loss) accounted for 69.9% of all mortalities and vehicle collisions accounted for an additional 15.0%. Natural causes (e.g., disease, predation) of mortality were minor compared to human-related causes (e.g., hunting, vehicle collisions). We used known fate modeling in program MARK to estimate survival rates and compare ecoregions and seasons. Model Sseason (winter=summer) had the lowest AICc value suggesting that survival differed only between seasons where winter and summer survival was equal and differed with fall season. Annual and seasonal (summer, fall, winter) survival rates using the top model S season (summer=winter) were 0.76 (95% ci = 0.70-0.80), 0.97 (95% ci = 0.96-0.98), 0.80 (95% ci = 0.76-0.83) and 0.97 (95% ci = 0.96-0.98), respectively. High human-related mortality was likely associated with limited permanent cover, extensive road networks and high hunter density. Deer management in four distinct ecoregions relies on hunter harvest to maintain deer populations within state management goals. ?? 2011 American Midland Naturalist.

Grovenburg, T.W.; Swanson, C.C.; Jacques, C.N.; Deperno, C.S.; Klaver, R.W.; Jenks, J.A.

2011-01-01

327

Flea abundance on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) increases during plague epizootics.  

PubMed

Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) on the Great Plains of the United States are highly susceptible to plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, with mortality on towns during plague epizootics often approaching 100%. The ability of flea-borne transmission to sustain disease spread has been questioned because of inefficiency of flea vectors. However, even with low individual efficiency, overall transmission can be increased if flea abundance (the number of fleas on hosts) increases. Changes in flea abundance on hosts during plague outbreaks were recorded during a large-scale study of plague outbreaks in prairie dogs in north central Colorado during 3 years (2004-2007). Fleas were collected from live-trapped black-tailed prairie dogs before and during plague epizootics and tested by PCR for the presence of Y. pestis. The predominant fleas were two prairie dog specialists (Oropsylla hirsuta and Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris), and a generalist flea species (Pulex simulans) was also recorded from numerous mammals in the area. The three species differ in seasonal abundance, with greatest abundance in spring (February and March) and fall (September and October). Flea abundance and infestation intensity increased during epizootics and were highest on prairie dogs with Y. pestis-infected fleas. Seasonal occurrence of epizootics among black-tailed prairie dogs was found to coincide with seasonal peaks in flea abundance. Concentration of infected fleas on surviving animals may account for rapid spread of plague during epizootics. In particular, the role of the generalist flea P. simulans was previously underappreciated. PMID:19492944

Tripp, Daniel W; Gage, Kenneth L; Montenieri, John A; Antolin, Michael F

2009-06-01

328

Electromyographic and kinematic studies of tail movements during falling in cats.  

PubMed

When falling from an inverted position, EMG activities of tail muscles (the m. extensor caudae lateralis, m. abductor caudae externus, m. flexor caudae longus) and tail movements were recorded in 7 long-tailed adult cats. After being released from an elevated position, cat rotates the tail in a reverse direction to rotation of other parts of the cat's body then lands on four legs. Rotation of the tail was started by EMG activities of the tail muscles on one side. Both synchronized and alternating groups of discharge occur between its left and right side, while extensor and flexor movements and displacements of its tail appear in the air. After transection of ventral roots from the coccygeal spinal segments innervating tail muscles, cats often fail to land on four legs. These facts suggest that that tail movements control body balance in the air when falling from an inverted position. PMID:10951898

Akatani, J; Wada, N; Tokuriki, M

2000-07-01

329

Extreme values and fat tails of multifractal fluctuations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we discuss the problem of the estimation of extreme event occurrence probability for data drawn from some multifractal process. We also study the heavy (power-law) tail behavior of probability density function associated with such data. We show that because of strong correlations, the standard extreme value approach is not valid and classical tail exponent estimators should be interpreted cautiously. Extreme statistics associated with multifractal random processes turn out to be characterized by non-self-averaging properties. Our considerations rely upon some analogy between random multiplicative cascades and the physics of disordered systems and also on recent mathematical results about the so-called multifractal formalism. Applied to financial time series, our findings allow us to propose an unified framework that accounts for the observed multiscaling properties of return fluctuations, the volatility clustering phenomenon and the observed “inverse cubic law” of the return pdf tails.

Muzy, J. F.; Bacry, E.; Kozhemyak, A.

2006-06-01

330

Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1980 annual report  

SciTech Connect

Studies of asphalt emulsion sealants conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory have demonstrated that the sealants are effective in containing radon and other potentially hazardous material within uranium tailings. The laboratory and field studies have further demonstrated that radon exhalation from uranium tailings piles can be reduced by greater than 99% to near background levels. Field tests at the tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado, confirmed that an 8-cm admix seal containing 22 wt% asphalt could be effectively applied with a cold-mix paver. Other techniques were successfully tested, including a soil stabilizer and a hot, rubberized asphalt seal that was applied with a distributor truck. After the seals were applied and compacted, overburden was applied over the seal to protect the seal from ultraviolet degradation.

Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.; Buelt, J.L.; Nelson, D.A.; Elmore, M.R.

1981-05-01

331

Geological impact of some tailings dams in Sardinia, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article deals with the results of a survey carried out in Sardinia on both active and abandoned tailings dams, and we also discuss the geological impact of tailings dams of two mines: the Masua mine, a large syngenetic Pb-Zn deposit located in Cambrian limestones, and the Montevecchio mine, a Pb-Zn vein deposit near a Hercynian granite intrusion. The characteristics and metal content of material in the dams were analyzed. A high contamination of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu) was found both in the soils and water of Rio Montevecchio, a stream draining the tailings dams and other mining operations in the area. The study indicates that a control plan to minimize heavy metal pollution must be drawn up for all mines of the area, whether active or abandoned.

di Gregorio, Felice; Massoli-Novelli, Raniero

1992-05-01

332

Using the moon to probe the geomagnetic tail lobe plasma  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have detected the presence of plasma in the lobes of the geomagnetic tail from observations of magnetic induction in the moon forced by time variations of the earth's magnetotail lobe field. The magnitude of the moon's tangential electromagnetic transfer function when the moon is in the lobes of the geomagnetic tail is less than that when the moon is in the solar wind or geomagnetic tail plasma sheet. The tangential transfer function when the moon is in the magnetotail lobes decreases at frequencies above about 8 mHz due to finite wavelength effects. This shows that the waves in the magnetotail lobes which drive the lunar magnetic induction must have speeds far less than the speed of light and wavelengths comparable to the size of the moon.

Schubert, G.; Sonett, C. P.; Smith, B. F.; Colburn, D. S.; Schwartz, K.

1975-01-01

333

Environmental risk assessment system for phosphogypsum tailing dams.  

PubMed

This paper may be of particular interest to the readers as it provides a new environmental risk assessment system for phosphogypsum tailing dams. In this paper, we studied the phosphogypsum tailing dams which include characteristics of the pollution source, environmental risk characteristics and evaluation requirements to identify the applicable environmental risk assessment methods. Two analytical methods, that is, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy logic, were used to handle the complexity of the environmental and nonquantitative data. Using our assessment method, different risk factors can be ranked according to their contributions to the environmental risk, thereby allowing the calculation of their relative priorities during decision making. Thus, environmental decision-makers can use this approach to develop alternative management strategies for proposed, ongoing, and completed PG tailing dams. PMID:24382947

Sun, Xin; Ning, Ping; Tang, Xiaolong; Yi, Honghong; Li, Kai; Zhou, Lianbi; Xu, Xianmang

2013-01-01

334

Statistics of shocks in a toy model with heavy tails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the energy minimization for a particle in a quadratic well in the presence of short-ranged heavy-tailed disorder, as a toy model for an elastic manifold. The discrete model is shown to be described in the scaling limit by a continuum Poisson process model which captures the three universality classes. This model is solved in general, and we give, in the present case (Frechet class), detailed results for the distribution of the minimum energy and position, and the distribution of the sizes of the shocks (i.e., switches in the ground state) which arise as the position of the well is varied. All these distributions are found to exhibit heavy tails with modified exponents. These results lead to an "exotic regime" in Burgers turbulence decaying from a heavy-tailed initial condition.

Gueudré, Thomas; Le Doussal, Pierre

2014-04-01

335

Statistics of shocks in a toy model with heavy tails.  

PubMed

We study the energy minimization for a particle in a quadratic well in the presence of short-ranged heavy-tailed disorder, as a toy model for an elastic manifold. The discrete model is shown to be described in the scaling limit by a continuum Poisson process model which captures the three universality classes. This model is solved in general, and we give, in the present case (Frechet class), detailed results for the distribution of the minimum energy and position, and the distribution of the sizes of the shocks (i.e., switches in the ground state) which arise as the position of the well is varied. All these distributions are found to exhibit heavy tails with modified exponents. These results lead to an "exotic regime" in Burgers turbulence decaying from a heavy-tailed initial condition. PMID:24827197

Gueudré, Thomas; Le Doussal, Pierre

2014-04-01

336

Helicopter Tail Boom With Venting for Alleviation and Control of Tail Boom Aerodynamic Loads and Method Thereof  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In at least one embodiment, the apparatus of the invention is a flight vehicle tail assembly having an exterior surface, at least one first vent in the exterior surface, at least one second vent in the exterior surface, and an air passage connecting the at least one first vent to the at least one second vent allowing air to flow there between. Where the at least one first vent is located near a high air pressure area acting on the exterior surface during a range of predefined flight conditions, Further, the at least one second vent is located near a low air pressure area acting on the exterior surface during the predefined flight conditions. So that at the predefined flight conditions adverse loads on the tail assembly are reduced by venting air from the high pressure area, through the tail assembly, to the low pressure area. The method of the present invention includes the steps of: receiving air through the at least one first vent in the exterior surface, passing the air through the tail assembly from the at least one first vent to at least one second vent in the exterior surface. and ejecting the air out of the tail assembly at the at least one second vent.

Banks, Daniel W. (Inventor); Kelley, Henry L. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

337

Spectral induced polarization (SIP) response of mine tailings.  

PubMed

Mine tailings impoundments are a source of leachates known as acid mine drainage (AMD) which can pose a contamination risk for surrounding surface and groundwater. Methodologies which can help management of this environmental issue are needed. We carried out a laboratory study of the spectral induced polarization (SIP) response of tailings from the Haveri Au-Cu mine, SW Finland. The primary objectives were, (1) to determine possible correlations between SIP parameters and textural properties associated with oxidative-weathering mechanisms, mineralogical composition and metallic content, and (2) to evaluate the effects of the pore water chemistry on SIP parameters associated with redox-inactive and redox-active electrolytes varying in molar concentration, conductivity and pH. The Haveri tailings exhibit well defined relaxation spectra between 100 and 10,000Hz. The relaxation magnitudes are governed by the in-situ oxidative-weathering conditions on sulphide mineral surfaces contained in the tailings, and decrease with the oxidation degree. The oxidation-driven textural variation in the tailings results in changes to the frequency peak of the phase angle, the imaginary conductivity and chargeability, when plotted versus the pore water conductivity. In contrast, the real and the formation electrical conductivity components show a single linear dependence on the pore water conductivity. The increase of the pore water conductivity (dominated by the increase of ions concentration in solution) along with a transition to acidic conditions shifts the polarization peak towards higher frequencies. These findings show the unique sensitivity of the SIP method to potentially discriminate AMD discharges from reactive oxidation zones in tailings, suggesting a significant advantage for monitoring threatened aquifers. PMID:25528133

Placencia-Gómez, Edmundo; Parviainen, Annika; Slater, Lee; Leveinen, Jussi

2015-02-01

338

The fish tail motion forms an attached leading edge vortex.  

PubMed

The tail (caudal fin) is one of the most prominent characteristics of fishes, and the analysis of the flow pattern it creates is fundamental to understanding how its motion generates locomotor forces. A mechanism that is known to greatly enhance locomotor forces in insect and bird flight is the leading edge vortex (LEV) reattachment, i.e. a vortex (separation bubble) that stays attached at the leading edge of a wing. However, this mechanism has not been reported in fish-like swimming probably owing to the overemphasis on the trailing wake, and the fact that the flow does not separate along the body of undulating swimmers. We provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence of the vortex reattachment at the leading edge of the fish tail using three-dimensional high-resolution numerical simulations of self-propelled virtual swimmers with different tail shapes. We show that at Strouhal numbers (a measure of lateral velocity to the axial velocity) at which most fish swim in nature (approx. 0.25) an attached LEV is formed, whereas at a higher Strouhal number of approximately 0.6 the LEV does not reattach. We show that the evolution of the LEV drastically alters the pressure distribution on the tail and the force it generates. We also show that the tail's delta shape is not necessary for the LEV reattachment and fish-like kinematics is capable of stabilising the LEV. Our results suggest the need for a paradigm shift in fish-like swimming research to turn the focus from the trailing edge to the leading edge of the tail. PMID:23407826

Borazjani, Iman; Daghooghi, Mohsen

2013-04-01

339

The fish tail motion forms an attached leading edge vortex  

PubMed Central

The tail (caudal fin) is one of the most prominent characteristics of fishes, and the analysis of the flow pattern it creates is fundamental to understanding how its motion generates locomotor forces. A mechanism that is known to greatly enhance locomotor forces in insect and bird flight is the leading edge vortex (LEV) reattachment, i.e. a vortex (separation bubble) that stays attached at the leading edge of a wing. However, this mechanism has not been reported in fish-like swimming probably owing to the overemphasis on the trailing wake, and the fact that the flow does not separate along the body of undulating swimmers. We provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence of the vortex reattachment at the leading edge of the fish tail using three-dimensional high-resolution numerical simulations of self-propelled virtual swimmers with different tail shapes. We show that at Strouhal numbers (a measure of lateral velocity to the axial velocity) at which most fish swim in nature (approx. 0.25) an attached LEV is formed, whereas at a higher Strouhal number of approximately 0.6 the LEV does not reattach. We show that the evolution of the LEV drastically alters the pressure distribution on the tail and the force it generates. We also show that the tail's delta shape is not necessary for the LEV reattachment and fish-like kinematics is capable of stabilising the LEV. Our results suggest the need for a paradigm shift in fish-like swimming research to turn the focus from the trailing edge to the leading edge of the tail. PMID:23407826

Borazjani, Iman; Daghooghi, Mohsen

2013-01-01

340

Wake patterns of the wings and tail of hovering hummingbirds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow fields of slowly flying bats and faster-flying birds differ in that bats produce two vortex loops during each stroke, one per wing, and birds produce a single vortex loop per stroke. In addition, the circulation at stroke transition approaches zero in bats but remains strong in birds. It is unknown if these difference derive from fundamental differences in wing morphology or are a consequence of flight speed. Here, we present an analysis of the horizontal flow field underneath hovering Anna’s hummingbirds ( Calypte anna) to describe the wake of a bird flying at zero forward velocity. We also consider how the hummingbird tail interacts with the wake generated by the wings. High-speed image recording and analysis from three orthogonal perspectives revealed that the wing tips reach peak velocities in the middle of each stroke and approach zero velocity at stroke transition. Hummingbirds use complex tail kinematic patterns ranging from in phase to antiphase cycling with respect to the wings, covering several phase shifted patterns. We employed particle image velocimetry to attain detailed horizontal flow measurements at three levels with respect to the tail: in the tail, at the tail tip, and just below the tail. The velocity patterns underneath the wings indicate that flow oscillates along the ventral-dorsal axis in response to the down- and up-strokes and that the sideways flows with respect to the bird are consistently from the lateral to medial. The region around the tail is dominated by axial flows in dorsal to ventral direction. We propose that these flows are generated by interaction between the wakes of the two wings at the end of the upstroke, and that the tail actively defects flows to generate moments that contribute to pitch stability. The flow fields images also revealed distinct vortex loops underneath each wing, which were generated during each stroke. From these data, we propose a model for the primary flow structures of hummingbirds that more strongly resembles the bat model. Thus, pairs of unconnected vortex loops may be shared features of different animals during hovering and slow forward flight.

Altshuler, Douglas L.; Princevac, Marko; Pan, Hansheng; Lozano, Jesse

2009-05-01

341

Wake patterns of the wings and tail of hovering hummingbirds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow fields of slowly flying bats and fasterflying birds differ in that bats produce two vortex loops during each stroke, one per wing, and birds produce a single vortex loop per stroke. In addition, the circulation at stroke transition approaches zero in bats but remains strong in birds. It is unknown if these difference derive from fundamental differences in wing morphology or are a consequence of flight speed. Here, we present an analysis of the horizontal flow field underneath hovering Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) to describe the wake of a bird flying at zero forward velocity. We also consider how the hummingbird tail interacts with the wake generated by the wings. High-speed image recording and analysis from three orthogonal perspectives revealed that the wing tips reach peak velocities in the middle of each stroke and approach zero velocity at stroke transition. Hummingbirds use complex tail kinematic patterns ranging from in phase to antiphase cycling with respect to the wings, covering several phase shifted patterns. We employed particle image velocimetry to attain detailed horizontal flow measurements at three levels with respect to the tail: in the tail, at the tail tip, and just below the tail. The velocity patterns underneath the wings indicate that flow oscillates along the ventral-dorsal axis in response to the down- and up-strokes and that the sideways flows with respect to the bird are consistently from the lateral to medial. The region around the tail is dominated by axial flows in dorsal to ventral direction. We propose that these flows are generated by interaction between the wakes of the two wings at the end of the upstroke, and that the tail actively defects flows to generate moments that contribute to pitch stability. The flow fields images also revealed distinct vortex loops underneath each wing, which were generated during each stroke. From these data, we propose a model for the primary flow structures of hummingbirds that more strongly resembles the bat model. Thus, pairs of unconnected vortex loops may be shared features of different animals during hovering and slow forward flight.

Altshuler, Douglas L.; Princevac, Marko; Pan, Hansheng; Lozano, Jesse

342

Enhanced window breakdown dynamics in a nanosecond microwave tail pulse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanisms of nanosecond microwave-driven discharges near a dielectric/vacuum interface were studied by measuring the time- and space-dependent optical emissions and pulse waveforms. The experimental observations indicate multipactor and plasma developing in a thin layer of several millimeters above interface. The emission brightness increases significantly after main pulse, but emission region widens little. The mechanisms are studied by analysis and simulation, revealing intense ionization concentrated in a desorbed high-pressure layer, leading to a bright light layer above surface; the lower-voltage tail after main pulse contributes to heat electron energy tails closer to excitation cross section peaks, resulting in brighter emission.

Chang, Chao; Zhu, Meng; Verboncoeur, John; Li, Shuang; Xie, Jialing; Yan, Kai; Luo, Tongding; Zhu, Xiaoxin

2014-06-01

343

Adoption in rock and white-tailed ptarmigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reports of adoption in birds are widespread, but few studies report rates of adoption or possible mechanisms for this phenomenon, particularly in the Order Galliformes. We report incidents of adoption in Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) and White-tailed Ptarmigan (L. leucura) from two sites in western Canada. Adoption rates for White-tailed Ptarmigan on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, and the Ruby Ranges, Yukon Territory were 13% (n = 16 broods) and 4% (n = 27), respectively, while rates for Rock Ptarmigan were 14% (n = 29) in the Ruby Ranges. Low brood densities may result in lower rates of adoption for ptarmigan. ?? 2009 The Wilson Ornithological Society.

Wong, M.M.L.; Fedy, B.C.; Wilson, S.; Martin, K.M.

2009-01-01

344

Tail contribution to the directional aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/6-scale model of the rotor systems research aircraft with a tail rotor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results are presented of a wind tunnel investigation to determine the tail contribution to the directional aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/6-scale model of the rotor systems research aircraft (RSRA) with a tail rotor. No main rotor was used during the investigation. Data were obtained with and without the tail rotor over a range of sideslip angle and over a range of rotor collective pitch angle. The model with the tail rotor was tested at several advance ratios with and without thrust from the auxiliary thrust engines on the RSRA fuselage. Increasing the space between the tail-rotor hub and the vertical tail reduced the tail-rotor torque required at moderate to high rotor thrust. Increasing the exit dynamic pressure of the auxiliary thrust engines decreases the tail contribution to the static directional stability. The tail-rotor thrust and its interference provide a positive increment to the static directional stability. The tail contribution increases with forward speed. The adverse yawing moment of the airframe would strongly affect the thrust required of the tail rotor when the helicopter is hovering in a crosswind.

Mineck, R. E.

1977-01-01

345

Ecological and histological aspects of tail loss in spiny mice (Rodentia: Muridae, Acomys) with a review of its occurrence  

E-print Network

Ecological and histological aspects of tail loss in spiny mice (Rodentia: Muridae, Acomys tailed and tail-less spiny mice, suggesting an advantage to tail-less individuals. Histological sections use. Key words: spiny mice, tail loss, autotomy, histology, predation INTRODUCTION Autotomy, the loss

Dayan, Tamar

346

Health status of mule deer and white-tailed deer herds on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Mountain Arsenal is a fenced, 6,900-ha Superfund site under remediation by the US Army and the Shell Oil Company. A variety of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, metals, and nerve-gas-production by-products are in the soil or in the water on the site. The authors evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer (13 mule deer [Odocoileus hemionus] and 5 white-tailed deer [O. virginianus]) collected by gunshot. Prior to collection, more than 4,000 locations of the 18 deer were plotted during a period of more than 2 years. Blood samples from the euthanized animals were collected for serologic, hematologic, and contaminant evaluations. Necropsies were preformed and tissues collected for histopathologic examinations and environmental contaminants analyses. Results indicate that the physical conditions of the mule deer were fair/good and of the white-tailed deer were good. Antibody prevalence against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85% and bovine virus diarrhea 56%. Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. Three mule deer had alopecia with dermatitis and hyperkeratosis. Results of heavy metal, and organochlorine pesticide analyses from blood and tissue samples and other analyses will be presented.

Creekmore, T.E.; Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L. [National Wildlife Health Research Center, Madison, WI (United States); Griess, J.M.; Roy, R.R. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, CO (United States); Baker, D.L. [Colorado Division of Wildlife, Ft. Collins, CO (United States)

1994-12-31

347

The Role of the CAI-1 Fatty Acid Tail in the Vibrio cholerae Quorum Sensing Response  

PubMed Central

Quorum sensing is a mechanism of chemical communication among bacteria that enables collective behaviors. In V. cholerae, the etiological agent of the disease cholera, quorum sensing controls group behaviors including virulence factor production and biofilm formation. The major V. cholerae quorum-sensing system consists of the extracellular signal molecule called CAI-1 and its cognate membrane bound receptor called CqsS. Here, the ligand binding activity of CqsS is probed with structural analogs of the natural signal. Enabled by our discovery of a structurally simplified analog of CAI-1, we prepared and analyzed a focused library. The molecules were designed to probe the effects of conformational and structural changes along the length of the fatty acid tail of CAI-1. Our results, combined with pharmacophore modeling, suggest a molecular basis for signal molecule recognition and receptor fidelity with respect to the fatty acid tail portion of CAI-1. These efforts provide novel probes to enhance discovery of anti-virulence agents for the treatment of V. cholerae. PMID:23092313

Perez, Lark J.; Ng, Wai-Leung; Marano, Paul; Brook, Karolina; Bassler, Bonnie L.; Semmelhack, Martin F.

2013-01-01

348

Chronic wasting disease in bank voles: characterisation of the shortest incubation time model for prion diseases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In order to assess the susceptibility of bank voles to chronic wasting disease (CWD), we inoculated voles carrying isoleucine or methionine at codon 109 (Bv109I and Bv109M, respectively) with CWD isolates from elk, mule deer and white-tailed deer. Efficient transmission rate (100%) was observed with...

349

Evaluation of Common Anesthetic and Analgesic Techniques for Tail Biopsy in Mice  

PubMed Central

Tail biopsy in mice is a common procedure in genetically modified mouse colonies. We evaluated the anesthetic and analgesic effects of various agents commonly used to mitigate pain after tail biopsy. We used a hot-water immersion assay to evaluate the analgesic effects of isoflurane, ice-cold ethanol, ethyl chloride, buprenorphine, and 2-point local nerve blocks before studying their effects on mice receiving tail biopsies. Mice treated with ethyl chloride spray, isoflurane and buprenorphine, and 2-point local nerve blocks demonstrated increased tail-flick latency compared with that of untreated mice. When we evaluated the behavior of adult and preweanling mice after tail biopsy, untreated mice demonstrated behavioral changes immediately after tail biopsy that lasted 30 to 60 min before returning to normal. The use of isoflurane, isoflurane and buprenorphine, buprenorphine, 2-point nerve block, or ethyl chloride spray in adult mice did not significantly improve their behavioral response to tail biopsy. Similarly, the use of buprenorphine and ethyl chloride spray in preweanling mice did not improve their behavioral response to tail biopsy compared with that of the untreated group. However, immersion in bupivacaine for 30 s after tail biopsy decreased tail grooming behavior during the first 30 min after tail biopsy. The anesthetic and analgesic regimens tested provide little benefit in adult and preweanling mice. Given that tail biopsy results in pain that lasts 30 to 60 min, investigators should carefully consider the appropriate anesthetic or analgesic regimen to incorporate into tail-biopsy procedures for mice. PMID:23294888

Jones, Carissa P; Carver, Scott; Kendall, Lon V

2012-01-01

350

BREEDING-RANGE EXPANSION OF THE SCISSOR-TAILED  

Microsoft Academic Search

HE breeding range of the Scissor-tailed Flycatcher (Muscivora forficata) has in the past been limited to the southern section of the grassland biome and adjacent ecotones. However, it has become evident that the range has been expanding, principally northeastward. The main objective of this study was to determine the status of this species as a breeding bird, and its distribution,

ALEXANDER CARL WARNER

351

Ehrlichia ewingii Infection in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two closely related zoonotic ehrlichiae, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. ewingii, are transmitted by Ambl- yomma americanum, the lone star tick. Because white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are critical hosts for all mobile stages of A. americanum and are important vertebrate reservoirs of E. chaffeensis, we investigated whether deer may be infected with E. ewingii, a cause of granulocytotropic ehrlichiosis in humans

Michael J. Yabsley; Andrea S. Varela; Cynthia M. Tate; Vivien G. Dugan; David E. Stallknecht; Susan E. Little; William R. Davidson

352

Using comet plasma tails to study the solar wind  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plasma tails of comets have been used as probes of the solar wind for many years, and well before direct solar wind measurements. Now, analyses utilizing the much greater regularity and extent of comet tails imaged from space detail outward solar wind flow much better than was previously possible. These analyses mark the location of the solar wind flow in three-dimensions over time much as do in-situ measurements. Data from comet plasma tails using coronagraphs and heliospheric white-light imagers provide a view closer to the Sun than where spacecraft have ventured to date. These views show that this flow is chaotic and highly variable, and not the benign regular outward motion of a quiescent plasma. While this is no surprise to those who study and characterize the solar wind in situ or use remotely-sensed interplanetary scintillation (IPS) techniques, these spacecraft images provide a visualization of this as never-before possible. Here we summarize the results of an analysis that determines solar wind velocity from multiple comet tails that were observed by the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) and also by the inner Heliospheric Imager (HI) on board the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Ahead (STEREOA) spacecraft. Finally, we present results using a similar analysis that measures this same behavior using coronagraph observations in the low corona.

Jackson, B. V.; Buffington, A.; Clover, J. M.; Hick, P. P.; Yu, H.-S.; Bisi, M. M.

2013-06-01

353

7. View northwest showing tail end of west bascule leaf ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. View northwest showing tail end of west bascule leaf and pierced arch concrete rails and recessed panel railing piers around the west pedestrian alcove on the north side of the bridge. - Yellow Mill Bridge, Spanning Yellow Mill Channel at Stratford Avenue, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

354

Does Gray-Tailed Vole Activity Affect Soil Quality?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Voles are well-known crop pests, especially when peak populations are present, but their role in soil fertility and impacts on agricultural sustainability are not well understood. Five months after the abrupt disappearance of a peak in a gray-tailed vole (Microtus canicaudus) population, we examined...

355

14 CFR 25.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...landing weight and altitudes in a hot day temperature of 41 degrees F. above standard. (3) The combination of vertical and drag components considered to be acting at the main wheel axle centerline. (b) For the tail-down landing condition...

2010-01-01

356

5. VIEW OF UPPER NOTTINGHAM TAILING PILES LOOKING TOWARDS ROCK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW OF UPPER NOTTINGHAM TAILING PILES LOOKING TOWARDS ROCK WALL VISIBLE ON SLOPE JUST RIGHT OF CENTER. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Upper Nottingham Mine, West face of Florida Mountain, head of Jacobs Gulch, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

357

Analysis of Imp-C data from the magnetospheric tail  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite magnetic field measurements in the geomagnetic tail current sheet are analyzed to determine the normal field component, and other CS parameters such as thickness, motion, vector current density, etc., and to make correlations with auroral activity as measured by the A sub e index. The satellite data used in the initial part of this study were from Explorer 28 and Explorer 34 satellites.

Speiser, T. W.

1973-01-01

358

Mound Characteristics of White-Tailed Prairie Dog Maternity Burrows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mound size characteristics of 682 white-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys leucurus) burrows were examined in Carbon Co., Montana. Burrows containing litters had significanlty larger mounds than those which did not. Mounds of litter-occupied burrows contained accessory digging for 48 and 49 observed litters. Maternity burrows can be identified by size and presence of current accessory digging.

Dennis L. Flath; Ronald K. Paulick

1979-01-01

359

Methanogenic potential of tailings samples from oil sands extraction plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 20% of Canada's oil supply now comes from the extraction of bitumen from the oil sands deposits in northeastern Alberta. The oil sands are strip-mined, and the bitumen is typically separated from sand and clays by an alkaline hot water extraction process. The rapidly expanding oil sands industry has millions of cubic metres of tailings for disposal and large

Phillip M. Fedorak; Debora L. Coy; Myrna J. Salloum; Marvin J. Dudas

2002-01-01

360

Cassini/CAPS observations of duskside tail dynamics at Saturn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

properties of Saturn's premidnight tail region are surveyed using Cassini/Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) ion observations from 2010. Only low-latitude (|lat| < 6°) intervals in which the CAPS viewing was roughly symmetric inward and outward around the corotation direction are used. Our numerical moments algorithm returns nonzero ion density for 70% (999) of the intervals selected. Of these, 642 had detectable water-group ion densities, and the remainder were dominantly, if not entirely, light ions. The derived plasma parameters are similar to those found in an earlier study for the postmidnight tail region, except that we find little evidence for the systematic outflows identified in that study, and we do find numerous significant inflow events. One such inflow is identified as a dipolarization event, the first reported plasma properties of such a structure at Saturn. A second, long-lasting event may be evidence for the existence at times of a quasi-steady reconnection region in the premidnight tail. The large majority of the plasma flows are found to be within 20° of the corotation direction, though with flow speeds significantly lower than full corotation. While the inflow events represent plausible evidence for internally driven mass loss in the premidnight region, the absence of significant outflow events suggests that in the region surveyed here, tail reconnection has not yet proceeded to involve lobe field lines, so the disconnected plasma continues its general motion in the corotation direction.

Thomsen, M. F.; Wilson, R. J.; Tokar, R. L.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Jackman, C. M.

2013-09-01

361

AFC-Enabled Vertical Tail System Integration Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document serves as the final report for the SMAAART AFC-Enabled Vertical Tail System Integration Study. Included are the ground rule assumptions which have gone into the study, layouts of the baseline and AFC-enabled configurations, critical sizing information, system requirements and architectures, and assumed system properties that result in an NPV assessment of the two candidate AFC technologies.

Mooney, Helen P.; Brandt, John B.; Lacy, Douglas S.; Whalen, Edward A.

2014-01-01

362

Tails for the Einstein-Yang-Mills system  

E-print Network

We study numerically the late-time behaviour of the coupled Einstein Yang-Mills system. We restrict ourselves to spherical symmetry and employ Bondi-like coordinates with radial compactification. Numerical results exhibit tails with exponents close to -4 at timelike infinity $i^+$ and -2 at future null infinity \\Scri.

Michael Pürrer; Peter C Aichelburg

2009-01-15

363

MIDDLE GORGE POWER PLANT, OWENS RIVER STREAM FLOWING OVER TAIL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MIDDLE GORGE POWER PLANT, OWENS RIVER STREAM FLOWING OVER TAIL RACE OF POWER PLANT AND PENSTOCK HEADGATE TO LOWER GORGE CONTROL PLANT. A MINIMAL FLOW OF RIVER WATER IS REQUIRED TO MAINTAIN FISH LIFE - Los Angeles Aqueduct, Middle Gorge Power Plant, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

364

Oil sands tailings sludge solidification and bitumen recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canada is a forerunner in the development of oil sands mining and processing technology. At present two commercial plants, both of them surface mining operations are producing approximately 200,000 of syncrude per day. At both of these plants a hot water separation process is used.The vast amounts of tailings, consisting of bitumen, sand, fines and water, generated from the hot

B. D. Prasad Head

1988-01-01

365

Cottongrass Effects on Trace Elements in Submersed Mine Tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

will probably prevent the weathering of sulfides. Plants also reduce wind and wave erosion. This would reduce Phytostablization may limit the leakage of metals and As from the use of the lime treatment and might be a more submersed mine tailings, thus treatment of acid mine drainage with lime could be reduced. Tall cottongrass (Eriophorum angustifolium sustainable way to treat

Eva Stoltz; Maria Greger

2002-01-01

366

Late Time Tail of Wave Propagation on Curved Spacetime  

E-print Network

The late time behavior of waves propagating on a general curved spacetime is studied. The late time tail is not necessarily an inverse power of time. Our work extends, places in context, and provides understanding for the known results for the Schwarzschild spacetime. Analytic and numerical results are in excellent agreement.

E. S. C. Ching; P. T. Leung; W. M. Suen; K. Young

1994-10-30

367

HeavyTailed Probability Distributions in the World Wide Web  

E-print Network

Heavy­Tailed Probability Distributions in the World Wide Web Mark E. Crovella, Murad S. Taqqu, and Azer Bestavros 1 2 3 Abstract The explosion of the World Wide Web as a medium for information these results to self­ similarity in network traffic. 1. Introduction The World Wide Web was designed

Crovella, Mark

368

Heavy-Tailed Probability Distributions in the World Wide Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

The explosion of the World Wide Web as a medium for informationdissemination has made it important to understand its characteristics, inparticular the distribution of its file sizes. This paper presents evidencethat a number of file size distributions in the Web exhibit heavy tails,including files requested by users, files transmitted through the network,transmission durations of files, and files stored on servers.

Azer Bestavros; Mark E. Crovella; S Murad; Murad S. Taqqu; Raisa Feldman; Robert Adler

1998-01-01

369

Management and Conservation Immobilization of White-Tailed Deer With  

E-print Network

Management and Conservation Immobilization of White-Tailed Deer With Telazol, Ketamine Telazol­xylazine and ketamine­xylazine are versatile and safe drug combinations that are used frequently and recovery, we hypothesized that a combination of Telazol, ketamine, and xylazine (TKX) would provide a safe

370

Tailing RFID Tags for Clone Detection Davide Zanetti  

E-print Network

Tailing RFID Tags for Clone Detection Davide Zanetti ETH Zurich, Switzerland zanettid ajuels@rsa.com Abstract RFID (Radio-Frequency IDentification) is a key emerg- ing technology for supply-chain monitoring and detection of counterfeit and grey-market goods. The most preva- lent RFID tags are, however

Capkun, Srdjan

371

1. VIEW OF THE MILL TAILINGS FACING NORTHWEST. SEDIMENT DAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF THE MILL TAILINGS FACING NORTHWEST. SEDIMENT DAM AND POND IN THE FOREGROUND, AND WATER PUMP (FEATURE B-25) ON THE LOWER RIGHT SIDE OF PHOTO. - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

372

Note on late-time tails of spherical nonlinear waves  

SciTech Connect

We consider the longtime behavior of small amplitude solutions of the semilinear wave equation ()squarelg(){phi}={phi}{sup p} in odd d{>=}5 spatial dimensions. We show that for the quadratic nonlinearity (p=2) the tail has an anomalously small amplitude and fast decay. The extension of the results to more general nonlinearities involving first derivatives is also discussed.

Bizon, Piotr; Rostworowski, Andrzej [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland); Chmaj, Tadeusz [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland); Cracow University of Technology, Krakow (Poland)

2008-07-15

373

Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings using bipolar electrodes.  

PubMed

In this work an electrodialytic remediation (EDR) cell for copper mine tailings with bipolar stainless steel plates was analyzed. The bipolar plates were inserted inside the tailings, dividing it into independent electrochemical cells or sections, in order to increase the copper removal efficiency from mine tailings. The bipolar plates design was tested on acidic copper mine tailings with a fixed: applied electric field, liquid content, initial pH, and remediation time. The laboratory results showed that inserting bipolar plates in EDR cells improves the remediation action, even though the applied electric field is reduced by the electrochemical reactions on the plates. Basically three aspects favor the process: reduction of the ionic migration pathways, increase of the electrode surface, and in-situ generation of protons (H(+)) and hydroxyls (OH(-)). Furthermore, the laboratory results with citric acid addition significantly improve the remediation actions, reaching copper removal of up to nine times better, compared to conventional EDR experiments without any plates or citric acid addition. PMID:19346067

Rojo, Adrián; Cubillos, Luis

2009-09-15

374

Pseudo Random Coins Show More Heads Than Tails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tossing a coin is the most elementary Monte-Carlo experiment. In a computer the coin is replaced by a pseudo random number generator. It can be shown analytically and by exact enumerations that popular random number generators are not capable of imitating a fair coin: pseudo random coins show more “heads” than “tails.” This bias explains the empirically observed failure of

Heiko Bauke; Stephan Mertens

2004-01-01

375

LEFT WING AND FUSELAGE FROM THIRD LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

LEFT WING AND FUSELAGE FROM THIRD LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK STAND. THE WING IS PREPARED FOR BASIC LUBRICATION WITH E SPOILER BOARDS UP AND ALL SAFETY LOCKS IN PLACE TO PROTECT MECHANICS FROM INJURY. ON THE WING AN INSPECTOR CHECKS THE ACTUATORS. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

376

Avian pox in a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Avian pox has been reported in at least 60 species of birds belonging to 20 different families. However, poxvirus infection in birds of prey is apparently uncommon. On 18 May 1981, an adult male red-tailed hawk was found on the US Department of Energy's Arid Land Ecology Reserve in Benton County, Washington. The bird was incapable of flight and was

R. E. Fitzner; R. A. Miller; C. A. R. A. Pierce; S. E. Rowe

1985-01-01

377

Experimental Investigations of Elastic Tail Propulsion at Low Reynolds Number  

E-print Network

A simple way to generate propulsion at low Reynolds number is to periodically oscillate a passive flexible filament. Here we present a macroscopic experimental investigation of such a propulsive mechanism. A robotic swimmer is constructed and both tail shape and propulsive force are measured. Filament characteristics and the actuation are varied and resulting data are quantitatively compared with existing linear and nonlinear theories.

Tony S. Yu; Eric Lauga; A. E. Hosoi

2006-06-20

378

Hantavirus in northern short-tailed shrew, United States.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic analyses, based on partial medium- and large-segment sequences, support an ancient evolutionary origin of a genetically distinct hantavirus detected by reverse transcription-PCR in tissues of northern short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) captured in Minnesota in August 1998. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of hantaviruses harbored by shrews in the Americas. PMID:18252128

Arai, Satoru; Song, Jin-Won; Sumibcay, Laarni; Bennett, Shannon N; Nerurkar, Vivek R; Parmenter, Cheryl; Cook, Joseph A; Yates, Terry L; Yanagihara, Richard

2007-09-01

379

Evolutionary aspects of tail shedding in lizards and their relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to shed (autotomize) all or part of the tail, usually in response to predator attack, and often to subsequently regenerate it is widespread in lizards and amphisbaenians and also occurs in a few snakes and in the tuatara. Most species possess a sophisticated intravertebral autotomy mechanism which seems to be primitive in the Squamata. This appears to have

E. N. Arnold

1984-01-01

380

2. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE, SHOWING TAILING DUMP. THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE, SHOWING TAILING DUMP. THE ROAD IN FOREGROUND LEADS TO TOWN OF KEETLEY ON LEFT AND TO KEETLEY MINE COMPLEX ON UPPER RIGHT, BEYOND PICTURE FRAME. - Park Utah Mining Company: Keetley Mine Complex, 1 mile East of U.S. 40 at Keetley, Heber City, Wasatch County, UT

381

Diets of black-tailed hares on the Hanford Reservation  

SciTech Connect

A fecal pellet analyses showed that black-tailed hares (jackrabbits) were selective in plants chosen as food. The most abundant herbaceous plant, cheatgrass, was not found in the pellets. Sagebrush and bitterbrush, woody plants, were not an important part of the hares' diet. Forbs, rabbitbrush, and certain grass species were preferred foods. (auth)

Uresk, D.W.; Cline, J.F.; Rickard, W.H.

1975-04-01

382

IDENTIFICATION OF ASSEMBLAGE A GIARDIA IN WHITE-TAILED DEER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fecal samples were collected from hunter killed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during a managed hunt in a central Maryland county. Fecal samples were cleaned of debris and concentrated by CsCl density gradient centrifugation and stained with MerIFluor reagents. Stained samples were exami...

383

Particle acceleration from reconnection in the geomagnetic tail  

SciTech Connect

Acceleration of charged particles in the near geomagnetic tail, associated with a dynamic magnetic reconnection process, was investigated by a combined effort of data analysis, using Los Alamos data from geosynchronous orbit, MHD modeling of the dynamic evolution of the magnetotail, and test particle tracing in the electric and magnetic fields obtained from the MHD simulation.

Birn, J.; Borovsky, J.E.; Thomsen, M.F.; McComas, D.J.; Reeves, G.D.; Belian, R.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hesse, M. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center; Schindler, K. [Ruhr-Univ., Bochum (Germany)

1997-08-01

384

Probability tails of wavelet coefficients of magnetometer records  

E-print Network

Probability tails of wavelet coefficients of magnetometer records P. Kokoszka,1 I. Maslova,1 J; published 8 June 2006. [1] The ground-based magnetometer network has long been a powerful tool new mathematical techniques have been developed to analyze magnetometer data and the wavelet technique

Kokoszka, Piotr

385

Constraining Dark Halo Potentials with Tidal Tails John Dubinski  

E-print Network

inferred from satellite kinematics; such halos would likewise inhibit tail formation in galaxy collisions telling us something about the mass profile of the dark potential. The length and kinematics of tidal of colliding equal mass, co­planar disks in a direct encounter. This is the geometry of the first galaxy

Mihos, Chris

386

Arsenic mobility in soils impacted by tailings at Zimapán, México  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Zimapán mining zone, in Central México is one of the worldwide sites known for As contamination. For more than 20 years and until recently, As-rich groundwater, mainly due to mineralization in a limestone aquifer, was an important source of As exposure to the inhabitants. In addition, decades of ore processing have produced hazardous wastes (tailings), many of them settled in the town outskirts. Although mineralogical and chemical differences exist among the various deposits; every one has high As contents (up to several thousands mg/kg) and other toxic elements that may be released to the nearby soils. To assess As mobility in soils impacted by tailings, total and sequential fractionation determinations were performed in 120 superficial and 40 cm depth samples collected at various distances near three of the impoundments. Higher total As concentrations were measured in the dry (up to 51,534 mg/kg) with respect to the rainy season (up to 23,570 mg/kg) indicating the occurrence of As wash off by rain. Although concentrations were lower in the deep regarding the superficial samples at most sites, As contents reached several thousands mg/kg at 40 cm depth indicating also its vertical transport that may reach the shallow aquifer. Sequential extractions showed differences between soils impacted by highly oxidized (red) tailings and low oxidized (gray) deposits. Most of the As occurs in the Fe-Mn oxides fraction (up to 92%) followed by the organic matter and sulfides fraction (up to 52 %) in soils close to red tailings, while organic matter and sulfide fraction contain most of the As (up to 95%) in soil samples close to low-oxidized deposits. Arsenic proportion in the residual fraction increased with distance from oxidized tailings. Low pH values (from 2.0 to 2.5) in superficial soils revealed the influence of acid mine drainage at distances up to 40 m from the red deposit. In contrast, the lowest pH was 7.1 in soils impacted by low-oxidized deposits, reflecting the limestone environment. Arsenic airborne transport was evidenced by the presence of a total As concentration of 30,780 mg/kg in soils collected at 120 m in front of the tailings crossing a ravine. Although sequential extraction showed that most of the As is present in relatively low-mobility fractions, total As concentrations indicate that tailings impoundments constitute another source of environmental As exposure.

Aurora Armienta, M.; Resendiz, Isabel; Múgica, Violeta; Cruz, Olivia; Aguayo, Alejandra; Ceniceros, Nora

2014-05-01

387

76 FR 30648 - Freshwater Crawfish Tail Meat From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-848] Freshwater Crawfish Tail Meat From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final...administrative review of freshwater crawfish tail meat (``crawfish tail meat'') from the People's Republic of...

2011-05-26

388

75 FR 79337 - Freshwater Crawfish Tail Meat From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-570-848] Freshwater Crawfish Tail Meat From the People's Republic of China...duty order on freshwater crawfish tail meat from the People's Republic of China...Department) published Freshwater Crawfish Tail Meat From the People's Republic of...

2010-12-20

389

77 FR 21529 - Freshwater Crawfish Tail Meat From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-570-848] Freshwater Crawfish Tail Meat From the People's Republic of China...duty order on freshwater crawfish tail meat from the People's Republic of China...Department) published Freshwater Crawfish Tail Meat From the People's Republic of...

2012-04-10

390

75 FR 64249 - Freshwater Crawfish Tail Meat From the People's Republic of China: Extension of the Final Results...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-570-848] Freshwater Crawfish Tail Meat From the People's Republic of China...duty order on freshwater crawfish tail meat from the People's Republic of China. See Freshwater Crawfish Tail Meat From the People's Republic of...

2010-10-19

391

Effect of Apex Flap Deflection on Vertical Tail Buffeting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computational study of the effect of vortex breakdown location on vertical tail buffeting is conducted. The position of the breakdown is modified by employing an apex flap deflected by an experimentally determined optimal angle. The delayed breakdown flow and buffeting response is then compared to the nominal undeflected case. This multidisciplinary problem is solved sequentially for the fluid flow, the elastic tail deformations and the grid displacements. The fluid flow is simulated by time accurately solving the unsteady, compressible, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations using an implicit, upwind, flux-difference splitting finite volume scheme. The elastic vibrations of the tails are modeled by uncoupled bending and torsion beam equations. These equations are solved accurately in time using the Galerkin method and a five-stage Runge-Kutta-Verner scheme. The grid for the fluid dynamics calculations is continuously deformed using interpolation functions to disperse the displacements smoothly throughout the computational domain. An angle-of-attack of 35 deg.is chosen such that the wing primary-vortex cores experience vortex breakdown and the resulting turbulent wake flow impinges on tile vertical tails. The dimensions and material properties of the vertical tails are chosen such that the deflections are large enough to insure interaction with the flow, and the natural frequencies are high enough to facilitate a practical computational solution. Results are presented for a baseline uncontrolled buffeting case and a delayed breakdown case in which the apex flap has been deflected 15 deg. The flap was found to be very effective in delaying the breakdown, increasing the location from 50%c to 94%c, which resulted in a 6% increase in lift coefficient and pitching moment. However, the integrated buffet loads and tip responses were roughly equivalent for the two cases.

Massey, Steven J.; Kandil, Osama A.

1998-01-01

392

Waste for wastelands: Reclaiming taconite tailings basins with organic amendments  

SciTech Connect

Taconite tailings basins cover 10,500 hectares in northern Minnesota. Since these tailings are primarily quartz and iron oxides, water quality has not been an issue, but establishing vegetation on the coarse fraction of the tailings has been a major problem. Reclamation rules require that (1) percent cover must equal 90% after three to five years (depending on slope and aspect), and (2) vegetation must e self-sustaining after ten years. Typical cover on coarse tailings, even after five years, has ranged from 40 to 60%. Despite repeated application of seed and fertilizer, less than 10% of he coarse tailings areas meet standards. Application of 10 to 90 mt/ha of various organic amendments, including: peat; yard waste compost; municipal solid waste compost; and paper processing waste; have been shown to dramatically affect vegetative success. Although plots that received 90 mt/ha of peat were the most successful in meeting the three-year standard, some of the plots with as little as 10 mt/ha of amendment produced 90% cover after five years. Application of 22.4 to 89.6 mt/ha of waste from paper manufacturing was also effective in meeting long-term reclamation standards. Data from these studies suggest that the application of 22.4 to 44.8 mt/ha of organic amendment will meet reclamation standards within five years, and will be no more costly than the industry's current unsuccessful practices, if the source of the amendment is within 100 km of the mining area. In the fall of 1997, the first full scale application of organic amendments was made.

Eger, P.; Melchert, G.; Dewar, S.

1999-07-01

393

Aqueous dual-tailed surfactants simulated on the alumina surface.  

PubMed

Atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to compare the morphology of aqueous surfactant self-assembled aggregates on a flat alumina substrate. The substrate was modeled using the CLAYFF force field, and it was considered fully protonated. Three ionic surfactants were considered, all with a sulfate headgroup. The first surfactant was the single-tailed, widely studied sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), for which previous simulation results are available on several substrates. The results obtained for this surfactant were used for benchmarking the behavior of two dual-tailed surfactants. These latter surfactants have equal structure, except that in one case both linear tails are composed by seven fully protonated carbon atoms [CH3(CH2)6CHOSO3(CH2)6CH3(-), 2H7], whereas in the other, one tail is composed by seven fully protonated carbon atoms and the other tail is composed by seven fully fluorinated carbon atoms [CF3(CF2)6CHOSO3(CH2)6CH3(-), H7F7]. Our results suggest that preferential interactions lead to surfactant aggregates for H7F7 that differ compared to both those obtained for SDS and 2H7. Although molecular-level geometric structural differences can be invoked to explain differences between H7F7 and SDS aggregates, those between H7F7 and 2H7 aggregates can only be ascribed to atomic-scale interactions. Because as the adsorbed amount of surfactant increases, the self-assembled surfactant aggregates change, suggesting that the substrate on which adsorption occurs effectively evolves as adsorption progresses, compared to bare alumina. The morphological differences observed in our simulations coupled with molecular-level microphase separation might explain, in part, the unusual retrograde adsorption isotherm that has been observed experimentally for H7F7 surfactants on alumina. PMID:25089638

Liu, Zhen; Yu, Jian-Guo; O'Rear, Edgar A; Striolo, Alberto

2014-08-14

394

Tracing the tail of ubiquinone in mitochondrial complex I.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial complex I (proton pumping NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is the largest and most complicated component of the respiratory electron transfer chain. Despite its central role in biological energy conversion the structure and function of this membrane integral multiprotein complex is still poorly understood. Recent insights into the structure of complex I by X-ray crystallography have shown that iron-sulfur cluster N2, the immediate electron donor for ubiquinone, resides about 30Å above the membrane domain and mutagenesis studies suggested that the active site for the hydrophobic substrate is located next to this redox-center. To trace the path for the hydrophobic tail of ubiquinone when it enters the peripheral arm of complex I, we performed an extensive structure/function analysis of complex I from Yarrowia lipolytica monitoring the interaction of site-directed mutants with five ubiquinone derivatives carrying different tails. The catalytic activity of a subset of mutants was strictly dependent on the presence of intact isoprenoid moieties in the tail. Overall a consistent picture emerged suggesting that the tail of ubiquinone enters through a narrow path at the interface between the 49-kDa and PSST subunits. Most notably we identified a set of methionines that seems to form a hydrophobic gate to the active site reminiscent to the M-domains involved in the interaction with hydrophobic targeting sequences with the signal recognition particle of the endoplasmic reticulum. Interestingly, two of the amino acids critical for the interaction with the ubiquinone tail are different in bovine complex I and we could show that one of these exchanges is responsible for the lower sensitivity of Y. lipolytica complex I towards the inhibitor rotenone. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 17th European Bioenergetics Conference (EBEC 2012). PMID:22484275

Angerer, Heike; Nasiri, Hamid R; Niedergesäß, Vanessa; Kerscher, Stefan; Schwalbe, Harald; Brandt, Ulrich

2012-10-01

395

A retrospective study of postmortem findings in red-tailed hawks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied necropsy results from carcasses of 163 red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center from 1975 through 1992. The most frequent postmortem finding was emaciation of unknown etiology, diagnosed in 33 (20%) carcasses. Proportionally more juveniles than adults were emaciated. Evidence of non-gunshot trauma, often suggestive of collision with vehicles or structures near roadways, was found in 29 (18%) birds. Of 25 (15%) toxicoses, 20 were attributed to agricultural pesticides, including famphur (4), fenthion (3), carbofuran (2), phosphamidon (2), endrin (1), and unidentified organophosphorus compounds (8). Lead and strychnine poisoning were diagnosed in two birds each, and selenium poisoning in one. Diseases, including aspergillosis, tuberculosis, pasteurellosis, and pox, were found in 21 (13%) hawks. Gunshot and electrocution were each diagnosed in six (4%) birds, one (0.6%) was trapped, miscellaneous conditions were found in 10 (6%), and no diagnosis could be determined for 32 (19%) of the carcasses.

Franson, J.C.; Thomas, N.J.; Smith, M.R.; Robbins, A.H.; Newman, S.; McCartin, P.C.

1996-01-01

396

Hepatocellular carcinoma in captive slender tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta): 5 cases.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma was diagnosed in five slender tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta) housed at the Smithsonian Institution's National Zoological Park between 1980 and 2013. Animals included four females and one male, ranging from 7 to 15 yr of age. Common clinical signs included weight loss and lethargy. Three of the neoplasms originated from the right medial liver lobe and were located adjacent to or partially incorporated in the gall bladder. Three animals had solitary masses, and two animals had multiple hepatic masses; all were characterized by polygonal to round neoplastic hepatocytes arranged in a trabecular pattern with smaller regions of varied solid, adenoid, and rarely peliod cell patterns. Hemorrhage and necrosis often with cystic degeneration was noted in all five cases. There was no evidence of metastatic disease in any of the cases examined. PMID:24712172

Marrow, Judilee C; Basu, Puja; Walsh, Timothy F; Siegal-Willott, Jessica L

2014-03-01

397

Ecology and Seasonal Habitat Use Patterns of Columbian Sharp-Tailed Grouse in Northern Utah.  

E-print Network

??Columbian sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus: hereafter sharp-tailed grouse) populations have been declining. These declines have been attributed to a number of factors, including habitat… (more)

Greer, Ron D.

2010-01-01

398

75 FR 34100 - Freshwater Crawfish Tail Meat From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Tail Meat From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...tail meat from the People's Republic of China (PRC). The period of review (POR...Flavor International Trading Co., Ltd., China Kingdom (Beijing) Import & Export...

2010-06-16

399

14 CFR 27.497 - Ground loading conditions: landing gear with tail wheels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Ground loading conditions: landing gear with tail wheels. 27.497...497 Ground loading conditions: landing gear with tail wheels. (a) General. Rotorcraft with landing gear with two wheels forward,...

2011-01-01

400

14 CFR 27.497 - Ground loading conditions: landing gear with tail wheels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Ground loading conditions: landing gear with tail wheels. 27.497...497 Ground loading conditions: landing gear with tail wheels. (a) General. Rotorcraft with landing gear with two wheels forward,...

2010-01-01

401

14 CFR 29.497 - Ground loading conditions: landing gear with tail wheels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Ground loading conditions: landing gear with tail wheels. 29.497...497 Ground loading conditions: landing gear with tail wheels. (a) General. Rotorcraft with landing gear with two wheels forward...

2011-01-01

402

14 CFR 29.497 - Ground loading conditions: landing gear with tail wheels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Ground loading conditions: landing gear with tail wheels. 29.497...497 Ground loading conditions: landing gear with tail wheels. (a) General. Rotorcraft with landing gear with two wheels forward...

2010-01-01

403

8. VIEW OF THE MILL (FEATURE B27) AND MILL TAILINGS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW OF THE MILL (FEATURE B-27) AND MILL TAILINGS, FACING EAST. PHOTO TAKEN FROM TOP OF THE TAILINGS. - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

404

White-tailed deer population dynamics and management on the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center  

E-print Network

-tailed deer: ecology and management. Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, USA. 26 Miller, L. A., B. E. Johns, and G. J. Killian. 2000. Immunocontraception of white-tailed deer using native and recombinant zona pellucida vaccines. Animal...

Whisenant, Shane Weston

2004-11-15

405

SOCIAL GROUP FISSION AND GENE DYNAMICS AMONG BLACK-TAILED PRAIRIE DOGS  

E-print Network

SOCIAL GROUP FISSION AND GENE DYNAMICS AMONG BLACK-TAILED PRAIRIE DOGS (CYNOMYS LUDOVICIANUS fission. Key words: coancestry, competition, cooperation, Cynomys ludovicianus, dispersal, fission, gene al. 1990). Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus; hereafter, simply ``prairie dogs

Foltz, David W.

406

Environmental impact assessment of tailings dispersal from a uranium mine using toxicity testing protocols  

SciTech Connect

Toxicity testing is a means of establishing the environmental risk of uranium tailings release. It is valuable in designing tailings containment structures because it assists in setting acceptable levels of risk of the design. This paper presents details of toxicity tests of the tailings from Ranger Uranium Mine, Northern Territory, Australia. The results suggest that the non-radiological toxicity of the tailings is low. The environmental risk of a tailings release is more likely to be related to the physical impacts of the tailings, including infilling of billabongs and changes in the sedimentology of riparian ecosystems rather than their biogeochemical impact. Two major results were: (1) water from treatment with washed tailing fines was not toxic to Hydra viridissima, and (2) mixtures of washed tailings fines and natural floodplain sediment (overlying water or elutriates) were not toxic to Hydra viridissima or Moinodaphnia macleayi. 33 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Rippon, G.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Canberra (Australia); Riley, S.J. [Univ. of Western Sydney-Nepean, Kingswood (Australia)

1996-12-01

407

Wilson Bull., 107(4), 1995, pp. 615-628 ARE RED-TAILED HAWKS AND  

E-print Network

-NOCTURNAL DIETARY COUNTERPARTS? CARL D. MARTI' AND MICHAEL N. KOCHERT* ABSTRACT.-Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis 15 May 1995. Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and Great Horned Owls (B&o virginianus) have been

Meyers, Ron

408

Microbial metabolism alters pore water chemistry and increases consolidation of oil sands tailings.  

PubMed

Tailings produced during bitumen extraction from surface-mined oil sands ores (tar sands) comprise an aqueous suspension of clay particles that remain dispersed for decades in tailings ponds. Slow consolidation of the clays hinders water recovery for reuse and retards volume reduction, thereby increasing the environmental footprint of tailings ponds. We investigated mechanisms of tailings consolidation and revealed that indigenous anaerobic microorganisms altered porewater chemistry by producing CO and CH during metabolism of acetate added as a labile carbon amendment. Entrapped biogenic CO decreased tailings pH, thereby increasing calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) cations and bicarbonate (HCO) concentrations in the porewater through dissolution of carbonate minerals. Soluble ions increased the porewater ionic strength, which, with higher exchangeable Ca and Mg, decreased the diffuse double layer of clays and increased consolidation of tailings compared with unamended tailings in which little microbial activity was observed. These results are relevant to effective tailings pond management strategies. PMID:25602329

Arkell, Nicholas; Kuznetsov, Petr; Kuznetsova, Alsu; Foght, Julia M; Siddique, Tariq

2015-01-01

409

Calcium Causes a Conformational Change in Lamin A Tail Domain that Promotes Farnesyl-Mediated Membrane Association  

PubMed Central

Lamin proteins contribute to nuclear structure and function, primarily at the inner nuclear membrane. The posttranslational processing pathway of lamin A includes farnesylation of the C-terminus, likely to increase membrane association, and subsequent proteolytic cleavage of the C-terminus. Hutchinson Gilford progeria syndrome is a premature aging disorder wherein a mutant version of lamin A, ?50 lamin A, retains its farnesylation. We report here that membrane association of farnesylated ?50 lamin A tail domains requires calcium. Experimental evidence and molecular dynamics simulations collectively suggest that the farnesyl group is sequestered within a hydrophobic region in the tail domain in the absence of calcium. Calcium binds to the tail domain with an affinity KD ? 250 ?M where it alters the structure of the Ig-fold and increases the solvent accessibility of the C-terminus. In 2 mM CaCl2, the affinity of the farnesylated protein to a synthetic membrane is KD ? 2 ?M, as measured with surface plasmon resonance, but showed a combination of aggregation and binding. Membrane binding in the absence of calcium could not be detected. We suggest that a conformational change induced in ?50 lamin A with divalent cations plays a regulatory role in the posttranslational processing of lamin A, which may be important in disease pathogenesis. PMID:23708364

Kalinowski, Agnieszka; Qin, Zhao; Coffey, Kelli; Kodali, Ravi; Buehler, Markus J.; Lösche, Mathias; Dahl, Kris Noel

2013-01-01

410

Landscape structure and plague occurrence in black-tailed prairie dogs on grasslands of the western USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Landscape structure influences the abundance and distribution of many species, including pathogens that cause infectious diseases. Black-tailed prairie dogs in the western USA have declined precipitously over the past 100 years, most recently due to grassland conversion and their susceptibility to sylvatic plague. We assembled and analyzed two long-term data sets on plague occurrence in black-tailed prairie dogs to explore the hypotheses that plague occurrence is associated with colony characteristics and landscape context. Our two study areas (Boulder County, Colorado, and Phillips County, Montana) differed markedly in degree of urbanization and other landscape characteristics. In both study areas, we found associations between plague occurrence and landscape and colony characteristics such as the amount of roads, streams and lakes surrounding a prairie dog colony, the area covered by the colony and its neighbors, and the distance to the nearest plague-positive colony. Logistic regression models were similar between the two study areas, with the best models predicting positive effects of proximity to plague-positive colonies and negative effects of road, stream and lake cover on plague occurrence. Taken together, these results suggest that roads, streams and lakes may serve as barriers to plague in black-tailed prairie dog colonies by affecting movement of or habitat quality for plague hosts or for fleas that serve as vectors for the pathogen. The similarity in plague correlates between urban and rural study areas suggests that the correlates of plague are not altered by uniquely urban stressors. ?? Springer 2005.

Collinge, S.K.; Johnson, W.C.; Ray, C.; Matchett, R.; Grensten, J.; Cully, J.F., Jr.; Gage, K.L.; Kosoy, M.Y.; Loye, J.E.; Martin, A.P.

2005-01-01

411

Sharp-tailed Grouse Restoration; Colville Tribes Restore Habitat for Sharp-tailed Grouse, Annual Report 2002-2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Columbian Sharp-Tailed Grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus) (CSTG) are an important traditional and cultural species to the Colville Confederated Tribes (CCT), Spokane Tribe of Indians (STOI), and other Tribes in the Region. They were once the most abundant upland bird in the Region. Currently, the largest remaining population in Washington State occurs on the CCT Reservation in Okanogan County. Increasing agricultural

2004-01-01

412

Experimental manipulation of tail ornament size affects the hematocrit of male barn swallows ( Hirundo rustica )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ornamental tail feathers of male barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) confer an advantage in sexual selection because long-tailed males are preferred by females. However, the size of tail ornaments\\u000a exceeds the natural selection optimum and males are predicted to pay an energetic cost for flying, directly related to tail\\u000a length. An increase in hematocrit is an adaptive response to enhance oxygen

Nicola Saino; José Javier Cuervo; Marco Krivacek; Florentino de Lope; Anders Pape Møller

1997-01-01

413

Influence of Body Size on Dietary Nutrition of White-Tailed Deer Odocoileus virginianus  

E-print Network

Articles Influence of Body Size on Dietary Nutrition of White-Tailed Deer Odocoileus virginianus masses (14­76 kg) in white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus (n = 108) in a 2,628-ha enclosure at Kerr, Weckerly FW. 2013. Influence of body size on dietary nutrition of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus

Aspbury, Andrea S. - Department of Biology, Texas State University

414

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii has not been detected previously in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We tested whole blood from 60 white-tailed deer for Bartonella spp. DNA; three (5%) were positive for Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. This is the first detection of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in white-tailed deer. PMID:23568932

Chitwood, M Colter; Maggi, Ricardo G; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne; Toliver, Marcée; DePerno, Christopher S

2013-04-01

415

Tools and Technology Article Blind Count Surveys of White-Tailed  

E-print Network

. We conducted blind count surveys of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a 214-ha enclosure, bootstrap, Bowden's estimator, computer simulations, Odocoileus virginianus, sex ratio, white-tailed deer, there are 4,657 permits to manage white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) hunting operations on small (i

Aspbury, Andrea S. - Department of Biology, Texas State University

416

Does uctuating asymmetry of antlers in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) follow  

E-print Network

Does uctuating asymmetry of antlers in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) follow patterns to produce. We collected morphometric and antler data from 439 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; £uctuating asymmetry; handicap hypothesis; Odocoileus virginianus; sexual selection; white-tailed deer 1

Ditchkoff, Steve

417

Research Article Habitat Use by Sympatric Mule and White-Tailed  

E-print Network

competition, compositional analysis, habitat use, mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus, O. virginianus, sympatry, Texas, white- tailed deer. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (O. hemionus) occur, and Fisheries Management, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA Abstract White-tailed deer (Odocoileus

Wallace, Mark C.

418

Research Note Winter Forage Selection in White-Tailed Deer at High  

E-print Network

Research Note Winter Forage Selection in White-Tailed Deer at High Density: Balsam Fir is the Best forage selection by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on Anticosti Island, Quebec, Canada, using spruce, white-tailed deer, winter diet. Forage selection by wild herbivores may be determined

Laval, Université

419

Dispersal Patterns of Male White-tailed Deer in Centre County, PA  

E-print Network

39 39 Dispersal Patterns of Male White-tailed Deer in Centre County, PA Milton G. Newberry, III: Dispersal direction of male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) has been hypothesized (Greenwood 1980) and dispersal is most prevalent among yearling bucks in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus

Omiecinski, Curtis

420

Social rank and winter forage quality affect aggressiveness in white-tailed deer fawns  

E-print Network

Social rank and winter forage quality affect aggressiveness in white-tailed deer fawns JOE fawns fed the poor-quality diet decreased it. Our experimental approach revealed that white-tailed deer status; forage intake; Odocoileus virginianus; resource competition; social behaviour; white-tailed deer

Laval, Université

421

ASSESSING DIETARY QUALITY OF WHITE-TAILED DEER USING FECAL INDICES: EFFECTS OF SUPPLEMENTAL  

E-print Network

ASSESSING DIETARY QUALITY OF WHITE-TAILED DEER USING FECAL INDICES: EFFECTS OF SUPPLEMENTAL FEEDING increasing over- winter mortality. Although winter diets of white-tailed deer (Odocoilells virginianli white-tailed deer (Odocoilells virginianll.f) in northern latitudes occur during winter (Mautz. 1978

422

NOTE / NOTE Winter habitat selection by white-tailed deer on  

E-print Network

NOTE / NOTE Winter habitat selection by white-tailed deer on Anticosti Island 2: relationship are important questions for winter habi- tat management of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann and Boots 676 Introduction At northern latitudes, white-tailed deer, Odocoileus vir- ginianus (Zimmermann

Laval, Université

423

Seasonal movements and home ranges of white-tailed deer in north-central South Dakota  

E-print Network

Seasonal movements and home ranges of white-tailed deer in north-central South Dakota T patterns of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780)) inhabiting landscapes intensively. Little information exists regarding daily and seasonal movements of white-tailed deer in north

424

MOVEMENT OF FEMALE WHITE-TAILED DEER: EFFECTS OF CLIMATE AND INTENSIVE ROW-CROP AGRICULTURE  

E-print Network

1099 MOVEMENT OF FEMALE WHITE-TAILED DEER: EFFECTS OF CLIMATE AND INTENSIVE ROW-CROP AGRICULTURE Abstract: Movements (e.g., migration, dispersal) of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) vary greatly to effectively manage deer populations. Movements of white-tailed deer have been well documented in forest

425

Unusual Migration by a White-Tailed Deer Fawn in South Dakota  

E-print Network

Unusual Migration by a White-Tailed Deer Fawn in South Dakota CHRISTOPHER s. DEPERNO, STEVEN L, fawn, migration, OeJocoi/eus virgin/anus dacotensis, South Dakota, white-tailed deer. Migration between winter and summer ranges by white-tailed deer (Odocoi/eus virginianus) is most pronounced in northern

426

Browsing of tree regeneration by white-tailed deer in large clearcuts on Anticosti Island, Quebec  

E-print Network

Browsing of tree regeneration by white-tailed deer in large clearcuts on Anticosti Island, Quebec of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann) on Anticosti Island hampers the regeneration reserved. Keywords: White-tailed deer; Browsing; High density; Tree regeneration; Clearcuts 1. Introduction

Laval, Université

427

Comparison among three approaches to evaluate winter habitat selection by white-tailed deer on  

E-print Network

Comparison among three approaches to evaluate winter habitat selection by white-tailed deer generally identified as those having the highest or lowest indices. White-tailed deer preferred forest circles) on data from a systematic aerial survey on Anticosti Island, where 260 groups of white-tailed

Laval, Université

428

D. Aaron Haines Student Projects Fecal Testing, Baiting & White-tailed Deer  

E-print Network

D. Aaron Haines Student Projects Fecal Testing, Baiting & White-tailed Deer January 2013 ­ Present Due to the potential negative impacts of baiting on white­tailed deer, and the philosophy of fair as internationally. The objective of this study is to determine whether baiting activity on white-tailed deer can

Boal, Jean

429

White-tailed Deer Habitat Use and Movements Integrated with Factors Influencing Vehicle  

E-print Network

1/9/13 1 White-tailed Deer Habitat Use and Movements Integrated with Factors Influencing and compare white-tailed deer reproductive efforts during pre-, peak, and post-rut periods 2. Investigate and compare white-tailed deer reproductive efforts during pre-, peak, and post-rut periods 2. Investigate

Gray, Matthew

430

SEASONAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA  

E-print Network

SEASONAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA 1 ROLLIN D. SPARROWE, South Research Unit, Brookings3 -,!.. Abstract: Seasonal activity patterns of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus on counties. The history of white-tailed deer popula- tions in eastern South Dakota parallels that of deer

431

Interference from long-tailed finches constrains reproduction in the endangered Gouldian finch  

E-print Network

Interference from long-tailed finches constrains reproduction in the endangered Gouldian finch of the endangered Gouldian finch (Erythrura gouldiae) and sympatric long-tailed finch (Poephila acuticauda, but not long-tailed finches, and interference frequency was inversely related to Gouldian finch reproduc- tive

432

Synthesis and characterization of fly ash modified mine tailings-based geopolymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each year, the mining industry generates a significant amount of mine tailings. Storage of these tailings occupies large areas of land and leads to high monetary, environmental and ecological costs. In this research, a feasibility study is performed on geopolymerization of mine tailings so that they can be recycled and utilized as construction material. Considering the extremely high silicon to

Lianyang Zhang; Saeed Ahmari; Jinhong Zhang

2011-01-01

433

Reduced-bias estimators for the Distortion Risk Premiums for Heavy-tailed distributions  

E-print Network

premiums · Distortion · Heavy-tailed distribution · Tail index · Extreme quantiles · Bias reduction 1 Introduction Risk premiums are used to quantify insurance losses and financial assessments. For various examReduced-bias estimators for the Distortion Risk Premiums for Heavy-tailed distributions El Hadji

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

434

Tail-Docking Influences on Behavioral, Immunological, and Endocrine Responses in Dairy Heifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral and physiological changes were measured following tail-docking in primiparous heifers. One month before projected first parturition, 21 heifers were assigned to control (nondocked), docked, or docked with lidocaine groups. Heifers were banded to initiate tail- docking and the necrotic tail was removed after 144 h. Physiological, immunological, and behavioral measures were taken for 240 h following banding. Cortisol was

S. D. Eicher; J. L. Morrow-Tesch; J. L. Albright; J. W. Dailey; C. R. Young; L. H. Stanker

2000-01-01

435

78 FR 65709 - Crawfish Tail Meat From China Institution of a Five-Year Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-752 (Third Review)] Crawfish Tail Meat From China Institution of a Five-Year...antidumping duty order on crawfish tail meat from China would be likely to lead to continuation...duty order on imports of crawfish tail meat from China (62 FR 48218)....

2013-11-01

436

Responses of Red-Osier Dogwood to Oil Sands Tailings Treated with Gypsum or Alum  

Microsoft Academic Search

or composite tailings (CT), are currently being inves- tigated. The application of composite or consolidated tailings (CT) technol- In the CT process, the fines and sand fractions are ogy provides Alberta's oil sands industry with a means of reducing treated with a coagulant aid to produce a nonsegregating the volume of the fines fraction in extraction tailings and allows mixture

E. Redfield; C. Croser; J. J. Zwiazek; M. D. MacKinnon; C. Qualizza

2003-01-01

437

METAL ACCUMULATION IN 5 NATIVE PLANTS GROWING ON ABANDONED CU-TAILINGS PONDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

th Febr 2007 ; accepted 13 th May 2007) Abstract: Tailings and plants were sampled from the abandoned Cu-tailing ponds of Rakha mines, Jharkhand, India. Tailings have high concentration of Cu, Ni and characterized by moderately acid environment and low nutrient contents. Plants belonging to 5 genera and 4 families were collected and analysed for metals in their above and

MANAB DAS; SUBODH KUMAR MAITI

2007-01-01

438

Flexible Histone Tails in a New Mesoscopic Oligonucleosome Model Gaurav Arya, Qing Zhang, and Tamar Schlick  

E-print Network

the role of histone tails and their variants in mediating gene expression through modulation of chromatin of histone-tail mediated core/ core attraction energies; and considers the partial shielding of electrostatic repulsion between DNA linkers as a result of the spatial distribution of histone tails. These effects

Schlick, Tamar

439

Hirschsprung Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... GI) Inflammatory Bowel Disease Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Digestive System Irritable Bowel Syndrome Inflammatory Bowel Disease Your Digestive System Irritable Bowel Syndrome Constipation Inflammatory Bowel Disease Digestive ...

440

Helping to Combat Chronic Wasting Disease  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a disease of the nervous system that results in distinctive brain lesions. CWD affects elk, white-tailed deer, and mule deer, but has not been documented in livestock or humans. The origins of the disease, as well as the modes of transmission, remain unknown. Infected deer and elk appear robust and healthy in the early stages of CWD; clinical signs might not show for years. Mortality typically occurs within months after the appearance of clinical signs. The route of transmission is unknown; likely routes include direct transmission between infected and noninfected animals and infected animals contaminating local environments.

U.S. Geological Survey

2003-01-01

441

Comparison of the breeding biology of sympatric red-tailed Hawks, White-tailed Hawks, and Crested Caracaras in south Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared the breeding biology of sympatric nesting Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), White-tailed Hawks (Buteo albicaudatus), and Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway) in south Texas during 2003 and 2004. We monitored 46 breeding attempts by Red-tailed Hawks, 56 by White-tailed Hawks, and 27 by Crested Caracaras. Observed nesting success was similar for Red-tailed Hawks (62%) and Crested Caracaras (61%), but lower for White-tailed Hawks (51%). Daily survival rates (0.99) were the same for all three species. Red-tailed Hawks and White-tailed Hawks both fledged 1.13 young per nesting pair and Crested Caracaras fledged 1.39 young per nesting pair. All three species nested earlier in 2004 than in 2003; in addition, the overall nesting density of these three species almost doubled from 2003 (1.45 pairs/km2) to 2004 (2.71 pairs/km2). Estimated productivity of all three species was within the ranges reported from other studies. Given extensive and progressive habitat alteration in some areas of south Texas, and the limited distributions of White-tailed Hawks and Crested Caracaras, the presence of large ranches managed for free-range cattle production and hunting leases likely provides important habitat and may be key areas for conservation of these two species. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

Actkinson, M.A.; Kuvlesky, W.P., Jr.; Boal, C.W.; Brennan, L.A.; Hernandez, F.

2009-01-01

442

Behcet's Disease  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Behcet's Disease Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Behcet's Disease? Is there ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Behcet's Disease? Behcet's disease is a rare, chronic inflammatory ...

443

Graves' Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... information Autoimmune diseases fact sheet Diabetes fact sheet Hashimoto's disease fact sheet Illnesses and disabilities Lupus fact sheet ... of overactive thyroid. It is closely related to Hashimoto's disease, another autoimmune disease affecting the thyroid. Return to ...

444

Moyamoya Disease  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Moyamoya Disease Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Moyamoya Disease? Is there ... is being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Moyamoya Disease? Moyamoya disease is a rare, progressive cerebrovascular ...

445

Experimental determination of the distribution of tail states of hydrogenated amorphous silicon: A transient photocurrent analysis  

SciTech Connect

Recent experimental developments have cast doubt on the validity of the common assumption that the distribution of tail states of hydrogenated amorphous silicon exhibits a single exponential functional form. The authors employ transient photocurrent decay measurements to determine this distribution of tail states. In their approach, however, they determine the distribution of tail states directly from the experimental data, without assuming, a priori, a specific functional form. It is found that these experimental results are consistent with other more recent experimental determinations of the distribution of tail states, suggesting the possibility of deviations from a single exponential distribution of tail states in hydrogenated amorphous silicon.

Webb, D.P.; Chan, F.Y.M.; Zou, X.C.; Chan, Y.C.; Lam, Y.W.; Lin, S.H.; O'Leary, S.K.; Lim, P.K.

1997-07-01

446

Head-Tail Instability of a Super-bunch  

SciTech Connect

Super-bunch acceleration is a key concept in an induction synchrotron. In the induction synchrotron, super-bunches confined in the longitudinal direction by a pair of barrier voltages are accelerated with long induction step voltage pulses. Synchrotron oscillation of the super-bunch is notable, which consists of long drifting between the barriers and quick reflection in the barrier regions. This is apparently distinguished from that of the conventional RF bunch, which is the pendulum oscillation. This property has been supposed to bring about qualitatively different features in the head-tail instability of the super-bunch. Recently the head-tail instability of the super-bunch has been systematically examined. In this paper, the preliminary results of macro-particle simulations is reported.

Shimosaki, Yoshito; Toyama, Takeshi; Takayama, Ken [Accelerator Laboratory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

2005-06-08

447

Geochemical modeling of cyanide in tailing dam gold processing plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research is aimed at investigating possible neutralization of cyanide in tailing dam of Muteh gold processing plant in Isfahan, Iran at various conditions such as pH and temperature using USEPA Visual MINTEQ geochemical model simulation. The model is based on geochemical equilibrium which uses the simultaneous solution of the non-linear mass action expressions and linear mass balance relationships to formulate and solve the multiple-component chemical equilibrium problems. In this study the concentration of aqueous species in tailing dam as an aqueous, solid and gaseous were used as input in the model. Temperature and pH variation were simulated. The results of the model indicated that cyanide may be complexes in 10 < pH < 5. In other pH values complexation is not important. The results also indicated that cyanide reduction mechanism in acidic pH and temperature above 30°C is due to cyanide acid formation which is vaporized.

Khodadadi, Ahmad; Monjezi, M.; Mehrpouya, H.; Dehghani, H.

2009-09-01

448

The Urbach tail in silica glass from first principles  

SciTech Connect

We present density-functional theory calculations of the optical absorption spectra of silica glass for temperatures up to 2400K. The calculated spectra exhibit exponential tails near the fundamental absorption edge that follow the Urbach rule, in quantitative agreement with experiments. We discuss the accuracy of our results by comparing to hybrid exchange correlation functionals. We derive a simple relationship between the exponential tails of the absorption coefficient and the electronic density-of-states, and thereby establish a direct link between the photoemission and the absorption spectra near the absorption edge. We use this relationship to determine the lower bound to the Urbach frequency regime. We show that in this frequency interval, the optical absorption is Poisson distributed with very large statistical fluctuations. We determine the upper bound to the Urbach frequency regime by identifying the frequency at which transition to Poisson distribution takes place.

Sadigh, B; Erhart, P; Aberg, D; Trave, A; Schwegler, E; Bude, J

2010-06-15

449

Safe total intrafascial laparoscopic (TAIL) hysterectomy: a prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

This study directly compares total intrafascial laparoscopic (TAIL) hysterectomy with vaginal (VH) and abdominal (AH) hysterectomy with regard to safety, operating time and time of convalescence. The study is a prospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2), including data from patients of a single university-affiliated teaching institution, admitted between 1997 and 2008 for hysterectomy due to benign uterus pathology. Patient data were collected pre-, intra- and postoperatively and complications documented using a standardised data sheet of a Swiss obstetric and gynaecological study group (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Schweizerische Frauenkliniken, Amlikon/Switzerland). Classification of complications (major complications and minor complications) for all three operation techniques, evaluation of surgeons and comparison of operation times and days of hospitalisation were analysed. 3066 patients were included in this study. 993 patients underwent AH, 642 VH and 1,431 total intrafascial hysterectomy. No statistically significant difference for the operation times comparing the three groups can be demonstrated. The mean hospital stay in the TAIL hysterectomy, VH and AH groups is 5.8 +/- 2.4, 8.8 +/- 4.0 and 10.4 +/- 3.9 days, respectively. The postoperative minor complications including infection rates are low in the TAIL hysterectomy group (3.8%) when compared with either the AH group (15.3%) or the VH group (11.2%), respectively. The total of minor complications is statistically significant lower for TAIL hysterectomy as for AH (O.R. 4.52, CI 3.25-6.31) or VH (O.R. 3.16, CI 2.16-4.62). Major haemorrhage with consecutive reoperation is observed statistically significantly more frequent in the AH group when compared to the TAIL hysterectomy group, with an O.R. of 6.13 (CI 3.05-12.62). Overall, major intra- and postoperative complications occur significant more frequently in the AH group (8.6%) when compared to the VH group (3%) and the TAIL hysterectomy group (1.8%). The incidence of major complications applying the standardised TAIL hysterectomy technique is not related to the experience of the surgeons. We conclude that a standardised intrafascial technique of total laparoscopic (TAIL) hysterectomy using an anatomically developed special uterine device is associated with a very low incidence of minor and major intra- and postoperative complications. The direct comparison of complication rates with either vaginal or abdominal hysterectomy favours the total laparoscopic technique, and therefore, this technique can be recommended as a relatively atraumatic procedure. The operation times are comparable for all three techniques without any statistically significant differences. This technique for laparoscopic hysterectomy is shown to be equally safe when applied by experienced gynaecologic surgeons or by residents in training. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10397-010-0569-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20700518

Hohl, Michael K; Hauser, Nik

2010-09-01

450

Casein kinase 2 regulates vaccinia virus actin tail formation.  

PubMed

Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a pleiotropic serine/threonine kinase that regulates numerous cellular processes and is essential to the infectious cycle of several viruses. Here we investigated the potential role of CK2 in vaccinia virus (VACV) infection. We used the CK2 inhibitor TBB and found that CK2 inactivation impaired VACV dissemination and actin tail formation. We used RNAi and confirmed that CK2 depletion impaired VACV actin tail formation. Furthermore, we designed a recombinant virus that allowed us to specifically detect cell-associated enveloped viruses (CEVs) at the plasma membrane and demonstrated that CK2 inactivation does not affect CEV formation. Finally, we showed that CK2 depletion impaired the recruitment of Src to CEVs. We discuss the possibility that CK2 may stimulate the A36-dependent recruitment of Src through A36 phosphorylation. PMID:22209233

Alvarez, Diego E; Agaisse, Hervé

2012-02-20

451

Mechanical vibrations from tadpoles' flapping tails transform salamander's carnivorous morphology  

PubMed Central

Some prey or predator organisms exhibit striking rapid morphological plastic changes with distinct morphology under the condition of predator or prey presence. Remote chemicals propagating from the inducing agents are the prevalent induction cues for most examples of induction of distinct morphs. Sonic and visual cues, as well as chemical cues, are known as triggers for induction of behavioural plasticity. Here we show that hydraulic vibration originating from flapping tails of anuran tadpoles is a key cue in relation to induction of a distinct carnivorous morphology, a broad-headed morph, in larval salamander Hynobius retardatus, which is able to efficiently capture and handle prey. This result was further supported by the fact that simple mechanical vibrations of tail-like vinyl fins were able to induce the morph without any biological cues. Induction of the morph triggered by hydraulic vibration provides a novel concept for understanding the proximate mechanisms of induction of morphological changes. PMID:17148132

Michimae, Hirofumi; Nishimura, Kinya; Wakahara, Masami

2005-01-01

452

SHOCKING TAILS IN THE MAJOR MERGER ABELL 2744  

SciTech Connect

We identify four rare 'jellyfish' galaxies in Hubble Space Telescope imagery of the major merger cluster Abell 2744. These galaxies harbor trails of star-forming knots and filaments which have formed in situ in gas tails stripped from the parent galaxies, indicating they are in the process of being transformed by the environment. Further evidence for rapid transformation in these galaxies comes from their optical spectra, which reveal starburst, poststarburst, and active galactic nucleus features. Most intriguingly, three of the jellyfish galaxies lie near intracluster medium features associated with a merging 'Bullet-like' subcluster and its shock front detected in Chandra X-ray images. We suggest that the high-pressure merger environment may be responsible for the star formation in the gaseous tails. This provides observational evidence for the rapid transformation of galaxies during the violent core passage phase of a major cluster merger.

Owers, Matt S.; Couch, Warrick J. [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Nulsen, Paul E. J.; Randall, Scott W., E-mail: mowers@aao.gov.au [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2012-05-01

453

Cytoplasmic RNA: a case of the tail wagging the dog.  

PubMed

The addition of poly(A) tails to eukaryotic nuclear mRNAs promotes their stability, export to the cytoplasm and translation. Subsequently, the balance between exonucleolytic deadenylation and selective re-establishment of translation-competent poly(A) tails by cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerases is essential for the appropriate regulation of gene expression from oocytes to neurons. In recent years, surprising roles for cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerase-related enzymes that add uridylyl, rather than adenylyl, residues to RNA 3' ends have also emerged. These terminal uridylyl transferases promote the turnover of certain mRNAs but also modify microRNAs, their precursors and other small RNAs to modulate their stability or biological functions. PMID:23989958

Norbury, Chris J

2013-10-01

454

Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei in Columbian black-tailed deer from Oregon.  

PubMed

Documenting the occurrence of Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei has historically relied on the morphological examination of adult worms collected from the skeletal muscle of definitive hosts, including deer. Recent advances in the knowledge of protostrongylid genetic sequences now permit larvae to be identified. Dorsal-spined larvae (DSLs) collected in 2003-2004 from the lung and feces of six Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) from Oregon were characterized genetically. The sequences from unknown DSLs were compared to those from morphologically validated adults and larvae of P. odocoilei at both the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of ribosomal DNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II gene. We provide the first unequivocal identification of P. odocoilei in Columbian black-tailed deer from Oregon. The broader geographic distribution, prevalence, and pathology of P. odocoilei are not known in populations of Oregon deer. PMID:17092883

Mortenson, Jack A; Abrams, Arthur; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Dunams, Detiger; Hoberg, Eric P; Bildfell, Robert J; Green, Richard L

2006-07-01

455

A new trajectory concept for exploring the earth's geomagnetic tail  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An innovative trajectory technique for a magnetotail mapping mission is described which can control the apsidal rotation of an elliptical earth orbit and keep its apogee segment inside the tail region. The required apsidal rotation rate of approximately 1 deg/day is achieved by using the moon to carry out a prescribed sequence of gravity-assist maneuvers. Apogee distances are alternately raised and lowered by the lunar-swingby maneuvers; several categories of the 'sun-synchronous' swingby trajectories are identified. The strength and flexibility of the new trajectory concept is demonstrated by using real-world simulations showing that a large variety of trajectory shapes can be used to explore the earth's geomagnetic tail between 60 and 250 R sub E.

Farquhar, R. W.; Dunham, D. W.

1981-01-01

456

Shocking Tails in the Major Merger Abell 2744  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We identify four rare "jellyfish" galaxies in Hubble Space Telescope imagery of the major merger cluster Abell 2744. These galaxies harbor trails of star-forming knots and filaments which have formed in situ in gas tails stripped from the parent galaxies, indicating they are in the process of being transformed by the environment. Further evidence for rapid transformation in these galaxies comes from their optical spectra, which reveal starburst, poststarburst, and active galactic nucleus features. Most intriguingly, three of the jellyfish galaxies lie near intracluster medium features associated with a merging "Bullet-like" subcluster and its shock front detected in Chandra X-ray images. We suggest that the high-pressure merger environment may be responsible for the star formation in the gaseous tails. This provides observational evidence for the rapid transformation of galaxies during the violent core passage phase of a major cluster merger.

Owers, Matt S.; Couch, Warrick J.; Nulsen, Paul E. J.; Randall, Scott W.

2012-05-01

457

Power-law tailed statistical distributions and Lorentz transformations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present Letter, deals with the statistical theory [G. Kaniadakis, Phys. Rev. E 66 (2002) 056125; G. Kaniadakis, Phys. Rev. E 72 (2005) 036108], which predicts the probability distribution p(E)?exp?(-I), where, I??E-??, is the collision invariant, and exp?(x)=(x+?x)1/?, with ?<1. This, experimentally observed distribution, at low energies behaves as the Maxwell-Boltzmann exponential distribution, while at high energies presents power law tails. Here we show that the function exp?(x) and its inverse ln?(x), can be obtained within the one-particle relativistic dynamics, in a very simple and transparent way, without invoking any extra principle or assumption, starting directly from the Lorentz transformations. The achievements support the idea that the power law tailed distributions are enforced by the Lorentz relativistic microscopic dynamics, like in the case of the exponential distribution which follows from the Newton classical microscopic dynamics.

Kaniadakis, G.

2011-01-01

458

Human Sperm Tail Proteome Suggests New Endogenous Metabolic Pathways*  

PubMed Central

Proteomic studies are contributing greatly to our understanding of the sperm cell, and more detailed descriptions are expected to clarify additional cellular and molecular sperm attributes. The aim of this study was to characterize the subcellular proteome of the human sperm tail and, hopefully, identify less concentrated proteins (not found in whole cell proteome studies). Specifically, we were interested in characterizing the sperm metabolic proteome and gaining new insights into the sperm metabolism issue. Sperm were isolated from normozoospermic semen samples and depleted of any contaminating leukocytes. Tail fractions were obtained by means of sonication followed by sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation, and their purity was confirmed via various techniques. Liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry of isolated sperm tail peptides resulted in the identification of 1049 proteins, more than half of which had not been previously described in human sperm. The categorization of proteins according to their function revealed two main groups: proteins related to metabolism and energy production (26%), and proteins related to sperm tail structure and motility (11%). Interestingly, a great proportion of the metabolic proteome (24%) comprised enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, including enzymes for mitochondrial beta-oxidation. Unexpectedly, we also identified various peroxisomal proteins, some of which are known to be involved in the oxidation of very long chain fatty acids. Analysis of our data using Reactome suggests that both mitochondrial and peroxisomal pathways might indeed be active in sperm, and that the use of fatty acids as fuel might be more preponderant than previously thought. In addition, incubation of sperm with the fatty acid oxidation inhibitor etomoxir resulted in a significant decrease in sperm motility. Contradicting a common concept in the literature, we suggest that the male gamete might have the capacity to obtain energy from endogenous pools, and thus to adapt to putative exogenous fluctuations. PMID:23161514

Amaral, Alexandra; Castillo, Judit; Estanyol, Josep Maria; Ballescà, José Luís; Ramalho-Santos, João; Oliva, Rafael

2013-01-01

459

head : Translate.Access tail : Translate.AccessList  

E-print Network

Exp() RecordExp() SEQ() SeqExp() SimpleVar() StrOpExp() StringExp() SubscriptVar() TEMP() TypeDec() Var : Temp.La... LABEL() build() kids() NAME label : Temp.La... NAME() build() kids() Print tmap : Temp.Temp() kids() Stm Stm() build() kids() +left +right StmList StmList()+head +tail TEMP temp : Temp.T... TEMP

Baumgartner, Gerald

460

18. Tail race of the Hayden Ditch, looking east toward ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. Tail race of the Hayden Ditch, looking east toward the Tempe Bridge and Hayden's Butte, the site of Charles Hayden's vision of the Tempe Canal. This ditch, which formerly supplied the San Francisco Canal, has been out of service since the 1950s. Photographer: Mark Durben, June 1989. Source: SRPA - Tempe Canal, South Side Salt River in Tempe, Mesa & Phoenix, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

461

SELENIUM STATUS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN SOUTHERN FLORIDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of serum, liver, kidney, and heart were collected for selenium analysis from 174 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus mrginianus) in southern Florida (USA), 1984 to 1988, to de- termine the selenium status of these animals. Deer were obtained from eight sites and classified by five age-class groups. For serum and the three tissues analyzed, selenium concentrations varied significantly (P < 0.001)

Lee R. McDowell; Donald J. Forrester; Stephen B. Linda; Scott D. Wright; Nancy S. Wilkinson

462

The Shark with the Tall Tail: Thresher Sharks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video features the Thresher shark, which may very well be the strangest looking shark in the world, with a tail almost as long as its body. This shark is very rare, almost never seen by divers...until now. Using advanced diving technology, Jonathan visits a remote reef in the Philippines where Thresher sharks show up every morning to be cleaned by small fish. Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

Productions, Jonathan B.

2007-03-01

463

The anaemia of flexed-tailed mice ( Mus musculus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The anaemia of flexed-tailed mice is of a normocytic hypochromic type, that is, the mean cell size is normal, but the mean\\u000a corpuscular haemoglobin concentration is reduced. The pathological process is confined to the embryonic mode of haemopoiesis;\\u000a this persists during the first 2 weeks after birth in the anaemics, but has ceased at the beginning of the 3rd week.

Hans Grüneberg

1942-01-01

464

Energy Flux Incoming To Magnetosphere Through An Open Tail Magnetopause  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A problem of the energy transfer from solar wind to magnetosphere, being under study many years, is still far from completion. One can show that formulas proposed pre- viously to describe Poynting flux incoming through an open tail magnetopause were obtained with the strong simplifications that may result in the incorrect physical con- sequences. These formulas are used up to the present for treatment of the magneto- spheric energetics that may lead to misinterpretation of a substorm dynamics. There- fore, now is a time to revise the energy transfer problem on the base of modern knowl- edge. Here, a new model for the quantitative estimation of electromagnetic and kinetic energy fluxes into an open magnetosphere is offered based on the present-day view of a tail structure. It takes into account a nonlinear dependence of the lobe magnetic field on tailward distance, a flaring of the nightside magnetosphere, and the effects both of the southward IMF a