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1

Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus infection in M. rosenbergii (de Man) with white tail disease cultured in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

White tail disease (WTD) is a serious problem in Macrobrachium rosenbergii hatcheries and nursery ponds in Asia. The causative agents have been identified as M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and its associated extra small virus. This is the first re- port demonstrating MrNV virus in M. rosenbergii displaying WTD signs in Taiwan by reverse tran- scriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Amplified fragments

C S Wang; J S Chang; C M Wen; H H Shih; S N Chen

2008-01-01

2

White Tail Disease of Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Macrobrachium rosenbergii is the most important cultured freshwater prawn in the world and it is now farmed on a large scale in many countries. Generally, freshwater prawn is considered to be tolerant to diseases but a disease of viral origin is responsible for severe mortalities in larval, post-larval and juvenile stages of prawn. This viral infection namely white tail disease (WTD) was reported in the island of Guadeloupe in 1995 and later in Martinique (FrenchWest Indies) in Taiwan, the People's Republic of China, India, Thailand, Australia and Malaysia. Two viruses, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus-like particle (XSV) have been identified as causative agents of WTD. MrNV is a small icosahedral non-enveloped particle, 26-27 nm in diameter, identified in the cytoplasm of connective cells. XSV is also an icosahedral virus and 15 nm in diameter. Clinical signs observed in the infected animals include lethargy, opaqueness of the abdominal muscle, degeneration of the telson and uropods, and up to 100 % within 4 days. The available diagnostic methods to detect WTD include RT-PCR, dot-blot hybridization, in situ hybridization and ELISA. In experimental infection, these viruses caused 100 % mortality in post-larvae but failed to cause mortality in adult prawns. The reported hosts for these viruses include marine shrimp, Artemia and aquatic insects. Experiments were carried out to determine the possibility of vertical transmission of MrNV and XSV in M. rosenbergii. The results indicate that WTD may be transferred from infected brooders to their offspring during spawning. Replication of MrNV and XSV was investigated in apparently healthy C6/36 Aedes albopictus and SSN-1 cell lines. The results revealed that C6/36 and SSN-1cells were susceptible to these viruses. No work has been carried out on control and prevention of WTD and dsRNA against protein B2 produced RNAi that was able to functionally prevent and reduce mortality in WTD-infected redclaw crayfish. PMID:23997437

Sahul Hameed, A S; Bonami, Jean-Robert

2012-08-15

3

Goats are a potential reservoir for the herpesvirus (MCFV-WTD), causing malignant catarrhal fever in deer.  

PubMed

In the recent investigation of malignant catarrhal fever in a red brocket deer (Mazama americana) from a Texas zoo, the viral DNA from the herpesvirus termed MCFV-WTD, which causes disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), was detected. The epidemiology information revealed that the red brocket deer had been associated with a herd of pygmy goats (Capra hircus) at the zoo. MCFV-WTD DNA was also detected in one of these 12 goats that were malignant catarrhal fever viral antibody positive. The amplified herpesviral sequences from the affected deer and the MCFV-WTD-positive goat were identical, and matched the sequence in GenBank. Three of 123 DNA samples from various breeds of goats from different geographic locations in the United States were positive for MCFV-WTD DNA. The study shows that MCFV-WTD is capable of causing malignant catarrhal fever in other species of deer besides white-tailed deer and suggests that goats are a potential reservoir for the virus. PMID:23805572

Li, Hong; Cunha, Cristina W; Abbitt, Bruce; deMaar, Thomas W; Lenz, Stephen D; Hayes, Jeffrey R; Taus, Naomi S

2013-06-01

4

A Nonluminescent and Highly Virulent Vibrio harveyi Strain Is Associated with "Bacterial White Tail Disease" of Litopenaeus vannamei Shrimp  

PubMed Central

Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by “white tail” and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905) was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN), white tail disease (WTD) or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD). To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of “white tail” but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as “bacterial white tail disease (BWTD)”. Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system.

Zhou, Junfang; Fang, Wenhong; Yang, Xianle; Zhou, Shuai; Hu, Linlin; Li, Xincang; Qi, Xinyong; Su, Hang; Xie, Layue

2012-01-01

5

A nonluminescent and highly virulent Vibrio harveyi strain is associated with "bacterial white tail disease" of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp.  

PubMed

Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by "white tail" and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905) was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN), white tail disease (WTD) or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD). To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of "white tail" but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as "bacterial white tail disease (BWTD)". Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system. PMID:22383954

Zhou, Junfang; Fang, Wenhong; Yang, Xianle; Zhou, Shuai; Hu, Linlin; Li, Xincang; Qi, Xinyong; Su, Hang; Xie, Layue

2012-02-27

6

Initial sequencing and tissue distribution of Toll-like receptor 3 mRNA in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 recognizes double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and activates a signal transduction pathway that results in the release of a variety of chemokines and cytokines and apoptotic activity. Variability in TLR3 expression may play an important role in disease susceptibility of white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) to bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses, which are dsRNA viruses. Because little is known about TLR3 in WTD, our objective was to sequence WTD TLR3 mRNA and to determine baseline levels of tissue expression. A 209-base pair sequence of TLR3 mRNA was obtained from WTD peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Dot blots confirmed that the sequence obtained was part of total WTD mRNA. Variable expression or ligand binding of TLR3 may contribute to observed susceptibility differences between populations of WTD, so the level of TLR3 in small intestine, skin, spleen, heart, cecum, rumen, lymph node, lung, kidney, and liver from WTD fawns (n=2) was analyzed using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Tissue expression of TLR3 mRNA relative to the housekeeping gene beta-actin was highest in spleen, heart, skin, and lung. PMID:19617489

Vos, Seychelle M; Yabsley, Michael J; Howerth, Elizabeth W

2009-07-01

7

Experimental Infection of White-Tailed Deer with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Etiologic Agent of Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serologic and molecular evidence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum has been demonstrated in white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus), and deer are an important host for the tick vector Ixodes scapularis. In this study, we describe experimental infection of WTD with A. phagocytophilum. We inoculated four WTD with a human isolate of A. phagocytophilum propagated in tick cells. Two additional deer served as

Cynthia M. Tate; Daniel G. Mead; M. Page Luttrell; Elizabeth W. Howerth; Vivien G. Dugan; Ulrike G. Munderloh; William R. Davidson

2005-01-01

8

Vector competence of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is a vector of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) serotypes 1 and 2 in North America, where these viruses are well-known pathogens of white-tailed deer (WTD) and other wild ruminants. Although historically rare, reports of clinica...

9

Experimental infection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Northern European bluetongue virus serotype 8.  

PubMed

Bluetongue (BT) is an insect-transmitted, economically important disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Although only five of the 26 reported bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes are considered endemic to the USA, 10 exotic serotypes have been isolated primarily in the southeastern region of the country since 1999. For an exotic BTV serotype to become endemic there must be susceptible animal species and competent vectors. In the USA, sheep and white-tailed deer (WTD) are the primary sentinel livestock and wildlife species, respectively. In 2006, BTV-8 was introduced into Northern Europe and subsequently overwintered, causing unprecedented livestock disease and mortality during the 2006-2007 vector seasons. To assess the risk of the European strain of BTV-8 to North American WTD, and understand the role they could play after a similar introduction, eight bluetongue-seronegative WTD were inoculated with BTV-8. Body temperatures and clinical signs were recorded daily. Blood samples were analyzed for BTV RNA with quantitative real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), serum analyzed for BTV antibodies by cELISA, and tissues taken for histopathology and qRT-PCR. All eight deer became infected and developed moderate to severe clinical disease from days 8 to 15. Peak viremia was from day 7 to 10 with detectable titers through the end of the study (28 days) in most deer. Serum antibody was detected by day 6, peaked by day 10 and continued through day 28. We conclude that North American WTD are highly susceptible to BTV-8 and would act as clinical disease sentinels and amplifying hosts during an outbreak. PMID:23876932

Drolet, Barbara S; Reister, Lindsey M; Rigg, Tara D; Nol, Pauline; Podell, Brendan K; Mecham, James O; VerCauteren, Kurt C; van Rijn, Piet A; Wilson, William C; Bowen, Richard A

2013-06-19

10

Targeting ADAM12 in human disease: head, body or tail?  

PubMed

ADAM12/meltrin alpha is a type I transmembrane multidomain protein involved in tumor progression and other severe diseases, including osteoarthritis, and as such could be considered as a potential drug target. In addition to protease activity, ADAM12 possesses cell binding and cell signaling properties. This functional trinity is reflected in the structure of ADAM12, which can be divided into head, body, and tail. The head of the protein (consisting of the pro and catalytic domains) mediates processing of growth factors and cytokines and has been implicated in epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling. The body of the protein (consisting of the disintegrin, cysteine-rich, and EGF-like domains) is involved in contacts with the extracellular matrix and other cells through interactions with integrins and syndecans. Finally, the tail of the protein (consisting of the cytoplasmic domain) is engaged in interactions with intracellular signaling molecules. In many studies, ADAM12 overexpression has been correlated with disease, and ADAM12 has been shown to promote tumor growth and progression in cancer. On the other hand, protective effects of ADAM12 in disease have also been reported. Future investigations should address the precise mechanisms of ADAM12 in disease and biology in order to counterbalance the benefits from targeting ADAM12 therapeutically with possible side effects. This review describes the biology of ADAM12, its association with disease, and evaluates the possible approaches to targeting ADAM12 in human disease. PMID:19601832

Jacobsen, J; Wewer, U M

2009-01-01

11

Experimental adenovirus hemorrhagic disease in yearling black-tailed deer.  

PubMed

An apparently novel adenovirus was associated with an epizootic of hemorrhagic disease that is believed to have killed thousands of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in California (USA) during 1993-1994. A systemic vasculitis with pulmonary edema and hemorrhagic enteropathy or a localized vasculitis associated with necrotizing stomatitis/pharyngitis/glossitis or osteomyelitis of the jaw were common necropsy findings in animals that died during this epizootic. Six black-tailed yearling deer (O. hemionus columbianus) were inoculated with purified adenovirus isolated from a black-tailed fawn that died of acute adenovirus hemorrhagic disease during the epizootic. Three of six inoculated deer also received intramuscular injections of dexamethasone sodium phosphate every 3 days during the study. Eight days post-inoculation, one deer (without dexamethasone) developed bloody diarrhea and died. Necropsy and histopathologic findings were identical to lesions in free-ranging animals that died of the natural disease. Hemorrhagic enteropathy and pulmonary edema were the significant necropsy findings and there was microscopic vascular damage and endothelial intranuclear inclusion bodies in the vessels of the intestines and lungs. Adenovirus was identified in necrotic endothelial cells in the lungs by fluorescent antibody staining, immunohistochemistry and by transmission electron microscopy. Adenovirus was reisolated from tissues of the animal that died of experimental adenovirus hemorrhagic disease. Similar gross and microscopic lesions were absent in four of six adenovirus-inoculated deer and in the negative control animal which were necropsied at variable intervals during the 14 wk study. One deer was inoculated with purified adenovirus a second time, 12 wk after the first inoculation. Fifteen days after the second inoculation, this deer developed severe ulceration of the tongue, pharynx and rumen and necrotizing osteomyelitis of the mandible which was associated with vasculitis and thrombosis of adjacent large vessels and endothelial intranuclear inclusions. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated adenovirus within the nuclei of vascular cells and immunohistochemistry demonstrated adenovirus antigen within tonsilar epithelium and in rare vessels. PMID:9391965

Woods, L W; Hanley, R S; Chiu, P H; Burd, M; Nordhausen, R W; Stillian, M H; Swift, P K

1997-10-01

12

Interim report on the feasibility study of acoustic leak location for WTD steam generators. [LMFBR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This interim report summarizes the current status of a feasibility study of an acoustic leak location system for two Westinghouse-Tampa Division (WTD) double-wall steam generators. The primary WTD design requirement is that a leak of helium gas into sodium be located to within a cluster of seven tubes at hot standby conditions. The report documents the results of an extensive

D. A. Greene; K. A. McMurtrie

1979-01-01

13

A Post-Mortem Disease Survey of White-Tailed Deer on Edgewood Arsenal, Maryland.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thirty-seven white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) killed by hunters on Edgewood Arsenal, Maryland were examined for spontaneous diseases. Gross necropsy and histologic examinations revealed cysticercosis, gongylonemiasis, setariasis, sarcosporidiosi...

P. F. Ward J. F. Ferrell D. F. Ford R. D. Chadwick

1968-01-01

14

PERSISTENT EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS INFECTION IN WHITE-TAILED DEER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were inoculated intravenously with a deer-origin isolate (15B-WTD-GA) of Ehrlichia chaffeensis. The course of infection was mon- itored using indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and culture over a9m period. All deer became rickettsemic within 24 days post inoculation (DPI), and all developed antibody titers .1:64 to E. chaffeensis by 17 DPI. Titers

William R. Davidson; J. Mitchell Lockhart; David E. Stallknecht; Elizabeth W. Howerth; Jacqueline E. Dawson; Yigal Rechav

15

Occurrence, Isolation, and Genetic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New Jersey.  

PubMed

Abstract :? The ingestion of uncooked infected white-tailed deer (WTD) tissues can transmit Toxoplasma gondii infection to humans and mesocarnivores, including cats. In the present study, we tested 264 WTD from New Jersey for T. gondii infection during the 2011-2012 hunting season. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (cutoff titer, 25); 76 (28.7%) of 264 WTD were seropositive. Heart muscle samples from 64 seropositive WTD were digested in pepsin, and the digests were bioassayed for the isolation of T. gondii . Viable T. gondii was isolated in mice from the myocardium of 9 WTD; tachyzoites from infected mouse tissues were further propagated in cell culture. One of the 9 strains was highly virulent for outbred Swiss Webster mice. The DNA isolated from culture-derived tachyzoites of these 9 T. gondii isolates was characterized using 11 PCR-RFLP markers (SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico). Six genotypes were found, including ToxoDB genotype no. 2 (Type III), no. 3 (Type II variant), no. 4 (Type 12), no. 216, no. 220, and no. 221. The last 2 were new genotypes that were reported for the first time. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in deer from this region of the United States. PMID:23574007

Dubey, J P; Randall, A R; Choudhary, S; Ferreira, L R; Verma, S K; Oliveira, S; Kwok, O C H; Su, C

2013-04-10

16

EXPERIMENTAL ADENOVIRUS HEMORRHAGIC DISEASE IN YEARLING BLACK-TAILED DEER  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparently novel adenovirus was associated with an epizootic of hemorrhagic disease that is believed to have killed thousands of mule deer (Odocoileus heinionus) in California (USA) during 1993-1994. A systemic vasculitis with pulmonary edema and hemorrhagic enter- opathy or a localized vasculitis associated with necrotizing stomatitis\\/pharyngitis\\/glossitis or osteo- myelitis of the jaw were common necropsy findings in animals that

Leslie W. Woods; Richard S. Manley; Philip H. W. Chiu; Matthew Burd; Robert W. Nordhausen; Michelle H. Stillian; Pamela K. Swift

17

Anaplasma odocoilei sp. nov. (family Anaplasmataceae) from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Recently, an undescribed Anaplasma sp. (also called Ehrlichia-like sp. or WTD agent) was isolated in ISE6 tick cells from captive white-tailed deer. The goal of the current study was to characterize this organism using a combination of experimental infection, morphologic, serologic, and molecular studies. Each of 6 experimentally inoculated white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) became chronically infected (100+ days) with the Anaplasma sp. by inoculation of either infected whole blood or culture. None of the deer showed evidence of clinical disease, but 3 of the 6 deer evaluated had multiple episodes of transient thrombocytopenia. Light microscopy of Giemsa-stained, thin blood smears revealed tiny, dark, spherical structures in platelets of acutely infected deer. Anaplasma sp. was detected in platelets of inoculated deer by polymerase chain reaction, transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization. Five of 6 deer developed antibodies reactive to Anaplasma sp. antigen, as detected by indirect fluorescent antibody testing. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, groESL, and gltA sequences confirmed the Anaplasma sp. is related to A. platys. Two attempts to transmit the Anaplasma sp. between deer by feeding Amblyomma americanum, a suspected tick vector, were unsuccessful. Based on its biologic, antigenic, and genetic characteristics, this organism is considered a novel species of Anaplasma, and the name Anaplasma odocoilei sp. nov. is proposed with UMUM76(T) (=CSUR-A1) as the type strain. PMID:23276749

Tate, Cynthia M; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Mead, Daniel G; Dugan, Vivien G; Luttrell, M Page; Sahora, Alexandra I; Munderloh, Ulrike G; Davidson, William R; Yabsley, Michael J

2012-12-29

18

A universal carrier test for the long tail of Mendelian disease.  

PubMed

Mendelian disorders are individually rare but collectively common, forming a 'long tail' of genetic disease. A single highly accurate assay for this long tail would allow the scaling up of the Jewish community's successful campaign of population screening for Tay-Sachs disease to the general population, thereby improving millions of lives, greatly benefiting minority health and saving billions of dollars. This need has been addressed by designing a universal carrier test: a non-invasive, saliva-based assay for more than 100 Mendelian diseases across all major population groups. The test has been exhaustively validated with a median of 147 positive and 525 negative samples per variant, demonstrating a multiplex assay whose performance compares favourably with the previous standard of care, namely blood-based single-gene carrier tests. Because the test represents a dramatic reduction in the cost and complexity of large-scale population screening, an end to many preventable genetic diseases is now in sight. Moreover, given that the assay is inexpensive and requires only a saliva sample, it is now increasingly feasible to make carrier testing a routine part of preconception care. PMID:20729146

Srinivasan, Balaji S; Evans, Eric A; Flannick, Jason; Patterson, A Scott; Chang, Christopher C; Pham, Tuan; Young, Sharon; Kaushal, Amit; Lee, James; Jacobson, Jessica L; Patrizio, Pasquale

2010-08-21

19

Molecular characterization of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) spp. infecting cattle (Bos taurus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) in the United States.  

PubMed

In the United States, the generally non-pathogenic trypanosome of cattle is designated Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) theileri and is distinguished morphologically from Trypanosoma (M.) cervi, a trypanosome originally described in mule deer and elk. Phylogenetic studies of the Megatrypanum trypanosomes using various molecular markers reveal two lineages, designated TthI and TthII, with several genotypes within each. However, to date there is very limited genetic data for T. theileri, and none for the Megatrypanum trypanosomes found in wild ungulates, in the U.S. In this study U.S. isolates from cattle (Bos taurus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) (WTD), and elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) were compared by ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence analysis and their incidence in cattle and WTD in south Texas counties was investigated. Phylogenetic analyses showed clear separation of the bovine and cervine trypanosomes. Both lineages I and II were represented in the U.S. cattle and WTD parasites. Lineage I cattle isolates were of a previously described genotype, whereas WTD and elk isolates were of two new genotypes distinct from the cattle trypanosomes. The cattle isolate of lineage II was of a previously reported genotype and was divergent from the WTD isolate, which was of a new genotype. In La Salle, Starr, Webb, and Zapata counties in south Texas a total of 51.8% of white-tailed deer were positive for trypanosomes by 18S rDNA PCR. Of the cattle screened in Webb County, 35.4% were positive. Drought conditions prevailing in south Texas when the animals were screened suggest the possibility of a vector for Trypanosoma other than the ked (Lipoptena mazamae) and tabanid flies (Tabanus spp. and Haematopota spp.). PMID:23683651

Fisher, Amanda C; Schuster, Greta; Cobb, W Jacob; James, Andrea M; Cooper, Susan M; Peréz de León, Adalberto A; Holman, Patricia J

2013-04-26

20

An outbreak of a hemorrhagic disease in white-tailed deer in Kentucky.  

PubMed

In 1971, an outbreak of a hemorrhagic disease occurred in captive and free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky, Clinical signs and gross pathological lesions were consistent with those of epizootic hemorrhagic disease and bluetongue, as were serological and histopathological findings for samples sent to other laboratories. The infection rate among the 104 captive deer was 88-92%, and that among the free-ranging Park deer appeared to be similar. Mortality was negligible in the Park deer, but 65 (62%) of the captive deer died. The deaths were bimodally distributed over a 36-day period, and the mortality rate decreased from 97-100% for deer clinically ill during the first 17 days of the outbreak to 58% for deer first exhibiting clinical signs on day 16 or later. Mortality was equal in males and females, but less in yearlings than among fawns or adults. Winter mortality among survivors of the initial outbreak was associated with low ambient temperatures and sometimes fungal and bacterial abscesses, possibly sequelae or complications of the hemorrhagic disease. The pregnancy and birth rates among surviving does appeared to be normal. PMID:167205

Roughton, R D

1975-04-01

21

Distribution of Antibodies Reactive to Borrelia lonestari and Borrelia burgdorferi in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Populations in the Eastern United States  

PubMed Central

Abstract Southern tick-associated rash illness is a Lyme-like syndrome that occurs in the southern states. Borrelia lonestari, which has been suggested as a possible causative agent of southern tick-associated rash illness, naturally infects white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) and is transmitted by the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum). To better understand the prevalence and distribution of Borrelia exposure among WTD, we tested WTD from 21 eastern states for antibodies reactive to B. lonestari using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay and Borrelia burgdorferi using the IDEXX SNAP® 4Dx® test. A total of 107/714 (15%) had antibodies reactive to B. lonestari, and prevalence of antibodies was higher in deer from southern states (17.5%) than in deer from northern states (9.2%). Using the SNAP 4DX test, we found that 73/723 (10%) were positive for B. burgdorferi, and significantly more northern deer (23.9%) were positive compared with southern deer (3.8%). Our data demonstrate that WTD are exposed to both Borrelia species, but antibody prevalence for exposure to the two species differs regionally and distributions correlate with the presence of Ixodes scapularis and A. americanum ticks.

Murdock, Jessica H.; Little, Susan E.; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; O'Connor, Thomas P.; Caudell, Joe N.; Huffman, Jane E.; Langenberg, Julia A.; Hollamby, Simon

2009-01-01

22

Demodectic Mange, Dermatophilosis, and other parasitic and bacterial dermatologic diseases in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the United States from 1975-2012  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is a common and widespread North American game species. To evaluate the incidence, clinical manifestations, demography, and pathology of bacterial and parasitic dermatologic diseases in white-tailed deer in the southeastern United States, we retrospecti...

23

Host culling as an adaptive management tool for chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer: a modelling study  

PubMed Central

Emerging wildlife diseases pose a significant threat to natural and human systems. Because of real or perceived risks of delayed actions, disease management strategies such as culling are often implemented before thorough scientific knowledge of disease dynamics is available. Adaptive management is a valuable approach in addressing the uncertainty and complexity associated with wildlife disease problems and can be facilitated by using a formal model. We developed a multi-state computer simulation model using age, sex, infection-stage, and seasonality as a tool for scientific learning and managing chronic wasting disease (CWD) in white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus. Our matrix model used disease transmission parameters based on data collected through disease management activities. We used this model to evaluate management issues on density- (DD) and frequency-dependent (FD) transmission, time since disease introduction, and deer culling on the demographics, epizootiology, and management of CWD. Both DD and FD models fit the Wisconsin data for a harvested white-tailed deer population, but FD was slightly better. Time since disease introduction was estimated as 36 (95% CI, 24–50) and 188 (41–>200) years for DD and FD transmission, respectively. Deer harvest using intermediate to high non-selective rates can be used to reduce uncertainty between DD and FD transmission and improve our prediction of long-term epidemic patterns and host population impacts. A higher harvest rate allows earlier detection of these differences, but substantially reduces deer abundance. Results showed that CWD has spread slowly within Wisconsin deer populations, and therefore, epidemics and disease management are expected to last for decades. Non-hunted deer populations can develop and sustain a high level of infection, generating a substantial risk of disease spread. In contrast, CWD prevalence remains lower in hunted deer populations, but at a higher prevalence the disease competes with recreational hunting to reduce deer abundance. Synthesis and applications. Uncertainty about density- or frequency-dependent transmission hinders predictions about the long-term impacts of chronic wasting disease on cervid populations and the development of appropriate management strategies. An adaptive management strategy using computer modelling coupled with experimental management and monitoring can be used to test model predictions, identify the likely mode of disease transmission, and evaluate the risks of alternative management responses.

Wasserberg, Gideon; Osnas, Erik E; Rolley, Robert E; Samuel, Michael D

2009-01-01

24

Molecular genealogy tools for white-tailed deer with chronic wasting disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease of deer, elk, and moose. CWD is a fatal neurologic disease with a long preclinical incubation period, during which the disease is probably transmitted to healthy animals through direct exposure or environ...

25

Community-based prevention of Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases through topical application of acaricide to white-tailed deer: background and rationale.  

PubMed

This series of articles describes the first large-scale experiment designed to explore the efficacy of reducing the risk of tick-borne disease in highly endemic communities of the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic United States through deployment of a self-application device that treats white-tailed deer with acaricide to prevent feeding by adult Ixodes scapularis ticks and all stages of Amblyomma americanum ticks where both species occur. The results of the multicenter study are reported in the accompanying articles in this issue. This article describes the background and rationale for this experiment by reviewing relevant literature on current tick-borne disease epidemics and previous efforts to reduce the public health burden of Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases. PMID:19650729

Fish, Durland; Childs, James E

2009-08-01

26

MYH9 related disease: four novel mutations of the tail domain of myosin-9 correlating with a mild clinical phenotype.  

PubMed

MYH9-related disease (MYH9-RD) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in MYH9, the gene encoding the heavy chain of non-muscle myosin IIA. All patients present congenital macrothrombocytopenia and inclusion bodies in neutrophils. Some of them can also develop sensorineural deafness, presenile cataract, and/or progressive nephropathy leading to end-stage renal failure. We report four families, each with a novel mutation: two missense mutations, in exons 31 and 32, and two out of frame deletions in exon 40. They were associated with no bleeding diathesis, normal, or only slightly reduced platelet count and no extra-hematological manifestations, confirming that alterations of the tail domain cause a mild form of MYH9-RD with no clinically relevant defects. PMID:20002731

Pecci, Alessandro; Panza, Emanuele; De Rocco, Daniela; Pujol-Moix, Nuria; Girotto, Giorgia; Podda, Luigi; Paparo, Carmelo; Bozzi, Valeria; Pastore, Annalisa; Balduini, Carlo L; Seri, Marco; Savoia, Anna

2009-12-11

27

Intranasal Inoculation of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Lyophilized Chronic Wasting Disease Prion Particulate Complexed to Montmorillonite Clay  

PubMed Central

Chronic wasting disease (CWD), the only known prion disease endemic in wildlife, is a persistent problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations. This disease continues to spread and cases are found in new areas each year. Indirect transmission can occur via the environment and is thought to occur by the oral and/or intranasal route. Oral transmission has been experimentally demonstrated and although intranasal transmission has been postulated, it has not been tested in a natural host until recently. Prions have been shown to adsorb strongly to clay particles and upon oral inoculation the prion/clay combination exhibits increased infectivity in rodent models. Deer and elk undoubtedly and chronically inhale dust particles routinely while living in the landscape while foraging and rutting. We therefore hypothesized that dust represents a viable vehicle for intranasal CWD prion exposure. To test this hypothesis, CWD-positive brain homogenate was mixed with montmorillonite clay (Mte), lyophilized, pulverized and inoculated intranasally into white-tailed deer once a week for 6 weeks. Deer were euthanized at 95, 105, 120 and 175 days post final inoculation and tissues examined for CWD-associated prion proteins by immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that CWD can be efficiently transmitted utilizing Mte particles as a prion carrier and intranasal exposure.

Nichols, Tracy A.; Spraker, Terry R.; Rigg, Tara D.; Meyerett-Reid, Crystal; Hoover, Clare; Michel, Brady; Bian, Jifeng; Hoover, Edward; Gidlewski, Thomas; Balachandran, Aru; O'Rourke, Katherine; Telling, Glenn C.; Bowen, Richard

2013-01-01

28

Tail toy  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A toy having a tail attached to a flap which is tucked into clothing worn by a child at the rear so the tail appears to be part of the child. The flap is thin and has a large surface area for frictional engagement with the clothing. Both the flap and tail are soft and flexible, and the flap can detach from the clothing when the tail is pulled. In one embodiment, the flap can detach from the tail when pulled with a predetermined amount of force. Self expression, independence, knowledge and empathy for wildlife are promoted in the child by the toy. The flap can also house a story or picture relating to the animal represented by the tail, further interesting and enlightening the child.

Steiger; Vivian E. Y. (Manhattan Beach, CA)

1995-05-23

29

Characterization and detection of BVDV related reproductive disease in white tail deer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are the causative agent of reproductive and respiratory disease in cattle resulting in significant economic loss to the beef and dairy industries. The primary consequences of reproductive infection are due to the direct infection of the fetus and th...

30

Technical Basis for Radiological Emergency Plan Annex for WTD Emergency Response Plan: West Point Treatment Plant  

SciTech Connect

Staff of the King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into the combined sanitary and storm sewer system in King County, Washington. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) 2001). Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. This document, Volume 3 of PNNL-15163 is the technical basis for the Annex to the West Point Treatment Plant (WPTP) Emergency Response Plan related to responding to a radiological emergency at the WPTP. The plan primarily considers response to radioactive material that has been introduced in the other combined sanitary and storm sewer system from a radiological dispersion device, but is applicable to any accidental or deliberate introduction of materials into the system.

Hickey, Eva E.; Strom, Daniel J.

2005-08-01

31

Animal Tails  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Call it tail envy. With only a vestigial nub to show for ourselves, perhaps it's no wonder that animal tails capture our attention. The following Web sites present some of the more interesting tails to be found in the animal kingdom. The first Web site contains a recent article from Discovery News describing new findings that at least one species of scorpion produces two distinct types of tail venom, which have completely different effects on their victims (1). The next site from Singapore Zoological Gardens introduces the cebids (our New World monkey cousins), some of which have amazing prehensile tails that are used like a fifth limb (2). The rattlesnake is another famously-tailed creature, highlighted in the following site from the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum (3). The site covers the main aspects of rattlesnake natural history, including a section on how the rattle forms. The Great Plains Nature Center in Wichita, Kansas, offers a Web page devoted to the beaver, including tail trivia and an audio clip of a resident beaver surprised in his den at the Kansas Wildlife Exhibit (4). Anyone who has witnessed the freakishly fascinating spectacle of a gecko leaving its tail behind to distract a would-be predator will appreciate this brief bio of the Tokay gecko, presented by ReptileCenter.com, the Herpetologist's Portal (5). Stacy's Wag'N'Train -- offering dog-training classes in San Jose, California -- provides this online guide to dog body language, which would have a very limited vocabulary without the tail (6). So, how did the peacock get its tail? It's a simple question that has driven zoologists crazy for over a century. The next Web site (7) contains an in-depth article on the subject from the Independent (London), offered through National Geographic News. And finally, the bizarre gulper eel -- able to tie its tail in several knots -- gets is own Web page on Pangea, the Web server for the Department of Educational Leadership and Technology at Southeastern Louisiana University (8). This deep-sea curiosity uses its bioluminescent tail tip to lure hapless prey into its impossibly gigantic mouth.

Sohmer, Rachel.

2003-01-01

32

Polymorphisms in the prion precursor functional gene but not the pseudogene are associated with susceptibility to chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) status and PrP genotypes were determined for a group of 133 wild white-tailed deer in a 780 acre enclosure in western Nebraska, USA. Approximately half of the deer tested showed evidence of PrPd in the brainstem or lymphoid tissues. Four PRNP alleles encoding amino acid substitutions were identified, with substitutions at residues 95 (QRH), 96 (GRS)

Katherine I. O'Rourke; Terry R. Spraker; Linda K. Hamburg; Thomas E. Besser; Kelly A. Brayton; Donald P. Knowles

2004-01-01

33

Broad and fine-scale genetic analysis of white-tailed deer populations: estimating the relative risk of chronic wasting disease spread  

PubMed Central

Chronic wasting disease is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, similar to sheep scrapie that has only recently been detected in wild populations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) in western Canada. Relatively little is known about local transmission dynamics of the disease or the potential for long-distance spread. We analysed the population genetic structure of over 2000 white-tailed deer sampled from Alberta, British Columbia, and Saskatchewan using microsatellite profiles and mtDNA sequencing to assess the relative risk of disease spread. There was very little differentiation among subpopulations and a weak trend of increasing differentiation with geographic distance. This suggests that the potential for long-distance disease spread through the dispersal of infected individuals is possible, yet the risk of spread should gradually diminish with distance from infection foci. Within subpopulations, females were more related than expected by chance (R > 0) within a radius of approximately 500 m. Sex-biased philopatry and social interactions among related females may facilitate local disease transmission within social groups. Local herd reduction may therefore be an effective tool for reducing the disease prevalence when implemented at the appropriate spatial scale.

Cullingham, Catherine I; Merrill, Evelyn H; Pybus, Margo J; Bollinger, Trent K; Wilson, Gregory A; Coltman, David W

2011-01-01

34

Persistent Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection in white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

Four white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were inoculated intravenously with a deer-origin isolate (15B-WTD-GA) of Ehrlichia chaffeensis. The course of infection was monitored using indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and culture over a 9 m period. All deer became rickettsemic within 24 days post inoculation (DPI), and all developed antibody titers >1:64 to E. chaffeensis by 17 DPI. Titers in all deer fell below 1:64 during 87 to 143 DPI. One deer exhibited a second period of seropositivity (peak titer of 1:256) from 207 to 271 DPI but was culture and PCR negative during this period. Rickettsemia was confirmed by reisolation of E. chaffeensis as late as 73 to 108 DPI in three deer. Positive PCR results were obtained from femur bone marrow of one deer and from rumenal lymph node of another (leer at 278 DPI. None of the deer developed clinical signs, hematologic abnormalities, or gross or microscopic lesions attributable to E. chaffeensis. Two uninoculated control deer were negative on all tests through 90 DPI at which time they were removed from the study. Herein we confirm that white-tailed deer become persistently infected with E. chaffeensis, have initial rickettsemias of several weeks duration and may experience recrudescence of rickettsemia, which reaffirm the importance of deer in the epidemiology of E. chaffeensis. PMID:11504227

Davidson, W R; Lockhart, J M; Stallknecht, D E; Howerth, E W; Dawson, J E; Rechav, Y

2001-07-01

35

Anaplasma phagocytophilum in White-tailed Deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the reservoir potential of white-tailed deer for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Results suggest that white-tailed deer harbor a variant strain not associated with human infection, but contrary to published reports, white- tailed deer are not a reservoir for strains that cause human disease. These results will affect surveillance studies of vector and reservoir populations.

Robert F. Massung; Joshua W. Courtney; Shannon L. Hiratzka; Virginia E. Pitzer; Gary Smith; Richard L. Dryden

36

Diversity and distribution of white-tailed deer mtdna lineages in chronic wasting disease (cwd) outbreak areas in southern wisconsin, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting North American cervids. Because it is uniformly fatal, the disease is a major concern in the management of white-tailed deer populations. Management programs to control CWD require improved knowledge of deer interaction, movement, and population connectivity that could influence disease transmission and spread. Genetic methods were employed to evaluate connectivity among populations in the CWD management zone of southern Wisconsin. A 576-base-pair region of the mitochondrial DNA of 359 white-tailed deer from 12 sample populations was analyzed. Fifty-eight variable sites were detected within the sequence, defining 43 haplotypes. While most sample populations displayed similar levels of haplotype diversity, individual haplotypes were clustered on the landscape. Spatial clusters of different haplotypes were apparent in distinct ecoregions surrounding CWD outbreak areas. The spatial distribution of mtDNA haplotypes suggests that clustering of the deer matrilineal groups and population connectivity are associated with broad-scale geographic landscape features. These landscape characteristics may also influence the contact rates between groups and therefore the potential spread of CWD; this may be especially true of local disease spread between female social groups. Our results suggest that optimal CWD management needs to be tailored to fit gender-specific dispersal behaviors and regional differences in deer population connectivity. This information will help wildlife managers design surveillance and monitoring efforts based on population interactions and potential deer movement among CWD-affected and unaffected areas. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Rogers, K. G.; Robinson, S. J.; Samuel, M. D.; Grear, D. A.

2011-01-01

37

Diversity and distribution of white-tailed deer mtDNA lineages in chronic wasting disease (CWD) outbreak areas in southern Wisconsin, USA.  

PubMed

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting North American cervids. Because it is uniformly fatal, the disease is a major concern in the management of white-tailed deer populations. Management programs to control CWD require improved knowledge of deer interaction, movement, and population connectivity that could influence disease transmission and spread. Genetic methods were employed to evaluate connectivity among populations in the CWD management zone of southern Wisconsin. A 576-base-pair region of the mitochondrial DNA of 359 white-tailed deer from 12 sample populations was analyzed. Fifty-eight variable sites were detected within the sequence, defining 43 haplotypes. While most sample populations displayed similar levels of haplotype diversity, individual haplotypes were clustered on the landscape. Spatial clusters of different haplotypes were apparent in distinct ecoregions surrounding CWD outbreak areas. The spatial distribution of mtDNA haplotypes suggests that clustering of the deer matrilineal groups and population connectivity are associated with broad-scale geographic landscape features. These landscape characteristics may also influence the contact rates between groups and therefore the potential spread of CWD; this may be especially true of local disease spread between female social groups. Our results suggest that optimal CWD management needs to be tailored to fit gender-specific dispersal behaviors and regional differences in deer population connectivity. This information will help wildlife managers design surveillance and monitoring efforts based on population interactions and potential deer movement among CWD-affected and unaffected areas. PMID:22043912

Rogers, Kip G; Robinson, Stacie J; Samuel, Michael D; Grear, Daniel A

2011-01-01

38

Safety of Tailings Dams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Contains information on different aspects of tailings dams; tailings dam properties, disasters, failure modes, slurry waves, stability analysis, and safe tailings disposal. Also includes a slope stability calculator and a tailings flow slide calculator.

2008-08-25

39

Evaluation of a wild white-tailed deer population management program for controlling chronic wasting disease in Illinois, 2003-2008.  

PubMed

We evaluated population management programs for controlling chronic wasting disease (CWD) in wild white-tailed deer in Illinois between November 2002 and March 2008. The intervention consisted of measures of deer removal from three deer population control programs: Illinois Department of Natural Resources culling, deer population control permits and nuisance deer removal permits. We included in the analysis a total of 14,650 white-tailed deer CWD test results. These data also included location and demographic data collected from both deer harvested in the interventions as well as deer from hunter harvests and deer vehicle collisions. We quantified intervention pressures as the number of years of intervention, the total number of deer removed and the average number of deer removed per year. We accounted for temporal and spatial variations of intervention by using mixed logistic regression to model the association between intervention pressures and CWD prevalence change. The results showed that deer population management intervention as practiced in Illinois during the study period was negatively associated with CWD prevalence and the strength of association varied depending on age of deer and the measure of intervention pressure. The population management programs showed a more consistent association with reduced CWD prevalence in fawn and yearling white-tailed deer than in adult deer. Our results also suggested that frequent and continuing intervention events with at least moderate intensity of culling were needed to reduce CWD prevalence. A longer study period, however, is needed to make a more definite conclusion about the effectiveness of similar population management programs for controlling CWD in wild white-tailed deer. PMID:23558033

Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Ruiz, Marilyn O; Shelton, Paul; Novakofski, Jan

2013-04-01

40

Host culling as an adaptive management tool for chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer: a modelling study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Emerging wildlife diseases pose a significant threat to natural and human systems. Because of real or perceived risks of delayed actions, disease management strategies such as culling are often implemented before thorough scientific knowledge of disease dynamics is available. Adaptive management is a valuable approach in addressing the uncertainty and complexity associated with wildlife disease problems and can

Gideon Wasserberg; Erik E. Osnas; Robert E. Rolley; Michael D. Samuel

2009-01-01

41

Chronic wasting disease infection patterns in female white-tailed deer related to demographics, genetic relationships, and spatial proximity of infected deer in southern Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) caused by transmissible protease resistant prions. Since the discovery of CWD in southern Wisconsin in 2001, more than 20,000 deer have been removed from a >2,500 km2 disease eradication zone surrounding the three initial cases. Nearly all deer removed were tested for CWD infection and sex, age, and harvest location were recorded. Our analysis used data from a 310 kin2 core study area where disease prevalence was higher than surrounding areas. We found no difference in harvest rates between CWD infected and non-infected deer. Ow results show that the probability of infection increased with age and that adult males were more likely to be infected than adult females. Six fawns tested positive for CWD, five fawns from the core study area, including the youngest (5 months) kee-ranging cervid to test positive. The increase in male prevalence with age is nearly twice the increase found in females. We concluded that CWD is not randomly distributed among deer and that differential transmission among sex and age classes is likely driving the observed patterns in disease prevalence. We discuss alternative hypotheses for CWD transmission and spread and, in addition, discuss several possible non-linear relationships between prevalence and age. Understanding CWD transmission in free-ranging cervid populations will be essential to the development of strategies to manage this disease in areas where CWD is found as well as for surveillance strategies in areas where CWD threatens to spread.

Grear, Daniel A.

2006-01-01

42

Dynamics of envelope evolution in clade C SHIV-infected pig-tailed macaques during disease progression analyzed by ultra-deep pyrosequencing.  

PubMed

Understanding the evolution of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope during disease progression can provide tremendous insights for vaccine development, and simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection of non-human primate provides an ideal platform for such studies. A newly developed clade C SHIV, SHIV-1157ipd3N4, which was able to infect rhesus macaques, closely resembled primary HIV-1 in transmission and pathogenesis, was used to infect several pig-tailed macaques. One of the infected animals subsequently progressed to AIDS, whereas one remained a non-progressor. The viral envelope evolution in the infected animals during disease progression was analyzed by a bioinformatics approach using ultra-deep pyrosequencing. Our results showed substantial envelope variations emerging in the progressor animal after the onset of AIDS. These envelope variations impacted the length of the variable loops and charges of different envelope regions. Additionally, multiple mutations were located at the CD4 and CCR5 binding sites, potentially affecting receptor binding affinity, viral fitness and they might be selected at late stages of disease. More importantly, these envelope mutations are not random since they had repeatedly been observed in a rhesus macaque and a human infant infected by either SHIV or HIV-1, respectively, carrying the parental envelope of the infectious molecular clone SHIV-1157ipd3N4. Moreover, similar mutations were also observed from other studies on different clades of envelopes regardless of the host species. These recurring mutations in different envelopes suggest that there may be a common evolutionary pattern and selection pathway for the HIV-1 envelope during disease progression. PMID:22427893

Tso, For Yue; Tully, Damien C; Gonzalez, Sandra; Quince, Christopher; Ho, On; Polacino, Patricia; Ruprecht, Ruth M; Hu, Shiu-Lok; Wood, Charles

2012-03-12

43

Loss of Normal Profilaggrin and Filaggrin in Flaky Tail (ft\\/ft) Mice: an Animal Model for the Filaggrin-Deficient Skin Disease Ichthyosis Vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flaky tail (gene symbol ft) is an autosomal recessive mutation in mice that results in a dry, flaky skin, and annular tail and paw constrictions in the neonatal period. Previous studies demonstrated that the ft mutation maps to the central region of mouse chromosome 3, in the vicinity of the epidermal differentiation complex, a gene locus that includes many nonkeratin

Richard B. Presland; Dawnalyn Boggess; S. Patrick Lewis; Christopher Hull; Philip Fleckman; John P. Sundberg

2000-01-01

44

Remediation of Tailings Dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Tailings are a waste product of mining activities. The ore is crushed in processing to a size less than 0.1 to 1.0 mm, the\\u000a metal content is removed, and the remaining product is called tailings. Normally, the tailings will be pumped as slurry to\\u000a a sedimentation pond that is surrounded by dams and, sometimes, natural heights that form a tailings

A. G. Benckert

45

Length of Magnetospheric Tail  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that hydromagnetic waves, through the action of radiation pressure, can prevent the tail of the magnetosphere from closing near the earth. It is argued that the tail of the magnetosphere may be 20 to 50 AU long. The tail can close at such heliocentric distances in the charge-exchange boundary shell where the solar wind is terminated and

A. J. Dessler

1964-01-01

46

Human Tail and Myelomeningocele  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human tail is rarely reported and is usually associated with underlying spina bifida occulta. A male newborn presenting a caudal appendage (human tail) with skin-covered myelomeningocele and tethered cord is described. Surgical excision of the human tail and repair of the myelomeningocele were performed 3 days after birth. After the operation, the patient had an uneventful convalescence and received

Pei-Jung Lin; Yu-Tang Chang; Hsing-I Tseng; Jan-You Lin; Yu-Sheng Huang

2007-01-01

47

Tails of Bacterial Motility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cytoplasm of living cells provides a complex fluid environment in which intracellular bacteria live and move. By analyzing the easily visible curved actin ``comet-tail'' of polymerization-based-motility bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, we can learn about sub-micron structure and dynamics of the tail and of the bacterial surface enzyme that catalyzes tail formation. By characterizing the motility, we can transform such motile systems into probes of the cytoplasmic environment.

Rutenberg, Andrew; Grant, Martin

2001-03-01

48

Floods from tailings dam failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compiles the available information on historic tailings dam failures with the purpose to establish simple correlations between tailings ponds geometric parameters (e.g., dam height, tailings volume) and the hydraulic characteristics of floods resulting from released tailings. Following the collapse of a mining waste dam, only a part of tailings and polluted water stored at the dam is released,

M. Rico; G. Benito; A. Díez-Herrero

2008-01-01

49

Knowledge Long Tail  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an approach to visualize the benefits of applying contemporary technology in explicit knowledge management processes. The “Knowledge Long Tail” is a novel way of categorizing individual and organizational knowledge, and of modeling knowledge in organizations in terms of its type and frequency of use. The concept is inspired by the market long tail phenomenon raised by Chris

I. Lin; R. H. A. Seidel; D. Howell; D. Walker

2010-01-01

50

The human tail  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human tail is a congenital anomaly with a protruding lesion from the lumbosacrococcygeal region. A newborn with a tail-like structure over the coccygeal area observed since birth is presented. Lipoma accompanied by tethered spinal cord were found. In reviewing the literature from 1960 to 1997, 59 cases were described. Higher incidences of spinal dysraphism (49.15%) and tethered spinal cord

Frank L Lu; Pen-Jung Wang; Ru-Jeng Teng; Kuo-Inn Tsou Yau

1998-01-01

51

Reported tailings dam failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed search and re-evaluation of the known historical cases of tailings dam failure was carried out. A corpus of 147 cases of worldwide tailings dam disasters, from which 26 located in Europe, was compiled in a database. This contains six sections, including dam location, its physical and constructive characteristics, actual and putative failure cause, sludge hydrodynamics, socio-economical consequences and

M. Rico; G. Benito; A. R. Salgueiro; A. D ´ õez-Herrero; H. G. Pereira

2008-01-01

52

Human tails and pseudotails.  

PubMed

A case of a tail in a 2-week-old infant is reported, and findings from a review of 33 previously reported cases of true tails and pseudotails are summarized. The true, or persistent, vestigial tail of humans arises from the most distal remnant of the embryonic tail. It contains adipose and connective tissue, central bundles of striated muscle, blood vessels, and nerves and is covered by skin. Bone, cartilage, notochord, and spinal cord are lacking. The true tail arises by retention of structures found normally in fetal development. It may be as long as 13 cm, can move and contract, and occurs twice as often in males as in females. A true tail is easily removed surgically, without residual effects. It is rarely familial. Pseudotails are varied lesions having in common a lumbosacral protrusion and a superficial resemblance to persistent vestigial tails. The most frequent cause of a pseudotail in a series of ten cases obtained from the literature was an anomalous prolongation of the coccygeal vertebrae. Additional lesions included two lipomas, and one each of teratoma, chondromegaly , glioma, and a thin, elongated parasitic fetus. PMID:6373560

Dao, A H; Netsky, M G

1984-05-01

53

The Tail of BPM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Business process management suites (BPMS's) represent one of the fastest growing segments in the software industry as organizations automate their key business processes. As this market matures, it is interesting to compare it to Chris Anderson's 'Long Tail.' Although the 2004 "Long Tail" article in Wired magazine was primarily about the media and entertainment industries, it has since been applied (and perhaps misapplied) to other markets. Analysts describe a "Tail of BPM" market that is, perhaps, several times larger than the traditional BPMS product market. This paper will draw comparisons between the concepts in Anderson's article (and subsequent book) and the BPM solutions market.

Kruba, Steve; Meyer, Jim

54

Uranium mill tailings stabilization  

SciTech Connect

Uranium mill tailings pose a potential radiation health hazard to the public. Therefore, stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is needed to minimize radon exhalation and other environmental hazards. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing U tailings is the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other hazardous materials within uranium tailings. This approach is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Results of these studies indicate that a radon flux reduction of greater than 99% can be obtained using either a poured-on/sprayed-on seal (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick) or an admixture seal (2.5 to 12.7 cm thick) containing about 18 wt % residual asphalt. A field test was carried out in June 1979 at the Grand Junction tailings pile in order to demonstrate the sealing process. A reduction in radon flux ranging from 4.5 to greater than 99% (76% average) was achieved using a 15.2-cm (6-in.) admix seal with a sprayed-on top coat. A hydrostatic stabilizer was used to apply the admix. Following compaction, a spray coat seal was applied over the admix as the final step in construction of a radon seal. Overburden was applied to provide a protective soil layer over the seal. Included in part of the overburden was a herbicide to prevent root penetration.

Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.

1980-02-01

55

Happy Tailings to You  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students prepare a sample of "mine tailings", then separate out desirable materials using whatever method they choose, and quantify the results. They will discover that sometimes it's hard to separate desirable minerals from undesirable ones, especially if they look alike or the crystals are of similar sizes. Students learn that old, worked-out mines contain some desirable minerals (in small quantities) mixed in with unwanted minerals, but that doesn't stop some people from trying to squeeze out the last drop. Once considered tailings (or trash), the mix may now be profitable for mining. Desirable minerals can be separated physically and chemically.

56

Human tail: nature's aberration.  

PubMed

Human tail refers to a congenital cutaneous appendix protruding from the lumbosacral region. It is usually associated with an underlying spina bifida occulta, a form of spinal dysraphism. A contiguous fibrolipoma can sometimes be seen extending from the subcutaneous portion of the tail into the inferior spinal cord, resulting in tethered cord syndrome. Management of such lesions includes complete neurologic examination and magnetic resonance imaging. Early diagnosis and microsurgical intervention can prevent development or progression of severe neurologic defects in later life. PMID:22241711

Kumar, Dipti; Kapoor, Akshay

2012-01-12

57

"Tails" of Linguistic Survival  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Given the relatively short history of computerized corpora of spoken language, it is not surprising that few diachronic studies have been done on the grammatical features recently highlighted by the analysis of such corpora. This article, however, does take a diachronic perspective on one such feature: the syntactic feature of "tails" (Dik 1978).…

Timmis, Ivor

2010-01-01

58

Dolphin Skeleton - Tail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The dolphin is built to be sleek. Its body is made of almost entirely backbone (a gliding joint) which makes it very flexible under water. The ribs protect the inner organs of the dolphin and the tail beats from side to side, thrusting the animal forward.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-07-14

59

Crocodile Skeleton - Tail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The crocodile is a reptile that has a long and narrow skeleton. The backbone (a gliding joint) of this animal extends into a powerful tail, allowing it to swim through water. The ribs of the crocodile are small and serve to protect its inner organs.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Science)

2007-07-14

60

Internal Lifschitz tails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider an Anderson model in v dimensions with a potential distribution supported in ( a, b)?( c, d), where c- b>4v. We prove the existence of Lifschitz tails at the edges of the internal gap at b+2v and c- 2v. This reproves results of Mezincescu.

Simon, Barry

1987-03-01

61

REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK STAND, SHOWING AIRCRAFT NUMBER (319), HORIZONTAL STABILIZER, TAIL CONE AND COOLING CTS FOR THE AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), MECHANIC PAUL RIDEOUT IS LOWERING THE BALANCE PANELS ON THE STABILIZERS FOR LUBRICATION AND INSPECTION. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

62

Critical Parameters for Tailings Embankments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Geotechnical data on copper, uranium, and phosphate tailings from 41 mines were collected and analyzed to empirically establish the variability in strength properties for tailings embankments. These data were analyzed both from geotechnical and statistica...

G. B. Baecher J. S. Lin J. A. Consla W. A. Marr

1983-01-01

63

Heavy tails and currency crises  

Microsoft Academic Search

In affine models of foreign exchange rate returns, the nature of cross sectional interdependence in crisis periods hinges on the tail properties of the fundamentals' distribution. If the fundamentals exhibit thin tails like the normal distribution, the dependence vanishes asymptotically; while the dependence remains in the case of heavy tailed fundamentals as in case of the Student-t distribution. The linearity

P. Hartmann; S. Straetmans; C. G. de Vries

2010-01-01

64

Validation of Use of Rectoanal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue for Immunohistochemical Diagnosis of Chronic Wasting Disease in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are a family of fatal neurodegenerative diseases characterized by accumulation of abnormal prion proteins in the brain. The abnormal prion protein is the major constituent of the infectious agent and is a reliable marker for disease. The occurrence of ...

65

Surveillance for Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy in Scavengers of White-Tailed Deer Carcasses in the Chronic Wasting Disease Area of Wisconsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a class of neurodegenerative transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) occurring in cervids, is found in a number of states and provinces across North America. Misfolded prions, the infectious agents of CWD, are deposited in the environment via carcass remains and excreta, and pose a threat of cross-species transmission. In this study tissues were tested from 812 representative

Christopher S. Jennelle; Michael D. Samuel; Cherrie A. Nolden; Delwyn P. Keane; Daniel J. Barr; Chad Johnson; Joshua P. Vanderloo; Judd M. Aiken; Amir N. Hamir; Edward A. Hoover

2009-01-01

66

The geomagnetic tail  

SciTech Connect

A review is presented of the plasma sheet and lobe regions of the magnetotail, focusing principally on large-scale processes or microprocesses with some large-scale effects. Consideration is given to quiet and average structures, not necessarily related to activity phases, with quasi-steady convection aspects, and with the characteristics of dynamic phases including acceleration mechanisms and single particle aspects. Attention is given to various activity models, average and quiet time properties, properties and effects of magnetospheric convection, dynamics of the magnetotail, and the near tail, substorm current wedge.

Birn, J. (USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States))

1991-01-01

67

Uranium mill tailings and radon  

SciTech Connect

The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

Hanchey, L.A.

1981-01-01

68

Uranium mill tailings and radon  

SciTech Connect

The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the United States may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

Hanchey, L.A.

1981-04-01

69

Heavy-Tailed and Long-Tailed Distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter we are interested in (right-) tail properties of distributions, i.e. in properties of a distribution which, for any x, depend only on the restriction of the distribution to (x,??). More generally it is helpful to consider tail properties of functions.

Sergey Foss; Dmitry Korshunov; Stan Zachary

70

3. VIEW OF WEST TAILING DAM, LARGE TANK, AND TAILING, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW OF WEST TAILING DAM, LARGE TANK, AND TAILING, LOOKING NORTHEAST. A SIX-FOOT SCALE IS LOCATED AGAINST WALL ON LEFT. PURPOSE OF TANK IS UNKNOWN, BUT APPEARS TO HAVE FALLEN FROM ITS ORIGINAL LOCATION AT THE MILL SITE, UP AND TO THE RIGHT OF THIS VIEW. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

71

Teratoma in Human Tail Lipoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of a rare congenital teratoma that developed in a lipoma attached to a remnant human tail. A male newborn baby presented with a large, 3-cm mass with an open margin, which pedunculated from a tail attached to the midline skin of the coccygeal area. Magnetic resonance images demonstrated multiple sacral spinal bifida without cord tethering, and

Se-Hyuck Park; Jee Soon Huh; Ki Hong Cho; Yong Sam Shin; Se Hyck Kim; Young Hwan Ahn; Kyung Gi Cho; Soo Han Yoon

2005-01-01

72

Human tail with spina bifida.  

PubMed

A true human tail is a rare occurrence and is defined as a caudal, vestigial, midline protrusion with skin covering connective tissue, muscle, vessels and nerves. We report a case of true human tail in a child, which is a very rare happening in humans. PMID:19922280

Chauhan, S P S; Gopal, N N; Jain, Mohit; Gupta, Anurag

2009-12-01

73

Trends in Tailing Dam Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent releases of tailing effluents and solids from containment facilities around the world, including Mary Spruitt (1994), Omai (1995) and Marcopper (1996), have heightened awareness that risks associated with tailing containment must be fully addressed during all phases of a facility life. Recent studies by independent international organizations (United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 1996; United Stated Committee on Large Dams

Iain G. Bruce; Clint Logue; Lori-Ann Wilchek

74

Field validation and assessment of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting chronic wasting disease in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni).  

PubMed

Tissue samples (n = 25,050 total) from 23,256 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) collected statewide in Colorado were examined for chronic wasting disease (CWD) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay developed by Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc. (brELISA), in a 2-phase study. In the validation phase of this study, a total of 4,175 retropharyngeal lymph nodes (RLN) or obex (OB) tissue samples were examined independently by brELISA and immunohistochemistry (IHC). There were 137 IHC-positive samples and 4,038 IHC-negative samples. Optical density (OD) values from brELISA were classified as "not detected" or "suspect" based on recommended cutoff values during the validation phase. Using IHC-positive cases as known CWD-infected individuals and assuming IHC-negative cases as uninfected, the relative sensitivity of brELISA depending on species ranged from 98.3% to 100% for RLN samples and 92.1% to 93.3% for OB samples; the relative specificity of brELISA depending on species ranged from 99.9% to 100% for RLN samples and was 100% for OB samples. Overall agreement between brELISA and IHC was > or = 97.6% in RLN samples and > or = 95.7% in OB samples of all species where values could be calculated; moreover, mean brELISA OD values were > or = 46X higher in IHC-positive samples than in IHC-negative samples. Discrepancies were observed only in early-stage cases of CWD. Based on the validation phase data, only RLN samples were collected for the field application phase of this study and only samples with brELISA OD values > 0.1 were examined by IHC. Among 20,875 RLN samples screened with brELISA during this second testing phase, 155 of 8,877 mule deer, 33 of 11,731 elk, and 9 of 267 white-tailed deer samples (197 total) had OD values > 0.1 and were further evaluated by IHC to confirm evidence of CWD infection. Of cases flagged for IHC follow-up, 143 of 155 mule deer, 29 of 33 elk, and all 9 white-tailed deer were confirmed positive. Mean (+/- SE) OD values for IHC-positive cases detected during the field application phase were comparable with those measured in RLN tissues during the validation phase. Based on these data, brELISA was determined to be an excellent rapid test for screening large numbers of samples in surveys designed to detect CWD infections in deer and elk populations. PMID:12918810

Hibler, Charles P; Wilson, Kathi L; Spraker, Terry R; Miller, Michael W; Zink, Robert R; DeBuse, Linda L; Andersen, Elaine; Schweitzer, Darrell; Kennedy, James A; Baeten, Laurie A; Smeltzer, John F; Salman, Mo D; Powers, Barbara E

2003-07-01

75

[A case of human tail].  

PubMed

A human tail is a rare anatomical curiosity. A case of a human tail associated with lipomyelomeningocele is reported. The made subject was born, by breech delivery, at the 39th-week with a 3,008 g body weight. He was admitted to our hospital because of the presence of a human tail and subcutaneous mass in the midline lumbosacral region. The tail was about 7.5 cm in length and 2 cm in diameter. It was elastic and covered by normal skin. No systemic anomaly was found. Spina bifida below L5 was revealed, and no bony shadow was found on the plain X-ray film. CT scan showed a low density area in the spinal canal between L3 and lower sacral region that extended into the tail through the spina bifida. MRI also revealed intraspinal long T2 mass which was attached to the spinal cord and extended into the tail. Myelogram indicated intradural extramedullary mass below the L3 level. Surgical treatment was performed on the 3rd month of life with a diagnosis of a human tail with lipomyelomeningocele. At surgery, the tail was found to consist mainly of lipomatous tissue which extended subcutaneously and entered the spinal canal through the spina bifida. The tail and subcutaneous lipomatous tissue were totally excised. The capsule of subcutaneous lipomatous tissue was followed circumferentially down into the spinal canal, and found to be transformed to arachnoid membrane. Intradural lipomatous tissue was excised piece by piece, leaving only a small remnant attached to the conus medullaris to preserve sacral nerve root function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2000165

Yamatani, K; Saitoh, T; Oi, M; Oka, N; Endoh, T; Takaku, A

1991-01-01

76

Bearing capacity of desiccated tailings  

SciTech Connect

The development of matric suctions in soils contributes to their shear strength, resulting in an enhanced factor of safety against bearing-capacity failure. In this paper, matric suction profiles of desiccated mine tailings are predicted from a steady-state solution for evaporative conditions, and from an isothermal mathematical model that simulates liquid and vapor water flow through soils. The shear-strength envelope with respect to matric suction is established by testing reconstituted tailings samples in a modified triaxial cell, in which matric suction can be controlled. The contribution of matric suction to the shear strength is interpreted as an additional apparent cohesion for use in bearing-capacity calculations. Because of the nonlinearity of the shear-strength profile, a numerical method of analysis is adopted to predict the ultimate bearing capacity of the desiccated tailings. A subsequent decrease in bearing capacity following 2D water infiltration into a partially capped tailings deposit and accompanying suction loss is investigated.

Rassam, D.W.; Williams, D.J. [Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1999-07-01

77

heterogeneous long-tailed sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider a generalization of the so-called model where types of long-tailed sessions enter a buffer . The instantaneous rates of the sessions are functions of the occupancy of an system with long-tailed distributions. In particular we assume that a session of type transmits cells per unit time and lasts for a ran- dom time with long

Nikolay Likhanov; Ravi R. Mazumdar

78

Natural History of Ehrlichia chaffeensis: Vertebrate hosts and tick vectors from the United States and evidence for endemic transmission in other countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ehrlichia chaffeensis, an intracellular gram-negative zoonotic bacterium, is the causative agent of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (HME). In humans, the disease can range from a mild, non-specific illness with few to no clinical signs to a moderately severe to fatal disease, especially those with compromised immune systems. E. chaffeensis is maintained in a complex cycle involving white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus)

Michael J. Yabsley

2010-01-01

79

Magnetohydrodynamics of Mira's cometary tail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: The asymptotic giant-branch, long-period variable star Mira exhibits a 4 parsec long cometary tail in the far-ultraviolet. We address the issue of the origin of this structure and its emission process by simulating the transition of this star from the interstellar medium to the Local Bubble, which is a tenuous, high-pressure medium. Methods: We use the hydrodynamic and the magnetohydrodynamic modules of the PLUTO astrophysical code to carry out our simulations. We study the system without a cooling function, with a simplified exponential cooling function, and with a simplified nonequilibrium cooling function. Results: We find evidence that magnetohydrodynamics constrain the shape of the cometary tail and explain features of its far-ultraviolet emission. We suggest an emission process that involves C0 excitation through inelastic electron collisions and a two-photon continuum to explain the luminosity of Mira's tail.

Gómez, E. A.

2013-10-01

80

From light tails to heavy tails through multiplier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let X and Y be two independent nonnegative random variables, of which X has a distribution belonging to the class or for some ????0 and Y is unbounded. We study how their product XY inherits the tail behavior of X. Under some mild technical assumptions we prove that the distribution of XY belongs to the class or accordingly. Hence, the

Qihe Tang

2008-01-01

81

Long-Tailed Duration Distributions for Disability in Aged People  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long tails of the duration distributions for disabilities in the aged are analyzed. Log-normal distribution shows excellent fit with various data on the durations of disabilities, irrespective of their severity. Persisting long tails suggest the fractal nature of disability distributions. For approximately 60% of the patients, the duration distributions are also mimicked by the first passage time distribution (FPTD) of one-dimensional Brownian motion. The finding that the data fit the log-normal distribution very well and FPTD fairly well reveals disability for the aged to be a stochastic process of suffering successively from various endogenous diseases, i.e., multiple pathology.

Moriyama, Osamu; Itoh, Hiroto; Matsushita, Satoru; Matsushita, Mitsugu

2003-10-01

82

Design of Dams for Mill Tailings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes tailings disposal problems at mines throughout the United States in order to identify design principles that can be applied to all types of dams for mill tailings. The circular reviews computer programs for stability analysis and phre...

C. D. Kealy R. L. Soderberg

1969-01-01

83

Monitoring pool-tail fines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fine sediment < 2 and < 6 mm deposited in pool-tail areas of mountain streams is often measured to monitor changes in the supply of fines (e.g., by dam removal, bank erosion, or watershed effects including fires and road building) or to assess the status and trend of aquatic ecosystems. Grid counts, pebble counts, and volumetric bedmaterial samples are typically used to quantify pool-tail fines. Grid-count results exhibit a high degree of variability not only among streams and among operators, but also among crews performing a nearly identical procedure (Roper et al. 2010). Variability is even larger when diverse methods are employed, each of which quantifies fines in a different way: grid counts visually count surface fines on small patches within the pool-tail area, pebble counts pick up and tally surface particles along (riffle) transects, and volumetric samples sieve out fines from small-scale bulk samples; and even when delimited to pool-tail areas, individual methods focus on different sampling locales. Two main questions were analyzed: 1) Do pool-tail fines exhibit patterns of spatial variability and are some grid count schemes more likely to provide accurate results than others. 2) How and why does the percentage of fines vary among grid counts, pebble counts, and volumetric samples. In a field study, grids were placed at 7 locales in two rows across the wetted width of 10 pool tails in a 14-m wide 3rd order coarse gravel-bed mountain stream with <4% sand and <8% < 6 mm. Several pebble count transects were placed across each pool-tail area, and three volumetric samples were collected in each of three pool tails. Pebble and grid counts both indicated a fining trend towards one or both banks, sometimes interrupted by a secondary peak of fines within the central half of the wetted width. Among the five sampling schemes tested, grid counts covering the wetted width with 7 locales produced the highest accuracy and the least variability among the pools of the reach. Pebble counts between the two waterlines indicated 2-3 times more fines than grid counts, likely because grid counts did not extend exactly up to the waterline. However, when confined to the central 50% of the wetted width, grid counts indicated 1.2 and 1.6 times more fines < 2 and < 6 mm than pebble counts, likely because the plexiglass viewer used with grid counts improved the visibility of the bed. Volumetric armor layer samples (particles > 90 mm removed) indicated 1.4 and 1.2 times more fines < 2 and < 6 mm than grid counts at the same locales, while subarmor samples had 8-9 times more fines. In conclusion, methodological differences and the specific sampling locales selected by a method affect comparability of sampling results. Grid count accuracy and precision may be improved by extending both the width coverage and the sample size within a pool tail.

Bunte, K.; Potyondy, J. P.; Abt, S. R.; Swingle, K. W.

2010-12-01

84

RADEMACHER CHAOS: TAIL ESTIMATES VS LIMIT THEOREMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study Rademacher chaos indexed by a sparse set which has a fractional combinatorial dimension. We obtain tail estimates for finite sums and a normal limit theorem as the size tends to infinity. The tails for finite sums may be much larger that the tails of the limit.

RON BLEI; SVANTE JANSON

2003-01-01

85

Environmentally safe design of tailing dams for the management of iron ore tailings in Indian context.  

PubMed

The need for the disposal of iron ore tailings in an enviornmentally firiendly manner is of great concern. This paper investigates the soil engineering properties for the construction of iron ore tailing dam, its foundation, construction materials and design data used for the construction analysis of the tailing dam. Geophysical investigations were carried out to establish the bedrock below the spillway. A computer programme taking into account the Swedish Slip Circle Method of analysis was used in the stability analysis of dam. It also focuses on the charactierstics of the tailings reponsible for the determination of optimum size of tailing pond for the containment of the tailings. The studies on the settling characteristics of tailings indicate much less area in comparison to the area provided in the existing tailing ponds in India. In the proposed scheme, it is suggested to provide an additional unit of sedimentation tank before the disposal of tailings to the tailing pond. PMID:17051916

Ghose, Mrinal K; Sen, P K

2005-10-01

86

Extracting aluminum from dross tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminum dross tailings, an industrial waste, from the Egyptian Aluminium Company (Egyptalum) was used to produce two types of alums: aluminum-sulfate alum [itAl2(SO4)3.12H2O] and ammonium-aluminum alum [ (NH 4)2SO4AL2(SO4)3.24H2O]. This was carried out in two processes. The first process is leaching the impurities using diluted H2SO4 with different solid/liquid ratios at different temperatures to dissolve the impurities present in the starting material in the form of solute sulfates. The second process is the extraction of aluminum (as aluminum sulfate) from the purifi ed aluminum dross tailings thus produced. The effects of temperature, time of reaction, and acid concentration on leaching and extraction processes were studied. The product alums were analyzed using x-ray diffraction and thermal analysis techniques.

Amer, A. M.

2002-11-01

87

Experimental vertical transmission of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) from brooders to progeny in Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Artemia.  

PubMed

White tail disease (WTD) is a serious problem in hatcheries and nursery ponds of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in India. Experiments were carried out to determine the possibility of vertical transmission of M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) in M. rosenbergii and Artemia. Prawn broodstock inoculated with MrNV and XSV by oral or immersion challenge survived without any clinical signs of WTD. The brooders spawned 5-7 days after inoculation and the eggs hatched. The survival rate of larvae gradually decreased, and 100% mortality was observed at the post-larvae (PL) stage. Whitish muscle, the typical sign of WTD, was seen in advanced larval developmental stages. The ovarian tissue and fertilized eggs were found to be positive for MrNV/XSV by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) whereas the larval stages showed positive by RT nested PCR (nRT-PCR). In Artemia, reproductive cysts and nauplii derived from challenged brooders were normal and survival rates were within the expected range for normal rearing conditions. The reproductive cysts were found to be positive for MrNV/XSV by RT-PCR whereas the nauplii showed MrNV/XSV-positive by nRT-PCR. The PL of M. rosenbergii fed nauplii derived from challenged Artemia brooders died at 9 days post-inoculum with clinical signs of WTD. PMID:17241402

Sudhakaran, R; Ishaq Ahmed, V P; Haribabu, P; Mukherjee, S C; Sri Widada, J; Bonami, J R; Sahul Hameed, A S

2007-01-01

88

Testing the functional significance of tail streamers  

PubMed Central

Studies of the evolution of elaborate ornaments have concentrated on their role in increasing attractiveness to mates. The classic examples of such sexually selected structures are the elongated tails of some bird species. Elongated tails can be divided into three categories: graduated tails, pin tails and streamers. There seems to be little debate about whether graduated and pin tails are ornaments; i.e. costly signals used in mate choice. However, in the case of streamers there is considerable discussion about their function. It has been suggested that tail streamers could be (i) entirely naturally selected, (ii) entirely sexually selected, (iii) partly naturally and partly sexually selected. The prime example of a species with tail streamers is the swallow (Hirundo rustica) in which both sexes have tail streamers. In this paper we discuss the aerodynamic consequences of different types of manipulation of the streamer and/or outer tail feather. We make qualitative predictions about the aerodynamic performance of swallows with manipulated tail streamers; these predictions differ depending on whether streamers have a naturally or sexually selected function. We demonstrate that these hypotheses can only be separated if tail streamers are shortened and changes in aerodynamic performance measured during turning flight.

Evans, M. R.; Thomas, A. L. R.

1997-01-01

89

Enhancing the safety of tailings management facilities  

SciTech Connect

Unsafe tailings management facilities (TMFs) have caused serious accidents in Europe threatening human health/life and the environment. While advanced design, construction and management procedures are available, their implementation requires greater emphasis. An integrated research project funded by the European Union was carried out between 2002 and 2005 with the overall goal of improving the safety of TMFs (Sustainable Improvement in Safety of Tailings Facilities - TAILSAFE, http://www.tailsafe.com/). The objective of TAILSAFE was to develop and apply methods of parameter evaluation and measurement for the assessment and improvement of the safety state of tailings facilities, with particular attention to the stability of tailings dams and slurries, the special risks inherent when such materials include toxic or hazardous wastes, and authorization and management procedures for tailings facilities. Aspects of tailings facilities design, water management and slurry transport, non-destructive and minimally intrusive testing methods, monitoring and the application of sensors, intervention and remediation options were considered in TAILSAFE. A risk reduction framework (the TAILSAFE Parameter Framework) was established to contribute to the avoidance of catastrophic accidents and hazards from tailings facilities. Tailings from the mining and primary processing of metals, minerals and coal were included within the scope of TAILSAFE. The project focused on the avoidance of hazards by developing procedures and methods for investigating and improving the stability of tailings dams and tailings bodies.

Meggyes, T.; Niederleithinger, E.; Witt, K.J.; Csovari, M.; Kreft-Burman, K.; Engels, J.; McDonald, C.; Roehl, K.E. [BAM, Berlin (Germany). Federal Institute for Material Research & Testing

2008-07-01

90

Uranium mill tailings neutralization: contaminant complexation and tailings leaching studies  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments were performed to compare the effectiveness of limestone (CaCO/sub 3/) and hydrated lime (Ca(OH)/sub 2/) for improving waste water quality through the neutralization of acidic uranium mill tailings liquor. The experiments were designed to also assess the effects of three proposed mechanisms - carbonate complexation, elevated pH, and colloidal particle adsorption - on the solubility of toxic contaminants found in a typical uranium mill waste solution. Of special interest were the effects each of these possible mechanisms had on the solution concentrations of trace metals such as Cd, Co, Mo, Zn, and U after neutralization. Results indicated that the neutralization of acidic tailings to a pH of 7.3 using hydrated lime provided the highest overall waste water quality. Both the presence of a carbonate source or elevating solution pH beyond pH = 7.3 resulted in a lowering of previously achieved water quality, while adsorption of contaminants onto colloidal particles was not found to affect the solution concentration of any constituent investigated. 24 refs., 8 figs., 19 tabs.

Opitz, B.E.; Dodson, M.E.; Serne, R.J.

1985-05-01

91

Suppression of epidemic outbreaks with heavy-tailed contact dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the epidemic spreading process following contact dynamics with heavy-tailed waiting time distributions. We show both analytically and numerically that the temporal heterogeneity of contact dynamics can significantly suppress the disease's transmissibility, hence the size of epidemic outbreak, obstructing the spreading process. Furthermore, when the temporal heterogeneity is strong enough, one obtains the vanishing transmissibility for any finite recovery time and regardless of the underlying structure of contacts, the condition of which was derived.

Min, Byungjoon; Goh, K.-I.; Kim, I.-M.

2013-09-01

92

Extracting aluminum from dross tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum dross tailings, an industrial waste, from the Egyptian Aluminium Company (Egyptalum) was used to produce two types\\u000a of alums: aluminum-sulfate alum [itAl2(SO4)3.12H2O]and ammonium-aluminum alum [(NH\\u000a 4)2SO4AL2(SO4)3.24H2O]. This was carried out in two processes. The first process is leaching the impurities using diluted H2SO4 with different solid\\/liquid ratios at different temperatures to dissolve the impurities present in the starting material

A. M. Amer

2002-01-01

93

Extracting aluminum from dross tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum dross tailings, an industrial waste, from the Egyptian Aluminium Company (Egyptalum) was used to produce two types of alums: aluminum-sulfate alum [itAl2(SO4)3.12H2O] and ammonium-aluminum alum [ (NH 4)2SO4AL2(SO4)3.24H2O]. This was carried out in two processes. The first process is leaching the impurities using diluted H2SO4 with different solid\\/liquid ratios at different temperatures to dissolve the impurities present in the

A. M. Amer

2002-01-01

94

Effectiveness of Spayvac for reducing white-tailed deer fertility.  

PubMed

Overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations have been reported in many urban and suburban communities across the United States. Large populations of deer can potentially increase the risk of human-wildlife conflicts, such as deer-vehicle collisions, transmission of disease to humans, and vegetation damage. In 2003, efforts to control white-tailed deer numbers were initiated at the National Aeronautical and Space Agency's (NASA) Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas, using the long-lasting, single-dose contraceptive SpayVac. Our objectives were to evaluate the effectiveness of SpayVac for reducing white-tailed deer fertility and determine the partial cost for treatment. Between 2003 and 2004, we monitored 45 adult female deer (34 treated with SpayVac, 11 controls treated with a placebo). Fawning rate over 2 yr for deer treated with SpayVac >30 days prior to the rut was 0% (n=31), whereas the fawning rate for control deer was 78% (n=11). Inoculation 1 mo prior to the breeding season was sufficient time to achieve fertility control. We conclude that SpayVac can effectively reduce the fertility of urban white-tailed deer. PMID:17984269

Locke, Shawn L; Cook, Matthew W; Harveson, Louis A; Davis, Donald S; Lopez, Roel R; Silvy, Nova J; Fraker, Mark A

2007-10-01

95

Gelsolin: the tail of a molecular gymnast.  

PubMed

Gelsolin superfamily members are Ca(2+) -dependent, multidomain regulators of the actin cytoskeleton. Calcium binding activates gelsolin by inducing molecular gymnastics (large-scale conformational changes) that expose actin interaction surfaces by releasing a series of latches. A specialized tail latch has distinguished gelsolin within the superfamily. Active gelsolin exhibits actin filament severing and capping, and actin monomer sequestering activities. Here, we analyze a combination of sequence, structural, biophysical and biochemical data to assess whether the molecular plasticity, regulation and actin-related properties of gelsolin are also present in other superfamily members. We conclude that all members of the superfamily will be able to transition between a compact conformation and a more open form, and that most of these open forms will interact with actin. Supervillin, which lacks the severing domain 1 and the F-actin binding-site on domain 2, is the clear exception. Eight calcium-binding sites are absolutely conserved in gelsolin, adseverin, advillin and villin, and compromised to increasing degrees in CapG, villin-like protein, supervillin and flightless I. Advillin, villin and supervillin each contain a potential tail latch, which is absent from CapG, adseverin and flightless I, and ambiguous in villin-like protein. Thus, calcium regulation will vary across the superfamily. Potential novel isoforms of the superfamily suggest complex regulation at the gene, transcript and protein levels. We review animal, clinical and cellular data that illuminate how the regulation of molecular flexibility in gelsolin-like proteins permits cells to exploit the force generated from actin polymerization to drive processes such as cell movement in health and disease. PMID:23749648

Nag, Shalini; Larsson, Mårten; Robinson, Robert C; Burtnick, Leslie D

2013-06-27

96

Anatomy of a Lactococcal Phage Tail  

PubMed Central

Bacteriophages of the Siphoviridae family utilize a long noncontractile tail to recognize, adsorb to, and inject DNA into their bacterial host. The tail anatomy of the archetypal Siphoviridae ? has been well studied, in contrast to phages infecting gram-positive bacteria. This report outlines a detailed anatomical description of a typical member of the Siphoviridae infecting a gram-positive bacterium. The tail superstructure of the lactococcal phage Tuc2009 was investigated using N-terminal protein sequencing, Western blotting, and immunogold transmission electron microscopy, allowing a tangible path to be followed from gene sequence through encoded protein to specific architectural structures on the Tuc2009 virion. This phage displays a striking parity with ? with respect to tail structure, which reenforced a model proposed for Tuc2009 tail architecture. Furthermore, comparisons with ? and other lactococcal phages allowed the specification of a number of genetic submodules likely to encode specific tail structures.

Mc Grath, Stephen; Neve, Horst; Seegers, Jos F. M. L.; Eijlander, Robyn; Vegge, Christina S.; Br?ndsted, Lone; Heller, Knut J.; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Vogensen, Finn K.; van Sinderen, Douwe

2006-01-01

97

On links and tails in Italian  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adopting Vallduví’s partition of the background into link and tail, I provide an account for Italian data. Being links pre-focal expressions, and tails post-focal, right dislocated expressions, I claim that links are shifting topics, while tails are discourse-given material. I show that a link is not iterated in discourse as long as the topic does not shift. If a link

Lisa Brunetti

2009-01-01

98

The evolution of e-tailing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolutionary perspective is applied to e-tailing in an attempt to capture and assess its past and projected future evolution. In the dynamics of e-tailing's evolutionary change, a four-phase pattern of process is uncovered. It shows the e-tailing ‘revolution’ was part of a longer evolutionary process. The findings and implications are integrated and applied with the evolutionary literature to offer

David E. Williams

2009-01-01

99

Hysteresis-Induced Long-Time Tails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown analytically that the output of the standard model for complex, nonlocal hysteresis, the Preisach model, exhibits long-time tails under quite general conditions. For uncorrelated input signals the exponent of the algebraic output correlation decay is determined solely by the tails of the input and the Preisach density. Correspondingly we identify universality classes leading to identical algebraic tails. These results predict the occurrence of 1/f noise for a large class of hysteretic systems.

Radons, Günter

2008-06-01

100

Tails of waiting times and their bounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tails of distributions having the form of the geometric convolution are considered. In the case of light-tailed summands,\\u000a a simple proof of the famous Cramér asymptotic formula is given via the change of probability measure. Some related results\\u000a are obtained, namely, bounds of the tails of geometric convolutions, expressions for the distribution of the 1st failure time\\u000a and failure rate

Vladimir Kalashnikov; Gurami Tsitsiashvili

1999-01-01

101

Active tails enhance arboreal acrobatics in geckos.  

PubMed

Geckos are nature's elite climbers. Their remarkable climbing feats have been attributed to specialized feet with hairy toes that uncurl and peel in milliseconds. Here, we report that the secret to the gecko's arboreal acrobatics includes an active tail. We examine the tail's role during rapid climbing, aerial descent, and gliding. We show that a gecko's tail functions as an emergency fifth leg to prevent falling during rapid climbing. A response initiated by slipping causes the tail tip to push against the vertical surface, thereby preventing pitch-back of the head and upper body. When pitch-back cannot be prevented, geckos avoid falling by placing their tail in a posture similar to a bicycle's kickstand. Should a gecko fall with its back to the ground, a swing of its tail induces the most rapid, zero-angular momentum air-righting response yet measured. Once righted to a sprawled gliding posture, circular tail movements control yaw and pitch as the gecko descends. Our results suggest that large, active tails can function as effective control appendages. These results have provided biological inspiration for the design of an active tail on a climbing robot, and we anticipate their use in small, unmanned gliding vehicles and multisegment spacecraft. PMID:18347344

Jusufi, Ardian; Goldman, Daniel I; Revzen, Shai; Full, Robert J

2008-03-17

102

The human tail and spinal dysraphism.  

PubMed

Recent publications have endeavoured to differentiate between the true, or vestigial tail, and the pseudotail by clinical and pathological examination, and have indicated the benign nature of the true tail. The true tail arises from the most distal remnant of the embryonic tail, contains adipose, connective, muscle, and nerve tissue, and is covered by skin. Pseudotails represent a variety of lesions having in common a lumbosacral protrusion and a superficial resemblance to vestigial tails. A review of the case reports indicates spina bifida to be the most frequent coexisting anomaly with both. A review of occult spinal dysraphism shows it to be associated with cutaneous signs in more than 50% of instances. Three cases of spinal dysraphism with tail-like cutaneous structures are described and their radiological, operative, and pathological findings presented. The classification of each of the appendages into true tail or pseudotail remains obscure. Although the finding of these three tails was the subject of much curiosity, surgical treatment was clearly designed to adequately deal with the associated dysraphic state. The presence of a tail-like appendage in the lumbosacral region should alert the clinician to the possibility of underlying spinal dysraphism. Preoperative assessment must include a complete neurological history and examination as well as computed tomographic or magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:1779337

Belzberg, A J; Myles, S T; Trevenen, C L

1991-10-01

103

Ecotechnological approach for consolidation of uranium tailings.  

PubMed

Present study has been undertaken to consolidate radioactivity in uranium mill tailings at Jaduguda, Jharkhand, India.Tailings that remain after processing of ore are released in tailing ponds specially designed for the purpose. The degraded tailing ponds have been capped with 30 cm. thick soil cover. For cosolidation of radioactivity in the tailings firstly the selected plant species should not have any socioeconomic relevance in that area and secondly, uptake of uranium by selected plants has to be low to avoid its dissemination in any form in environment. Seven native plant species of forestry origin were used for experimental trials. Above ground growth has been measured for two years under ex- situ and in- situ conditions. Distribution and concentration of uranium have been evaluated in tailing pond soil as well as tailings. Uranium uptake by plants has been evaluated and discussed in this paper. The highest concentration of uranium has been found in the order as: in tailings > soil cover on tailings > roots of selected plant species > shoots of all the selected species. These results show that among seven species tried Jatropha gossypifolia and Furcraea foetida have lowest uptake (below detectable limit), while Saccharum spontaneum and Pogostemon benghalense have comparatively higher uptake among the studied species. PMID:23029938

Soni, Prafulla; Singh, Lal

2011-07-01

104

CAUSES OF MORTALITY IN WHITE-TAILED SEA EAGLES FROM GERMANY  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed Sea Eagles Haliaeetus albicilla found moribund or dead in the field were submitted for necropsy to the Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research (IZW) and to the Institute for Food, Drugs and Animal Diseases (ILAT), Berlin, Germany. The moribund eagles had died in rehabilitation stations or were euthanized. Onehundred-twenty White-tailed Sea Eagles were examined between 1990 and 2000, comprising

Oliver Krone; Torsten Langgemach; Paul Sömmer; Norbert Kenntner

105

A generalized female bias for long tails in a short-tailed widowbird.  

PubMed Central

Tail elongation in the polygynous widowbirds (Euplectes spp.) has evoked both adaptive and non-adaptive explanations. Female choice has been shown in the three longest tailed species (20-50 cm), whereas an agonistic function was proposed for a medium-tailed (10 cm) widowbird. To test the generality and directionality of sexual selection on tail length in widowbirds, we experimentally investigated selection in the relatively short-tailed (7 cm) red-shouldered widowbirds (E. axillaris). Prior to territory establishment, males were assigned to four tail-treatment groups; control, short, long and supernormal (similar to a sympatric long-tailed congener). No effects on male competition were detected as the groups were equally successful in acquiring territories of similar size and quality. However, mating success among the 92 territorial males was strongly skewed in favour of supernormal-tailed males (62% of active nests; 5.2 +/- 1.3 nests per territory). Long-tailed males also acquired more nests (1.9 +/- 0.7) than control (0.7 +/- 0.5) and short-tailed (0.5 +/- 0.3) males, while the latter two groups did not differ significantly. These results support a general, open-ended female preference for long tails in widowbirds and may represent a receiver bias that arose early in their divergence from the short-tailed weaverbirds (Ploceinae).

Pryke, Sarah R; Andersson, Staffan

2002-01-01

106

Mine tailings integrated investigations: The case of Rio tailings (Panasqueira Mine, Central Portugal)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining generates huge quantities of waste materials from ore extraction and milling operations, which accumulate in tailings and open impoundments. The risks associated with mine tailings have different nature, namely stability, rupture, surface and groundwater contamination, acid mine drainage (AMD) and precipitation of secondary minerals. In fact catastrophic failure of tailings impoundments has occurred, transporting slurry, dissolved metals and fine

C. Grangeia; P. Ávila; M. Matias; E. Ferreira da Silva

2011-01-01

107

Prenatal Diagnosis of ‘True Tail’ with Cartilage Content?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A human tail is a rare congenital anomaly with a prominent lesion from the lumbosacrococcygeal region. According to Dao and Netzky human tails are classified into ‘true tails’ and ‘pseudotails’. True tails comprise only mesenchymal tissue (adipose, connective, muscle, nerve tissue, blood vessels, and cutis). They are presumed to be remnants of the embryologic tail. All other lumbosacrococcygeal protrusions are

Frank Noack; Erich Reusche; Ulrich Gembruch

2003-01-01

108

Comet tail formation: Giotto observations  

SciTech Connect

The process of mass loading of the solar wind by cometary ions, which forms comet tails, has been observed throughout the coma of comet Halley. Three distinct regimes were found where the nature of the energy and momentum coupling between solar wind and cometary ions is different. Outside the bow shock, where there is little angular scattering of the freshly ionized particles, the coupling is described by the simple pickup trajectory and the energy is controlled by the angle between the flow and the magnetic field. Just inside the bow shock, there is considerable scattering accompanied by another acceleration process which raises some particle energies well above the straightforward pickup value. Finally, closer to the nucleus, the amount of scattering decreases and the coupling is once more controlled by the magnetic field direction. 4 refs., 3 figs.

Wilken, B.; Jockers, K.; Johnstone, A.; Coates, A.; Heath, J.; Formisano, V.; Amata, E.; Winningham, J.D.; Thomsen, M.; Bryant, D.A.

1986-01-01

109

Tail reconnection triggering substorm onset.  

PubMed

Magnetospheric substorms explosively release solar wind energy previously stored in Earth's magnetotail, encompassing the entire magnetosphere and producing spectacular auroral displays. It has been unclear whether a substorm is triggered by a disruption of the electrical current flowing across the near-Earth magnetotail, at approximately 10 R(E) (R(E): Earth radius, or 6374 kilometers), or by the process of magnetic reconnection typically seen farther out in the magnetotail, at approximately 20 to 30 R(E). We report on simultaneous measurements in the magnetotail at multiple distances, at the time of substorm onset. Reconnection was observed at 20 R(E), at least 1.5 minutes before auroral intensification, at least 2 minutes before substorm expansion, and about 3 minutes before near-Earth current disruption. These results demonstrate that substorms are likely initiated by tail reconnection. PMID:18653845

Angelopoulos, Vassilis; McFadden, James P; Larson, Davin; Carlson, Charles W; Mende, Stephen B; Frey, Harald; Phan, Tai; Sibeck, David G; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Auster, Uli; Donovan, Eric; Mann, Ian R; Rae, I Jonathan; Russell, Christopher T; Runov, Andrei; Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Kepko, Larry

2008-07-24

110

The histone tails of the nucleosome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reversible acetylation of core histone tails plays an important role in the regulation of eukaryotic transcription, in the formation of repressive chromatin complexes, and in the inactivation of whole chromosomes. The high-resolution X-ray structure of the nucleosome core particle, as well as earlier evidence, suggests that the histone tails are largely responsible for the assembly of nucleosomes into chromatin fibers

Karolin Luger; Timothy J Richmond

1998-01-01

111

Vertical tail buffeting of fighter aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical tail buffeting at high angles of attack is a phenomenon associated with the impact of vortical flows generated by the aircraft on the fins. This poses a serious problem for both single- and twin-tail fighter aircraft from the point of view of combat maneuverability and structural integrity. The research activities to understand the flow physics with an aim to

B. H. K. Lee

2000-01-01

112

Human Tail: Nature’s Aberration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human tail refers to a congenital cutaneous appendix protruding from the lumbosacral region. It is usually associated with an underlying spina bifida occulta, a form of spinal dysraphism. A contiguous fibrolipoma can sometimes be seen extending from the subcutaneous portion of the tail into the inferior spinal cord, resulting in tethered cord syndrome. Management of such lesions includes complete neurologic

Dipti Kumar; Akshay Kapoor

2012-01-01

113

Groundwater pollution due to a tailings dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1982, the Oman Mining Company (OMC) commenced copper mining and smelting operations in the area of Sohar (Wadi Suq), Sultanate of Oman. Seawater was used for mining operations until 1993. During this period, 11 million tonnes of tailings had been deposited behind an unlined tailings dam. This has resulted in a major groundwater pollution problem.This paper presents results from

R. S Sharma; T. S Al-Busaidi

2001-01-01

114

MINE TAILINGS DAMS: WHEN THINGS GO WRONG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mine tailings impoundment failures continue to occur at unacceptable rates. The worldwide mining industry has experienced roughly one significant impoundment failure per year over the past 30 years. Many of these failure events have resulted in massive damage, severe economical impact and, in several cases, loss of life. A tailings impoundment failure case history database has been developed. In addition

Michael Davies; Todd Martin; Peter Lighthall

115

Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining activities in Chile have generated large amounts of solid waste, which have been deposited in mine tailing impoundments. These impoundments cause concern to the communities due to dam failures or natural leaching to groundwater and rivers.This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. The results show that electric current could remove copper

Henrik K. Hansen; Adrián Rojo; Lisbeth M. Ottosen

2005-01-01

116

Developmental study on reduction and kinks of the tail in a new mutant knotty-tail mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The knotty-tail (knt\\/knt) mouse has a short and knotty tail. The tail deformity is caused by a decrease in the number of caudal vertebrae and a deformity of them in the distal part of the tail. The objective of the study was to determine how reduction and kinks of the tail region were formed during secondary body formation. By day

T. Matsuura; Isao Narama; Kiyokazu Ozaki; Masahiko Nishimura; Tomohiro Imagawa; Hiroshi Kitagawa; Masato Uehara

1998-01-01

117

TNF is required for the induction but not the maintenance of compression-induced BME signals in murine tail vertebrae: limitations of anti-TNF therapy for degenerative disc disease  

PubMed Central

While bone marrow edema (BME) is diagnostic of spondyloarthropathy, its nature remains poorly understood. In contrast, BME in ankylosing spondylitis is caused by TNF-induced vascular and cellular changes. To investigate the relationship between chronic compression and TNF signaling in compression induced BME we utilized a tail vertebrae compression model with WT, TNF-Tg and TNFR1&2?/? mice to evaluate: 1) healing following release of chronic compression, 2) induction of BME in the absence of TNFR, and 3) efficacy of anti-TNF therapy. Compression-induced normalized marrow contrast enhancement (NMCE) in WT was significantly decreased 3-fold (p<0.01) within 2 weeks of release, while the NMCE values in TNF-Tg vertebrae remained elevated, but had a significant decrease (p<0.05) by 6 weeks after the release of compression. TNFR1&2?/? mice were resistant to compression-induced BME. Anti-TNF therapy did not affect NMCE vs. placebo. Histological examination revealed that NMCE values significantly correlated with marrow vascularity and cellularity (p<0.05), which account for 76% of the variability of NMCE. Collectively, these data demonstrate a critical role for TNF in the induction of chronic compression-induced BME, but not in its maintenance. Amelioration of BME is achieved through biomechanical stability, but is not affected by anti-TNF therapy.

Papuga, M. Owen; Kwok, Edmund; You, Zhigang; Rubery, Paul T.; Dougherty, Paul E.; Pryhuber, Gloria; Beck, Christopher A.; Hilton, Matthew J.; Awad, Hani A.; Schwarz, Edward M.

2011-01-01

118

TNF is required for the induction but not the maintenance of compression-induced BME signals in murine tail vertebrae: limitations of anti-TNF therapy for degenerative disc disease.  

PubMed

While bone marrow edema (BME) is diagnostic of spondyloarthropathy, its nature remains poorly understood. In contrast, BME in ankylosing spondylitis is caused by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced vascular and cellular changes. To investigate the relationship between chronic compression and TNF signaling in compression-induced BME we utilized a tail vertebrae compression model with WT, TNF-Tg, and TNFR1&2-/- mice to evaluate: (i) healing following release of chronic compression, (ii) induction of BME in the absence of TNFR, and (iii) efficacy of anti-TNF therapy. Compression-induced normalized marrow contrast enhancement (NMCE) in WT was significantly decreased threefold (p?

Papuga, M Owen; Kwok, Edmund; You, Zhigang; Rubery, Paul T; Dougherty, Paul E; Pryhuber, Gloria; Beck, Christopher A; Hilton, Matthew J; Awad, Hani A; Schwarz, Edward M

2011-03-28

119

Tail loss compromises immunity in the many-lined skink, Eutropis multifasciata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tail autotomy incurs energetic costs, and thus, a trade-off in resource allocation may lead to compromised immunity in lizards. We tested the hypothesis that tailless lizards will favor constitutive innate immunity responses over an energetically costly inflammatory response. The influence of fasting and colorful ornamentation was also investigated. We experimentally induced tail autotomy in the lizard Eutropis multifasciata and found that inflammation was suppressed by tail loss, but not further affected by fasting; the suppressive effect of colorful ornamentation was manifested only in males, but not in females. Constitutive innate immunity was not affected by any of these factors. As expected, only costly inflammation was compromised, and a less expensive constitutive innate immunity might be favored as a competent first-line defense during energetically demanding periods. After considering conventional trade-offs among tail regeneration and reproduction, further extending these studies to incorporate disease risk and how this influences escape responses to predators and future reproduction would make worthwhile studies.

Kuo, Chi-Chien; Yao, Chiou-Ju; Lin, Te-En; Liu, Hsu-Che; Hsu, Yu-Cheng; Hsieh, Ming-Kun; Huang, Wen-San

2013-04-01

120

Strengthening of solidified dilute tailings slurry  

SciTech Connect

Tailings produced during mineral processing contain up to 75% or more water and are pumped into settling ponds for disposal. They often become a pollution source due to acid generation. While tailings have been used in underground backfill, the use is very limited at present. This paper presents research results on direct solidification and strengthening of the dilute tailings slurry without dewatering. Two types of tailings were tested at water/binder ratios of up to 4.5 using a special high-water binder. Adequate strength was achieved by solidifying the tailings as is. To further improve the strength, sands and fly ash were used as reinforcement materials or partial replacement of the binder. For oil sands tailings, the 3-day strength was increased by up to 114% with 10--15% additives. For hard rock tailings, up to 30% strength gain was achieved with 15% fly ash addition, and the strength was increased by up to 36% at 10% binder replacement and no strength reduction was observed at 20--25% replacement. These results indicate that higher strength can be achieved with the proper amount of additives and that the backfill process can be simplified and the operation cost reduced.

Zou, D.H.; Li, L.P. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. Mining and Metallurgical Engineering

1999-01-01

121

75 FR 62445 - Otter Tail Valley Railroad Company, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Otter Tail County, MN  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. AB 330 (Sub-No. 4X)] Otter Tail Valley Railroad Company, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-- in Otter Tail County, MN Otter Tail Valley Railroad Company, Inc. (OTVR) filed a verified notice...

2010-10-08

122

Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The sources of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief flybys certainly include Mercury’s proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet’s lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute. In particular, Mercury’s very brief Dungey cycle, ~ 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation, allows for very rapid transitions to new equilibrium states. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury’s magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury’s tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.

Slavin, J. A.

2010-12-01

123

How do birds' tails work? Delta-wing theory fails to predict tail shape during flight.  

PubMed Central

Birds appear to use their tails during flight, but until recently the aerodynamic role that tails fulfil was largely unknown. In recent years delta-wing theory, devised to predict the aerodynamics of high-performance aircraft, has been applied to the tails of birds and has been successful in providing a model for the aerodynamics of a bird's tail. This theory now provides the conventional explanation for how birds' tails work. A delta-wing theory (slender-wing theory) has been used, as part of a variable-geometry model to predict how tail and wing shape should vary during flight at different airspeeds. We tested these predictions using barn swallows flying in a wind tunnel. We show that the predictions are not quantitatively well supported. This suggests that a new theory or a modified version of delta-wing theory is needed to adequately explain the way in which morphology varies during flight.

Evans, Matthew R; Rosen, Mikael; Park, Kirsty J; Hedenstrom, Anders

2002-01-01

124

Active Tails Enhance Arboreal Acrobatics in Geckos.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Geckos are nature's elite climbers. Their remarkable climbing feats have been attributed to specialized feet with hairy toes that uncurl and peel in milliseconds. Here, we report that the secret to the gecko s arboreal acrobatics includes an active tail. ...

A. Jusufi D. I. Goldman R. J. Full S. Revzen

2008-01-01

125

PREDATION ON MEXICAN FREE-TAILED BATS BY PEREGRINE FALCONS AND RED-TAILED HAWKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observed Red-tailed Hawks (Buteojamaicensis) and Peregrine Falcons (Falcoperegrinus) hunt- ing Mexican free-tailed bats (7kdarida brasiliensis) during their evening emergence and dawn return at Frio Cave, Uvalde County, Texas in the summer of 1997. Predation by Red-tailed Hawks occurred primarily in the evening (89.5%), and predation by Peregrine Falcons was mostly at dawn (90.5%). In the evening, hawks appeared when

YEN-MIN Kto

2001-01-01

126

ACTIVE VERTICAL TAIL BUFFETING ALLEVIATION ON A TWIN-TAIL FIGHTER CONFIGURATION IN A WIND TUNNEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1\\/6-scale F-18 wind-tunnel model was tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of the Actively Controlled Response Of Buffet-Affected Tails (ACROBAT) program to assess the use of active controls in reducing vertical tail buffeting. The starboard vertical tail was equipped with an active rudder and other aerodynamic devices, and the port vertical

Robert W. Moses

127

The sodium tail of the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping “hot” component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience

M. Matta; S. Smith; J. Baumgardner; J. Wilson; C. Martinis; M. Mendillo

2009-01-01

128

Probing the long tail of the magnetosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ISEE-3 spacecraft has discovered a recognizable tail of the earth's magnetosphere which extends a million km beyond the moon's orbit. In the plasma sheet of the distant tail, plasma was found to be moving tailward as fast as 1000 km\\/sec, which is much faster than the speeds of a few tens of km\\/sec detected near the earth. Attention is

R. A. Kerr

1984-01-01

129

The ‘human tail’ causing tethered cervical cord  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Human tails continue to elicit curiosity till the present times. A unique case of human cervical dysraphism is described.Objectives:In addition to the cosmetic stigma, these cutaneous markers provide a lead to reach the underlying spinal dysraphic states.Setting:Plains of North India.Methods:A case of human tail at the neck region is presented, whose cutaneous deformity lead the clinicians to his underlying

S Mohindra

2007-01-01

130

Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings.  

PubMed

Mining activities in Chile have generated large amounts of solid waste, which have been deposited in mine tailing impoundments. These impoundments cause concern to the communities due to dam failures or natural leaching to groundwater and rivers. This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. The results show that electric current could remove copper from watery tailing if the potential gradient was higher than 2 V/cm during 21 days. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was enhanced because the pH decreased to around 4, and the copper by this reason was released in the solution. Furthermore, with acidic tailing the potential gradient was less than 2 V/cm. The maximum copper removal reached in the anode side was 53% with addition of sulphuric acid in 21 days experiment at 20 V using approximately 1.8 kg mine tailing on dry basis. In addition, experiments with acidic tailing show that the copper removal is proportional with time. PMID:15629576

Hansen, Henrik K; Rojo, Adrián; Ottosen, Lisbeth M

2005-01-31

131

Field investigation of evaporation from freshwater tailings  

SciTech Connect

Safe and economical storage of tailings is now a major consideration in the operation of many mining operations. Tailings in slurried form, particularly if they have a significant clay content, can take a very long time to consolidate under the action of self-weight consolidation alone. However, if the operation is located in an area of high potential evaporation, this can be used to accelerate the rate of tailings densification. This paper presents a study of the evaporation behavior of a clayey tailings slurry deposited into an evaporation pond in the southwest of Western Australia. Over a six-month period, the rate of evaporation from the tailings surface was monitored using the Bowen Ratio method and the microlysimeter method. This was compared with the evaporation from a Class A pan located nearby. The tailings underwent very significant cracking as drying proceeded, and it was found that these cracks had a significant influence on the overall rate of evaporation once the top surface of the deposit started to desaturate. A large strain consolidation model was used to model the behavior, and the algorithm used in this model to include the effects of evaporation is shown to provide a reasonable prediction of the observed evaporation behavior.

Fujiyasu, Yoshimasa; Fahey, M.; Newson, T.

2000-06-01

132

EXPOSURE OF WHITE TAILED DEER TO BOVINE DIARRHEA VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The importance of white tail deer as a reservoir of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has been a point of controversy. The objective of this project was to observe the infectivity of BVDV white tail deer isolates in white tailed deer. Eight white tailed deer fawn 2-4 weeks in age were divided int...

133

Detection and tracking of low contrast human sperm tail  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracking sperm tail movement provides important information for clinical sperm research. It is also a crucial step for sperm immobilization in Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI). However, the low visibility of the sperm tail under optical microscopy, coupled with the sperm fast motility, render sperm tail identification and tracking challenging tasks to execute. This paper presents two approaches for sperm tail

Clement Leung; Zhe Lu; Navid Esfandiari; Robert F. Casper; Yu Sun

2010-01-01

134

Clinical and Myopathological Characteristics of Desminopathy Caused by a Mutation in Desmin Tail Domain  

PubMed Central

Background Most of the previously described pathogenic mutations in desmin are located in highly conserved ?-helical domains that play an important role in intermediate filament assembly. The role of the C-terminus non-?-helical “tail” domain is much less investigated and until recently mutations in this domain have been implicated in only a few patients. The majority of reported desminopathy cases caused by the tail mutations were sporadic, creating a representation bias regarding the disease frequency and phenotypic characteristics. Methods We performed detailed genotype-phenotype analysis of autosomal dominant desminopathy associated with tail domain mutations in a 4-generation autosomal dominant family with 16 members affected by a progressive cardiac and/or skeletal myopathy caused by a c.1346A>C (p.Lys449Thr) mutation located in the tail domain of desmin. Results Phenotypic features in patients with tail domain mutations are similar to those in patients with mutations localized in the 1B and 2B ?-helical domains. Conclusion We recommend that the tail domain is searched for mutations as intensely as desmin coil domains which until recently were considered to be more “functional”.

Maddison, Paul; Damian, Maxwell S.; Sewry, Caroline; McGorrian, Catherine; Winer, John B.; Odgerel, Zagaa; Shatunov, Alexey; Lee, Hee Suk.; Goldfarb, Lev G.

2013-01-01

135

Phytoremediation of Alberta oil sand tailings using native plants and fungal endophytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fungal endophytes colonize host plants without causing disease. Some endophytes confer plant tolerance to harsh environments. One such endophyte, Trichoderma harzianum strain TSTh20-1, was isolated from a plant growing on Athabasca oil sand tailings. Tailing sands are a high volume waste product from oil sand extraction that the industry is required to remediate. Tailing sands are low in organic carbon and mineral nutrients, and are hydrophobic due to residual polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Typically, tailing sands are remediated by planting young trees in large quantities of mulch plus mineral fertilizer, which is costly and labour intensive. In greenhouse trials, TSTh20-1 supports growth of tomato seedlings on tailing sands without fertilizer. The potential use of TSTh20-1 in combination with native grasses and forbs to remediate under field conditions is being assessed. Twenty-three commercially available plant species are being screened for seed germination and growth on tailing sands in the presence of TSTh20-1. The best candidates from this group will be used in greenhouse and small scale field trials. Potential mechanisms that contribute to endophyte-induced plant growth promotion, such as plant hormone production, stress tolerance, mineral solubilization, and uptake are also being assessed. As well, TSTh20-1 appears to be remarkably frugal in its nutrient requirements and the possibility that this attribute is characteristic of other plant-fungal endophytes from harsh environments is under study.

Repas, T.; Germida, J.; Kaminskyj, S.

2012-04-01

136

Differential Pathogenicity of SHIVSF162 P4 Infection in Pig-tailed and Rhesus Macaques  

PubMed Central

Background Differential pathogenicity has been observed in cynomolgus and rhesus macaques following primate lentivirus infection. However, little is known about the comparative susceptibility of pig-tailed macaques to lentivirus infection and diseases. Methods We compared the in vivo infectivity and pathogenicity of a CCR5-tropic SHIVSF162 P4 after intravenous, intravaginal or intrarectal inoculation in rhesus and pig-tailed macaques. Plasma viral load, peripheral blood CD4+ T cell counts and clinical signs were monitored. Results Both rhesus and pig-tailed macaques are similarly susceptible to SHIVSF162 P4 infection by intravenous and mucosal routes. However, SHIV replication was significantly more robust in pig-tailed macaques than in rhesus, resulting in persistent viremia in 9/21 pig-tails vs. 2/24 rhesus (p<0.013) and severe CD4+ T-cell depletion in 2/21 pig-tails (vs. none in rhesus). Conclusions Together with earlier observations, our findings underscore the importance of considering host genetic and immunological factors when comparing vaccine efficacy in different macaque species.

Polacino, Patricia; Larsen, Kay; Galmin, Lindsey; Suschak, John; Kraft, Zane; Stamatatos, Leonides; Anderson, David; Barnett, Susan W.; Pal, Ranajit; Bost, Kristen; Bandivdekar, A. H.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hu, Shiu-Lok

2009-01-01

137

Yaba-like disease virus protein Y144R, a member of the complement control protein family, is present on enveloped virions that are associated with virus-induced actin tails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yaba-like disease virus (YLDV) is a yatapoxvirus, a group of slow-growing poxviruses from primates. Analysis of the growth cycle of YLDV in tissue culture showed that maximum virus titres were reached 3 days post-infection and at this time only 3?3 % of infectious progeny was extracellular. The intracellular and extracellular virions have different buoyant densities and are separable on CsCl

Mansun Law; Michael Hollinshead; Han-Joo Lee; Geoffrey L. Smith

2004-01-01

138

Tail buffet alleviation of high performance twin tail aircraft using offset piezoceramic stack actuators and acceleration feedback control  

Microsoft Academic Search

In High Performance Twin-Tail Aircraft (HPTTA), tail buffet occurs during high angles of attack maneuvers. At high angles of attack, flow separates and vortices are convected by the geometry of the wing-fuselage interface toward the vertical tails. This phenomenon, along with the aeroelastic coupling of the tail structural assembly, results in vibrations that can shorten the fatigue life of the

Maxime P. Bayon de Noyer

1999-01-01

139

Interference with the cytoplasmic tail of gp210 disrupts \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

e tested the hypothesis that gp210, an integral membrane protein of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), mediates nuclear pore formation. Gp210 has a large lumenal domain and small COOH-terminal tail exposed to the cytoplasm. We studied the exposed tail. We added recombinant tail polypeptides to Xenopus nuclear assembly extracts, or inhibited endogenous gp210 tails using anti-tail antibodies. Both strategies had no

Sheona P. Drummond; Katherine L. Wilson

2002-01-01

140

Why do Birds have Tails? The Tail as a Drag Reducing Flap, and Trim Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Birds have tails, bats do not. Does this fundamental difference in flight morphology reveal a difference in flight capability, and if so are birds or bats better fliers? I use Munk's stagger theorem, and Prandtl's relation for the induced drag of a biplane to show that for a given lift, and given wingspan, the induced drag of the wing-tail combination

Adrian L. R. Thomas

1996-01-01

141

Forest cover influences dispersal distance of white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Animal dispersal patterns influence gene flow, disease spread, population dynamics, spread of invasive species, and establishment of rare or endangered species. Although differences in dispersal distances among taxa have been reported, few studies have described plasticity of dispersal distance among populations of a single species. In 2002-2003, we radiomarked 308 juvenile (7- to 10-month-old), male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 2 study areas in Pennsylvania. By using a meta-analysis approach, we compared dispersal rates and distances from these populations together with published reports of 10 other nonmigratory populations of white-tailed deer. Population density did not influence dispersal rate or dispersal distance, nor did forest cover influence dispersal rate. However, average (r2 = 0.94, P < 0.001, d.f. = 9) and maximum (r2 = 0.86, P = 0.001, d.f. = 7) dispersal distances of juvenile male deer were greater in habitats with less forest cover. Hence, dispersal behavior of this habitat generalist varies, and use of landscape data to predict population-specific dispersal distances may aid efforts to model population spread, gene flow, or disease transmission. ?? 2005 American Society of Mammalogists.

Long, E. S.; Diefenbach, D. R.; Rosenberry, C. S.; Wallingford, B. D.; Grund, M. D.

2005-01-01

142

Bacteriological colonisation of uterine cavity: role of tailed intrauterine contraceptive device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs) are thought to cause pelvic inflammatory disease by allowing vaginal bacteria to pass into the uterus along the tail of the device. In this study the uterine cavities of 22 women using an IUCD were examined by a multiple biopsy technique. All five uteruses with a tailless IUCD were sterile but 15 out of 17 with

R A Sparks; B G Purrier; P J Watt; M Elstein

1981-01-01

143

Update on vaccination of white-tailed deer with Mycobacterium bovis BCG: Safety and Efficacy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 1994, white-tailed deer in northeast Michigan were found to be harboring Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of tuberculosis in most animals including humans. Although deer likely contracted tuberculosis from cattle in the early 20th century, when the disease was present in Michigan cattle, ...

144

EPIDEMIOLOGIC FEATURES OF AN INTRACRANIAL ABSCESSATION\\/SUPPURATIVE MENINGOENCEPHALITIS COMPLEX IN WHITE-TAILED DEER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Case records of 683 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) submitted to the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study (Georgia, USA) for diagnostic purposes from 1971 to 1989 were reviewed for the occurrence of pyogenic infections of the central nervous system, specifically intracranial abscessation or suppurative meningoencephalitis. These conditions, either alone or in combination, were diagnosed in 24 of 683 (4%) deer. Thirteen

William R. Davidson; Victor F. Nettles; Lynn E. Hayes; Elizabeth W. Howerth; C. Edward Couvillion

145

CONGENITAL POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY IN A WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Polycystic kidney and liver disease was seen in a stillborn white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn. Bilaterally enlarged kidneys were characterized by severe dilatation of all renal tubules. Glomeruli were reduced in number, small and located within a dilated Bowman's capsule. The liver was...

146

White-Tailed Deer Susceptible to Scrapie by Natural Route of Infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. Previous experiments demonstrated that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep-derived scrapie by intracranial inoculation. The purpose of an ongoing study is to...

147

Characterization of syncrude sludge pond tailings  

SciTech Connect

The hot water process used by Suncor and Syncrude to extract bitumen from the Athabasca Oil Sands produces large volumes of tailings slurry. The fine grained sludge component of this waste is the most troublesome because of its stability and poor compaction potential. The sludge apparently owes its stability substantially to a complex interaction between organic coated amorphous particles, clays and bitumens. In this study the authors have investigated the nature of both the minerals and the associated organic matter present in a thickened, aqueous tailings sludge sample, from the syncrude Canada Limited plant. The findings of this study could be helpful in providing some insight into the nature of tailings pond sludge, a problem which poses the most imminent environmental constraint to future use of the hot water process.

Majid, A.; Boyko, V.J.; Sparks, B.D.; Ripmeester, J.A. (National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)); Kodama, H. (Chemistry and Biology Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

1990-01-01

148

Design of tailing dam using red mud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Red mud, waste industrial product from aluminum industries produced approximately 75 million tonnes every year with less than half of this is used. Storage of this unutilized red mud takes vast tracts of usable land and pollutes, land, air and water. Construction of high embankments, under passes, flyovers, tailing dams uses vast tract of natural resources (top soil) is also matter of concern as its takes thousands of years to form the natural soil. This paper discusses use of red mud for construction of tailing dam based on laboratory findings and finite element analysis. The geotechnical properties such as plasticity, compaction, permeability, shear strength characteristics and dispersion of red mud are presented. Stability and seepage analysis of tailing dams as per finite element analysis using the above geotechnical parameters is presented.

Rout, Subrat K.; Sahoo, Tapaswini; Das, Sarat K.

2013-06-01

149

Europa's FUV auroral tail on Jupiter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultraviolet images of Jupiter's northern aurora obtained in 2005 confirm the existence of an electromagnetic interaction between Europa and the Jovian ionosphere. The auroral signature shows a two-component structure: a quasi-circular Europa spot, followed by a previously undetected faint tail emission trailing in the direction of corotation flow. The characteristic brightness for the auroral spot is ~14 +/- 1 kR above background, and approximately 7 +/- 1 kR for the tail. The spot's size is ~1100 km, magnetically mapping to an interaction region <=15 Europa diameters. The auroral tail extends over ~5000 km, which maps along a region of at least 70 Europa diameters. The ultraviolet power emitted by both components varies from a fraction to several GW. The present study suggests auroral interaction at Europa similar to that at Io, but scaled-down by an order of magnitude, including a sub-corotating plasma plume in the geometrical wake of Europa.

Grodent, D.; Gérard, J.-C.; Gustin, J.; Mauk, B. H.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Clarke, J. T.

2006-03-01

150

Wake Filling by Active Tail Articulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a viscous fluid, the no slip boundary condition results in a surface drag force on a moving streamlined body, such as a hydrofoil, which causes a downstream wake velocity defect. In this paper, experimental results are presented which show that articulation of a trailing edge tail flap on a hydrofoil is sufficient to diminish the mean wake velocity defect. A 3 inch chord length NACA 0020 hydrofoil with a 1 inch long flapping trailing edge section was mounted in the research water tunnel at NUWC, Newport. Tests were conducted at speeds of 1, 2, and 4 m/s and the tail was flapped sinusoidally with amplitudes of 5, 10, and 20 degrees at varying frequencies. Time averaged velocity data was taken 1 chord length downstream by laser doppler velocimetry, LDV. Measurements with zero tail deflection show a velocity defect behind the hydrofoil of magnitude u/U = 0.88 and coefficient of drag, Cd, of approximately 0.02. Active articulation measurements show two regimes of wake filling. At very low Strouhal numbers it was found that tail articulation increases drag and is not useful for wake filling. In this range Cd is a function of flap deflection amplitude, St, and Re. However, above a certain threshold value, approximately St = 0.01, tail articulation begins to lessen the mean drag until Cd goes to zero around St = 0.06. At even higher St, tail articulation begins to produce thrust, resulting in a negative value of Cd. In the useful wake filling region, St 0.01, Cd seems to collapse to be a function of St only.

Macumber, Daniel; Beal, David; Annaswamy, Anuradha; Henoch, Charles; Huyer, Stephen

2004-11-01

151

Radial tail resolution in the SELEX RICH  

SciTech Connect

The authors use a 7 Million event data sample of 600 GeV/c single track pion events, where the pion track is reconstructed upstream and downstream of the SELEX RICH. They build the RICH ring radius histogram distribution and count the tail events that fall outside 5{sigma}, giving a fraction of 4 x 10{sup -5} events outside the Gaussian tails. This control of events establishes the ability of using the RICH as velocity spectrometer for high precision searches of the K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +} {nu}{bar {nu}} decay like it is planned in the CKM experiment.

Morelos, A.; Mata, J.; Cooper, P.S.; Engelfried, J.; Aguilera-Servin, J.L.; /San Luis Potosi U. /Fermilab

2005-01-01

152

Containment systems for uranium-mill tailings  

SciTech Connect

Cover and liner systems for uranium mill tailings in the United States must satisfy stringent requirements regarding long-term stability, radon control, and radionuclide and hazardous chemical migration. The cover and liner technology discussed in this paper involves: (1) single and multilayer earthen cover systems; (2) asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems; and (3) asphalt, clay, and synthetic liner systems. These systems have been field tested at the Grand Junction, Colorado, tailings pile, where they have been shown to effectively reduce radon releases and radionuclide and chemical migration.

Hartley, J.N.; Buelt, J.L.

1982-11-01

153

Dynamics of Histone Tails within Chromatin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetic information in humans is encoded within DNA molecules that is wrapped around histone octamer proteins and compacted into a highly conserved structural polymer, chromatin. The physical and material properties of chromatin appear to influence gene expression by altering the accessibility of proteins to the DNA. The tails of the histones are flexible domains that are thought to play a role in regulating DNA accessibility and compaction; however the molecular mechanisms for these phenomena are not understood. I will present CW-EPR studies on site directed spin labeled nucleosomes that probe the structure and dynamics of these histone tails within nucleosomes.

Bernier, Morgan; North, Justin; Page, Michael; Jaroniec, Christopher; Hammel, Christopher; Poirier, Michael

2012-02-01

154

Research Model Wing/Tail Fabrication.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design and construction of a transonic wind-tunnel model has been completed. The 1/7.5-scale model can be equipped with an all-flying low-, mid-, or T-tail. A baseline, linear element wing and an alternate wing of identical planform, but with chordwis...

R. A. Cox

1982-01-01

155

Canadian Experience with Uranium Tailings Disposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the first years of uranium production in Canada uranium tailings were discharged directly into valleys or lakes near the mill. Treatment with barium chloride to precipitate radium began in 1965 at the Nordic Mine at Elliot Lake, Ontario. In the mid...

K. B. Culver

1982-01-01

156

White-tailed spider bites - arachnophobic fallout?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim To investigate if public concern regarding the toxic effects of the bites from white-tailed spiders, Lampona cylindrata and L. murina, is reflected in the case histories of patients admitted to Christchurch Hospital with a diagnosis of spider bite. Methods The case histories of patients admitted to Christchurch Hospital with a diagnosis of 'contact with venomous spiders' were examined for

Jonathan Banks; Phil Sirvid; Cor Vink

157

Functional morphology of the aardvark tail.  

PubMed

The musculoskeletal system of the aardvark (Orycteropus afer) tail was morphologically examined in two adult specimens. The tail musculature comprised three muscular groups, viz. a dorsal sacrocaudal system that consisted of the irregularly oriented Musculus sacrocaudalis dorsalis medialis and M. sacrocaudalis dorsalis lateralis, a lateral inter-vertebral connecting system, and a ventral sacrocaudal system characterized by the thick M. sacrocaudalis ventralis lateralis and M. sacrocaudalis ventralis medialis. Both the dorsal and ventral systems possessed large tendon groups that strengthened the tail structure. Computed tomography (CT) examination showed the presence of large but homogeneous cartilaginous inter-vertebral discs, whereas V-shaped bones were situated at the ventral aspect of the caudal vertebrae at the level of the inter-vertebral discs. CT visualization of the tendons and V-shaped bones in various tail positions suggested that these structures contribute to the tunnel digging action by bearing the trunk weight and lending force when the aardvark are displacing the soil by means of the forelimbs. PMID:22713114

Endo, H; Mori, K; Koyabu, D; Kawada, S; Komiya, T; Itou, T; Koie, H; Kitagawa, M; Sakai, T

2012-06-19

158

Design of Tailings Dams and Impoundments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of practice for tailings dam and impoundment design is summarized. The design process, which embraces construction, operational and closure issues together with requisite technical aspects, has evolved over the past several decades though the engineering principles have remained the same. The design process has evolved to meet the demands of a regulatory environment that has become increasingly stringent

Michael P. Davies; Peter C. Lighthall; Steve Rice; Todd E. Martin

159

Mine Waste Technology Program Electrochemical Tailings Cover  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 40, Electrochemical Tailings Cover, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). MSE Technology A...

160

Optimal Reinsurance Arrangements Under Tail Risk Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Regulatory authorities demand insurance companies control their risk exposure by imposing stringent risk management policies. This article investigates the optimal risk management strategy of an insurance company subject to regulatory constraints. We provide optimal reinsurance contracts under different tail risk measures and analyze the impact of regulators' requirements on risk sharing in the reinsurance market. Our results underpin adverse

Carole Bernard; Weidong Tian

2009-01-01

161

Dispersal in female white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seven of 35 yearling female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a migratory herd in northeastern Minnesota dispersed 18-168 km from natal ranges during late May through June. Dispersal as a proximate event appears voluntary and independent of deer density.

Nelson, M. E.; Mech, L. D.

1992-01-01

162

Wake Filling by Active Tail Articulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a viscous fluid, the no slip boundary condition results in a surface drag force on a moving streamlined body, such as a hydrofoil, which causes a downstream wake velocity defect. In this paper, experimental results are presented which show that articulation of a trailing edge tail flap on a hydrofoil is sufficient to diminish the mean wake velocity defect.

Daniel Macumber; David Beal; Anuradha Annaswamy; Charles Henoch; Stephen Huyer

2004-01-01

163

Molasses Tail in Dense Hard Core Fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long slow decaying potential part of the shear-stress autocorrelation function has been called the ``molasses tail'' to differentiate it from the hydrodynamic origin of the long time tail in the velocity autocorrelation function and to emphasize its relation to the highly viscous glassy state [1]. Some twenty years ago, the molasses tail in dense liquids near the solid-fluid transition point was speculated to be due to transient crystal nuclei formation [2].This slow decaying process of the OACF and its decomposition (pair, triplet, and quadruplet) is a key factor in understanding the onset of the glass transition. With additional computer power, we are now investigating the origin of the molasses tail using a modern fast algorithm based on event-driven Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation.We confirm the non-algebraic decay (stretched exponential) at intermediate times corresponding to the existence of various cluster sizes a solid cluster at high densities. The decay in dense systems thus consists of a three stage relaxation process, which are the kinetic regime, the molasses regime and the diffusional power regime[3]. [1] B. J. Alder, in Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Statistical-mechanical Systems, G. Ciccotti and W. G. Hoover, eds.(North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1986) 66. [2] A. J. C. Ladd, and B. J. Alder, J. Stat. Phys. 57, 473 (1989). [3] M. Isobe and B. J. Alder, Mol. Phys., 107, 609 (2009).

Isobe, Masaharu; Alder, Berni

2010-03-01

164

Long Tail Recommender Utilizing Information Diffusion Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our approach aims to provide a mechanism for recommending long tail items to knowledge workers. The approach employs collaborative filtering using browsing features of identified key population of the diffusion of information. We conducted analytic experiment for a novel recommendation algorithm based on the browsing features of identified selected users and discovered that the first 10 users accessing a particular

Masayuki Ishikawa; Peter Géczy; Noriaki Izumi; Takahira Yamaguchi

2008-01-01

165

A Novel Asymmetric Distribution with Power Tails  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we propose a four-parameter asymmetric doubly Pareto-uniform (DPU) distribution with support (??, ?) whose density and cumulative distribution functions are constructed by seamlessly concatenating the left and right Pareto tails with a uniform central part. Properties of the distribution are described and a maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) procedure for its parameters is obtained. Two illustrative examples of

Amita Singh; J. René van Dorp; Thomas A. Mazzuchi

2007-01-01

166

CREEP RUPTURE OF WALLABY TAIL TENDONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tail tendons from wallabies ( Macropus rufogriseus) suffer creep rupture at stresses of 10 MPa or above, whereas their yield stress in a dynamic test is about 144 MPa. At stresses between 20 and 80 MPa, the time-to- rupture decreases exponentially with stress, but at 10 MPa, the lifetime is well above this exponential. For comparison, the stress on

XIAO TONG WANG; ROBERT F. KER

167

Neuroectodermal Appendages: The Human Tail Explained  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human tail has been intermittently described in the literature since the early 1900s. These have typically been isolated cases presented primarily with intrigue and medical curiosity. Presented here is a series of 6 neuroectodermal appendages with a proposal for their etiological development. The material presented will support a theory of the superficial extension of a dermal sinus tract in

Sarah J. Gaskill; Arthur E. Marlin

1989-01-01

168

Structure and Development of Cometary Tail.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The physical conditions in comets which lead to the formulation of type I-tails are discussed. The report comprises the following five seperate papers: (1) The ionization in comets; (2) brightness and structure of the Na-emission in comets; (3) the heads ...

K. Wurm

1964-01-01

169

Uranium mill tailings and risk estimation  

SciTech Connect

Work done in estimating projected health effects for persons exposed to mill tailings at vicinity properties is described. The effect of the reassessment of exposures at Hiroshima and Nagasaki on the risk estimates for gamma radiation is discussed. A presentation of current results in the epidemiological study of Hanford workers is included. 2 references. (ACR)

Marks, S.

1984-04-01

170

Investigation of environmental impacts of tailings dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining has been one of the key sectors for industrialisation of the world for centuries. As the mining activities enlarge, the amount of waste materials readily increases. Storage of waste materials or tailings disposal has become a serious matter for the mining industry due to its enlargement especially for the last 30 years. During the beneficiation of valuable metals and

Safak Ozkan; Bedri Ipekoglu

2002-01-01

171

Band tails and bandwidth in simple metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron-electron interactions are included in a calculation of the density of states for the homogeneous electron gas. The shift of the chemical potential is investigated from band tails and quasiparticle renormalization. These effects largely cancel, and the shift of the chemical potential is small.

H. O. Frota; G. D. Mahan

1992-01-01

172

Tail Pressure Release Through Auroral Acceleration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthward convecting plasma has to circumvent the Earth on its way from the tail reconnection region to the dayside magnetosphere. This leads to radially sheared flows between the corotating plasmasphere and the low-latitude boundary layer. Consequently, embedded magnetic field lines also become sheared and set up field-aligned currents which must close in the highly conducting auroral ionosphere. As- sociated electric

E. M. Blixt; J. Vogt

2001-01-01

173

Flight costs of long, sexually selected tails in hummingbirds  

PubMed Central

The elongated tails adorning many male birds have traditionally been thought to degrade flight performance by increasing body drag. However, aerodynamic interactions between the body and tail can be substantial in some contexts, and a short tail may actually reduce rather than increase overall drag. To test how tail length affects flight performance, we manipulated the tails of Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) by increasing their length with the greatly elongated tail streamers of the red-billed streamertail (Trochilus polytmus) and reducing their length by removing first the rectrices and then the entire tail (i.e. all rectrices and tail covert feathers). Flight performance was measured in a wind tunnel by measuring (i) the maximum forward speed at which the birds could fly and (ii) the metabolic cost of flight while flying at airspeeds from 0 to 14?m?s?1. We found a significant interaction effect between tail treatment and airspeed: an elongated tail increased the metabolic cost of flight by up to 11 per cent, and this effect was strongest at higher flight speeds. Maximum flight speed was concomitantly reduced by 3.4 per cent. Also, removing the entire tail decreased maximum flight speed by 2 per cent, suggesting beneficial aerodynamic effects for tails of normal length. The effects of elongation are thus subtle and airspeed-specific, suggesting that diversity in avian tail morphology is associated with only modest flight costs.

James Clark, Christopher; Dudley, Robert

2009-01-01

174

STUDY ON CAUSES OF MORTALITY IN LION-TAILED MACAQUE (MACACA SILENUS) AT ARIGNAR ANNA ZOOLOGICAL PARK, VANDALUR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of death in captive animals is essential to study diseases in captivity. Arignar Anna Zoological Park has recorded the cause of death in Lion-tailed Macaques from 1988-1999 at the zoos veterinary hospital. Analysis of post-mortem records indicated that trauma had been the main cause of deathof LTMs; others being, parasitic infectious diseases, heat stroke and heart attack.

N. Krishnakumar; A. Manimozhi

175

Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project surface project management plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Project Management Plan describes the planning, systems, and organization that shall be used to manage the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA). US DOE is authorized to stabilize and control surface tailings and ground water contamin...

1994-01-01

176

Loss of Desmoplakin Tail Causes Lethal Acantholytic Epidermolysis Bullosa*  

PubMed Central

The cytoplasmic plaque protein desmoplakin (DP), which is located in desmosomes, plays a major role in epithelial and muscle cell adhesion by linking the transmembrane cadherins to the cytoplasmic intermediate filament network. Mutations of DP may cause striate palmoplantar keratoderma, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, skin fragility/woolly hair syndrome, Naxos-like disease, and Carvajal syndrome. DP must be indispensable, because DP-/- mice are early abortive. Here, we report a patient with severe fragility of skin and mucous membranes caused by genetic truncation of the DP tail. The new phenotype is lethal in the neonatal period because of immense transcutaneous fluid loss. The phenotype also comprised universal alopecia, neonatal teeth, and nail loss. Histology showed suprabasal clefting and acantholysis throughout the spinous layer, mimicking pemphigus. Electron microscopy revealed disconnection of keratin intermediate filaments from desmosomes. Immunofluorescence staining of DP showed a distinct punctate intercellular pattern in the patient’s skin. Protein analysis revealed expression of truncated DP polypeptides. Mutational analysis of the patient demonstrated compound heterozygosity for two DP mutations, 6079C?T (R1934X) and 6370delTT, respectively. Aberrant mRNA transcripts that predict premature termination of translation with loss of the three intermediate filament-binding subdomains in the DP tail were detected by RT-PCR. The new dramatic phenotype, which we named “lethal acantholytic epidermolysis bullosa,” underscores the paramount role of DP in epidermal integrity.

Jonkman, Marcel F.; Pasmooij, Anna M. G.; Pasmans, Suzanne G. M. A.; van den Berg, Maarten P.; ter Horst, Henk J.; Timmer, Albertus; Pas, Hendri H.

2005-01-01

177

Approximating M\\/G\\/1 Waiting Time Tail Probabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new approximation formula for the waiting time tail probability of the M\\/G\\/1 queue with FIFO discipline and unlimited waiting space. The aim is to address the difficulty of obtaining good estimates when the tail probability has non-exponential asymptotics. We show that the waiting time tail probability can be expressed in terms of the waiting time tail probability

T. Sakurai

2004-01-01

178

Three Cases with Different Types of Short-Tailed Spermatozoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-tailed spermatozoa were found in 3 men attending our subfertility clinic. Light microscopy revealed basically normal sperm heads, but a short tail was found in 90% or more of the spermatozoa. Scanning and transmission electron-microscopic examinations of the ejaculate revealed several types of short-tailed spermatozoa. In one case, the majority of the spermatozoa had a short, thick tail. In another

K. Ohmori; T. Matsuda; Y. Horii; O. Yoshida

1993-01-01

179

True vestigeal tail with lumbosacral meningomyelocoel: a rare case report.  

PubMed

A human tail is a rare congenital anomaly with a prominent lesion from the lumbosacro-coccygeal region. It is usually classified either as a true tail or as a pseudo-tail. All the lumbosacro-coccygeal protrusions without the evidence of mesenchymal tissue are classified as pseudo-tail. The association of this rare vestigial entity along with meningomyelocele is rarer still. PMID:20868247

Akhil, Prakash; Ashutosh, Niranjan; Fais, Fiages; Shashank, Mishra; Sanjay, Pandey; Singhal, B M; Attri, P C; Arvind, Gupta

2010-10-01

180

Tail reconnection, from Earth to Jupiter to Saturn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconnection is an important magnetospheric process that energizes and transports plasmas. Studies of the terrestrial magnetosphere have shown that tail reconnection plays a critical role in initiating substorms. Discovery of jovian tail reconnection and the associated growth phase indicate the substorm nature of jovian tail dynamic events. The growth phase of jovian substorms is caused by the internal processes, i.e.,

Y. S. Ge; C. T. Russell; J. S. Leisner; H. Y. Wei; M. K. Dougherty; H. J. McAndrews; C. M. Jackman; M. F. Thomsen

2009-01-01

181

14. TIP TOP MINE. TAILINGS LOCATED DIRECTLY WEST FROM TIP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. TIP TOP MINE. TAILINGS LOCATED DIRECTLY WEST FROM TIP TOP HOUSE. ID-31-C-12 WOODEN STRUCTURE IS VISIBLE IN TOP LEFT. CABLES VISIBLE LEFT AND CENTER OF TAILINGS. HOUSE IS JUST OVER APEX OF TAILINGS. CAMERA POINTED EAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Tip Top Mine, West face Florida Mountain, approximately 150 feet below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

182

Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1979 annual report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uranium mill tailings are a source of low-level radiation and radioactive materials that may be released into the environment. Stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is necessary to minimize radon exhalation and other radioactive releases. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing uranium tailings is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory:

J. N. Hartley; P. L. Koehmstedt; D. J. Esterl; H. D. Freeman

1980-01-01

183

Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1980 annual report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of asphalt emulsion sealants conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory have demonstrated that the sealants are effective in containing radon and other potentially hazardous material within uranium tailings. The laboratory and field studies have further demonstrated that radon exhalation from uranium tailings piles can be reduced by greater than 99% to near background levels. Field tests at the tailings

J. N. Hartley; P. L Koehmstedt; D. J. Esterl; H. D. Freeman; J. L. Buelt; D. A. Nelson; M. R. Elmore

1981-01-01

184

Application of asphalt emulsion seals to uranium mill tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of asphalt emulsion sealants have demonstrated that the sealants are effective in containing radon and other potentially hazardous material within uranium tailings. The laboratory and field studies have further demonstrated that radon exhalation from uranium tailings piles can be reduced by greater than 99% to less than background levels. Field tests at the tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado

J. N. Hartley; P. L. Koehmstedt; D. J. Esterl; H. D. Freeman; R. L. Clark

1980-01-01

185

Relationships of tailed phages: a survey of protein sequence identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Using a multiple alignment program, we surveyed about 150 proteins from 35 tailed phages and calculated identity percentages. Sequence similarities are generally weak, indicating an extensive diversification of tailed phages. Related proteins occur in phages of different morphology and host range. DNA and RNA polymerases, integrases, muramidases, and several other tailed phage proteins appear to be acquired from bacteria.

H.-W. Ackermann; A. Elzanowski; G. Fobo; G. Stewart

1995-01-01

186

Spectrum of human tails: A report of six cases  

PubMed Central

Human tail is a curiosity, a cosmetic stigma and presents as an appendage in the lumbosacral region. Six patients of tail in the lumbosacral region are presented here to discuss the spectrum of presentation of human tails. The embryology, pathology and treatment of this entity are discussed along with a brief review of the literature.

Mukhopadhyay, Biswanath; Shukla, Ram M.; Mukhopadhyay, Madhumita; Mandal, Kartik C.; Haldar, Pankaj; Benare, Abhijit

2012-01-01

187

IMPACT PREDICTION OF THE REACTIVATION OF AN UNUSED TAILINGS DAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A frequent occurrence in areas with a long history of mining is the reactivation of mine residue deposits. This paper presents an impact prediction study conducted for the reactivation of a gold tailings dam. Two phases of new tailings deposition are proposed. The objective of the study was to assess the potential impact on downstream groundwater quality. The tailings dam

TERRY HARCK; BERNADETTE AZZIE; CATRIONA COYLE; TALITA GERMISHUYSE; RAVI VADAPALLI; ALBERT VAN ZYL

188

Grafted polymer tail\\/loop mixtures differing in chain length  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies examining the structure of monolayers formed by polymer chains grafted to a surface typically focus on chains attached at one end (tails). Bond fluctuation simulations are performed here to probe monolayers composed of equimolar mixtures of tails and double-grafted loops in which the looped chain length (Nloop) is varied at constant surface density and tail length (Ntail). Loops force

Daniel C. Driscoll; Harpreet S. Gulati; Richard J. Spontak; Carol K. Hall

1999-01-01

189

Tail-induced attraction between nucleosome core particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study a possible electrostatic mechanism underlying the compaction of DNA inside the nuclei of eucaryotes: the tail-bridging effect between nucleosomes, the fundamental DNA packaging units of the chromatin complex. As a simple model of the nucleosome we introduce the eight-tail colloid, a charged sphere with eight oppositely charged, flexible, grafted chains that represent the terminal histone tails. We show

F. Mühlbacher; H. Schiessel; C. Holm

2006-01-01

190

[Measurement and analysis of hematology and blood chemistry parameters in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina)].  

PubMed

The pig-tailed macaque is an important non-human primate experimental animal model that has been widely used in the research of AIDS and other diseases. Pig-tailed macaques include Mentawai macaques (Macaca pagensis), Sunda pig-tailed macaques (M. nemestrina) and northern pig-tailed macaques (M. leonina). Northern pig-tailed macaques inhabit China and surrounding Southeast Asia countries. To our knowledge, no reports have been published regarding the hematology and blood chemistry parameters of northern pig-tailed macaques, which are important for the objective evaluation of experimental results. We measured and analyzed 18 hematology parameters and 13 blood chemistry parameters in juvenile (aged 2-4 years) and adult (aged 5-10 years) northern pig-tailed macaques. We found that red blood cells, hemoglobin and alkaline phosphatase values were lower in female macaques than male macaques in both juvenile and adult groups. White blood cells, lymphocyte, monocytes, platelet distribution width, cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase values were higher in juvenile macaques than adult macaques, while creatinine and triglycerides values were lower in juvenile macaques. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin and creatinine values were positively correlated with weight in juvenile groups. In adult groups, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, percentage of granulocyte, hemoglobin and creatinine were also positively correlated with weight, and lymphocyte, percentage of lymphocyte, red cell distribution width, aspartate aminotransferase and cholesterol values were negatively correlated with weight. The results suggest that age, gender and weight of northern pig-tailed macaques affected their hematology and blood chemistry parameters. This hematological and blood chemistry study has great significance in biomedical research and animal models using northern pig-tailed macaque as an experimental animal. PMID:23572357

Pang, Wei; Lü, Long-Bao; Wang, Yun; Li, Gui; Huang, Dong-Ti; Lei, Ai-Hua; Zhang, Gao-Hong; Zheng, Yong-Tang

2013-04-01

191

Structures and Interaction Analyses of Integrin ?M?2 Cytoplasmic Tails*  

PubMed Central

Integrins are heterodimeric (? and ? subunits) signal transducer proteins involved in cell adhesions and migrations. The cytosolic tails of integrins are essential for transmitting bidirectional signaling and also implicated in maintaining the resting states of the receptors. In addition, cytosolic tails of integrins often undergo post-translation modifications like phosphorylation. However, the consequences of phosphorylation on the structures and interactions are not clear. The leukocyte-specific integrin ?M?2 is essential for myeloid cell adhesion, phagocytosis, and degranulation. In this work, we determined solution structures of the myristoylated cytosolic tail of ?M and a Ser phosphorylated variant in dodecylphosphocholine micelles by NMR spectroscopy. Furthermore, the interactions between non-phosphorylated and phosphorylated ?M tails with ?2 tail were investigated by NMR and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The three-dimensional structures of the 24-residue cytosolic tail of ?M or phosphorylated ?M are characterized by an N-terminal amphipathic helix and a loop at the C terminus. The residues at the loop are involved in packing interactions with the hydrophobic face of the helix. 15N-1H heteronuclear single quantum coherence experiments identified residues of ?M and ?2 tails that may be involved in the formation of a tail-tail heterocomplex. We further examined interactions between myristoylated ?2 tail in dodecylphosphocholine micelles with dansylated ?M tail peptides by FRET. These studies revealed enhanced interactions between ?M or phosphorylated ?M tails with ?2 tail with Kd values ?5.2 ± 0.6 and ?4.4 ± 0.7 ?m, respectively. Docked structures of tail-tail complexes delineated that the ?M/?2 interface at the cytosolic region could be sustained by a network of polar interactions, ionic interactions, and/or hydrogen bonds.

Chua, Geok-Lin; Tang, Xiao-Yan; Amalraj, Monalisa; Tan, Suet-Mien; Bhattacharjya, Surajit

2011-01-01

192

Casein Kinase 2 Reverses Tail-Independent Inactivation of Kinesin-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kinesin-1 is a plus-end microtubule-based motor, and defects in kinesin-based transport are linked to diseases including neurodegeneration. Kinesin can auto-inhibit via a head-tail interaction, but is believed to be active otherwise. Here we report a tail-independent inactivation of kinesin, reversible by the disease-relevant signalling protein, casein kinase 2 (CK2). The majority of initially active kinesin (native or tail-less) loses its ability to interact with microtubules in vitro, and CK2 reverses this inactivation (approximately fourfold) without altering kinesin's single motor properties. This activation pathway does not require motor phosphorylation, and is independent of head--tail auto-inhibition. In cultured mammalian cells, reducing CK2 expression, but not its kinase activity, decreases the force required to stall lipid droplet transport, consistent with a decreased number of active kinesin motors. Our results (Nat. Commun., 3:754, 2012) provide the first direct evidence of a protein kinase upregulating kinesin-based transport, and suggest a novel pathway for regulating the activity of cargo-bound kinesin.

Xu, Jing

2013-03-01

193

AUTUMN FOODS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rumen contents from65 hunter-harvested deer werecollected and analyzed during 1985-86 to estimate the principal autumn foods consumed by white-tailed deer inhabitingthe Ozark Mountains, Arkansas River Valley, and Gulf Coastal Plain regions of Arkansas. Deer in the Ozarks and Coastal Plain fed heavily on woody browse species, which comprised 99% of rumina identified from these 2 regions. Acorns were the primary

THOMAS A. NELSON

194

Tail-Anchored Proteins in Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tail-anchored (TA) proteins are a class of polypeptides integrated into the membrane by a C-terminally located hydrophobic\\u000a sequence which are present in all three domains of life. Proteins of this class lack an N-terminal signal peptide and reach\\u000a their destination within the cell by posttranslational mechanisms. TA proteins perform a variety of essential functions on\\u000a the cytosolic face of cellular

Emanuela Pedrazzini

2009-01-01

195

Universality of Tail Exponents of Price Changes?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the tail exponents of the distribution of logarithmic price changes in financial markets, and investigate the conjecture that they are universal with an exponent near three. Using data from the London Stock Exchange, we construct the empirical distributions of price returns on several different time scales and study their variation as a function of parameters such as trading volume and tick size (the minimal unit of price variation).

Huang, Luwen; Farmer, Doyne

2007-03-01

196

Fatigue rupture of wallaby tail tendons.  

PubMed

Wallaby tail tendons fail after repeated application of stresses much lower than would be needed to break them in a single pull. We show that this a fatigue phenomenon, distinct from the creep rupture that occurs after prolonged application of a constant stress. The two phenomena are disctinguished by experiments in which tensile stress is cycled at different frequencies, ranging from 1 to 50 Hz. PMID:9244805

Wang, X T; Ker, R F; Alexander, R M

1995-03-01

197

Mechanism of length determination in bacteriophage lambda tails.  

PubMed

The mechanism of length determination in bacteriophage lambda tails is discussed as a model for regulation in protein assembly systems. The lambda tail is a long flexible tube ending in a conical part and a single tail fiber. Its length is exactly determined in the sense that the number of major tail protein (gpV) molecules, which comprise more than 80% of the mass of the tail, is exactly the same in all tails. Assembly of gpV is regulated by the initiator complex, which contains the tail fiber and the conical part, and by the terminator protein gpU. There are two key points in the assembly of gpV with respect to length determination. (1) Assembly of gpV on the initiator pauses at the correct tail length. Binding of gpU to the tail only fixes the pause firmly. (2) When the tail length is too short, binding of gpU to tails is inhibited. Deletions and a duplication (both in frame) in gene H, which codes for one of the proteins in the initiator, result in production of phage particles with altered tail length. Moreover, the tail length is roughly proportional to the length of the mutated versions of gene H. This shows that the tail length is measured by the length of gene H protein (gpH), which seems to be approximately as long as the tail tube, if extended like a thread, according to secondary structure prediction (alpha-helices connected by other structures). Various pieces of evidence show that about six molecules of gpH are attached to the remaining portion of the initiator by the C-terminal part and folded into a somewhat compact form, while they are elongated as they are enclosed in the tail tube during assembly of gpV. Unlike interaction between the length-measuring genome RNA and the coat protein of tobacco mosaic virus, the major tail protein gpV does not bind specifically to the ruler protein gpH. Rather, gpH determines the tail length by inhibiting the binding of gpU to short tails and by signalling the pause when the correct tail length is attained. PMID:2150582

Katsura, I

1990-01-01

198

Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1979 annual report  

SciTech Connect

Uranium mill tailings are a source of low-level radiation and radioactive materials that may be released into the environment. Stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is necessary to minimize radon exhalation and other radioactive releases. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing uranium tailings is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory: the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other potentially hazardous materials in uranium tailings. Results of these studies indicate that radon flux from uranium tailings can be reduced by greater than 99% by covering the tailings with an asphalt emulsion that is poured on or sprayed on (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick), or mixed with some of the tailings and compacted to form an admixture seal (2.5 to 15.2 cm) containing 18 wt % residual asphalt.

Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.

1980-06-01

199

A model actin comet tail disassembling by severing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a numerical simulation to model an actin comet tail as it grows from the surface of a small object (a bead) and disassembles by severing. We explore the dependence of macroscopic properties such as the local tail radius and tail length on several controllable properties, namely the bead diameter, the bead velocity, the severing rate per unit length, and the actin gel mesh size. The model predicts an F-actin density with an initial exponential decay followed by an abrupt decay at the edge of the tail, and predicts that the comet tail diameter is constant along the length of the tail. The simulation results are used to fit a formula relating the comet tail length to the control parameters, and it is proposed that this formula offers a means to extract quantitative information on the actin gel mesh size and severing kinetics from simple macroscopic measurements.

Michalski, P. J.; Carlsson, A. E.

2011-08-01

200

The toxicity of antiprion antibodies is mediated by the flexible tail of the prion protein.  

PubMed

Prion infections cause lethal neurodegeneration. This process requires the cellular prion protein (PrP(C); ref. 1), which contains a globular domain hinged to a long amino-proximal flexible tail. Here we describe rapid neurotoxicity in mice and cerebellar organotypic cultured slices exposed to ligands targeting the ?1 and ?3 helices of the PrP(C) globular domain. Ligands included seven distinct monoclonal antibodies, monovalent Fab1 fragments and recombinant single-chain variable fragment miniantibodies. Similar to prion infections, the toxicity of globular domain ligands required neuronal PrP(C), was exacerbated by PrP(C) overexpression, was associated with calpain activation and was antagonized by calpain inhibitors. Neurodegeneration was accompanied by a burst of reactive oxygen species, and was suppressed by antioxidants. Furthermore, genetic ablation of the superoxide-producing enzyme NOX2 (also known as CYBB) protected mice from globular domain ligand toxicity. We also found that neurotoxicity was prevented by deletions of the octapeptide repeats within the flexible tail. These deletions did not appreciably compromise globular domain antibody binding, suggesting that the flexible tail is required to transmit toxic signals that originate from the globular domain and trigger oxidative stress and calpain activation. Supporting this view, various octapeptide ligands were not only innocuous to both cerebellar organotypic cultured slices and mice, but also prevented the toxicity of globular domain ligands while not interfering with their binding. We conclude that PrP(C) consists of two functionally distinct modules, with the globular domain and the flexible tail exerting regulatory and executive functions, respectively. Octapeptide ligands also prolonged the life of mice expressing the toxic PrP(C) mutant, PrP(?94-134), indicating that the flexible tail mediates toxicity in two distinct PrP(C)-related conditions. Flexible tail-mediated toxicity may conceivably play a role in further prion pathologies, such as familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans bearing supernumerary octapeptides. PMID:23903654

Sonati, Tiziana; Reimann, Regina R; Falsig, Jeppe; Baral, Pravas Kumar; O'Connor, Tracy; Hornemann, Simone; Yaganoglu, Sine; Li, Bei; Herrmann, Uli S; Wieland, Barbara; Swayampakula, Mridula; Rahman, Muhammad Hafizur; Das, Dipankar; Kav, Nat; Riek, Roland; Liberski, Pawel P; James, Michael N G; Aguzzi, Adriano

2013-07-31

201

Flexible Histone Tails in a New Mesoscopic Oligonucleosome Model  

PubMed Central

We describe a new mesoscopic model of oligonucleosomes that incorporates flexible histone tails. The nucleosome cores are modeled using the discrete surface-charge optimization model, which treats the nucleosome as an electrostatic surface represented by hundreds of point charges; the linker DNAs are treated using a discrete elastic chain model; and the histone tails are modeled using a bead/chain hydrodynamic approach as chains of connected beads where each bead represents five protein residues. Appropriate charges and force fields are assigned to each histone chain so as to reproduce the electrostatic potential, structure, and dynamics of the corresponding atomistic histone tails at different salt conditions. The dynamics of resulting oligonucleosomes at different sizes and varying salt concentrations are simulated by Brownian dynamics with complete hydrodynamic interactions. The analyses demonstrate that the new mesoscopic model reproduces experimental results better than its predecessors, which modeled histone tails as rigid entities. In particular, our model with flexible histone tails: correctly accounts for salt-dependent conformational changes in the histone tails; yields the experimentally obtained values of histone-tail mediated core/core attraction energies; and considers the partial shielding of electrostatic repulsion between DNA linkers as a result of the spatial distribution of histone tails. These effects are crucial for regulating chromatin structure but are absent or improperly treated in models with rigid histone tails. The development of this model of oligonucleosomes thus opens new avenues for studying the role of histone tails and their variants in mediating gene expression through modulation of chromatin structure.

Arya, Gaurav; Zhang, Qing; Schlick, Tamar

2006-01-01

202

Modeling distribution of dispersal distances in male white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dispersal distances and their distribution pattern are important to understanding such phenomena as disease spread and gene flow, but oftentimes dispersal characteristics are modeled as a fixed trait for a given species. We found that dispersal distributions differ for spring and autumn dispersals of yearling male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) but that combined data can be adequately modeled based on a log-normal distribution. We modeled distribution of dispersal distances from 3 distinct populations in Pennsylvania and Maryland, USA, based on the relationship between percent forest cover and mean dispersal distance and the relationship between mean and variance of dispersal distances. Our results suggest distributions of distances for dispersing yearling male white-tailed deer can be modeled by simply measuring a readily obtained landscape metric, percent forest cover, which could be used to create generalized spatially explicit disease or gene.

Diefenbach, D. R.; Long, E. S.; Rosenberry, C. S.; Wallingford, B. D.; Smith, D. R.

2008-01-01

203

Wave dynamics in the geomagnetic tail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geomagnetic tail is the region of the earth's magnetosphere stretched by the solar wind away from the Sun. The stretched Geomagnetic tail acts as a huge magnetic energy reservoir powering a variety of processes, for instance the substorm and the aurora, which affect the entire magnetosphere. This thesis presents analyses of the wave dynamics of the geomagnetic tail at the spatial scale from the Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) to the ion gyroradius and the temporal scale from the ion gyro-period to many gyro-periods. The results provide new insights into the energy flow process in the magnetotail reconnection. In addition, the implication of these results sheds light on the energy transport from the geomagnetic tail to the aurora zone. The bidirectional out owing ion jet is a diagnostic signal of magnetic reconnection. We present a Cluster spacecraft study of the intense surface waves in the earthward and tailward reconnection outflow jets in the geomagnetic tail. The four Cluster spacecraft are used to determine quantitatively the scale size and phase velocity of waves with spacecraft frequencies from 3 x 10-2 Hz to 1 Hz and spatial scales ranging from much larger (x50) than to comparable to the H+ gyroradius scale. The wave phase velocity relative to the spacecraft frame is directed mainly in the equatorial plane and it tracks the variation in the direction of the jet's velocity projection perpendicular to the magnetic field lying in the xy-gse plane. The surface waves are phase standing in the flow normal to the plasma sheet boundary, but partially or entirely convected by the flow in the plane of the plasma sheet (xy-gse). The surface wave is consistent with a Kelvin Helmholtz instability driven by the gradient in the normal direction of the component of the reconnection ion jet velocity perpendicular to magnetic field. E/B ratios provide evidence that dispersive Alfven waves are excited at small scales. Analysis of electric and magnetic field data shows that the wave perturbations are associated with strong Alfvenic Poynting flux radiated away from the reconnection region toward Earth along the geomagnetic field. The mapped values (to 100 km altitude) of Poynting flux (100ergs/cm2s) and longitudinal scales (10-100 km) of the waves suggest that the observed waves and their motions are an important boundary condition in determining both the energetics of the aurora and their complex motions in the night sky. The Harris current sheet is a good approximation of the Geomagnetic Tail configuration. We present a theoretical analysis of the linear Alfven eigenmode dynamics of a Harris current sheet. The implication of this theory in the context of magnetic reconnection is not presented. Alfven eigenmodes are confined by the Harris current sheet in the same way that quantum mechanical waves are confined by the tanh2 potential. Although the Alfven eigenmodes are confined in the current layer, their dynamics is interrelated with the global-scale information of the current sheet. The linear dynamics of the Harris current sheet is described as a eigenmode-source coupling process, during which magnetic energy can be converted into plasma energy and the first-order magnetic configuration of the Harris sheet alters.

Dai, Lei

204

Diffusion, Peer Pressure, and Tailed Distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a general, physically motivated nonlinear and nonlocal advection equation in which the diffusion of interacting random walkers competes with a local drift arising from a kind of peer pressure. We show, using a mapping to an integrable dynamical system, that on varying a parameter the steady-state behavior undergoes a transition from the standard diffusive behavior to a localized stationary state characterized by a tailed distribution. Finally, we show that recent empirical laws on economic growth can be explained as a collective phenomenon due to peer pressure interaction.

Cecconi, Fabio; Marsili, Matteo; Banavar, Jayanth R.; Maritan, Amos

2002-08-01

205

HERA BEAM TAIL SHAPING BY TUNE MODULATION.  

SciTech Connect

To study CP violation, the HEM-B experiment uses an internal wire target in the transverse halo of the stored HERA proton beam. Operational experience shows that the resulting interaction rates are extremely sensitive to tiny orbit jitter amplitudes. Various methods have been studied to stabilize these interaction rates by increasing diffusion in the transverse proton beam tails without affecting the luminosity at the electron-proton collider experiments ZEUS and H1. Tune modulation was found to be a promising method for this task. Experiments performed in recent years will be reported.

MONTAG,C.

2003-05-19

206

Bioleaching of Heavy Metals from Mine Tailings by Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioleaching experiment was conducted for the removal of heavy metals from mine tailings. A fungal strain was isolated from the gold mine tailings and it has been identified as Aspergillus fumigatus based on its 18S rDNA analysis. Bioleaching using A. fumigatus was carried out in bioleaching step processes (one-step and two-step) at various tailings concentrations (1%, 2%, 4%, and

Bahi Jalili Seh-Bardan; Radziah Othman; Samsuri Ab Wahid; Aminudin Husin; Fardin Sadegh-Zadeh

2012-01-01

207

Female choice selects for extreme tail length in a widowbird  

Microsoft Academic Search

Darwin's1 hypothesis that male secondary sexual ornaments evolve through female preferences is theoretically plausible2-7, but there is little experimental field evidence that such preferences exist8-10. I have studied female choice in relation to male tail length in the long-tailed widowbird, Euplectes progne, and report here that males in which the tail was experimentally elongated showed higher mating success than males

Malte Andersson

1982-01-01

208

Minimal tail-biting trellises: The Golay code and more  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tail-biting trellis representations of block codes are investigated. We develop some elementary theory, and present several intriguing examples, which we hope will stimulate further developments in this field. In particular, we construct a 16-state 12-section structurally invariant tail-biting trellis for the (24, 12, 8) binary Golay code. This tail-biting trellis representation is minimal: it simultaneously minimizes all conceivable measures of

A. Robert Calderbank; G. David Forney Jr.; Alexander Vardy

1999-01-01

209

Long Tail Tourism: New Geographies For Marketing Niche Tourism Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. The Long Tail concept refers to the Internet?based economy that has enabled company success through a focus on highly specialized services and products that are not in high volume demand, but maybe in high?value demand. The concept of the post?tourist, for example, is a Long Tail phenomenon. Long Tail marketing approaches are proving success due to advances in communication

Alan A. Lew

2008-01-01

210

Phytoremediation of mine tailings in temperate and arid environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoremediation is an emerging technology for the remediation of mine tailings, a global problem for which conventional remediation\\u000a technologies are costly. There are two approaches to phytoremediation of mine tailings, phytoextraction and phytostabilization.\\u000a Phytoextraction involves translocation of heavy metals from mine tailings to the plant shoot biomass followed by plant harvest,\\u000a while phytostabilization focuses on establishing a vegetative cap that

Monica O. Mendez; Raina M. Maier

2008-01-01

211

Geotechnical Characteristics of Copper Mine Tailings: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste management issue in mining industry has become increasingly important. In this regard, construction of tailings dams\\u000a plays a major role. Most of the tailings dams require some kinds of remedial actions during their operational lifetime, among\\u000a which heightening is the most common. In the first stage of the remedial provisions for Sarcheshmeh Copper Complex tailings\\u000a dam in Iran, it

Abolfazl Shamsai; Ali Pak; S. Mohyeddin Bateni; S. Amir Hossein Ayatollahi

2007-01-01

212

Tail lobe ion spectrometer: Theory and observations  

SciTech Connect

In this study we present a comparison between the properties of the ionospheric ion streams in the Earth's magnetotail and the predictions of a two-dimensional kinetic model for the transport of ionospheric ions from the cleft topside ionosphere into the tail lobes. General agreement is apparent between average data and model with appropriate assumptions for the ionospheric source. The same general features in the topology and similar numerical values of the stream density and velocity appear in the data and in the model predictions. However, variations associated with varying magnetic activity levels do not appear to be well modelled yet. In particular the assumption that magnetospheric activity as represented by the AE index, and the model numerical values of the cross-tail electric field might be simply related to each other does not prove to be satisfactory. Model sophistication and data coverage and organization will have to be improved to study these effects in deeper detail. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988

Candidi, M.; Orsini, S.; Horowitz, J.L.

1988-12-01

213

Creep rupture of wallaby tail tendons.  

PubMed

The tail tendons from wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus) suffer creep rupture at stresses of 10 MPa or above, whereas their yield stress in a dynamic test is about 144 MPa. At stresses between 20 and 80 MPa, the time-to-rupture decreases exponentially with stress, but at 10 MPa, the lifetime is well above this exponential. For comparison, the stress on a wallaby tail tendon, when its muscle contracts isometrically, is about 13.5 MPa. Creep lifetime depends sharply on temperature and on specimen length, in contrast to strength and stiffness as observed in dynamic tests. The creep curve (strain versus time) can be considered as a combination of primary creep (decelerating strain) and tertiary creep (accelerating strain). Primary creep is non-damaging, but tertiary creep is accompanied by accumulating damage, with loss of stiffness and strength. 'Damage' is quantitatively defined as the fractional loss of stiffness. A creep theory is developed in which the whole of tertiary creep and, in particular, the creep lifetime are predicted from measurements made at the onset of creep, when the tendon is undamaged. This theory is based on a 'damage hypothesis', which can be stated as: damaged material no longer contributes to stiffness and strength, whereas intact material makes its full contribution to both. PMID:9244804

Wang, X T; Ker, R F

1995-03-01

214

INTERPRETATION OF (596) SCHEILA'S TRIPLE DUST TAILS  

SciTech Connect

Strange-looking dust cloud around asteroid (596) Scheila was discovered on 2010 December 11.44-11.47. Unlike normal cometary tails, it consisted of three tails and faded within two months. We constructed a model to reproduce the morphology of the dust cloud based on the laboratory measurement of high-velocity impacts and the dust dynamics. As a result, we succeeded in reproducing the peculiar dust cloud by an impact-driven ejecta plume consisting of an impact cone and downrange plume. Assuming an impact angle of 45 Degree-Sign , our model suggests that a decameter-sized asteroid collided with (596) Scheila from the direction of ({alpha}{sub im}, {delta}{sub im}) = (60 Degree-Sign , -40 Degree-Sign ) in J2000 coordinates on 2010 December 3. The maximum ejection velocity of the dust particles exceeded 100 m s{sup -1}. Our results suggest that the surface of (596) Scheila consists of materials with low tensile strength.

Ishiguro, Masateru [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Hanayama, Hidekazu; Watanabe, Jun-ichi; Miyaji, Takeshi; Fukushima, Hideo [Ishigakijima Astronomical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Ishigaki, Okinawa 907-0024 (Japan); Hasegawa, Sunao; Sarugaku, Yuki [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), JAXA, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Fujiwara, Hideaki; Terada, Hiroshi [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Hsieh, Henry H. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Vaubaillon, Jeremie J. [Observatoire de Paris, I.M.C.C.E., Denfert Rochereau, Bat. A., FR-75014 Paris (France); Kawai, Nobuyuki [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Kuroda, Daisuke [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Asaguchi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Ohta, Kouji [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hamanowa, Hiromi [Hamanowa Astronomical Observatory, Motomiya, Fukushima 969-1204 (Japan); Kim, Junhan [Yangcheon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pyo, Jeonghyun [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Nakamura, Akiko M., E-mail: ishiguro@snu.ac.kr [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kobe University, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

2011-11-15

215

A potential role for bat tail membranes in flight control.  

PubMed

Wind tunnel tests conducted on a model based on the long-eared bat Plecotus auritus indicated that the positioning of the tail membrane (uropatagium) can significantly influence flight control. Adjusting tail position by increasing the angle of the legs ventrally relative to the body has a two-fold effect; increasing leg-induced wing camber (i.e., locally increased camber of the inner wing surface) and increasing the angle of attack of the tail membrane. We also used our model to examine the effects of flying with and without a tail membrane. For the bat model with a tail membrane increasing leg angle increased the lift, drag and pitching moment (nose-down) produced. However, removing the tail membrane significantly reduced the change in pitching moment with increasing leg angle, but it had no significant effect on the level of lift produced. The drag on the model also significantly increased with the removal of the tail membrane. The tail membrane, therefore, is potentially important for controlling the level of pitching moment produced by bats and an aid to flight control, specifically improving agility and manoeuvrability. Although the tail of bats is different from that of birds, in that it is only divided from the wings by the legs, it nonetheless, may, in addition to its prey capturing function, fulfil a similar role in aiding flight control. PMID:21479137

Gardiner, James D; Dimitriadis, Grigorios; Codd, Jonathan R; Nudds, Robert L

2011-03-30

216

Chromaticity measurement using a continuous head-tail kicking technique  

SciTech Connect

In the classical head-tail chromaticity measurement technique, a single large kick is applied transversely to the beam. The resulting phase difference between the head and the tail is measured and the chromaticity extracted. In the continuous head-tail kicking technique, a very small transverse kick is applied to the beam and the asymptotic phase difference between the head and the tail is found to be a function of chromaticity. The advantage of this method is that since the tune tracker PLL already supplies the small transverse kicks, no extra modulation is required.

Tan, C.Y.; /Fermilab; Ranjbar, V.H.; /Tech-X, Boulder

2007-06-01

217

Evaluating target cold spots by the use of tail EUDs *†  

PubMed Central

Purpose To propose a new measure of target underdose that can be used in the evaluation and optimization of radiotherapy dose distributions. Methods and Materials We compare various formulations of the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) and introduce a modification of existing EUD definitions, which we call tail EUD. Tail EUD is a measure of “cold spots” below the prescription dose in the target dose distribution. It has units of Gy. We investigate the mathematical properties of various target EUD concepts, including tail EUD. We apply the tail EUD measure retrospectively to intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans from our plan database. We also use tail EUD as an optimization objective in the optimization of prostate, pancreas, and head&neck plans. Results Tail EUD has desirable mathematical properties. In particular, it is convex and it leads to convex level sets (i.e., no local minima) if the EUD from which it is derived is concave. The tail EUD value is correlated with the subjective degree of target coverage. Constraining tail EUDs to a certain level in plan optimization leads to comparable target coverage in different plans and treatment sites. Conclusions The newly introduced concept of tail EUD appears to be useful both for plan evaluation and optimization. In addition, it can potentially be applied in the design of new clinical protocols.

Bortfeld, Thomas; Craft, David; Dempsey, James F.; Halabi, Tarek; Romeijn, H. Edwin

2009-01-01

218

Estimating Impact Forces of Tail Club Strikes by Ankylosaurid Dinosaurs  

PubMed Central

Background It has been assumed that the unusual tail club of ankylosaurid dinosaurs was used actively as a weapon, but the biological feasibility of this behaviour has not been examined in detail. Ankylosaurid tail clubs are composed of interlocking vertebrae, which form the handle, and large terminal osteoderms, which form the knob. Methodology/Principal Findings Computed tomographic (CT) scans of several ankylosaurid tail clubs referred to Dyoplosaurus and Euoplocephalus, combined with measurements of free caudal vertebrae, provide information used to estimate the impact force of tail clubs of various sizes. Ankylosaurid tails are modeled as a series of segments for which mass, muscle cross-sectional area, torque, and angular acceleration are calculated. Free caudal vertebrae segments had limited vertical flexibility, but the tail could have swung through approximately 100° laterally. Muscle scars on the pelvis record the presence of a large M. longissimus caudae, and ossified tendons alongside the handle represent M. spinalis. CT scans showed that knob osteoderms were predominantly cancellous, which would have lowered the rotational inertia of the tail club and made it easier to wield as a weapon. Conclusions/Significance Large knobs could generate sufficient force to break bone during impacts, but average and small knobs could not. Tail swinging behaviour is feasible in ankylosaurids, but it remains unknown whether the tail was used for interspecific defense, intraspecific combat, or both.

Arbour, Victoria Megan

2009-01-01

219

A Potential Role for Bat Tail Membranes in Flight Control  

PubMed Central

Wind tunnel tests conducted on a model based on the long-eared bat Plecotus auritus indicated that the positioning of the tail membrane (uropatagium) can significantly influence flight control. Adjusting tail position by increasing the angle of the legs ventrally relative to the body has a two-fold effect; increasing leg-induced wing camber (i.e., locally increased camber of the inner wing surface) and increasing the angle of attack of the tail membrane. We also used our model to examine the effects of flying with and without a tail membrane. For the bat model with a tail membrane increasing leg angle increased the lift, drag and pitching moment (nose-down) produced. However, removing the tail membrane significantly reduced the change in pitching moment with increasing leg angle, but it had no significant effect on the level of lift produced. The drag on the model also significantly increased with the removal of the tail membrane. The tail membrane, therefore, is potentially important for controlling the level of pitching moment produced by bats and an aid to flight control, specifically improving agility and manoeuvrability. Although the tail of bats is different from that of birds, in that it is only divided from the wings by the legs, it nonetheless, may, in addition to its prey capturing function, fulfil a similar role in aiding flight control.

Gardiner, James D.; Dimitriadis, Grigorios; Codd, Jonathan R.; Nudds, Robert L.

2011-01-01

220

Review of fugitive dust control for uranium mill tailings  

SciTech Connect

An immediate concern associated with the disposal of uranium mill tailings is that wind erosion of the tailings from an impoundment area will subsequently deposit tailings on surrounding areas. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is investigating the current technology for fugitive dust control. Different methods of fugitive dust control, including chemical, physical, and vegetative, have been used or tested on mill tailings piles. This report presents the results of a literature review and discussions with manufacturers and users of available stabilization materials and techniques.

Li, C.T.; Elmore, M.R.; Hartley, J.N.

1983-01-01

221

Evaluating Target Cold Spots By the use of Tail EUDs  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To propose a new measure of target underdose that can be used in the evaluation and optimization of radiotherapy dose distributions. Methods and Materials: We compare various formulations of the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) and introduce a modification of existing EUD definitions, which we call tail EUD. Tail EUD is a measure of 'cold spots' below the prescription dose in the target dose distribution, using units of gray (Gy). We investigate the mathematical properties of various target EUD concepts, including tail EUD. We apply the tail EUD measure retrospectively to intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans from our plan database. We also use tail EUD as an optimization objective in the optimization of prostate, pancreas, and head-and-neck plans. Results: Tail EUD has desirable mathematical properties. In particular, it is convex and it leads to convex level sets (i.e., no local minima) if the EUD from which it is derived is concave. The tail EUD value is correlated with the subjective degree of target coverage. Constraining tail EUDs to a certain level in plan optimization leads to comparable target coverage in different plans and treatment sites. Conclusions: The newly introduced concept of tail EUD appears to be useful for both plan evaluation and optimization. In addition it can potentially be applied in the design of new clinical protocols.

Bortfeld, Thomas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: tbortfeld@partners.org; Craft, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Dempsey, James F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Halabi, Tarek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Romeijn, H. Edwin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

2008-07-01

222

ASSESSING FLAVIVIRUS, LENTIVIRUS, AND HERPESVIRUS EXPOSURE IN FREE-RANGING RING-TAILED LEMURS IN SOUTHWESTERN MADAGASCAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) is an endangered species found in southwestern Madagascar, and understanding infectious disease susceptibility is an essential step towards the preservation of wild and captive lemur populations. Lemurs are primates that are widely dispersed throughout the island of Madagascar and may serve as hosts or reservoirs for zoonotic infections. The aim of this study was to

Kerry Sondgeroth; Brad Blitvich; Carol Blair; Julie Terwee; Randall Junge; Michelle Sauther; Sue VandeWoude

223

Bovine viral diarrhea virus multi-organ infection in two white-tailed deer in southeastern South Dakota  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The role of wild ruminants especially cervids in the transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has remained an enigma. Two white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were submitted to the Animal Disease Research and Diagnostic Laboratory (ADRDL) in the fall of 2003 by the South Dakota Game ...

224

The Narrow X-Ray Tail and Double H? Tails of ESO 137-002 in A3627  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the analysis of a deep Chandra observation of a ~2 L * late-type galaxy, ESO 137-002, in the closest rich cluster A3627. The Chandra data reveal a long (gsim40 kpc) and narrow tail with a nearly constant width (~3 kpc) to the southeast of the galaxy, and a leading edge ~1.5 kpc from the galaxy center on the upstream side of the tail. The tail is most likely caused by the nearly edge-on stripping of ESO 137-002's interstellar medium (ISM) by ram pressure, compared to the nearly face-on stripping of ESO 137-001 discussed in our previous work. Spectral analysis of individual regions along the tail shows that the gas throughout it has a rather constant temperature, ~1 keV, very close to the temperature of the tails of ESO 137-001, if the same atomic database is used. The derived gas abundance is low (~0.2 solar with the single-kT model), an indication of the multiphase nature of the gas in the tail. The mass of the X-ray tail is only a small fraction (<5%) of the initial ISM mass of the galaxy, suggesting that the stripping is most likely at an early stage. However, with any of the single-kT, double-kT, and multi-kT models we tried, the tail is always "over-pressured" relative to the surrounding intracluster medium (ICM), which could be due to the uncertainties in the abundance, thermal versus non-thermal X-ray emission, or magnetic support in the ICM. The H? data from the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research show a ~21 kpc tail spatially coincident with the X-ray tail, as well as a secondary tail (~12 kpc long) to the east of the main tail diverging at an angle of ~23° and starting at a distance of ~7.5 kpc from the nucleus. At the position of the secondary H? tail, the X-ray emission is also enhanced at the ~2? level. We compare the tails of ESO 137-001 and ESO 137-002, and also compare the tails to simulations. Both the similarities and differences of the tails pose challenges to the simulations. Several implications are briefly discussed. Based on observations made with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory and the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope.

Zhang, B.; Sun, M.; Ji, L.; Sarazin, C.; Lin, X. B.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Roediger, E.; Donahue, M.; Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Voit, G. M.; Kong, X.

2013-11-01

225

Radiological impact of uranium tailings and alternatives for their management  

SciTech Connect

Uncontrolled tailings piles are mobile sources of fugitive dust that may produce a practically uncleanable adjacent environment. A practical procedure for managing solid tailings is addition of surface moisture, mechanical and gravitational separation of slimes, and storage of slimes below solution tailings. Presently practical alternatives for tailings management are variations of two basic methods - surface below-ground disposal. Isolation of tailings by natural materials such as clay lenses and combinations of overburden, top soil, vegetation and rip-rap may provide both minimization of exposure and stability. Experimental measurement of radon flux over two inactive tailings, acid and carbonate leached tailings resulted in average specific flux values of phi infinity approx. = 0.64 and phi infinity approx. = 0.30 (pCi Rn-222/m/sup 2/ sec) / (pCi Ra-226/g), respectively. The average diffusion coefficient for these tailings were, respectively, 2.4 x 10/sup -3/ and 5.7 x 10/sup -4/ cm/sup 2//sec. Tailings covered with native soil of clay-silt-sand mixture to a depth of 225 cm resulted in attenuation of flux with diffusion coefficients of 3.69 x 10/sup -3/ and 3.60 x 10/sup -3/ cm/sup 2//sec for ACID and ALKO sites, respectively. By means of the UDAD code dose commitments were estimated for inhalation of particulates and radon and for external exposure under three degrees of surface moisture on the tailings. Based on these analyses and assumption that the dose contribution from ingestion pathway is comparable in magnitude to that of inhalation, both compliance with the 25 mrem/year limit and reduction of flux to background level is feasible. Stability of alternative decommissioned tailings over the predictable future is discussed.

Momeni, M.H.; Kisieleski, W.E.; Tyler, S.; Zielen, A.; Yuan, Y.; Roberts, C.J.

1979-01-01

226

Protein anatomy: C-tail region of human tau protein as a crucial structural element in Alzheimer's paired helical filament formation in vitro.  

PubMed

Tau is a microtubule-associated protein in mammalian brain. In Alzheimer's disease, this protein is present in the somatodendritic compartment of certain nerve cells, where it forms a portion of paired helical filament, the major constituent of the neurofibrillary tangle. For clarification of the mechanism of this formation, recombinant human tau and its fragments (N-terminal half, C-terminal half, and 4-repeats) expressed in Escherichia coli were prepared, eight peptide fragments (C-tails 1-8) of the C-tail region were synthesized, and the conformation and capacity for aggregation essential for filamentous structure formation in vitro were examined. Recombinant full-length tau, the N-terminal half, 4-repeats, and the C-terminal half did not form filamentous structures in aqueous solution after standing at 20 degrees C. Peptides corresponding to the C-tail region of tau, C-tail 5, C-tail 7, and C-tail 8, produced the paired filament or single straight filament in acidic solution. The rate of filament formation by each peptide was followed by circular dichroism, which showed the C-tails to have predominantly random coil structures immediately following dissolution in aqueous solution and be gradually converted to the beta-sheet structure. The kinetics of aggregation were characterized by a delay period during which the solution remained clear, followed by a nucleation event which led to a growth phase, whose negative peak intensity at 218 nm in circular dichroism increased due to filamentous structure formation. This delay was eliminated by seeding supersaturated solution of preformed filaments. C-tails interacted with recombinant full-length tau to form definite single straight filament. The C-tail region of tau is thus shown indispensable to the formation of paired helical filament and nucleation to reduce the rate of paired helical filament formation in amyloidogenesis in vitro. These findings may provide some clarification of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:9485325

Yanagawa, H; Chung, S H; Ogawa, Y; Sato, K; Shibata-Seki, T; Masai, J; Ishiguro, K

1998-02-17

227

Unsaturated hydraulic properties of cemented tailings backfill that contains sodium silicate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling the mine waste (tailings) into cemented tailings backfill has economical and environmental advantages for the mining industry. One of the most recent types of cemented tailings backfill is gelfill (GF), a backfill that contains sodium silicate as chemical additive. GF is typically made of tailings, water, binder and chemical additives (sodium silicate gel). It is a promising mine tailings

N. Abdul-Hussain; M. Fall

2011-01-01

228

Heavy tailed risks and diversification effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme weather related events are characterized by complex dynamics and effects that systematically intersect across different insurance lines. A prerequisite for developing and testing risk-sharing and risk-mitigation arrangements is therefore to get the geophysical facts right. By definition, data on catastrophic losses are very limited, meaning that sophisticated estimation techniques are undermined by small sample sizes. We build on Bayesian decision theory and statistical process control to show how relevant information can be extracted from the available data and experts' opinion. We work with heavy-tailed distributions, and allow for the following particular aspects of catastrophic climatic events: regime changes, learning, spatial effects. We also analyze the effects of aggregating heterogeneous and correlated risk exposures: to what extent it is possible to enjoy diversification gains, and devise efficient risk transfer mechanisms in the presence of 'diversification traps'.

Biffis, Enrico; Distaso, Walter

2010-05-01

229

The Tail of Integrins, Talin, and Kindlins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Integrins are transmembrane cellâÂÂadhesion molecules that carry signals from the outside to the inside of the cell and vice versa. Like other cell surface receptors, integrins signal in response to ligand binding; however, events within the cell can also regulate the affinity of integrins for ligands. This feature is important in physiological situations such as those in blood, in which cells are always in close proximity to their ligands, yet cell-ligand interactions occur only after integrin activation in response to specific external cues. This review focuses on the mechanisms whereby two key proteins, talin and the kindlins, regulate integrin activation by binding the tails of integrin-ò subunits.

Markus Moser (Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry;); Kyle Legate (Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry;); Roy Zent (Vanderbilt Medical Center and Veterans Affairs Hospital;); Reinhard Fässler (Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry;)

2009-05-15

230

VIEW OF BOEING 737200 FUSELAGE FROM TOP LEVEL OF TAIL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF BOEING 737-200 FUSELAGE FROM TOP LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK AND. A NEW SAFETY CABLE FROM THE TAIL DOCK WILL ALLOW INSPECTORS TO WALK UP AND DOWN THE FUSELAGE TO CHECK FOR CRACKS OR MISSING FASTENERS. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

231

Study of basic characteristics of full tailings filling material  

Microsoft Academic Search

cn Abstract: All tailings filling technology that take full use of tailings for filling the whole aggregate has been widely used at home and abroad, which can not only take the advantages of increased ore recovery, but also reduce the emission of pollutants and protect the environment. In this paper, based on the background of Jinshandian iron mine, mainly through

Song Weidong; Wu Shan; Li Haofeng; Chen Li

2011-01-01

232

Selenium toxicosis in a white-tailed deer herd  

PubMed Central

Chronic selenium (Se) toxicosis was found in a herd of white-tailed deer showing signs of anorexia, weight loss, and lameness. Concentration of Se in the liver ranged from 2.7 to 8.97 mg/kg wet weight. Myocardial necrosis, mineralization, and fibroplasia were seen histologically. This is the first report of this toxicosis in white-tailed deer.

Al-Dissi, Ahmad N.; Blakley, Barry R.; Woodbury, Murray R.

2011-01-01

233

Scour of Chinook Salmon Redds on Suction Dredge Tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured scour of the redds of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha on dredge tailings and natural substrates in three tributaries of the Klamath River, California. We measured maximum scour with scour chains and net scour by surveying before and after high winter flows. Scour of chinook salmon redds lo- cated on dredge tailings exceeded scour of redds on natural substrates,

Bret C. Harvey; Thomas E. Lisle

1999-01-01

234

Data driven rank tests for classes of tail alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tail alternatives describe the frequent occurrence of a non-constant shift in the two-sample problem with a shift function increasing in the tail. The classes of shift functions can be built up using Legendre polynomials. It is important to rightly choose the number of polynomials involved. Here this choice is based on the data, using a modification of Schwarz's selection rule.

Willem Albers; Wilbert C. M. Kallenberg; Felix Martini

1999-01-01

235

Tail size and female choice in the guppy ( Poecilia reticulata )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under laboratory conditions, female guppies demonstrate a clear preference for males with larger tails, and this preference translates into enhanced reproductive fitness for these males. Females also prefer males with higher display rates, a behavior which appears to be linked to tail size, but which can be experimentally disassociated. This appears to be a case of female-choice sexual selection.

Robert J. Bischoff; James L. Gould; Daniel I. Rubenstein

1985-01-01

236

6. UPPER NOTTINGHAM TAILING PILE LOOKING DOWN STREAM BED TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. UPPER NOTTINGHAM TAILING PILE LOOKING DOWN STREAM BED TO LOWER NOTTINGHAM. COLLAPSED BUILDINGS, 'B' AND 'C' AND TOP EDGE OF TAILING PILES ARE VISIBLE IN CENTRAL ARE OF PRINT. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHWEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Upper Nottingham Mine, West face of Florida Mountain, head of Jacobs Gulch, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

237

Ectoderm to Mesoderm Lineage Switching During Axolotl Tail Regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foreign environments may induce adult stem cells to switch lineages and populate multiple tissue types, but whether this mechanism is used for tissue repair remains uncertain. Urodele amphibians can regenerate fully functional, multitissue structures including the limb and tail. To determine whether lineage switching is an integral feature of this regeneration, we followed individual spinal cord cells live during tail

Karen Echeverri; Elly M. Tanaka

2002-01-01

238

Transition from Heavy to Light Tails in Retransmission Durations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retransmissions serve as the basic building block that communication protocols use to achieve reliable data transfer. Until recently, the number of retransmissions were thought to follow a light tailed (in particular, a geometric) distribution. However, recent work seems to suggest that when the distribution of the packets have infinite support, retransmission-based protocols may result in heavy tailed delays and even

Jian Tan; Ness B. Shroff

2010-01-01

239

The Tail of the Rat, in Temperature Regulation and Acclimatization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The role of the tail of the Wistar white rat in its temperature regulation was studied, and a new index of acclimatization was found. Blood flow in the tail was measured by venous-occlusion plethysmography at environmental temperatures from 17 to 33C. The...

R. P. Rand A. C. Burton T. Ing

1964-01-01

240

Risk factors for canine tail chasing behaviour in Japan.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for tail chasing behaviour that occurs when a dog spins in tight circles to chase its tail, sometimes biting it. The behaviour is a sign of canine compulsive disorder (CD). A questionnaire about tail chasing behaviour and general information about the animals was used to collect data on seven breeds of pet dogs. The data were gathered at a dog event and at veterinary practices. To determine which variables were associated with tail chasing behaviour, stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed. Regardless of cohort, 'breed' and 'source of acquisition' were significantly associated with tail chasing behaviour. Using a chi-square test, the association between 'source of acquisition' and the behaviour was examined separately in two breeds (Shiba inu and Dachshund) that had the largest number of individuals chasing their tails accompanied by biting and/or growling at them. This factor showed a significant and consistent association across the two breeds. With respect to the risk factors of 'breed' and 'source of acquisition', high percentages of Shiba inu and dogs originating from pet stores were included in the group chasing their tails with biting and/or growling. The results suggest that distinct risk factors exist for tail chasing behaviour and such factors appear to be regulated by both genetics and the environment. PMID:21993593

Goto, Akiko; Arata, Sayaka; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

2011-10-10

241

THE POWER INITIATING POINT AND TAIL VORTEX IN SCUBA SWIMMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper was to explore the position of the power initiating point and the function of tail vortex in scuba swimming. According to the kinematics, human structure and fluid dynamics analysis, it is apparent that the waist serves as the power initiating point. Unlike the traditional concept of swimming, the tail vortex does not always provide resistance

Shuping Li; Youlian Hong; Tze-Chung Luk

242

Multiple hypotheses tracking with heavy-tailed noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kalman filter, which is optimal with respect to Gaussian distributed noisy measurements, is commonly used in the Multiple Hypothesis Tracker (MHT) for state update and prediction. It has been shown that when filtering noisy measurements distributed with asymptotic power law tails the Kalman filter underestimates the state error when the tail exponent is less than two and overestimates it

Scott W. Sims; Jason F. Ralph; Moira I. Smith; Christopher R. Angell; Peter N. Randall

2003-01-01

243

Informal discussion of United States work on uranium mill tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental aspects of uranium recovery operations may be conveniently divided into three areas: (1) the interactions of ponded acidic uranium mill tailings solutions with indigenous sediments and geologic liner materials, (2) the effects of neutralization on the acidic uranium mill tailings solutions, and (3) the study of methods to minimize ground-water contamination from in situ leach uranium mining. These

S. R. Peterson; G. W. Gee

1985-01-01

244

Optimum deposition for sub-aerial tailings disposal: model applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large volumes of the tailings produced as a result of mineral and energy production are disposed of on the Earth's surface. A major concern of mining operations is how to minimize the environmental impact and reduce the storage volume of tailings. In addition, pressure to optimally use scarce water resources, especially in arid regions, is critical. Maximum recycle and reuse

Y. Qiu; D. C. Sego

2007-01-01

245

Responses to Tail Docking in Calves and Heifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this study was to determine the behavioral and physiological effects of tail banding and atrophy using rubber rings 2 to 4 mo before first parturition in dairy heifers either with or without the use of epidural anesthesia. The secondary objective was to determine behavioral responses to tail banding using rubber rings in calves 7 to 42

D. A. Schreiner; P. L. Ruegg

2002-01-01

246

STEREO Watches as Comet Encke Loses Its Tail  

NASA Video Gallery

As comet Encke dipped inside the orbit of Mercury, STEREO A recorded its tail getting ripped off by a solar eruption on April 20, 2007. The eruption that hit Encke was a coronal mass ejection (CME). The tail was likely ripped off by interacting magnetic fields rather than the mechanical pressure of the collision.

Holly Zell

2011-10-21

247

DETERMINATION OF UNSATURATED FLOW CHARACTERISTICS IN MINE TAILINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design details of a modified permeameter for determining the unsaturated flow characteristics of tailings are presented in this paper. The key modifications in comparison to a conventional permeameter include the provision of adjustable sensors that move along with the slurry tailings as it settles due to desaturation during the testing period. The Instantaneous Profile Method (IPM) is proposed to

Patrick Brisson; Vinod K. Garga; Sai K. Vanapalli

248

Ecology of Band-Tailed Pigeons in Oregon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ecology of band-tailed pigeons (Columbia fasciata) was investigated in western Oregon to assess the roles of survival and recruitment to population status and the relation of food, minerals, and diet to reproduction strategy. Band-tailed pigeons congr...

R. L. Jarvis M. F. Passmore

1992-01-01

249

High resolution flow field prediction for tail rotor aeroacoustics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prediction of tail rotor noise due to the impingement of the main rotor wake poses a significant challenge to current analysis methods in rotorcraft aeroacoustics. This paper describes the development of a new treatment of the tail rotor aerodynamic environment that permits highly accurate resolution of the incident flow field with modest computational effort relative to alternative models. The

Todd R. Quackenbush; Donald B. Bliss

1989-01-01

250

Managing the long tail of science: data and communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the origins of the long tail of data, and discuss the form it takes for scientific and scholarly data. This has implications and opportunities for managing the long tail that are articulated as a set of questions posed as a starting point for discussions by a panel at XSEDE 2012.

Beth Plale

2012-01-01

251

The long tail virtual teacher new form of network education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological research had proved that individuals possess multiple social identities. However, the industrial civilization has brought a clear division of labor, and everyone in the world should form his own major role so as to set back their other roles, stunts the development of multiple social identities. Combining with the concept of the long tail and multi-roles, the long tail

Cheng Lehua; Jin Jin; Ha Yingmin

2009-01-01

252

Simulation on particle crushing of tailings material under high pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With continuous increase of the high tailings dam, it has an important practical and theoretical significance to study the mechanical characteristics of the tailings material under high pressures. It is indicated that strength envelopes of the tailings material have a remarkable nonlinear characteristics through the triaxial test under high pressures. A further study stated that the particle crushing has a critical effect on the mechanical behavior of the tailings material. In order to quantitatively research its influence, the grain size distribution of the tailings material is analyzed for pre-and post-test and the particle crushing of the tailings material is measured. The particle flow code is employed to simulate and monitor the sample during testing. Firstly, a model which considers the particle crushing is built under the plane strain condition. Then, a series of biaxial numerical tests of the tailings specimen are simulated by using the model. It is found that the simulation result agrees with the triaxial test. Finally, a law between the particle crushing and strain of the tailings material under different confining pressures is obtained.

Liu, Hai-ming; Liu, Yi-ming; Yang, Chun-he; Cao, Jing

2013-06-01

253

Tail index and quantile estimation with very high frequency data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A precise estimation of the tail shape of forex returns is of critical importance for proper risk assessment. We improve upon the efficiency of conventional estimators that rely on a first order expansion of the tail shape, by using the second order expansion. Here we advocate a moments estimator for the second term. The paper uses both Monte Carlo simulations

Jón Daníelsson; Casper G. de Vries

1997-01-01

254

Using the moon to probe the geomagnetic tail lobe plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have detected the presence of plasma in the lobes of the geomagnetic tail from observations of magnetic induction in the moon forced by time variations of the earth's magnetotail lobe field. The magnitude of the moon's tangential electromagnetic transfer function when the moon is in the lobes of the geomagnetic tail is less than that when the moon is

G. Schubert; C. P. Sonett; B. F. Smith; D. S. Colburn; K. Schwartz

1975-01-01

255

Structural Conservation of the Myoviridae Phage Tail Sheath Protein Fold  

SciTech Connect

Bacteriophage phiKZ is a giant phage that infects Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a human pathogen. The phiKZ virion consists of a 1450 {angstrom} diameter icosahedral head and a 2000 {angstrom}-long contractile tail. The structure of the whole virus was previously reported, showing that its tail organization in the extended state is similar to the well-studied Myovirus bacteriophage T4 tail. The crystal structure of a tail sheath protein fragment of phiKZ was determined to 2.4 {angstrom} resolution. Furthermore, crystal structures of two prophage tail sheath proteins were determined to 1.9 and 3.3 {angstrom} resolution. Despite low sequence identity between these proteins, all of these structures have a similar fold. The crystal structure of the phiKZ tail sheath protein has been fitted into cryo-electron-microscopy reconstructions of the extended tail sheath and of a polysheath. The structural rearrangement of the phiKZ tail sheath contraction was found to be similar to that of phage T4.

Aksyuk, Anastasia A.; Kurochkina, Lidia P.; Fokine, Andrei; Forouhar, Farhad; Mesyanzhinov, Vadim V.; Tong, Liang; Rossmann, Michael G. (SOIBC); (Purdue); (Columbia)

2012-02-21

256

Geological impact of some tailings dams in Sardinia, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the results of a survey carried out in Sardinia on both active and abandoned tailings dams, and we also discuss the geological impact of tailings dams of two mines: the Masua mine, a large syngenetic Pb-Zn deposit located in Cambrian limestones, and the Montevecchio mine, a Pb-Zn vein deposit near a Hercynian granite intrusion. The characteristics

Felice Di Gregorio; Raniero Massoli-Novelli

1992-01-01

257

RSNN-Based Instability Disaster Prediction of Tailings Dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The instability disaster prediction model of tailings dam had been established, based on system analysis of the factors that caused the instability disaster of tailings dam, by selecting 6 prediction index, medium unit weight, cohesion, internal friction angle, slope angle, slope height and pore pressure ratio and combining with using theory of the rough set and neural network. First the

Keping Zhou; Shuna Li; Qingfa Chen; Rui Chen

2009-01-01

258

Primary vegetative growth on an old tailings dam, Zawar mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tailings containing toxic qualities of heavy metals are a potential source of pollution. Stabilisation by vegetative methods have been found the most effective. In an attempt to vegetate tailings dams it has been noted that while certain milky latex containing plants can be grown without any preconditioning of the soil, almost any plant can be grown after proper conditioning. However,

D. M. R. Sekhar; M. R. Jakhu

1983-01-01

259

NONINVASIVE, CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF RAT TAIL SKIN TEMPERATURE BY RADIOTELEMETRY.  

EPA Science Inventory

Tail skin temperature (Tsk) can provide a wealth of information on the thermoregulatory status of the rat. Drug- and toxic-induced changes in body temperature are often mediated by vasodilation or constriction of blood flow to the tail and Tsk can generally be used as an indica...

260

Understanding of fundamentals: Key to process modification for tailings reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tailings produced during bitumen separation from oil sands have a high water holding capacity attributed to ultrafine (? 0.2 ?m), aluminosilicate clay fractions. These components readily form gels within which both fine and coarse particles may be embedded. This complex mixture (or “fine tails\\

L. S. Kotlyar; B. D. Sparks; R. Schutte; J. R. Woods

1993-01-01

261

Fast head-tail instability with space charge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fast head-tail instability with space charge is studied using series expansion techniques, numerical simulations, and a new formulation which allows for precise estimates of growth rates and thresholds. In regimes where they are reliable, all three techniques predict that space charge suppresses the fast head-tail instability. It is found that the series expansion techniques are unreliable for parameter regimes

M. Blaskiewicz

1998-01-01

262

FACTORS AFFECTING THE EFFICIENT FLOCCULATION OF TAILINGS BY POLYACRYLAMIDES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flocculation of coal preparation plant tailings is an established technology, and the scientific basis of flocculation is well understood, Nevertheless, conditions specific to the preparation plant affect the efficiency of the process. The sedimentation rate obtained with flocculated tailings depends on the molecular size of the polyacrylamide. Modern flocculants are very high molecular weight polymers and the size of

J. M. HENDERSON; A. D. WHEATLEY

1987-01-01

263

An Innovative Cold Tail-Flick Test: The Cold Ethanol Tail-Flick Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

An innovative antinociceptive test, the cold ethanol tail-flick test (CET), was developed for evaluating the actions of opioid analgesics. To select an optimal oper- ation temperature range for the CET, temperatures from -5°C to -30°C were screened. After screening, temperatures ranging between -20°C and -30°C were both strong and effective enough to act as a noxious cold stimulus. In the

Jhi-joung Wang; Shung-tai Ho; Oliver Yoa-pu Hu

264

Multicentric T-cell lymphosarcoma in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

An adult female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with a history of shaking, ataxia, and severe debilitation was submitted for examination. Macroscopic lesions included severe emaciation, severe abdominal and mesenteric lymphadenopathy, and several rumen-associated masses. Microscopically, the ruminal masses and lymph nodes were infiltrated by pleomorphic neoplastic lymphocytes. Similar lymphoblasts were associated with the leptomeninges, choroid plexus, and the intestinal mucosa; these cells were intensely positive for CD3 antigen, indicating their T-cell origin. Lymphoproliferative viruses (bovine leukemia virus and malignant catarrhal fever virus) or epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus were not detected by polymerase chain reaction. To our knowledge, this case represents the first report of the immunophenotype of a multicentric lymphosarcoma, metastasis involving the brain, and epitheliotropic lymphoblasts in a white-tailed deer. PMID:19617490

Madson, D M; Opriessnig, T

2009-07-01

265

Mobility and bioavailability of uranium mill tailings contaminants  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation of environmental transport and contamination resulting from the release of trace elements and radionuclides from uranium mill tailings was performed by utilizing both laboratory and field studies. The composition of tailings showed the enrichment of a suite of uranium analogue elements (As, Mo, Se, and V) as well as the frequent occurrence of heavy metals generally associated with sulfide minerals (Co, Cu, Ni, and Pb). Aqueous leaching of alkaline tailings mobilized base labile (anionic) species As, Mo, Se, and U, wheras acid tailings leachates contained appreciable Co and Ni. The assimilation of mobile constituents by the roots of native plant species was most evident for Mo and Se in alkaline tailings; levels of these contaminants reported to be toxic to grazing animals were found. The laboratory studies on contaminant mobility and bioavailability are compared with contamination of water, soil, and biota by Mo and U in the vicinity of an alkaline-leach uranium mill. 6 tables.

Dreesen, D.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM); Williams, J.M.; Marple, M.L.; Gladney, E.S.; Perrin, D.R.

1982-10-01

266

Survey on ‘lumpy jaw’ on deer farms in western Canada: Prevalence and distribution, and identification of associated factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To investigate the prevalence and geographical distribution of ‘lumpy jaw’ (LJ) in a population of white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (MD; Odocoileus hemionus) farms from the western Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta, and to identify factors associated with its occurrence.METHODS: A cross-sectional study, in which the target population was all farmers of WTD and MD

RC Mainar-Jaime; Woodbury; M Chirino-Trejo

2007-01-01

267

Chronic Wasting Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a unique transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (O. virginianus), and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni). The natural history of CWD is incompletely understood, but it differs from scrapie and bovine spon- giform encephalopathy (BSE) by virtue of its occurrence in nondomestic and free-ranging species. CWD has many features

E. S. Williams

2005-01-01

268

Nesting habitat relationships of sympatric Crested Caracaras, Red-tailed Hawks, and White-tailed Hawks in South Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We quantified nesting-site habitats for sympatric White-tailed Hawks (Buteo albicaudatus) (n = 40), Red-tailed Hawks (B. jamaicensis) (n = 39), and Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway) (n = 24) in the Coastal Sand Plain of south Texas. White-tailed Hawks and Crested Caracara nest sites occurred in savannas, whereas Red-tailed Hawk nest sites occurred in woodlands on the edge of savannas. White-tailed Hawk nest sites were in shrubs and trees that were shorter (3.5 ?? 1.0 m) and had smaller canopy diameters (5.5 ?? 2.1 m) than those of Red-tailed Hawks (10.1 ?? 2.0 m, 13.7 ?? 5.8 m) and Crested Caracaras (5.6 ?? 1.7 m, 8.5 ?? 3.5 m). Red-tailed Hawk nest sites had higher woody densities (15.7 ?? 9.6 plants) and more woody cover (84 ?? 19%) than those of White-tailed Hawks (5.6 ?? 5.8 plants, 20 ?? 21%) and Crested Caracaras (9.9 ?? 6.7 plants, 55 ?? 34%). Crested Caracara nest sites were in dense, multi-branched shrubs composed of more living material (97 ?? 3%) than those of White-tailed (88 ?? 18%) and Red-tailed hawks (88 ?? 18%). Nest sites of White-tailed Hawks, Red-tailed Hawks, and Crested Caracaras were similar to random samples from the surrounding habitat indicating that preferred nesting habitat was available for each of these species at least within 60 m of active nest sites. Nest tree height, along with woody plant and native grass cover best discriminated nest sites among the three raptor species. There was no overlap at Red-tailed and White-tailed hawk nest sites in vegetation structure, while Crested Caracara nests were in habitat intermediate between the two other species. Partitioning of nesting habitat may be how these raptor species co-exist at the broader landscape scale of our study area in the Coastal Sand Plain of Texas.

Actkinson, M. A.; Kuvlesky, Jr. , W. P.; Boal, C. W.; Brennan, L. A.; Hernandez, F.

2007-01-01

269

Annual status report on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This fourteenth annual status report for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office summarizes activities of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Surface (UMTRA-Surface) and Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Groundwater (UMT...

1992-01-01

270

Resistance to Plague Among Black-Tailed Prairie Dog Populations  

PubMed Central

Abstract In some rodent species frequently exposed to plague outbreaks caused by Yersinia pestis, resistance to the disease has evolved as a population trait. As a first step in determining if plague resistance has developed in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), animals captured from colonies in a plague-free region (South Dakota) and two plague-endemic regions (Colorado and Texas) were challenged with Y. pestis at one of three doses (2.5, 250, or 2500 mouse LD50s). South Dakota prairie dogs were far more susceptible to plague than Colorado and Texas prairie dogs (p<0.001), with a mortality rate of nearly 100% over all doses. Colorado and Texas prairie dogs were quite similar in their response, with overall survival rates of 50% and 60%, respectively. Prairie dogs from these states were heterogenous in their response, with some animals dying at the lowest dose (37% and 20%, respectively) and some surviving even at the highest dose (29% and 40%, respectively). Microsatellite analysis revealed that all three groups were distinct genetically, but further studies are needed to establish a genetic basis for the observed differences in plague resistance.

Williamson, Judy; Cobble, Kacy R.; Busch, Joseph D.; Antolin, Michael F.; Wagner, David M.

2012-01-01

271

Huntington's disease.  

PubMed

Huntington's disease is an autosomal-dominant, progressive neurodegenerative disorder with a distinct phenotype, including chorea and dystonia, incoordination, cognitive decline, and behavioural difficulties. Typically, onset of symptoms is in middle-age after affected individuals have had children, but the disorder can manifest at any time between infancy and senescence. The mutant protein in Huntington's disease--huntingtin--results from an expanded CAG repeat leading to a polyglutamine strand of variable length at the N-terminus. Evidence suggests that this tail confers a toxic gain of function. The precise pathophysiological mechanisms of Huntington's disease are poorly understood, but research in transgenic animal models of the disorder is providing insight into causative factors and potential treatments. PMID:17240289

Walker, Francis O

2007-01-20

272

Predicting arsenic concentrations in porewaters of buried uranium mill tailings  

SciTech Connect

The proposed JEB Tailings Management Facility (TMF) to be emplaced below the groundwater table in northern Saskatchewan, Canada, will contain uranium mill tailings from McClean Lake, Midwest and Cigar Lake ore bodies, which are high in arsenic (up to 10%) and nickel (up to 5%). A serious concern is the possibility that high arsenic and nickel concentrations may be released from the buried tailings, contaminating adjacent groundwaters and a nearby lake. Laboratory tests and geochemical modeling were performed to examine ways to reduce the arsenic and nickel concentrations in TMF porewaters so as to minimize such contamination from tailings buried for 50 years and longer. The tests were designed to mimic conditions in the mill neutralization circuit (3 hr tests at 25 C), and in the TMF after burial (5--49 day aging tests). The aging tests were run at 50, 25 and 4 C (the temperature in the TMF). In order to optimize the removal of arsenic by adsorption and precipitation, ferric sulfate was added to tailings raffinates having Fe/As ratios of less than 3--5. The acid raffinates were then neutralized by addition of slaked lime to nominal pH values of 7, 8, or 9. Analysis and modeling of the test results showed that with slaked lime addition to acid tailings raffinates, relatively amorphous scorodite (ferric arsenate) precipitates near pH 1, and is the dominant form of arsenate in slake limed tailings solids except those high in Ni and As and low in Fe, in which cabrerite-annabergite (Ni, Mg, Fe(II) arsenate) may also precipitate near pH 5--6. In addition to the arsenate precipitates, smaller amounts of arsenate are also adsorbed onto tailings solids. The aging tests showed that after burial of the tailings, arsenic concentrations may increase with time from the breakdown of the arsenate phases (chiefly scorodite). However, the tests indicate that the rate of change decreases and approaches zero after 72 hrs at 25 C, and may equal zero at all times in the TMF at 4 C. Consistent with a kinetic model that describes the rate of breakdown of scorodite to form hydrous ferric oxide, the rate of release of dissolved arsenate to tailings porewaters from slake limed tailings: (1) is proportional to pH above pH 6--7; (2) decreases exponentially as the total molar Fe/As ratio of tailings raffinates is increased from 1/1 to greater than 5/1; and (3) is proportional to temperature with an average Arrhenius activation energy of 13.4 {+-} 4.2 kcal/mol. Study results suggest that if ferric sulfate and slaked lime are added in the tailings neutralization circuit to give a raffinate Fe/As molar ratio of at least 3--5 and a nominal (initial) pH of 8 (final pH of 7--8), arsenic and nickel concentrations of 2 mg/L or less, are probable in porewaters of individual tailings in the TMF for 50 to 10,000 yrs after tailings disposal. However, the tailings will be mixed in the TMF, which will contain about 35% tailings with Fe/As = 3.0, and 65% tailings with Fe/As = 5.0--7.7. Thus, it seems likely that average arsenic pore water concentrations in the TMF may not exceed 1 mg/L.

Langmuir, D.; Mahoney, J.; MacDonald, A.; Rowson, J.

1999-10-01

273

Cassini in Titan's tail: CAPS observations of plasma escape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present observations of CAPS electron and ion spectra during Titan distant tail crossings at 5,000-10,000 km altitude by the Cassini spacecraft. In common with closer tail encounters, we identify ionospheric plasma in the tail. Some of the electron spectra indicate a direct magnetic connection to Titan's dayside ionosphere due to the presence of ionospheric photoelectrons. Ion observations reveal heavy (m/q˜ 16 and 28) and light (m/q = 1-2) ion populations streaming into the tail. Using the distant tail encounters T9, T75 and T63, we estimate total plasma loss rates from Titan via this process of (4.2, 0.96 and 2.3) × 1024 ions s-1 respectively for the three encounters, values which are in agreement with some simulations but slightly lower than earlier estimates based on non-differential techniques. Using the mass-separated data, this corresponds to mass loss rates of (8.9, 1.6, 4.0) × 1025 amu s-1 for T9, T75 and T63 respectively, an average loss rate of ˜7 tonnes per Earth day. Remarkably, all of the tail encounters studied here indicate a split tail feature, indicating that this may be a common feature in Titan's interaction with Saturn's magnetosphere.

Coates, A. J.; Wellbrock, A.; Lewis, G. R.; Arridge, C. S.; Crary, F. J.; Young, D. T.; Thomsen, M. F.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Johnson, R. E.; Szego, K.; Bebesi, Z.; Jones, G. H.

2012-05-01

274

Postautotomy tail activity in the Balearic lizard, Podarcis lilfordi.  

PubMed

Caudal autotomy is an effective antipredator strategy widespread among lizards. The shed tail thrashes vigorously for long periods to distract the predator and facilitate the lizard's escape. This movement is maintained by energy supplied by the anaerobic conversion of glycogen into lactate. It has been suggested that lactate accumulation serves as an index for the vigor of tail thrashing. We made three predictions: (1) tail loss frequency should be higher under heavier predation regime, (2) the duration of postautotomy tail movement should be extended in populations under heavy predation pressure as an adaptation to the higher risk and the increased need for defense, and (3) as result, lactate in these tail tissues should be concentrated at higher levels. To eliminate the impact of phylogeny and environmental factors on the interpretation of our result, we focused exclusively on one species, the Balearic lizard (Podarcis lilfordi). We studied three populations under different predation pressure but sharing the same climatic conditions. We found no differences among the studied populations either in postautotomy duration of tail movement or in levels of final lactate accumulation while autotomy frequency was higher where predation pressure was more intense. Tail loss effectiveness is directly influenced by the level of predation, while secondary features of the trait appear to remain independent from the impact of environment. PMID:17994207

Pafilis, Panayiotis; Pérez-Mellado, Valentín; Valakos, Efstratios

2007-11-10

275

Modelling of contaminant release from a uranium mine tailings site  

SciTech Connect

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Uranium mining and milling continuing from the early 1960's until 1990 close to the town of Seelingstaedt in Eastern Germany resulted in 4 tailings impoundments with a total tailings volume of about 105 Mio. m{sup 3}. Leakage from these tailings impoundments enters the underlying aquifers and is discharged into surface water streams. High concentration of salts, uranium and several heavy metals are released from the tailings. At present the tailings impoundments are reshaped and covered. For the identification of suitable remediation options predictions of the contaminant release for different remediation scenarios have to be made. A compartment model representing the tailings impoundments and the surrounding aquifers for the calculation of contaminant release and transport was set up using the software GOLDSIM. This compartment model describes the time dependent hydraulic conditions within the tailings and the surrounding aquifers taking into account hydraulic and geotechnical processes influencing the hydraulic properties of the tailings material. A simple geochemical approach taking into account sorption processes as well as retardation by applying a k{sub d}-approach was implemented to describe the contaminant release and transport within the hydraulic system. For uranium as the relevant contaminant the simple approach takes into account additional geochemical conditions influencing the mobility. Alternatively the model approach allows to include the results of detailed geochemical modelling of the individual tailings zones which is than used as source term for the modelling of the contaminant transport in the aquifer and to the receiving streams. (authors)

Kahnt, Rene [G.E.O.S. Freiberg Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, P.O.Box 1162. D-09581 Freiberg (Germany); Metschies, Thomas [Wismut GmbH, Jagdschaenkenstrasse 29. D-09117 Chemnitz (Germany)

2007-07-01

276

Simulations of Instabilities in Tidal Tails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use graphics cards to run a hybrid test particle/N-body simulation to integrate 4 million massless particle trajectories within fully self-consistent N-body simulations of 128,000 - 256,000 particles. The number of massless particles allows us to resolve fine structure in the spatial distribution and phase space of a dwarf galaxy that is disrupted in the tidal field of a Milky Way type galaxy. The tidal tails exhibit clumping or a smoke-like appearance. By running simulations with different satellite particle mass, number of massive vs massless particles and with and without a galaxy disk, we have determined that the instabilities are not due to numerical noise or shocking as the satellite passes through the disk of the Galaxy. The instability is possibly a result of self-gravity which indicates it may be due to Jeans instabilities. Simulations involving different halo particle mass may suggest limitations on dark matter halo substructure. We find that the instabilities are visible in velocity space as well as real space and thus could be identified from velocity surveys as well as number counts.

Comparetta, Justin N.; Quillen, A. C.

2010-05-01

277

Weak Disorder Localization and Lifshitz Tails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is devoted to the study of localization of discrete random Schrödinger Hamiltonians in the weak disorder regime. Consider an i.i.d. Anderson model and assume that its left spectral edge is 0. Let ? be the coupling constant measuring the strength of the disorder. For ? small, we prove a Lifshitz tail type estimate and use it to derive localization in a band starting at 0 going up to a distance of the average of the potential. In this energy region, we show that the localization length at energy E is bounded from above by a constant times the square root of the distance between E and the average of the potential. Résumé. Dans cet article, nous étudions la localisation à faible désordre pour des opérateurs de Schrödinger aléatoires discrets. Considérons un modèle d'Anderson i.i.d. dont le bord spectral gauche vaut 0. Soit ? la constante de couplage mesurant le désordre. Pour ? petit, nous démontrons une estimée de type estimée de Lifshitz pour la densité d'états, et nous utilisons cette estimée pour prouver que le spectre de cet opérateur est localisé dans un intervalle allant de l'énergie 0 jusqu'à une distance de l'ordre de de la moyenne du potentiel. Dans cette région d'énergie, la longueur de localisation à une énergie E est majorée par une constante fois la racine de la distance séparant E de la moyenne du potentiel.

Klopp, Frédéric

278

Periodic substorm activity in the geomagnetic tail  

SciTech Connect

On 19 May 1978 an anusual series of events is observed with the Quadrispherical LEPEDEA on board the ISEE-1 satellite in the Earth's geomagnetic tail. For 13 hours periodic bursts of both ions and electrons are seen in all the particle detectors on the spacecraft. On this day periodic activity is also seen on the ground, where multiple intensifications of the electrojets are observed. At the same time the latitudinal component of the interplanetary magnetic field shows a number of strong southward deflections. It is concluded that an extended period of substorm activity is occurring, which causes repeated thinnings and recoveries of the plasma sheet. These are detected by ISEE, which is situated in the plasma sheet boundary layer, as periodic dropouts and reappearances of the plasma. Comparisons of the observations at ISEE with those at IMP-8, which for a time is engulfed by the plasma sheet, indicate that the activity is relatively localized in spatial extent. For this series of events it is clear that a global approach to magnetospheric dynamics, e.g., reconnection, is inappropriate.

Huang, C.Y.; Eastman, T.E.; Frank, L.A.; Williams, D.J.

1983-01-01

279

Idealized tip-to-tail waverider model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow field of an idealized cone-derived waverider is axisymmetric. This forebody feature is preserved for the rest of the vehicle, including the inlet, cowl, combustor, and nozzle. There is thus an inviscid, tip-to-tail model in which both the external and internal flows are axisymmetric. The assumption of axial symmetry provides a major simplification for the analysis and allows for a systematic integration of the propulsion unit with the aerodynamics. The code is an initial formulation that provides only the most basic engineering data, such as lift, thrust, drag, and fuel consumption for a point-designed vehicle that may be cruising at a low hypersonic Mach number. The user may specify flight altitude and Mach number, a multiple shock configuration for the inlet, a few basic geometric parameter, H2 or CH4 as fuel, the fuel/air ratio, etc. A new design concept is used for the nozzle that avoids shock waves, minimizes the nozzle length, and may maximize its thrust. A general description of the model is provided with emphasis on the design of the nozzle and fins. Preliminary results are presented that compare the cruise flight range using H2 or CH4 as the fuel.

Emanuel, G.; Park, H.-K.

280

The Energy Spectra of Suprathermal Tails in Solar Wind Iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High speed suprathermal tails with a fixed energy spectrum have been observed in solar wind H+ and He2+, as well as in He+ pickup ions (e.g. Gloeckler et al., 2007). The presence of the tails have implications for particle injection into the interplanetary shock acceleration process. The suprathermal tails of solar wind Fe have been investigated with the STEREO/PLASTIC mass spectrometer. The energy spectra will be presented for periods of slow and fast solar wind, and for the entire STEREO mission.

Popecki, M. A.; Galvin, A.; Bochsler, P.; Klecker, B.; Kucharek, H.; Kistler, L.; Blush, L.; Moebius, E.

2009-05-01

281

Band tailing and efficiency limitation in kesterite solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that a fundamental performance bottleneck for hydrazine processed kesterite Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) solar cells with efficiencies reaching above 11% can be the formation of band-edge tail states, which quantum efficiency and photoluminescence data indicate is roughly twice as severe as in higher-performing Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 devices. Low temperature time-resolved photoluminescence data suggest that the enhanced tailing arises primarily from electrostatic potential fluctuations induced by strong compensation and facilitated by a lower CZTSSe dielectric constant. We discuss the implications of the band tails for the voltage deficit in these devices.

Gokmen, Tayfun; Gunawan, Oki; Todorov, Teodor K.; Mitzi, David B.

2013-09-01

282

Prenatal diagnosis of fetal tail and postabortum anatomical description.  

PubMed

Fetal ultrasound examination at 13 weeks of gestation demonstrated a homogeneously echogenic protrusion, or tail, 7 mm in length, in the sacral region. At 15 weeks, the ultrasound appearance was consistent with a regression of the tail and by 21 weeks it had completely disappeared. Severe intrauterine growth restriction with reduced uterine blood flow was diagnosed at 21 weeks and intrauterine death occurred at 24 weeks of gestation. Postmortem examination revealed a 4-mm caudal appendage which contained no vertebrae on radiography. The appendage was located under and behind the last sacral vertebra suggesting a true vestigial tail with a delayed process of regression. PMID:11844178

Grangé, G; Tantau, J; Pannier, E; Aubry, M C; Viot, G; Fallet-Bianco, C; Terrasse, G; Cabrol, D

2001-11-01

283

The Environmental Impact of Cavnicului Valley Tailing Dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In the Maramure? County, Cavnicului Valley there exist three tailing ponds belonging to the Cavnic Mining Company from C.N.M.P.N.\\u000a REMIN Baia Mare: Vr?nicioara, M?l?ini and Plopi?-R?chi?ele. This paper presents an analysis of the tailing ponds from a physical\\u000a and chemical stability point of view. The conclusion is that the tailing ponds of Vr?nicioara and Plopi?-R?chi?ele constitute\\u000a stability from a sliding

I. Bud; S. Duma; I. Denu?; I. Ta?cu

2007-01-01

284

Cluster Size Distribution and Relaxation Long Time Tails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relaxation phenomena such as the dielectric, magnetic and mechanical relaxation of many disordered physical systems exhibit universal features in particular for long time one often observes an exponential behavior known as long time tail relaxation. We show that if individual clusters in these materials have a relaxation time proportional to the cluster size, the existence of a stable probability size distribution with a long tail power law changes dramatically the relaxation rate, from an initial exponential relaxation to a long time tail t-?. In this case it is the morphology of the system which determines its kinetics.

Vasquez, Alexis; Sotolongo, Oscar; Brouers, Francois

1997-08-01

285

Acetylation of LYS-16 of H4 Histone Tail May Sequester the Tail and Inhibit its Interactions with Neighboring Nucleosomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Histone tails are highly flexible N terminal protrusions of histone proteins, which help to fold DNA into dense superstructures known as chromatin. On a molecular scale histone tails are poly-electrolites with high degree of conformational disorder, allowing them to function as bio-molecular ``switches,'' regulating various genetic regulatory processes via diverse types of covalent modifications. Because of being intrinsically disordered, the structural and dynamical aspects of histone tails are still poorly understood. Using multiple explicit solvent and coarse-grained MD simulations we have investigated the impact of the acetylation of LYS-16 residue on the conformational and DNA-binding propensities of H4 histone tail. The potential of mean force computed as a function of distance between a model DNA and histone tail center of mass showed a dramatic enhancement of binding affinity upon mono-acetylation of the H4 tail. The estimated binding free energy gain for the wild type is 2kT, while for the acetylated it reaches 4-5 kT. Additionally our structural analysis shows that acetylation is driving the chain into collapsed states, which get enriched in secondary structural elements upon binding to the DNA. We suggest a non-electrostatic mechanism that explains the enhanced binding affinity of the acetylated H4 tail. At last our findings lead us to propose a hypothesis that can potentially account for the celebrated chromatin ``fiber loosening effects'' observed in many experiments.

Potoyan, Davit; Papoian, Garegin

2012-02-01

286

Suprathermal Tails in Solar Wind Oxygen and Iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High speed suprathermal tails with a fixed energy spectrum have been observed in solar wind H and He2+, as well as in He+ pickup ions (e.g. Gloeckler et al., 2007). These tails appear to have a persistent and constant power law energy spectrum, unchanged in a variety of solar conditions. The presence of the tails have implications for particle injection into the interplanetary shock acceleration process. The suprathermal tails of ions heavier than H and He may be investigated with the STEREO/PLASTIC mass spectrometer, for speeds up to several times the solar wind speed. The energy spectra of solar wind O and Fe are presented for periods of slow and fast solar wind. Variations in energy spectra will be discussed.

Popecki, M.; Galvin, A. B.; Kistler, L. M.; Klecker, B.; Bochsler, P.; Kucharek, H.; Blush, L.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Moebius, E.

2008-05-01

287

Suprathermal Tails in Solar Wind Oxygen and Iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High speed suprathermal tails with a fixed energy spectrum have been observed in solar wind H and He2+, as well as in He+ pickup ions (e.g. Gloeckler et al., 2007). These tails appear to have a persistent and constant power law energy spectrum, unchanged in a variety of solar conditions. The presence of the tails have implications for particle injection into the interplanetary shock acceleration process. The suprathermal tails of solar wind Fe and O have been investigated with the STEREO/PLASTIC mass spectrometer. The energy spectra of solar wind O and Fe will be presented for periods of slow and fast solar wind. Variations in energy spectra are observed in both species at speeds up to 1.8 times the solar wind speed.

Popecki, M. A.; Galvin, A.; Klecker, B.; Kucharek, H.; Kistler, L.; Bochsler, P.; Blush, L.; Möbius, E.

2008-12-01

288

Variable Stiffness Concept For Efficient Aircraft Vertical Tail Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report results from a contract tasking University of Manchester as follows: The contractor will investigate using a variable stiffness vertical tail attachment to control aeroelastic performance over a range of dynamic pressures. The contractor will ...

J. E. Cooper M. Amprikidis O. Sensburg

2003-01-01

289

Thyroxine Induced Resorption of Xenopus Laevis Tail Tissue in Vitro.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A simple method of studying thyroxine-induced resorption of tadpole tails in vitro is described. This procedure demonstrates that resorption is dependent on thyroxine and requires protein synthesis. It introduces students to the use of tissue culture methods. (Author)|

Scadding, Steven R.

1984-01-01

290

42. FOUNDATIONS TAIL RACE, ETC., POWER HOUSE SANTA ANA ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. FOUNDATIONS - TAIL RACE, ETC., POWER HOUSE SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2, EDISON ELECTRIC CO., NOV. 3, 1904. SCE drawing no. 5393. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

291

Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program. Annual Status Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project FY 1984 major accomplishments are summarized. Twenty-five percent of the processing site remedial actions at Canonsburg, PA, were completed. Remedial action on 118 vicinity properties at four desig...

1984-01-01

292

The Sodium Tails of Near-Sun Comets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of our survey of the sodium tails of several comets observed by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft, SOHO, using its LASCO coronagraph. We report on the morphology and brightness of these comets' sodium tails, using photometric analysis to estimate their relative sodium production rates. In addition, we attempt to simulate the observed tails using a Monte Carlo model. Simulation of the tail's morphology and appearance is not straightforward; the anti-sunward acceleration of sodium atoms is a strong function of the atoms' radial velocity, due to the dependence of the acceleration on the strength of the Doppler-shifted Fraunhofer sodium absorption lines in the solar spectrum in the atoms' frame of reference. We discuss the implications our results for our understanding of near-Sun comets' composition and origins.

Jones, G. H.; Osborn, H.

2011-10-01

293

Recovery of Silver and Mercury From Mill Tailings by Electrooxidation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Extraction of silver from silver mill tailings by an electrolytic oxidation procedure was investigated. Various parameters affecting silver extraction, such as electrolysis time, particle size, and dissolution of the silver as the tetrachloro or cyanide c...

B. J. Scheiner D. L. Pool R. E. Lindstrom

1972-01-01

294

Floodplain Disposal of Mill Tailings. Volume I. Text.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study provides an initial indication that mill tailings produced in the Coeur d'Alene Mining District of Idaho can be placed on floodplain areas in a technically acceptable manner without artificial liners and without seriously contaminating the surr...

K. E. Robinson M. M. Eivemark B. E. McKee

1981-01-01

295

3. VIEW EAST OF TAILINGS OF MERCURY RETORT. SCOOP FOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW EAST OF TAILINGS OF MERCURY RETORT. SCOOP FOR EXTRACTING MERCURY VISIBLE IN CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. (OCTOBER, 1995) - McCormick Group Mine, Mercury Retort, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

296

Aerodynamic Methodology (Bodies with and without Tails in Transonic Flow).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents empirical methods for predicting the aerodynamic characteristics of slender missile bodies with and without deflected horizontal tails in the following ranges of angle of attack and Mach number: (1) Bodies: Angles to 90 degrees, Mach ...

J. E. Fidler M. C. Bateman

1974-01-01

297

Radon Diffusion Through Uranium Mill Tailings and Cover Defects  

SciTech Connect

Research was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to define the effects of cover defects on the emission of radon gas from covered uranium mill tailings piles. This report describes the results from the analysis of four geometrically simplified cover defects.

Mayer, D. W.; Zimmerman, D. A.

1981-12-01

298

Accelerating transient drainage from UMTRA Project tailings piles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The period between the completion of construction of the tailings disposal cell and the establishment of equilibrium moisture content and seepage conditions is considered to be the period of transient drainage. Transient drainage may be due to factors suc...

1990-01-01

299

Sandia's activities in uranium mill tailings remedial action  

SciTech Connect

The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 requires that remedial action be taken at over 20 inactive uranium mill tailings sites in the United States. Standards promulgated by the EPA under this act are to be the operative standards for this activity. Proposed standards must still undergo internal review, public comment, and receive Nuclear Regulatory Commission concurrence before being finalized. Briefly reviewed, the standards deal separately with new disposal sites (Part A) and cleanup of soil and contaminated structures at existing locations (Part B). In several cases, the present sites are felt to be too close to human habitations or to be otherwise unacceptably located. These tailings will probably be relocated. New disposal sites for relocated tailings must satisfy certain standards. The salient features of these standards are summarized.

Neuhauser, S.

1980-01-01

300

Scoring tail damage in pigs: an evaluation based on recordings at Swedish slaughterhouses  

PubMed Central

Background There is increasing interest in recording tail damage in pigs at slaughter to identify problem farms for advisory purposes, but also for benchmarking within and between countries as part of systematic monitoring of animal welfare. However, it is difficult to draw conclusions when comparing prevalence’s between studies and countries partly due to differences in management (e.g. differences in tail docking and enrichment routines) and partly due to differences in the definition of tail damage. Methods Tail damage and tail length was recorded for 15,068 pigs slaughtered during three and four consecutive days at two slaughterhouses in Sweden. Tail damage was visually scored according to a 6-point scale and tail length was both visually scored according to a 5-point scale and recorded as tail length in centimetres for pigs with injured or shortened tails. Results The total prevalence of injury or shortening of the tail was 7.0% and 7.2% in slaughterhouse A and B, respectively. When only considering pigs with half or less of the tail left, these percentages were 1.5% and 1.9%, which is in line with the prevalence estimated from the routine recordings at slaughter in Sweden. A higher percentage of males had injured and/or shortened tails, and males had more severely bitten tails than females. Conclusions While the current method to record tail damage in Sweden was found to be reliable as a method to identify problem farms, it clearly underestimates the actual prevalence of tail damage. For monitoring and benchmarking purposes, both in Sweden and internationally, we propose that a three graded scale including both old and new tail damage would be more appropriate. The scale consists of one class for no tail damage, one for mild tail damage (injured or shortened tail with more than half of the tail remaining) and one for severe tail damage (half or less of the tail remaining).

2012-01-01

301

Structure and function of tuna tail tendons.  

PubMed

The caudal tendons in tunas and other scombrid fish link myotomal muscle directly to the caudal fin rays, and thus serve to transfer muscle power to the hydrofoil-like tail during swimming. These robust collagenous tendons have structural and mechanical similarity to tendons found in other vertebrates, notably the leg tendons of terrestrial mammals. Biochemical studies indicate that tuna tendon collagen is composed of the (alpha1)(2),alpha2 heterotrimer that is typical of vertebrate Type I collagen, while tuna skin collagen has the unusual alpha1,alpha2,alpha3 trimer previously described in the skin of some other teleost species. Tuna collagen, like that of other fish, has high solubility due to the presence of an acid-labile intermolecular cross-link. Unlike collagen in mammalian tendons, no differences related to cross-link maturation were detected among tendons in tuna ranging from 0.05 to 72 kg (approx. 0.25-6 years). Tendons excised post-mortem were subjected to load cycling to determine the modulus of elasticity and resilience (mean of 1.3 GPa and 90%, respectively). These material properties compare closely to those of leg tendons from adult mammals that can function as effective biological springs in terrestrial locomotion, but the breaking strength is substantially lower. Peak tendon forces recorded during steady swimming appear to impose strains of much less than 1% of tendon length, and no more than 1.5% during bursts. Thus, the caudal tendons in tunas do not appear to function as elastic storage elements, even at maximal swimming effort. PMID:12485695

Shadwick, Robert E; Rapoport, H Scott; Fenger, Joelle M

2002-12-01

302

Testing tail-mounted transmitters with Myocastor coypus (nutria)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We developed a tail-mounted radio-transmitter for Myocastor coypus (nutria) that offers a practical and efficient alternative to collar or implant methods. The mean retention time was 96 d (range 57-147 d, n = 7), making this a practical method for short-term studies. The tail-mounts were less injurious to animals than collars and easier for field researchers to implement than either collars or surgically implanted transmitters.

Merino, S.; Carter, J.; Thibodeaux, G.

2007-01-01

303

Phosphorus Sequestration in Lake Sediment with Iron Mine Tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internal phosphorus loading can lead to eutrophication in lakes when anoxic sediments release bioavailable phosphorus into the water column. In laboratory experiments, iron mine tailings helped to sequester phosphorus in sediment from a eutrophic lake. Phosphorus release from the sediments after extraction with distilled water or 0.02 N H2SO4 was significantly reduced when mine tailings were added (1:1 w\\/w), even

MAUREEN E. CLAYTON; SARAH LIEGEOIS; EDWARD J. BROWN

2004-01-01

304

Geochemistry of arsenic in uranium mine mill tailings, Saskatchewan, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rabbit Lake U mine in-pit tailings management facility (TMF) (425 m long×300 m wide×91 m deep) is located in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. The objectives of this study were to quantify the distribution of As phases in the tailings and evaluate the present-day geochemical controls on dissolved As. These objectives were met by analyzing pore fluid samples collected from the

R Donahue; M. J Hendry

2003-01-01

305

A Yurok Story: How the Animals Got Their Tails.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This story was told to the author by her grandmother, a Yurok born at Pecwan in 1898. Long ago, at a council meeting, the animals decided to ask the Great Creator for tails. He agreed and promised to give each animal a tail the next morning. The first animal to get up would have first choice. Coyote built a big fire and tried hard to stay awake…

Tripp, Maria

306

Characterization of 14-3-3-? Interactions with Integrin Tails.  

PubMed

Integrins are a family of heterodimeric (?+?) adhesion receptors that play key roles in many cellular processes. Integrins are unusual in that their functions can be modulated from both outside and inside the cell. Inside-out signaling is mediated by binding adaptor proteins to the flexible cytoplasmic tails of the ?- and ?-integrin subunits. Talin is one well-known intracellular activator, but various other adaptors bind to integrin tails, including 14-3-3-?, ?a member of the 14-3-3 family of dimeric proteins that have a preference for binding phosphorylated sequence motifs. Phosphorylation of a threonine in the ?2 integrin tail has been shown to modulate ?2/14-3-3-? interactions, and recently, the ?4 integrin tail was reported to bind to 14-3-3-? and associate with paxillin in a ternary complex that is regulated by serine phosphorylation. Here, we use a range of biophysical techniques to characterize interactions between 14-3-3-? and the cytoplasmic tails of ?4, ?1, ?2 and ?3 integrins. The X-ray structure of the 14-3-3-?/?4 complex indicates a canonical binding mode for the ?4 phospho-peptide, but unexpected features are also observed: residues outside the consensus 14-3-3-? binding motif are shown to be essential for an efficient interaction; in contrast, a short ?2 phospho-peptide is sufficient for high-affinity binding to 14-3-3-?. In addition, we report novel 14-3-3-?/integrin tail interactions that are independent of phosphorylation. Of the integrin tails studied, the strongest interaction with 14-3-3-? is observed for the ?1A variant. In summary, new insights about 14-3-3-?/integrin tail interactions that have implications for the role of these molecular associations in cells are described. PMID:23763993

Bonet, Roman; Vakonakis, Ioannis; Campbell, Iain D

2013-06-11

307

Location of the head-tail junction of myosin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tails of double-headed myosin mole- cules consist of an alpha-helical\\/coiled-coil structure composed of two identical polypeptides with a heptad repeat of hydrophobic amino acids that starts immedi- ately after a conserved proline near position 847. Both muscle and nonmuscle myosins have this heptad repeat and it has been assumed that proline 847 is physically located at the head-tail junction.

David L. Rimm; John H. Sinard; Thomas D. Pollard

1989-01-01

308

Informal discussion of United States work on uranium mill tailings  

SciTech Connect

The environmental aspects of uranium recovery operations may be conveniently divided into three areas: (1) the interactions of ponded acidic uranium mill tailings solutions with indigenous sediments and geologic liner materials, (2) the effects of neutralization on the acidic uranium mill tailings solutions, and (3) the study of methods to minimize ground-water contamination from in situ leach uranium mining. These aspects are discussed.

Peterson, S.R.; Gee, G.W.

1985-08-01

309

Several modifications of DPR estimator of the tail index  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we continue the investigation of an estimator proposed in [Yu. Davydov, V. Paulauskas, and A. Ra?kauskas, More\\u000a on p-stable convex sets in Banach spaces, J. Theor. Probab., 13:39–64, 2000] and [V. Paulauskas, A new estimator for tail index, Acta Appl. Math., 79:55–67, 2003] and considered in [V. Paulauskas and M. Vai?iulis, Once more on comparison of tail

Vygantas Paulauskas; Marijus Vai?iulis

2011-01-01

310

A general model for long-tailed network traffic approximation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-tailed distribution characterizes many Internet traffic properties which are often modeled by Lognormal distribution,\\u000a Weibull or Pareto distribution theoretically. However, it is rather difficult to directly apply these models in traffic analysis\\u000a and performance evaluation studies due to their complex representations and theoretical properties.\\u000a \\u000a This paper proposes a Hyper-Erlang Model (Mixed Erlang distribution) for such long-tailed network traffic approximation.

Junfeng Wang; Hongxia Zhou; Mingtian Zhou; Lei Li

2006-01-01

311

The flood probability distribution tail: how heavy is it?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper empirically investigates the asymptotic behaviour of the flood probability distribution and more precisely the\\u000a possible occurrence of heavy tail distributions, generally predicted by multiplicative cascades. Since heavy tails considerably\\u000a increase the frequency of extremes, they have many practical and societal consequences. A French database of 173 daily discharge\\u000a time series is analyzed. These series correspond to various climatic

Pietro Bernardara; Daniel Schertzer; Eric Sauquet; Ioulia Tchiguirinskaia; Michel Lang

2008-01-01

312

A Yurok Story: How the Animals Got Their Tails.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This story was told to the author by her grandmother, a Yurok born at Pecwan in 1898. Long ago, at a council meeting, the animals decided to ask the Great Creator for tails. He agreed and promised to give each animal a tail the next morning. The first animal to get up would have first choice. Coyote built a big fire and tried hard to stay awake…

Tripp, Maria

313

Development and validation of 'quiet tail rotor' technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Systematic research leading to the development and validation of a 'quiet' full-scale tail rotor is described in this paper. Hover performance and acoustic test results acquired on the Sikorsky tail rotor whirl test facility, and some early results from the just-concluded flight tests are provided. The results show that substantial reduction in noise signature can be achieved simultaneously with improvements in performance when advances in aerodynamic and aeroacoustic technologies are judiciously applied.

Shenoy, Rajarama K.; Moffitt, Robert C.; Yoerkie, Charles M.; Childress, Otis, Jr.

1991-05-01

314

Source modification special study. [Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project  

SciTech Connect

One of the major issues that must be addressed during the evaluation of the efficiency of tailings embankment designs for compliance with groundwater standards is the estimation of source concentrations and the change in these concentrations with time. Because any effort to predict concentrations of contaminants in the uppermost aquifer requires a source concentration, data from these analyses are essential. Thetechnical approach of this study was twofold. The first approach was to investigate the rates of natural flushing of contaminants. Two sets of tailings samples were collected at two sites on the Old Rifle tailings pile at the Rifle UMTRA Project site in Colorado. One set of samples was collected at a site where the lower portion of the profile is continuously inundated with water and the other set was collected in anarea that only receives water from precipitation. The tailings samples were refluxed in strong acid (nitric acid) and the leachate was analyzed for hazardous constituents. The results of this investigation indicate that many of the hazardous constituents have been leached from the tailings at the wet site and that there has been little redistribution of elemental hazardous constituents at the dry site. The second approach involved a laboratory investigation of contaminant removal from tailings by doubly distilled water and two lixiviants. Tailings samples from the Gunnison, Colorado, UMTRA Project site were subjected to leaching by doubly distilled water, and by the lixiviants sodium bicarbonate and disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. The resulting data were tabulated and plotted with concentration as a function of pore volume. Evaluation of the data indicates that pore fluids should show a decrease in concentration after very few pore volumes of liquid have eluted through the tailings. It is also demonstrated that lixiviants significantly increase the solubility and rate of elution of all of the hazardous constituents.

Not Available

1989-04-01

315

The Head-Tail structure of High-Velocity Clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We like to present new observational data compiled from the new Leiden/Dwingeloo 21-cm Linie survey towards the prominent High-Velocity Cloud (HVC) complexes observable from the northern hemisphere. Our analysis revealed a significant number of HVCs with a head-tail structure. These head-tail structures seem to connect the HVCs with material at lower velocities. On one hand, these head-tail structures may imply a physical interaction of the HVC material with the intermediate-velocity (IVCs) or low-velocity clouds (LVCs). On the other hand, they may be indicators for distortions within the velocity field of the HVC matter but not a physical link between both cloud species. Our aim was to compile a complete table of head-tail structures towards the prominent HVC complexes. In total we found 42 HVCs with head-tail structure. We analysed the head-tail structures in statistical sense with respect to the physical parameters, like position, velocity (vLSR, vGSR) and column density. Moreover, we performed a first approach to derive the orientation of the unprojected velocity vector of the individual HVCs. Our finding may help to investigate the HVC phenomenon further, with respect to the recently detected soft X-ray and {H alpha} emission.

Bruens, C.

316

Auroral counterpart of magnetic field dipolarizations in Saturn's tail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following magnetic reconnection in a planetary magnetotail, newly closed field lines can be rapidly accelerated back towards the planet, becoming "dipolarized" in the process. At Saturn, dipolarizations are initially identified in magnetometer data by looking for a southward turning of the magnetic field, indicating the transition from a radially stretched configuration to a more dipolar field topology. The highly stretched geometry of the kronian magnetotail lobes gives rise to a tail current which flows eastward (dusk to dawn) in the near equatorial plane across the centre of the tail. During reconnection and associated dipolarization of the field, the inner edge of this tail current can be diverted through the ionosphere, in a situation analogous to the substorm current wedge picture at Earth. We present a picture of the current circuit arising from this tail reconfiguration, and outline the equations which govern the fieldcurrent relationship. We show the first in situ example of a dipolarization identified in the Cassini magnetometer data and use this formalism to estimate the ionospheric current density that would arise for this example and the implications for auroral electron acceleration in regions of upward directed field-aligned current. We then present a separate example of data from the Cassini UVIS instrument where we observe small 'spots' of auroral emission lying near the main oval; features suggested to be associated with dipolarizations in the tail. In the example shown, such auroral features are the precursor to more intense activity associated with recurrent energisation via particle injections from the tail following reconnection.

Jackman, C. M.; Achilleos, N.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Bunce, E. J.; Radioti, A.; Grodent, D.; Badman, S. V.; Dougherty, M. K.; Pryor, W.

2012-09-01

317

Rare-earth occurrences in the Pea Ridge tailings  

SciTech Connect

Tailings from the Pea Ridge iron mine contain significant amounts of apatite, which has rare-earth element values associated with it. In association with the recovery of rare-earth minerals as a secondary resource, the US Bureau of Mines conducted an investigation on the recoverability of the rare-earth minerals from the tailings. The mill tailings were subjected to a phosphate flotation to separate the apatite from other constituents. More than 70-pct recovery of the rare-earth values was achieved. Based on mineralogical characterization and prior analysis of rare-earth-bearing breccia pipe material at Pea Ridge, it is proposed that processing this phosphate concentrate on a vanner table would yield up to a 95-pct recovery of the rare earths in the concentrate, with the apatite reporting to the tailings. Intensive ore microscopy studies of the original tailings to the flotation products led to the identification of monazite, xenotime, and rare-earth-enriched apatite as the major rare-earth-bearing minerals in the tailings.

Vierrether, C.W.; Cornell, W.I.

1993-01-01

318

Arsenic bioaccessibility in gold mine tailings of Delita, Cuba.  

PubMed

A bioaccessibility test was carried out in four tailings collected at a former mining area in Delita, Cuba. A previous risk assessment study identified arsenic (As) as the main critical contaminant in this area and showed that the tailings had high As concentrations (up to 3.5%). This study aimed at: (i) evaluating As bioaccessibility in four tailings (R1, R2, R3 and R4) from a gold mining area to obtain a better health risk estimate; and, (ii) identifying the mineral phases responsible for most of the bioaccessible As using XRD, SEM-EDS, and XAS. The results showed that bioaccessible As in the tailings ranged from 0.65 to 40.5%. The main factors influencing As bioaccessibility were a high occurrence of amorphous iron arsenate; occurrence, even at low content, of iron oxyhydroxides and stability of mineral phases in the environment of the gastrointestinal tract. Although arsenopyrite, arsenates and goethite were confirmed by mineralogical methods such as optical microscopy, XRD, and SEM-EDS, XAS showed that scorodite-oxidation state As(+V)-was dominant in most of the tailings. This confirms that the low bioaccessibility of As in most of the tailings is due to the slow kinetics of As release from scorodite. PMID:23428178

Toujaguez, R; Ono, F B; Martins, V; Cabrera, P P; Blanco, A V; Bundschuh, J; Guilherme, L R G

2013-01-28

319

Drinking from tails: Social learning of a novel behaviour in a group of ring-tailed lemurs ( Lemur catta )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several examples have been documented of novel behaviours which have apparently arisen spontaneously in primate groups and\\u000a then spread through the group by learning. Here we describe the first recorded instance of such an acquired behaviour in a\\u000a prosimian. The behaviour, consisting of immersing the tail in water and then drinking from the wet tail, was observed in a\\u000a group

Geoffrey R. Hosey; Marie Jacques; Angela Pitts

1997-01-01

320

Plant Growth and Microbial Community Change in Iron Mine Tailings during Vegetation Restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth and microbial change in iron mine tailings were detected under controlled conditions in laboratory. Three crops, soybean, corn and grain sorghum, were used in the experiment for testing the adaptation of three crops on iron mine tailings. Cow manure vermicompost (25%, V:V) was added into iron mine tailings for improve the poor fertility of mine tailings. The results

Junying Zhang; Yongli Xu; Fuping Li

2010-01-01

321

Parameter Estimation for the Heavy Tailed Distributions with the Empirical Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most challenging characteristics of heavy tailed distribution is their high or even infinite variance or burstiness. Heavy-tailed distributions are the distributions, the tails of which cannot be cut off. So, we cannot neglect the large-scale but rare events. The most evident and natural problem of statistical estimation connected with heavy tailed distributions are the problem of their

H. Jabbari Khamnei; H. Bevrani; A. A. Haydari

2008-01-01

322

Investigation Of The Use Of Mine Tailings For Unpaved Road Base  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tailings have been traditionally stored in ponds surrounded by tailings dams for many years but since many accidents, including fatal ones, took place that involved tailings dams, a new approach has become necessary for their storage. An approach devised by Robinsky in the early seventies for the storage and disposal of mine tailings suggests that it is more advantageous environmentally

Ali A. Mahmood; Catherine N. Mulligan

2010-01-01

323

Stability analysis of a copper tailings dam via laboratory model tests: A Chinese case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upstream method is a popular method for raising tailings dams. Currently in China there are more than 12,000 tailings impoundments and almost 95% of them use the upstream method for the construction of the dam. Statistical data has shown that the tailings impoundment is one of the main sources of risk in the mining industry. Failures of tailings impoundments

Guangzhi Yin; Guangzhi Li; Zuoan Wei; Ling Wan; Guohong Shui; Xiaofei Jing

2011-01-01

324

Mobilization and retention of heavy metals in mill-tailings from Garpenberg sulfide mines, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lilla Bredsjön tailings contain less than 30% residual sulfide minerals, and an average initial content of 4% calcium carbonate. The tailings are divided into an active oxidation horizon near the surface of the tailings impoudment, an underlying intermediate horizon and a water-saturated horizon. Extensive oxidation of sulfide minerals near the tailings surface results in depletion of carbonate minerals and

Zhixun Lin

1997-01-01

325

Characteristics of live animal allometric measurements associated with body fat in fat-tailed sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body weight (LW), condition score (BCS), tail length on inner side of tail (TL), tail volume measured by water displacement (TV) and tail circumference (TC), width (TW) as well as thickness at the base (TT) were measured in live Menz (n=303) and Horro (n=151) sheep to determine their possible use in breeding programmes aimed at improving ability to deposit fat

Ewnetu Ermias; J. E. O. Rege

2003-01-01

326

Cell-penetrating H4 tail peptides potentiate p53-mediated transactivation via inhibition of G9a and HDAC1.  

PubMed

Histone acetylation has a central role in establishing an active chromatin environment. The functional contribution of histone acetylation to chromatin transcription is accomplished by a dominant action of histone acetyltransferases over repressive histone-modifying activities at gene promoters; misregulation of these dynamic events can lead to various diseases. Here, we describe the synthesis and characterization of transducible peptides derived from histone H4 N-terminal tail as a molecular tool to establish and maintain the active state of p53 target genes. Cellular experiments demonstrate a distinct increase in p53 transactivation by acetylated H4 tail peptides, but only a modest change by unmodified H4 tail peptides. The molecular basis underlying the observed effects involves the selective interaction of the tail peptides with G9a histone methyltransferase and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and the disruption of their occupancy at p53 target promoters. Furthermore, treatment of xenograft models and cancer cell lines with the tail peptides sharply decline tumor cell growth and enhances apoptosis in response to DNA damage. These results indicate that H4 tail peptide mimics upregulate p53 transcription pathway and may be used as a novel strategy for anticancer therapy. PMID:22751130

Heo, K; Kim, J-S; Kim, K; Kim, H; Choi, J; Yang, K; An, W

2012-07-02

327

Myosin-II Tails Confer Unique Functions in Schizosaccharomyces pombe: Characterization of a Novel Myosin-II Tail  

PubMed Central

Schizosaccharomyces pombe has two myosin-IIs, Myo2p and Myp2p, which both concentrate in the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis. We studied the phenotype of mutant myosin-II strains to examine whether these myosins have overlapping functions in the cell. myo2+ is essential. myp2+ cannot rescue loss of myo2+ even at elevated levels of expression. myp2+ is required under specific nutritional conditions; thus myo2+ cannot rescue under these conditions. Studies with chimeras show that the tails rather than the structurally similar heads determine the gene-specific functions of myp2+ and myo2+. The Myo2p tail is a rod-shaped coiled-coil dimer that aggregates in low salt like other myosin-II tails. The Myp2p tail is monomeric in high salt and is insoluble in low salt. Biophysical properties of the full-length Myp2p tail and smaller subdomains indicate that two predicted coiled-coil regions fold back on themselves to form a rod-shaped antiparallel coiled coil. This suggests that Myp2p is the first type II myosin with only one head. The C-terminal two-thirds of Myp2p tail are essential for function in vivo and may interact with components of the salt response pathway.

Bezanilla, Magdalena; Pollard, Thomas D.

2000-01-01

328

The Tail-Elicited Tail Withdrawal Reflex of "Aplysia" Is Mediated Centrally at Tail Sensory-Motor Synapses and Exhibits Sensitization across Multiple Temporal Domains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The defensive withdrawal reflexes of "Aplysia californica" have provided powerful behavioral systems for studying the cellular and molecular basis of memory formation. Among these reflexes the (T-TWR) has been especially useful. In vitro studies examining the monosynaptic circuit for the T-TWR, the tail sensory-motor (SN-MN) synapses, have…

Philips, Gary T.; Sherff, Carolyn M.; Menges, Steven A.; Carew, Thomas J.

2011-01-01

329

The Tail-Elicited Tail Withdrawal Reflex of "Aplysia" Is Mediated Centrally at Tail Sensory-Motor Synapses and Exhibits Sensitization across Multiple Temporal Domains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The defensive withdrawal reflexes of "Aplysia californica" have provided powerful behavioral systems for studying the cellular and molecular basis of memory formation. Among these reflexes the (T-TWR) has been especially useful. In vitro studies examining the monosynaptic circuit for the T-TWR, the tail sensory-motor (SN-MN) synapses, have…

Philips, Gary T.; Sherff, Carolyn M.; Menges, Steven A.; Carew, Thomas J.

2011-01-01

330

Atomic structure of bacteriophage Sf6 tail needle knob.  

PubMed

Podoviridae are double-stranded DNA bacteriophages that use short, non-contractile tails to adsorb to the host cell surface. Within the tail apparatus of P22-like phages, a dedicated fiber known as the "tail needle" likely functions as a cell envelope-penetrating device to promote ejection of viral DNA inside the host. In Sf6, a P22-like phage that infects Shigella flexneri, the tail needle presents a C-terminal globular knob. This knob, absent in phage P22 but shared in other members of the P22-like genus, represents the outermost exposed tip of the virion that contacts the host cell surface. Here, we report a crystal structure of the Sf6 tail needle knob determined at 1.0 ? resolution. The structure reveals a trimeric globular domain of the TNF fold structurally superimposable with that of the tail-less phage PRD1 spike protein P5 and the adenovirus knob, domains that in both viruses function in receptor binding. However, P22-like phages are not known to utilize a protein receptor and are thought to directly penetrate the host surface. At 1.0 ? resolution, we identified three equivalents of l-glutamic acid (l-Glu) bound to each subunit interface. Although intimately bound to the protein, l-Glu does not increase the structural stability of the trimer nor it affects its ability to self-trimerize in vitro. In analogy to P22 gp26, we suggest the tail needle of phage Sf6 is ejected through the bacterial cell envelope during infection and its C-terminal knob is threaded through peptidoglycan pores formed by glycan strands. PMID:21705802

Bhardwaj, Anshul; Molineux, Ian J; Casjens, Sherwood R; Cingolani, Gino

2011-06-25

331

Auroral counterpart of magnetic field dipolarizations in Saturn's tail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following magnetic reconnection in a planetary magnetotail, newly closed field lines can be rapidly accelerated back towards the planet, becoming "dipolarized" in the process. At Saturn, dipolarizations can be initially identified in magnetometer data by looking for a southward turning of the magnetic field, indicating the transition from a radially stretched configuration to a more dipolar field topology. The highly stretched geometry of the kronian magnetotail lobes gives rise to a tail current which flows eastward (dusk to dawn) in the near equatorial plane across the centre of the tail. During reconnection and associated dipolarization of the field, the inner edge of this tail current can be diverted through the ionosphere, in a situation analogous to the substorm current wedge picture at Earth. We present a picture of the current circuit arising from this tail reconfiguration, and outline the equations which govern the field-current relationship. We show an example of a dipolarization identified in the Cassini magnetometer data and use this formalism to constrain the ionospheric current density that would arise for this example and the implications for auroral electron acceleration in regions of upward directed field-aligned current. We then present a separate example of data from the Cassini UVIS instrument where we observe small 'spots' of auroral emission lying near the main oval; features thought to be associated with dipolarizations in the tail. In the example shown, such auroral spots are the precursor to more intense activity associated with recurrent energisation via particle injections from the tail following reconnection. We conclude that dipolarizations in Saturn's magnetotail have an observable auroral counterpart, opening up the possibility to search for further examples and to use this auroral property as a remote proxy for tail reconnection.

Jackman, C. M.; Badman, S. V.; Achilleos, N.; Bunce, E. J.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Radioti, A.; Grodent, D.; Dougherty, M. K.; Pryor, W.

2012-04-01

332

Regional assessment on influence of landscape configuration and connectivity on range size of white-tailed deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in the size of home range of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) has broad implications for managing populations, agricultural damage, and disease spread and transmission. Size of home\\u000a range of deer also varies seasonally because plant phenology dictates the vegetation types that are used as foraging or resting\\u000a sites. Knowledge of the landscape configuration and connectivity that contributes to variation

W. David Walter; Kurt C. VerCauteren; Henry Campa; William R. Clark; Justin W. Fischer; Scott E. Hygnstrom; Nancy E. Mathews; Clayton K. Nielsen; Eric M. Schauber; Timothy R. Van Deelen; Scott R. Winterstein

2009-01-01

333

Roosting ecology and variation in adaptive and innate immune system function in the Brazilian free-tailed bat ( Tadarida brasiliensis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bats have recently been implicated as reservoirs of important emerging diseases. However, few studies have examined immune\\u000a responses in bats, and even fewer have evaluated these responses in an ecological context. We examined aspects of both innate\\u000a and adaptive immune response in adult female Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) at four maternity roosts (two natural caves and two human-made bridges)

Louise C. Allen; Amy S. Turmelle; Mary T. Mendonça; Kristen J. Navara; Thomas H. Kunz; Gary F. McCracken

2009-01-01

334

Germination, Growth, and Nodulation of Sesbania rostrata Grown in Pb\\/Zn Mine Tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sesbania rostrata   in pure and amended Pb\\/Zn tailings. About 90% of seeds of S. rostrata germinated in pure Pb\\/Zn tailings, which contained high concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd. Although seedling growth suffered\\u000a from the adverse environment of Pb\\/Zn tailings, they became established on tailings stands, in the greenhouse, as well as\\u000a on the actual tailings dam, and completed

Z. Y. Yang; J. G. Yuan; G. R. Xin; H. T. Chang; M. H. Wong

1997-01-01

335

Mutations in the tail domain of DYNC1H1 cause dominant spinal muscular atrophy  

PubMed Central

Objective: To identify the gene responsible for 14q32-linked dominant spinal muscular atrophy with lower extremity predominance (SMA-LED, OMIM 158600). Methods: Target exon capture and next generation sequencing was used to analyze the 73 genes in the 14q32 linkage interval in 3 SMA-LED family members. Candidate gene sequencing in additional dominant SMA families used PCR and pooled target capture methods. Patient fibroblasts were biochemically analyzed. Results: Regional exome sequencing of all candidate genes in the 14q32 interval in the original SMA-LED family identified only one missense mutation that segregated with disease state—a mutation in the tail domain of DYNC1H1 (I584L). Sequencing of DYNC1H1 in 32 additional probands with lower extremity predominant SMA found 2 additional heterozygous tail domain mutations (K671E and Y970C), confirming that multiple different mutations in the same domain can cause a similar phenotype. Biochemical analysis of dynein purified from patient-derived fibroblasts demonstrated that the I584L mutation dominantly disrupted dynein complex stability and function. Conclusions: We demonstrate that mutations in the tail domain of the heavy chain of cytoplasmic dynein (DYNC1H1) cause spinal muscular atrophy and provide experimental evidence that a human DYNC1H1 mutation disrupts dynein complex assembly and function. DYNC1H1 mutations were recently found in a family with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (type 2O) and in a child with mental retardation. Both of these phenotypes show partial overlap with the spinal muscular atrophy patients described here, indicating that dynein dysfunction is associated with a range of phenotypes in humans involving neuronal development and maintenance.

Harms, M.B.; Ori-McKenney, K.M.; Scoto, M.; Tuck, E.P.; Bell, S.; Ma, D.; Masi, S.; Allred, P.; Al-Lozi, M.; Reilly, M.M.; Miller, L.J.; Jani-Acsadi, A.; Pestronk, A.; Shy, M.E.; Muntoni, F.; Vallee, R.B.

2012-01-01

336

Antimicrobial susceptibility of Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated from the lungs of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with pneumonia.  

PubMed

In vitro susceptibilities of 29 strains of Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated from lung lesions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with pneumonia were determined using the broth microdilution method to ascertain efficacious treatment options for pneumonic white-tailed deer. All 29 A. pyogenes strains tested were susceptible to ceftiofur, spectinomycin, tiamulin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole but were resistant to both danofloxacin and sulfadimethoxine. Likewise, all 29 isolates were either fully susceptible or intermediately susceptible to gentamicin (25 susceptible; 4 intermediate) and tulathromycin (25 susceptible; 4 intermediate). At least one isolate of A. pyogenes tested was resistant to ampicillin, chlortetracycline, clindamycin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline, penicillin, and tilmicosin suggesting their ineffectiveness in treating A. pyogenes-associated lung infections in white-tailed deer. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) data for tylosin and neomycin could not be interpreted due to unavailability of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)-approved breakpoints for these 2 agents. In summary, based on MIC values, ceftiofur, spectinomycin, tiamulin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are more efficacious than other antimicrobial agents for treating A. pyogenes-related pneumonia in white-tailed deer. However, ceftiofur may be preferred over the other 4 drugs as it is being widely used to treat respiratory disease in cattle and other animal species, as well as is available for single dose parenteral administration. PMID:21908365

Tell, Lisa A; Brooks, Jason W; Lintner, Valerie; Matthews, Tammy; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie

2011-09-01

337

Sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) inhibition by sarcolipin is encoded in its luminal tail.  

PubMed

The sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) is regulated in a tissue-dependent manner via interaction with the short integral membrane proteins phospholamban (PLN) and sarcolipin (SLN). Although defects in SERCA activity are known to cause heart failure, the regulatory mechanisms imposed by PLN and SLN could have clinical implications for both heart and skeletal muscle diseases. PLN and SLN have significant sequence homology in their transmembrane regions, suggesting a similar mode of binding to SERCA. However, unlike PLN, SLN has a conserved C-terminal luminal tail composed of five amino acids ((27)RSYQY), which may contribute to a distinct SERCA regulatory mechanism. We have functionally characterized alanine mutants of the C-terminal tail of SLN using co-reconstituted proteoliposomes of SERCA and SLN. We found that Arg(27) and Tyr(31) are essential for SLN function. We also tested the effect of a truncated variant of SLN (Arg(27)stop) and extended chimeras of PLN with the five luminal residues of SLN added to its C terminus. The Arg(27)stop form of SLN resulted in loss of function, whereas the PLN chimeras resulted in superinhibition with characteristics of both PLN and SLN. Based on our results, we propose that the C-terminal tail of SLN is a distinct, essential domain in the regulation of SERCA and that the functional properties of the SLN tail can be transferred to PLN. PMID:23362265

Gorski, Przemek A; Glaves, John Paul; Vangheluwe, Peter; Young, Howard S

2013-01-29

338

The phage lambda major tail protein structure reveals a common evolution for long-tailed phages and the type VI bacterial secretion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most bacteriophages possess long tails, which serve as the conduit for genome delivery. We report the solution structure of the N-terminal domain of gpV, the protein comprising the major portion of the noncontractile phage lambda tail tube. This structure is very similar to a previously solved tail tube protein from a contractile-tailed phage, providing the first direct evidence of an

Lisa G. Pell; Voula Kanelis; Logan W. Donaldson; P. Lynne Howell; Alan R. Davidson

2009-01-01

339

Discovery of the Dust Tail of Asteroid (3200) Phaethon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the discovery of a comet-like tail on asteroid (3200) Phaethon when imaged at optical wavelengths near perihelion. In both 2009 and 2012, the tail appears about 350?? (2.5 × 10^8 m) in length and extends approximately in the projected anti-solar direction. We interpret the tail as being caused by dust particles accelerated by solar radiation pressure. The sudden appearance and the morphology of the tail indicate that the dust particles are small, with an effective radius of 1 micron and a combined mass about 3 × 10^5 kg. These particles are likely products of thermal fracture and/or desiccation cracking under the very high (1000K) surface temperatures experienced by Phaethon at perihelion. The existence of the tail confirms our earlier inferences about activity in this body based on the detection of anomalous brightening. Phaethon, the presumed source of the Geminid meteoroids, is still active. The relation between the observed particles and those constituting the Geminid meteoroid stream will be discussed.

Jewitt, David; Li, J.; Agarwal, J.

2013-10-01

340

Auroral counterpart of magnetic field dipolarizations in Saturn's tail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following magnetic reconnection in a planetary magnetotail, newly closed field lines can be rapidly accelerated back towards the planet, becoming "dipolarized" in the process. At Saturn, dipolarizations can be initially identified from the magnetometer data by looking for a southward turning of the magnetic field, indicating the transition from a radially stretched configuration to a more dipolar field topology. The highly stretched geometry of the kronian magnetotail lobes gives rise to a tail current which flows eastward (dusk to dawn) in the near equatorial plane across the centre of the tail. During reconnection and associated dipolarization of the field, the inner edge of this tail current can be diverted through the ionosphere, in a situation analogous to the substorm current wedge picture at Earth [McPherron et al. 1973]. We present a picture of the current circuit arising from this tail reconfiguration, and outline the equations which govern the field-current relationship. We show a number of examples of dipolarizations as identified in the Cassini magnetometer data and use this formalism to calculate limits for the ionospheric current density that would arise for these examples. In addition to the magnetometer data, we also present data from the Cassini VIMS and UVIS instruments which have observed small 'spots' of auroral emission lying near the main oval - features thought to be associated with dipolarizations in the tail. We compare the auroral intensities as predicted from our calculation with the observed spot sizes and intensities.

Jackman, C. M.; Achilleos, N.; Bunce, E. J.; Cowley, S. W.; Radioti, A.; Grodent, D. C.; Badman, S. V.; Dougherty, M. K.; Melin, H.; Stallard, T.; Gustin, J.; Pryor, W. R.; Baines, K. H.; Cassini MAG-VIMS Team

2011-12-01

341

Application of tailings flow analyses to field conditions  

SciTech Connect

Catastrophic failures of tailings impoundments, in which liquefied tailings flow over substantial distances, pose severe hazards to the health and safety of people in downstream areas, and have a potential for economic and environmental devastation. The purpose of this study, an extension of prior investigations, was to develop procedures to measure Bingham flow parameters for mine tailings. In addition, the analytical procedures developed by Lucia (1981) and Jeyapalan (1980) for predicting the consequences of tailings flow failures were evaluated and applied to the Tenmile Tailings Pond at Climax, Colorado. Revisions in the simplified equilibrium procedure, developed by Lucia (1981), make it more compatible with infinite slope solutions. Jeyapalan's model was evaluated using a simple rheological analogy, and it appears there are some numerical difficulties with the operation of the computer program TFLOW used to model the displacements and velocities of flow slides. Comparable flow distances can be determined using either model if the flow volume used in the simplified equilibrium procedure is estimated properly. When both analytical procedures were applied to the Tenmile Pond, it was concluded there was no potential for a flow slide at the site.

Bryant, S.M.

1983-01-01

342

Nonideal Sorption-Desorption and Extensive Elution Tailing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contamination of subsurface environments by organic compounds continues to pose a risk to the environment. Sorption is a critical process that influences the transport and fate of organic contaminants. Contaminant mobility, bioavailability, and the effectiveness of remediation efforts are mediated in part by sorption/desorption processes. Miscible-displacement experiments were conducted to characterize long-term, low-concentration elution tailing associated with sorption/desorption processes. A variety of soils and aquifer sediments, representing a range of particle-size distributions and organic-carbon contents, were employed, and trichloroethene (TCE) was used as the model organic compound. Trichloroethene transport exhibited extensive elution tailing for all media, with several hundred to several thousand pore volumes of water flushing required to reach the detection limit (~0.1 ?g/L). The elution tailing was more extensive for the media with higher organic-carbon contents and associated retardation factors. However, when normalized by retardation, the extent of tailing did not correlate directly to organic-carbon content. These latter results suggest that differences in the geochemical nature of organic carbon (e.g., composition, structure) among the various media influenced observed behavior. A mathematical model incorporating nonlinear, rate-limited sorption/desorption described by a continuous-distribution function was used to successfully simulate trichloroethene transport, including the extensive elution tailing.

Russo, A. E.; Akyol, N. H.; Schnaar, G. A.; Johnson, G. R.; Yolcubal, I.; Brusseau, M. L.

2011-12-01

343

Liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Liner Evaluation for Uranium Mill Tailings Program was conducted to evaluate the need for and performance of prospective lining materials for the long-term management of inactive uranium mill tailings piles. On the basis of program results, two materials have been identified: natural foundation soil amended with 10% sodium bentonite; catalytic airblown asphalt membrane. The study showed that, for most situations, calcareous soils typical of Western US sites adequately buffer tailings leachates and prevent groundwater contamination without additional liner materials or amendments. Although mathematical modeling of disposal sites is recommended on a site-specific basis, there appears to be no reason to expect significant infiltration through the cover for most Western sites. The major water source through the tailings would be groundwater movement at sites with shallow groundwater tables. Even so column leaching studies showed that contaminant source terms were reduced to near maximum contaminant levels (MCL's) for drinking water within one or two pore volumes; thus, a limited source term for groundwater contamination exists. At sites where significant groundwater movement or infiltration is expected and the tailings leachates are alkaline, however, the sodium bentonite or asphalt membrane may be necessary.

Buelt, J.L. (comp.)

1983-09-01

344

Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. [UMTRA project  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is explicitly stated and directed in the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978, hereinafter referred to as the Act.'' Title I of the Act authorizes the Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake remedial action at designated inactive uranium processing sites (Attachment 1 and 2) and associated vicinity properties containing uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials derived from the processing site. The purpose of the remedial actions is to stabilize and control such uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials in a safe and environmentally sound manner to minimize radiation health hazards to the public. The principal health hazards and environmental concerns are: the inhalation of air particulates contaminated as a result of the emanation of radon from the tailings piles and the subsequent decay of radon daughters; and the contamination of surface and groundwaters with radionuclides or other chemically toxic materials. This UMTRA Project Plan identifies the mission and objectives of the project, outlines the technical and managerial approach for achieving them, and summarizes the performance, cost, and schedule baselines which have been established to guide operational activity. Estimated cost increases by 15 percent, or if the schedule slips by six months. 4 refs.

Not Available

1989-09-01

345

Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria for Phytostabilization of Mine Tailings  

SciTech Connect

Eolian dispersion of mine tailings in arid and semiarid environments is an emerging global issue for which economical remediation alternatives are needed. Phytostabilization, the revegetation of these sites with native plants, is one such alternative. Revegetation often requires the addition of bulky amendments such as compost which greatly increases cost. We report the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) to enhance the revegetation of mine tailings and minimize the need for compost amendment. Twenty promising PGPB isolates were used as seed inoculants in a series of greenhouse studies to examine revegetation of an extremely acidic, high metal content tailings sample previously shown to require 15% compost amendment for normal plant growth. Several isolates significantly enhanced growth of two native species, quailbush and buffalo grass, in tailings. In this study, PGPB/compost outcomes were plant specific; for quailbush, PGPB were most effective in combination with 10% compost addition while for buffalo grass, PGPB enhanced growth in the complete absence of compost. Results indicate that selected PGPB can improve plant establishment and reduce the need for compost amendment. Further, PGPB activities necessary for aiding plant growth in mine tailings likely include tolerance to acidic pH and metals.

Grandlic, C.J.; Mendez, M.O.; Chorover, J.; Machado, B.; Maier, R.M.

2009-05-19

346

Curved tails in polymerization-based bacterial motility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The curved actin ``comet-tail'' of the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is a visually striking signature of actin polymerization-based motility. Similar actin tails are associated with Shigella flexneri, spotted-fever Rickettsiae, the Vaccinia virus, and vesicles and microspheres in related in vitro systems. We show that the torque required to produce the curvature in the tail can arise from randomly placed actin filaments pushing the bacterium or particle. We find that the curvature magnitude determines the number of actively pushing filaments, independent of viscosity and of the molecular details of force generation. The variation of the curvature with time can be used to infer the dynamics of actin filaments at the bacterial surface.

Rutenberg, Andrew D.; Grant, Martin

2001-08-01

347

The Giacobini-Zinner magnetotail - Tail configuration and current sheet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high-resolution plasma electron and magnetic field data sets from the ICE tail traversal of comet Giacobini-Zinner have been combined to make a detailed study of the draped Giacobini-Zinner magnetotail in general, and its field-reversing current sheet in particular. The geometry of the magnetotail at the time of the ICE crossing is determined and is shown to be consistent with a circular tail cross section rotated 10°.5 in the normal sense of aberration and 9°.9 above the ecliptic plane, bisected by a cross-tail current sheet which is rotated 43° out of the ecliptic about the solar wind velocity vector. MHD continuity, momentum, and energy equations are combined with the plasma and field observations to determine unmeasured plasma properties at ICE and upstream at the average point along each streamline where the cometary ions are picked up.

McComas, D. J.; Gosling, J. T.; Bame, S. J.; Slavin, J. A.; Smith, E. J.; Steinberg, J. L.

1987-02-01

348

[Leaching kinetics of josephinite tailings with sulfuric acid].  

PubMed

Leaching is the most important step of josephinite tailing recycle technology. This step can separate the valuable metal Mg from Si and other impure metal. Effects of sulfuric acid on leaching Mg efficiency from josephinite tailings were investigated. To obtain the leaching behavior, a modified unreacted shrinking core model that based on the experimental data was used to determine the dissolution kinetic parameters. The model was significant and showed that the dissolution of Mg2+ in josephinite tailing was controlled by the produce layer diffusion, apparent activation reaction energy E = 34.04 kJ x mol(-1). The produce layers obstruct the forward reaction of the dissolution of Mg2+. PMID:24028005

Chen, An-An; Zhou, Shao-Qi; Huang, Peng-Fei

2013-07-01

349

Application of asphalt emulsion seals to uranium mill tailings  

SciTech Connect

Studies of asphalt emulsion sealants have demonstrated that the sealants are effective in containing radon and other potentially hazardous material within uranium tailings. The laboratory and field studies have further demonstrated that radon exhalation from uranium tailings piles can be reduced by greater than 99% to less than background levels. Field tests at the tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado confirmed that an 8-cm admix seal containing 22 wt % asphalt could be effectively applied with a cold-mix paver. Other techniques were successfully tested, including a soil stabilizer and a hot, rubberized asphalt seal that was applied with a distributor truck. After the seals were applied and conpacted, overburden was applied over the seal to protect the seal from ultraviolet degradation. 14 figures.

Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.; Clark, R.L.

1980-11-01

350

Empirical study of the tails of mutual fund size.  

PubMed

The mutual fund industry manages about a quarter of the assets in the U.S. stock market and thus plays an important role in the U.S. economy. The question of how much control is concentrated in the hands of the largest players is best quantitatively discussed in terms of the tail behavior of the mutual fund size distribution. We study the distribution empirically and show that the tail is much better described by a log-normal than a power law, indicating less concentration than, for example, personal income. The results are highly statistically significant and are consistent across fifteen years. This contradicts a recent theory concerning the origin of the power law tails of the trading volume distribution. Based on the analysis in a companion paper, the log-normality is to be expected, and indicates that the distribution of mutual funds remains perpetually out of equilibrium. PMID:20866484

Schwarzkopf, Yonathan; Farmer, J Doyne

2010-06-18

351

Recent radiochemistry observations at the Riverton and Maybell tailings piles  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary results are presented from the radiochemistry effort of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory integrated study of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Riverton, Wyoming and Maybell, Colorado. These results were obtained primarily by use of ..gamma..-ray spectrometric techniques, and included both field and laboratory application of NaI(Tl) crystal and Ge-semiconductor detector systems. Current interpretation of this evidence indicated there has been downward migration of uranium within the tailings column since its emplacement, and upward movement of several radionuclides from the tailings into the overlying cover material. The mechanisms responsible for these migrations are believed to involve fluid transport, and are further believed to be active at the present time.

Smith, A.R.; Moed, B.A.

1982-09-01

352

Elastic actin comet tails: shape, stresses and propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Actin based motility is a recurring theme in a variety of biological systems ranging from keratocytes that use their dynamically re-arranging cytoskeleton for motility to bacterial pathogens like Listeria that hijack the host cell's actin machinery and are propelled by actin comet tails. The basic principle behind all these processes is the conversion of free energy of polymerization into a protrusive force. Recent experimental observations have suggested several distinctive features of such propulsion especially in the case of Listeria motion. We model the process by a finite element simulation of the actin comet tail which is treated as a continuum elastic material that is tethered to the rear of the bacterium. We investigate steady state properties such as the shape of the comet tail, stresses generated and also the time dependence of the motion.

Gopinathan, Ajay; Liu, Andrea

2005-03-01

353

Movements of flightless long-tailed ducks during wing molt  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the movements of flightless Long-tailed Ducks (Clangula hyemalis) during the wing molt in the near-shore lagoons of the Beaufort Sea in Alaska. Estimates of site fidelity during the 21-day flightless period ranged from 1-100%, with considerable variation among locations and within locations among years. There was no effect of low-level experimental disturbance or an underwater seismic survey on site fidelity of molting Long-tailed Ducks. Birds molting along a relatively consistent habitat gradient were more likely to move than those molting in a fragmented habitat. While flocks of birds are consistently observed in the same locations, these data suggest considerable turnover within these aggregations. These results, in conjunction with other studies, suggest that forage is relatively uniformly distributed within lagoons. We conclude that habitat selection by molting Long-tailed Ducks is likely influenced by protection from wind and associated waves.

Flint, P. L.; Lacroix, D. L.; Reed, J. A.; Lanctot, R. B.

2004-01-01

354

Risk analysis for seismic design of (tailings dams)  

SciTech Connect

Probabilistic seismic risk analysis is a promising method for evaluating design options and establishing seismic design parameters. However, there have been few examples in the literature to guide practitioners in its use. (This paper demonstrates the value of risk analysis for mine tailings dams and provides a case-history application for a seismically active portion of Nevada. Risk analysis provided the basis for selecting among design options having varying liquefaction resistance, and for establishing input parameters for dynamic analysis. Ranges are presented for the quantity and cleanup cost of tailings released in seismic failures to aid in determining expected failure consequences. It is shown that for many tailings dams, accepted lifetime failure probabilities of a few percent may provide a reasonable basis for probabilistic determination of seismic design criteria.)

Vick, S.G.; Atkinson, G.M.; Wilmot, C.I.

1985-07-01

355

Geological impact of some tailings dams in Sardinia, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article deals with the results of a survey carried out in Sardinia on both active and abandoned tailings dams, and we also discuss the geological impact of tailings dams of two mines: the Masua mine, a large syngenetic Pb-Zn deposit located in Cambrian limestones, and the Montevecchio mine, a Pb-Zn vein deposit near a Hercynian granite intrusion. The characteristics and metal content of material in the dams were analyzed. A high contamination of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu) was found both in the soils and water of Rio Montevecchio, a stream draining the tailings dams and other mining operations in the area. The study indicates that a control plan to minimize heavy metal pollution must be drawn up for all mines of the area, whether active or abandoned.

di Gregorio, Felice; Massoli-Novelli, Raniero

1992-05-01

356

Chronic Wasting Disease  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an always-fatal, neurological illness occurring in North American cervids (members of the deer family), including white-tailed deer, mule deer, elk and moose. Since its discovery in 1967, CWD has spread geographically and increased in prevalence locally. CWD is contagious; it can be transmitted freely within and among free-ranging populations. It is likely that diseased animals can transmit CWD to healthy animals long before they become clinically ill. Managing CWD in free-ranging populations is extremely difficult, therefore preventative measures designed to reduce the chance for disease spread are critically important.

Richards, Bryan

2007-01-01

357

Independent vasomotor control of rat tail and proximal hairy skin.  

PubMed

Quantitative differences are known to exist between the vasomotor control of hairy and hairless skin, but it is unknown whether they are regulated by common central mechanisms. We made simultaneous recordings from sympathetic cutaneous vasoconstrictor (CVC-type) fibres supplying back skin (hairy) and tail (hairless) in urethane-anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. The animal's trunk was shaved and encased in a water-perfused jacket. Both tail and back skin CVC-type fibres were activated by cooling the trunk skin, and independently by the resultant fall in core (rectal) temperature, but their thresholds for activation differed (skin temperatures 38.8 +/- 0.4 degrees C versus 36.8 +/- 0.4 degrees C, core temperatures 38.1 +/- 0.2 degrees C versus 36.8 +/- 0.2 degrees C, respectively; P < 0.01). Back skin CVC-type fibres were more responsive to skin than to core cooling, while the reverse applied to tail fibres. Back skin CVC-type fibres were less responsive than tail fibres to prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) microinjected into the preoptic area. Spectral analysis showed no significant coherence between tail and back skin CVC-type fibre activities during cooling. After preoptic PGE2 injection, a coherent peak at 1 Hz appeared in some animals; this disappeared after partialization with respect to ventilatory pressure, indicating that it was attributable to common ventilatory modulation. Neuronal inhibition in the rostral medullary raphé by microinjected muscimol (2 mM, 60-120 nl) suppressed both tail and back skin CVC-type fibre activities, and prevented their responses to subsequent skin cooling. These results indicate that thermoregulatory responses of hairless and hairy skin vessels are controlled by independent neural pathways, although both depend on synaptic relays in the medullary raphé. PMID:17430987

Tanaka, Mutsumi; Ootsuka, Youichirou; McKinley, Michael J; McAllen, Robin M

2007-04-12

358

Characteristics of iron ore tailing slime in India and its test for required pond size.  

PubMed

The physical and chemical nature of the tailing slime depends on milling operations and water content in the effluent. The characteristics of the tailings dictate the type of disposal facility required. Characteristics of the tailings, transportation from beneficiation plants and disposal system are described. Studies on tailing slime have been carried out at iron ore mines in Orissa and the results are discussed. The tailings contain toxic elements and find their way into the water environment. Sedimentation test was carried out on tailings and the area required for tailing pond was found to be 3155 m2 in comparison to 10000 m2 obtained from the use of an empirical equation. Provision of tailing pond for the disposal of tailings is a conservation of resources in addition to pollution control, and sedimentation test is essential for required pond size calculation. PMID:11336411

Ghose, M K; Sen, P K

2001-04-01

359

Ion acceleration in the Martian tail - PHOBOS observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurements carried out on the spacecraft Phobos-2 have revealed that the plasma sheet of the Martian magnetosphere consists mainly of ions of planetary origin, accelerated up to about 1 keV/q. Such an acceleration may result from the action of magnetic shear stresses of the draped field, the ion energy increasing toward the center of the tail where magnetic stresses are stronger. The energy gained by heavy ions does not depend on their mass and are proportional to the ion charge. The mechanism of the ion acceleration is related with the generation of a charge separation electric field, which extracts ions from 'ray' structures in the Martian tail.

Dubinin, E.; Lundin, R.; Norberg, O.; Pissarenko, N.

1993-03-01

360

Hybrid redox polyether melts based on polyether-tailed counterions  

SciTech Connect

Interesting ionic materials can be transformed into room temperature molten salts by combining them with polyether-tailed counterions such as polyether-tailed 2-sulfobenzoate (MePEG-BzSO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) and polyethertailed triethylammonium (MePEG-Et{sub 3}N{sup +}). Melts containing ruthenium hexamine, metal trisbipyridines, metal trisphenanthrolines, and ionic forms of aluminum quinolate, anthraquinone, phthalocyanine, and porphyrins are described. These melts exhibit ionic conductivities in the 7 x 10{sup {minus}5} to 7 x 10{sup {minus}10} {Omega}{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1} range, which permit microelectrode voltammetry in the undiluted materials, examples of which are presented.

Dickinson, E. V; Williams, M.E.; Hendrickson, S.M.; Masui, Hitoshi; Murray, R.W.

1999-02-03

361

Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978  

SciTech Connect

The long-term environmental effects of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 address the public health hazards of radioactive wastes and recognize the significance of this issue to public acceptance of nuclear energy. Title I of the Act deals with stabilizing and controlling mill tailings at inactive sites and classifies the sites by priority. It represents a major Federal commitment. Title II changes and strengthens Nuclear Regulatory Commission authority, but it will have little overall impact. It is not possible to assess the Act's effect because there is no way to know if current technology will be adequate for the length of time required. 76 references. (DCK)

Magee, J.

1980-01-01

362

Genetic linkage analysis using pooled DNA and infrared detection of tailed STRP primer patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mapping of a disease locus to a specific chromosomal region is an important step in the eventual isolation and analysis of a disease causing gene. Conventional mapping methods analyze large multiplex families and/or smaller nuclear families to find linkage between the disease and a chromosome marker that maps to a known chromosomal region. This analysis is time consuming and tedious, typically requiring the determination of 30,000 genotypes or more. For appropriate populations, we have instead utilized pooled DNA samples for gene mapping which greatly reduces the amount of time necessary for an initial chromosomal screen. This technique assumes a common founder for the disease locus of interest and searches for a region of a chromosome shared between affected individuals. Our analysis involves the PCR amplification of short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRP) to detect these shared regions. In order to reduce the cost of genotyping, we have designed unlabeled tailed PCR primers which, when combined with a labeled universal primer, provides for an alternative to synthesizing custom labeled primers. The STRP pattern is visualized with an infrared fluorescence based automated DNA sequencer and the patterns quantitated by densitometric analysis of the allele pattern. Differences in the distribution of alleles between pools of affected and unaffected individuals, including a reduction in the number of alleles in the affected pool, indicate the sharing of a region of a chromosome. We have found this method effective for markers 10 - 15 cM away from the disease locus for a recessive genetic disease.

Oetting, William S.; Wildenberg, Scott C.; King, Richard A.

1996-04-01

363

2. VIEW OF EAST TAILING DAM (FOREGROUND), LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW OF EAST TAILING DAM (FOREGROUND), LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST UP WASH TOWARD ORE BIN, OVERBURDEN, ADITS, AND ROAD SHOWN IN CA-290-1. MILL SITE IS UP AND TO THE RIGHT OF THIS VIEW. STANDARD FIFTY-GALLON DRUM IN FOREGROUND GIVES SCALE OF WALL. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

364

Geo-Seismic Environmental Aspects Affecting Tailings Dams Failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic performance evaluations of tailings dams are essential for characterizing the geo- environmental risks posed by these earthen structures, which should include the geotechnical hazards implied by slope instability failure, free board loss and the potential release of contaminants. The observed damage is more important when liquefaction occurs on the dam body and foundation, which often leads to cracking, settlements,

Juan M. Mayoral; Miguel P. Romo

2008-01-01

365

MIDDLE GORGE POWER PLANT, OWENS RIVER STREAM FLOWING OVER TAIL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MIDDLE GORGE POWER PLANT, OWENS RIVER STREAM FLOWING OVER TAIL RACE OF POWER PLANT AND PENSTOCK HEADGATE TO LOWER GORGE CONTROL PLANT. A MINIMAL FLOW OF RIVER WATER IS REQUIRED TO MAINTAIN FISH LIFE - Los Angeles Aqueduct, Middle Gorge Power Plant, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

366

Learning Set Formation in Ring-Tailed Lemurs (Lemur catta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the study on nocturnal slow lorises (Nycticebus coucang), the visual discrimination learning set was tested on diurnal ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) under the almost same experimental condition as on slow lorises. Their performance was significantly higher than that of slow lorises (p < 0.005). And this suggested the importance of interspecific comparison among extensive prosimian species and the necessity

Hirohiko Ohta; Hidemi Ishida; Shozo Matano

1984-01-01

367

1. VIEW OF THE MILL TAILINGS FACING NORTHWEST. SEDIMENT DAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF THE MILL TAILINGS FACING NORTHWEST. SEDIMENT DAM AND POND IN THE FOREGROUND, AND WATER PUMP (FEATURE B-25) ON THE LOWER RIGHT SIDE OF PHOTO. - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

368

Cassini/CAPS observations of duskside tail dynamics at Saturn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

properties of Saturn's premidnight tail region are surveyed using Cassini/Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) ion observations from 2010. Only low-latitude (|lat| < 6°) intervals in which the CAPS viewing was roughly symmetric inward and outward around the corotation direction are used. Our numerical moments algorithm returns nonzero ion density for 70% (999) of the intervals selected. Of these, 642 had detectable water-group ion densities, and the remainder were dominantly, if not entirely, light ions. The derived plasma parameters are similar to those found in an earlier study for the postmidnight tail region, except that we find little evidence for the systematic outflows identified in that study, and we do find numerous significant inflow events. One such inflow is identified as a dipolarization event, the first reported plasma properties of such a structure at Saturn. A second, long-lasting event may be evidence for the existence at times of a quasi-steady reconnection region in the premidnight tail. The large majority of the plasma flows are found to be within 20° of the corotation direction, though with flow speeds significantly lower than full corotation. While the inflow events represent plausible evidence for internally driven mass loss in the premidnight region, the absence of significant outflow events suggests that in the region surveyed here, tail reconnection has not yet proceeded to involve lobe field lines, so the disconnected plasma continues its general motion in the corotation direction.

Thomsen, M. F.; Wilson, R. J.; Tokar, R. L.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Jackman, C. M.

2013-09-01

369

Tail production and removal. Risk, challenges and possibilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Elf is one of the companies with the longest experience as an oil operator in Norway. This presentation discusses experiences made by Elf on tail production and removal. It starts with a description of risk, economic analyses and individual cash flow disc...

H. C. Magelssen

1997-01-01

370

Habitat Restoration for the Endangered Sharp-tailed Snake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extended Abstract: Habitat loss, alteration, and fragmentation are the main factors that threaten the endangered sharp-tailed snake (Contia tenuis) throughout its Canadian range, which occurs on the southern Gulf Islands and southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Although the species can tolerate some degree of disturbance and can coexist with humans, intensified urban development associated with an expanding human population, threatens

CHRISTIAN ENGELSTOFT; KRISTIINA OVASKA

371

1. VIEW OF EMPIRE MINE AREA WITH TAILINGS, ORE CHUTE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF EMPIRE MINE AREA WITH TAILINGS, ORE CHUTE, AND COLLAPSED BUILDINGS VISIBLE, AND BARE SWITCHBACK HILLSIDE FROM WHICH #4, #5 AND #6 WERE MADE. CAMERA IS POINTED NORTHWEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

372

LEFT WING AND FUSELAGE FROM THIRD LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

LEFT WING AND FUSELAGE FROM THIRD LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK STAND. THE WING IS PREPARED FOR BASIC LUBRICATION WITH E SPOILER BOARDS UP AND ALL SAFETY LOCKS IN PLACE TO PROTECT MECHANICS FROM INJURY. ON THE WING AN INSPECTOR CHECKS THE ACTUATORS. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

373

Method for treating oil sands extraction plant tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tailings from an oil sands hot water process extraction plant are mixed with hydrolyzed starch flocculant and transferred to a settling pond. After a residence period on the order of one year, sludge from the lower region of the settling pond is withdrawn, mixed with a hydrolyzed starch dewatering agent and transferred to a collecting pond. After a residence period

Yong

1984-01-01

374

Plant growth-promoting bacteria for phytostabilization of mine tailings.  

PubMed

Eolian dispersion of mine tailings in arid and semiarid environments is an emerging global issue for which economical remediation alternatives are needed. Phytostabilization, the revegetation of these sites with native plants, is one such alternative. Revegetation often requires the addition of bulky amendments such as compost which greatly increases cost. We report the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) to enhance the revegetation of mine tailings and minimize the need for compost amendment. Twenty promising PGPB isolates were used as seed inoculants in a series of greenhouse studies to examine revegetation of an extremely acidic, high metal contenttailings sample previously shown to require 15% compost amendment for normal plant growth. Several isolates significantly enhanced growth of two native species, quailbush and buffalo grass, in tailings. In this study, PGPB/compost outcomes were plant specific; for quailbush, PGPB were most effective in combination with 10% compost addition while for buffalo grass, PGPB enhanced growth in the complete absence of compost. Results indicate that selected PGPB can improve plant establishment and reduce the need for compost amendment. Further, PGPB activities necessary for aiding plant growth in mine tailings likely include tolerance to acidic pH and metals. PMID:18409640

Grandlic, Christopher J; Mendez, Monica O; Chorover, Jon; Machado, Blenda; Maier, Raina M

2008-03-15

375

Using comet plasma tails to study the solar wind  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plasma tails of comets have been used as probes of the solar wind for many years, and well before direct solar wind measurements. Now, analyses utilizing the much greater regularity and extent of comet tails imaged from space detail outward solar wind flow much better than was previously possible. These analyses mark the location of the solar wind flow in three-dimensions over time much as do in-situ measurements. Data from comet plasma tails using coronagraphs and heliospheric white-light imagers provide a view closer to the Sun than where spacecraft have ventured to date. These views show that this flow is chaotic and highly variable, and not the benign regular outward motion of a quiescent plasma. While this is no surprise to those who study and characterize the solar wind in situ or use remotely-sensed interplanetary scintillation (IPS) techniques, these spacecraft images provide a visualization of this as never-before possible. Here we summarize the results of an analysis that determines solar wind velocity from multiple comet tails that were observed by the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) and also by the inner Heliospheric Imager (HI) on board the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Ahead (STEREOA) spacecraft. Finally, we present results using a similar analysis that measures this same behavior using coronagraph observations in the low corona.

Jackson, B. V.; Buffington, A.; Clover, J. M.; Hick, P. P.; Yu, H.-S.; Bisi, M. M.

2013-06-01

376

Aeroelastic Characteristics of the AH-64 Bearingless Tail Rotor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of a wind tunnel test program to determine the performance loads and dynamic characteristics of the Composite Flexbeam Tail Rotor (CFTR) for the AH-64 Advanced Attack Helicopter are reported. The CFTR uses an elastomeric shear attachment of th...

D. Banerjee

1988-01-01

377

Model dielectric functional of amorphous materials including Urbach tail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A generalization of the Tauc-Lorentz model dielectric function of amorphous semiconductors and dielectrics is presented in which the exponential Urbach tail is included. The generalized parameterization of the optical functions includes only six fitting parameters. The real part of the dielectric function is calculated using analytical Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations. The model is applied to hydrogenated amorphous silicon.

Foldyna, Martin; Postava, Kamil; Bouchala, J.; Pistora, Jaromir; Yamaguchi, Tomuo

2004-04-01

378

Communal Nursing in Mexican Free-Tailed Bat Maternity Colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of genotypes of female-pup nursing pairs taken from large maternity colonies of the Mexican free-tailed bat in Texas demonstrates that nursing is nonrandom and selective along genetic (kinship) lines. This is contrary to previous reports that nursing in these colonies is indiscriminate. Although nursing is nonrandom, an estimated 17 percent of the females sampled were nursing pups that could

Gary F. McCracken

1984-01-01

379

Muscle Responses to Stimulation of the Tadpole Tail  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes use of tail muscles and spinal cord in the tadpole as an alternative source for muscle-and-nerve experiments. Includes explanation of simple dissection and preparation of tadpole; instructions for experiments such as threshold, strength of stimulus, frequency of stimulus, single twitch, tetanus, fatigue, effects of temperature on…

Funkhouser, Anne

1976-01-01

380

Muscle Responses to Stimulation of the Tadpole Tail  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes use of tail muscles and spinal cord in the tadpole as an alternative source for muscle-and-nerve experiments. Includes explanation of simple dissection and preparation of tadpole; instructions for experiments such as threshold, strength of stimulus, frequency of stimulus, single twitch, tetanus, fatigue, effects of temperature on…

Funkhouser, Anne

1976-01-01

381

Riparian management and the tailed frog in northern coastal forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the importance of aquatic environments and adjacent riparian habitats for fish have been recognized by forest managers, headwater creeks have received little attention. The tailed frog, Ascaphus truei, inhabits permanent headwaters, and several US studies suggest that its populations decline following clear-cut logging practices. In British Columbia, this species is considered to be at risk because little is known

Linda Dupuis; Doug Steventon

1999-01-01

382

The Effects of Atrazine on Tail Regeneration in Salamanders  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Atrazine, a widely used herbicide, is thought to be contributing to amphibian declines. In addition, it may be working as an endocrine disruptor in amphibians. To better understand if atrazine affects cell proliferation I studied the effects of atrazine on dividing cells in regenerating tails of the Red-backed Salamander (Plethodon cinereus). It was found that there was,a significant difference

Carlena K. Johnson

383

Spinal cord regeneration in a tail autotomizing urodele.  

PubMed

Adult urodele amphibians possess extensive regenerative abilities, including lens, jaws, limbs, and tails. In this study, we examined the cellular events and time course of spinal cord regeneration in a species, Plethodon cinereus, that has the ability to autotomize its tail as an antipredator strategy. We propose that this species may have enhanced regenerative abilities as further coadaptations with this antipredator strategy. We examined the expression of nestin, vimentin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) after autotomy as markers of neural precursor cells and astroglia; we also traced the appearance of new neurons using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine/neuronal nuclei (BrdU/NeuN) double labeling. As expected, the regenerating ependymal tube was a major source of new neurons; however, the spinal cord cranial to the plane of autotomy showed significant mitotic activity, more extensive than what is reported for other urodeles that cannot autotomize their tails. In addition, this species shows upregulation of nestin, vimentin, and GFAP within days after tail autotomy; further, this expression is upregulated within the spinal cord cranial to the plane of autotomy, not just within the extending ependymal tube, as reported in other urodeles. We suggest that enhanced survival of the spinal cord cranial to autotomy allows this portion to participate in the enhanced recovery and regeneration of the spinal cord. PMID:21956379

Dawley, Ellen M; O Samson, Shoji; Woodard, Kenton T; Matthias, Kathryn A

2011-09-28

384

[Morphogenetic changes during newt tail regeneration under changed gravity conditions].  

PubMed

Gravity-dependent shape alterations in newt tail regenerates are described, which were previously noticed in experiments onboard satellites Foton M2, M3 and in corresponding laboratory controls. Laboratory conditions were developed that allow reproducing this phenomenon persistently in the adult newts Pleurodeles waltl (Michahelles, 1830). The newts kept in an aquarium (in partial weightlessness) after 1/3 tail amputation developed normal lanceolate regenerates, while those that stayed on a moist mat (exposed to greater gravity than in aquarium) developed curved tail regenerates. Dynamics of the shape alterations were described using computer morphometric analysis. The curve was shown to develop at stage III of regeneration and to be caused by bending of the developing axial structures: the ependymal tube and the cartilage rode. Cellular processes were described that accompany the tail shape changes, such as cell migration and formation of dense aggregates. Unequal proliferation throughout the wound epidermis and blastema was revealed using BrdU assay. Proliferation increased within dorsal and apical regions of the regenerates in the newts kept on the mat cell compared with the aquarian animals. PMID:23136735

Radugina, E A; Grigorian, É N

385

Thallium Behavior in Soils Polluted by Pyrite Tailings (Aznalcóllar, Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thallium content and chemical speciation was studied at 91 sites contaminated by water and tailings spilled from the settling pond of a pyrite mine into the Agrio and Guadiamar rivers in Aznalcóllar (Spain). The contamination was highly heterogeneous, with 15% of the affected area seriously contaminated, 55% moderately contaminated and 30% uncontaminated. The total Tl content in the surface horizon

F. MARTÍN; I. GARCÍA; C. DORRONSORO; M. SIMÓn; J. AGUILAR; I. ORTÍZ; E. FERNÁNDEZ; J. FERNÁNDEZ

2004-01-01

386

Tail and Quantile Estimation for Strongly Mixing Stationary Sequences.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper primarily concerns the estimation of tail parameters for the marginal distribution F of the terms of a strongly mixing stationary sequence when 1-F(t) decreases exponentially, or is regularly varying as t infinity. The asymptotic properties of ...

H. Rootzen L. De Haan M. R. Leadbetter

1990-01-01

387

1. OVERALL VIEW OF SPILLWAY SHOWING BAFFLE WALL AND TAIL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. OVERALL VIEW OF SPILLWAY SHOWING BAFFLE WALL AND TAIL WATERS, WITH POWERHOUSE (MI-98-C) AND SUBSTATION (MI-98-D) AT LEFT. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Cooke Hydroelectric Plant, Spillway, Cook Dam Road at Au Sable River, Oscoda, Iosco County, MI

388

Cost of radon-barrier systems for uranium mill tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report deals specifically with the cost of three types of radon barrier systems, earthen covers, asphalt emulsion covers, and multilayer covers, which could meet standards proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency to stabilize uranium mill tailings located primarily in the western US. In addition, the report includes a sensitivity analysis of various factors which significantly effect the overall cost

E. G. Baker; J. N. Hartley

1982-01-01

389

Asphalt-Emulsion Sealing of Uranium-Mill Tailings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and radium in uranium tailings is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Results of these studies indicate that a radon flux reduction of greater than 99% can be obtained using either a poured-...

J. N. Hartley P. L. Koehmstedt D. J. Esterl

1979-01-01

390

Does Gray-Tailed Vole Activity Affect Soil Quality?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Voles are well-known crop pests, especially when peak populations are present, but their role in soil fertility and impacts on agricultural sustainability are not well understood. Five months after the abrupt disappearance of a peak in a gray-tailed vole (Microtus canicaudus) population, we examined...

391

Heavy-Tailed Probability Distributions in the World Wide Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

The explosion of the World Wide Web as a medium for informationdissemination has made it important to understand its characteristics, inparticular the distribution of its file sizes. This paper presents evidencethat a number of file size distributions in the Web exhibit heavy tails,including files requested by users, files transmitted through the network,transmission durations of files, and files stored on servers.

Azer Bestavros; Mark E. Crovella; S Murad; Murad S. Taqqu; Raisa Feldman; Robert Adler

1998-01-01

392

Influence of flotation tailings thickening on centrifugal flocculation performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dewatering and utilization of coal-cleaning wastes are important problems in connection with the control of air and water pollution in industrial areas and the recycling of production wastes in general. The most intractable technical problem is how to treat the very finely divided suspensions of flotation tailings to recover clean water for recycling and a handleable sludge. Centrifugal flocculation

V. V. Lyadov; A. V. Mikhailenkova; N. I. Yavorskaya; L. M. Gribova; A. V. Kovalchuk

1978-01-01

393

Spatial Distribution of Energetic Electrons in the Geomagnetic Tail.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Counting rates from a solid-state detector in the experiment of Fan, Gloeckler, and Simpson on the IMP 1 satellite have been analyzed to investigate the spatial distribution of electrons with energies > 30 kev in the geomagnetic tail and in the magnetoshe...

T. Murayama

1966-01-01

394

Oil sands tailings sludge solidification and bitumen recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canada is a forerunner in the development of oil sands mining and processing technology. At present two commercial plants, both of them surface mining operations are producing approximately 200,000 of syncrude per day. At both of these plants a hot water separation process is used.The vast amounts of tailings, consisting of bitumen, sand, fines and water, generated from the hot

B. D. Prasad Head

1988-01-01

395

Risk analysis for seismic design of (tailings dams)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probabilistic seismic risk analysis is a promising method for evaluating design options and establishing seismic design parameters. However, there have been few examples in the literature to guide practitioners in its use. (This paper demonstrates the value of risk analysis for mine tailings dams and provides a case-history application for a seismically active portion of Nevada. Risk analysis provided the

Steven G. Vick; Gail M. Atkinson; Charles I. Wilmot

1985-01-01

396

Star formation in ram pressure stripped galactic tails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the impact of star formation and feedback on ram pressure stripping using high-resolution adaptive mesh simulations, building on a previous series of papers that systematically investigated stripping using a realistic model for the interstellar medium, but without star formation. We find that star formation does not significantly affect the rate at which stripping occurs, and only has a slight impact on the density and temperature distribution of the stripped gas, indicating that our previous (gas-only) results are unaffected. For our chosen (moderate) ram pressure strength, stripping acts to truncate star formation in the disc over a few hundred million years, and does not lead to a burst of star formation. Star formation in the bulge is slightly enhanced, but the resulting change in the bulge-to-disc ratio is insignificant. We find that stars do form in the tail, primarily from gas that is ablated from the disc and the cools and condenses in the turbulent wake. The star formation rate in the tail is low, and any contribution to the intracluster light is likely to be very small. We argue that star formation in the tail depends primarily on the pressure in the intracluster medium, rather than the ram pressure strength. Finally, we compare to observations of star formation in stripped tails, finding that many of the discrepancies between our simulation and observed wakes can be accounted for by different intracluster medium pressures.

Tonnesen, Stephanie; Bryan, Greg L.

2012-05-01

397

Flexible Parametric Models for Long-Tailed Patent Count Distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores alternative approaches to modeling the relationship between the number of patents and research and development expenditure. Patent counts typically exhibit long upper tails that are inadequately modeled by standard Poisson and negative binomial regression models. We compare the performance of two relatively new \\

Jie Q Guo; Pravin K Trivedi

2002-01-01

398

Risk factors of the long tail in mobile manga sales  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the Long Tail was proposed by Chris Anderson in 2004, people started believing his theory that Internet services, such as Amazon.com, can achieve great success in retailing. Internet stores can sell enormous numbers of books, comics, CDs, and DVDs and make great profits through the reduction in distribution costs that is achieved through this medium. Despite the fact that

Taro Sugihara; Yoshiya Kobayashi; Yasuo Ikawa

2009-01-01

399

Fluid queues with long-tailed activity period distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a survey paper on fluid queues, with a strong emphasis on recent attempts to represent phenomena like long-range dependence. The central model of the paper is a fluid queueing system fed by N independent sources that alternate between silence and activity periods. The distribution of the activity periods of at least one source is assumed to be long-tailed,

Onno J. Boxma; Vincent Dumas

1998-01-01

400

Convolutions of long-tailed and subexponential distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Convolutions of long-tailed and subexponential distributions play a major role in the analysis of many stochastic systems. We study these convolutions, proving some important new results through a simple and coherent approach, and showing also that the standard properties of such convolutions follow as easy consequences.

Serguei Foss; Dmitry Korshunov; Stan Zachary

2008-01-01

401

Selective Flotation of Minerals from North Carolina Mica Tailing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laboratory batch and small-scale continuous flotation tests were conducted on a mica waste tailing from Kings Mountain, N.C., to determine the feasibility of producing high-quality mica, feldspar, and glass sand. Mica was recovered by two methods; one was...

W. H. Eddy J. S. Browning J. E. Hardemon

1969-01-01

402

A multi-instrument view of tail reconnection at Saturn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three instances of tail reconnection events at Saturn involving the ejection of plasmoids downtail have been reported by Jackman et al. (2007) using data from Cassini's magnetometer (MAG). Here we show two newly discovered events, as identified in the MAG data by northward\\/southward turnings and intensifications of the field. We discuss these events along with the original three, with the

C. M. Jackman; C. S. Arridge; N. Krupp; E. J. Bunce; D. G. Mitchell; H. J. McAndrews; M. K. Dougherty; C. T. Russell; N. Achilleos; G. H. Jones; A. J. Coates

2008-01-01

403

Computational modelling of final covers for uranium mill tailings impoundments.  

PubMed

To properly design a final cover for uranium mill tailings impoundments the designer must attempt to find an effective geotechnical solution which addresses the radiological and non-radiological potential impact and prevents geochemical processes from occurring within the tailings. This paper presents a computer-based method for evaluating the performance of engineered final covers for the remediation of uranium mill tailings impoundments. Three hypothetical final covers were taken from scientific literature to investigate the proposed method: (i) a compacted clay liner (CCL); (ii) a composite liner (CL) and (iii) a capillary barrier (CB). The processes investigated: (i) the saturated hydraulic flux; (ii) the unsaturated hydraulic flux (exclusively for the capillary barrier) and (iii) the radon exhalation to the atmosphere. The computer programs utilised for the analyses are: (i) Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP); (ii) SEEP/W and (iii) RADON. The site considered for the development of the research presented herein was the uranium mill tailings impoundment located at the Brazilian city of Poços de Caldas, in the Minas Gerais State. PMID:15177735

Leoni, Guilherme Luís Menegassi; Almeida, Márcio de Souza Soares; Fernandes, Horst Monken

2004-07-01

404

Fractionation and characterization of edible sheep tail fat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Edible sheep tail fat was effectively fractionated by an acetone crystallization. Each of the fractions and filtrates were analyzed for melting point, refractive index, iodine value, fatty acid composition, and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry. Fatty acid analysis indicated that as the fractionation temperature decreased, the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids in the fractions increased. The liquid fraction had a

Mahmut Ünsal; Nesimi Akta?

2003-01-01

405

Relationships between Sitka black-tailed deer and their habitat.  

Treesearch

P.O. Box 96090 ... Even-aged, second-growth forests produce very little forage for black-tailed deer. ... Snow accumulates to greater depths in openings than in forest, however, and forage becomes unavailable to deer as it is buried in snow.

406

Appreciation of apparel e-tailing by Dutch fashion consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview about the Dutch fashion retailers' use of internet sites and the Dutch consumers' appreciation of apparel e-tailing. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A selection of apparel chain stores was made with the criterion of having more than ten shops to investigate fashion retailers' sites. The sites were rated by the results

René P. Spijkerman

2008-01-01

407

Modelling The Run-out of Mine Tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flow which results from the failure of a mine tailings dam has been modelled experimentally by the sub-aerial release from behind a lock gate of a highly concen- trated monodisperse suspension of silicon carbide particles in water. The experimen- tal results suggest that in the initial stages of these flows, fluid inertia is significant; however, as the current advances

A. J. Hogg; D. Pritchard

2002-01-01

408

Modeling the Seismic Response of Coal-Waste Tailings Dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal is often processed near coal mines to remove some impurities before it is transported to its users. Each year, millions of tons of refuse are generated and need to be stored in the coal producing regions. A typical coal-waste storage facility is a tailings dam which includes an embankment made of coarse refuse and impoundment slurry of fine refuse.

Xiangwu Zeng; Jiaer Wu; Richard Rohlf

409

The impact of the Aznalcóllar mine tailing spill on groundwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a consequence of a mine tailing dam collapse on the 25th April 1998, more than 4000 ha of the Guadiamar riverflat and farmlands were flooded by 4 hm3 of sulphide slurry. A number of open wells (12 of the 47 analysed) were also flooded and the water was contaminated. Before the spill, the groundwater in the aquifers was of

Marisol Manzano; Carlos Ayora; Cristina Domenech; Paloma Navarrete; Antonio Garralon; Maria-Jesús Turrero

1999-01-01

410

Compaction of Upstream Construction Tailings Dam Beaches Using Dozers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upstream construction tailings dams in the oilsands mining industry rely on a compacted shell and beaches of non- liquefiable sand to contain the pond and internal loose beach deposits. Compaction energy to densify the sand in the shell is provided by dozers which densify the sand through the vibration of trafficking repeatedly across the sand surface, together with the downward

Scott Martens; Tyler Lappin

411

Implications of Earthquakes on the Stability of Tailings Dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of earthquakes show the need of detailed assessment of the vulnerability different industry sectors. As part of this assessment implication of earthquakes for the mining industry and especially the stability of the tailings ponds was investigated. Based on the serious dam failures a decision tree was developed to categorize the loss scenarios. To test the decision tree and to

Tobias Rudolph; Wilhelm G. Coldewey

412

Rehabilitation of Tailings Dams on the Central Rand; Johannesburg  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underground mining on the Central Rand goldfield of the Witwatersrand basin south of Johannesburg has led to a number of environmental impacts of which the establishment of tailings dams is the most important. These mining residue deposits are impacting negatively on the environment and on social and economic development of the area. This is because of pollution and sterilization of

N. F. Mphephu

413

Neuraminidase and Contractile Responses to Norepinephrine in Rat Tail Artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sialic acids are negatively charged groups in the carbohydrate side chains of glycolipids and glycoproteins which line the external membrane surface. The goal of this study was to characterize the effect of neuraminidase, which selectively cleaves sialic acids, on contractile activity in vascular smooth muscle. Helically cut strips of rat tail artery were mounted in an organ chamber and isometric

James H. Rice; Clinton Webb

1984-01-01

414

Particle acceleration from reconnection in the geomagnetic tail  

SciTech Connect

Acceleration of charged particles in the near geomagnetic tail, associated with a dynamic magnetic reconnection process, was investigated by a combined effort of data analysis, using Los Alamos data from geosynchronous orbit, MHD modeling of the dynamic evolution of the magnetotail, and test particle tracing in the electric and magnetic fields obtained from the MHD simulation.

Birn, J.; Borovsky, J.E.; Thomsen, M.F.; McComas, D.J.; Reeves, G.D.; Belian, R.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hesse, M. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center; Schindler, K. [Ruhr-Univ., Bochum (Germany)

1997-08-01

415

Head-Tail Modes for Strong Space Charge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Head-tail modes are described here for the space charge tune shift significantly exceeding the synchrotron tune. General equation for the modes is derived. Spatial shapes of the modes, their frequencies, and coherent growth rates are explored. The Landau damping rates are also found. Suppression of the transverse mode coupling instability by the space charge is explained.

Alexey Burov

2008-01-01

416

Annealed upper tails for the energy of a charged polymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the upper tails for the energy of a randomly charged symmetric and transient random walk. We assume that only charges on the same site interact pairwise. We consider annealed estimates, that is when we average over both randomness, in dimension three or more. We obtain a large deviation principle, and an explicit rate function for a large class

Amine Asselah; UMR CNRS

2011-01-01

417

Head-tail modes for strong space charge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The head-tail modes are described for the space charge tune shift significantly exceeding the synchrotron tune. A general equation for the modes is derived. The spatial shapes of the modes, their frequencies, and coherent growth rates are explored. The Landau damping rates are also found. The suppression of the transverse mode coupling instability by the space charge is explained.

A. Burov

2009-01-01

418

25. VIEW OF MILL FROM UPPER TAILINGS POND. SHOWS ROASTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. VIEW OF MILL FROM UPPER TAILINGS POND. SHOWS ROASTER ON LEFT EDGE OF VIEW. THE SECONDARY THICKENER No. 7 IS OFF VIEW TO THE RIGHT. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

419

Use of gold mill tailings in making bricks: a feasibility study.  

PubMed

Mill tailings dumps at Kolar Gold Fields, Karnataka, are creating environmental problems. One of the solutions to these problems is to use the mill tailings for some useful purpose. This study examined the possibility of making bricks from the mill tailings with some additives in laboratory experiments. Samples of the mill tailings and the additives were analysed for particle size distribution, Atterberg limits and specific gravity. The plasticity index of the mill tailings being zero, they could not be used directly for making bricks. Therefore some additives that had plasticity or binding properties were mixed with the mill tailings. Ordinary Portland cement, black cotton soils and red soils were selected as additives. Each of the additives was mixed separately with the mill tailings in different proportions by weight and a large number of bricks were prepared using metallic moulds. The bricks were termed as cement-tailings bricks or soil-tailings bricks, depending on the additives used. The cement-tailings bricks were cured for different periods and their corresponding compressive strengths were determined. The bricks with 20% of cement and 14 days of curing were found to be suitable. The soil-tailings bricks were sun-dried and then fired in a furnace at different temperatures. The quality of bricks was assessed in terms of linear shrinkage, water absorption and compressive strength. The cost analysis revealed that cement-tailings bricks would be uneconomical whereas the soil-tailings bricks would be very economical. PMID:17985673

Roy, Surendra; Adhikari, Govind R; Gupta, Rama N

2007-10-01

420

Evaluation of common anesthetic and analgesic techniques for tail biopsy in mice.  

PubMed

Tail biopsy in mice is a common procedure in genetically modified mouse colonies. We evaluated the anesthetic and analgesic effects of various agents commonly used to mitigate pain after tail biopsy. We used a hot-water immersion assay to evaluate the analgesic effects of isoflurane, ice-cold ethanol, ethyl chloride, buprenorphine, and 2-point local nerve blocks before studying their effects on mice receiving tail biopsies. Mice treated with ethyl chloride spray, isoflurane and buprenorphine, and 2-point local nerve blocks demonstrated increased tail-flick latency compared with that of untreated mice. When we evaluated the behavior of adult and preweanling mice after tail biopsy, untreated mice demonstrated behavioral changes immediately after tail biopsy that lasted 30 to 60 min before returning to normal. The use of isoflurane, isoflurane and buprenorphine, buprenorphine, 2-point nerve block, or ethyl chloride spray in adult mice did not significantly improve their behavioral response to tail biopsy. Similarly, the use of buprenorphine and ethyl chloride spray in preweanling mice did not improve their behavioral response to tail biopsy compared with that of the untreated group. However, immersion in bupivacaine for 30 s after tail biopsy decreased tail grooming behavior during the first 30 min after tail biopsy. The anesthetic and analgesic regimens tested provide little benefit in adult and preweanling mice. Given that tail biopsy results in pain that lasts 30 to 60 min, investigators should carefully consider the appropriate anesthetic or analgesic regimen to incorporate into tail-biopsy procedures for mice. PMID:23294888

Jones, Carissa P; Carver, Scott; Kendall, Lon V

2012-11-01

421

Bacteriophage SPO1 structure and morphogenesis. I. Tail structure and length regulation.  

PubMed Central

Bacteriophage SPO1, a structually complex phage with hydroxymethyl uracil replacing thymine, has been studied by structural and chemical methods with the aim of defining the virion organization. The contractile tail of SPO1 consists of a complex baseplate, a tail tube, and a 140-nm-long sheath composed of stacked disks (4.1 nm repeat), each containing six subunits of molecular weight 60,300. The subunits are arranged in six parallel helices, each with a helical screw angle (omega 0) of 22.5 degrees. The baseplate was shown to undergo a structural rearrangement during tail contraction into a hexameric pinwheel. A mutation in gene 8 which produced unattached heads and tails also produced tails of different lengths. The tail length distribution suggests that the smallest integral length increment is a single disk of subunits. The structural arrangement of subunits in long tails is identical to that of normal tails, and the tails can contract. Many of the long tails showed partial stain penetration within the tail tube to a point which coincides with the top of a unit-length tail. The implications of these findings with respect to tail length regulation are discussed. Images

Parker, M L; Eiserling, F A

1983-01-01

422

A cross-sectional study of the causes of morbidity and mortality in farmed white-tailed deer  

PubMed Central

Abstract Two questionnaires were designed and administered. The first was to a random sample of 340 farmers of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Canada and the United States. The second was a 10-year retrospective survey of deer submissions to veterinary diagnostic pathology laboratories in Canada and the United States. One-year rates of mortality and common causes of morbidity and mortality for the deer are reported. The primary diagnosis for each record was used to classify diseases into categories, such as parasitic, infectious, toxicological, and neoplastic. Submissions were further classified according to the anatomical location, the pathological change, and the etiology associated with each lesion. Trauma was the most important reported cause of farmed white-tailed deer mortality; necrobacillosis was a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in fawns.

2005-01-01

423

Endosonography and cytology in diagnosing and staging pancreatic body and tail carcinoma: Preliminary results of endosonographic guided puncture  

SciTech Connect

Endosonography was performed in diagnosing and staging pancreatic body and tail carcinoma in two patients. In the first case endoscopy, abdominal ultrasound, and computed tomography were nondiagnostic in diagnosing the origin of submucosal gastric abnormalities. Endosonography diagnosed a pancreatic tail carcinoma with submucosal gastric involvement, and this was confirmed by endosonographic-guided cytology. Fundus varices due to segmented splenic vein involvement were found. Surgery was not recommended due to the advanced disease. In the second case pancreatic body carcinoma was diagnosed by ERCP and computed tomography. Transcutaneous ultrasonographic-guided cytological puncture confirmed the diagnosis. Endosonography revealed additional information of segmental portal hypertension with fundic varices due to splenic vein involvement. Autopsy confirmed the endosonographic diagnosis. 18 refs., 5 figs.

Tio, T.L.; Sie, L.H.; Tytgat, G.N.J. (Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States) Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands))

1993-01-01

424

RICO Graduate Student Research Flight: The Island Tail Objective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rain in Cumulus over the Ocean (RICO) project was an intensive field project aimed to study and understand precipitation processes in trade wind cumulus. The project took place from Nov 23, 2004 until Jan 25, 2005 on two small islands of the Lesser Antilles, Antigua and Barbuda, where trade wind cumulus fields frequently occur during suppressed wintertime conditions. RICO provided a unique combination of research and education by offering the RICO Graduate Seminar Series and the development and implementation of a graduate student designed and directed research flight. One of the main goals of the graduate student research flight was to allow graduate students to participate in the process of developing a research flight plan and identifying scientific goals and objectives first-hand. Added benefits included the possibility of addressing scientific questions not included in the main RICO objectives. This also involved collaboration when discussing different ideas and initiatives and the full development of all stages of the research flight including the coordination of two research aircraft (NCAR-C130, University of Wyoming King Air), one research vessel (RV Seward Johnson), S-Pol radar site and real time operations center satellite information. Seventeen graduate students from both the US and Europe developed two different plans to be presented to RICO project principle investigators; both of which were approved. The island tail objective aimed at characterizing the line of clouds known as 'island tails' that frequently form off the leeward coast of the Caribbean islands. This objective was successful in its implementation on Jan 18, 2005 with measurements made in vigorous, waterspout producing tail clouds immediately downwind of Barbuda. The investigation of these 'tails' fills a void in current cloud physics research since it is the first time this ubiquitous feature of trade-wind islands has been the focus of careful study. Scientific questions to be addressed with data collected on the island tail include: 1) Are these clouds forced by a heated island effect or another dynamical mechanism? 2) Do islands serve merely as source regions of aerosol which act as nucleation sites? 3) Where in the island tail does rain develop, if at all? A description of the unique learning experience and the educational and scientific benefits of the graduate student research flight island tail objective are outlined and discussed.

Small, J. D.; Anderson-Bereznicki, S. D.; Medeiros, B.; Nuijens, L.; Henry, C. K.; O'Donnell, D. M.; Morales, F.; Shen, H.

2005-12-01

425

Aerodynamics of a Flapping Airfoil with a Flexible Tail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation presents computational solutions to an airfoil in a oscillatory heaving motion with a aeroelastically flexible tail attachment. An unsteady potential flow solver is coupled to a structural solver to obtain the aeroelastic flow solution over an inviscid fluid to investigate the propulsive performance of such a configuration. The simulation is then extended to a two-dimensional viscous solver by coupling NASA's CFL3D solver to the structural solver to study how the flow is altered by the presence of viscosity. Finally, additional simulations are done in three dimensions over wings with varying aspect ratio to study the three-dimensional effects on the propulsive performance of an airfoil with an aeroelastic tail. The computation reveals that the addition of the aeroelastic trailing edge improved the thrust generated by a heaving airfoil significantly. As the frequency of the heaving motion increases, the thrust generated by the airfoil with the tail increases exponentially. In an inviscid fluid, the increase in thrust is insufficient to overcome the increase in power required to maintain the motion and as a result the overall propulsive efficiency is reduced. When the airfoil is heaving in a viscous fluid, the presence of a suction boundary layer and the appearance of leading edge vortex increase the thrust generated to such an extent that the propulsive efficiency is increased by about 3% when compared to the same airfoil with a rigid tail. The three-dimensional computations shows that the presence of the tip vorticies suppress some of the increase in thrust observed in the two-dimensional viscous computations for short span wings. For large span wings, the overall thrust enhancing capabilities of the aeroelastic tail is preserved.

Lai, Alan Kai San

426

A statistical analysis of substorm associated tail activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Substorm onset timing is a critical issue in magnetotail dynamics research. Solar wind energy is accumulated in the magnetosphere and the configuration of the magnetosphere evolves toward an unstable state during the growth phase. At some point, the expansion phase begins and the stored energy is released through a variety of processes that return the magnetosphere to a lower energy state. In recovery the various processes die away. Unfortunately, the ground and magnetospheric signatures of onset, i.e. energy release, can be seen both in the growth phase prior to onset and in the expansion phase after onset. Some investigators refer to each of these events as a substorm. Tail observations suggest that most substorms have one event that differentiates the behavior of the tail field and plasma. We refer to this time as the "main substorm onset". Each substorm associated phenomenon is timed independently and then compared with main substorm onsets. ISEE-2 tail observations are used to examine the tail lobe magnetic conditions associated with substorms because ISEE-2 orbit has a high inclination and frequently observes lobe field. Approximately 70 ˜ 75% of tail lobe Bt and Bz change are associated with the main substorm onset. If the satellite is more than 3 Re above (below) the neutral sheet, 86% (57%) of plasma pressure dropouts are associated with substorms. We interpret our results as evidence that the effect of the growth phase is to drive the magnetosphere towards instability. As it approaches global instability local regions become temporarily unstable but are rapidly quenched. Eventually one of these events develops into the global instability that releases most of the stored energy and returns the magnetosphere to a more stable configuration.

Hsu, Tung-Shin; McPherron, Robert L.

2012-11-01

427

Evidence of three new members of malignant catarrhal fever virus group in muskox (Ovibos moschatus), Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana), and gemsbok (Oryx gazella).  

PubMed

Six members of the malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) virus group of ruminant rhadinoviruses have been identified to date. Four of these viruses are clearly associated with clinical disease: alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) carried by wildebeest (Connochaetes spp.); ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), ubiquitous in domestic sheep; caprine herpesvirus 2 (CpHV-2), endemic in domestic goats; and the virus of unknown origin found causing classic MCF in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; MCFV-WTD). Using serology and polymerase chain reaction with (degenerate primers targeting a portion of the herpesviral DNA polymerase gene, evidence of three previously unrecognized rhadinoviruses in the MCF virus group was found in muskox (Ovibos moschatus), Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana), and gemsbok (South African oryx, Oryx gazella), respectively. Base on sequence alignment, the viral sequence in the muskox is most closely related to MCFV-WTD (81.5% sequence identity) and that in the Nubian ibex is closest to CpHV-2 (89.3% identity). The viral sequence in the gemsbok is most closely related to AlHV-1 (85.1% identity). No evidence of disease association with these viruses has been found. PMID:14733283

Li, Hong; Gailbreath, Katherine; Bender, Louis C; West, Keith; Keller, Janice; Crawford, Timothy B

2003-10-01

428

8. VIEW OF THE MILL (FEATURE B27) AND MILL TAILINGS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW OF THE MILL (FEATURE B-27) AND MILL TAILINGS, FACING EAST. PHOTO TAKEN FROM TOP OF THE TAILINGS. - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

429

Environmental impact assessment of tailings dispersal from a uranium mine using toxicity testing protocols  

SciTech Connect

Toxicity testing is a means of establishing the environmental risk of uranium tailings release. It is valuable in designing tailings containment structures because it assists in setting acceptable levels of risk of the design. This paper presents details of toxicity tests of the tailings from Ranger Uranium Mine, Northern Territory, Australia. The results suggest that the non-radiological toxicity of the tailings is low. The environmental risk of a tailings release is more likely to be related to the physical impacts of the tailings, including infilling of billabongs and changes in the sedimentology of riparian ecosystems rather than their biogeochemical impact. Two major results were: (1) water from treatment with washed tailing fines was not toxic to Hydra viridissima, and (2) mixtures of washed tailings fines and natural floodplain sediment (overlying water or elutriates) were not toxic to Hydra viridissima or Moinodaphnia macleayi. 33 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Rippon, G.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Canberra (Australia); Riley, S.J. [Univ. of Western Sydney-Nepean, Kingswood (Australia)

1996-12-01

430

Physical Modeling of Marginally Stable Tailings Dams Using Centrifuge Simulation Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The stability of a marginally stable tailings dam is investigated using centrifuge simulations and flow and stability analyses. The centrifuge simulations are conducted on Sandia's large radius machine using tailings from a coal mine. Pore pressure measur...

H. J. Sutherland R. P. Rechard A. A. Heckes

1984-01-01

431

Interplay of Phenology and Reproduction in Ring-Tailed Lemurs: Implications for Ring-Tailed Lemur Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data are presented on ring-tailed lemur feeding ecology and resource use at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve in southwestern Madagascar. The phenological availability of food resources was sampled monthly from 199 trees and 31 species. Results indicate that Lemur catta feeding ecology is finely tuned to the seasonal nature of specific food resources. Key species provide important food items during

Michelle L. Sauther

1998-01-01

432

The C-terminal unique region of desmoglein 2 inhibits its internalization via tail-tail interactions  

PubMed Central

Desmosomal cadherins, desmogleins (Dsgs) and desmocollins, make up the adhesive core of intercellular junctions called desmosomes. A critical determinant of epithelial adhesive strength is the level and organization of desmosomal cadherins on the cell surface. The Dsg subclass of desmosomal cadherins contains a C-terminal unique region (Dsg unique region [DUR]) with unknown function. In this paper, we show that the DUR of Dsg2 stabilized Dsg2 at the cell surface by inhibiting its internalization and promoted strong intercellular adhesion. DUR also facilitated Dsg tail–tail interactions. Forced dimerization of a Dsg2 tail lacking the DUR led to decreased internalization, supporting the conclusion that these two functions of the DUR are mechanistically linked. We also show that a Dsg2 mutant, V977fsX1006, identified in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy patients, led to a loss of Dsg2 tail self-association and underwent rapid endocytosis in cardiac muscle cells. Our observations illustrate a new mechanism desmosomal cadherins use to control their surface levels, a key factor in determining their adhesion and signaling roles.

Chen, Jing; Nekrasova, Oxana E.; Patel, Dipal M.; Klessner, Jodi L.; Godsel, Lisa M.; Koetsier, Jennifer L.; Amargo, Evangeline V.; Desai, Bhushan V.

2012-01-01

433

Well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta).  

PubMed

A 16-year-old male ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) was presented with severe cachexia and an abdominal mass. The encapsulated, multilobular mass replaced the right medial lobe of the liver and compressed the adjacent gall bladder. Multiple haemorrhages and necrotic foci were found within the mass. Microscopically, neoplastic cells formed cords of moderately pleomorphic, polygonal cells with mild to moderate anaplasia. Immunohistochemical markers used for diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinomas in man were used to characterize the neoplastic cells, which expressed hepatocyte-specific antigen, but not glypican-3 or polyclonal carcinoembryonic antigen. Gross, microscopical and immunohistochemical features of the tumour were most consistent with a well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma. Although this tumour is common among prosimians, to the authors' knowledge this is the first documented case in a ring-tailed lemur. Hepatocellular carcinomas have been associated with hepatitis virus infections and excessive hepatic iron in man; however, no association was established between this tumour and viral infection or hepatic iron storage disease in the present case. PMID:22819017

Nemeth, N M; Blas-Machado, U; Cazzini, P; Oguni, J; Camus, M S; Dockery, K K; Butler, A M

2012-07-20

434

Phosphorylation of the Smo tail is controlled by membrane localisation and is dispensable for clustering.  

PubMed

The Hedgehog (Hh) signalling cascade is highly conserved and involved in development and disease throughout evolution. Nevertheless, in comparison with other pathways, our mechanistic understanding of Hh signal transduction is remarkably incomplete. In the absence of ligand, the Hh receptor Patched (Ptc) represses the key signal transducer Smoothened (Smo) through an unknown mechanism. Hh binding to Ptc alleviates this repression, causing Smo redistribution to the plasma membrane, phosphorylation and opening of the Smo cytoplasmic tail, and Smo oligomerisation. However, the order and interdependence of these events is as yet poorly understood. We have mathematically modelled and simulated Smo activation for two alternative modes of pathway activation, with Ptc primarily affecting either Smo localisation or phosphorylation. Visualising Smo activation through a novel, fluorescence-based reporter allowed us to test these competing models. Here, we show that Smo localisation to the plasma membrane is sufficient for phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic tail in the presence of Ptc. Using fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS), we also demonstrate that inactivation of Ptc by Hh induces Smo clustering irrespective of Smo phosphorylation. Our observations therefore support a model of Hh signal transduction whereby Smo subcellular localisation and not phosphorylation is the primary target of Ptc function. PMID:23943866

Kupinski, Adam P; Raabe, Isabel; Michel, Marcus; Ail, Divya; Brusch, Lutz; Weidemann, Thomas; Bökel, Christian

2013-08-13

435

Structure of MyTH4-FERM domains in myosin VIIa tail bound to cargo.  

PubMed

The unconventional myosin VIIa (MYO7A) is one of the five proteins that form a network of complexes involved in formation of stereocilia. Defects in these proteins cause syndromic deaf-blindness in humans [Usher syndrome I (USH1)]. Many disease-causing mutations occur in myosin tail homology 4-protein 4.1, ezrin, radixin, moesin (MyTH4-FERM) domains in the myosin tail that binds to another USH1 protein, Sans. We report the crystal structure of MYO7A MyTH4-FERM domains in complex with the central domain (CEN) of Sans at 2.8 angstrom resolution. The MyTH4 and FERM domains form an integral structural and functional supramodule binding to two highly conserved segments (CEN1 and 2) of Sans. The MyTH4-FERM/CEN complex structure provides mechanistic explanations for known deafness-causing mutations in MYO7A MyTH4-FERM. The structure will also facilitate mechanistic and functional studies of MyTH4-FERM domains in other myosins. PMID:21311020

Wu, Lin; Pan, Lifeng; Wei, Zhiyi; Zhang, Mingjie

2011-02-11

436

Interactions of tailings leachate with local liner materials found at Canonsburg, Pennsylvania.  

SciTech Connect

The mill tailings site at Canonsburg, Pennsylvania is the first mill site to receive remedial action under the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program. Part of this remedial action will require excavating the 53,500 m/sup 3/ (70,000 yd/sup 3/) of tailings on the site having a specific activity exceeding 100 pCi/g, and encapsulating these contaminated tailings in a clay-lined cell. As part of the remedial action effort, Pacific Northwest Laboratory has been studying the interactions of tailings and tailings leachate with locally occurring clays proposed for liner materials. These studies include physical and chemical characterization of amended and unamended local clays, chemical characterization of the tailings, column studies of tailings leached with deionized water, and column studies of clays contacted with tailings solutions to determine the attenuation properties of the proposed liner materials. Column studies of tailings leached with deionized water indicated that the Canonsburg tailings could represent a source of soluble radium-226 and uranium-238, several trace metals, cations, and the anions SO/sub 4/, NO/sub 3/, and Cl. Of these soluble contaminants, uranium-238, radium-226, the trace metals As and Mo, and the anions F and SO/sub 4/ were present at levels exceeding maximum concentration levels in the tailings leaching column effluents. However, local clays, both in amended and unamended form were effective in attenuating contaminant migration. The soil amendments tested failed to increase radium attenuation. The tailings leaching studies indicated that the tailings will produce leachates of neutral pH and relatively low contaminant levels for at least 200 years. We believe that compacting the tailings within the encapsulation cell will help to reduce leaching of contaminants from the liner system, since very low permeabilities (<10/sup -8/ cm/s) were observed for even slightly compacted tailings materials.

Dodson, M.E.; Gee, G.W.; Serne, R.J.

1984-04-01

437

The human tail: rare lesion with occult spinal dysraphism—a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human tail or tail-like caudal cutaneous appendage is a rare fingerlike, midline protrusion at the lumbosacrococcygeal region, often associated with occult spinal dysraphism. A 2-month-old male child presented here had a lumbosacral tail-like appendage with underlying spinal dysraphism without any appreciable neurological deficit. In contradiction to a previous report, true vestigial tails are not benign because they may be associated

Deepak Kumar Singh; Basant Kumar; V. D. Sinha; H. R. Bagaria

2008-01-01

438

Coexistence of a human tail and congenital dermal sinus associated with lumbosacral lipoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Case report  We present a female baby with a human tail associated with congenital dermal sinus (CDS) at the caudal site of the tail. Magnetic\\u000a resonance (MR) images with constructive interference in steady-state (CISS) sequencing clearly demonstrated a lumbosacral\\u000a lipoma of caudal type, contiguous with the dermal sinus tract and not with the human tail. At 3 months old, the tail was

Kazuhiro Samura; Takato Morioka; Kimiaki Hashiguchi; Fumiaki Yoshida; Yasushi Miyagi; Takashi Yoshiura; Satoshi O. Suzuki; Tomio Sasaki

2009-01-01

439

Tail buffet alleviation of high performance twin tail aircraft using offset piezoceramic stack actuators and acceleration feedback control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In High Performance Twin-Tail Aircraft (HPTTA), tail buffet occurs during high angles of attack maneuvers. At high angles of attack, flow separates and vortices are convected by the geometry of the wing-fuselage interface toward the vertical tails. This phenomenon, along with the aeroelastic coupling of the tail structural assembly, results in vibrations that can shorten the fatigue life of the empennage assembly and limit the flight envelope due to the large amplitude of the fin vibrations. The main goal of this research was to develop an active buffet alleviation system for HPTTA using Offset Piezoceramic Stack Actuators (OPSA) in combination with Acceleration Feedback Control (AFC) theory. In order to complete this task, the research work was divided into three main areas. First, two new methods for the design of non-collocated AFC controller parameters were developed for pure active damping applications and for quadratic performance criterion minimization. Second, a new type of moment inducing actuator based on piezoceramic stacks, the OPSA, was developed to provide high control authority while satisfying high reliability and maintainability requirements. A modal model of the OPSA acting on a benchmark structure was developed to create a low frequency approximation of the actuator and to optimize its offset distance and its placement. Third, because of the non-availability of reliable models for the controlled structure and the buffet-induced loads, a control system design method, based solely on the use of experimental data, was developed. Finally, two sets of experiments were conducted to show the feasibility of controlling buffet-induced vibrations during high angle of attack operations of a HPTTA. The first experiment validated both the effectiveness and the robustness of the active buffet alleviation system on an aeroelastically scaled model in wind tunnel tests. The second experiment showed that the combination of OPSA and AFC could suppress vibrations in a full-scale vertical tail sub-assembly.

Bayon de Noyer, Maxime P.

440

Organic Matter Dynamics, Aggregation, and Carbon Sequestration in Mine Tailings Amended with Humic Substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanisms of macroaggregation, carbon dynamics, and carbon sequestration were investigated in degraded mine tailings. Humic substances (HSs), wheat straw, lime, and their various combinations were added to the mine tailings and then incubated at 20 °C for 24 weeks. A significant increase (up to 79%) of water?stable macroaggregates was observed in the HS?amended tailings after the incubation. During the macroaggregation,

Ibrahim M. Saiyed; Tee Boon Goh

2009-01-01

441

Model tail rotor noise study in the DNW - Measured acoustics, blade pressures, noise predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acoustic characteristics of the BO 105 model rotor have been measured in a wind tunnel experiment, and the results are reported. Emphasis is given to the main rotor\\/tail rotor interference noise. Simultaneously measured tail rotor blade surface pressures are presented and used to interpret the test results and as input for tail rotor noise predictions.

Klaus-J. Schultz; Wolf R. Splettstoesser

1992-01-01

442

Model tail rotor noise study in the DNW - Measured acoustics, blade pressures, noise predictions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acoustic characteristics of the BO 105 model rotor have been measured in a wind tunnel experiment, and the results are reported. Emphasis is given to the main rotor/tail rotor interference noise. Simultaneously measured tail rotor blade surface pressures are presented and used to interpret the test results and as input for tail rotor noise predictions.

Schultz, Klaus-J.; Splettstoesser, Wolf R.

1992-09-01

443

METAL ACCUMULATION IN 5 NATIVE PLANTS GROWING ON ABANDONED CU-TAILINGS PONDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

th Febr 2007 ; accepted 13 th May 2007) Abstract: Tailings and plants were sampled from the abandoned Cu-tailing ponds of Rakha mines, Jharkhand, India. Tailings have high concentration of Cu, Ni and characterized by moderately acid environment and low nutrient contents. Plants belonging to 5 genera and 4 families were collected and analysed for metals in their above and

MANAB DAS; SUBODH KUMAR MAITI

2007-01-01

444

Heavy metal concentrations in marine sediments impacted by a mine-tailings spill, Marinduque Island, Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mine-tailings spill occurred on the island of Marinduque, Philippines, on 24 March 1996. Originating from the Marcopper Mine, tailings sludge flowed down the Boac River abruptly and during subsequent storm events. Most of the tailings material has since accumulated in the nearshore environment along the western coast of the island. Nineteen sediment cores were collected from this site and

C. P. David

2002-01-01

445

Hydrology, mineralogy and management effects on the hydrochemistry of a sulphide tailings pond (Troya mine, Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tailings produced at the Troya mine (Spain) were disposed in an 700,000 m 3 impoundment. The tailings contain 45 wt % of pyrite, and up to 30 wt% of carbonate minerals. After the closure of the mine in 1993, the impoundment was partially filled and a water pond up to 6 m deep covered the tailings to a limited

Iribar Vicente; Izco Felix; Tamés Patxi; Velasco Francisco; Yusta Iñaki

446

Use of asphalt emulsion sealants in disposal of uranium mill tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of asphalt emulsion sealants conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory have demonstrated that the sealants are effective in containing radon within uranium tailings. The laboratory and field studies have further demonstrated that radon exhalation from uranium tailings piles can be reduced by greater than 99% to near background levels. Field tests at the tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado

J. N. Hartley; H. D. Freeman; M. R. Elmore

1981-01-01

447

Uranium-mill-tailings remedial-action project (UMTRAP) cover and liner technology development project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cover and liner systems for uranium mill tailings in the United States must satisfy stringent requirements regarding long-term stability, radon control, and radionuclide and hazardous chemical migration. The cover placed over a tailings pile serves three basic purposes: (1) to reduce the release of radon, (2) to prevent the intrusion of plant roots and burrowing animals into the tailings, and

J. N. Hartley; G. W. Gee; H. D. Freeman; J. F. Cline; P. A. Beedlow; J. L. Buelt; J. R. Relyea; T. Tamura

1982-01-01

448

The structure of bacteriophage T4 gene product 9: the trigger for tail contraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The T4 bacteriophage consists of a head, filled with double-stranded DNA, and a complex contractile tail required for the ejection of the viral genome into the Escherichia coli host. The tail has a baseplate to whïch are attached six long and six short tail fibers. These fibers are the sensing devices for recognizing the host. When activated by attachment

Victor A Kostyuchenko; Grigorii A Navruzbekov; Lidia P Kurochkina; Sergei V Strelkov; Vadim V Mesyanzhinov; Michael G Rossmann

1999-01-01

449

Long tails in deep columns of natural and anthropogenic tropospheric tracers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple prototypes for forced advection-diffusion problems are known to produce passive tracer distributions that exhibit approximately exponential or stretched exponential tails. Having previously found an approximately exponential tail for the column integrated water vapor (CWV) distribution under high precipitation conditions, we conjectured that if such prototypes are relevant to more complex tropospheric tracer problems, we should find such tails for

J. David Neelin; Benjamin R. Lintner; Baijun Tian; Qinbin Li; Li Zhang; Prabir K. Patra; Moustafa T. Chahine; Samuel N. Stechmann

2010-01-01

450

Human Tail with Noncontiguous Intraspinal Lipoma and Spinal Cord Tethering:Case Report and Embryologic Discussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children born with a tail-like appendage have a rare malformation that is frequently associated with abnormalities of the spine and spinal cord. A contiguous fibrolipoma is usually seen extending from the subcutaneous portion of the tail into the inferior spinal cord, resulting in tethered cord syndrome. We present the case of a child born with a tail and intraspinal lipoma

Daniel J. Donovan; Robert C. Pedersen

2005-01-01

451

Mobility and retention of trace elements in hardpan-cemented cassiterite tailings, north Queensland, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study reports on the mobility and retention of trace elements in cassiterite tailings at the inactive Jumna mill, tropical north Queensland. Since the 1980s, the uncapped tailings have developed laterally discontinuous Fe-rich hardpans, which are located in the higher parts of gently sloping tailings masses and at the top (<50 cm) of the tailings piles. Hardpan-cemented tailings comprise thin layers (typically ˜0.2-2 mm thick) of HFO (hydrous ferric oxides) and sulfate efflorescences cementing tailings grains. In comparison to the tailings, the hardpan-cemented tailings contain significantly higher median As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, In, Mn, Mo, Stotal, Th, U, Y and Zn values. Partial leaching studies of tailings and pond water analyses indicate that wetting and acidification of Fe-cemented tailings removes significant proportions of trace elements into pore and surface waters. Tin shows no mobility due to the presence of weathering-resistant cassiterite (SnO2) and, As and Pb display limited mobility possibly due to their coprecipitation with jarosite-type phases and HFO materials at the top of the tailings profile. By contrast, the trace elements Cd, Ce, Cu, La, Ni, Pb, U and Zn display the greatest mobility, possibly due to their incorporation in soluble sulfate efflorescences and sorption onto mineral and HFO surfaces. Hence, the Fe-rich hardpans do not protect the sulfidic tailings from further oxidation nor do they cause permanent sequestration of trace elements.

Lottermoser, Bernd G.; Ashley, Paul M.

2006-08-01

452

CASE HISTORY OF A COPPER MINE TAILINGS POND RECLAMATION IN DUCKTOWN, TENNESSEE1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cessation of mining operations in Ducktown, TN, left 800-900 acres of barren copper mine tailings. Revegetation activities had met with limited success. In 1998, efforts for revegetation of the tailings materials began anew. The objective of this case history is to provide insight into decision making processes which resulted in conversion of 800-900 acres of barren mine tailings into a

J L. Branson; J. T. Ammons

2004-01-01

453

Site selection and design options for uranium mine waste and plant tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis Intense public concern regarding the environmental and health effects of uranium tailings has forced a re-evaluation of past disposal practices. Consequently, site selection and design methods for uranium tailings have undergone considerable change and development in recent years. While South African tailings-management technology has contributed significantly to these developments, its public and regulatory review is not, as yet, as

Steffen Robertson

454

Arbuscular mycorrhizas contribute to phytostabilization of uranium in uranium mining tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uranium (U) tailings pose environmental risks and call for proper remediation. In this paper medic and ryegrass plants were used as host plants to examine whether inoculation with an AM fungus, Glomus intraradices, would help phytostabilization of U tailings. The need of amending with uncontaminated soil for supporting plant survival was also examined by mixing soil with U tailing at

Baodong Chen; Per Roos; Yong-Guan Zhu; Iver Jakobsen

2008-01-01

455

MAIN ROTOR - TAIL ROTOR WAKE INTERACTION AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR HELICOPTER DIRECTIONAL CONTROL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerodynamic interference between the main and tail rotor can have a strong neg- ative influence on the flight mechanics of a conventional heli copter. Significant unsteadiness in the tail rotor loading is encountered under certain flight conditions, but the character of the unsteadiness can depend on the direction of rotation of the tail rotor. Numerical simulations, using Brown's Vorticity Transport

Timothy M. Fletcher; Richard E. Brown

2006-01-01

456

Enhancement of Mineral Carbonation of Various Ultramafic Mine Tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Capture of atmospheric CO2 in minerals to form magnesium and/or calcium carbonates is a process for permanent sequestration of CO2. Mineral carbonation occurs naturally in some ultramafic mining waste forming cemented crusts at surface, whereas reaction within the waste piles vents CO2-depleted air at the top of the piles. The purpose of this research is to kinetically enhance the mineral carbonation of different ultramafic mine tailings by addition of neutral organic salts and pH adjustments in order to reach a compromise between solubility of magnesium ions and carbonate precipitation. Real time monitoring of CO2 uptake at atmospheric conditions was performed using the Laval eudiometers, which allows calculation of the rate of the mineral carbonation reaction. Tests were conducted by varying the concentration of CO2 in the gas phase, the tailing water content and the material porosity to determine the optimal carbonation conditions. Subsequently, carbonation tests with different pH and various concentrations of organic salts (or chelate) such as sodium EDTA, sodium oxalate and sodium citrate were evaluated. Preliminary results indicate that CO2 reacts with the total mass of the sample and not only with the layer in contact with the gas phase. The water content for optimal carbonation reaction ranged from 20% and 60% according to the type of tailing investigated. Interstitial water is necessary as solvent for dissolution of Mg ions, but saturated pores reduce diffusion of CO2. A linear relationship was obtained between the CO2 concentration in the gas mixture and the CO2 absorption rate of the mine tailings. Increase of tailings porosity by addition of inert aluminum oxide enhances the carbonation reaction probably by facilitating CO2 diffusion in increased pore space. CO2 uptake was increased by 60% over distilled water, using a saturated solution of sodium citrate (1.5 M) and NaHCO3, by 14 to 19% using a saturated solution of sodium EDTA (0.2 M) and NaHCO3 and by 3 to 4% for a saturated solution of sodium oxalate (0.2 M) and NaHCO3. These data show that it is possible to significantly enhance the natural mineral carbonation reaction of various ultramafic mine tailings by adequate porosity, water content, increased CO2 concentration in air, and by adding chelating agents playing a role in Mg solubility at the surface of the Mg-rich minerals.

Tremblay, J.; Duchesne, J.; Beaudoin, G.; Constantin, M.; Hébert, R.; Larachi, F.; Lemieux, J.; Molson, J. W.

2011-12-01

457

Salmonid Whirling Disease  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Whirling disease is a parasitic infection of trout and salmon by the myxosporean protozoan Myxobolus cerebralis (Syn. Myxosoma cerebralis). This parasite has selective tropism for cartilage; infection can cause deformities of the axial skeleton and neural damage that results in 'blacktail.' The disease is named for the erratic, tail-chasing, 'whirling' in young fish that are startled or fed. Heavy infection of young fish can result in high mortalities or unmarketable, deformed individuals. Although the parasite was first reported in 1903 in central Europe (Hofer 1903), its complete life cycle was not described until the early 1980's.

Markiw, Maria E.

1992-01-01

458

Vertical Tail Buffeting Alleviation Using Piezoelectric Actuators - Some Results of the Actively Controlled Response of Buffet-Affected Tails (ACROBAT) Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buffeting is an aeroelastic phenomenon associated with high performance aircraft especially those with twin vertical tails. In particular, for the F\\/A-18 aircraft at high angles of attack, vortices emanating from wing\\/fuselage leading edge extensions burst, immersing the vertical tails in their wake. The resulting buffet loads on the vertical tails are a concern from fatigue and inspection points of view.

Robert W. Moses; Aeroelasticity Branch

1996-01-01

459

Trace metal and As solid-phase speciation in sulphide mine tailings – Indicators of spatial distribution of sulphide oxidation in active tailings impoundments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Redistribution of potentially harmful metals and As was studied based on selective extractions in two active sulphide mine tailings impoundments in Finland. The Hitura tailings area contains residue from Ni ore processing, while the Luikonlahti site includes tailings from the processing of Cu–Co–Zn–Ni and talc ores. To characterize the element solid-phase speciation with respect to sulphide oxidation intensity and the

Päivi M. Heikkinen; Marja L. Räisänen

2009-01-01

460

Comparison of the breeding biology of sympatric red-tailed Hawks, White-tailed Hawks, and Crested Caracaras in south Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared the breeding biology of sympatric nesting Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), White-tailed Hawks (Buteo albicaudatus), and Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway) in south Texas during 2003 and 2004. We monitored 46 breeding attempts by Red-tailed Hawks, 56 by White-tailed Hawks, and 27 by Crested Caracaras. Observed nesting success was similar for Red-tailed Hawks (62%) and Crested Caracaras (61%), but lower for White-tailed Hawks (51%). Daily survival rates (0.99) were the same for all three species. Red-tailed Hawks and White-tailed Hawks both fledged 1.13 young per nesting pair and Crested Caracaras fledged 1.39 young per nesting pair. All three species nested earlier in 2004 than in 2003; in addition, the overall nesting density of these three species almost doubled from 2003 (1.45 pairs/km2) to 2004 (2.71 pairs/km2). Estimated productivity of all three species was within the ranges reported from other studies. Given extensive and progressive habitat alteration in some areas of south Texas, and the limited distributions of White-tailed Hawks and Crested Caracaras, the presence of large ranches managed for free-range cattle production and hunting leases likely provides important habitat and may be key areas for conservation of these two species. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

Actkinson, M. A.; Kuvlesky, Jr. , W. P.; Boal, C. W.; Brennan, L. A.; Hernandez, F.

2009-01-01

461

Tidal Tales of Minor Mergers II: Comparing Star Formation in the Tidal Tails of NGC 2782  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While major mergers and their tidal debris are well studied, they are less common than minor mergers (mass ratios <0.3). The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a merger between two disk galaxies with a mass ratio of ~4:1 occurring 200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and HI rich, optically bright Eastern tail and an HI-rich, optically faint Western tail. Non-detection of CO in the Western Tail by Braine et al. 2000 suggested that star formation had not yet begun to occur in that tidal tail. However, deep UBVR and H alpha narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the Western tail. Comparing the two tails, we find that Western tail lacks massive star clusters. Using Herschel PACS spectrsocopy, we discover 158 micron [CII] emission at the location of the three most luminous H-alpha sources in the Eastern tail, but not at the location of the even brighter H-alpha source in the Western tail. The Western tail is found to have a normal star formation efficiency (SFE), but the Eastern tail has a low SFE. Due to the lack of both CO and [CII] emission, the Western tail HII region may have a low carbon abundance and be undergoing its first round of star formation. The Western tail is more efficient at forming stars, but lacks massive star clusters. We propose that the low SFE in the Eastern tail may be due to its formation as a splash region in the merger where gas heating is important even though it has sufficient molecular and neutral gas to make massive star forming regions. The Western tail, which has lower gas surface density and so does not form higher mass star clusters, is a tidally formed region where gravitational compression dominates and enhances the star formation.

Knierman, Karen A.; Scowen, P. A.; Veach, T.; Groppi, C. E.; Mullan, B. L.; Knezek, P.; Konstantopoulos, I.; Charlton, J. C.

2013-01-01

462

SHOCKING TAILS IN THE MAJOR MERGER ABELL 2744  

SciTech Connect

We identify four rare 'jellyfish' galaxies in Hubble Space Telescope imagery of the major merger cluster Abell 2744. These galaxies harbor trails of star-forming knots and filaments which have formed in situ in gas tails stripped from the parent galaxies, indicating they are in the process of being transformed by the environment. Further evidence for rapid transformation in these galaxies comes from their optical spectra, which reveal starburst, poststarburst, and active galactic nucleus features. Most intriguingly, three of the jellyfish galaxies lie near intracluster medium features associated with a merging 'Bullet-like' subcluster and its shock front detected in Chandra X-ray images. We suggest that the high-pressure merger environment may be responsible for the star formation in the gaseous tails. This provides observational evidence for the rapid transformation of galaxies during the violent core passage phase of a major cluster merger.

Owers, Matt S.; Couch, Warrick J. [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Nulsen, Paul E. J.; Randall, Scott W., E-mail: mowers@aao.gov.au [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2012-05-01

463

Head-Tail Instability of a Super-bunch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Super-bunch acceleration is a key concept in an induction synchrotron. In the induction synchrotron, super-bunches confined in the longitudinal direction by a pair of barrier voltages are accelerated with long induction step voltage pulses. Synchrotron oscillation of the super-bunch is notable, which consists of long drifting between the barriers and quick reflection in the barrier regions. This is apparently distinguished from that of the conventional RF bunch, which is the pendulum oscillation. This property has been supposed to bring about qualitatively different features in the head-tail instability of the super-bunch. Recently the head-tail instability of the super-bunch has been systematically examined. In this paper, the preliminary results of macro-particle simulations is reported.

Shimosaki, Yoshito; Toyama, Takeshi; Takayama, Ken

2005-06-01

464

OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS, ZINC BOXES, TANKS, AND TAILINGS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS, ZINC BOXES, TANKS, AND TAILINGS PILES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE LOWER TRAM TERMINAL AND MILL SITE IS AT TOP CENTER IN THE DISTANCE. THE DARK SPOT JUST BELOW THE TRAM TERMINAL ARE REMAINS OF THE DEWATERING BUILDING. THE MAIN ACCESS ROAD IS AT UPPER LEFT. THE FOUNDATIONS AT CENTER SUPPORTED SIX 25 FT. OR GREATER DIAMETER SETTLING TANKS WHERE TAILINGS FROM THE MILL SETTLED IN A CYANIDE SOLUTION IN ORDER TO RECLAIM ANY GOLD CONTENT. THE PREGNANT SOLUTION WAS THEN RUN THROUGH THE ZINC BOXES ON THE GROUND AT CENTER RIGHT, WHERE ZINC SHAVINGS WERE INTRODUCED, CAUSING THE GOLD TO PRECIPITATE OUT OF THE CYANIDE SOLUTION, WHICH COULD BE USED AGAIN. THE FLAT AREA IN THE FOREGROUND WITH THE TANK AND TANK HOOPS IS THE FOOTPRINT OF A LARGE BUILDING WHERE THE PRECIPITATION AND FURTHER FILTERING AND FINAL CASTING TOOK PLACE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

465

Geochemical modeling of cyanide in tailing dam gold processing plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research is aimed at investigating possible neutralization of cyanide in tailing dam of Muteh gold processing plant in Isfahan, Iran at various conditions such as pH and temperature using USEPA Visual MINTEQ geochemical model simulation. The model is based on geochemical equilibrium which uses the simultaneous solution of the non-linear mass action expressions and linear mass balance relationships to formulate and solve the multiple-component chemical equilibrium problems. In this study the concentration of aqueous species in tailing dam as an aqueous, solid and gaseous were used as input in the model. Temperature and pH variation were simulated. The results of the model indicated that cyanide may be complexes in 10 < pH < 5. In other pH values complexation is not important. The results also indicated that cyanide reduction mechanism in acidic pH and temperature above 30°C is due to cyanide acid formation which is vaporized.

Khodadadi, Ahmad; Monjezi, M.; Mehrpouya, H.; Dehghani, H.

2009-09-01

466

Cytoplasmic RNA: a case of the tail wagging the dog.  

PubMed

The addition of poly(A) tails to eukaryotic nuclear mRNAs promotes their stability, export to the cytoplasm and translation. Subsequently, the balance between exonucleolytic deadenylation and selective re-establishment of translation-competent poly(A) tails by cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerases is essential for the appropriate regulation of gene expression from oocytes to neurons. In recent years, surprising roles for cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerase-related enzymes that add uridylyl, rather than adenylyl, residues to RNA 3' ends have also emerged. These terminal uridylyl transferases promote the turnover of certain mRNAs but also modify microRNAs, their precursors and other small RNAs to modulate their stability or biological functions. PMID:23989958

Norbury, Chris J

2013-08-29

467

Tail Catcher Muon Tracker For The CALICE Test Beam  

SciTech Connect

Results on the construction and commissioning of the CALICE Tail-catcher/Muon Tracker (TCMT) are presented. The {approx}1 m3 prototype uses extruded scintillating strips mated to silicon-photomultipliers and is located behind the CALICE hadron calorimeter. The TCMT will provide a snapshot of the tail end of hadron showers, which is crucial to the validation of hadronic Monte Carlo. It will also serve as a prototype muon system for any Linear Collider Detector (ILC) and will facilitate studies of muon tracking and identification within the particle flow reconstruction framework. Additionally, the TCMT will provide valuable practical experience with hadronic leakage and punch-through from thin calorimeters, as are envisaged for the ILC detector, and the impact of the coil in correcting for this leakage.

Dyshkant, Alexander [Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States)

2006-10-27

468

Nature and fate of oil sands fine tailings  

SciTech Connect

The chemical and physical properties of clay suspensions produced during oil production front oil sands are described. With a composition of approximately 70 wt% water (with some unrecovered bitumen) and 30 wt% solids (>90% less than 44 {mu}m in size), these clay suspensions consolidate very slowly. Clay aggregate or floc morphology has been shown to be a function of the water chemistry and can be manipulated to produce a tailings suspension that is easier to consolidate and dewater. Commercial oil sands processing has been going on in northeastern Alberta since 1967, and in that time approximately 250 million m of this difficult to dewater clay suspension has been produced. The reclamation options for this material (mature fine tailings) on a commercial scale are also outlined. 84 refs., 36 figs., 3 tabs.

Mikula, R.J.; Kasperski, K.L. [Western Research Centre, Devon, Alberta (Canada); Burns, R.D. [Suncor Oil Sands Group, Alberta (Canada); MacKinnon, M.D. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

1996-12-31

469

The Urbach tail in silica glass from first principles  

SciTech Connect

We present density-functional theory calculations of the optical absorption spectra of silica glass for temperatures up to 2400K. The calculated spectra exhibit exponential tails near the fundamental absorption edge that follow the Urbach rule, in quantitative agreement with experiments. We discuss the accuracy of our results by comparing to hybrid exchange correlation functionals. We derive a simple relationship between the exponential tails of the absorption coefficient and the electronic density-of-states, and thereby establish a direct link between the photoemission and the absorption spectra near the absorption edge. We use this relationship to determine the lower bound to the Urbach frequency regime. We show that in this frequency interval, the optical absorption is Poisson distributed with very large statistical fluctuations. We determine the upper bound to the Urbach frequency regime by identifying the frequency at which transition to Poisson distribution takes place.

Sadigh, B; Erhart, P; Aberg, D; Trave, A; Schwegler, E; Bude, J

2010-06-15

470

Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project 1993 Environmental Report  

SciTech Connect

This annual report documents the Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project environmental monitoring and protection program. The UMTRA Project routinely monitors radiation, radioactive residual materials, and hazardous constituents at associated former uranium tailings processing sites and disposal sites. At the end of 1993, surface remedial action was complete at 10 of the 24 designated UMTRA Project processing sites. In 1993 the UMTRA Project office revised the UMTRA Project Environmental Protection Implementation Plan, as required by the US DOE. Because the UMTRA Project sites are in different stages of remedial action, the breadth of the UMTRA environmental protection program differs from site to site. In general, sites actively undergoing surface remedial action have the most comprehensive environmental programs for sampling media. At sites where surface remedial action is complete and at sites where remedial action has not yet begun, the environmental program consists primarily of surface water and ground water monitoring to support site characterization, baseline risk assessments, or disposal site performance assessments.

Not Available

1994-10-01

471