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1

Velocity field measurements in tailings dam failure experiments using a combined PIV-PTV approach  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tailings dams are built to impound mining waste, also called tailings, which consists of a mixture of fine-sized sediments and water contaminated with some hazardous chemicals used for extracting the ore by leaching. Non-Newtonian flow of sediment-water mixture resulting from a failure of tailings d...

2

FORMATION AND FAILURE OF NATURAL DAMS.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Of the numerous kinds of dams that form by natural processes, dams formed from landslides, glacial ice, and late-neoglacial moraines present the greatest threat to people and property. Landslide dams form a wide range of physiographic settings. The most common types of mass movements that form landslide dams are rock and debris avalanches; rock and soil slumps and slides; and mud, debris, and earth flows. The most common initiation mechanisms for dam-forming landslides are excessive rainfall and snowmelt and earthquakes. Natural dams may cause upstream flooding as the lake rises and downstream flooding as a result of failure of the dam. Although data are few, for the same potential energy at the dam site, downstream flood peaks from the failure of glacier-ice dams are smaller than those from landslide, moraine, and constructed earth-fill and rock-fill dam failures.

Costa, John E.; Schuster, Robert L.

1988-01-01

3

12. Credit PED. View of tail race and dam showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Credit PED. View of tail race and dam showing dumping of construction rubble into river bed by rail car; and preparations for pouring a concrete cap onto tail race wall. Photo c. 1909. - Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Plant, Potomac River, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV

4

Dam Failure Inundation Map Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the end of the first year, we remain on schedule. Property owners were identified and contacted for land access purposes. A prototype software package has been completed and was demonstrated to the Division of Land and Natural Resources (DLNR), National Weather Service (NWS) and Pacific Disaster Center (PDC). A field crew gathered data and surveyed the areas surrounding two dams in Waimea. (A field report is included in the annual report.) Data sensitivity analysis was initiated and completed. A user's manual has been completed. Beta testing of the software was initiated, but not completed. The initial TNK and property owner data collection for the additional test sites on Oahu and Kauai have been initiated.

Johnson, Carl; Iokepa, Judy; Dahlman, Jill; Michaud, Jene; Paylor, Earnest (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

5

Environmental Risk Assessment System for Phosphogypsum Tailing Dams  

PubMed Central

This paper may be of particular interest to the readers as it provides a new environmental risk assessment system for phosphogypsum tailing dams. In this paper, we studied the phosphogypsum tailing dams which include characteristics of the pollution source, environmental risk characteristics and evaluation requirements to identify the applicable environmental risk assessment methods. Two analytical methods, that is, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy logic, were used to handle the complexity of the environmental and nonquantitative data. Using our assessment method, different risk factors can be ranked according to their contributions to the environmental risk, thereby allowing the calculation of their relative priorities during decision making. Thus, environmental decision-makers can use this approach to develop alternative management strategies for proposed, ongoing, and completed PG tailing dams. PMID:24382947

Sun, Xin; Tang, Xiaolong; Yi, Honghong; Li, Kai; Zhou, Lianbi; Xu, Xianmang

2013-01-01

6

Environmental risk assessment system for phosphogypsum tailing dams.  

PubMed

This paper may be of particular interest to the readers as it provides a new environmental risk assessment system for phosphogypsum tailing dams. In this paper, we studied the phosphogypsum tailing dams which include characteristics of the pollution source, environmental risk characteristics and evaluation requirements to identify the applicable environmental risk assessment methods. Two analytical methods, that is, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy logic, were used to handle the complexity of the environmental and nonquantitative data. Using our assessment method, different risk factors can be ranked according to their contributions to the environmental risk, thereby allowing the calculation of their relative priorities during decision making. Thus, environmental decision-makers can use this approach to develop alternative management strategies for proposed, ongoing, and completed PG tailing dams. PMID:24382947

Sun, Xin; Ning, Ping; Tang, Xiaolong; Yi, Honghong; Li, Kai; Zhou, Lianbi; Xu, Xianmang

2013-01-01

7

1. VIEW OF THE MILL TAILINGS FACING NORTHWEST. SEDIMENT DAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF THE MILL TAILINGS FACING NORTHWEST. SEDIMENT DAM AND POND IN THE FOREGROUND, AND WATER PUMP (FEATURE B-25) ON THE LOWER RIGHT SIDE OF PHOTO. - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

8

The geomorphic influences of beaver dams and failures of beaver dams  

E-print Network

The geomorphic influences of beaver dams and failures of beaver dams David R. Butlera,T, George P Abstract Uncounted millions of beaver ponds and dams existed in North America prior to European contact of sediment that would otherwise have passed through the fluvial system. Removal of beavers by overtrapping

9

Application to monitoring of tailings dam based on 3D laser scanning technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presented a new method of monitoring of tailing dam based on 3D laser scanning technology and gave the method flow of acquiring and processing the tailing dam data. Taking the measured data for example, the author analyzed the dam deformation by generating the TIN, DEM and the curvature graph, and proved that it's feasible to global monitor the

Fang Ren; Aiwu Zhang

2011-01-01

10

Analysis of seismic disaster failure mechanism and dam-break simulation of high arch dam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on a Chinese national high arch dam located in a meizoseismal region, a nonlinear numerical analysis model of the damage and failure process of a dam-foundation system is established by employing a 3-D deformable distinct element code (3DEC) and its re-development functions. The proposed analysis model considers the dam-foundation-reservoir coupling effect, influence of nonlinear contact in the opening and closing of the dam seam surface and abutment rock joints during strong earthquakes, and radiation damping of far field energy dissipation according to the actual workability state of an arch dam. A safety assessment method and safety evaluation criteria is developed to better understand the arch dam system disaster process from local damage to ultimate failure. The dynamic characteristics, disaster mechanism, limit bearing capacity and the entire failure process of a high arch dam under a strong earthquake are then analyzed. Further, the seismic safety of the arch dam is evaluated according to the proposed evaluation criteria and safety assessment method. As a result, some useful conclusions are obtained for some aspects of the disaster mechanism and failure process of an arch dam. The analysis method and conclusions may be useful in engineering practice.

Zhang, Jingkui; Zhang, Liaojun

2014-06-01

11

Dams and Dam Failure - Module 2: St. Venant Equations, Modeling, and Case Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This second module in the two-part series expands on the science explaining catastrophic dam failure and flood-wave prediction methods associated with these events. Through the use of rich illustrations and interactions, this module introduces the St. Venant equations for dynamic wave flow, and flood wave characteristics. It also explains the general dam failure modeling process along with advantages and limitations of dam failure models including model stability, accuracy, and sensitivity issues. Finally, it also provides an overview of the Teton River dam failure, one of the most famous hydrologic events in U.S. history. The two modules that comprise this series are designed to be taken consecutively and together provide a fundamental understanding of this complex hydrologic topic.

COMET

2008-08-25

12

IMPROVEMENT IN THE STABILIY OF UPSTREAM METHOD PHOSPHATE TAILINGS DAMS WITH ROCK FILL SHELLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upstream method tailings dam c onstruction has been used throughout the world as an economic method for containm ent of slurry deposited tailin gs waste as hydraulic fill. These types of dams can be engineered to be stable in low seis micity zones of the world with c ontrol of the water pool away from the dam limits. Upstream method

ALLAN J. BREITENBACH

13

Dynamic model failure tests of dam structures Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China  

E-print Network

Dynamic model failure tests of dam structures Gao Lin Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China ABSTRACT: For the earthquake safety evaluation of dam structures, it is desirable to extend failure tests of a number of concrete gravity dams, concrete arch dams and embankment dams have been

Spencer Jr., B.F.

14

Analysis of Dam Failure in the Saluda River February 8, 2005  

E-print Network

Analysis of Dam Failure in the Saluda River Valley February 8, 2005 Abstract We identify and model two possible failure modes for the Saluda Dam: gradual failure due to an enlarging breach and sudden catas- trophic failure due to liqui#12;cation of the dam. For the #12;rst case we de- scribe the breach

Morrow, James A.

15

Signature of Rhine Valley sturzstrom dam failures in Holocene sediments of Lake Constance, Germany  

E-print Network

Signature of Rhine Valley sturzstrom dam failures in Holocene sediments of Lake Constance, Germany 4 November 2003; received in revised form 12 April 2004; accepted 26 April 2004 Abstract Landslide-dammed that the hyperpycnite deposits are directly related to the failure of two sturzstrom dams and the draining of the dammed

Gilli, Adrian

16

Late Pleistocene earthquake-triggered moraine dam failure and outburst of Lake Zurich, Switzerland  

E-print Network

Late Pleistocene earthquake-triggered moraine dam failure and outburst of Lake Zurich, Switzerland hazardous in glaciated areas throughout the world because dams can fail suddenly producing destructive of $20,600 m3 sÀ1 . We also discuss long-term causes and short-term trigger mechanisms of the dam failure

Gilli, Adrian

17

On the liquefaction failure of an earth dam  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to better assess the potential for sliding and liquefaction failure of earthen dams when subjected to earthquake loadings, a dynamic finite element approach focusing on these two failure mechanisms as well as on the vital role of the pore water pressure was undertaken. The constitutive response of the granular soil skeleton and its coupling with the fluid phase is formulated based on the Blot dynamic equations of motion. The constitutive model for the soil material was assumed to be linear with nonlinear terms included in the hysteretic damping terms. Despite the linear character of this theoretical model, one can still draw important conclusions regarding the stability and the liquefaction resistance of the cross-section. As an example, a hypothetical earth dam constructed over a saturated soil layer was considered. The steady state conditions of in-situ stress and pore pressure distributions in both the embankment and the foundation are evaluated and implemented in the stability and liquefaction criteria in conjunction with the dynamic analysis. The latter is carried out in the frequency domain and it reflects the response of the dam-foundation system to a seismic excitation. The computational aspect of the study is performed with finite element analysis. A transmitting boundary formulation for the two phase material was used to treat the infinite space problem. It is anticipated that the intensity of the earthquake input and certain soil properties have a profound effect on the failure susceptibility of the dam section. To address the uncertainties regarding the true values of such parameters, the analysis considered them parametrically.

Simos, N.; Reich, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Costantino, C.J. [City Coll., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1993-12-01

18

Dynamic decision making for dam-break emergency management - Part 2: Application to Tangjiashan landslide dam failure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tangjiashan landslide dam, which was triggered by the Ms = 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 in China, threatened 1.2 million people downstream of the dam. All people in Beichuan Town 3.5 km downstream of the dam and 197 thousand people in Mianyang City 85 km downstream of the dam were evacuated 10 days before the breaching of the dam. Making such an important decision under uncertainty was difficult. This paper applied a dynamic decision-making framework for dam-break emergency management (DYDEM) to help rational decision in the emergency management of the Tangjiashan landslide dam. Three stages are identified with different levels of hydrological, geological and social-economic information along the timeline of the landslide dam failure event. The probability of dam failure is taken as a time series. The dam breaching parameters are predicted with a set of empirical models in stage 1 when no soil property information is known, and a physical model in stages 2 and 3 when knowledge of soil properties has been obtained. The flood routing downstream of the dam in these three stages is analyzed to evaluate the population at risk (PAR). The flood consequences, including evacuation costs, flood damage and monetized loss of life, are evaluated as functions of warning time using a human risk analysis model based on Bayesian networks. Finally, dynamic decision analysis is conducted to find the optimal time to evacuate the population at risk with minimum total loss in each of these three stages.

Peng, M.; Zhang, L. M.

2013-02-01

19

Design, construction and management of tailings storage facilities for surface disposal in China: case studies of failures.  

PubMed

Rapid development of China's economy demands for more mineral resources. At the same time, a vast quantity of mine tailings, as the waste byproduct of mining and mineral processing, is being produced in huge proportions. Tailings impoundments play an important role in the practical surface disposal of these large quantities of mining waste. Historically, tailings were relatively small in quantity and had no commercial value, thus little attention was paid to their disposal. The tailings were preferably discharged near the mines and few tailings storage facilities were constructed in mainland China. This situation has significantly changed since 2000, because the Chinese economy is growing rapidly and Chinese regulations and legislation require that tailings disposal systems must be ready before the mining operation begins. Consequently, data up to 2008 shows that more than 12 000 tailings storage facilities have been built in China. This paper reviews the history of tailings disposal in China, discusses three cases of tailings dam failures and explores failure mechanisms, and the procedures commonly used in China for planning, design, construction and management of tailings impoundments. This paper also discusses the current situation, shortcomings and key weaknesses, as well as future development trends for tailings storage facilities in China. PMID:23064963

Wei, Zuoan; Yin, Guangzhi; Wang, J G; Wan, Ling; Li, Guangzhi

2013-01-01

20

Data collection and documentation of flooding downstream of a dam failure in Mississippi  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On March 12, 2004, the Big Bay Lake dam failed, releasing water and affecting lives and property downstream in southern Mississippi. The dam is located near Purvis, Mississippi, on Bay Creek, which flows into Lower Little Creek about 1.9 miles downstream from the dam. Lower Little Creek flows into Pearl River about 16.9 miles downstream from the dam. Knowledge of the hydrology and hydraulics of floods caused by dam breaks is essential to the design of dams. A better understanding of the risks associated with possible dam failures may help limit the loss of life and property that often occurs downstream of a dam failure. The USGS recovered flood marks at the one crossing of Bay Creek and eight crossings of Lower Little Creek. Additional flood marks were also flagged at three other bridges crossing tributaries where backwater occurred. Flood marks were recovered throughout the stream reach of about 3/4 to 15 miles downstream of the dam. Flood marks that were flagged will be surveyed so that a flood profile can be documented downstream of the Big Bay Lake dam failure. Peak discharges are also to be estimated where possible. News reports stated that the peak discharge at the dam was about 67,000 cubic feet per second. Preliminary data suggest the peak discharge from the dam failure attenuated to about 13,000 cubic feet per second at Lower Little Creek at State Highway 43, about 15 miles downstream of the dam.

Van Wilson, Jr., K.

2005-01-01

21

Uncertainty analysis of river flooding and dam failure risks using local sensitivity computations.  

E-print Network

Uncertainty analysis of river flooding and dam failure risks using local sensitivity computations) for uncertainty analysis with respect to two major types of risk in river hydrodynamics: flash flood and dam estimates for output mean and than 4.5% for output standard deviation. For the challenging dam-break problem

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

22

A New Method for System Reliability Analysis of Tailings Dam Stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the purpose of stability evaluation, a tailings dam can be considered as an artificial slope made of special soil materials which mainly come from mine tailings. As a particular engineering project, a tailings dam generally has experienced multi-loop hydraulic sediments as well as a long-term consolidation in the process of construction. The characteristics of sediment and consolidation result in a unique distribution of the soil layers with significant uncertainties, which come from both nature development and various human activities, and thus cause the discrete and the variability of the physical-mechanical properties dramatically greater than the natural geo-materials. Therefore, the location of critical slip surface (CSS) of the dam usually presents a notable drift. So, it means that the reliability evaluation task for a tailings dam is a system reliability problem indeed. Unfortunately, the previous research of reliability of tailings dam was mainly confined to the limit equilibrium method (LEM), which has three obvious drawbacks. First, it just focused on the variability along the slip surface rather than the whole space of the dam. Second, a fixed CSS, instead of variable one, was concerned in most cases. Third, the shape of the CSS was usually simplified to a circular. The present paper tried to construct a new reliability analysis model combined with several advanced techniques involving finite difference method (FDM), Monte Carlo simulation (MCS), support vector machine (SVM) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). The new framework was consisted of four modules. The first one is the limit equilibrium finite difference mode, which employed the FLAC3D code to generate stress fields and then used PSO algorithm to search the location of CSS and corresponding minimum factor of safety (FOS). The most value of this module was that each realization of stress field would lead to a particular CSS and its FOS. In other words, the consideration of the drift of CSS was significant to system reliability analysis. Besides, the CSS was described with non-circular shape, which was much more superior to the circular one. Moreover, compare with the LEM, the numerical method has the ability to reflect the variability in a whole space of the dam. The second one is the orthogonal design modules aimed to generate high-quality training samples according to the variability of soil layers. The third one is the response surface model based on SVM, which was designed to obtain the explicit performance function through the well-prepared training samples. The fourth one is the MCS model, which can perform steady and effective reliability analysis through the explicit performance function. As a result, a new approach for reliability analysis of tailings dam stability was presented. As a case study, the Yong-ping Copper Mine Tailings Dam in Jiangxi Province of China was analyzed in detail by this new method. It was shown that the effectiveness of the new method is considerable. In sum, this research is geared towards providing new ideas and available examples for future reliability assessment of tailings dam stability.

Liu, X.; Tang, H.; Xiong, C.; Ni, W.

2012-12-01

23

RISK-BASED EVALUATION OF OPERATING RESTRICTIONS TO REDUCE THE RISK OF EARTHQUAKE-INDUCED DAM FAILURE  

E-print Network

RISK-BASED EVALUATION OF OPERATING RESTRICTIONS TO REDUCE THE RISK OF EARTHQUAKE-INDUCED DAM and consequences of an Earthquake-induced dam failure. The potential for both a sudden overtopping failure on the seismic performance of the dam, the potential life loss and economic consequences of Earthquake

Bowles, David S.

24

SPILL ALERT DEVICE FOR EARTH DAM FAILURE WARNING  

EPA Science Inventory

A spill alert device for determining earth dam safety based on the monitoring of the acoustic emissions generated in a deforming soil mass was developed and field-tested. The acoustic emissions are related to the basic mechanisms from which soils derive their strength. Laboratory...

25

The 27 May 1937 catastrophic flow failure of gold tailings at Tlalpujahua, Michoacán, México  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 27 May 1937, after one week of sustained heavy rainfall, a voluminous flood caused the death of at least 300 people and the destruction of the historic El Carmen church and several neighborhoods in the mining region of Tlalpujahua, Michoacán, central Mexico. This destructive flood was triggered by the breaching of the impoundment of the Los Cedros tailings and the sudden release of 16 Mt of water-saturated waste materials. The muddy silty flood, moving at estimated speeds of 20-25 m s-1, was channelized along the Dos Estrellas and Tlalpujahua drainages and devastated everything along its flow path. After advancing 2.5 km downstream, the flood slammed into El Carmen church and surrounding houses at estimated speeds of ~7 m s-1, destroying many of construction walls and covering the church floor with ~2 m of mud and debris. Eyewitness accounts and newspaper articles, together with analysis of archived photographic materials, indicated that the flood consisted of three muddy pulses. This interpretation is confirmed and extended by the results of our geological investigations during 2013 and 2014. Stratigraphic relations and granulometric data for selected proximal and distal samples show that the flood behaved as a hyperconcentrated flow along most of its trajectory. Even though premonitory signs of possible impoundment failure were reported days before the flood, and people living downstream were alerted, authorities ordered no evacuations or other mitigative actions. The catastrophic flood at Tlalpujahua provides a well-documented, though tragic, example of impoundment breaching of a tailings dam caused by the combined effects of intense rainfall, dam weakness, and inadequate emergency-management protocols - unfortunately an all too common case-scenario for most of the world's mining regions.

Macías, J. L.; Corona-Chávez, P.; Sanchéz-Núñez, J. M.; Martínez-Medina, M.; Garduño-Monroy, V. H.; García-Tenorio, F.; Cisneros-Máximo, G.

2014-08-01

26

Estimating Overall Risk of Dam Failure: Practical Considerations in Combining Failure Probabilities ANCOLD 2003 Risk Workshop Page 1  

E-print Network

for a specific loading condition (e.g. earthquake, flood or normal operating). The majority of risk evaluation and therefore the individual probabilities estimated for different components and loading conditions need probabilities estimated for different dam sections or components, failure modes and loading conditions need

Bowles, David S.

27

The potential for catastrophic dam failure at Lake Nyos maar, Cameroon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The upper 40 m of Lake Nyos is bounded on the north by a narrow dam of poorly consolidated pyroclastic rocks, emplaced during the eruptive formation of the Lake Nyos maar a few hundred years ago. This 50-m-wide natural dam is structurally weak and is being eroded at an uncertain, but geologically alarming, rate. The eventual failure of the dam could cause a major flood (estimated peak discharge, 17000 m3/s) that would have a tragic impact on downstream areas as far as Nigeria, 108 km away. This serious hazard could be eliminated by lowering the lake level, either by controlled removal of the dam or by construction of a 680-m-long drainage tunnel about 65 m below the present lake surface. Either strategy would also lessen the lethal effects of future massive CO2 gas releases, such as the one that occurred in August 1986. ?? 1988 Springer-Verlag.

Lockwood, J.P.; Costa, J.E.; Tuttle, M.L.; Nni, J.; Tebor, S.G.

1988-01-01

28

Seismic analysis of the Par Pond Dam: Study of slope failure and liquefaction. Technical evaluation report  

SciTech Connect

Stability concerns of the Par Pond Dam, an embankment structure in the Savannah River Site complex, resulted in a comprehensive evaluation of the state of its integrity. Specifically, excessive seepage through the embankment, slope failure due to an earthquake event as well as liquefaction potential of the embankment and the foundation are addressed and the potential of failure is evaluated. Lastly, remedial benefits of the addition of a berm structure are also assessed.

Simos, N.; Reich, M.

1994-07-01

29

Dams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through eight lessons, students are introduced to many facets of dams, including their basic components, the common types (all designed to resist strong forces), their primary benefits (electricity generation, water supply, flood control, irrigation, recreation), and their importance (historically, currently and globally). Through an introduction to kinetic and potential energy, students come to understand how dams generate electricity. They learn about the structure, function and purpose of locks, which involves an introduction to Pascal's law, water pressure and gravity. Other lessons introduce students to common environmental impacts of dams and the engineering approaches to address them. They learn about the life cycle of salmon and the many engineered dam structures that aid in their river passage, as they think of their own methods and devices that could help fish migrate past dams. Students learn how dams and reservoirs become part of the Earth's hydrologic cycle, focusing on the role of evaporation. To conclude, students learn that dams do not last forever; they require ongoing maintenance, occasionally fail or succumb to "old age," or are no longer needed, and are sometimes removed. Through associated hands-on activities, students track their personal water usage; use clay and plastic containers to model and test four types of dam structures; use paper cups and water to learn about water pressure and Pascal's Law; explore kinetic energy by creating their own experimental waterwheel from two-liter plastic bottles; collect and count a stream's insects to gauge its health; play an animated PowerPoint game to quiz their understanding of the salmon life cycle and fish ladders; run a weeklong experiment to measure water evaporation and graph their data; and research eight dams to find out and compare their original purposes, current status, reservoir capacity and lifespan. Woven throughout the unit is a continuing hypothetical scenario in which students act as consulting engineers with a Splash Engineering firm, assisting Thirsty County in designing a dam for Birdseye River.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

30

REPORT ON WORKSHOP ON ISSUES, RESOLUTIONS, AND RESEARCH NEEDS RELATED TO EMBANKMENT DAM FAILURE ANALYSIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper summarizes the purpose, methodology, and outcomes of the June 2001 USDA/FEMA Workshop on Issues, Resolutions, and Research Needs Related to Embankment Dam Failure Analysis. The purpose of this workshop was to determine state of the practice, identify short-term and long-term research nee...

31

DAM Safety and Deformation Monitoring in Dams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is the life and necessity to water is increasing day by day with respect to the World population, rising of living standards and destruction of nature. Thus, the importance of water and water structures have been increasing gradually. Dams are among the most important engineering structures used for water supplies, flood controls, agricultural purposes as well as drinking and hydroelectric power. There are about 150.000 large size dams in the World. Especially after the Second World War, higher and larger capacity dams have been constructed. Dams create certain risks like the other manmade structures. No one knows precisely how many dam failures have occurred in the World, whereas hundreds of dam failures have occurred throughout the U.S. history. Some basic physical data are very important for assessing the safety and performance of dams. These are movement, water pressure, seepage, reservoir and tail-water elevations, local seismic activities, total pressure, stress and strain, internal concrete temperature, ambient temperature and precipitation. These physical data are measured and monitored by the instruments and equipment. Dams and their surroundings have to be monitored by using essential methods at periodic time intervals in order to determine the possible changes that may occur over the time. Monitoring programs typically consist of; surveillance or visual observation. These programs on dams provide information for evaluating the dam's performance related to the design intent and expected changes that could affect the safety performance of the dam. Additionally, these programs are used for investigating and evaluating the abnormal or degrading performance where any remedial action is necessary. Geodetic and non-geodetic methods are used for monitoring. Monitoring the performance of the dams is critical for producing and maintaining the safe dams. This study provides some information, safety and the techniques about the deformation monitoring of the dams. Therefore, this study gives essential information about the dam safety and related analysis. Monitoring of dams is crucial since deformation might have occurred as a result of erosion, water load, hydraulic gradients, and water saturation. The case study is the deformation measurements of Ataturk Dam. This dam was constructed on Firat River and it has importance for providing drinking water, hydroelectric power and especially irrigation. In addition, brief information is given about this dam and the methods of geodetic and non-geodetic monitoring measurements applied by various disciplines. Geodetic monitoring methods are emphasized in this study. Some results have been obtained from this method for nearly seven years are presented in this work. In addition, some deformation predictions have been made especially for the cross sections where the maximum deformations took place.

Kalkan, Y.; Bilgi, S.; Potts, L.; Miiama, J.; Mahgoub, M.; Rahman, S.

2013-12-01

32

Potential Flood Elevations and Economic Losses after a Catastrophic Dam Failure-- Remote Sensing Lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This remote sensing lesson from iGETT uses the example of flood elevations and a potential dam failure to give students experience using ArcGIS, ENVI and HAZUS-MH technologies. The lesson uses GIS and remote sensing technologies in the context of emergency preparedness and response planning. This lesson from iGETT includes a learning unit summary, instructor and student guides, support documents and a series of data files. A quick, free registration is required to view or download any of the materials.

33

Moraine-dammed lake failures in Patagonia and assessment of outburst susceptibility in the Baker Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glacier retreat since the Little Ice Age has resulted in the development or expansion of hundreds of glacial lakes in Patagonia. Some of these lakes have produced large (?106 m3) Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) damaging inhabited areas. GLOF hazard studies in Patagonia have been mainly based on the analysis of short-term series (?50 years) of flood data and until now no attempt has been made to identify the relative susceptibility of lakes to failure. Power schemes and associated infrastructure are planned for Patagonian basins that have historically been affected by GLOFs, and we now require a thorough understanding of the characteristics of dangerous lakes in order to assist with hazard assessment and planning. In this paper, the conditioning factors of 16 outbursts from moraine dammed lakes in Patagonia were analysed. These data were used to develop a classification scheme designed to assess outburst susceptibility, based on image classification techniques, flow routine algorithms and the Analytical Hierarchy Process. This scheme was applied to the Baker Basin, Chile, where at least 7 moraine-dammed lakes have failed in historic time. We identified 386 moraine-dammed lakes in the Baker Basin of which 28 were classified with high or very high outburst susceptibility. Commonly, lakes with high outburst susceptibility are in contact with glaciers and have moderate (>8°) to steep (>15°) dam outlet slopes, akin to failed lakes in Patagonia. The proposed classification scheme is suitable for first-order GLOF hazard assessments in this region. However, rapidly changing glaciers in Patagonia make detailed analysis and monitoring of hazardous lakes and glaciated areas upstream from inhabited areas or critical infrastructure necessary, in order to better prepare for hazards emerging from an evolving cryosphere.

Iribarren Anacona, P.; Norton, K. P.; Mackintosh, A.

2014-07-01

34

Evaluation of heavy metal bio-availability from Almagrera pyrite-rich tailings dam (Iberian Pyrite Belt, SW Spain) based on a sequential extraction procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beginning of polymetallic sulphide ore exploitation at Almagrera, Iberian Pyrite Belt, SW Spain, has been dated back to pre-Roman times; mining activity lasted until 2001 when it was definitely halted. The Almagrera sulphide tailings dam was built at the Sotiel–Coronada mine, where Cu, Zn and Pb concentrates were obtained by flotation processes, and sulphide (mainly pyrite) wastes formed. The

Antonio M. Álvarez-Valero; Reinaldo Sáez; Rafael Pérez-López; Joaquín Delgado; José M. Nieto

2009-01-01

35

Lessons from a Dam Failure1 JAMI;S E. EVANS, SCUDDKR D. MACKKY, JOHAN F. GOTTC.KNS, AND WILFRID M. GILL, Department of Geology, Bowling Green State  

E-print Network

Lessons from a Dam Failure1 JAMI;S E. EVANS, SCUDDKR D. MACKKY, JOHAN F. GOTTC.KNS, AND WILFRID M, OH 43606, and Enecotech Southwest, Inc., Phoenix, AZ 85004. ABSTRACT. The IVEX Dam (Chagrin River of the dam. The failure was the result of seepage piping at the toe of the dam, near the masonry spillway

Gottgens, Hans

36

REPORT ON THE OUTCOMES OF A WORKSHOP ON ISSUES, RESOLUTIONS, AND RESEARCH NEEDS RELATED TO EMBANKMENT DAM FAILURE ANALYSES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper summarizes the purpose, methodology, and outcomes of the June 2001 USDA/FEMA Workshop on Issues, Resolutions, and Research Needs Related to Embankment Dam Failure Analysis held in Oklahoma City, OK. The purpose of this workshop was to determine state of the practice, identify short-term ...

37

Atrophy and growth failure of rat hindlimb muscles in tail-cast suspension  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of the present study is related to an evaluation of a modified tail-cast suspension model as a means of identifying metabolic factors which control or are associated with muscle atrophy and growth failure. Two different control conditions (normal and tail-casted weight bearing) were studied to determine the appropriate control for tail-cast suspension. A description is presented of a model which is most useful for studying atrophy of hindlimb muscles under certain conditions. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were employed in the experiments. Attention is given to growth rate and urinary excretion of urea and ammonia in different types of rats, the relationship between body weight and skeletal muscle weight, and the relationship between animal body weight and rates of protein synthesis and protein degradation.

Jaspers, S. R.; Tischler, M. E.

1984-01-01

38

Cardiomyopathy and right-sided congestive heart failure in a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis).  

PubMed

A 15-year-old female red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) was evaluated because of dyspnea, anorexia, and coelomic distension. Diagnostic imaging results confirmed severe coelomic effusion and revealed a markedly dilated right ventricle. The diagnosis was right-sided congestive heart failure. Results of measurements of vitamin E, selenium, lead, zinc, and cardiac troponin levels were normal or nondiagnostic. The hawk was treated with furosemide, antifungal and antimicrobial agents, and supplemental fluids and oxygen, but euthanasia was elected because of the poor prognosis and the practical difficulties associated with intensive case management. To our knowledge, this is the first described case of cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure in a captive red-tailed hawk. PMID:21657185

Knafo, S Emmanuelle; Rapoport, Gregg; Williams, Jamie; Brainard, Benjamin; Driskell, Elizabeth; Uhl, Elizabeth; Crochik, Sonia; Divers, Stephen J

2011-03-01

39

Reconstructing western Grand Canyon's lava dams and their failure mechanisms: new insights from geochemical correlation and 40Ar/39Ar dating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New geochemical analyzes and 40Ar/39Ar dating of lava dam remnants allows for the more accurate reconstruction of the timing, extent, and structure of western Grand Canyon’s lava dams. Whole-rock major, trace, and rare-earth element (REE) analyzes on over 60 basaltic lava dam remnants, cascades, plugs, and basaltic alluvium, show compositional variation from basanites to alkali basalts to tholeiites. Whitmore Canyon flows, for example, are some of the only tholeiitic flows and have a distinguishable trace and REE composition, which allows for correlation of dam remnants. Over 30 new high-precision 40Ar/39Ar dates also aid in remnant correlation and establish a better-constrained sequence of intra-canyon lava dams. Reliable 40Ar/39Ar dates on western Grand Canyon’s intra-canyon basalts range from ca. 100 ka to 840 ka (new date). The best understood lava dam formed from tholeiitic flows that erupted on the north rim, flowed down Whitmore side canyon and blocked a 6-km-long reach of the Grand Canyon. The youngest of these flows is unique because we know its age (200ka), its composition (tholeiitic), and the exact area where it entered Grand Canyon. The highest flow in the resulting dam, Whitmore Cascade, is capped with very coarse basaltic alluvium that previous workers have attributed to an upstream catastrophic dam failure event at about 200 ka. However, strong similarities between the geochemistry and age of the alluvium with the underlying Whitmore Cascade flow suggest that the alluvial deposit is related to failure of the 200 ka Whitmore Cascade dam itself. Similarly the 100 ka Upper Gray Ledge flow is commonly overlain by a balsaltic alluvium that is indistinguishable in terms of age and geochemistry from the underlying Upper Gray Ledge flow. These observations lead to a new model for Grand Canyon lava dams by which lava dams undergo multi-staged failure where the upstream parts of dams fail quickly (sometimes catastrophically) but downstream parts are longer lived because they undergo less interaction with river water and fracturing and generally fill dry portions of the river bed. Identification of far-traveled clasts on top of lava dam remnants in at least two locations supports the idea that the stable Colorado River established itself on top of the distal parts of some lava dams. Thus, whereas previous workers reported that deposits from outburst flood dam failure events exist in western grand canyon, our data identify specific dam failures and an interaction of catastrophic events at the head of lava dams and modified fluvial processes in distal portions of dams.

Crow, R.; Karlstrom, K. E.; McIntosh, W. C.; Peters, L.; Dunbar, N. W.

2010-12-01

40

Analysis of past and future dam formation and failure in the Santa Cruz River (San Juan province, Argentina)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Around 11.5 ? 106 m3 of rock detached from the eastern slope of the Santa Cruz valley (San Juan province, Argentina) in the first fortnight of January 2005. The rockslide-debris avalanche blocked the course, resulting in the development of a lake with maximum length of around 3.5 km. The increase in the inflow rate from 47,000-74,000 m3/d between April and October to 304,000 m3/d between late October and the first fortnight of November, accelerated the growing rate of the lake. On 12 November 2005 the dam failed, releasing 24.6 ? 106 m3 of water. The resulting outburst flood caused damages mainly on infrastructure, and affected the facilities of a hydropower dam which was under construction 250 km downstream from the source area. In this work we describe causes and consequences of the natural dam formation and failure, and we dynamically model the 2005 rockslide-debris avalanche with DAN3D. Additionally, as a volume ~ 24 ? 106 m3of rocks still remain unstable in the slope, we use the results of the back analysis to forecast the formation of a future natural dam. We analyzed two potential scenarios: a partial slope failure of 6.5 ? 106 m3 and a worst case where all the unstable volume remaining in the slope fails. The spreading of those potential events shows that a new blockage of the Santa Cruz River is likely to occur. According to their modeled morphometry and the contributing watershed upstream the blockage area, as the one of 2005, the dams would also be unstable. This study shows the importance of back and forward analysis that can be carried out to obtain critical information for land use planning, hazards mitigation, and emergency management.

Penna, Ivanna M.; Derron, Marc-Henri; Volpi, Michele; Jaboyedoff, Michel

2013-03-01

41

DAM OVERTOPPING RESEARCH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aging of the watershed dams and development within the watersheds that have created changes in watershed hydrology have increased the potential for dam overtopping. Development around the dam and reservoir may increase the consequences of associated dam failure and, combined with financial constrai...

42

Geochemistry of Mercury and other trace elements in fluvial tailings upstream of Daguerre Point Dam, Yuba River, California, August 2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study was designed to characterize the particle-size distribution and the concentrations of total mercury (HgT), methylmercury (MeHg), and other constituents in sediments trapped behind Daguerre Point Dam, a 28-foot-high structure on the lower Yuba River in California. The results of the study will assist other agencies in evaluating potential environmental impacts from mobilization of sediments if Daguerre Point Dam is modified or removed to improve the passage of anadromous fish. Methylmercury is of particular concern owing to its toxicity and propensity to bioaccumulate. A limited amount of recent work on hydraulic and dredge tailings in other watersheds has indicated that mercury and MeHg concentrations may be elevated in the fine-grained fractions of placer mining debris, particularly clay and silt. Mercury associated with tailings from placer gold mines is a source of continued contamination in Sierra Nevada watersheds and downstream water bodies, including the Sacramento?San Joaquin Delta and the San Francisco Bay of northern California. Churn drilling was used to recover sediments and heavy minerals at 5-foot intervals from six locations upstream of Daguerre Point Dam. Maximum depth of penetration ranged from 17.5 to 35 feet below land surface, resulting in 31 discreet drilled intervals. Drilling in permeable, unconsolidated sediments below the streambed of the Yuba River released a significant volume of water along with the sediment, which complicated the sampling and characterization effort. Overflow of a silty fraction sampled at the drill site contained suspended sediment consisting predominantly of silt and clay, with HgT concentration ranging from 33 to 1,100 ng/g (nanogram per gram) dry weight. A sandy fraction, collected after sieving sediment through a 2-millimeter vibratory screen, contained from 14 to 82 percent sand and 1 to 29 percent silt plus clay, and had HgT concentrations ranging from 6.8 to 81 ng/g dry weight. A clay-silt fraction, sampled from material remaining in suspension after the sandy fraction settled for 15-20 minutes, contained mercury concentrations from 23 to 370 ng/g dry weight. Concentrations of MeHg were less than the detection limit (<0.001 ng/g dry weight) in 30 of 31 samples of the sandy fraction. In the suspended clay-silt fraction, MeHg was detected in 16 of 31 samples, in which it ranged in concentration from 0.04 (estimated) to 0.61 ng/g wet weight. Potential rates of mercury methylation and demethylation were evaluated in seven samples using radiotracer methods. Mercury methylation (MeHg production) potentials were generally low, ranging from less than 0.15 to about 1.6 ng/g/d (nanogram per gram of dry sediment per day). Mercury demethylation (MeHg degradation) potentials were moderately high, ranging from 1.0 to 2.2 ng/g/d. The ratio of methylation potential (MP) to demethylation potential (DP) ranged from less than 0.14 to about 1.4 (median = 0.24, mean = 0.44, number of samples = 7), suggesting that the potential for net production of MeHg in deep sediments is generally low. The MeHg production rates and MP/DP ratios were higher in the shallower interval in two of the three holes where two depth intervals were assessed, whereas the MeHg concentrations were higher in the shallower interval for all three holes. A similar spatial distribution was found for concentrations of solid-phase sulfide (measured as total reduced sulfur and likely representing iron-sulfide and iron-disulfide compounds), which were much higher in shallower samples (about 700 to about 2,100 nanomoles per gram, dry sediment) than in deeper samples (32 to 55 nanomoles per gram, dry sediment) in these three holes. If reduced sulfur compounds are oxidized to sulfate as a consequence of sediment disturbance, the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria might be stimulated, causing a short-term increase in methylation of inorganic Hg(II) (divalent mercury). The extent of increased Hg(II)-methylation w

Hunerlach, Michael P.; Alpers, Charles N.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Taylor, Howard E.; DeWild, John F.

2004-01-01

43

Assessment of vegetation establishment on tailings dam at an iron ore mining site of suburban Beijing, China, 7 years after reclamation with contrasting site treatment methods.  

PubMed

Strip-mining operations greatly disturb soil, vegetation and landscape elements, causing many ecological and environmental problems. Establishment of vegetation is a critical step in achieving the goal of ecosystem restoration in mining areas. At the Shouyun Iron Ore Mine in suburban Beijing, China, we investigated selective vegetation and soil traits on a tailings dam 7 years after site treatments with three contrasting approaches: (1) soil covering (designated as SC), (2) application of a straw mat, known as "vegetation carpet", which contains prescribed plant seed mix and water retaining agent (designated as VC), on top of sand piles, and (3) combination of soil covering and application of vegetation carpet (designated as SC+VC). We found that after 7 years of reclamation, the SC+VC site had twice the number of plant species and greater biomass than the SC and VC sites, and that the VC site had a comparable plant abundance with the SC+VC site but much less biodiversity and plant coverage. The VC site did not differ with the SC site in the vegetation traits, albeit low soil fertility. It is suggested that application of vegetation carpet can be an alternative to introduction of topsoil for treatment of tailings dam with fine-structured substrate of ore sands. However, combination of topsoil treatment and application of vegetation carpet greatly increases vegetation coverage and plant biodiversity, and is therefore a much better approach for assisting vegetation establishment on the tailings dam of strip-mining operations. While application of vegetation carpet helps to stabilize the loose surface of fine-structured mine wastes and to introduce seed bank, introduction of fertile soil is necessary for supplying nutrients to plant growth in the efforts of ecosystem restoration of mining areas. PMID:23811774

Yan, Demin; Zhao, Fangying; Sun, Osbert Jianxin

2013-09-01

44

Formation and failure of volcanic debris dams in the Chakachatna River valley associated with eruptions of the Spurr volcanic complex, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The formation of lahars and a debris avalanche during Holocene eruptions of the Spurr volcanic complex in south-central Alaska have led to the development of volcanic debris dams in the Chakachatna River valley. Debris dams composed of lahar and debris-avalanche deposits formed at least five times in the last 8000-10,000 years and most recently during eruptions of Crater Peak vent in 1953 and 1992. Water impounded by a large debris avalanche of early Holocene (?) age may have destabilized an upstream glacier-dammed lake causing a catastrophic flood on the Chakachatna River. A large alluvial fan just downstream of the debris-avalanche deposit is strewn with boulders and blocks and is probably the deposit generated by this flood. Application of a physically based dam-break model yields estimates of peak discharge (Qp) attained during failure of the debris-avalanche dam in the range 104 < Qp < 106 m3 s-1 for plausible breach erosion rates of 10-100 m h-1. Smaller, short-lived, lahar dams that formed during historical eruptions in 1953, and 1992, impounded smaller lakes in the upper Chakachatna River valley and peak flows attained during failure of these volcanic debris dams were in the range 103 < Qp < 104 m3 s-1 for plausible breach erosion rates. Volcanic debris dams have formed at other volcanoes in the Cook Inlet region, Aleutian arc, and Wrangell Mountains but apparently did not fail rapidly or result in large or catastrophic outflows. Steep valley topography and frequent eruptions at volcanoes in this region make for significant hazards associated with the formation and failure of volcanic debris dams. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

Waythomas, C.F.

2001-01-01

45

Characterizing the dam break release  

E-print Network

The failure of a dam can cause disastrous consequences, thus understanding the nature of a dam break is of utmost importance. A model of a dam break was built and used to profile the resulting wave. The gate release was ...

Wu, Juliana, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01

46

The 1916 catastrophic flood following the Bílá Desná dam failure: The role of historical data sources in the reconstruction of its geomorphologic and landscape effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the reconstruction of the geomorphologic and landscape effects of the most catastrophic flood owing to dam failure within the territory of today's Czech Republic, namely, the Bílá Desná dam failure of 1916. Because of the realisation of the significant later transformation of the Bílá Desná river catchment almost 100 years after the flood event, the field research performed during the summer and fall of 2013 had to be supported by extensive research in regional archives for documentary data. Various data types and sources (such as court investigation notes, investigation reports for insurance companies, old maps, and old photos, as well as video and recorded testimonies of survivors) were used to reconstruct the magnitude (discharge, flood wave extent) of the flood and its effects on the channel morphology and landscape. According to the reconstruction of the dam failure, which was caused by the internal erosion of the dam, the calculated peak discharge ranged between 418.2 and 1491.7 m3s- 1 and therefore exceeded the mean flow rate of the Bílá Desná River by more than 850 times. The river channel immediately upstream and downstream of the dam reclaimed its former meandering pattern with higher sinuosity, and new gravel point bars and irregular bars have been formed. Moreover, the river channel immediately below the dam shifted by up to 30 m following the flood wave. The most significant flood impacts were apparent in the village of Desná, where the flood wave, together with transported boulders (up to 2 m in diametre) and logs from sawmills situated upstream, killed 62 inhabitants and damaged or destroyed 101 buildings. The reconstructed flood wave in the towns of Desná and Tanvald exceeded the bankfull water level twice, with a width ranging between ~ 50 and 250 m in contrast to the average channel width of a few metres.

Raška, Pavel; Emmer, Adam

2014-12-01

47

Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the lizard Psammodromus algirus after a tailing-dam collapse in Aznalcóllar (Southwest Spain).  

PubMed

Quantification of heavy metal concentrations in biota is a common technique that helps environmental managers measure the level of pollutants circulating in ecosystems. Despite interest in heavy metals as indicators of localized pollution, few studies have assessed these pollutants in reptiles. In 1998, the tailing pond of a pyrite mine near Aznalcóllar (southwestern Spain), containing mud with high heavy metal concentrations, collapsed, releasing 6 million m(3) of toxic sludge into the Guadiamar Basin. Here we analyze heavy metal concentrations in the most common reptile in the area, the large psammodromus, Psammodromus algirus, a rather small lizard. We quantified levels of several elements (Hg, Sb, Cd, Cr, Tl, Sn, Ba, Cu, Pb, Sr, Mn, Rb, As, and Zn) in lizard tail clips collected in and around the affected area during the springs of 2005 and 2006. Samples were collected from two contaminated localities, one directly affected by the spill, and another adjacent to the tailing pond, but not covered by toxic mud. We also collected samples from a nonpolluted control site in the same basin. We found higher concentrations of As, Tl, Sn, Pb, Cd, and Cu in lizards from the affected area than in lizards from the control site, indicating the continued presence of heavy metal pollutants in the terrestrial food chain 8 years after the mine accident. We did not uncover sexual or annual differences in heavy metal concentrations, although concentrations increased with lizard size. We discuss how heavy metals moved across the food chain to lizards, despite intensive restoration efforts after the accident, and suggest that reptiles to be included in biomonitoring programs of heavy metals pollution in terrestrial habitats. PMID:18587604

Márquez-Ferrando, Rocío; Santos, Xavier; Pleguezuelos, Juan M; Ontiveros, Diego

2009-02-01

48

Assessment of dam failure flood and a natural, high-magnitude flood in a hyperarid region using paleoflood hydrology, Nahal Ashalim catchment, Dead Sea, Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dam failure flood in 1993 with a peak discharge of 600–700 m3 s?1 (volume of 0.5 × 106 m3) and a natural, rainfall-runoff flood with a peak discharge of 420 m3s?1 (volume of >2.0 × 106 m3) in 2004 in the Nahal Ashalim catchment (75 km2) in the hyperarid Dead Sea region were comparatively analyzed. The two floods, which

Noam Greenbaum

2007-01-01

49

Elevations and discharges produced by a simulated flood wave on the lower Sabine River, Louisiana and Texas, caused by a theoretical dam failure  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Toledo Bend Reservoir is located on the lower Sabine River between Louisiana and Texas. Two mathematical models were coupled to calculate the flood wave that would result from the theoretical failure of 25 percent of Toledo Bend Dam and route the wave downstream to Orange, Tex. Computations assumed failure (1) at the peak of the 100-year flood when discharge of the Sabine River is 102,000 cubic feet per second and (2) when the average discharge is 10,000 cubic feet per second. Two techniques were used in the dam-break model. The method of characteristics was used to propagate the shock wave following dam failure. The linear implicit finite-difference solution was used to route the flood wave following shock wave dissipation. The magnitude of the flow was determined for Burkeville, Bon Wier, Ruliff, and Orange, Tex., along the lower Sabine River. For these sites, respectively, the following peak elevations were calculated: 119, 82, 31, and 13 feet for the 100-year flood and 110, 75, 27, and 9 feet for the average discharge. (Woodard-USGS)

Neely, Braxtel L.; Stiltner, Gloria J.

1979-01-01

50

INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON LARGE DAMS  

E-print Network

Q76-R INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON LARGE DAMS 20TH CONGRESS BEIJING, CHINA THE STATUS OF METHODS FOR ESTIMATION OF THE PROBABILITY OF FAILURE OF DAMS FOR USE IN QUANTITATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT (* ) Robin FELL. INTRODUCTION The use of Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) techniques to assist in dam safety management

Bowles, David S.

51

Small dams need better management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many small dams around the world are poorly maintained and represent a safety hazard, according to Pisaniello et al. Better oversight of small dams is needed, the authors argue. The researchers reviewed literature, conducted case studies in four states in Australia, and developed policy benchmarks and best practices for small-dam management. Small dams, often just several meters high and typically privately owned by individual farmers, have historically caused major damage when they fail. For instance, in China in 1975, 230,000 people died when two large dams failed because of the cumulative failure of 60 smaller upstream dams. In the United States, in 1977 the 8-meter-high Kelly Barnes Lake dam failed, killing 39 people. Many other small-dam failures around the world have resulted in casualties and severe ecological and economic damage.

Balcerak, Ernie

2012-03-01

52

Nonlinear Aeroelastic Behavior of Tail / Rudder Systems with Freeplay and Actuator Failure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis discusses the development of numerical simulations implemented in MATLAB and of an experimental tail/rudder model for the investigation of the effects of non-linearities on control surface flutter of a three-degree of freedom typical section airfoil. Non-linearities investigated include a structural non-linearity in the form of freeplay about the control surface hinge line as well as velocity-squared damping, simulating a failed actuator. The mathematical modeling, design, and testing of a prototype velocity-squared damper is also presented for use in the numerical simulations. In both cases, the describing function method has been used to predict the amplitudes of possible Limit-Cycle Oscillations (LCOs) in the rudder DOF. Response amplitudes and frequencies in the frequency domain, are shown to agree extremely well with results obtained in the time-domain via direct numerical integration of the equations of motion. Both stable and unstable limit-cycle behavior has been predicted, resulting in a detailed set of predictions for the response of the system below the flutter boundary.

Noble, Matthew

53

Debris flows from failures Neoglacial-age moraine dams in the Three Sisters and Mount Jefferson wilderness areas, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The highest concentration of lakes dammed by Neoglacial moraines in the conterminous United States is in the Mount Jefferson and Three Sisters Wilderness Areas in central Oregon. Between 1930 and 1980, breakouts of these lakes have resulted in 11 debris flows. The settings and sequences of events leading to breaching and the downstream flow behavior of the resulting debris flows provide guidance on the likelihood and magnitude of future lake breakouts and debris flows.

O'Connor, J. E.; Hardison, J.H.; Costa, J.E.

2001-01-01

54

The 26 May 1982 breakout flows derived from failure of a volcanic dam at El Chicho??n, Chiapas, Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The eruptions of El Chicho??n between 28 March and 4 April 1982 produced a variety of pyroclastic deposits. The climactic phase, on 3 April at 07:35 (4 April at 01:35 GMT), destroyed the central andesitic dome and fed pyroclastic surges and flows that dammed nearby drainages, including the Magdalena River. By late April, a lake had formed, 4 km long and 300-400 m wide, containing a volume of 26 ?? 106 m3 of hot water. At 01:30 on 26 May, the pyroclastic dam was breached and surges of sediment and hot water soon inundated the town of Ostuaca??n, 10 km downstream. This hot flood was finally contained at Pen??itas Hydroelectric Dam, 35 km downstream, where one fatality occurred and three workers were badly scalded. Stratigraphic and sedimentologic evidence indicates that the rapidly draining lake initially discharged two debris flows, followed by five smaller debris flows and water surges. The main debris flows became diluted with distance, and by the time they reached Ostuaca??n, they merged into a single hyperconcentrated flow with a sediment concentration of ???30 vol%. Deposits from this hyperconcentrated flow were emplaced for 15 km, as far as the confluence with another river, the Mas-Pac, below which the flow was diluted to sediment-laden streamflow. The minimum volume of the breakout-flow deposits is estimated at 17 ?? 106 m3. From high-water marks, flow profiles, and simulations utilizing the DAMBRK code from the National Weather Service, we calculated a maximum peak discharge of 11,000 m3/s at the breach; this maximum peak discharge occurred 1 h after initial breaching. The calculations indicated that ???2 h were required to drain the lake.

Macias, J.L.; Capra, L.; Scott, K.M.; Espindola, J.M.; Garcia-Palomo, A.; Costa, J.E.

2004-01-01

55

Reliability design optimization of gravity dam section based on PSO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability design optimization method of gravity dam section is put forward in this paper. Considering the failure probability of gravity dam is very small required in specification, the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method and subset theory are combined and applied to calculate the reliability of gravity dam. The minimization of initial cost and failure cost of gravity dam is

Xin Miaowu; Zhi-Hong Qie; Zhi-Yu Zhang; Song-Hui Li

2009-01-01

56

Failure of a mine waste dump in Zimbabwe: Causes and consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of factors are considered important in causing the failure and subsequent development of a flowslide of a gold mine waste dump (or tailings dam) at Arcturus, near Harare, Zimbabwe. These factors comprise poor basal drainage, steep perimeter walls, saturation of the walls and basal sediments through continued spigoting of slurry during a period of heavy rainfall, and the

Richard A. Shakesby; J. Richard Whitlow

1991-01-01

57

Dam Impacts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While the creation of a dam provides many benefits, it can have negative impacts on local ecosystems. Students learn about the major environmental impacts of dams and the engineering solutions used to address them.

2014-09-18

58

Hoover dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an overall look at Hoover Dam. Topics covered include the following: a background history of the agricultural and flood history of the region through which the Colorado River runs in the Southwest; the development of a comprehensive and long-range plan for the Colorado; designing the dam; building the dam. 5 refs., 3 figs.

Petroski

2009-01-01

59

30 CFR 57.20010 - Retaining dams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Retaining dams. 57.20010 Section 57.20010 Mineral...MINES Miscellaneous § 57.20010 Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be of...

2011-07-01

60

30 CFR 56.20010 - Retaining dams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Retaining dams. 56.20010 Section 56.20010 Mineral...MINES Miscellaneous § 56.20010 Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be of...

2013-07-01

61

30 CFR 56.20010 - Retaining dams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Retaining dams. 56.20010 Section 56.20010 Mineral...MINES Miscellaneous § 56.20010 Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be of...

2014-07-01

62

30 CFR 56.20010 - Retaining dams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Retaining dams. 56.20010 Section 56.20010 Mineral...MINES Miscellaneous § 56.20010 Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be of...

2011-07-01

63

30 CFR 57.20010 - Retaining dams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Retaining dams. 57.20010 Section 57.20010 Mineral...MINES Miscellaneous § 57.20010 Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be of...

2014-07-01

64

30 CFR 57.20010 - Retaining dams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Retaining dams. 57.20010 Section 57.20010 Mineral...MINES Miscellaneous § 57.20010 Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be of...

2013-07-01

65

30 CFR 57.20010 - Retaining dams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Retaining dams. 57.20010 Section 57.20010 Mineral...MINES Miscellaneous § 57.20010 Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be of...

2012-07-01

66

30 CFR 56.20010 - Retaining dams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Retaining dams. 56.20010 Section 56.20010 Mineral...MINES Miscellaneous § 56.20010 Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be of...

2012-07-01

67

106. DAM EARTH DIKE SUBMERSIBLE DAMS & DIKE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

106. DAM - EARTH DIKE - SUBMERSIBLE DAMS & DIKE CONN. AT MOVABLE DAM (ML-8-52/2-FS) March 1940 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

68

Reliablity analysis of gravity dams by response surface method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dam failure is one of the most important problems in dam industry. Since the mechanical behavior of dams is usually a complex phenomenon existing classical mathematical models are generally insufficient to adequately predict the dam failure and thus the safety of dams. Therefore, numerical reliability methods are often used to model such a complex mechanical phenomena. Thus, the main purpose of the present paper is to present the response surface method as a powerful mathematical tool used to study and foresee the dam safety considering a set of collected monitoring data. The derived mathematical model is applied to a case study, the Moste dam, which is the highest concrete gravity dam in Slovenia. Based on the derived model, the ambient/state variables are correlated with the dam deformation in order to gain a forecasting tool able to define the critical thresholds for dam management.

Humar, Nina; Kryžanowski, Andrej; Brilly, Mitja; Schnabl, Simon

2013-04-01

69

14. Credit PED. Downstream elevation, near completion, showing tail race ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Credit PED. Downstream elevation, near completion, showing tail race and trestle used to carry excavated rock and construction materials across tail race. Photo c. 1909. - Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Plant, Potomac River, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV

70

Peak outflow from a breached embankment dam  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A relation for rapidly predicting the peak outflow rate from a breached embankment dam has been presented. The prediction equation is based on reliable data from 19 embankment dam failures and requires as input the volume of water in the reservoir at the time a breach begins to form, and the estimated height of the final breach. Peak outflow predicted by the equation can be used with simplified flood routing procedures to determine peak flows at locations downstream of a dam. Use of the prediction equation will improve the accuracy of rapid assessments of damage that would be caused by the flood resulting from an embankment dam failure.

Froehlich, David C.

1989-01-01

71

EMBANKMENT-DAM BREACH PARAMETERS.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The study used data from 43 embankment-dam failures to develop equations that predict breach formation model parameters. These data include the failure mode, embankment characteristics, reservoir conditions at the time of failure, geometry of the final breach, and the time taken to form the breach. Regression equations were developed to predict (1) the average width of a trapezoidal breach, (2) the average side-slope factor of a trapezoidal breach, and (3) the breach formation time.

Froehlich, David C.

1987-01-01

72

Institute for Water Resources, US Army Corps of Engineers Australian National Committee on Large Dams  

E-print Network

Committee on Large Dams LIFESim: A Model for Estimating Dam Failure Life Loss DRAFT by Maged A. Aboelata and David S. Bowles Institute for Dam Safety Risk Management Utah State University Logan, Utah 2005 #12;ii ABSTRACT Catastrophic events such as dam failures or severe floods are considered to be of low probability

Bowles, David S.

73

Proceedings of the Australian Committee on Large Dams Conference, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. November 2004  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the Australian Committee on Large Dams Conference, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. November 2004 ANCOLD 2004 Conference Page 1 TRANSPORTATION MODEL FOR EVACUATION IN ESTIMATING DAM FAILURE for estimating potential life loss from natural and dam-failure floods. LIFESim can be used for dam safety risk

Bowles, David S.

74

[Profile variability of soil properties in check dam on the Loess Plateau and its functions].  

PubMed

To understand the profile variability of soil properties of check dam and its possibility of engineering control over non-point source pollution, we used classical statistics to characterize the profile change of soil properties of a 5.20 m depth soil profile in the typical check dam on the Loess Plateau. The roles of check dam as organic carbon storage and available nutrients storage were discussed. The results showed that: 1) The bulk density and sand content of dam-head were lower than dam-tail, while, soil water content, silt, loam, organic carbon, available P, NO3(-) -N and NH4+ -N were higher than dam-tail. The bulk density for both dam-head and dam-tail showed weak variability while other properties showed moderate variability. All variables followed a normal distribution except sand in dam-head and soil moisture in dam-tail. 2) The change pattern of soil moisture on the soil profile for both dam-head and dam-tail was saw-tooth type. The change trends of soil organic carbon, available P and NH4+ -N were comparable to that of soil moisture. 3) The correlations among soil water content, organic carbon, bulk density, silt, loam, sand, available P, NO3(-) -N and NH4+ -N were significant (p < 0.05) except the relationship between bulk density and NO3(-) -N, NH4+ -N and relationship between available P and NH4+ -N in dam-tail. The positive or negative correlation of soil properties both in dam-head and dam-tail were coincident. 4) The check dam can be an important carbon storage on the Loess Plateau, and the organic carbon storage in dam-head was higher than dam-tail. The storage of organic carbon in 400-520 cm depth was the biggest for dam-head, in 0-100 cm depths for dam-tail. 5) The check dam is an enrichment sink of available nutrients. The storage of available P, NO3(-) -N and NH4+ -N in dam-head were higher than dam-tail, and the range of storage was: NH4+ -N > available P > NO3(-) -N. The coefficient of enrichment for NH4+ -N and NO3(-) -N were 1.132 and 1.956, respectively. 6) As the sink of soil nutrients, check dam has an important theoretical value for region carbon balance, ecological environment reconstruction and the effective control over non-point source pollution. PMID:18637356

Wang, Yun-qiang; Zhang, Xing-chang; Han, Feng-peng

2008-04-01

75

Preliminary estimate of possible flood elevations in the Columbia River at Trojan Nuclear Power Plant due to failure of debris dam blocking Spirit Lake, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Failure of the debris dam, blocking the outflow of Spirit Lake near Mount St. Helens, could result in a mudflow down the Toutle and Cowlitz Rivers into the Columbia River. Flood elevations at the Trojan Nuclear Power Plant on the Columbia River, 5 mi upstream from the Cowlitz River, were simulated with a hydraulic routing model. The simulations are made for four Columbia River discharges in each of two scenarios, one in which Columbia River floods coincide with a mudflow and the other in which Columbia River floods follow a mudflow sediment deposit upstream from the Cowlitz River. In the first scenario, Manning 's roughness coefficients for clear water and for mudflow in the Columbia River are used; in the second scenario only clear water coefficients are used. The grade elevation at the power plant is 45 ft above sea level. The simulated elevations exceed 44 ft if the mudflow coincides with a Columbia River discharge that has a recurrence interval greater than 10 years (610,000 cu ft/sec); the mudflow is assumed to extend downstream from the Cowlitz River to the mouth of the Columbia River, and Manning 's roughness coefficients for a mudflow are used. The simulated elevation is 32 ft if the mudflow coincides with a 100-yr flood (820,000 cu ft/sec) and clear-water Manning 's coefficients are used throughout the entire reach of the Columbia River. The elevations exceed 45 ft if a flow exceeding the 2-yr peak discharge in the Columbia River (410,000 cu ft/sec) follows the deposit of 0.5 billion cu yd of mudflow sediment upstream of the Cowlitz River before there has been any appreciable scour or dredging of the deposit. In this simulation it is assumed that: (1) the top of the sediment deposited in the Columbia River is at an elevation of 30 ft at the mouth of the Cowlitz River, (2) the surface elevation of the sediment deposit decreases in an upstream direction at a rate of 2.5 ft/mi, and (3) clear water Manning 's coefficients apply to the entire modeled reach of the Columbia River. (Author 's abstract)

Kresch, D.L.; Laenen, Antonius

1984-01-01

76

Acid drainage reassessment of mining tailings, Black Swan Nickel Mine, Kalgoorlie, Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the geochemical testing of mine tailings sourced from the Black Swan Ni Mine located near Kalgoorlie, Western Australia. Acid–base accounting was used to provide an indication of the acid generating capacity of two kinds of mining tailings: disseminated-ore tailings from the Cygnet Tailings Dam Storage Facility (CTDSF) and massive-ore tailings from the Silver Swan Tailings Dam Storage

Liangqi Lei; Ron Watkins

2005-01-01

77

Garrison Dam  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Missouri River flowing through the regulation tubes and the hydroelectric power plant at Garrison Dam between Riverdale and Pick City, North Dakota. Photo taken by USGS personnel on a Civil Air Patrol flight....

78

Twin-tailed fail-over for fileservers maintaining full performance in the presence of a failure  

DOEpatents

A method for maintaining full performance of a file system in the presence of a failure is provided. The file system having N storage devices, where N is an integer greater than zero and N primary file servers where each file server is operatively connected to a corresponding storage device for accessing files therein. The file system further having a secondary file server operatively connected to at least one of the N storage devices. The method including: switching the connection of one of the N storage devices to the secondary file server upon a failure of one of the N primary file servers; and switching the connections of one or more of the remaining storage devices to a primary file server other than the failed file server as necessary so as to prevent a loss in performance and to provide each storage device with an operating file server.

Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D. (Mount Kisco, NY)

2008-02-12

79

Q00906010024 rock check dam  

E-print Network

00906010024 rock check dam Q00906010025 rock check dam Q00906010021 rock check dam Q00906010022 rock check dam Q00906010027 rock check dam Q00906010026 rock check dam Q00906010018 rock check dam Q00906010023 rock check dam Q00906010011 rock check dam Q00906010008 rock check dam Q00906010007 rock check dam Q

80

Outbursts of landslide dammed lakes - mapping their potential across the Himalaya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake formation as a result of river damming by landslides is frequently observed in the Himalayas. Historic records are riddled with sudden failures of debris dams that culminated in catastrophic outburst floods and debris flows with far-reaching devastating consequences for downstream communities and infrastructure. In addition, it has been argued that the formation of large orogens is tightly coupled with the damming of these lakes as they trap sediments and abate river incision. The severity of outburst floods of landslide dammed lakes is directly related to the impounded water volume and downstream channel morphology both of which are controlled by topography. Prime insights into the spatial patterns of hazards generated by landslide dammed lakes can thus be inferred from digital elevation models (DEMs) that are available at sufficient detail at even the remotest localities. Here we quantify from topographic constraints the physically possible size range of catastrophic outburst events at the mountain-belt scale. By manipulating digital topographic, climatic, and river discharge data we estimate to first order the potential peak discharge arising from failure of hypothetical dams occurring anywhere throughout the Himalayan drainage network. Thus modelled peak discharges encompass four to six orders of magnitude, with the most extreme events surpassing the largest documented monsoon floods by a factor of >100. For a range of pre-defined breach rates, the heavy-tailed size distribution of peak discharge stretches with increasing dam height. Our simulation predicts the highest peak discharge for dam breaks outside of the Higher Himalaya, i.e. along the margins of the Tibetan Plateau, and the large orogen-parallel rivers of the Sub-Himalaya. Many of the bedrock rivers slicing through the Higher Himalaya are simply too steep to allow for trapping large quantities of water behind natural dams. This regional consistent pattern underscores the notion that high transient stream power associated with episodic natural dam breaks may play a dominant role in enhancing fluvial bedrock incision in the Higher Himalayas. From a hazard management perspective our data provide a promising and proactive tool for rapidly assessing the likely impacts of outburst events anywhere in the Himalayas.

Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Blöthe, Jan; Andermann, Christoff; Korup, Oliver

2013-04-01

81

Dam worms.  

PubMed

Human and animal infection rates with the Oriental schistosome have steadily declined in China over the last half-century, but the Three Gorges Dam may reverse this decline by creating new, or enlarging existing, ideal environments for the worm and its aquatic snail intermediate host. PMID:11399843

Ross, A G; Li, Y; Williams, G M; Jiang, Z; McManus, D P

2001-06-01

82

11. VIEW OF THE ROAD TO SEDIMENT DAM LOOKING FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. VIEW OF THE ROAD TO SEDIMENT DAM LOOKING FROM EDGE OF TAILINGS. WATER PUMP (FEATURE B-25) IS VISIBLE IN CENTER LEFT OF FRAME. - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

83

Dr. G. Ward Wilson 1 Tailings Stability TAILINGS DAM STABILITY  

E-print Network

: Traits that increase mating success in males may come at a cost, such as an increased risk of predation them in flight and removing the wings prior to consumption. Using geometric morphometric techniques, we improve mating success, they may also entail costs, * Corresponding author; e-mail: kuchta@ohio.edu. Am

Boisvert, Jeff

84

Analysis of landslide dams induced by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landslide dams caused by earthquakes are extremely hazardous disruptions of the flow of water and sediment in mountain rivers, capable of delivering large outburst floods that may devastate downstream areas. We analyzed a unique inventory of 828 landslide dams triggered by the Mw 7.9 2008 Wenchuan tectonic earthquake, China, constituting ˜1.4% of the >60,000 coseismic slope failures mapped and attributed to this event. While 501 landslides blocked the rivers completely, the remainder caused only partial damming or channel diversion. The spatial distribution of landslide dams follows the same trend of that of the total landslide distribution, with landslide dams being most abundant in the steep watersheds of the hanging wall of the Yingxiu-Beichuan Thrust Fault, and in the northeastern part of the strike-slip fault near Qingchuan. Besides the co-seismic landslide density, the river width also played a key role in determining the landslide dam formation. Narrow rivers are more prone to be dammed than the wide rivers. The correlation between river width and landslide dam volume follows a linear relation, which can be used to roughly estimate the dam formation possibility. However, the applicability of this correlation needs to be validated in other regions. The decay (failure) rate of dams, defined here as the percentage of the number and area of landslide dams that have failed over time, shows that ˜25% of dams accounting for ˜30% of total landslide dam area failed one week after the earthquake. These percentages increased to ˜60% within 1 month, and to >90% within 1 year. The geomorphometric parameters were analyzed, revealing power-law relations between landslide area and dam width, landslide source area and dam area, as well as lake area and lake volume. The inventory presented in this study will enrich the worldwide earthquake-induced landslide dam database and will also contribute to a better understanding of the post-earthquake dam decay.

Fan, Xuanmei; van Westen, Cees J.; Xu, Qiang; Gorum, Tolga; Dai, Fuchu

2012-09-01

85

Dynamic Interaction of Concrete Dam-Reservoir-Foundation: Analytical and Numerical Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The majority of concrete dams worldwide have behaved relatively well during seismic events. However, there are several cases\\u000a where global failure or substantial damages have occurred. The need for new dam construction and retrofitting of existing\\u000a dams necessitates the use of advanced design approaches that can take realistically into account the potential dam-reservoir-foundation\\u000a interaction. Seismic design of concrete dams is

George Papazafeiropoulos; Yiannis Tsompanakis; Prodromos N. Psarropoulos

86

Integrated Dam Assessment Models Towards Sustainability of Dams  

E-print Network

Integrated Dam Assessment Models ­ Towards Sustainability of Dams Desiree Tullos, Bryan Tilt, Phil Brown, Darrin Magee, and Aaron Wolf #12;Costs and benefits of dams "Dams have made an important, and by the natural environment" (WCD 2000) #12;Dams in, out, and reoperated #12;Dams out: Dam removal in America

Tullos, Desiree

87

Natural dam failure in the eastern slope of the Central Andes of Argentina. Numerical modelling of the 2005 Santa Cruz river outburst flood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Central Andes of Argentina, ephemeral river blockage due to landslides deposition are common phenomena. During the first fortnight of January 2005, 11.5 * 106m3 of rock collapsed from the east slope of the Santa Cruz valley (San Juan province, Argentina). The rock mass displaced from 4300 m a.s.l., down to the valley bottom, at 2900 m a.s.l., and ran up the opposite flank of the valley. This produced the blockage of the Santa Cruz river and generated the Los Erizos lake. The rapid snow melting during the spring season caused the increase of the water level of the reservoir, leading to a process of overtopping on November 12th of 2005. 30 * 106m3 of water were released from the reservoir and the consequent outburst flood displaced along 250 km. From local reports of arrival times, we estimated that the outburst flood reduced its velocity from around 40 km/h near the source area to 6 km/h in its distal section. A road, bridges, and a mining post where destroyed. 75 tourists had to be rescued from the mountains using helicopters, and people from two localities had to be evacuated. Near its distal part, the flood damaged the facilities of the Caracoles power dam, which was under construction, and its inauguration had to be delayed one year due to the damage. The outburst flood produced changes in the morphology of the valley floor along almost all its path (erosion of alluvial fans, talus and terraces, and deposition of boulders). The most significant changes occurred in the first 70 km, especially upstream narrow sections, showing the importance of the backwater effects due to hydraulic ponding. In this work we carried out numerical simulations to obtain the velocity patterns of the flood, and compared them with those obtained from local reports. Furthermore, we analyze the relationship between the dynamics of the flood with the patterns of erosion and deposition near the source area.

Penna, I.; Daicz, S.; Zlotnik, S.; Derron, M.-H.; Jaboyedoff, M.

2012-04-01

88

Using historic aerial photography and paleohydrologic techniques to assess long-term ecological response to two Montana dam removals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The restorative potential of dam removal on ecosystem function depends on the reversibility of dam effects and its operations. While dam removal is an established engineering practice, the need for an understanding of the ecological response remains. We used paleoflood hydrology, hydrologic modeling, and aerial photo interpretation to investigate the long-term ecologic responses to dam failure and breach. We investigated

Denine Schmitz; Matt Blank; Selita Ammondt; Duncan T. Patten

2009-01-01

89

Experimental research on the dam-break mechanisms of the Jiadanwan landslide dam triggered by the Wenchuan earthquake in China.  

PubMed

Dam breaks of landslide dams are always accompanied by large numbers of casualties, a large loss of property, and negative influences on the downstream ecology and environment. This study uses the Jiadanwan landslide dam, created by the Wenchuan earthquake, as a case study example. Several laboratory experiments are carried out to analyse the dam-break mechanism of the landslide dam. The different factors that impact the dam-break process include upstream flow, the boulder effect, dam size, and channel discharge. The development of the discharge channel and the failure of the landslide dam are monitored by digital video and still cameras. Experimental results show that the upstream inflow and the dam size are the main factors that impact the dam-break process. An excavated discharge channel, especially a trapezoidal discharge channel, has a positive effect on reducing peak flow. The depth of the discharge channel also has a significant impact on the dam-break process. The experimental results are significant for landslide dam management and flood disaster prevention and mitigation. PMID:23844387

Xu, Fu-gang; Yang, Xing-guo; Zhou, Jia-wen; Hao, Ming-hui

2013-01-01

90

50. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

50. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM -- DAM CONCRETE -- GENERAL ARRANGEMENT -- SECTION AND ELEVATIONS. M-L 26(R) 40/3 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

91

49. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

49. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM -- DAM CONCRETE -- TYPICAL PIER ISOMETRIC. M-L 26(R) 40/1 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

92

CRIB DAM, LOOKING ALONG DAM FROM WEST ABUTMENT, SHOWING PLANK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CRIB DAM, LOOKING ALONG DAM FROM WEST ABUTMENT, SHOWING PLANK SHEATHING IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO EAST - Kachess Dam, 1904 Cascade Canal Company Crib Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

93

Geophysical methods for the assessment of earthen dams  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dams and levees are an integral part of the fluvial system in watersheds. Their stability is of utmost concern to the Nation and to those directly impacted should failure occur. There are some 88,000 dams and 110,000 miles of levees in the USA. Many of those are earthen embankments and structures su...

94

Garrison Dam and Spillway  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Looking to the southwest at the Garrison Dam Spillway located to the left in this picture and the Garrison Dam located to the right in this picture. Photo taken by USGS personnel on a Civil Air Patrol flight....

95

V00306010057 rock check dam  

E-print Network

¬« ¬« ¬« ¬« ¬« XY! 16-020 16-030(c) 16-026(l) 16-028(c) 16-026(l) V00306010057 rock check dam V00306010012 rock check dam V00306010040 rock check dam V00306010039 rock check dam V00306010058 rock check dam V00306010064 rock check dam V00306010061 rock check dam V00306010062 rock check dam V00306010063

96

Small-dam rehabs  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the economics of maintenance, rehabilitation and improvement for small, aging, high-hazard dams. The topics of the article include raising the height of the spillway and repairing deteriorated concrete in the spillway of Fellows Lake Dam, emergency repair of the outlet conduit and replacement of riprap on the upstream slope of Storrie Lake Dam, and extensive rehabilitation of Reeves Lake Dam.

Denning, J.

1993-01-01

97

W02106010008 rock check dam  

E-print Network

W-SMA-14.1 5.169 Acres W02106010008 rock check dam W02106010009 rock check dam W02106010010 rock check dam W02106010011 rock check dam W02106010012 rock check dam W02103010018 earthen berm W02103010016 dam Established vegetation Seed and mulch Sediment trap/basin Gabion Cap SWMU boundary SMA drainage

98

J00206010020 rock check dam  

E-print Network

XY! J00206010020 rock check dam J00206010023 rock check dam 09-009 09-009 09-009 PJ-SMA-2 0.901 Acres J00206010021 rock check dam J00206010019 rock check dam J00206010014 rock check dam J00203010007 Smith DATE: 14-November-2014 REVISION NUMBER: 8 XY! IP sampler location Berm Channel/swale Check dam

99

Glen Canyon Dam  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River in Arizona. At noon Monday, Nov. 19, U.S. Interior Secretary Ken Salazar will open the dam’s river outlet tubes, releasing controlled flows larger than the usual 8,000-25,000 cubic feet per second that flows through the turbines of the Glen...

100

Peak discharge of a Pleistocene lava-dam outburst flood in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA  

E-print Network

Peak discharge of a Pleistocene lava-dam outburst flood in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA Cassandra R Received 6 May 2005 Availble online 7 February 2006 Abstract The failure of a lava dam 165,000 yr ago produced the largest known flood on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. The Hyaloclastite Dam was up to 366

101

V01406010015 rock check dam  

E-print Network

XY! ¬« ¬« V01406010015 rock check dam V01406010014 rock check dam V01406010013 rock check dam 1501403010012 earthen berm V01403010008 earthen berm V01406010003 rock check dam V01406010004 rock check dam V01406010010 rock check dam V01406010011 rock check dam 15-0651 15-0307 15-0588 15-0532 15-0575 stormdrain 7160

102

Stability analysis of White Oak Dam  

SciTech Connect

White Oak Dam is located in the White Oak Creek watershed which provides the primary surface drainage for Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A stability analysis was made on the dam by Syed Ahmed in January 1994 which included an evaluation of the liquefaction potential of the embankment and foundation. This report evaluates the stability of the dam and includes comments on the report prepared by Ahmed. Slope stability analyses were performed on the dam and included cases for sudden drawdown, steady seepage, partial pool and earthquake. Results of the stability analyses indicate that the dam is stable and failure of the structure would not occur for the cases considered. The report prepared by Ahmed leads to the same conclusions as stated above. Review of the report finds that it is complete, well documented and conservative in its selection of soil parameters. The evaluation of the liquefaction potential is also complete and this report is in agreement with the findings that the dam and foundation are not susceptible to liquefaction.

NONE

1995-04-11

103

A model of sturgeon distribution under a dam of a hydro-electric power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is dedicated to the question of passage of sturgeon through a dam of a hydro-electric power plant (HPP) during spawning migrations. A model of distribution of water velocity in the tail water of HPP was constructed. On the basis of this model a model of sturgeon distribution under a dam of HPP was created. The latter model was

V. I. Gertsev; V. V. Gertseva

1999-01-01

104

16. Parker Dam, only top fourth of dam visible, at ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. Parker Dam, only top fourth of dam visible, at 320' high, Parker Dam is one of the highest in the world. Much of this height is because dam penetrates well below river bottom to fasten to bedrock. - Parker Dam, Spanning Colorado River between AZ & CA, Parker, La Paz County, AZ

105

Bringing Down Our Dams: Trends in American Dam Removal Rationales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 76,000 dams have been constructed on American rivers to provide services such as flood protection, water storage, hydroelectric power, and navigation. Although most dams continue to provide sufficient benefits to retain the structure, dam removal is becoming increasingly common. This study involved the construction of a dam removal database to analyze spatial and temporal trends in dam removal. The

Molly M. Pohl

2002-01-01

106

Tail Buffeting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An approximate theory of buffeting is here presented, based on the assumption of harmonic disturbing forces. Two cases of buffeting are considered: namely, for a tail angle of attack greater and less than the stalling angle, respectively. On the basis of the tests conducted and the results of foreign investigators, a general analysis is given of the nature of the forced vibrations the possible load limits on the tail, and the methods of elimination of buffeting.

Abdrashitov, G.

1943-01-01

107

Arbuscular mycorrhiza status of gold and uranium tailings and surrounding soils of South Africa's deep level gold mines. II. Infectivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

An AMF infectivity study and spore viability assessment was performed on substrata obtained from gold and uranium mine tailings dumps (‘slimes dams’) in the North West and Free State provinces of South Africa. Three slimes dams in each region were categorized as recently vegetated (RV), old vegetated (OV) and never vegetated (NV), and dams then divided into five zones based

C. J. Straker; A. J. Freeman; E. T. F. Witkowski; I. M. Weiersbye

2008-01-01

108

Long-Term Stability of Pyroclastic Dams Around Mount Pinatubo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many temporary lakes have been formed around Mount Pinatubo by the blockage of channels by lahar or pyroclastic-flow deposits. Many such pyroclastic dams have been observed to repeatedly form and breach, often resulting in catastrophic lahars. A few, however, have survived for many years. We consider four conceivable mechanisms for the failure of pyroclastic dams: (1) erosion of the dam by flows along the lahar channel; (2) gravitational collapse and/or piping; (3) lake overtopping; and (4) secondary hydroeruptions. Upper reaches of lahar channels, within about 15 km from the crater, are prone to rapid changes in channel configuration. Up to tens of meters of vertical and lateral erosion by lahars in these near-source areas have been observed to occur in hours. Pyroclastic dams formed in these areas are therefore likely to be removed or undermined by flows along the blocking lahar channel. Infinite-slope stability analysis indicates that pyroclastic dams are generally stable against gravitational slope collapse, owing largely to their long (typically few kilometers), gentle (<5%) downstream faces. The gentle slope and unconfined groundwater denote exit gradients for subsurface water far less than the critical hydraulic gradient of the dam material, thus rendering piping failure unlikely. Boundary shear stress considerations, supported by field observations, show high streambed mobility of channels on pumiceous deposits, mainly due to the dominantly sand-sized composition and low density of the deposits. Similarly composed pyroclastic dams are prone to rapid breach erosion by overtopping flows. However, material lost to erosion along the breach-channel may be compensated for by sediments delivered onto the dam by lahars and/or local runoff. This is easily achieved where the dam is in an aggrading environment, as in an active lahar fan. Once sediment supply to the dam is cut off, e.g., due to the depletion of source sediments, by revegetation, or by stream beheading, the dam is predicted to fail by breach erosion. It can thus be expected that, barring engineering intervention, all pyroclastic dams around Mount Pinatubo will eventually fail, as suggested by their absence before the 1991 eruptions. Secondary hydroeruptions and secondary pyroclastic flows/avalanches have been known to accompany the breaching of pyroclastic dams, where the dams are partially or wholly formed by hot pyroclastic flows. These phreatic phenomena may trigger dam-breaching, or they may occur once breach erosion has reached the hot sections of the dam deposits. If they do occur, they invariably accelerate breaching. The above analyses, though, show that they are not required for pyroclastic dams to fail.

Tuñgol, N. M.; Tuñgol, N. M.; McKean, J. A.

2001-12-01

109

31. AVALON DAM OUTLET WORKS FROM CREST OF DAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. AVALON DAM - OUTLET WORKS FROM CREST OF DAM INCLUDING SPILLWAY NO. 1 AND CYLINDER GATE DISCHARGE PORTALS. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Avalon Dam, On Pecos River, 4 miles North of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

110

9. Excavation work at Pleasant Dam (now called Waddell Dam). ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Excavation work at Pleasant Dam (now called Waddell Dam). Photographer unknown, July, 22, 1926. Source: Maricopa County Municipal Water Conservation District Number One (MWD). - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

111

Using historic aerial photography and paleohydrologic techniques to assess long-term ecological response to two Montana dam removals.  

PubMed

The restorative potential of dam removal on ecosystem function depends on the reversibility of dam effects and its operations. While dam removal is an established engineering practice, the need for an understanding of the ecological response remains. We used paleoflood hydrology, hydrologic modeling, and aerial photo interpretation to investigate the long-term ecologic responses to dam failure and breach. We investigated downstream geomorphic and vegetation responses to a dam failure (Pattengail Dam in 1927) and a controlled dam breach, which used natural sediment removal (Mystic Lake Dam in 1985). Our data showed vegetation responses indicative of channel and floodplain evolution at Pattengail. The size of the flood following the Pattengail dam failure initiated a series of channel adjustments and reworked over 19ha of floodplain downstream of the dam. In Mystic, we observed few flood stage indicators and a slight response in floodplain vegetation. We made several findings. (1) Dam removal effects on channel evolution and floodplain development depend on reach types and their responsiveness to flow regime change. (2) Ecologic response to dam removal depends on the sizes and timing of high flow events during and following removal. (3) Paleohydrology can be used to assess historic floods (>20 years). We see the utility of assessing the ecological responsiveness of a system to previous fluvial events or changes in flow regime. Informed about the character of a system based on its history, dam removal scientists can use these tools to set realistic restoration goals for removing a dam. PMID:19042079

Schmitz, Denine; Blank, Matt; Ammondt, Selita; Patten, Duncan T

2009-07-01

112

DETERMINING THE ERODIBILITY OF COMPACTED SOILS FOR EMBANKMENT DAMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Embankment overtopping is one of the main causes of failures and incidents in embankment dams and levees. The erosion of the embankment soil material plays a key role in both the process and rate of failure. A battery of jet erosion tests were conducted on laboratory compacted samples of two soils...

113

T00406010008 rock check dam  

E-print Network

XY! ¬« T00406010008 rock check dam T00406010009 rock check dam T00406010010 rock check dam T00406010011 rock check dam T-SMA-2.85 0.344 Acres 35-014(g) 35-016(n) T00406010005 rock check dam T00406010006 rock check dam T00403090004 curb T00402040007 established vegetation, green hatch area 7200 7200 7180

114

Cold Air Damming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cold Air Damming is part of the Mesoscale Meteorology Primer series. This module first presents a Navy forecast scenario prior to the development of a major cold air damming (CAD) event along the east slopes of the Appalachian Mountains. Then, from a conceptual standpoint, the classic CAD scenario is described in detail, both from an observational and modeling standpoint.

COMET

2001-06-18

115

Glen Canyon Dam  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The USGS Glen Canyon Adaptive Management Working Group took a trip in August from Glen Canyon Dam to Lees Ferry on Friday, August 31, 2012. This spot at Four Mile (four miles downstream from the dam) is where a lot of people fish: There were fishermen that day that claimed to have c...

116

Garrison Dam and Spillway  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Looking northeast at the Garrison Dam in the back, Garrison Dam hydroelectric power plant, to the left, and the spillway, to the right. The sediment coming from the spillway is noticable. Photo taken by USGS personnel on a Civil Air Patrol flight....

117

Maple River Dam Spillway  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Maple River Dam is a pass-through dam that lets a limited amount of water flow through year round and fills the reservoir only during high flow. If the water rises high enough to fill the reservoir, water flows over the spillway shown in this photo.  Video taken at the same time is availabl...

118

Fish assemblage response to a small dam removal in the Eightmile River system, Connecticut, USA.  

PubMed

We examined the effects of the Zemko Dam removal on the Eightmile River system in Salem, Connecticut, USA. The objective of this research was to quantify spatiotemporal variation in fish community composition in response to small dam removal. We sampled fish abundance over a 6-year period (2005-2010) to quantify changes in fish assemblages prior to dam removal, during drawdown, and for three years following dam removal. Fish population dynamics were examined above the dam, below the dam, and at two reference sites by indicator species analysis, mixed models, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and analysis of similarity. We observed significant shifts in fish relative abundance over time in response to dam removal. Changes in fish species composition were variable, and they occurred within 1 year of drawdown. A complete shift from lentic to lotic fishes failed to occur within 3 years after the dam was removed. However, we did observe increases in fluvial and transition (i.e., pool head, pool tail, or run) specialist fishes both upstream and downstream from the former dam site. Our results demonstrate the importance of dam removal for restoring river connectivity for fish movement. While the long-term effects of dam removal remain uncertain, we conclude that dam removals can have positive benefits on fish assemblages by enhancing river connectivity and fluvial habitat availability. PMID:25022888

Poulos, Helen M; Miller, Kate E; Kraczkowski, Michelle L; Welchel, Adam W; Heineman, Ross; Chernoff, Barry

2014-11-01

119

Fish Assemblage Response to a Small Dam Removal in the Eightmile River System, Connecticut, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examined the effects of the Zemko Dam removal on the Eightmile River system in Salem, Connecticut, USA. The objective of this research was to quantify spatiotemporal variation in fish community composition in response to small dam removal. We sampled fish abundance over a 6-year period (2005-2010) to quantify changes in fish assemblages prior to dam removal, during drawdown, and for three years following dam removal. Fish population dynamics were examined above the dam, below the dam, and at two reference sites by indicator species analysis, mixed models, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and analysis of similarity. We observed significant shifts in fish relative abundance over time in response to dam removal. Changes in fish species composition were variable, and they occurred within 1 year of drawdown. A complete shift from lentic to lotic fishes failed to occur within 3 years after the dam was removed. However, we did observe increases in fluvial and transition (i.e., pool head, pool tail, or run) specialist fishes both upstream and downstream from the former dam site. Our results demonstrate the importance of dam removal for restoring river connectivity for fish movement. While the long-term effects of dam removal remain uncertain, we conclude that dam removals can have positive benefits on fish assemblages by enhancing river connectivity and fluvial habitat availability.

Poulos, Helen M.; Miller, Kate E.; Kraczkowski, Michelle L.; Welchel, Adam W.; Heineman, Ross; Chernoff, Barry

2014-11-01

120

1. GORGE HIGH DAM. THIS THIN ARCH DAM WITH A ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GORGE HIGH DAM. THIS THIN ARCH DAM WITH A GRAVITY SECTION IS THE THIRD DAM BUILT BY SEATTLE CITY LIGHT TO PROVIDE WATER FOR GORGE POWERHOUSE AND WAS COMPLETED IN 1961, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge High Dam, On Skagit River, 2.9 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

121

Seismic rehabilitation and analysis of Chaohe earth dam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stability of earth dams during earthquakes has been a major concern for geotechnical engineers in seismic active regions. Liquefaction induced slope failure occurred at the upstream slope of a major earth dam in the suburb of Beijing, China, during the 1976 Tangshan Earthquake. The gravelly soil with loose initial condition liquefied under relatively small ground vibration. In recent years, a major seismic rehabilitation project was carried out on a similar earth dam nearby using dumped quarry stone. Seismic stability analysis was carried out using model test, finite element simulation, and pseudo-static slope stability program after taking into account the influence of excess pore pressure.

Fu, Lei; Zeng, Xiangwu

2005-12-01

122

Legal Perspectives on Dam Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although economic, engineering, and ecological concerns drive the debate about whether to remove or repair a dam, public acceptance of change may be the ultimate determining factor. Nonetheless, little research has looked at the socioeconomic aspects of dam removal. Drawing on Wisconsin's experience with small dam removal, this chapter synthesizes the major public concerns about dam removal and introduces the

MARGARET B. BOWMAN; Sara E. Johnson

2002-01-01

123

Gypsum-karst problems in constructing dams in the USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gypsum is a highly soluble rock and is dissolved readily to form caves, sinkholes, disappearing streams, and other karst features that typically are also present in limestones and dolomites. Gypsum karst is widespread in the USA and has caused problems at several sites where dams were built, or where dam construction was considered. Gypsum karst is present (at least locally) in most areas where gypsum crops out, or is less than 30-60 m below the land surface. These karst features can compromise on the ability of a dam to hold water in a reservoir, and can even cause collapse of a dam. Gypsum karst in the abutments or foundation of a dam can allow water to pass through, around, or under a dam, and solution channels can enlarge quickly, once water starts flowing through such a karst system. The common procedure for controlling gypsum karst beneath the dam is a deep cut-off trench, backfilled with impermeable material, or a close-spaced grout curtain that hopefully will fill all cavities. In Oklahoma, the proposed Upper Mangum Dam was abandoned before construction, because of extensive gypsum karst in the abutments and impoundment area. Catastrophic failure of the Quail Creek Dike in southwest Utah in 1989 was due to flow of water through an undetected karstified gypsum unit beneath the earth-fill embankment. The dike was rebuilt, at a cost of US 12 million, with construction of a cut-off trench 600 m long and 25 m deep. Other dams in the USA with severe gypsum-karst leakage problems in recent years are Horsetooth and Carter Lake Dams, in Colorado, and Anchor Dam, in Wyoming.

Johnson, Kenneth S.

2008-01-01

124

Hoover Dam Intake Towers  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Hoover Dam impounds Lake Mead and provides drinking water and hydroelectric power to the surrounding area. It was constructed between 1931 and 1936. The Intake Towers are where water enters to generate electricity....

125

Dams and Intergovernmental Transfers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gainers and Losers are always associated with large scale hydrological infrastructure construction, such as dams, canals and water treatment facilities. Since most of these projects are public services and public goods, Some of these uneven impacts cannot fully be solved by markets. This paper tried to explore whether the governments are paying any effort to balance the uneven distributional impacts caused by dam construction or not. It showed that dam construction brought an average 2% decrease in per capita tax revenue in the upstream counties, a 30% increase in the dam-location counties and an insignificant increase in downstream counties. Similar distributional impacts were observed for other outcome variables. like rural income and agricultural crop yields, though the impacts differ across different crops. The paper also found some balancing efforts from inter-governmental transfers to reduce the unevenly distributed impacts caused by dam construction. However, overall the inter-governmental fiscal transfer efforts were not large enough to fully correct those uneven distributions, reflected from a 2% decrease of per capita GDP in upstream counties and increase of per capita GDP in local and downstream counties. This paper may shed some lights on the governmental considerations in the decision making process for large hydrological infrastructures.

Bao, X.

2012-12-01

126

Usoi Dam (Tajikistan) the highest landslide dam on the world  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural dams an integral part of the landscape formation. They are formed when the soil from slopes blocks the watercourse. The development of such dam may lead to two rare but desirable extreme outcomes: quick easing of the new dam and leakage of water accumulated behind it or stabilization of the dam and the establishment of a permanent outflow of water from the newly formed lake before it overflows the dam. All outcomes between these two extremes pose a threat commonly resulting in catastrophic floods causing massive damage to the flooded areas. The largest known dam of this kind, more than 500 m high and existing already 100 years, is the Usoi Dam in Tajikistan. The dam is located in the Amur Darya river basin.

Roje-Bonacci, Tanja

2014-05-01

127

Performance of heterogeneous earthfill dams under earthquakes: optimal location of the impervious core  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthfill dams are man-made geostructures which may be especially damaged by seismic loadings, because the soil skeleton they are made of suffers remarkable modifications in its mechanical properties, as well as changes of pore water pressure and flow of this water inside their pores, when subjected to vibrations. The most extreme situation is the dam failure due to soil liquefaction.

S. López-Querol; P. J. M. Moreta

2008-01-01

128

Garrison Dam and Garrison Dam National Fish Hatchery  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Garrison Dam National Fish Hatchery and Garrison Dam between Pick City and Riverdale, North Dakota. The Garrison Dam National Fish Hatchery is in the bottom left of the photo. Photo taken by USGS personnel on a Civil Air Patrol flight....

129

32. AERIAL VIEW OF TIETON DAM, UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. AERIAL VIEW OF TIETON DAM, UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM (Trashrack-structure for outlet at lower left in reservoir, spillway at upper left. Reservoir nearly empty due to drought.) - Tieton Dam, South & East of State Highway 12, Naches, Yakima County, WA

130

Documented historical landslide dams from around the world  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This data compilation consists of dBase IV1 data files of the location, date, triggering mechanism, kind, size, failure time and mechanism, breach dimensions, subsequent controls, materials, and references for 463 historical landslide dams and associated natural reservoirs that have been recorded throughout the World. The data base presented in this report is a compilation of information on the characteristics of 463 landslide dams from around the World. It forms a basis on which to assess potential threats from existing landslide dams, or newly-formed landslide dams. The data base includes only landslide dams that have formed in historical times - that is, those formed during times when humans were able to record their occurrence, and the information transferred through various means of written and/or oral documentation. There have been far more prehistoric landslide dams about which relatively little is known. None of these is included in this data base. The focus on historical landslide dams allows insights into this natural process that will aid in understanding their role as a significant geologic process in recent Earth history.

Costa, John E.; Schuster, Robert L.

1991-01-01

131

Bearing capacity of desiccated tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of matric suctions in soils contributes to their shear strength, resulting in an enhanced factor of safety against bearing-capacity failure. In this paper, matric suction profiles of desiccated mine tailings are predicted from a steady-state solution for evaporative conditions, and from an isothermal mathematical model that simulates liquid and vapor water flow through soils. The shear-strength envelope with

Daud W. Rassam; David J. Williams

1999-01-01

132

Experimental Study on Cracking, Reinforcement, and Overall Stability of the Xiaowan Super-High Arch Dam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Xiaowan super-high arch dam has faced challenging construction problems. Here, we provide a scientifically-based reference for applying geomechanical model testing to support the nonlinear design of super-high arch dams. We applied experimental similarity theory and techniques. Based on four 3D geomechanical model tests, the dam stress characteristics, deformation distribution, and the safety factors of the dam foundation were identified and compared. We also analyzed cracking characteristics of the up- and downstream dam surfaces and induced joints in the dam heel, the rock mass failure process of the dam-foundation interface, and the abutments. We propose foundation reinforcement measures for weak rock masses, alteration zones, and other faults in the abutments based on the 3D and plane tests each at a different elevation. The results show that all dam deformations remained normal with no yielding or tensile cracking under a normal water load. The reinforced rock mass increased the crack initial safety in the dam heel and toe by ~20 %. The minimum crack initial safety factor ( K 1) of the dam heel was 1.4. The induced joint in the dam heel contributed to a reduction in tensile stress at the upstream dam heel, improving K 1. Compared with similar projects following reinforcement measures, the abutment stiffness and overall stability of the Xiaowan arch dam satisfy operational requirements. Four years of monitoring operations show that key areas near the dam remained normal and the dam foundation is functioning well. Our results may also be applicable to the design and construction of similar projects worldwide.

Lin, Peng; Zhou, Weiyuan; Liu, Hongyuan

2015-03-01

133

Wim van Dam CURRICULUM VITAE  

E-print Network

Wim van Dam CURRICULUM VITAE Department of Computer Science Work: +1-805-893 5211 Harold Frank Hall in physics. #12;Curriculum Vitae Wim van Dam, June 2008 2 PUBLICATIONS Journal and Conference Articles [1] "Quantum Algorithms for Algebraic Problems", Andrew M. Childs and Wim van Dam, to appear in Reviews

California at Santa Barbara, University of

134

Spectroscopy of MPS(3):DAMS(+) composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composite materials are comprised of two separate components that are brought together to form a new material that exhibits unique properties not found in the individual components. The composite material studied in this work is a guest dye cation, (4-[4-(dimethylamino)-alpha-styrl]-1-methylpyridinium) or DAMS+, intercalated into an inorganic host lattice (MPS 3, where M = Cd2+ or Mn2+). MPS3 :DAMS+ exhibits high-efficiency second-harmonic generation (SHG), which is only observed when a material lacks a center of symmetry. There must be an organization of dye molecules upon intercalation to induce the noncentrosymmetry necessary for SHG. The formation of dye aggregates will be studied as a possible noncentrosymmetric arrangement. The intercalated materials (MPS3:DAMS+) exhibited spectral features of J-aggregates. These features included a sharp aggregate absorption and emission band, known as the J-band. There was a small Stokes shift (250 cm-1) between aggregate absorption and emission bands, and a red-shift between the J-band and isolated dye absorption band (3,700 cm-1). The low-energy tail of the emission J-band was theoretically modeled using the Urbach-Martienssen equation, while the high-energy states were fit to a Gaussian to determine aggregate disorder. Disorder was also modeled using a Monte-Carlo lineshape analysis program. From these theoretical models, the aggregate was found to be two-dimensional and weakly coupled. A variety of sample types were studied including intercalated powders and single crystals using absorbance, reflectance and emission spectroscopy. Reflectance spectra were directly compared with absorbance spectra using the Kramers-Kronig Transformation2 to determine that the surface aggregates and the interior aggregates were structurally similar. A new imaging microspectrophotometer was developed to investigate the topology of the composite materials. Kinetics of the intercalation front were studied and a layer-by-layer intercalation mechanism was developed. Surface studies using other materials indicated the polyanion nature of MPS3 :DAMS+ was essential for aggregation. Infrared microspectroscopy was used to determine the orientation of dye molecules on the surface of the large composite crystals. The DAMS+ in MPS 3:DAMS+ was shown to form two-dimensional brickwork aggregates with the molecules aligned "edge-on" on the surface and interior of the host lattice.

Holt, Jennifer Suzanne

135

EARTH DAM OR SPILLWAY?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aging of the US water control and management infrastructure is increasing the likelihood that some dams will be overtopped during extreme floods. As structures approach their planned service life, sediment pools fill and continued sedimentation results in a reduction in the volume available for flo...

136

Risk Perception Analysis Related To Existing Dams In Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the first part of this work, the progress of Italian National Rules about dams design, construction and operation are presented to highlight the strong connection existing between the promulgation of new decrees, as a consequence of a dam accidents, and the necessity to prevent further loss of lives and goods downstream. Following the Gleno Dam failure (1923), a special Ministerial Committee wrote out the first Regulations and made the proposal to establish, within the High Council of Public Works, a special department that become soon the "Dam Service", with the tasks of control and supervision about construction and operation phases of the dams and their reservoirs. A different definition of tasks and the structure of Dam Service were provided in accordance with law n° 183/1989, which transferred all the technical services to the Office of the Prime Minister; the aim was to join the Dam Office with the Department for National Technical Services, with the objective of increasing the knowledge of the territory and promoting the study on flood propagation downstream in case of operations on bottom outlet or hypothetical dam-break. In fact, population living downstream is not ready to accept any amount of risk because has not a good knowledge of the efforts of experts involved in dam safety, both from the operators and from the safety Authority. So it's important to optimize all the activities usually performed in a dam safety program and improve the emergency planning as a response to people's primary needs and feeling about safety from Civil Protection Authority. In the second part of the work, a definition of risk is provided as the relationship existing between probability of occurrence and loss, setting out the range within to plan for prevention (risk mitigation), thanks to the qualitative assessment of the minimum safety level that is suited to assign funds to plan for Civil Protection (loss mitigation). The basic meaning of the reliability of a zoned earthfill dam is illustrated by defining the risk analysis during its construction and operation. A qualitative "Event Tree Analysis" makes clear with an example the probability of occurrence of the events triggered by an earthquake, and leads to a classification of the damage level. Finally, a System Dynamics (SD) approach is presented to investigate possibilities of a preventive planning in relationship to the risk, so that it's possible to establish shared procedures to achieve the correct management in any crisis phase. As a qualitative result of a SD application, figure 1 presents a flow-chart about a case study on the same dam so to illustrate the emergency planning in a step by step procedure according to the Regulations.

Solimene, Pellegrino

2013-04-01

137

Dam Removal Express Assessment Models (DREAM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many dams have been removed in the recent decades in the U.S. for reasons including economics, safety, and ecological rehabilitation. More dams are under consideration for removal; some of them are medium to large-sized dams filled with millions of cubic meters of sediment. Reaching a decision to remove a dam and deciding as how the dam should be removed, however,

Yantao Cui; Gary Parker; Christian Braudrick; William E Dietrich; Brian Cluer

2006-01-01

138

Owyhee River intracanyon lava flows: does the river give a dam?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rivers carved into uplifted plateaus are commonly disrupted by discrete events from the surrounding landscape, such as lava flows or large mass movements. These disruptions are independent of slope, basin area, or channel discharge, and can dominate aspects of valley morphology and channel behavior for many kilometers. We document and assess the effects of one type of disruptive event, lava dams, on river valley morphology and incision rates at a variety of time scales, using examples from the Owyhee River in southeastern Oregon. Six sets of basaltic lava flows entered and dammed the river canyon during two periods in the late Cenozoic ca. 2 Ma–780 ka and 250–70 ka. The dams are strongly asymmetric, with steep, blunt escarpments facing up valley and long, low slopes down valley. None of the dams shows evidence of catastrophic failure; all blocked the river and diverted water over or around the dam crest. The net effect of the dams was therefore to inhibit rather than promote incision. Once incision resumed, most of the intracanyon flows were incised relatively rapidly and therefore did not exert a lasting impact on the river valley profile over time scales >106 yr. The net long-term incision rate from the time of the oldest documented lava dam, the Bogus Rim lava dam (?1.7 Ma), to present was 0.18 mm/yr, but incision rates through or around individual lava dams were up to an order of magnitude greater. At least three lava dams (Bogus Rim, Saddle Butte, and West Crater) show evidence that incision initiated only after the impounded lakes filled completely with sediment and there was gravel transport across the dams. The most recent lava dam, formed by the West Crater lava flow around 70 ka, persisted for at least 25 k.y. before incision began, and the dam was largely removed within another 35 k.y. The time scale over which the lava dams inhibit incision is therefore directly affected by both the volume of lava forming the dam and the time required for sediment to fill the blocked valley. Variations in this primary process of incision through the lava dams could be influenced by additional independent factors such as regional uplift, drainage integration, or climate that affect the relative base level, discharge, and sediment yield within the watershed. By redirecting the river, tributaries, and subsequent lava flows to different parts of the canyon, lava dams create a distinct valley morphology of flat, broad basalt shelves capping steep cliffs of Tertiary sediment. This stratigraphy is conducive to landsliding and extends the effects of intracanyon lava flows on channel geomorphology beyond the lifetime of the dams.

Ely, Lisa L.; Brossy, Cooper C.; House, P. Kyle; Safran, Elizabeth B.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Champion, Duane E.; Fenton, Cassandra R.; Bondre, Ninad R.; Orem, Caitlin A.; Grant, Gordon E.; Henry, Christopher D.; Turrin, Brent D.

2013-01-01

139

Conflicts Associated with Dam Removal in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. The increasing number,of deterioratingold dams that need renovation or have lost their function make,dam removal a viable management,option. There are at least four major reasons for dam removal: safety, law and policy, economy, and ecology. Here we discuss 17 Swedish dams that were recently considered for removal. Because dam removal usually causes controversy, dam removal initiatives may succeed, fail,

Anna G. C. Lejon; Birgitta Malm Renöfält; Christer Nilsson

140

Child with a Tail  

PubMed Central

Spina Bifida occulta usually presents with some cutaneous stigmata e.g. hair patch, sinus, lipoma, hyperpigmented skin and very rarely a congenital tail. A congenital tail may and may not be associated with spina bifida occulta and tethered cord. A four month old male child presented with congenital tail which was associated with spinal dysraphism and caused tethering of the cord itself. The tail and tethering lesion were excised successfully. PMID:24381838

Sandhu, Asif Iqbal; Khan, Feeroz Alam; Ehmed, Ejaz; Dar, Sajid Hameed

2013-01-01

141

Hoover Dam and Hydroelectric Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment is adapted from Building Big, a PBS series hosted by David Macaulay. It explores Hoover Dam's hydroelectric capabilities by explaining how it is able to harness the potential energy stored in the reservoir and convert it to electricity. It also discusses environmental impacts of the dam and others like it.

WGBH Educational Foundation

142

Tubes at Glen Canyon Dam  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The river outlet tubes at Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River in Arizona. At noon Monday, Nov. 19, U.S. Interior Secretary Ken Salazar will open the dam's river outlet tubes, releasing controlled flows larger than the usual 8,000-25,000 cubic feet per second that flows through the turbines of...

143

Technology of constructing arch dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions 1.The successful completion of the construction of the Chirkey and Miatla arch dams under complex geological conditions and the state of the concrete masonry under load show the possibility of the wide use of this most economical design of dams.2.The technology of level concreting used proved its effectiveness first of all by the record rate of increase of the

A. S. Danilov

1988-01-01

144

Length of Magnetospheric Tail  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that hydromagnetic waves, through the action of radiation pressure, can prevent the tail of the magnetosphere from closing near the earth. It is argued that the tail of the magnetosphere may be 20 to 50 AU long. The tail can close at such heliocentric distances in the charge-exchange boundary shell where the solar wind is terminated and

A. J. Dessler

1964-01-01

145

Synthesizing Studies of Dam Removal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dam decommissioning is rapidly emerging as an important river restoration strategy in the United States. Hundreds of dams have been removed in the past few decades, including several large ones (>10-15 meters) impounding large sediment volumes (>106 cubic meters) in the past 3 years, notably Condit Dam and the Elwha River dams in Washington State. These removals and the associated studies provide for the first time an opportunity to evaluate the immediate and persistent consequences of these significant fluvial—and in some cases, coastal—perturbations. Understanding dam removal response not only improves understanding of landscape and ecosystem adjustment to profound sediment pulses but also provides important lessons for future watershed restoration efforts.

O'Connor, Jim; East, Amy

2014-10-01

146

Geotechnical practice in dam rehabilitation  

SciTech Connect

This proceedings, Geotechnical Practice in Dam Rehabilitation, consists of papers presented at the Specialty Conference sponsored by the Geotechnical Engineering Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers held in Raleigh, North Carolina, April 25-28, 1993. The conference provided a forum for the discussion of the rehabilitation of dams, including case histories and current geotechnical practice. The topics covered by this proceeding include: (1) inspection and monitoring of dams; (2) investigation and evaluation of dams and foundations; (3) risk and reliability assessment; (4) increasing reservoir capacity, spillway modifications and overtopping; (5) seepage control; (6) improving stability of dams, foundations and reservoir slopes; (7) rehabilitation for seismic stability; and (8) geosynthetics and ground improvement techniques.

Anderson, L.R. (ed.)

1993-01-01

147

6. GENE WASH DAM, LOOKING NORTHWEST. SURVEY REFLECTOR IN FOREGROUND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. GENE WASH DAM, LOOKING NORTHWEST. SURVEY REFLECTOR IN FOREGROUND FOR MONITORING MOVEMENT OF DAM AND EARTH. - Gene Wash Reservoir & Dam, 2 miles west of Parker Dam, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

148

Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS

... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Heart Failure Prevention & Treatment of Heart Failure Pause Previous Banner ... you agree to the Terms and Conditions Downloadable Heart Failure Resources What is Heart Failure? (PDF) How Can ...

149

A review of catastrophic drainage of moraine-dammed lakes in British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moraine-dammed lakes are common in the high mountains of British Columbia. Most of these lakes formed when valley and cirque glaciers retreated from advanced positions achieved during the Little Ice Age. Many moraine dams in British Columbia are susceptible to failure because they are steep-sided, have relatively low width-to-height ratios, comprise loose, poorly sorted sediment, and may contain ice cores

John J. Clague; Stephen G. Evans

2000-01-01

150

Is it worth a dam?  

PubMed Central

Once a sign of modernization and growth, dams are often seen today as symbols of environmental and social devastation. Over 800,000 dams have been built worldwide to provide drinking water, flood control, hydropower, irrigation, navigation, and water storage. Dams do indeed provide these things,but at the cost of several adverse, unexpected effects: disruption of ecosystems, decline of fish stocks, forced human and animal resettlements, and diseases such as malaria, which are borne by vectors that thrive in quiet waters. PMID:9349830

Joyce, S

1997-01-01

151

Cost allocation in dam removal project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many countries, the dam is removed in consideration of several reasons such as safety. When removing a dam, the polluted sedimentation flowing out of the dam may have an impact to the environment of the river and sea. Thus, dam owners may prefer to wait its removal rather than remove now. This is because they are motivated to wait

Keishi Tanimoto

2003-01-01

152

States improve dam safety legislation and regulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several state dam safety agencies have helped their state governments pass new dam safety legislation of regulations during the past year. Improvements in the laws range from establishing or raising permit fees, to boosting requirements for professional licenses, to requiring emergency action plans for all significant and high-hazard dams. ASDSO tracks dam safety legislation and laws to help keep the

Spragens

1993-01-01

153

Deer Creek Dam, Dam, 1,204 feet/238 degrees from intersection of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Deer Creek Dam, Dam, 1,204 feet/238 degrees from intersection of dam complex access road and U.S. Highway 189 to center of dam, 874 feet/352 degrees from Hydroelectric Powerplant (HAER UT-93-B) to center of dam, Charleston, Wasatch County, UT

154

MASTER PLAN ChiefJosephDamHatcheryProgram This Chief Joseph Dam Hatchery Program Master Plan  

E-print Network

#12;i MASTER PLAN ChiefJosephDamHatcheryProgram This Chief Joseph Dam Hatchery Program Master Plan Fisheries Enhancement Group ChiefJosephDam HatcheryProgram M A S T E R P L A N #12;ChiefJosephDam Joseph Dam. The Okanogan River is the uppermost tributary of the Columbia that is still available

155

EFFECT OF ENCROACHMENT OF WANAPUM DAM RESERVOIR ON FISH PASSAGE OVER ROCK ISLAND DAM, COLUMBIA RIVER  

E-print Network

EFFECT OF ENCROACHMENT OF WANAPUM DAM RESERVOIR ON FISH PASSAGE OVER ROCK ISLAND DAM, COLUMBIA the lower sections of the three fish ladders at Rock Island Dam, 61 km upstream from Wanapum Dam of the center and left-bank fish ladders of Rock Island Dam were rebuilt and a new sequence of spill patterns

156

Hoover Dam Intake Towers Panorama  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Hoover Dam impounds Lake Mead and provides drinking water and hydroelectric power to the surrounding area. It was constructed between 1931 and 1936. The Intake Towers are where water enters to generate electricity....

157

CLEARWATER SUBBASIN, ID -- DAM LOCATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This map includes locations of dams in the Clearwater subbasin, Idaho. Source: US Army Corps of Engineers, BPA, and State Water Resource Departments from the Eastside Ecosystems Management Project. ...

158

Study of damage to a high concrete dam subjected to underwater shock waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study the effect of a strong underwater shock wave on a concrete dam, this research aims to improve hammer impact methods in model tests. Six 1:200 scale models were designed and tested under distributed impact loads. A device was deployed for a direct measurement of the impact force at the upstream face of the dams. The model dam bases were anchored to prevent displacement. The experimental results indicate that the top part of the concrete dam is a weak zone, and the impact failure initiates with a fracture on the top of the dam. The peak value of impact stress increases when the second crack appears in the concrete dam from the upstream face to the downstream face. And, the level of the second crack in the dam body is lower as the peak value of impact stress increases. In this study, dynamic analysis was conducted by calculating the results to verify the effectiveness of a device to directly measure the impact force. This method may be used to approximately forecast the damage of concrete dam and may also be useful in other engineering applications.

Lu, Lu; Li, Xin; Zhou, Jing

2014-06-01

159

The development of a flood routing model for the flow analyses of mine tailings materials  

E-print Network

Flood, West Virginia Aberfsn Flow Slide, Wales Mochikoshi Tailings Dam, Japan A LITERATURE REVIEW OF EXISTING FLOOD ROUTING MODELS Theoretical Flood Routing Analysis Models Models Developed for Turbulent Flow Analysis U. S. Army Corps of Engineers... of this research. The results of this literature survey are presented in detail in the following paragraphs. Theoretical Flood Routin Anal sis Models Plow of liquefied tailings through a non-prismatic channel can be either turbulent or laminar depending upon...

Rokohl, Don Richard

1984-01-01

160

States improve dam safety legislation and regulations  

SciTech Connect

Several state dam safety agencies have helped their state governments pass new dam safety legislation of regulations during the past year. Improvements in the laws range from establishing or raising permit fees, to boosting requirements for professional licenses, to requiring emergency action plans for all significant and high-hazard dams. ASDSO tracks dam safety legislation and laws to help keep the association's members informed on progress in dam safety. In New Jersey, lawmakers passed legislation providing $1.7 million in loans for engineering studies on high-hazard dams. Similarly in Minnesota, lawmakers approved legislation providing $1.6 million for repair or removal of dams. In Colorado, new legislation creates an emergency dam repair cash fund for state engineers to cover costs of emergency actions. In South Carolina, the General Assembly passed major amendments to the Dams and Reservoirs Safety Act. The amendments require that dam owners notify the state within 30 days after title to a dam is transferred, and stipulate that owners of high-hazard and significant hazard dams prepare emergency action plans. The state also may require normal maintenance on a dam; previously, the dam had to be declared unsafe before and order could be issued. A number of other states are working on new legislation, guidelines, or regulations, including Massachusetts, New York, Washington, and Wyoming. Forty-eight states have dam safety legislation in place; Alabama and Delaware are without such legislation.

Spragens, L. (ASDSO, Lexington, KY (United States))

1993-05-01

161

Theseus Tail Being Unloaded  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tail of the Theseus prototype research aircraft is seen here being unloaded at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in May of 1996. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global environmental change measurements. Dryden's Project Manager was John Del Frate.

1996-01-01

162

Arsenic and heavy metals in native plants at tailings impoundments in Queretaro, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten native plants species that grow in three tailings dams from Ag, Pb, Cu and Zn mine in Queretaro, Mexico were studied. Total concentrations in tailings were 183-14,660 mg/kg As, 45-308 mg/kg Cd, 327-1754 mg/kg Pb, 149-459 mg/kg Cu and 448-505 mg/kg Zn. In the three tailings dams, the solubility of these elements is low. Tailings in dam 1 are acid generating while tailings in dams 2 and 3 are not acid-generating potential. Plants species that accumulate arsenic and heavy metals was identified; Nicotina glauca generally presented the highest concentrations (92 mg/kg As, 106 mg/kg Cd, 189 mg/kg Pb, 95 mg/kg Cu and 1985 mg/kg Zn). Other species that accumulate these elements are Flaveria pubescens, Tecoma stans, Prosopis Sp, Casuarina Sp and Maurandia antirrhiniflora. Two species were found that accumulates a large amount of metals in the root, Cenchrus ciliaris and Opuntia lasiacantha. Concentrations in soils in which plants grow were 488-5990 mg/kg As, 5-129 mg/kg Cd, 169-3638 mg/kg Pb, 159-1254 mg/kg Cu and 1431-13,488 mg/kg Zn. The Accumulation Factor (AF) determined for plants was less than 1, with exception of N. glauca for Cd. The correlation between arsenic and heavy metals found in soils and plants was low. Knowledge of plant characteristics allows it use in planning the reforestation of tailings dams in controlled manner. This will reduce the risk of potentially toxic elements are integrated into the food chain of animal species.

Santos-Jallath, José; Castro-Rodríguez, Alejandrina; Huezo-Casillas, José; Torres-Bustillos, Luis

163

Elwha River Riparian Vegetation Response to Dams and Dam Removal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Riparian vegetation is highly diverse and influences habitat of aquatic and terrestrial wildlife. Riparian vegetation dynamics are driven by stream flow regime, and fluxes of sediment and large woody debris, all of which can be altered by river damming. Dam removal is often implemented, in part, to help restore degraded riparian vegetation by reversing the alteration of these key drivers. However, increased disturbance and sediment flux associated with transport and exposure of trapped reservoir sediment can complicate a simple return to pre-dam conditions and can favor exotic species. We are studying the effects of dams and their removal on riparian vegetation along the Elwha River in Washington State, where removal of two large dams began in September 2011. To characterize vegetation composition, structure, and diversity prior to dam removal, we sampled 60-150 vegetation plots in 2004, 2005, and 2010 along five cross-valley transects in each of three river reaches: above both dams (upper reach), between the dams (middle reach), and downstream of both dams (lower reach). In summer 2012, we resampled a subset of our plots in the lower and middle reaches to evaluate vegetation and geomorphic change. We also sampled vegetation, topography, and grain size along newly-established transects within the exposed former reservoir behind Elwha Dam, which was removed in 2011 and 2012. Plant community distribution on bottomland geomorphic surfaces along the Elwha is typical of other systems in the region. We identified 8 overstory and 26 understory communities using multivariate analyses. Young bar surfaces (5-20 yrs) were dominated by willow, red alder, and black cottonwood. Floodplains and transitional fluvial terraces (<90yrs) were generally dominated by alder and cottonwood. Mature terraces (>90yrs) were often dominated by big-leaf maple. Douglas fir occurred on both young and old floodplains and terraces. Overstory species composition was more stable from 2005 to 2010 than understory, understory species composition was more influenced by reach than overstory, and understory communities on younger landforms were less stable. From 2005 to 2010, there was a 26% increase in species richness in the lower reach but no significant changes elsewhere. In both 2005 and 2010 there was a significant decrease in native species richness (26% and 30% respectively) from the furthest upstream to furthest downstream reach. Exotic species richness was significantly higher in the downstream reach compared to the upstream reach in both years. Following dam removal, we documented different pioneer plant communities growing on different surfaces within the former reservoir behind Elwha Dam. Some surfaces were dominated by exotic species of concern to resource managers, such as Canada thistle and reed canarygrass, while others contained typical, native pioneer communities dominated by willow, alder, and cottonwood. Along our existing monitoring transects, we documented some sediment deposition on channel margins, bars and low floodplain surfaces, particularly in the lower reach; relatively little new deposition occurred in the more armored and stable middle reach. Future monitoring will reveal changes to existing vegetation communities and development of new communities in the former reservoirs as removal of the upstream dam is completed and millions of m3 of sediment are redistributed.

Shafroth, P. B.; Brown, R. L.; Clausen, A. J.; Chenoweth, J.

2012-12-01

164

Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Heart Failure? Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can' ... force. Some people have both problems. The term "heart failure" doesn't mean that your heart has stopped ...

165

Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS

... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Heart Failure What is Heart Failure? In heart failure, the heart cannot pump ... the lungs, where it picks up oxygen. The Heart's Pumping Action In normal hearts, blood vessels called ...

166

The Dam1 ring binds to the E-hook of tubulin and diffuses along the microtubule  

PubMed Central

There has been much effort in recent years aimed at understanding the molecular mechanism by which the Dam1 kinetochore complex is able to couple microtubule depolymerization to poleward movement. Both a biased diffusion and a forced walk model have been proposed, and several key functional aspects of Dam1-microtubule binding are disputed. Here, we investigate the elements involved in tubulin-Dam1 complex interactions and directly visualize Dam1 rings on microtubules in order to infer their dynamic behavior on the microtubule lattice and its likely relevance at the kinetochore. We find that the Dam1 complex has a preference for native tubulin over tubulin that is lacking its acidic C-terminal tail. Statistical mechanical analysis of images of Dam1 rings on microtubules, applied to both the distance between rings and the tilt angle of the rings with respect to the microtubule axis, supports a diffusive ring model. We also present a cryo-EM reconstruction of the Dam1 ring, likely the relevant assembly form of the complex for energy coupling during microtubule depolymerization in budding yeast. The present studies constitute a significant step forward by linking structural and biochemical observations toward a comprehensive understanding of the Dam1 complex. PMID:21169562

Ramey, Vincent H.; Wang, Hong-Wei; Nakajima, Yuko; Wong, Amanda; Liu, Jian; Drubin, David; Barnes, Georjana; Nogales, Eva

2011-01-01

167

Appropriate small dam management for minimizing catchment-wide safety threats: International benchmarked guidelines and demonstrative cases studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small dam safety is generally being ignored. The potential for dam failure resulting in catastrophic consequences for downstream communities, property, and the environment, warrants exploration of the threats and policy issues associated with the management of small/farm dams. The paper achieves this through a comparative analysis of differing levels of dam safety assurance policy: absent, driven, strong, and model. A strategic review is undertaken to establish international dam safety policy benchmarks and to identify a best practice model. A cost-effective engineering/accounting tool is presented to assist the policy selection process and complement the best practice model. The paper then demonstrates the significance of the small-dam safety problem with a case study of four Australian States,policy-absent South Australia, policy-driven Victoria, policy-strong New South Wales, and policy-modelTasmania. Surveys of farmer behavior practices provide empirical evidence of the importance of policy and its proper implementation. Both individual and cumulative farm dam failure threats are addressed and, with supporting empirical evidence, the need for "appropriate" supervision of small dams is demonstrated. The paper adds to the existing international dam policy literature by identifying acceptable minimum level practice in private/farm dam safety assurance policy as well as updated international best practice policy guidelines while providing case study demonstration of how to apply the guidelines and empirical reinforcement of the need for "appropriate" policy. The policy guidelines, cost-effective technology, and comparative lessons presented can assist any jurisdiction to determine and implement appropriate dam safety policy.

Pisaniello, John D.; Tingey-Holyoak, Joanne; Burritt, Roger L.

2012-01-01

168

Effects of a Natural Dam-Break Flood on Geomorphology and Vegetation on the Elwha River, Washington, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ephemeral dams caused by landslides have been observed around the world, yet little is known about the effects of their failure on landforms and vegetation. In 1967, a landslide-dam-break flood in a pristine reach of the Elwha River valley filled the former channel and diverted the river. The reach is a reference site for restoration following the planned removal of

Steven A. Acker; Timothy J. Beechie; Patrick B. Shafroth

2008-01-01

169

Three Gorges Dam, China  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This ASTER image shows a 60 km stretch of the Yangtze River in China, including the Xiling Gorge, the eastern of the three gorges. In the left part of the image is the construction site of the Three Gorges Dam, the world's largest.

This image was acquired on July 20, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

Size: 60 x 24 km (36 x 15 miles) Location: 30.6 deg. North lat., 111.2 deg. East long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1,2, and 3. Original Data Resolution: 15 m Date Acquired: July 20, 2000

2002-01-01

170

American Experience: Grand Coulee Dam  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Among many great national achievements during the Great Depression, the Grand Coulee Dam remains one of the most impressive. This fine website from the American Experience program complements a documentary that was first aired on PBS in 2012. The construction of this dam would, in the worlds of President Franklin Roosevelt, be part of a "planned promised land" that would transform the lives of farm families. The site includes a great interactive timeline, a photo gallery, and a short preview of the entire film. Additionally, the site includes two nice bonus videos, including one that deals with the processes of closing the spillway. The blog on the site includes several interesting posts on the history of the dam. Also, visitors have the opportunity to share their own stories about their own favorite iconic structures in the United States.

2012-04-27

171

OVERALL VIEW OF CASCADE CANAL COMPANY CRIB DAM, LOOKING UPSTREAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERALL VIEW OF CASCADE CANAL COMPANY CRIB DAM, LOOKING UPSTREAM FROM DIRECTION OF KACHESS DAM. VIEW TO NORTH - Kachess Dam, 1904 Cascade Canal Company Crib Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

172

17. VIEW OF MAIN AND DIVERSION DAMS FROM WATERGATE AFTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. VIEW OF MAIN AND DIVERSION DAMS FROM WATER-GATE AFTER REMOVAL OF DRIFTWOOD. DIVERSION DAM IN LEFT FOREGROUND, MAIN DAM TO THE RIGHT. Photographed July 18, 1938. - Forge Creek Dam-John Cable Mill, Townsend, Blount County, TN

173

The Tail of BPM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Business process management suites (BPMS's) represent one of the fastest growing segments in the software industry as organizations automate their key business processes. As this market matures, it is interesting to compare it to Chris Anderson's 'Long Tail.' Although the 2004 "Long Tail" article in Wired magazine was primarily about the media and entertainment industries, it has since been applied (and perhaps misapplied) to other markets. Analysts describe a "Tail of BPM" market that is, perhaps, several times larger than the traditional BPMS product market. This paper will draw comparisons between the concepts in Anderson's article (and subsequent book) and the BPM solutions market.

Kruba, Steve; Meyer, Jim

174

The Best Dam Simulation Ever  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online simulation game explores the different consequences of water levels on the Columbia River in the Pacific Northwest. Learners play the role of dam operator, controlling how much water passes through the dam each season. First, learners choose whether it's a very dry or wet (or average) year and adjust the level of the reservoir in fall, winter, spring and summer. Learners see how their choices affect the migrating river salmon, power bills, recreation, agriculture, flooding, and fish that live in the reservoir. The results are compared to those of the real operators, and learners can print out a copy of your final report.

2012-06-26

175

Should We Dam Nanticoke Creek?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this decision-making exercise, students investigate what would occur if a dam were built along Nanticoke Creek, a real stream just north of West Corners near the Village of Endicott, New York. They will use topographic maps to determine how much area would be flooded by the new reservoir, to study river drainages, and to consider the impacts of dams on a region. They must also consider rivers in the context of their relation to humankind. The exercise can be extended to other, more local locations having similar topography.

Philip Childs

176

7 CFR 1724.55 - Dam safety.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES AND DESIGN...the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Engineering and Design Dam Safety Assurance Program...The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Engineering and Design Dam Safety...

2011-01-01

177

Have Large Dams Altered Extreme Precipitation Patterns?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dams and their impounded waters are among the most common civil infrastructures, with a long heritage of modern design and operations experience. In particular, large dams, defined by the International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD) as having a height greater than 15 meters from the foundation and holding a reservoir volume of more than 3 million cubic meters, have the potential to vastly transform local climate, landscapes, regional economics, and urbanization patterns. In the United States alone, about 75,000 dams are capable of storing a volume of water equaling almost 1 year's mean runoff of the nation [Graf, 1999]. The World Commission on Dams (WCD) reports that at least 45,000 large dams have been built worldwide since the 1930s. These sheer numbers raise the question of the extent to which large dams and their impounded waters alter patterns that would have been pervasive had the dams not been built.

Hossain, Faisal; Jeyachandran, Indumathi; Pielke, Roger

2009-12-01

178

GATC Flanking Sequences Regulate Dam Activity: Evidence for how Dam Specificity may Influence  

E-print Network

GATC Flanking Sequences Regulate Dam Activity: Evidence for how Dam Specificity may Influence pap coli DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) plays essential roles in DNA replication, mismatch repair and gene regulation. The differential methylation by Dam of the two GATC sequences in the pap promoter

Reich, Norbert O.

179

Teton Dam flood of June 1976, Pingree quadrangle, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The failure of the Teton Dam caused extreme flooding along the Teton River, Henrys Fork, and Snake River in southeastern Idaho on June 5-8, 1976. No flooding occurred downstream from American Falls Reservoir. The inundated areas and maximum water-surface elevations are shown in a series of 17 hydrologic atlases. The area covered by the atlases extends from Teton Dam downstream to American Falls Reservoir, a distance of 100 miles. The extent of flooding shown on the maps was obtained by field inspections and aerial photographs made during and immediately after the flood. There may be small isolated areas within the boundaries shown that were not flooded, but the identification of these sites was beyond the scope of the study. The elevation data shown are mean-sea-level elevations of high-water marks identified in the field. This particular map (in the 17-map series) shows conditions in the Pingree quadrangle. (Woodard-USGS)

Hubbard, Larry L.; Bartells, John H.

1976-01-01

180

Teton Dam flood of June 1976, Firth quadrangle, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The failure of the Teton Dam caused extreme flooding along the Teton River, Henrys Fork, and Snake River in southeastern Idaho on June 5-8, 1976. No flooding occurred downstream from American Falls Reservoir. The inundated areas and maximum water-surface elevations are shown in a series of 17 hydrologic atlases. The area covered by the atlases extends from Teton Dam downstream to American Falls Reservoir, a distance of 100 miles. The extent of flooding shown on the maps was obtained by field inspections and aerial photographs made during and immediately after the flood. There may be small isolated areas within the boundaries shown that were not flooded, but the identification of these sites was beyond the scope of the study. The elevation data shown are mean-sea-level elevations of high-water marks identified in the field. This particular map (in the 17-map series) shows conditions in the Firth quadrangle. (Woodard-USGS)

Hubbard, Larry L.; Bartells, John H.

1976-01-01

181

Teton Dam flood of June 1976, Rose quadrangle, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The failure of the Teton Dam caused extreme flooding along the Teton River, Henrys Fork, and Snake River in southeastern Idaho on June 5-8, 1976. No flooding occurred downstream from American Falls Reservoir. The inundated areas and maximum water-surface elevations are shown in a series of 17 hydrologic atlases. The area covered by the atlases extends from Teton Dam downstream to American Falls Reservoir, a distance of 100 miles. The extent of flooding shown on the maps was obtained by field inspections and aerial photographs made during and immediately after the flood. There may be small isolated areas within the boundaries shown that were not flooded, but the identification of these sites was beyond the scope of the study. The elevation data shown are mean-sea-level elevations of high-water marks identified in the field. This particular map (in the 17-map series) shows conditions in the Rose quadrangle. (Woodard-USGS)

Bartells, John H.; Hubbard, Larry L.

1976-01-01

182

Teton Dam flood of June 1976, Moreland quadrangle, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The failure of the Teton Dam caused extreme flooding along the Teton River, Henrys Fork, and Snake River in southeastern Idaho on June 5-8, 1976. No flooding occurred downstream from American Falls Reservoir. The inundated areas and maximum water-surface elevations are shown in a series of 17 hydrologic atlases. The aea covered by the atlases extends from Teton Dam downstream to American Falls Reservoir, a distance of 100 miles. The extent of flooding shown on the maps was obtained by field inspections and aerial photographs made during and immediately after the flood. There may be small isolated areas within the boundaries shown that were not flooded, but the identification of these sites was beyond the scope of the study. The elevation data shown are mean-sea-level elevations of high-water marks identified in the field. This particular map (in the 17-map series) shows conditions in the Moreland quadrangle. (Woodard-USGS)

Hubbard, Larry L.; Bartells, John H.

1976-01-01

183

33 CFR 208.19 - Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Texas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Texas. 208...FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.19 Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake...

2014-07-01

184

On Quantum Computation Theory Wim van Dam  

E-print Network

On Quantum Computation Theory Wim van Dam #12;#12;On Quantum Computation Theory #12;ILLC woensdag 9 oktober 2002, te 14.00 uur door Willem Klaas van Dam geboren te Breda. #12;Promotor: Prof. dr. P Dam, 2002 ISBN: 90­5776­091­6 #12;" . . . Many errors have been made in the world which today

ten Cate, Balder

185

Viscoplastic dam breaks and the Bostwick consistometer  

E-print Network

Viscoplastic dam breaks and the Bostwick consistometer N. J. Balmforth, a R. V. Craster, b P'Informazione, Universit`a di Milano, Crema, Italy Abstract We present a theoretical and experimental analysis of the dam the broken dam) that may assist an experimentalist to unravel those dependences. Experiments are conducted

Balmforth, Neil

186

7 CFR 1724.55 - Dam safety.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dam safety. 1724.55 Section 1724.55... Electric System Design § 1724.55 Dam safety. (a) The provisions of this...borrower that owns or operates a RUS financed dam must utilize the“Federal Guidelines...

2012-01-01

187

7 CFR 1724.55 - Dam safety.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dam safety. 1724.55 Section 1724.55... Electric System Design § 1724.55 Dam safety. (a) The provisions of this...borrower that owns or operates a RUS financed dam must utilize the“Federal Guidelines...

2013-01-01

188

7 CFR 1724.55 - Dam safety.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dam safety. 1724.55 Section 1724.55... Electric System Design § 1724.55 Dam safety. (a) The provisions of this...borrower that owns or operates a RUS financed dam must utilize the“Federal Guidelines...

2014-01-01

189

ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT ROCK ISLAND DAM  

E-print Network

ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON, 1959 :y .iiJA/i-3ri ^' WUUUi. ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT - ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON, 1959 by Paul D. Zimmer, Clifton and observations 10 Summary 13 #12;#12;ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT - ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON

190

PHILBROOK DAM Where Giants Made History  

Microsoft Academic Search

n 1968 the mighty Oroville Dam on the Feather River in Butte County made the list of the World's Greatest Dams when it was com- pleted at a height of 770 feet. This giant struc- ture, a multipurpose dam envisioned in the 1920s as part of the Central Valley Project, pro- vides flood control, water storage, hydroelectric power generation and

Robert Colby

191

Inception point for embankment dam stepped spillways  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stepped spillways applied to embankment dams have become a common design practice with the rehabilitation of aging watershed dams, especially those experiencing a hazard classification change from low to high hazard. Previous research on stepped spillways focused on gravity dams where aerated flow ...

192

Dam Removal Express Assessment Models (DREAM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents sample runs of the Dam Removal Express Assessment Models (DREAM) presented in the companion paper, Cui et al. (2006): DREAM-1 for simulation of sediment transport following the removal of a dam behind which the reservoir deposit is composed primarily of noncohesive sand and silt, and DREAM-2 for simulation of sediment transport following the removal of a dam

Yantao Cui; Christian Braudrick; William E. Dietrich; Brian Cluer; Gary Parker

2006-01-01

193

TECHNICAL ISSUES IN SMALL DAM REMOVAL ENGINEERING  

Microsoft Academic Search

With thousands of communities facing decisions regarding aging small dams, dam removal is often a viable option to restore aquatic habitat and relieve what can be an economic burden and public safety hazard. Although more than 500 dams have been removed from rivers and streams throughout the United States, there is relatively little published information available to guide resource managers

Brian E. Graber; Margaret Bowman; R. Scott Carney; Martin W. Doyle; Madeline Fisher; Scudder D. Mackey; Laura Wildman

194

Optimization research for ash dam cross section  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new approach for the optimization analysis of ash dam slope stability calculation by using lattice method. A further study for the optimization design of ash dam cross section using exhaustion method is also provided. The numerical result analysis indicates that using combined optimization method of lattice and exhaustion to design ash dam cross section can achieve

Shouyi Li; Jihua Zhao; Yaolong Chen; Jusheng Yang

2005-01-01

195

Multiple flow processes accompanying a dam-break flood in a small upland watershed, Centralia, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On October 5, 1991, following 35 consecutive days of dry weather, a 105-meter long, 37-meter wide, 5.2-meter deep concrete-lined watersupply reservoir on a hillside in the eastern edge of Centralia, Washington, suddenly failed, sending 13,250 cubic meters of water rushing down a small, steep tributary channel into the city. Two houses were destroyed, several others damaged, mud and debris were deposited in streets, on lawns, and in basements over four city blocks, and 400 people were evacuated. The cause of failure is believed to have been a sliding failure along a weak seam or joint in the siltstone bedrock beneath the reservoir, possibly triggered by increased seepage into the rock foundation through continued deterioration of concrete panel seams, and a slight rise (0.6 meters) in the pool elevation. A second adjacent reservoir containing 18,900 cubic meters of water also drained, but far more slowly, when a 41-cm diameter connecting pipe was broken by the landslide. The maximum discharge resulting from the dam-failure was about 71 cubic meters per second. A reconstructed hydrograph based on the known reservoir volume and calculated peak discharge indicates the flood duration was about 6.2 minutes. Sedimentologic evidence, high-water mark distribution, and landforms preserved in the valley floor indicate that the dam failure flood consisted of two flow phases: an initial debris flow that deposited coarse bouldery sediment along the slope-area reach as it lost volume, followed soon after by a water-flood that achieved a stage about one-half meter higher than the debris flow. The Centralia dam failure is one of three constructed dams destroyed by rapid foundation failure that defines the upper limits of an envelope curve of peak flood discharge as a function of potential energy for failed constructed dams worldwide.

Costa, John E.

1994-01-01

196

Middle Dam (Maine) Well Drilling  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS hydrologist Martha Nielsen examines cuttings as a drill crew works to drill a new monitoring well at USGS station 443647070552303 (ME-OW400A) near Middle Dam on Lower Richardson Lake. The existing well heaved due to frost and had to be replaced....

197

Engineering Innovation at Bonneville Dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Army Corps of Engineers constructed Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River in the 1930s to improve river navigation and provide hydroelectric power to the Pacific Northwest. This paper demonstrates how the Corps’ approach to the planning and design of the dam’s structures, machines, materials, and processes fostered engineering innovations. These innovations included a new kind of concrete,

Abbie B. Liel; David P. Billington

2008-01-01

198

Subdaily Hydrologic Variability by Dams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects dams have on hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecologic regimes has been well characterized using mean daily discharge. Subdaily discharge variation (herein flashiness) has not been well characterized for a variety of dam, watershed, and land cover characteristics. The hourly hydrologic records for 30 sites across the continental United States were analyzed for flashiness using the Richards-Baker Index, coefficient of daily variation, percent of total flow variation, and the percent of the year when daily discharge is greater than mean daily discharge. The goal of this analysis is to evaluate the role of catchment variables such as mean slope and land use conditions across receiving watersheds in predicting flashiness; compare flashiness metrics across sites to identify relationships between dam related variables such as type and size; and determine the most appropriate temporal extent for assessing flashiness in streamflow. Our approach relies on data at the watershed scale with a fine temporal grain to determine flashiness over a decade of operation for each dam.

Costigan, K. H.; Ruffing, C.; Smith, J. M.; Daniels, M. D.

2012-12-01

199

ALLOWABLE OVERTOPPING OF EARTHEN DAMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aging of the nation’s flood control infrastructure has resulted in a need for reevaluation, and, in some instances rehabilitation, of existing earthen dams. Inadequate spillway capacity is often one of the deficiencies identified for these structures. Inadequate spillway capacity may be the result...

200

Free surface computations on dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many fish species, powerplants are a barrier to their natural downstream migration. Numerical models are developed to better understand the complex flow field in hydropower forebays and tailraces, and thus reduce the fish stresses associated with the passage through dams. Free surface models can simulate flows including the shape and evolution of the free surface. Improvements in the computer

Marcela Politano

201

Respiratory Failure  

MedlinePLUS

Respiratory failure happens when not enough oxygen passes from your lungs into your blood. Your body's organs, ... brain, need oxygen-rich blood to work well. Respiratory failure also can happen if your lungs can' ...

202

Kidney Failure  

MedlinePLUS

... at Risk? Professional Education Advocacy Donate Kidney Disease Chronic Kidney Disease Kidney-Friendly Diet & Foods for CKD Polycystic Kidney Disease Kidney Failure End Stage Renal Disease Complication: Anemia Complication: Bone Disease Kidney Failure Treatment Kidney Problems ...

203

Nonlinear Seismic Analysis of Morrow Point Dam  

SciTech Connect

This research and development project was sponsored by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), who are best known for the dams, power plants, and canals it constructed in the 17 western states. The mission statement of the USBR's Dam Safety Office, located in Denver, Colorado, is ''to ensure Reclamation dams do not present unacceptable risk to people, property, and the environment.'' The Dam Safety Office does this by quickly identifying the dams which pose an increased threat to the public, and quickly completing the related analyses in order to make decisions that will safeguard the public and associated resources. The research study described in this report constitutes one element of USBR's research and development work to advance their computational and analysis capabilities for studying the response of dams to strong earthquake motions. This project focused on the seismic response of Morrow Point Dam, which is located 263 km southwest of Denver, Colorado.

Noble, C R; Nuss, L K

2004-02-20

204

Geomorphic evolution to large check-dam removal on a mountain river in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As aging dams become obsolete or economically inefficient, dam removal has become an important aspect of river restoration in recent years. While various efforts are ongoing to enhance our understanding, studies documenting the physical and ecological responses to dam removal are still lacking, particularly for removal of large dams in mountain river and following major flood, where the size of watersheds and the amount of reservoir sediment released can be much greater than for most previously studied dam removals. This presentation documents the geomorphic evolution to removal of a large dam on a coarse-grained, steep (an order of magnitude greater than on the Marmot) mountain channel in Taiwan. The Chijiawan creek is the only habitat in Taiwan of the endangered Formosan landlocked salmon. Its habitat has been cut significantly since the 1960s following construction of check dams designed to prevent reservoir sedimentation downstream. The largest and lowermost barrier on Chijiawan creek is the 15m high, "No. 1 Check Dam" built in 1971. Forty years later, the dam had backfilled with about an estimated 0.2 million m3 sediment and its toe had been scoured about 4m below its foundation, raising a significant risk of dam failure. For these reasons, the Shei-Pa National Park removed the dam in late May 2011. To monitor the channel response to dam removal, we conducted surveys of grain size distributions, cross-sectional and longitudinal profiles, analyzed the stage and turbidity records, and carried out repeat photography. Channel changes were greatest immediately following removal as a result of the high stream power, steep energy slope, and unconsolidated alluvial fill behind the dam. Headcut propagation caused immediate removal of the sand-grade sediment and progressive channel widening. One month after dam removal, a minor flood event with the estimated peak discharge of 20 m3/s excavated a big wedge of sediment from the impoundment. Two months after dam removal, erosion had propagated 300m upstream into the impounded sediment along a bed profile of gradient at 1.4% at a headcut with a local gradient of 5.1%. The profile remained pretty much unchanged until a year after in June 2012 during a 'plum rain' with the estimated discharge of 110 m3/s. Headcut erosion migrated further up to 500m upstream from the dam and lateral erosion was documented reaching up to 50m in cross sections near the dam. An estimated amount of about 50,000 m3 sediment was released and deposited in the 1.5-km reach downstream. The change in grain size was a fining of the sediment at the two downstream sites and a slight coarsening at the upstream site from April 2010 to July 2011, and significant coarsening of the sediment (with D50 from 10 mm to 75 mm) at the downstream site and upstream site as well from July 2011 to July 2012. This is likely due to the increase in energy upstream of the dam post-removal, which has transported the fine-grained sediments downstream for the first few months. Following the major flood in June 2012, the coarser-grained sediments have been released downstream. As the river is still adjusting, we anticipate the observations will enhance understanding for all those concerned with dam removal and river restoration.

Wang, H.; Kuo, W.

2012-12-01

205

Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS

Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. Heart failure does not mean that your heart has stopped ... Tiredness and shortness of breath Common causes of heart failure are coronary artery disease, high blood pressure and ...

206

Constraining the timing of the most recent cataclysmic flood event from ice-dammed lakes in the Russian Altai Mountains, Siberia, using cosmogenic in situ 10Be  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice-dammed lakes were repeatedly formed in intermontane basins in the Russian Altai Mountains throughout the Pleistocene. These cataclysmic outburst floods, caused by ice-dam failures, were documented as Earth's largest flood waves by other geoscientists. Using in situ 10Be, we successfully dated surfaces of flood-associated boulders located in a former lake basin and downvalley from a former ice dam. Our precise surface exposure ages suggest that all boulders were associated with the most recent out of a number of cataclysmic floods that occurred at 15.8 ± 1.8 ka. The field location of the boulders implies that they were deposited by the largest late Pleistocene flood that drained the Chuya-Katun Lake completely following initial dam failure. A published reconstruction of the late glacial paleoenvironment in the vicinity of the former ice dam indicates that dam failure was likely a result of climatically induced downwasting of glaciers. The failure of the ice dam provides more evidence for the timing of widespread warming during the late glacial in southern Russia. This flooding event in the headwaters of the Ob River coincides with a freshwater peak as recorded in isotopic records of the Kara Sea and the Arctic Ocean.

Reuther, Anne U.; Herget, Jürgen; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Borodavko, Pavel; Kubik, Peter W.; Heine, Klaus

2006-11-01

207

Maximum Stream Power? Projecting Catastrophic Dam Breaks at the Mountain-Belt Scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake formation as a result of river damming by landslides is frequently observed in areas with steep terrain and high tectonic activity. The sudden collapse of such natural dams often generates high-magnitude floods and debris flows that pose a significant threat to human well-being and infrastructure. Furthermore, the rates of bedrock river incision may be tightly coupled with the episodic damming and emptying of these lakes as they intermittently trap sediments and abate river incision. Empirical observations show that the severity of outburst events is directly related to the impounded water volume and downstream channel morphology both of which are controlled by topography. We thus argue that prime insights into the spatial patterns of hazards generated by landslide dammed lakes should thus be inferred from digital elevation models (DEMs) that are available at sufficient detail at even the remotest localities. Here we present first results of a Himalaya-wide assessment of backwater volumes generated by a range of natural dam scenarios derived from an empirical database. The GIS based analysis utilizes SRTM3 data that was preprocessed by advanced hydrological conditioning techniques to obtain an accurate representation of drainage patterns and valley morphology. Natural dams are simulated at each river location where the adjacent topography is susceptible to landslide initiation. Backwater volumes are corrected for dam geometry modeled as a function of dam height and river gradient. The possible range of backwater volumes spans various orders of magnitude from 10-4-102 km3 with high variability within and between different dam scenarios. The frequency-magnitude distributions of simulated backwater volumes are fitted using the generalized extreme value distribution with a strong positive modal shift observed for greater dam heights. Large backwater volumes are particularly observed along the Tibetan Plateau margin and orogen-parallel river courses. We modified a dimensionless blockage index to incorporate runoff magnitudes and seasonality to develop an outburst flood immediacy index. We argue that the index is valuable for hazard mitigation and monitoring and provides a basis to further investigate the effects of outburst floods on long-term landscape evolution. Future efforts will be directed towards an assessment of downstream flood peak translation and will thus provide means to finally quantify the risks associated with the failure of naturally dammed lakes at an orogen-wide scale. We anticipate that our results will deliver quantitative estimates of volumes of involved sediment movements and thus provide important input to investigation the effects of landslide damming on bedrock river incision, and ultimately, long-term landscape evolution.

Schwanghart, W.; Bloethe, J. H.; Andermann, C.; Korup, O.

2012-12-01

208

Happy Tailings to You  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students prepare a sample of "mine tailings", then separate out desirable materials using whatever method they choose, and quantify the results. They will discover that sometimes it's hard to separate desirable minerals from undesirable ones, especially if they look alike or the crystals are of similar sizes. Students learn that old, worked-out mines contain some desirable minerals (in small quantities) mixed in with unwanted minerals, but that doesn't stop some people from trying to squeeze out the last drop. Once considered tailings (or trash), the mix may now be profitable for mining. Desirable minerals can be separated physically and chemically.

209

Dynamic decision making for dam-break emergency management - Part 1: Theoretical framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An evacuation decision for dam breaks is a very serious issue. A late decision may lead to loss of lives and properties, but a very early evacuation will incur unnecessary expenses. This paper presents a risk-based framework of dynamic decision making for dam-break emergency management (DYDEM). The dam-break emergency management in both time scale and space scale is introduced first to define the dynamic decision problem. The probability of dam failure is taken as a stochastic process and estimated using a time-series analysis method. The flood consequences are taken as functions of warning time and evaluated with a human risk analysis model (HURAM) based on Bayesian networks. A decision criterion is suggested to decide whether to evacuate the population at risk (PAR) or to delay the decision. The optimum time for evacuating the PAR is obtained by minimizing the expected total loss, which integrates the time-related probabilities and flood consequences. When a delayed decision is chosen, the decision making can be updated with available new information. A specific dam-break case study is presented in a companion paper to illustrate the application of this framework to complex dam-breaching problems.

Peng, M.; Zhang, L. M.

2013-02-01

210

Using hydraulic modeling to address social impacts of small dam removals in southern New Jersey.  

PubMed

Small relic mill dams are common in the watersheds of southern New Jersey, dotting the landscape with many small neighborhood lakes. Originally built in the late 1800s, most of these dams have become increasingly unable to handle current design storms due to increased urbanization of the watersheds. Several of these dams have also been classified as "high hazard" by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Dam Safety Division because their failure has the potential for loss of life or extensive property damage. The current private owners are generally unable to afford the high repair costs needed to rehabilitate the dams to current safety standards, and are therefore more inclined to remove them. This research analyses both the physical and social impacts of the removal of two small dams in southern New Jersey, and integrates the two seemingly disparate concepts. Using hydraulic modeling and previous case studies, it is predicted that there will be limited effects to the hydrological and biological characteristics of the stream corridor. A survey distributed to the affected homeowners that live on these lakes shows that the community, however, expects significant impacts to the bio-physical characteristics of the stream corridor, as well financial impacts to their property value and social impacts to their recreational activities. The current study exposes the widening gap between policy makers and landowners, and highlights where complete stakeholder interaction could and should occur. PMID:19008035

Wyrick, Joshua R; Rischman, Brian A; Burke, Christopher A; McGee, Craig; Williams, Chasity

2009-07-01

211

Crocodile Skeleton - Tail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The crocodile is a reptile that has a long and narrow skeleton. The backbone (a gliding joint) of this animal extends into a powerful tail, allowing it to swim through water. The ribs of the crocodile are small and serve to protect its inner organs.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Science)

2007-07-14

212

Dolphin Skeleton - Tail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The dolphin is built to be sleek. Its body is made of almost entirely backbone (a gliding joint) which makes it very flexible under water. The ribs protect the inner organs of the dolphin and the tail beats from side to side, thrusting the animal forward.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-07-14

213

Drop Tail (FIFO) FREDCBQ ......  

E-print Network

Drop Tail (FIFO) FREDCBQ ...... Class-Based Threshold (CBT) Dynamic-CBT Resource Reservation RED Active Queue Mgmt Dynamic-CBT ­ Better Performing Active Queue Management for Multimedia Networking Mark performance drop for multimedia flows that are well behaved. We extend Class-Based Threshold (CBT

Claypool, Mark

214

Drop Tail (FIFO) FREDCBQ ......  

E-print Network

Drop Tail (FIFO) FREDCBQ ...... Class-Based Threshold (CBT) Dynamic-CBT ChIPS Resource Reservation RED Active Queue Mgmt Dynamic-CBT and ChIPS ­ Router Support for Improved Multimedia Performance that use flow control. We extend Class- Based Threshold (CBT) [4], and propose a new active queue

Claypool, Mark

215

Drop Tail (FIFO) FREDCBQ ......  

E-print Network

Drop Tail (FIFO) FREDCBQ ...... Class-Based Threshold (CBT) Dynamic-CBT ChIPS Resource Reservation RED Active Queue Mgmt Dynamic-CBT and ChIPS ­ Router Support for Improved Multimedia Performance for multimedia flows that use flow control. We extend Class-Based Threshold (CBT) [12], and propose a new active

Claypool, Mark

216

Exporting dams: China's hydropower industry goes global.  

PubMed

In line with China's "going out" strategy, China's dam industry has in recent years significantly expanded its involvement in overseas markets. The Chinese Export-Import Bank and other Chinese financial institutions, state-owned enterprises, and private firms are now involved in at least 93 major dam projects overseas. The Chinese government sees the new global role played by China's dam industry as a "win-win" situation for China and host countries involved. But evidence from project sites such as the Merowe Dam in Sudan demonstrates that these dams have unrecognized social and environmental costs for host communities. Chinese dam builders have yet to adopt internationally accepted social and environmental standards for large infrastructure development that can assure these costs are adequately taken into account. But the Chinese government is becoming increasingly aware of the challenge and the necessity of promoting environmentally and socially sound investments overseas. PMID:18992986

McDonald, Kristen; Bosshard, Peter; Brewer, Nicole

2009-07-01

217

View of upstream face of the forebay dam of Grand ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of upstream face of the forebay dam of Grand Coulee Dam, looking west. Construction of the forebay dam, which replaced the eastern end of the original Grand Coulee Dam, was completed in 1974. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

218

18. DETAIL AT JUNCTION OF MAIN DAM AT LEFT AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. DETAIL AT JUNCTION OF MAIN DAM AT LEFT AND DIVERSION DAM AT RIGHT SHOWING LOG CRIBBING. SPACES INSIDE CRIBBING WERE FILLED WITH STONE TO ANCHOR DAM; DETERIORATION OF DAM HAS ALLOWED STONE BALLAST TO WASH AWAY. Photographed July 18, 1938. - Forge Creek Dam-John Cable Mill, Townsend, Blount County, TN

219

DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT1 PINE CREEK DAM, OKLAHOMA2  

E-print Network

#12;#12;DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT1 PINE CREEK DAM, OKLAHOMA2 DAM SAFETY MODIFICATION3 &4 Environmental Assessment Pine Creek Dam, Oklahoma Dam Safety Modification & Interim Risk Reduction Measure and risk reduction measures necessary to correct structural and maintenance deficiencies of Pine Creek Dam

US Army Corps of Engineers

220

Integration of field measurements and reactive transport modelling to evaluate contaminant transport at a sulfide mine tailings impoundment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a decade of field observations including geochemical, mineralogical and hydrological information are available on the generation of acid mine drainage from the Pistol Dam region of the P-area of Inco's tailings impoundment in Copper Cliff, Ontario. This work focuses on the integration and quantitative assessment of this data set using reactive transport modeling. The results of the reactive transport

A. E. Brookfield; D. W. Blowes; K. U. Mayer

2006-01-01

221

Application research of DTS system in dam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distributed optical fiber temperature sensor (DTS) system is widely used in temperature measuring projects. In this paper, applications of DTS system in temperature measuring and leakage detecting of dam are studied. Problems and solutions of using DTS system in dam are researched. Two typical engineering applications in the Three Gorges dam and Xin'anjiang hydropower station are studied. Test results are listed in the end.

Wang, Jianfeng; Hu, Chuanlong; Xu, Haifeng; Kang, Juan; Zhang, Zaixuan; Gong, Huaping

2010-11-01

222

Hoover Dam: The American Experience Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Experience Online presents this companion site to its recent American Experience film about the one of the greatest hydroengineering feats in history. The Hoover Dam, in Black Canyon on the Colorado River, at the Arizona-Nevada border, was built between 1930 and 1936 and is the highest concrete arch dam in the US. The site provides a program description, an enhanced transcript of the film, a brief bibliography, a list of the dam facts, an essay that explores the economic and environmental effects of the dam, a timeline, a map, a People and Events Database, and a teacher's guide.

223

Green River Locks and Dams 3, 4, 5, 6 and Barren River Lock and Dam 1 Disposition, Kentucky  

E-print Network

Green River Locks and Dams 3, 4, 5, 6 and Barren River Lock and Dam 1 Disposition, Kentucky 16 September 2014 ABSTRACT: Green River Locks and Dams 3 through 6 and Barren River Lock and Dam 1 were. The Green River Locks and Dams 5 and 6 ceased operations in 1951 due to a marked decline in navigation

US Army Corps of Engineers

224

Defining Successful Dam Removal and Shifting the Focus of Restoration; A Midwest Perspective.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of dam removals in the US has increased in the last decade because design lives are being exceeded for an increasing number of dams, and because interest groups have pushed for removal as part of attempts to restore river ecology. Large numbers of small dams have been removed, despite the paucity of information regarding the physical and biological impacts of removal. Here we offer a Midwestern perspective on dam removal, based on issues endemic to rivers of this region. In the absence of comprehensive national studies of dam removal, regionally specific studies provide a starting point for the debate over the efficacy of dam removal as a river restoration tool. Three of the most important issues in Midwestern river management are; excessive nutrient export, endangered mussel populations, and high sediment inputs. Some of the most diverse assemblages of freshwater mussels reside in the Midwest. These populations have been historically impacted by over-harvesting and increased sediment inputs to lotic environments. Dam removal results in two impacts that operate against mussel populations. First, the rapid dewatering of the upstream reservoir can cause nearly total mortality of the upstream (impoundment) community. Second, large volumes of sediment are released and deposited into downstream reaches, effectively smothering downstream communities. Sediment deposition downstream exacerbates the well-documented negative impacts that years of poor land use have had on stream and river biota, thus not only does deposition impact mussel communities, but interferes with all aquatic communities. Closely related to the movement of sediment out of the former impoundment is the export of nutrients. Issues of eutrophication have been documented in water bodies ranging from small receiving lakes to the Gulf of Mexico. Removing a dam releases nutrients that have been stored for the duration of the dam's existence, allowing them to flow downstream in a concentrated release that can last long after the initial removal. All three key Midwestern river management issues are directly impacted by the removal of dams. Though few comprehensive studies have quantified specific impacts following removal, information from chance failure observations and unpublished documentation can be used to support the argument that dam removal evaluation should move away from perceived needs, such as restoring connectivity and opening up habitat for non-endangered aquatic species, toward other relevant regional issues. Given the importance of excessive nutrient export, endangered mussel populations, and high sediment inputs, they should be substantial components in defining the potential success of removal as a restoration option in the Midwest, and possibly other areas of the US.

Selle, A. R.; Doyle, M. W.; Stanley, E. H.; Harbor, J. M.; Lyn, D. A.

2002-12-01

225

Lochnagar landslide-dam, Central Otago, New Zealand: geomechanics and timing of the formative event(s)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sudden breach of natural rockslide dams is a major safety issue in mountain areas, although unbreached rockslide-dammed lakes such as Lochnagar in Central Otago, New Zealand, may persist in the landscape for millennia. The Lochnagar landslide-dam is located within the steep schistose mountains of the Southern Alps of New Zealand. During an extensive study of the site, structural and Schmidt hammer measurements were taken from the immediate area of the failure, as well as samples collected for laboratory analysis. Point load estimates of the uniaxial compressive strength were 85 MPa perpendicular and 18 MPa parallel to the schistosity. The rock mass quality was estimated using the Geological Strength Index with values of 35-45 observed. These results were used in a series of numerical modelling techniques: kinematic analysis, limit equilibrium and distinct element modelling. The results of the numerical modelling suggest that a wedge failure with toe buckling or ploughing through its rockmass is the likely failure mechanism. An observed fault zone at the base of the landslide may have preconditioned the slope to failure by weakening the toe. Preliminary ages from a program of 10Be exposure age dating, indicate that the landslide that formed the dam is of at least early Holocene age so that debuttressing after late glacial retreat could also be a contributing factor to landslide formation. Furthermore, the landslide deposit developed during multiple slope failure events that may have a seismotectonic origin.

Augustinus, P. M.; Sweeney, C.; Brideau, M.; Fink, D.

2013-12-01

226

21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

2011-04-01

227

21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

2014-04-01

228

21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

2013-04-01

229

21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

2012-04-01

230

4. VIEW SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM, LOOKING NORTHEAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM, LOOKING NORTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

231

5. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE AND TOE OF DAM, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE AND TOE OF DAM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

232

6. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE AND TOE OF DAM, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE AND TOE OF DAM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

233

3. OVERALL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE, LOOKING EAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. OVERALL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE, LOOKING EAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

234

GENERAL VIEW OF THE WILSON DAM, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, GENERATING PLANT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GENERAL VIEW OF THE WILSON DAM, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, GENERATING PLANT IN THE BACKGROUND. - Wilson Dam & Hydroelectric Plant, Spanning Tennessee River at Wilson Dam Road (Route 133), Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

235

14. VIEW OF DAM SITE, LOOKING SOUTH (DOWNSTREAM). MIXING PLANT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. VIEW OF DAM SITE, LOOKING SOUTH (DOWNSTREAM). MIXING PLANT IS VISIBLE AT RIGHT, COFFER DAM IS UPSTREAM OF PLACING TOWER. EAST DOME IS VISIBLE AT LEFT OF TOWER, c. 1927 - Coolidge Dam, Gila River, Peridot, Gila County, AZ

236

3. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING A SMALL FIELDSTONE DAM (KNOWN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING A SMALL FIELD-STONE DAM (KNOWN LOCALLY AS DAM NO. 2), BUILT BY THE CCC - J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge Dams, Along Lower Souris River, Kramer, Bottineau County, ND

237

2. VIEW OF DAM 357, SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE OF THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW OF DAM 357, SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE OF THE DAM, LOOKING WEST FROM THE NEW MINIMUM FLOW CONTROL STRUCTURE - J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 357, Along Lower Souris River, Kramer, Bottineau County, ND

238

1. VIEW OF DAM 357, SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE OF THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF DAM 357, SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE OF THE DAM, LOOKING WEST TOWARD THE OUTLET WORKS - J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 357, Along Lower Souris River, Kramer, Bottineau County, ND

239

4. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING A LARGE FIELDSTONE DAM (KNOWN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING A LARGE FIELD-STONE DAM (KNOWN LOCALLY AS DAM NO. 1), BUILT BY THE CCC - J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge Dams, Along Lower Souris River, Kramer, Bottineau County, ND

240

8. VIEW OF DAM 83, SHOWING OLD SOURIS RIVER CHANNEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW OF DAM 83, SHOWING OLD SOURIS RIVER CHANNEL FROM THE DOWNSTREAM FACE OF THE DAM WITH POND A IN THE BACKGROUND, LOOKING SOUTH - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 83, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Ward County, ND

241

Dam located to east of powerhouse, view from south. This ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Dam located to east of powerhouse, view from south. This dam holds back the waters of the Chattahoochee River to form the mill pond north of Riverdale Cotton Mill - Riverdale Cotton Mill, Powerhouse & Dam, Valley, Chambers County, AL

242

a Study on the Stability of Earth DAM Subjected to the Seismic Load  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For ensuring the earth dam's stability of Wangqingtuo reservoir when silt liquefaction happens during Tangshan earthquake, a large amount of laboratory soil tests and field measurements have been performed to obtain the mechanic properties of the soil and silt dynamic parameters. On the basis of the soil tests, the equivalent linear constitutive model is employed in the dynamic numerical simulation of the typical dam and the results indicate that the shear deformation is induced by the foundation liquefaction with the help of the geo-slope software. Moreover, the stability analysis is performed using the finite element elasto-plastic model that is considered the Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria to calculate the stability factor. The factors indicate the local instability would take place because of the shear action. At last, the measures are introduced to the designers for preventing the dam from the instability.

Qi, Jinghua; Che, Ailan; Ge, Xiurun

243

McNary Dam, Ice Harbor Dam, and Lower Monumental Dam Smolt Monitoring Program; 1996 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The Washington Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW) assumed responsibility for the Smolt Monitoring Program at McNary Dam on the Columbia River in 1990 and at the new juvenile collection facility at Lower Monumental Dam on the Snake River in 1993. In 1996, Smolt Monitoring Program activities also began at the new juvenile collection facility located at Ice Harbor Dam. This report summarizes the 1996 Smolt Monitoring work at all three sites. The work at Ice Harbor consisted of Gas Bubble Trauma (GBT) monitoring only. In general, the 1996 passage season at both the McNary and Lower Monumental sites can be characterized by reduced passage of juveniles through the collection systems due to elevated river flows and spill, and low (<1%) overall facility mortality rates most likely resulting from cooler water temperatures. In accordance with the National Marine Fisheries Service recommendations (NMFS, 1995) all spring migrants were bypassed at McNary Dam in 1996. Mechanical problems within the McNary collection system resulted in collection and sampling activities being delayed until April 18 at this site, while sampling and collection began on the scheduled starting date of April 1 at Lower Monumental Dam. Monitoring operations were conducted through December 14 at McNary Dam and through October 28 at Lower Monumental Dam. An ongoing transportation evaluation summer migrant marking program was conducted at McNary Dam in 1996 by the NMFS. This necessitated the sampling of 394,211 additional fish beyond the recommended sampling guidelines. All total, 509,237 and 31,219 juvenile salmonids were anesthetized and individually counted, examined for scale loss, injuries, and brands by WDFW Smolt Monitoring personnel in 1996 at McNary Dam and Lower Monumental Dam, respectively.

Hillson, Todd; Lind, Sharon; Price, William (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

1997-07-01

244

Time-Lapse Seismic Tomography and Electrical Resistivity Mapping of a Small Embankment Dam with Possible Zones of Weakness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthen dam or levee failure can occur with little to no warning. Internal problems such as seepage and piping are among the major causes of failure in earthen embankment dams and levees. Identifying and mitigating these problems requires a cost effective and non-invasive method of investigating these critical structures. This study focuses on the early detection of internal problems such as seepage and piping using time lapse seismic refraction tomography (SRT) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). For this study, two quarter scale model dams were built at the USDA-ARS Hydraulic Engineering Research Unit in Stillwater, OK. These dams were constructed with two internal compromised zones that would be susceptible to seepage and piping. The zones consist of a sandy region and a region compacted at lower moisture content. Time lapse seismic refraction and electrical resistivity measurements were conducted over a course of two years to monitor changes in the internal structure of the model dams due to seasonal changes, cyclic loadings and internal erosion failure. The results will provide an insight on how compromised zones due to seepage and piping can be identified at an early stage using both SRT and ERT time-lapse measurements and how joint interpretation of these two methods helps in closely identifying what attributed to the compromised zone. [This research was funded by the department of Homeland Security- sponsored Southeast Region Research Initiative (SERRI) at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Wodajo, L. T.; Hickey, C. J.; Song, C. R.

2013-12-01

245

Experiments in dam removal, sediment pulses and channel evolution on the Clark Fork River, MT and White Salmon River, WA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two recent dam removals on tributaries to the Columbia River in the northwestern United States present contrasting examples of how dam removal methods, reservoir contents, and geomorphic settings influence system responses. The 2008 removal of Milltown Dam, from the Clark Fork River (CFR), Montana, and the 2011 removal of Condit Dam from the White Salmon River (WSR), Washington (Table 1), represent two of the largest dam removals to date. The Milltown Dam removal was notable because the dam stored millions of cubic meters of contaminated mine tailings, a portion of which were excavated as part of Superfund remediation but a portion of which flowed downstream after the removal. On the CFR, post-breach high flows in 2008 produced reservoir erosion and downstream deposition in bed interstices, along bars, and on the floodplain, but above-average (3-15 year recurrence interval) floods since then have remobilized this material and have, to a large extent, erased signs of downstream sedimentation. The Condit Dam removal entailed dynamiting of a 4m by 5.5m hole at the base of the dam, which produced rapid and dramatic draining of fine reservoir sediments within hours of the blast. Downstream of Condit Dam, the initial hyperconcentrated flows and sediment pulse draped the WSR with fine sediment, filled pools, and, in an unconfined reach influenced by the Columbia River's backwater, caused meters of aggradation and new bar formation. In the confined, bedrock-dominated reach downstream of the Condit site, pool-riffle structure has started to reemerge as of summer 2012 and the finest bed materials have been evacuated from the main channel, although sediment storage in pools and eddies persists. Whereas post-breach geomorphic responses on the CFR have been largely driven by hydrology, the post-breach evolution of the WSR has been predominantly influenced by antecedent geomorphic conditions (slope, confinement, and Columbia River backwater). On both the CFR and WSR, the pace of post-breach reservoir erosion and of geomorphic recovery from the disturbances produced by dam removal has been rapid, far exceeding pre-breach predictions.Table 1: Comparison of Milltown and Condit Dam removals

Wilcox, A. C.

2012-12-01

246

Estimating flow through an earthen dam  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students make measurements of dam dimensions and water levels above and below a small, accessible earthen dam. They assess the soil texture in the field. They follow up by developing a simple flow net and estimating seepage rate as part of a problem set. They discuss their assumptions and the likely sources and magnitude of error.

Kaye Savage

247

Ethanol Consumption by Rat Dams During Gestation,  

E-print Network

beverages. Maternal consumption of alcohol during pregnancy and nursing leads to blood- ethanol levelsEthanol Consumption by Rat Dams During Gestation, Lactation and Weaning Increases Ethanol examined effects of ethanol consumption in rat dams during gestation, lactation, and weaning on voluntary

Galef Jr., Bennett G.

248

Horizontal displacements of rock foundations of dams  

SciTech Connect

This paper uses geodetic survey methods to assess the horizontal displacements of dam foundations for several hydroelectric power plants in the Soviet Union. The effects of filling the reservoirs are outlined and the dependence of the degree of displacement on dam height is analyzed. The results are tabulated.

Karlson, A.A.

1987-08-01

249

ROV-AIDED DAM INSPECTION: PRACTICAL RESULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUVs) are used in a growing number of underwater missions, mostly inspections of different types of installations such as: telecommunication cables, pipes or oil extraction installations. A field where UUVs are still starting to prove their utility is dam inspection. This paper presents details our first approach in dam inspection. A set of experiments carried out

Joan Batlle; Tudor Nicosevici; Rafael Garcia; Marc Carreras

250

Tiger Dams Reinforce Baton Rouge Levees  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Tiger Dams line the Baton Rouge Mississippi River levee during the 2011 Flood.  Previously used to prevent oil from reaching Louisiana's coast during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, these Tiger Dams are filled with water and reinforced with sandbags to give the Baton Rouge Mississippi Riv...

251

Do we need construct more dams?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews global dam development in association with the growths of global population, economy, and energy consumption in the past several decades, and also evaluates contributions of dam development to future world sustainable development. Eventually, this paper answers whether we need more dams in the future or not. The world population has rapidly increased from 1.6 billion in 1900, 2.5 billion in 1950, 6.1 billion in 2000, to 7.0 billion in 2011, and is projected to reach 9.5 billion in 2050; similarly, the world economy has dramatically expanded. To maintain socioeconomic development, the consumption of water, food and energy has increased rapidly as well. However, the total volume of available water resource over the world is limited, the food production largely depends on water supply, and the main energy sources are still oil, coal and gas at present, which are regarded as non-renewable resources. Accordingly, it is expected that we will face serious problems to deal with the challenges of water crisis, food security and energy shortage in the near future. In order to enhance the capability of regulating water resource, a great number of global dams (and related reservoirs) have been constructed in the last one hundred years; currently, almost all large rivers over the world have been regulated by dams. The reservoirs can supply sufficient water for irrigated land to ensure food production, and the associated hydropower stations can generate electricity. This article collects the dam data from the ICOLD (International Commission on Large Dams) and GRanD (Global Reservoir and Dam) databases, and some socioeconomic data, including population, economy, and consumptions of water, food and energy over the world. Analysis of these data reveals that global dam development has a great impact on the world sustainable development. Further, it is concluded that we need further dam development to maintain our future development.

Chen, J.; Shi, H.

2013-12-01

252

Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS

... report any unexplained changes to your doctor. Other Organizations ... What is the likely cause of my congestive heart failure? How serious is my condition? How will my life change now that we know I have heart ...

253

Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... and empower Americans to make heart-healthy choices. Web Sites with More Information About Heart Failure For ...

254

Numerical analysis of earthquake response of an ultra-high earth-rockfill dam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Failure of high earth dams under earthquake may cause disastrous economic damage and loss of lives. It is necessary to conduct seismic safety assessment, and numerical analysis is an effective way. Solid-fluid interaction has a significant influence on the dynamic responses of geotechnical materials, which should be considered in the seismic analysis of earth dams. The initial stress field needed for dynamic computation is often obtained from postulation, without considering the effects of early construction and reservoir impounding. In this study, coupled static analyses are conducted to simulate the construction and impounding of an ultra-high earth rockfill dam in China. Then based on the initial static stress field, dynamic response of the dam is studied with fully coupled nonlinear method. Results show that excess pore water pressure accumulates gradually with earthquake and the maximum value occurs at the bottom of core. Acceleration amplification reaches the maximum at the crest as a result of whiplash effect. Horizontal and vertical permanent displacements both reach the maximum values at the dam crest.

Dong, W. X.; Xu, W. J.; Yu, Y. Z.; Lv, H.

2013-05-01

255

[Limnetic zooplankton run-off a high-head dam and their fate in a river with high current velocity (case of the Krasnoiarsk hydroelectric power station on the Yenisei river].  

PubMed

The vertical distribution of net zooplankton in head-water of Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric power station and its horizontal distribution in the tail-water were studied during two years in winter and summer seasons. In order to distinguish living and dead individuals the special staining was used. It was revealed that on average 77% of living plankton pass through high-head dam with deep water scoop to the tailwater. While passing through dam aggregates some individuals of the reservoir plankton are traumatized and die, that results in some increase of portion of dead individuals in the tail water near dam (from 3 to 6%). Alive zooplankton passed through the dam aggregates is eliminated under the Upper Yenisei highly turbulent conditions. There is approximately 10% of it in 32 km from the dam if compare with biomass in 20-40 m layer of reservoir, the portion of dead increases to 11%. The biomass of zooplankton suspended in the water column of the tail-water sometimes increases (till > 1 g/m3) due to large Copepoda Heteroscope borealis, which inhabits near-bottom and near-shore river zones and can be found in the central part of the river during reproductive period. Limnetic zooplankton from the reservoir cannot be considered as important food for planktivores in the tail-water. PMID:15032067

Dubovskaia, O P; Gladyshev, M I; Makhutova, O N

2004-01-01

256

Heads and Tails  

E-print Network

novellas by Sebastian, Helen Raven, & M. Fae Glasgow) WARNING: THIS ANTHOLOGY CONTAINS SAME-SEX, ADULT-ORIENTED MATERIAL. IT WILL NOT BE SOLD TO ANYONE UNDER THE AGE OF EIGHTEEN. Bene Dictum IV: Heads & Tails an anthology of X-Files slash fiction... exclusively. There are, however, two pieces bringing Krycek into the picture: ?Trinity? and ?Torrid.? As usual, M. Fae writes her own particular view of the Sk/M relation- ship and her stories range from romantic to hopeless; from no sex shown at all...

Glasgow, M.F.

1999-01-01

257

Guidewall demolition at Bonneville Dam  

SciTech Connect

Bonneville Dam, completed in 1938, included the smallest and busiest lock on the Columbia and Snake River Navigation System. To expedite barge traffic through this restriction, a new larger lock was designed and contracted by the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers. The project involved drill and shoot, alluvial gravel and rock excavation, dredging, rock support, structural concrete, and assorted demolitions. A large portion of the demolition work was the removal of the existing guidewall to allow barge traffic access to the new lock. Guidewall Demolition was completed using drill and shoot techniques and dredging the debris from the channel. This work involved unique challenges and innovative solutions to produce a successful result.

Marks, R.S. [Kiewit Pacific Co., Vancouver, WA (United States)

1997-05-01

258

Dams on the Mekong: Cumulative sediment starvation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mekong River, largely undeveloped prior to 1990, is undergoing rapid dam construction. Seven dams are under construction on the mainstem in China and 133 proposed for the Lower Mekong River and tributaries. We delineated nine distinct geomorphic regions, for which we estimated sediment yields based on geomorphic characteristics, tectonic history, and the limited sediment transport data available. We then applied the 3W model to calculate cumulative sediment trapping by these dams, accounting for changing trap efficiency over time and multiple dams on a single river system. Under a "definite future" scenario of 38 dams (built or under construction), cumulative sediment reduction to the Delta would be 51%. Under full build-out of all planned dams, cumulative sediment trapping will be 96%. That is, once in-channel stored sediment is exhausted, only 4% of the predam sediment load would be expected to reach the Delta. This scenario would have profound consequences on productivity of the river and persistence of the Delta landform itself, and suggests that strategies to pass sediment through/around dams should be explored to prevent the consequences of downstream sediment starvation.

Kondolf, G. M.; Rubin, Z. K.; Minear, J. T.

2014-06-01

259

Transient water and sediment storage of the decaying landslide dams induced by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake-triggered landslide dams are potentially dangerous disrupters of water and sediment flux in mountain rivers, and capable of releasing catastrophic outburst flows to downstream areas. We analyze an inventory of 828 landslide dams in the Longmen Shan mountains, China, triggered by the Mw 7.9 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. This database is unique in that it is the largest of its kind attributable to a single regional-scale triggering event: 501 of the spatially clustered landslides fully blocked rivers, while the remainder only partially obstructed or diverted channels in steep watersheds of the hanging wall of the Yingxiu-Beichuan Fault Zone. The size distributions of the earthquake-triggered landslides, landslide dams, and associated lakes (a) can be modeled by an inverse gamma distribution; (b) show that moderate-size slope failures caused the majority of blockages; and (c) allow a detailed assessment of seismically induced river-blockage effects on regional water and sediment storage. Monte Carlo simulations based on volumetric scaling relationships for soil and bedrock failures respectively indicate that 14% (18%) of the estimated total coseismic landslide volume of 6.4 (14.6) × 109 m3 was contained in landslide dams, representing only 1.4% of the > 60,000 slope failures attributed to the earthquake. These dams have created storage capacity of ~ 0.6 × 109 m3 for incoming water and sediment. About 25% of the dams containing 2% of the total river-blocking debris volume failed one week after the earthquake; these figures had risen to 60% (~ 20%), and > 90% (> 90%) within one month, and one year, respectively, thus also emptying ~ 92% of the total potential water and sediment storage behind these dams within one year following the earthquake. Currently only ~ 0.08 × 109 m3 remain available as natural reservoirs for storing water and sediment, while ~ 0.19 × 109 m3, i.e. about a third of the total river-blocking debris volume, has been eroded by rivers. Dam volume and upstream catchment area control to first order the longevity of the barriers, and bivariate domain plots are consistent with the observation that most earthquake-triggered landslide dams were ephemeral. We conclude that the river-blocking portion of coseismic slope failures disproportionately modulates the post-seismic sediment flux in the Longmen Shan on annual to decadal timescales.

Fan, Xuanmei; van Westen, Cees J.; Korup, Oliver; Gorum, Tolga; Xu, Qiang; Dai, Fuchu; Huang, Runqiu; Wang, Gonghui

2012-10-01

260

9. VIEW OF BASIN BEHIND DAM, SHOWING SCARS FROM EARTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF BASIN BEHIND DAM, SHOWING SCARS FROM EARTH MOVING TO CONSTRUCT DAM, LOOKING EAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, East Timothy Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 8.4 miles North of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

261

46. Photocopy of photograph, c. 1933. VIEW OF DAM AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

46. Photocopy of photograph, c. 1933. VIEW OF DAM AND FOREBAY. NOTE ALL WATER FLOWING THROUGH FOREBAY AND OUT EITHER TAILRACE OR SLUICE GATE (INSTEAD OF OVER DAM) BECAUSE OF LOW WATER FLOW. (Courtesy of the Potomac Edison Company Library (Hagerstown, MD), Historical Data Files, Dam No. 5 listing - Dam No. 5 Hydroelectric Plant, On Potomac River, Hedgesville, Berkeley County, WV

262

53. AVALON DAM Photographic copy of historic photo, August ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

53. AVALON DAM - Photographic copy of historic photo, August 9, 1893 (original print located at the Carlsbad Irrigation District offices, Carlsbad, New Mexico) photographer unknown 'EDDY DAM. LOOKING EAST.' VIEW OF COLLAPSED DAM - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Avalon Dam, On Pecos River, 4 miles North of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

263

66. AVALON DAM Photographic copy of historic photo, May ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

66. AVALON DAM - Photographic copy of historic photo, May 22, 1908 (original print filed in Record Group 115, National Archives, Washington, D.C.) W.J.Lubken, photographer 'VIEW LOOKING EAST FROM WEST END OF AVALON DAM, SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE OF DAM' - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Avalon Dam, On Pecos River, 4 miles North of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

264

8. VIEW OF BASIN BEHIND DAM, SHOWING SCARS FROM EARTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW OF BASIN BEHIND DAM, SHOWING SCARS FROM EARTH MOVING TO CONSTRUCT DAM, LOOKING NORTH - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, East Timothy Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 8.4 miles North of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

265

8. WEST DAM, LOOKING DUE NORTH OVER TOP OF WEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. WEST DAM, LOOKING DUE NORTH OVER TOP OF WEST DAM, SHOWING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OUTLET TO RIGHT OF DAM, NEW PUMP PLANT BUILDING AND CANAL TO LEFT OF DAM. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

266

6. DAM AFTERBAY, WITH OWYEE RIVER IN FOREGROUND, SHOWING OUTLET ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. DAM AFTERBAY, WITH OWYEE RIVER IN FOREGROUND, SHOWING OUTLET TUNNEL PORTAL (LEFT) AND POWERHOUSE AND ENTRANCE PORTAL TO DAM INTERIOR (RIGHT). NOTE RELEASE OF WATER FROM NEEDLE VALVE NUMBER 2 IN VALVEHOUSE ON DAM. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

267

4. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM FACE OF DAM, WITH SCARS FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM FACE OF DAM, WITH SCARS FROM EARTH MOVING TO CONSTRUCT DAM IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Five Point Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 12 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

268

2. Overview of the Lost River Diversion Dam House complex ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Overview of the Lost River Diversion Dam House complex taken from west edge of horseshoe-shaped Lost River Diversion Dam. Interior of east side of dam in the foreground. Facing East. - Klamath Basin Project, Lost River Diversion Dam House, Lost River near intersection of State Highway 140 & Hill Road, Klamath Falls, Klamath County, OR

269

7. SOUTHEAST VIEW OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE MULTIPLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. SOUTHEAST VIEW OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE MULTIPLE ARCHES, AN UPSTREAM VIEW OF THE PARAPET WALL ALONG THE CREST OF THE DAM, AND THE SHELTER HOUSE AT THE EAST END OF THE DAM. - Big Dalton Dam, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

270

43. Credit TR. Reconstruction of Dam No. 4 after 1936 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

43. Credit TR. Reconstruction of Dam No. 4 after 1936 flood. Pouring concrete for new dam section; opening at left for flume to remove water from behind coffer dam. Photo c. 1936 - Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Plant, Potomac River, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV

271

Design of a Sediment Mitigation System for Conowingo Dam  

E-print Network

Design of a Sediment Mitigation System for Conowingo Dam Rayhan Ain, Kevin Cazenas, Sheri Gravette with the Dam. During these events, the sediment build up at Conowingo Dam in the Lower Susquehanna River has the best mitigation technique to address the scouring of sediment at Conowingo Dam. Design alternatives

272

Three-Gorges Dam: Risk to Ancient Fish  

E-print Network

Three-Gorges Dam: Risk to Ancient Fish THE HUGETHREE-GORGES DAM (TGD) OFTHE Yangtze River is going and animals, as discussed by J. Wu et al. in their Policy Forum "Three-Gorges Dam-- experiment in habitat). The construction of the Gezhou Dam (38 km downstream from the TGD) in 1981 led to sharp declines in the popula

Wu, Jianguo "Jingle"

273

Tribal water rights: exploring dam construction in Indian country.  

PubMed

This paper examines the legal and policy framework related to Tribal water rights, with a key focus on the environmental public health impacts of dam construction in Indian Country. Three dam projects will be highlighted: the Dalles Dam, the Elwha River Dams, and the Pick-Sloan Missouri River Basin Program. PMID:25846167

Church, Jerilyn; Ekechi, Chinyere O; Hoss, Aila; Larson, Anika Jade

2015-03-01

274

Assessing Sediment-Related Effects of Dam Removals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subcommittee on Sedimentation: Sediment Management and Dam Removal Workshop; Portland, Oregon, 14-16 October 2008; For a host of reasons including dam safety, maintenance costs, and ecological concerns, more dams are currently being removed each year in the United States than are being constructed. Because many reservoirs have accumulated sediments within their pools, dam removal can potentially impose a variety of

J. Rose Wallick; Timothy Randle

2009-01-01

275

MURTHY, MURTY AND RAGHUPATHY Designing Earth Dams Optimally  

E-print Network

are also used in earth dams. Earth dams have been built by various human societies for centuries[ 91 ] MURTHY, MURTY AND RAGHUPATHY Designing Earth Dams Optimally G S R Murthy1 , Katta G Murty2 HES Infra Limited, Hyderabad, India Abstract : Engineering design of an earth dam is a crucial issue

Murty, Katta G.

276

The ionospheres and plasma tails of comets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews the current state of knowledge about cometary plasma (type I) tails and ionospheres. Observational statistics for type I tails are examined along with spectroscopic observations of plasma tails, identified ion species in such tails, and the morphology of cometary plasma tails and ionospheres. Evidence for a strong interaction between comets and the solar wind is evaluated on

D. A. Mendis; W.-H. Ip

1977-01-01

277

EVOLVING EXPECTATIONS OF DAM REMOVAL OUTCOMES: DOWNSTREAM GEOMORPHIC EFFECTS FOLLOWING REMOVAL OF A SMALL, GRAVEL-FILLED DAM1  

E-print Network

EVOLVING EXPECTATIONS OF DAM REMOVAL OUTCOMES: DOWNSTREAM GEOMORPHIC EFFECTS FOLLOWING REMOVAL OF A SMALL, GRAVEL-FILLED DAM1 Kelly Kibler, Desiree Tullos, and Mathias Kondolf 2 ABSTRACT: Dam removal is a promising river restoration technique, particularly for the vast number of rivers impounded by small dams

Tullos, Desiree

278

The Hoover Dam: Lonely Lands Made Fruitful  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Project designer Janet Haven of the University of Virginia American Studies Program presents the construction of the Hoover Dam as an alternative narrative to the devastation of the Great Depression in her photoessay, The Hoover Dam: Lonely Lands Made Fruitful. Five slide shows created in Flash2 cover the construction from diverting the Colorado River to pouring concrete and adding the final touches to a completed dam. The slide shows are prefaced by historical background, including short essays on topics such as the Dam as the "Machine in the Desert" and the text of Franklin D. Roosevelt's Dedication Speech upon completion, September 30, 1935. Images of maps and plans are linked throughout, and a list of Works Consulted gives concise source descriptions as well as ideas for further reading.

279

Toward Policies and Decision-Making for Dam Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dam removal has emerged as a critical issue in environmental management. Agencies responsible for dams face a drastic increase\\u000a in the number of potential dam removals in the near future. Given limited resources, these agencies need to develop ways to\\u000a decide which dams should be removed and in what order. The underlying science of dam removal is relatively undeveloped and

MARTIN W. DOYLE; JON M. HARBOR; EMILY H. STANLEY

2003-01-01

280

Heart Failure Overview  

MedlinePLUS

CHF; Congestive heart failure; Left-sided heart failure; Right-sided heart failure - Cor pulmonale; Cardiomyopathy - heart failure ... Heart failure is often a long-term (chronic) condition, but it may come on suddenly. It can ...

281

Beyond the histone tail  

PubMed Central

Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histones have been implicated in cellular processes such as transcription, replication and DNA repair. These processes normally involve dynamic changes in chromatin structure and DNA accessibility. Most of the PTMs reported so far map on the histone tails and essentially affect chromatin structure indirectly by recruiting effector proteins. A recent study by Schneider and colleagues published in Cell1 has uncovered the function of H3K122 acetylation found within the histone globular domain and specifically positioned on the DNA-bound surface of the nucleosome. Their findings demonstrate a direct effect of histone PTMs on chromatin dynamics, and propose that modifications located in different parts of the nucleosome employ distinct regulatory mechanisms. PMID:23941995

Molina-Serrano, Diego; Kirmizis, Antonis

2013-01-01

282

Leibis/Lichte Dam in Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Thuringia the second highest dam of Germany is under construction (figure 1). The new Leibis/Lichte dam is a 370 m long and 102.5 m high gravity dam of concrete with straight axis. With the completion of the Leibis/Lichte dam in 2005 more than 300.000 inhabitants of the Eastern Regions of Thuringia will be supplied with high quality drinking water. The foundation rocks at the dam site are exclusively greyish-blue argillaceous schist, silt schist and cleaved fine sandstones from the Ordovician period (phycode schist). The main joint system consists of three differently orientated joints. Geomechanically of main interest is the shallow dipping bedding, especially in the left abutment because of its downhill dip. The other joints show a generally steep dip. Wide extending faults with thick mylonites or fractured zones, which could influence the foundation of the dam, do not exist within the dam site. The engineering geological field mapping of the foundation surface confirms the rock mass parameters. The excavation works are carried out in four different stages to avoid loosening of the foundation rock. Great care is taken to assure that the foundation rock is protected against weathering. Based on the results of preliminary investigations the foundation level was planned in a depth of 4 to14 m. The abutments of the dam correspond to the expectations. Predominantly the argillaceous rock shows a low permeability. The permeability is exclusively linked to faults respectively few large joints. In order to prevent seepage and to reduce the uplift pressure, a grout curtain in two rows is arranged with a depth of 5 to 44 metres.

Kühnel, Markus

283

Provision of reliability of earth dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions 1.For high-quality performance of all types of main works on the construction of earth and earth-rock dams the construction sites should be equipped with construction machines which make it possible to place the earth materials without their segregation, to compact them to the prescribed density (especially at places where the dam joins the canyon walls), to treat the compacted

1983-01-01

284

Dam-breach analysis and flood-inundation mapping for Lakes Ellsworth and Lawtonka near Lawton, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dams provide beneficial functions such as flood control, recreation, and reliable water supplies, but they also entail risk: dam breaches and resultant floods can cause substantial property damage and loss of life. The State of Oklahoma requires each owner of a high-hazard dam, which the Federal Emergency Management Agency defines as dams for which failure or misoperation probably will cause loss of human life, to develop an emergency action plan specific to that dam. Components of an emergency action plan are to simulate a flood resulting from a possible dam breach and map the resulting downstream flood-inundation areas. The resulting flood-inundation maps can provide valuable information to city officials, emergency managers, and local residents for planning the emergency response if a dam breach occurs. Accurate topographic data are vital for developing flood-inundation maps. This report presents results of a cooperative study by the city of Lawton, Oklahoma, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to model dam-breach scenarios at Lakes Ellsworth and Lawtonka near Lawton and to map the potential flood-inundation areas of such dam breaches. To assist the city of Lawton with completion of the emergency action plans for Lakes Ellsworth and Lawtonka Dams, the USGS collected light detection and ranging (lidar) data that were used to develop a high-resolution digital elevation model and a 1-foot contour elevation map for the flood plains downstream from Lakes Ellsworth and Lawtonka. This digital elevation model and field measurements, streamflow-gaging station data (USGS streamflow-gaging station 07311000, East Cache Creek near Walters, Okla.), and hydraulic values were used as inputs for the dynamic (unsteady-flow) model, Hydrologic Engineering Center's River Analysis System (HEC-RAS). The modeled flood elevations were exported to a geographic information system to produce flood-inundation maps. Water-surface profiles were developed for a 75-percent probable maximum flood scenario and a sunny-day dam-breach scenario, as well as for maximum flood-inundation elevations and flood-wave arrival times for selected bridge crossings. Some areas of concern near the city of Lawton, if a dam breach occurs at Lakes Ellsworth or Lawtonka, include water treatment plants, wastewater treatment plants, recreational areas, and community-services offices.

Rendon, Samuel H.; Ashworth, Chad E.; Smith, S. Jerrod

2012-01-01

285

Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decompensated congestive heart failure (CHF) is a clinical syndrome often characterized by elevated left ventricular fi lling pressures (LVEDP). Therapy for decompensated CHF aims at normalizing fi lling pressures and thereby improves both symptoms and outcomes. However, therapy guided by direct measurements of fi lling pressure is not practical in most patients, focusing attention on non-invasive surrogate measures of LVEDP

Susan Isakson BA; Alan Maisel

286

Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Management 1. When performing the initial evaluation of a patient diagnosed with heart failure (HF), you should assess the following: a. The severity of the symptoms of impaired cardiac function (e.g., dyspnea on exertion, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, orthopnea, fatigue, and leg edema) b. Evidence for risk factors strongly associated with HF: ischemic heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, valvular heart disease

William Lewis; Jim Nuovo

287

STUDENT “FAILURES”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant differences between pass and fail students were observed when several background variables and test scores were related to degree examination results for1,015 first year arts and science students at Aberdeen University. The119 students who were required to discontinue attendance at classes because of academic failure were contacted by postal questionnaire immediately on being sent down, and again fifteen months

J. D. Wilson

1972-01-01

288

Numerical modelling of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods using physically based dam-breach models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid development and instability of moraine-dammed proglacial lakes is increasing the potential for the occurrence of catastrophic Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) in high-mountain regions. Advanced, physically-based numerical dam-breach models represent an improvement over existing methods for the derivation of breach outflow hydrographs. However, significant uncertainty surrounds the initial parameterisation of such models, and remains largely unexplored. We use a unique combination of numerical dam-breach and two-dimensional hydrodynamic modelling, employed with a Generalised Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) framework to quantify the degree of equifinality in dam-breach model output for the reconstruction of the failure of Dig Tsho, Nepal. Monte Carlo analysis was used to sample the model parameter space, and morphological descriptors of the moraine breach were used to evaluate model performance. Equifinal breach morphologies were produced by parameter ensembles associated with differing breach initiation mechanisms, including overtopping waves and mechanical failure of the dam face. The material roughness coefficient was discovered to exert a dominant influence over model performance. Percentile breach hydrographs derived from cumulative distribution function hydrograph data under- or overestimated total hydrograph volume and were deemed to be inappropriate for input to hydrodynamic modelling. Our results support the use of a Total Variation Diminishing solver for outburst flood modelling, which was found to be largely free of numerical instability and flow oscillation. Routing of scenario-specific optimal breach hydrographs revealed prominent differences in the timing and extent of inundation. A GLUE-based method for constructing likelihood-weighted maps of GLOF inundation extent, flow depth, and hazard is presented, and represents an effective tool for communicating uncertainty and equifinality in GLOF hazard assessment. However, future research should focus on the utility of the approach for predictive, as opposed to reconstructive GLOF modelling.

Westoby, M. J.; Brasington, J.; Glasser, N. F.; Hambrey, M. J.; Reynolds, J. M.; Hassan, M. A. A. M.

2014-06-01

289

Congenital transmission of Neospora caninum in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Neosporosis is an important cause of bovine abortion worldwide. Many aspects of transmission of Neospora caninum in nature are unknown. The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is considered one of the most important wildlife reservoirs of N. caninum in the USA. During the hunting seasons of 2008, 2009, and 2010, brains of 155 white-tailed deer fetuses were bioassayed in mice for protozoal isolation. Viable N. caninum (NcWTDMn1, NcWTDMn2) was isolated from the brains of two fetuses by bioassays in mice, and subsequent propagation in cell culture. Dams of these two infected fetuses had antibodies to N. caninum by Neospora agglutination test at 1:100 serum dilution. DNA obtained from culture-derived N. caninum tachyzoites of the two isolates with Nc5 PCR confirmed diagnosis. Results prove congenital transmission of N. caninum in the white tailed deer for the first time. PMID:23566408

Dubey, J P; Jenkins, M C; Kwok, O C H; Ferreira, L R; Choudhary, S; Verma, S K; Villena, I; Butler, E; Carstensen, M

2013-09-23

290

Geophysical investigations of geology and structure at the Martis Creek Dam, Truckee, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent evaluation of Martis Creek Dam highlighted the potential for dam failure due to either seepage or an earthquake on nearby faults. In 1972, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers constructed this earthen dam, located within the Truckee Basin to the north of Lake Tahoe, CA for water storage and flood control. Past attempts to raise the level of the Martis Creek Reservoir to its design level have been aborted due to seepage at locations downstream, along the west dam abutment, and at the base of the spillway. In response to these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey has undertaken a comprehensive suite of geophysical investigations aimed at understanding the interplay between geologic structure, seepage patterns, and reservoir and groundwater levels. This paper concerns the geologic structure surrounding Martis Creek Dam and emphasizes the importance of a regional-scale understanding to the interpretation of engineering-scale geophysical data. Our studies reveal a thick package of sedimentary deposits interbedded with Plio-Pleistocene volcanic flows; both the deposits and the flows are covered by glacial outwash. Magnetic field data, seismic tomography models, and seismic reflections are used to determine the distribution and chronology of the volcanic flows. Previous estimates of depth to basement (or the thickness of the interbedded deposits) was 100 m. Magnetotelluric soundings suggest that electrically resistive bedrock may be up to 2500 m deep. Both the Polaris Fault, identified outside of the study area using airborne LiDAR, and the previously unnamed Martis Creek Fault, have been mapped through the dam area using ground and airborne geophysics. Finally, as determined by direct-current resistivity imaging, time-domain electromagnetic sounding, and seismic refraction, the paleotopography of the interface between the sedimentary deposits and the overlying glacial outwash plays a principal role both in controlling groundwater flow and in the distribution of the observed seepage.

Bedrosian, Paul A.; Burton, Bethany L.; Powers, Michael H.; Minsley, Burke J.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Hunter, Lewis E.

2012-02-01

291

Metals uptake and health risks associated with cattle grazing on mine tailings  

SciTech Connect

Cattle are used at a site in Arizona to revegetate mine tailings dams by dispersing seeds and adding fertilizer with their manure. Although this program has been successful in revegetating the slopes, the residual metals in the tailings may potentially be accumulated by the cattle. Using US EPA guidelines on indirect exposure pathways and data on metals in tailings and in grasses, exposure and tissue levels of metals were calculated to assess health threats to the cattle or to those consuming the beef. Lead in the tailings and cadmium in tailings and grasses were selected for detailed exposure analysis via ingestion of tailings and grasses by grazing cattle. Predicted exposures to cattle were below levels resulting in toxic effects to livestock. Estimated human exposures were below the EPA reference dose for cadmium even for a 15 kg child consuming beef or beef liver. Similarly, estimated tissue levels of lead were within reported background dietary levels of lead in beef and kidney. Necropsies of four newborn calves found no evidence of metal toxicity, but possible copper and selenium deficiencies combined with viral infection. Similarly, blood samples from pregnant cattle had non-detectable levels of lead, arsenic, and cadmium.

Tsuji, J.S. [Kleinfelder, Inc., Bellevue, WA (United States)

1994-12-31

292

Wavelet analysis of the hydrologic effects of Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River at Lees Ferry, Arizona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous wavelet transformation is a powerful analytical tool with which to analyze the hydrologic effects of dam construction and operation on river systems, an issue of great managerial, political, and social interest in the western United States. Using continuous records of instantaneous discharge from the Lees Ferry gaging station and records of daily mean discharge from upstream tributaries, we conducted a continuous wavelet transformation (CWT) analysis of the pre- and post-dam hydrologic structure of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, downstream from Glen Canyon Dam. CWT of mean daily discharge provided a highly compressed and integrative picture of the near-total elimination of pronounced annual and sub-annual wavelet features after dam construction. Events such as droughts, managed floods, and uncontrollable snowmelt-driven discharge were also visible. The continuous record, interpolated to consistent hourly intervals, revealed a much finer scale image of river conditions. Prior to dam construction, the CWT showed the influence of warm season peak discharge periods, discharge driven by the monsoon and dissipating tropical storms, and annual droughts. In the post-dam period, strong wavelet signals related to diurnal power generation, weekly shutdowns in power generation, shifts in daily discharge management, and the 1996 experimental flood were dominant. The CWT approach appears to represent well-known features of dam operation without generation of spurious results. Thus, CWT, with quantitative statistical significance tests, should be a promising tool for assessing (1) dam operation in less well-studied regions and (2) real-time success or failure of management attempts to reconstruct desired flow characteristics.

White, M. A.; Schmidt, J. C.; Topping, D. J.

2003-12-01

293

Dam nation: A geographic census of American dams and their large-scale hydrologic impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newly available data indicate that dams fragment the fluvial system of the continental United States and that their impact on river discharge is several times greater than impacts deemed likely as a result of global climate change. The 75,000 dams in the continental United States are capable of storing a volume of water almost equaling one year's mean runoff, but

William L. Graf

1999-01-01

294

DAMS, DAM REMOVAL, AND RIVER RESTORATION: A HEDONIC PROPERTY VALUE ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the results of a hedonic property value analysis for multiple hydropower sites along the Kennebec River in Maine, including the former site of the Edwards Dam in Augusta, Maine. The effect of the removal of the Edwards Dam on the Kennebec River in Maine is examined through consumer’s marginal willingness to pay to be close to or

LYNNE Y. LEWIS; CURTIS BOHLEN; SARAH WILSON

2008-01-01

295

NONLINEAR INCREMENTAL THERMAL STRESS-STRAIN ANALYSIS FOR PORTUGUES DAM; AN RCC GRAVITY ARCH DAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nonlinear incremental thermal stress-strain analysis (NISA) was conducted to evaluate the behavior of the Portugues Dam. The purpose of the analysis was to study the effect of thermal loading caused by heat of hydration and assess the potential for cracking. The Portugues dam is designed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers as a roller compacted concrete (RCC) gravity

Ahmed Nisar; David Dollar; Paul Jacob; Dongmei Chu; Charles Logie

296

Metallization failures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metallization-related failure mechanisms were shown to be a major cause of integrated circuit failures under accelerated stress conditions, as well as in actual use under field operation. The integrated circuit industry is aware of the problem and is attempting to solve it in one of two ways: (1) better understanding of the aluminum system, which is the most widely used metallization material for silicon integrated circuits both as a single level and multilevel metallization, or (2) evaluating alternative metal systems. Aluminum metallization offers many advantages, but also has limitations particularly at elevated temperatures and high current densities. As an alternative, multilayer systems of the general form, silicon device-metal-inorganic insulator-metal, are being considered to produce large scale integrated arrays. The merits and restrictions of metallization systems in current usage and systems under development are defined.

Beatty, R.

1971-01-01

297

[Tail Plane Icing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aviation Safety Program initiated by NASA in 1997 has put greater emphasis in safety related research activities. Ice-contaminated-tailplane stall (ICTS) has been identified by the NASA Lewis Icing Technology Branch as an important activity for aircraft safety related research. The ICTS phenomenon is characterized as a sudden, often uncontrollable aircraft nose- down pitching moment, which occurs due to increased angle-of-attack of the horizontal tailplane resulting in tailplane stall. Typically, this phenomenon occurs when lowering the flaps during final approach while operating in or recently departing from icing conditions. Ice formation on the tailplane leading edge can reduce tailplane angle-of-attack range and cause flow separation resulting in a significant reduction or complete loss of aircraft pitch control. In 1993, the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) and NASA embarked upon a four-year research program to address the problem of tailplane stall and to quantify the effect of tailplane ice accretion on aircraft performance and handling characteristics. The goals of this program, which was completed in March 1998, were to collect aerodynamic data for an aircraft tail with and without ice contamination and to develop analytical methods for predicting the effects of tailplane ice contamination. Extensive dry air and icing tunnel tests which resulted in a database of the aerodynamic effects associated with tailplane ice contamination. Although the FAA/NASA tailplane icing program generated some answers regarding ice-contaminated-tailplane stall (ICTS) phenomena, NASA researchers have found many open questions that warrant further investigation into ICTS. In addition, several aircraft manufacturers have expressed interest in a second research program to expand the database to other tail configurations and to develop experimental and computational methodologies for evaluating the ICTS phenomenon. In 1998, the icing branch at NASA Lewis initiated a second multi-phase research program for tailplane icing (TIP II) to develop test methodologies and tailplane performance and handling qualities evaluation tools. The main objectives of this new NASA/Industry/Academia collaborative research programs were: (1) define and evaluate a sub-scale wind tunnel test methodology for determining tailplane performance degradation due to icing. (2) develop an experimental database of tailplane aerodynamic performance with and without ice contamination for a range of tailplane configurations. Wind tunnel tests were planned with representative general aviation aircraft, i.e., the Learjet 45, and a twin engine low speed aircraft. This report summarizes the research performed during the first year of the study, and outlines the work tasks for the second year.

1997-01-01

298

Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1997, an estimated $5,501 was spent for every hospital-discharge diagnosis of heart failure, and another $1,742 per month was required to care for each patient after dis- charge. Accordingly, substantial efforts have been made to identify and treat the factors that predict recurrent hospitalization. End points of large randomized trials now include the effect of the studied intervention on

Mariell Jessup; Susan Brozena

2003-01-01

299

Field verification of reconstructed dam-break flood, Laurel Run, Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A one-dimensional dam-break flood routing model is verified by using observed data on the flash flood resulting from the failure of Laurel Run Reservoir Dam near Johnstown, Pennsylvania. The model has been developed on the basis of an explicit scheme of the characteristics method with specified time intervals. The model combines one of the characteristic equations with the Rankine-Hugoniot shock equations to trace the corresponding characteristic backward to the known state for solving the depth and velocity of flow at the wave front. The previous version of the model has called for a modification of the method of solution to overcome the computational difficulty at the narrow breach and at any geomorphological constraints where channel geometry changes rapidly. The large reduction in the computational inaccuracies and oscillations was achieved by introducing the actual "storage width" in the equation of continuity and the imaginary "conveyance width" in the equation of motion. Close agreement between observed and computed peak stages at several stations downstream of the dam strongly suggests the validity and applicability of the model. However, small numerical noise appearing in the computed stage and discharge hydrographs at the dam site as well as discrepancy of attenuated peaks in the discharge hydrographs indicate the need for further model improvement.

Chen, Cheng-lung; Armbruster, Jeffrey T.

1979-01-01

300

Hiwassee Dam rehabilitation to combat concrete growth  

SciTech Connect

Hiwassee Dam is experiencing concrete growth caused by alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR). The AAR is the alkali-silica tape associated with excessive alkali in the cement and a micaceous quartzite (siliceous) aggregate used in the concrete. Concrete growth at Hiwassee Dam caused by this reaction has resulted in high stresses and deflections within the dam. These stresses and deflections have caused the nonoverflow blocks to deflect into the spillway openings causing the spillway gates to bind. This growth has also caused the spillway bridge expansion joints to close, and structural cracking in the upper portion of the dam. This is a continuation of the paper that was presented at the International conference on Hydropower {open_quotes}WATERPOWER `93{close_quotes} entitled {open_quotes}MODIFICATION AT HIWASSEE DAM DUE TO CONCRETE GROWTH PROBLEMS{close_quotes} Volume 2, page 860 to 869. It presents: The rehabilitation to date, the instrumentation that has been installed to monitor the rehabilitation, and the results of these efforts.

Newell, V.A.; Tanner, D.T.; Wagner, C.D. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States)

1995-12-31

301

The Remains of the Dam: What Have We Learned From 10 Years of Dam Removals?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 10 years in the U.S., dam removal has evolved from an occasionally implemented, rarely studied, and poorly understood intervention to improve rivers, to a much more frequently accomplished and better studied and understood approach to river restoration. Over that same time period, the numbers and sizes of dams and volumes of sediment released have dramatically increased. By some estimates close to 1000 dams have been removed over the last 100 years, with most of those occurring within the last 10. While most of these are small (less than 15 m high) dams, removals of dams up to 70 m high are presently underway. Releases of sediment associated with these removals over the past 10 years have also increased by close to four orders of magnitude; for example removal of the Elwha River dams in Washington is estimated to release almost 107 m3 of sediment into the lower Elwha River. Given a decade's worth of dam removals and, in some cases, well-orchestrated case studies of the effects of removal on the geomorphology and (to a lesser extent) ecology of rivers, what have we learned? More specifically, where do we now stand with respect to being able to predict the consequences of future dam removals? Drawing on both field examples and numerical models of dam removals in the western U.S., several key lessons stand out. Although every dam removal and river are different, removals initiate very rapid upstream river response and reservoir erosion and evacuation of sediment by various mechanisms that are strongly controlled by grain size of the deposit, volumes of residual sediment relative to total reservoir volume, and style of dam removal (instantaneous versus staged). Erosion of sediment accumulations in fully and partially filled (by sediment) reservoirs proceeds by different trajectories and rates, with full reservoirs releasing sediment primarily by upstream knickpoint retreat while erosion and sediment release in partially-filled reservoirs proceeds by vertical incision and delta progradation. Coarse grained non-cohesive sediment deposits erode by both vertical incision and lateral migration; fine-grained non-cohesive deposits can slump and fail catastrophically by landsliding. The rate of upstream reservoir erosion sets the tempo of downstream river adjustments and sedimentation. Prediction of location of sediment accumulations is bolstered by both 1- and 2-D hydrodynamic models that have proven to be remarkably accurate in predicting the spatial extent and pattern of deposition, but are less accurate with respect to predicting timing and longevity of deposits.Erosion of Marmot coffer dam on the Sandy River, OR following dam breach, October 19, 2007

Grant, G. E.; O'Connor, J. E.; Major, J. J.

2012-12-01

302

Numerical modelling of glacial lake outburst floods using physically based dam-breach models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The instability of moraine-dammed proglacial lakes creates the potential for catastrophic glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) in high-mountain regions. In this research, we use a unique combination of numerical dam-breach and two-dimensional hydrodynamic modelling, employed within a generalised likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) framework, to quantify predictive uncertainty in model outputs associated with a reconstruction of the Dig Tsho failure in Nepal. Monte Carlo analysis was used to sample the model parameter space, and morphological descriptors of the moraine breach were used to evaluate model performance. Multiple breach scenarios were produced by differing parameter ensembles associated with a range of breach initiation mechanisms, including overtopping waves and mechanical failure of the dam face. The material roughness coefficient was found to exert a dominant influence over model performance. The downstream routing of scenario-specific breach hydrographs revealed significant differences in the timing and extent of inundation. A GLUE-based methodology for constructing probabilistic maps of inundation extent, flow depth, and hazard is presented and provides a useful tool for communicating uncertainty in GLOF hazard assessment.

Westoby, M. J.; Brasington, J.; Glasser, N. F.; Hambrey, M. J.; Reynolds, J. M.; Hassan, M. A. A. M.; Lowe, A.

2015-03-01

303

Managing forests for white-tailed eagles  

E-print Network

Managing forests for white-tailed eagles White-tailed eagles (sea eagles) were re and carry out forestry operations and other activities in relation to the statutory protection of white-tailed eagles (sea eagles). It replaces general guidance relating to white-tailed eagles contained in Forestry

304

NOVA: Bombing Hitlerâ??s Dams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NOVA is well-known for its engaging documentaries and the team delivers once more with â??Bombing Hitlerâ??s Dams.â? Located within the Military + Espionage section of the NOVA site, this episode follows experts as they recreate the 1943 efforts of the â??dam busterâ? pilots and their one-of-a-kind bouncing bomb. A revolutionary secret weapon, the bomb was used to destroy two German dams, effectively cutting off the water supply to vital arms factories during WWII. The entire episode (nearly 2 hours in length) can be viewed here, accompanied by a complete Transcript of the program and Related Links, such as â??D-Dayâ??s Sunken Secretsâ? and â??Escaping a Nazi Prison Camp.â? Visitors can also read through the TV Schedule to view Upcoming Broadcasts or Recent Broadcasts that can all be viewed online and are accompanied by related websites, articles, interviews, slideshows, and other great features.

2012-01-11

305

Morphogenesis of the T4 tail and tail fibers  

PubMed Central

Remarkable progress has been made during the past ten years in elucidating the structure of the bacteriophage T4 tail by a combination of three-dimensional image reconstruction from electron micrographs and X-ray crystallography of the components. Partial and complete structures of nine out of twenty tail structural proteins have been determined by X-ray crystallography and have been fitted into the 3D-reconstituted structure of the "extended" tail. The 3D structure of the "contracted" tail was also determined and interpreted in terms of component proteins. Given the pseudo-atomic tail structures both before and after contraction, it is now possible to understand the gross conformational change of the baseplate in terms of the change in the relative positions of the subunit proteins. These studies have explained how the conformational change of the baseplate and contraction of the tail are related to the tail's host cell recognition and membrane penetration function. On the other hand, the baseplate assembly process has been recently reexamined in detail in a precise system involving recombinant proteins (unlike the earlier studies with phage mutants). These experiments showed that the sequential association of the subunits of the baseplate wedge is based on the induced-fit upon association of each subunit. It was also found that, upon association of gp53 (gene product 53), the penultimate subunit of the wedge, six of the wedge intermediates spontaneously associate to form a baseplate-like structure in the absence of the central hub. Structure determination of the rest of the subunits and intermediate complexes and the assembly of the hub still require further study. PMID:21129200

2010-01-01

306

Heart Failure Medications  

MedlinePLUS

... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Heart Failure Medications Updated:Mar 24,2015 Heart failure patients ... content was last reviewed on 08/20/2012." Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Warning Signs of Heart ...

307

What Causes Heart Failure?  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Heart Failure? Conditions that damage or overwork the heart muscle ... and they worsen heart failure. Common Causes of Heart Failure The most common causes of heart failure are ...

308

Revised Final Independent External Peer Review Report for the East Branch Dam, Clarion River,  

E-print Network

Revised Final Independent External Peer Review Report for the East Branch Dam, Clarion River, Elk County, Pennsylvania: Dam Safety Modification Report Prepared by Battelle Memorial Institute Prepared Report East Branch Dam, Clarion River, Elk County, Pennsylvania: Dam Safety Modification Report

US Army Corps of Engineers

309

Dam nation: A geographic census of American dams and their large-scale hydrologic impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Newly available data indicate that dams fragment the fluvial system of the continental United States and that their impact on river discharge is several times greater than impacts deemed likely as a result of global climate change. The 75,000 dams in the continental United States are capable of storing a volume of water almost equaling one year's mean runoff, but there is considerable geographic variation in potential surface water impacts. In some western mountain and plains regions, dams can store more than 3 year's runoff, while in the Northeast and Northwest, storage is as little as 25% of the annual runoff. Dams partition watersheds; the drainage area per dam varies from 44 km2 (17 miles2) per dam in New England to 811 km2 (313 miles2) per dam in the Lower Colorado basin. Storage volumes, indicators of general hydrologic effects of dams, range from 26,200 m3 km-2 (55 acre-feet mile-2) in the Great Basin to 345,000 m3 km-2 (725 acre-feet mile-2) in the South Atlantic region. The greatest river flow impacts occur in the Great Plains, Rocky Mountains, and the arid Southwest, where storage is up to 3.8 times the mean annual runoff. The nation's dams store 5000 m3 (4 acre-feet) of water per person. Water resource regions have experienced individualized histories of cumulative increases in reservoir storage (and thus of downstream hydrologic and ecologic impacts), but the most rapid increases in storage occurred between the late 1950s and the late 1970s. Since 1980, increases in storage have been relatively minor.

Graf, William L.

1999-04-01

310

Optimizing the dammed: water supply losses and fish habitat gains from dam removal in California.  

PubMed

Dams provide water supply, flood protection, and hydropower generation benefits, but also harm native species by altering the natural flow regime and degrading aquatic and riparian habitat. Restoring some rivers reaches to free-flowing conditions may restore substantial environmental benefits, but at some economic cost. This study uses a systems analysis approach to preliminarily evaluate removing rim dams in California's Central Valley to highlight promising habitat and unpromising economic use tradeoffs for water supply and hydropower. CALVIN, an economic-engineering optimization model, is used to evaluate water storage and scarcity from removing dams. A warm and dry climate model for a 30-year period centered at 2085, and a population growth scenario for year 2050 water demands represent future conditions. Tradeoffs between hydropower generation and water scarcity to urban, agricultural, and instream flow requirements were compared with additional river kilometers of habitat accessible to anadromous fish species following dam removal. Results show that existing infrastructure is most beneficial if operated as a system (ignoring many current institutional constraints). Removing all rim dams is not beneficial for California, but a subset of existing dams are potentially promising candidates for removal from an optimized water supply and free-flowing river perspective. Removing individual dams decreases statewide delivered water by 0-2282 million cubic meters and provides access to 0 to 3200 km of salmonid habitat upstream of dams. The method described here can help prioritize dam removal, although more detailed, project-specific studies also are needed. Similarly, improving environmental protection can come at substantially lower economic cost, when evaluated and operated as a system. PMID:24594701

Null, Sarah E; Medellín-Azuara, Josué; Escriva-Bou, Alvar; Lent, Michelle; Lund, Jay R

2014-04-01

311

Concrete dams as seismic imaging sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We obtained noise correlation functions (NCF) in northern Montana from broadband data that include P- and S-wave first arrivals and short-period surface waves for frequencies extending to nearly 15 Hz at offsets of 5-17 km using ambient resonant vibrations of a concrete gravity-arch dam as seismic source. A seismograph operated close to the dam acted as a virtual source with a compact autocorrelation function, making it feasible to use short-duration cross-correlation time windows to obtain a larger number of NCF stacks with impulsive high-frequency body wave first-arrivals from recording durations of a single day to several weeks.

O'Connell, Daniel R. H.

2007-10-01

312

Hydroelectric dams need billions for rehab  

SciTech Connect

Many of the Corps of Engineers older hydroelectric dams will require major rehabilitation over the next ten years. Preventive maintenance, repair work, and major rehabilitation of the Corp's hydro dams in inadequate because the revenue generated by sales of electricity, by law, is returned to the Treasury. Most multimillion dollar rehabilitation projects require specific approval for funding by Congress and securing it is a long and difficult process. It is hoped the funding problem will soon be addressed by the Clinton administration. Already, nearly one-sixth of the 2,154 Mw of hydro is unavailable because with hydro units are either out of service or operating at less than full capacity.

Carr, F.H.; Soast, A.

1993-01-11

313

Lac Courte Oreilles Hydro Dam Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this project was to investigate upgrading the existing hydro power generating system at the Winter Dam. The tribe would like to produce more energy and receive a fair market power purchase agreement so the dam is no longer a drain on our budget but a contributor to our economy. We contracted Kiser Hydro, LLC Engineering for this project and received an engineering report that includes options for producing more energy with cost effective upgrades to the existing turbines. Included in this project was a negotiation of energy price sales negotiations.

Weaver, Jason [Lac Courte Oreilles; Meyers, Amy [Kiser Hydro

2014-12-31

314

JiTT - Dam Removal - A Good Idea or Not?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

1) What are some of the biological effects of dam removal (good and bad)? 2) What are some of the more pressing/compelling reasons to remove a dam? Explain. 3) The Stanley and Doyle (2003) article states that, ...

Laura Guertin

315

1. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, VIEW OF NORTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, VIEW OF NORTH ELEVATION OF INTAKE ON EAST SIDE OF DAM - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

316

1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and silt sluice gate (center), main canal headworks (to right), view to northwest - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

317

2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

318

32. Otter Lake Dam. View from downstream show how the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. Otter Lake Dam. View from downstream show how the dam blends into its environment. Looking east-northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

319

54. Downstream face of Agua Fria project's diversion dam showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

54. Downstream face of Agua Fria project's diversion dam showing initial masonry construction and poured concrete capping. Photographer Mark Durben, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

320

5. VIEW SHOWING THE DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SWAN FALLS DAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW SHOWING THE DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SWAN FALLS DAM AND POWER HOUSE, LOOKING UPSTREAM TO SOUTH FROM THE A MOUND OF DEBRIS ABOUT THIRTY TO FORTY FEET ABOVE THE RIVER - Swan Falls Dam, Snake River, Kuna, Ada County, ID

321

Swan Lake Dam: a study in cost saving  

SciTech Connect

The construction of the dam for the Swan Lake hydroelectric project in Alaska is discussed. The hydro project was built for an estimated $4.3 million less than conventional hydro dams of this scope. The project highlights are given.

Not Available

1985-04-01

322

DETAIL VIEW OF TOP OF DAM GATE STRUCTURE. UPSTREAM LOCK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF TOP OF DAM GATE STRUCTURE. UPSTREAM LOCK GATE AT RIGHT REAR. LOOKING WEST. - Illinois Waterway, La Grange Lock and Dam, 3/4 mile south of Country 795N at Illinois River, Versailles, Brown County, IL

323

10. Downstream face of Mormon Flat Dam under construction. Cement ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Downstream face of Mormon Flat Dam under construction. Cement storage shed is at center right. Photographer unknown, September 1924. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

324

7. CLOSEUP VIEW OF WASHED UP 12' x 12' DAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF WASHED UP 12' x 12' DAM SUPPORT TIMBERS, THREE BEARS LAKE, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SOUTH SIDE OF LAKE - Three Bears Lake & Dams, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

325

76. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLEROCK DAM, EASTWOOD MULTIPLEARCHED TYPE: DOWNSTREAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

76. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLEROCK DAM, EASTWOOD MULTIPLE-ARCHED TYPE: DOWNSTREAM ELEVATION, SHEET 3; OCTOBER 2, 1919. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

326

78. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLEROCK DAM, EASTWOOD MULTIPLEARCHED TYPE: DIMENSIONS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

78. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLEROCK DAM, EASTWOOD MULTIPLE-ARCHED TYPE: DIMENSIONS, SECTION THROUGH ARCH RING, SHEET 5; OCTOBER 2, 1919. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

327

64. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

64. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: PLAN VIEW, SHEET 2; APRIL, 1918. Palmdale Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

328

81. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLE ROCK DAM: REINFORCEMENT, SECTION THROUGH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

81. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLE ROCK DAM: REINFORCEMENT, SECTION THROUGH ARCH RING, AMENDED SHEET 6; SEPTEMBER, 1922. Palmdale Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

329

73. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, EASTWOOD MULTIPLEARCHED DAM: REINFORCEMENT SHEET, SHEET ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

73. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, EASTWOOD MULTIPLE-ARCHED DAM: REINFORCEMENT SHEET, SHEET 4; DECEMBER 30, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

330

74. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLEROCK DAM, EASTWOOD MULTIPLEARCHED TYPE: PLAN, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

74. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLEROCK DAM, EASTWOOD MULTIPLE-ARCHED TYPE: PLAN, SHEET 1, OCTOBER 2, 1919. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

331

70. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, EASTWOOD MULTIPLEARCHED DAM: GENERAL PLAN, SHEET ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

70. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, EASTWOOD MULTIPLE-ARCHED DAM: GENERAL PLAN, SHEET 1; DECEMBER 20, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

332

66. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

66. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: DIMENSION SHEET, SECTION THROUGH CROWN, SHEET 6, APRIL, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

333

67. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

67. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: OUTLET GATES, CROWN SECTION, UPSTREAM ELEVATION AND DOWNSTREAM ELEVATION SHEET, SHEET 7; APRIL, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

334

77. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLEROCK DAM, EASTWOOD MULTIPLEARCHED TYPE: CROSS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

77. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLEROCK DAM, EASTWOOD MULTIPLE-ARCHED TYPE: CROSS SECTIONS, SHEET 4; OCTOBER 2, 1919. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

335

80. LITTLE ROCK DAM: DIMENSIONS, SECTION THROUGH ARCH RING, AMENDED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

80. LITTLE ROCK DAM: DIMENSIONS, SECTION THROUGH ARCH RING, AMENDED SHEET 5; SEPTEMBER, 1922. Palmdale Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

336

69. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

69. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: REINFORCEMENT SHEET, SHEET 5; MAY, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

337

72. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, EASTWOOD MULTIPLEARCHED DAM: ELEVATIONS, SHEET 2; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

72. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, EASTWOOD MULTIPLE-ARCHED DAM: ELEVATIONS, SHEET 2; DECEMBER 30, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

338

79. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLEROCK DAM, EASTWOOD MULTIPLEARCHED TYPE: REINFORCEMENT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

79. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLEROCK DAM, EASTWOOD MULTIPLE-ARCHED TYPE: REINFORCEMENT, SHEET 6; OCTOBER 2, 1919. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

339

PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLE ROCK DAM: REINFORCEMENT, SECTION THROUGH ARCH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLE ROCK DAM: REINFORCEMENT, SECTION THROUGH ARCH RING, AMENDED SHEET 6; SEPTEMBER, 1922. Palmdale Water District files - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

340

75. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLEROCK DAM, EASTWOOD MULTIPLEARCHED TYPE: UPSTREAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

75. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLEROCK DAM, EASTWOOD MULTIPLE-ARCHED TYPE: UPSTREAM ELEVATION, SHEET 2; OCTOBER 2, 1919. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

341

65. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

65. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: UPSTREAM ELEVATION, SHEET 3; APRIL, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

342

34. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF COOLIDGE DAM COMPLETED. POWER HOUSE, INTAKE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF COOLIDGE DAM COMPLETED. POWER HOUSE, INTAKE TOWERS, WEST SPILLWAY CHANNEL AND DECORATIVE EAGLES ALL CLEARLY VISIBLE, c. 1928 - Coolidge Dam, Gila River, Peridot, Gila County, AZ

343

29. VIEW NORTHWEST ON SHELTON SIDE OF DAM DURING DEWATERING. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. VIEW NORTHWEST ON SHELTON SIDE OF DAM DURING DEWATERING. SHELTON GATEHOUSE IN LEFT CENTER. - Ousatonic Water Power Company, Dam & Canals, CT Routes 34 & 108, 1 mile North of Derby-Shelton Bridge, Derby, New Haven County, CT

344

44. Reinforcement construction to Pleasant Dam. Photographer unknown, 1935. Source: ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

44. Reinforcement construction to Pleasant Dam. Photographer unknown, 1935. Source: Huber Collection, University of California, Berkeley, Water Resources Library. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

345

15. AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF DAM SITE SHOWING SPILLWAY OGEE SECTION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF DAM SITE SHOWING SPILLWAY OGEE SECTION AND SPILLWAY APRON EXCAVATION IN FOREGROUND.... Volume XVIII, No. 10, January 18, 1940. - Prado Dam, Spillway, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

346

4. AERIAL VIEW OF DAM SITE SHOWING OUTLET WORKS AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. AERIAL VIEW OF DAM SITE SHOWING OUTLET WORKS AND DIVERSION CHANNEL IN FOREGROUND.... Volume XVIII, No. 9, March 5, 1940. - Prado Dam, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

347

6. GENERAL CONSTRUCTION VIEW ALONG AXIS OF DAM FROM THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. GENERAL CONSTRUCTION VIEW ALONG AXIS OF DAM FROM THE EAST ABUTMENT.... Volume XVII, No. 18, December 18, 1939. - Prado Dam, Embankment, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

348

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Big dams and salmon evolution: changes in thermal  

E-print Network

salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We estimated that dams on the Rogue River, the Willamette River (Oncorhynchus spp.) across portions of their natural range, dams have arguably played a major role in many

Angilletta, Michael

349

12. VIEW SHOWING CCC CREWS FREEING FLOOD GATES AT DAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. VIEW SHOWING CCC CREWS FREEING FLOOD GATES AT DAM 326 OF ICE TO PREVENT DAMAGE TO STRUCTURE - J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 326, Along Lower Souris River, Kramer, Bottineau County, ND

350

9. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SPILLWAY AT DAM 320, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SPILLWAY AT DAM 320, SHOWING ORIGINAL FIELDSTONE WEIR WALL BENEATH CONCRETE BUTTRESSING, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 320, Along Lower Souris River, Kramer, Bottineau County, ND

351

7. VIEW OF DAM 320, LOOKING NORTHEAST ALONG THE CREST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. VIEW OF DAM 320, LOOKING NORTHEAST ALONG THE CREST OF THE SPILLWAY FROM THE SOUTHWEST END - J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 320, Along Lower Souris River, Kramer, Bottineau County, ND

352

5. VIEW OF DAM 341, SHOWING THE UPSTREAM SIDE OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW OF DAM 341, SHOWING THE UPSTREAM SIDE OF OUTLET WORKS FROM THE WEST SIDE, LOOKING NORTHEAST - J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 341, Along Lower Souris River, Kramer, Bottineau County, ND

353

7. VIEW OF WEST END OF THE SPILLWAY, DAM 357, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. VIEW OF WEST END OF THE SPILLWAY, DAM 357, SHOWING ORIGINAL FIELD-STONE WEIR WALL AND CONCRETE BUTTRESSING, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 357, Along Lower Souris River, Kramer, Bottineau County, ND

354

1. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE OF DAM 320, LOOKING SOUTHWEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE OF DAM 320, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM JUST SOUTHWEST OF OUTLET WORKS - J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 320, Along Lower Souris River, Kramer, Bottineau County, ND

355

1. VIEW OF DAM 332, LOOKING TO THE SOUTHWEST ALONG ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF DAM 332, LOOKING TO THE SOUTHWEST ALONG THE CREST FROM THE RIGHT ABUTMENT, SHOWING CONCRETE MONUMENT SURVIVING FROM CCC CAMP DING - J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 332, Along Lower Souris River, Kramer, Bottineau County, ND

356

4. VIEW OF DAM 341, SHOWING DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF OUTLET ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW OF DAM 341, SHOWING DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF OUTLET WORKS FROM THE WEST SIDE, LOOKING EAST - J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 341, Along Lower Souris River, Kramer, Bottineau County, ND

357

6. DETAIL VIEW OF OUTLET WORKS AT DAM 332, SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. DETAIL VIEW OF OUTLET WORKS AT DAM 332, SHOWING CONNECTION OF RADIAL GATE TO PIER, LOOKING NORTHEAST - J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 332, Along Lower Souris River, Kramer, Bottineau County, ND

358

10. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST END OF THE DAM 320 FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST END OF THE DAM 320 FROM THE UPSTREAM SIDE, SHOWING LOCATION OF THE STOPLOG STRUCTURE, LOOKING NORTH - J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 320, Along Lower Souris River, Kramer, Bottineau County, ND

359

12. VIEW SHOWING THE CLOSING OF THE GATES OF DAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. VIEW SHOWING THE CLOSING OF THE GATES OF DAM 341 ON APRIL 15, 1936, THE DAY THEY BEGAN FLOODING THE MARSHES - J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 341, Along Lower Souris River, Kramer, Bottineau County, ND

360

10. DETAIL VIEW OF SPILLWAY AT DAM 326, SHOWING ORIGINAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. DETAIL VIEW OF SPILLWAY AT DAM 326, SHOWING ORIGINAL FIELD-STONE WEIR WALL BENEATH CONCRETE BUTTRESSING, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 326, Along Lower Souris River, Kramer, Bottineau County, ND

361

"United States Reclamation Service, Grand River Dam, plan & sections ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

"United States Reclamation Service, Grand River Dam, plan & sections of power-house." No date specified - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

362

"United States Reclamation Service, Grand River Dam, pier "A" and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

"United States Reclamation Service, Grand River Dam, pier "A" and east side regulator gate wall." No date specified - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

363

"United States Reclamation Service Grand River Dam side elevation & ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

"United States Reclamation Service Grand River Dam side elevation & sections gate houses - piers D & F." No date specified - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

364

3. Down river view of lock and dam to southwest ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Down river view of lock and dam to southwest - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 1, In Mississippi River at Mississippi Boulevard, below Ford Parkway Bridge, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

365

1. VIEW OF DAM 83, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM THE LOOKOUT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF DAM 83, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM THE LOOKOUT TOWER AT THE REFUGE HEADQUARTERS (see HAER No. ND-3-A-13 for comparison) - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 83, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Ward County, ND

366

9. VIEW OF SPILLWAY AT DAM 83, SHOWING LOCATION OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF SPILLWAY AT DAM 83, SHOWING LOCATION OF FORMER CONCRETE FLASHBOARD STRUCTURE ON RIGHT, LOOKING WEST - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 83, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Ward County, ND

367

10. DETAIL VIEW OF SPILLWAY AT DAM 83, SHOWING RIVER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. DETAIL VIEW OF SPILLWAY AT DAM 83, SHOWING RIVER COBBLE PAVING (FOREGROUND) AND WINGWALL, LOOKING EAST - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 83, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Ward County, ND

368

3. POOL, DAM, AND INTAKE TO PIPELINE LEADING TO FISH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. POOL, DAM, AND INTAKE TO PIPELINE LEADING TO FISH WHEEL, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Bear Creek Diversion Dam & Confluence Pool, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

369

6. VIEW NORTHEAST, WEST END OF DAM DURING CONSTRUCTION OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW NORTHEAST, WEST END OF DAM DURING CONSTRUCTION OF FISHWAY, DECEMBER 1995, SHOWING REMOVAL OF PLANKING - Norwich Water Power Company, Dam, West bank of Shetucket River opposite Fourteenth Street, Greenville section, Norwich, New London County, CT

370

7. Detail view of reinforced concrete archrings comprising dam's upstream ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Detail view of reinforced concrete arch-rings comprising dam's upstream face. Impressions of the wooden formwork used in construction are visible in the concrete. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

371

View of powerhouse and dam from third floor of original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of powerhouse and dam from third floor of original section of Langdale Cotton Mill, looking northeast - Langdale Cotton Mill, Powerhouse & Dam, 5910 Nineteenth Avenue, Valley, Chambers County, AL

372

20. HORSESHOE DAM LOOKING EAST WITH UPPER END DEMOLISHED FOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. HORSESHOE DAM LOOKING EAST WITH UPPER END DEMOLISHED FOR NEW SPILLWAY (negative reversed) - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

373

7. ISLAND PLANT AND HORSESHOE DAM FROM WEST BANK (negative ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. ISLAND PLANT AND HORSESHOE DAM FROM WEST BANK (negative reversed) - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

374

11. AVALON DAM GATE KEEPER'S COMPLEX: PUMPHOUSE AND LIFT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. AVALON DAM - GATE KEEPER'S COMPLEX: PUMPHOUSE AND LIFT FOR HOUSE WATER SUPPLY. VIEW TO EAST - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Avalon Dam, On Pecos River, 4 miles North of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

375

2. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR UNDER CONSTRUCTION LOOKING WEST WITH EAST DAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR UNDER CONSTRUCTION LOOKING WEST WITH EAST DAM IN MIDDLE GROUND, WEST DAM IN DISTANCE. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

376

77. Plan of Proposed Concrete of Rubble Masonry Dam at ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

77. Plan of Proposed Concrete of Rubble Masonry Dam at Frog Tanks on the Agua Fria River, Arizona. September 1903. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

377

4. Aerial view of Whitsett intake (lower right), Parker Dam ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Aerial view of Whitsett intake (lower right), Parker Dam and village (left), Gene Wash Reservoir, Gene Pump Plant and village (right). - Parker Dam, Spanning Colorado River between AZ & CA, Parker, La Paz County, AZ

378

22. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS WITH MILNER DAM IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS WITH MILNER DAM IN DISTANCE; LOOKING EAST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

379

23. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS WITH MILNER DAM IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS WITH MILNER DAM IN DISTANCE; LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

380

68. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

68. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: STRESS SHEET, SHEET 4; MAY, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

381

71. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, EASTWOOD MULTIPLEARCHED DAM: STRESS SHEET, SHEET ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

71. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, EASTWOOD MULTIPLE-ARCHED DAM: STRESS SHEET, SHEET 3; DECEMBER 20, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

382

Evaluating the effects of dam breach methodologies on Consequence Estimation through Sensitivity Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dam breach modeling often includes application of models that are sophisticated, yet computationally intensive to compute flood propagation at high temporal and spatial resolutions. This results in a significant need for computational capacity that requires development of newer flood models using multi-processor and graphics processing techniques. Recently, a comprehensive benchmark exercise titled the 12th Benchmark Workshop on Numerical Analysis of Dams, is organized by the International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD) to evaluate the performance of these various tools used for dam break risk assessment. The ICOLD workshop is focused on estimating the consequences of failure of a hypothetical dam near a hypothetical populated area with complex demographics, and economic activity. The current study uses this hypothetical case study and focuses on evaluating the effects of dam breach methodologies on consequence estimation and analysis. The current study uses ICOLD hypothetical data including the topography, dam geometric and construction information, land use/land cover data along with socio-economic and demographic data. The objective of this study is to evaluate impacts of using four different dam breach methods on the consequence estimates used in the risk assessments. The four methodologies used are: i) Froehlich (1995), ii) MacDonald and Langridge-Monopolis 1984 (MLM), iii) Von Thun and Gillete 1990 (VTG), and iv) Froehlich (2008). To achieve this objective, three different modeling components were used. First, using the HEC-RAS v.4.1, dam breach discharge hydrographs are developed. These hydrographs are then provided as flow inputs into a two dimensional flood model named Flood2D-GPU, which leverages the computer's graphics card for much improved computational capabilities of the model input. Lastly, outputs from Flood2D-GPU, including inundated areas, depth grids, velocity grids, and flood wave arrival time grids, are input into HEC-FIA, which provides the consequence assessment for the solution to the problem statement. For the four breach methodologies, a sensitivity analysis of four breach parameters, breach side slope (SS), breach width (Wb), breach invert elevation (Elb), and time of failure (tf), is conducted. Up to, 68 simulations are computed to produce breach hydrographs in HEC-RAS for input into Flood2D-GPU. The Flood2D-GPU simulation results were then post-processed in HEC-FIA to evaluate: Total Population at Risk (PAR), 14-yr and Under PAR (PAR14-), 65-yr and Over PAR (PAR65+), Loss of Life (LOL) and Direct Economic Impact (DEI). The MLM approach resulted in wide variability in simulated minimum and maximum values of PAR, PAR 65+ and LOL estimates. For PAR14- and DEI, Froehlich (1995) resulted in lower values while MLM resulted in higher estimates. This preliminary study demonstrated the relative performance of four commonly used dam breach methodologies and their impacts on consequence estimation.

Kalyanapu, A. J.; Thames, B. A.

2013-12-01

383

"No. 172. General view of the dam, looking downstream from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

"No. 172. General view of the dam, looking downstream from the east end. F.E.D. June, 1916." Compare this historic image, taken upon dam completion (1916), with current-condition photograph HAER CO-90-1. The dam retains a remarkable degree of integrity of design and setting - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

384

2. View of the southern twothirds of the dam showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. View of the southern two-thirds of the dam showing the Glens Falls Bridge over the Hudson River on the left, the Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation penstocks and inktake structure at the southeast corner of the dam, and the dam itself. The Finch Pruyn & Company Forebay is the foreground. Facing south. - Glens Falls Dam, 100' to 450' West of U.S. Route 9 Bridge Spanning Hudson River, Glens Falls, Warren County, NY

385

The Conceptual Basis for Ecological Responses to Dam Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

the removal of nonfunctioning dams or dams that cause environmental harm or present unsafe conditions (Poff et al. 1997, Hart and Poff 2002). The basis for assessment of the eco-logical responses to dam removal and for the design of eco-logically effective removal practices is largely conceptual. Par-ticularly in the Pacific Northwest, the adverse effects that large dams have on endangered

STAN GREGORY; HIRAM LI; JUDY LI

2002-01-01

386

Liquefaction analysis and soil improvement in Beydag dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beydag dam is under construction on Kucukmenderes River for irrigation purposes. Due to the scarcity of core material and\\u000a liquefaction of alluvium at the dam site, the original design was changed to Roller Compacted Concete (RCC) from rockfill\\u000a dam with claycore. Although the new design was safer, it nearly doubled the cost of the dam, so the owner, State Hydraulic

Davut Y?lmaz; Fatih Babuçcu; Serhat Batmaz; Fatih Kavruk

2008-01-01

387

Does climate have heavy tails?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When we speak about a distribution with heavy tails, we are referring to the probability of the existence of extreme values will be relatively large. Several heavy-tail models are constructed from Poisson processes, which are the most tractable models. Among such processes, one of the most important are the Lévy processes, which are those process with independent, stationary increments and stochastic continuity. If the random component of a climate process that generates the data exhibits a heavy-tail distribution, and if that fact is ignored by assuming a finite-variance distribution, then there would be serious consequences (in the form, e.g., of bias) for the analysis of extreme values. Yet, it appears that it is an open question to what extent and degree climate data exhibit heavy-tail phenomena. We present a study about the statistical inference in the presence of heavy-tail distribution. In particular, we explore (1) the estimation of tail index of the marginal distribution using several estimation techniques (e.g., Hill estimator, Pickands estimator) and (2) the power of hypothesis tests. The performance of the different methods are compared using artificial time-series by means of Monte Carlo experiments. We systematically apply the heavy tail inference to observed climate data, in particular we focus on time series data. We study several proxy and directly observed climate variables from the instrumental period, the Holocene and the Pleistocene. This work receives financial support from the European Commission (Marie Curie Initial Training Network LINC, No. 289447, within the 7th Framework Programme).

Bermejo, Miguel; Mudelsee, Manfred

2013-04-01

388

1. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF DIVERSION DAM ON THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF DIVERSION DAM ON THE SNAKE RIVER, LOOKING NORTHEAST. NOTE HEADGATE STRUCTURE ON NORTH BANK, SPILLWAY ON LEFT SIDE OF DAM, AND SPLASH LOGS ON DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF DAM. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

389

43 CFR 418.18 - Diversions at Derby Dam.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2011-10-01 true Diversions at Derby Dam. 418.18 Section 418.18 Public Lands...Management § 418.18 Diversions at Derby Dam. (a) Diversions of Truckee River water at Derby Dam must be managed to maintain minimum...

2012-10-01

390

43 CFR 418.18 - Diversions at Derby Dam.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Diversions at Derby Dam. 418.18 Section 418.18 Public Lands...Management § 418.18 Diversions at Derby Dam. (a) Diversions of Truckee River water at Derby Dam must be managed to maintain minimum...

2011-10-01

391

43 CFR 418.18 - Diversions at Derby Dam.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Diversions at Derby Dam. 418.18 Section 418.18 Public Lands...Management § 418.18 Diversions at Derby Dam. (a) Diversions of Truckee River water at Derby Dam must be managed to maintain minimum...

2013-10-01

392

25 CFR 173.16 - Reserved area, Coolidge Dam.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2011-04-01 true Reserved area, Coolidge Dam. 173.16 Section 173.16 Indians... § 173.16 Reserved area, Coolidge Dam. No permit for any commercial business...of a mile from the center of the Coolidge Dam,...

2012-04-01

393

INCORPORATING UNCERTAINTY INTO DAM SAFETY RISK Sanjay S. Chauhan1  

E-print Network

INCORPORATING UNCERTAINTY INTO DAM SAFETY RISK ASSESSMENT Sanjay S. Chauhan1 and David S. Bowles2 ABSTRACT Risk assessment is becoming more widely used to supplement traditional approaches to dam safety decision-making. Dam owners throughout Australia, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the U.S. Bureau

Chauhan, Sanjay S.

394

25 CFR 173.16 - Reserved area, Coolidge Dam.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Reserved area, Coolidge Dam. 173.16 Section 173.16 Indians... § 173.16 Reserved area, Coolidge Dam. No permit for any commercial business...of a mile from the center of the Coolidge Dam,...

2014-04-01

395

25 CFR 173.16 - Reserved area, Coolidge Dam.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Reserved area, Coolidge Dam. 173.16 Section 173.16 Indians... § 173.16 Reserved area, Coolidge Dam. No permit for any commercial business...of a mile from the center of the Coolidge Dam,...

2013-04-01

396

Geologic Hazards Associated With a Proposed Dam on the Yarlung-  

E-print Network

Geologic Hazards Associated With a Proposed Dam on the Yarlung- Tsangpo River in SE Tibet Peter K-Gyala antiform. Active faults drawn in black. Approximate location of the dam and diversion tunnel proposed of data relevant to dam siting. Figure 8. Fission-track data from detrital zircons obtained from sands

Kidd, William S. F.

397

25 CFR 173.16 - Reserved area, Coolidge Dam.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Reserved area, Coolidge Dam. 173.16 Section 173.16 Indians... § 173.16 Reserved area, Coolidge Dam. No permit for any commercial business...of a mile from the center of the Coolidge Dam,...

2011-04-01

398

Wavelet-Based Multiresolution Analysis of Wivenhoe Dam Water Temperatures  

E-print Network

Wavelet-Based Multiresolution Analysis of Wivenhoe Dam Water Temperatures Don Percival Applied monitoring program recently upgraded with perma- nent installation of vertical profilers at Lake Wivenhoe dam in a subtropical dam as a function of time and depth · will concentrate on a 600+ day segment of temperature fluc

Percival, Don

399

Dam-Breach Flood Wave Propagation Using Dimensionless Parameters  

E-print Network

Dam-Breach Flood Wave Propagation Using Dimensionless Parameters Victor M. Ponce, M.ASCE1 ; Ahmad to study the sensitivity of dam-breach flood waves to breach-outflow hydrograph volume, peak discharge the channel. A dam-breach Froude number is defined to enable analysis through a wide range of site and flow

Ponce, V. Miguel

400

Financial Analysis of Experimental Releases Conducted at Glen Canyon Dam  

E-print Network

Financial Analysis of Experimental Releases Conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during Water Years 2006 Canyon Dam during Water Years 2006 through 2010 ANL/DIS-11-4 by L.A. Poch,1 T.D. Veselka,1 C.S. Palmer,2 Canyon Dam (GCD) conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Western Area Power Administration (Western

Kemner, Ken

401

9. Analysis a. Analysis tools for dam removal  

E-print Network

9. Analysis a. Analysis tools for dam removal v. Hydrodynamic, sediment transport and physical are frequently the main concerns associated with a dam removal due to the possible effects on infrastructure reservoir sediment when removing a dam are river erosion, mechanical removal, and stabilization (ASCE 1997

Tullos, Desiree

402

THREE GORGES DAM Matthew Morioka, Alireza Abrishamkar, Yve Kay  

E-print Network

THREE GORGES DAM Matthew Morioka, Alireza Abrishamkar, Yve Kay CEE 491 #12;Specifications.3 Billion · Total Cost (2008) ¥ 148.4 Billion = $ 21.8 Billion #12;Source of Funds · Three Gorges Dam Construction Fund · Profits from the Gezhouba Dam · Policy Loans from the Chinese Development Bank · Loans from

Prevedouros, Panos D.

403

43 CFR 418.18 - Diversions at Derby Dam.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Diversions at Derby Dam. 418.18 Section 418.18 Public Lands...Management § 418.18 Diversions at Derby Dam. (a) Diversions of Truckee River water at Derby Dam must be managed to maintain minimum...

2014-10-01

404

20. VIEW FROM DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF DAM SHOWING BUTTS OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. VIEW FROM DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF DAM SHOWING BUTTS OF LOGS PROJECTING BETWEEN CROSS LOGS. FREQUENTLY WHOLE TREES WERE USED IN CONSTRUCTING THESE DAMS. THE BRANCHES WERE PLACED UPSTREAM AND COVERED WITH EARTH AND STONE TO ANCHOR THEM. Photographed November 6, 1935. - Forge Creek Dam-John Cable Mill, Townsend, Blount County, TN

405

dam logic: qualitative reasoning about benthic macroinvertebrate responses  

E-print Network

dam logic: qualitative reasoning about benthic macroinvertebrate responses to dam removal desiree tullos oregon state university #12;my damned logic performance evaluation that moves beyond case studied in ecological responses to dam removal" (Heinz 2002) #12;what is QR? Qualitative Reasoning (QR) - logic

Tullos, Desiree

406

SEISMIC RESPONSE OF DAM WITH SOIL-STRUCTURE INTERACTION.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An analytical solution to the response of a long trapezoidal-section dam on a foundation consisting of an elastic half-space and subjected to simulated earthquake motion is developed. An optimum seismic design is achieved when the cross section of the dam is triangular. The effect of soil structure interaction is to lower the strain occurring in the dam.

Bycroft, G.N.; Mork, P.N.

1987-01-01

407

PVC waterproofing membranes and alkali-aggregated reaction in dams  

SciTech Connect

A waterproofing polyvinylchloride (PVC) based geocomposite was installed on two dams subject to alkali-aggregate reaction, to eliminate water intrusion and to protect the facing from further deterioration. The installation system allows drainage of the infiltrated water, thus accomplishing dehydration of the dam body. On one dam, the membrane also provided protection for future slot cutting.

Scuero, A.M. [C.A.R.P.I. Technologies SA, Lugano (Czech Republic)

1995-12-31

408

LOCK, DOG HOUSE, CONTROL STATION, DAM GATE, MANEUVER BOAT No. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

LOCK, DOG HOUSE, CONTROL STATION, DAM GATE, MANEUVER BOAT No. 1, AND DAM. NOTE LOWER LOCK GATE IN FOREGROUND. LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST. - Illinois Waterway, La Grange Lock and Dam, 3/4 mile south of Country 795N at Illinois River, Versailles, Brown County, IL

409

RIVER VIEW FROM EXTERIOR LOCK WALL SHOWING DAM GATE, MANEUVER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

RIVER VIEW FROM EXTERIOR LOCK WALL SHOWING DAM GATE, MANEUVER BOAT No. 1, AND DAM. LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST. - Illinois Waterway, La Grange Lock and Dam, 3/4 mile south of Country 795N at Illinois River, Versailles, Brown County, IL

410

6. VIEW OF NORTH END OF EAST DAM, LOOKING SOUTH. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW OF NORTH END OF EAST DAM, LOOKING SOUTH. (View is taken from lakeside with lowered water level. This view encompasses the same area as MT-88-A-5 above.) - Three Bears Lake & Dams, East Dam, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

411

REVIEW PLAN John Redmond Dam Reservoir, Coffee County, Kansas  

E-print Network

#12;#12;REVIEW PLAN John Redmond Dam Reservoir, Coffee County, Kansas Reallocation Study Tulsa PLAN John Redmond Dam Reservoir, Coffee County, Kansas Reallocation Study Tulsa District TABLE review for the Final Reallocation Report to the John Redmond Dam and Reservoir, Coffee County, Kansas

US Army Corps of Engineers

412

3. View of the northern twothirds of the dam showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. View of the northern two-thirds of the dam showing the Finch, Pruyn & Company intake structure and forebay canal on the right and the ice-covered log chute along the dam. Facing south-southwest. - Glens Falls Dam, 100' to 450' West of U.S. Route 9 Bridge Spanning Hudson River, Glens Falls, Warren County, NY

413

2. VIEW OF DAM 341, LOOKING NORTHEAST ALONG THE CREST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW OF DAM 341, LOOKING NORTHEAST ALONG THE CREST FROM THE EAST END OF THE SPILLWAY TOWARD THE OUTLET WORKS, SHOWING THE UPSTREAM FACE OF THE DAM - J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 341, Along Lower Souris River, Kramer, Bottineau County, ND

414

60. AVALON DAM Photographic copy of historic photo, January ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

60. AVALON DAM - Photographic copy of historic photo, January 28, 1907 (original print filed in Record Group 115, National Archives, Washington, D.C.) W.J.Lubken, photographer 'REINFORCED CONCRETE DIAPHRAGM, LOOKING WEST FROM EAST SIDE OF AVALON DAM' - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Avalon Dam, On Pecos River, 4 miles North of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

415

30. Otter Lake Dam. View shows rustic stone facade of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. Otter Lake Dam. View shows rustic stone facade of the dam. The stepped face of the dam gives the illusion of a natural cascade. Facing southeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

416

6. VIEW OF DAM 83, SHOWING OUTLET CHANNEL FLOWING INTO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW OF DAM 83, SHOWING OUTLET CHANNEL FLOWING INTO POND A WITH DIVERSION GATES LONG EAST (LEFT) SIDE OF OUTLET CHANNEL, LOOKING SOUTH FROM DOWNSTREAM FACE OF THE DAM - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 83, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Ward County, ND

417

Effective dam removal and river channel restoration approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millions of dams have been built on the planet's rivers and streams to provide societal needs for freshwater supplies, irrigation, hydroelectric development, industrial activities and flood control. The structural and operational components of most dams include features that reflect technological advancements and changing societal priorities over time. Many dams were constructed and operated with no consideration for river ecology; some

C. Katopodis; L. P. Aadland

2006-01-01

418

Science and Policy for River Restoration by Dam Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past decade, science and policy for dam removal have undergone dramatic changes. With the experience of the removal of several hundred dams in the United States, several generalizations have emerged. Regarding science for dam removal, it has become clear that general upstream and downstream responses to removal are broadly predictable using established geomorphologic principles. Specific predictions are possible

W. L. Graf

2008-01-01

419

Three gorges : the biggest dam in the world  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will understand the following:The enormous Three Gorges Dam is now being constructed in China on the upper Yangtze River.The dam will benefit many people, but it may also cause serious problems.Dams are built according to complex principles of engineering.

Jeffrey Leaf

2006-01-01

420

55. AVALON DAM (Photographic copy of photo in Reservoirs ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

55. AVALON DAM - (Photographic copy of photo in Reservoirs for Irrigation, Water-Power, and Domestic Water Supply. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1902.) 'CANAL HEADGATES, LAKE AVALON DAM' - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Avalon Dam, On Pecos River, 4 miles North of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

421

52. AVALON DAM Photographic copy of historic photo, c1890 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

52. AVALON DAM - Photographic copy of historic photo, c1890 (original print located at the Carlsbad Irrigation District offices, Carlsbad, New Mexico) photographer unknown VIEW OF SCOURWAY THROUGH AVALON DAM DISCHARGING WATER - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Avalon Dam, On Pecos River, 4 miles North of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

422

2. UPSTREAM SIDE OF DAM AND BRIDGE WITH ABANDONED SAN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. UPSTREAM SIDE OF DAM AND BRIDGE WITH ABANDONED SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER HEADGATE IN FOREGROUND. TAKEN FROM NORTH END OF DAM - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

423

33 CFR 100.1102 - Marine Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and Headgate Dam...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Marine Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City...1102 Marine Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City...Lake Moovalya, Parker, Arizona between river miles 179 and 185 (between the...

2010-07-01

424

33 CFR 208.19 - Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex. 208.19 Section 208.19...Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex. The Secretary of the Interior, through his agent, the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) shall operate the...

2013-07-01

425

33 CFR 208.19 - Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex. 208.19 Section 208.19...Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex. The Secretary of the Interior, through his agent, the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) shall operate the...

2010-07-01

426

33 CFR 208.19 - Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex. 208.19 Section 208.19...Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex. The Secretary of the Interior, through his agent, the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) shall operate the...

2012-07-01

427

33 CFR 208.19 - Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex. 208.19 Section 208.19...Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex. The Secretary of the Interior, through his agent, the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) shall operate the...

2011-07-01

428

33 CFR 100.1102 - Marine Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and Headgate Dam...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Marine Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City...1102 Marine Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City...Lake Moovalya, Parker, Arizona between river miles 179 and 185 (between the...

2011-07-01

429

Spatio-temporal evaluation of Yamchi Dam basin water quality using Canadian water quality index.  

PubMed

In recent years, the growth of population and increase of the industries around the tributaries of Yamchi Dam basin have led to deterioration of dam water quality. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of the Yamchi Dam basin water, which is used for drinking and irrigation consumptions using Canadian Water Quality Index (CWQI) model, and to determine the main water pollution sources of this basin. Initially, nine sampling stations were selected in the sensitive locations of the mentioned basin's tributaries, and 12 physico-chemical parameters and 2 biological parameters were measured. The CWQI for drinking consumptions was under 40 at all the stations indicating a poor water quality for drinking consumptions. On the other hand, the CWQI was 62-100 for irrigation at different stations; thus, the water had an excellent to fair quality for irrigation consumptions. Almost in all the stations, the quality of irrigation and drinking water in cold season was better. Besides, for drinking use, total coliform and fecal coliform had the highest frequency of failure, and total coliform had the maximum deviation from the specified objective. For irrigation use, total suspended solids had the highest frequency of failure and deviation from the objective in most of the stations. The pisciculture center, aquaculture center, and the Nir City wastewater discharge were determined as the main pollution sources of the Yamchi Dam basin. Therefore, to improve the water quality in this important surface water resource, urban and industrial wastewater treatment prior to disposal and more stringent environmental legislations are recommended. PMID:25750066

Farzadkia, Mahdi; Djahed, Babak; Shahsavani, Esmaeel; Poureshg, Yousef

2015-04-01

430

Evaluation of Reinforcement and Analysis of Stability of a High-Arch Dam Based on Geomechanical Model Testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reinforcement measures are often used in high-arch dams with complicated geological foundations. The geomechanical model test is an effective method to study the global stability of arch dams and to evaluate the reinforcement effects of foundation treatments. The block masonry technique was developed to simulate the jointed rock mass, tectonic discontinuities, and reinforcement measures. A tailor-made low-strength binder and small blocks were developed to simulate the strength and deformation of the jointed rock mass and discontinuities, respectively. We applied this technique to geomechanical model tests of the Dagangshan arch dam with and without foundation reinforcements. A rupture test was conducted, and the stress and displacement distribution of the dam and abutments were recorded; the failure mechanisms and processes were explored. The reinforcement effects of the foundation treatment were evaluated by comparing the test results of the models with and without foundation reinforcements. Our analysis indicates that foundation reinforcements can improve the stress distribution, decrease deformation, prevent slides, reduce fault movement, and improve the global stability of high-arch dams.

Zhang, L.; Liu, Y. R.; Yang, Q.

2015-03-01

431

Facilitating fish passage at ultra low head dams: An alternative to dam removal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ecosystem sustainability and returning the biological integrity to rivers continue to change the landscape of fish passage technology. Installing a conventional fishways has a limited degree of success in accommodating fish passage needs. Recently, the option of total dam removal has been gaining momentum among resource managers, conservationists, and even engineers. Certain dams, however, cannot be removed, and conventional fishways are either too expensive to build or the real estate is simply not available; yet freedom of passage must be attained. At the Little Falls Dam on the Potomac River a notch in the crest of the dam was installed to accommodate passage of fish. The notch has three labyrinth weirs used for energy dissipation. Water velocities are maintained at less than about 4 m/s anywhere within the passage structure during migratory season of the target species (American shad). Construction of this novel design was recently completed (March 2000) and future biological evaluations are ongoing. Copyright ASCE 2004.

Odeh, M.

2004-01-01

432

The evolution of gravel bed channels after dam removal: Case study of the Anaconda and Union City Dam removals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Anaconda and Union City Dams on the Naugatuck River in Connecticut were removed in February and October 1999. A detailed study of the sites prior to removal was undertaken including sediment testing and predictions of upstream channel formation post-dam removal. The 3.35-m-high timber crib\\/rock fill spillway of the Anaconda Dam partially breached during a storm prior to the dam's

Laura A. S. Wildman; James G. MacBroom

2005-01-01

433

Renwick Dam RCC stepped spillway research  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Small Watershed Program administered through the USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly the Soil Conservation Service) has provided technical and financial assistance for the construction of nearly 11,000 embankment dams across the U.S. The construction peak in the Small Watershe...

434

White Oak Dam stability analysis. Volume I  

SciTech Connect

A parametric study was conducted to evaluate the stability of the White Oak Dam (WOD) embankment and foundation. Slope stability analyses were performed for the upper and lower bound soil properties at three sections of the dam using the PCSTABL4 computer program. Minimum safety factors were calculated for the applicable seismic and static loading conditions. Liquefaction potential of the dam embankment and foundation solid during the seismic event was assessed by using simplified procedures. The WOD is classified as a low hazard facility and the Evaluation Basis Earthquake (EBE) is defined as an earthquake with a magnitude of m{sub b} = 5.6 and a Peak Ground Accelerator (PGA) of 0.13 g. This event is approximately equivalent to a Modified Mercalli Intensity of VI-VIII. The EBE is used to perform the seismic evaluation for slope stability and liquefaction potential. Results of the stability analyses and the liquefaction assessment lead to the conclusion that the White Oak Dam is safe and stable for the static and the seismic events defined in this study. Ogden Environmental, at the request of MMES, has checked and verified the calculations for the critical loading conditions and performed a peer review of this report. Ogden has determined that the WOD is stable under the defined static and seismic loading conditions and the embankment materials are in general not susceptible to liquefaction.

Ahmed, S.B.

1994-01-01

435

Solar central receiver integration with Hoover Dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technical and economic feasibility of integrating a 100 MWe solar central receiver powerplant located in Yuma, Arizona with the Hoover Dam hydroelectric power system is discussed. Technical feasibility was determined by evaluating the effects of integration on the hydrologic and power operations of the existing hydro system. Economic feasibility was determined by comparing the costs of the integrated system

H. E. Remmers; R. L. Zelenka; J. H. Kitchen

1980-01-01

436

Percy Quin Dam LiDAR Scan  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A 3-D terrestrial LiDAR scan of the Percy Quin Mississippi State Park Dam in McComb, Mississippi, taken Monday, September 3, 2012. The U.S. Geological Survey is using this new technology in select areas of Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama to map impacts by Hurricane Isaac....

437

Dam water quality study. Report to Congress  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the report is to identify water quality effects attributable to the impoundment of water by dams as required by Section 524 of the Water Quality Act of 1987. The document presents a study of water quality effects associated with impoundments in the U.S.A.

Not Available

1989-05-01

438

Fish reproductive guilds downstream of dams.  

PubMed

Fish reproductive guilds were used to evaluate the responses of species with different reproductive strategies during two different periods of post-dam construction. The data used for the comparisons were collected in the upper Paraná River floodplain (Brazil), downstream of the Porto Primavera dam, 2 and 10 years after impoundment. The abundance (catch per unit effort, CPUE), species richness, evenness and structure of communities, all within reproductive guilds, were used to test the hypothesis that these metrics vary spatially and temporally. The influence of damming on species structure and the diversity of fish reproductive guilds varied spatiotemporally, and species with opportunistic reproductive strategies tended to be less affected. Conversely, long-distance migratory species responded more markedly to spatiotemporal variations, indicating that the ecosystem dynamics exert greater effects on populations of these species. Thus, the effects of a dam, even if attenuated, may extend over several years, especially downstream. This finding emphasizes the importance of maintaining large undammed tributaries downstream of reservoirs. PMID:25230203

Vasconcelos, L P; Alves, D C; Gomes, L C

2014-11-01

439

Dams and Salmon: A Northwest Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes an experiential exercise in which participants assume the roles of various stakeholder groups in the controversy surrounding possible dam removal to revive northwestern U. S. salmon populations. The role-play (a) increases environmental awareness in the context of the competing interests various stakeholders have in our global commons, (b) helps students understand the conflict between striving for a

Michael Tucker; Cheryl L. Tromley

2005-01-01

440

Radar proves its worth in dam rehabilitation  

SciTech Connect

This article outlines the use of radar techniques to survey the masonry structure of White Marble Dam. The survey used a subsurface interface radar, and this equipment displayed a cross-sectional profile of the entire structure, revealing the size and location of any faults. By avoiding the draining and dredging of the upstream pool, it is estimated that this technique saved three months.

NONE

1996-08-01

441

Optimizing the Dammed: water supply losses and fish habitat gains from dam removal in California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dams provide water supply, flood protection, and hydropower generation benefits, but have also harmed native species by altering the natural flow regime and degrading aquatic and riparian habitat. Restoring some river reaches to free-flowing conditions may restore substantial environmental benefits, but at some economic cost. This study uses a systems analysis approach to evaluate removing rim dams in California's Central Valley to highlight dams that could be removed as well as existing dams that are most beneficial for providing water supply and hydropower benefits. CALVIN, an economic-engineering optimization model was used to evaluate water storage and scarcity from removing dams. A warm and dry climate model (GFDL CM2.1 A2 emissions scenario) for a 30 year period centered at 2085, and double population scenario for year 2050 water demands represent future conditions. Tradeoffs between water scarcity to urban, agricultural, and instream flow requirements were compared with additional river miles accessible to anadromous species following dam removal. Results show that existing infrastructure is most beneficial if operated as a system (ignoring many current political and institutional constraints). Removing all rim dams is not beneficial for California, but a subset of existing dams are potentially promising candidates for removal from an optimized water supply and free-flowing river perspective. Incorporating environmental considerations into decision-making may lead to better solutions than focusing only on human benefits such as water supply, flood protection, hydropower generation, and recreation. Similarly, improving environmental flows can come at substantially lower economic cost, when viewed and operated as a system.Ratio of Surface Storage to Mean Annual Flow by Watershed

Null, S. E.; Medellin-Azuara, J.; Lund, J. R.

2012-12-01

442

Tail and Non-Tail Memory with Applications to Extreme Value and Robust Statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

New notions of tail and non-tail dependence are used to characterize separately extremal and non-extremal information, including tail log-exceedances and events, and tail-trimmed levels. We prove Near Epoch Dependence (McLeish 1975, Gallant and White 1988) and L0-Approximability (Pötscher and Prucha 1991) are equivalent for tail events and tail-trimmed levels, ensuring a Gaussian central limit theory for important extreme value and

Jonathan B. Hilly

443

Socioeconomic and Institutional Dimensions of Dam Removals: The Wisconsin Experience  

PubMed

/ There are tens of thousands of small dams in the United States; many of these aging structures are deteriorating. Governments and dam owners face decisions regarding repair or removal of these structures. Along with the many benefits society derives from dams and their impoundments, numerous recent ecological studies are revealing the extensive alteration and degradation of river ecosystems by dams. Dam removal-a principal restoration strategy-is an infrequent event. The major reasons for removal have been public safety and the high costs associated with repair; the goal of river ecosystem restoration now warrants greater attention. Substantial study is being given to the environmental aspects of dams and dam removals, but very little attention has been given to the socioeconomic and institutional dimensions associated with the removal of dams, although these factors play a significant role in the removal decision-making process. Based on a case study of dam removals in Wisconsin-where more than 30 of the state's 3600 small dams have been removed in the past few decades-legal, financial, and socioeconomic issues associated with dam removal are documented and assessed. Dam removal has been complex and contentious, with limited community-based support for removal and loss of the impounded waters. In cases examined here, the estimated costs of repairing a dam averaged more than three times the cost of removal. The availability of governmental financing has been a key determinant in removal decisions. Watershed-scale ecological considerations are not major factors for most local interests. As watershed management and restoration increasingly include dam removal options as part of an integrated strategy, more attention will need to be focused on socioeconomic factors and stakeholder perspectives-variables that strongly influence the viability of this management alternative.KEY WORDS: Dam removal; River restoration; Institutions; Stakeholders PMID:9516529

Born; Genskow; Filbert; Hernandez-Mora; Keefer; White

1998-05-01

444

IMPACTS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER ON FOREST REGENERATION IN NORTHWEST ERN PENNSYLVANIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is a major cause of regeneration failure in Allegheny hardwood forests of northwestern Pennsylvania. I examined the impact of deer at 5 different densities (0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 deer\\/259 ha) on tree seedlings, woody shrubs, and herbaceous plants in large enclosures over 5 years. I examined 3 silvicultural treatments (clearcut, thinning, and

NANCY G. TILGHMAN

445

Black-Tailed Prairie Dog  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Black-tailed prairie dogs are quite susceptible to sylvatic plague, but a new plague vaccine put in their food shows significant promise in the laboratory. The prairie dogs transmit the disease to endangered black-footed ferrets, who eat the prairie dogs and are also quite susceptible to the disease...

446

Tail use in bioinspired quadrupedal locomotion  

E-print Network

Tails are seen in nature to be used in an amazing number of different applications. Many of these applications seen in nature may be of use to bioinspired roboticists in the future. I have provided a brief review of tail ...

Briggs, Randall (Randall Miller)

2012-01-01

447

Lobster Tail Ice Formation on Aerosurface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Glace Ice formation commonly refered to as 'Lobster Tail' by scientists and engineers, is caused to form on the leading edge of a aircraft tail section in the icing research tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio.

1999-01-01

448

Acute kidney failure  

MedlinePLUS

Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute ... There are many possible causes of kidney damage. They include: ... cholesterol (cholesterol emboli) Decreased blood flow due to very ...

449

Living with Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Heart Failure Currently, heart failure has no cure. You'll ... avoid harmful side effects. Take Steps To Prevent Heart Failure From Getting Worse Certain actions can worsen your ...

450

Descending from infinity: Convergence of tailed distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the relaxation of long-tailed distributions under stochastic dynamics that do not support such tails. Linear relaxation is found to be a borderline case in which long tails are exponentially suppressed in time but not eliminated. Relaxation stronger than linear suppresses long tails immediately, but may lead to strong transient peaks in the probability distribution. We also find that a ? -function initial distribution under stronger than linear decay displays not one but two different regimes of diffusive spreading.

Van den Broeck, Christian; Harbola, Upendra; Toral, Raul; Lindenberg, Katja

2015-01-01

451

Mechanics-based statistics of failure risk of quasibrittle structures and size effect  

E-print Network

of F is necessarily Gaussian, or normal (except in far-left tails); and (ii) perfectly brittle failures the problem, including its scaling aspect, for the broad and increasingly important class of quasi- brittleMechanics-based statistics of failure risk of quasibrittle structures and size effect on safety

452

The Non-finished, Non-well Compacted Soil of the Crest of Zayzoun Dam, the Technical and Administrative Errors, and the Correct Ways of its Reinforcement and Renovation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zayzoun dam is one of the irrigation elements of the valley of (Alkhab) in northern Syria; its exploitation started in 1996 and breached on June 4th, 2002. There were many experts searching for the causes of its failure and the correct ways of its renovation. There were many reports written about the failure with different opinions, and we have been one of these experts with an objective opinion. The principal aim was to study all the technical and administrative components of the dam, and to analyze the existing and the new laboratory testing. The soil of the unfinished summit of the dam, in the end, was found to be the real cause that led to its failure. These causes will be analyzed in order to avoid them in the future and to find the suitable ways of its renovation and reinforcement.

Hamze, Youssef; Stanivska, Anna

453

Nile River, Lake Nasser, Aswan Dam, Egypt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Egypt's High Aswan Dam on the Nile River at the first cataracts, Nile River, (24.0N, 33.0E) was completed in 1971 to provide cheap hydroelectric power and to regulate the historically uneven flow of the Nile River. The contrast between the largely base rock desert east of the Nile versus the sand covered desert west of the river and the ancient irrigated floodplain downstream from the damsite is clearly shown.

1991-01-01

454

Solar central receiver integration with Hoover Dam  

SciTech Connect

The technical and economic feasibility of integrating a 100 MWe solar central receiver powerplant located in Yuma, Arizona with the Hoover Dam hydroelectric power system is discussed. Technical feasibility was determined by evaluating the effects of integration on the hydrologic and power operations of the existing hydro system. Economic feasibility was determined by comparing the costs of the integrated system with that of the most likely alternative source of power generation--an oil-fired,combined-cycle plant.

Remmers, H.E. (Water and Power Resources Service, Denver, CO); Zelenka, R.L.; Kitchen, J.H.

1980-01-01

455

MARS OBSERVER Mission Failure  

E-print Network

: Pressure Regulator Failure....................... D-28 c. Potential Cause: Failure of a Pyro Valve Charge Check Valves .................................................................. D-14 b. Potential Cause

Rhoads, James

456

Kinetochores require oligomerization of Dam1 complex to maintain microtubule attachments against tension and promote biorientation  

PubMed Central

Kinetochores assemble on centromeric DNA and present arrays of proteins that attach directly to the dynamic ends of microtubules. Kinetochore proteins coordinate at the microtubule interface through oligomerization, but how oligomerization contributes to kinetochore function has remained unclear. Here, using a combination of biophysical assays and live-cell imaging, we find that oligomerization of the Dam1 kinetochore complex is required for its ability to form microtubule attachments that are robust against tension in vitro and in vivo. An oligomerization-deficient Dam1 complex that retains wild-type microtubule binding activity is primarily defective in coupling to disassembling microtubule ends under mechanical loads applied by a laser trap in vitro. In cells, the oligomerization-deficient Dam1 complex is unable to support stable bipolar alignment of sister chromatids, indicating failure of kinetochore-microtubule attachments under tension. We propose that oligomerization is an essential and conserved feature of kinetochore components that is required for accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis. PMID:25236177

Umbreit, Neil T.; Miller, Matthew P.; Tien, Jerry F.; Cattin-Ortolá, Jérôme; Gui, Long; Lee, Kelly K.; Biggins, Sue; Asbury, Charles L.; Davis, Trisha N.

2014-01-01

457

Uranium mill tailings quarterly report, January-March 1982  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported on: radon barrier systems for uranium mill tailings; liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings; revegetation/rock cover for stabilization of inactive U-tailings sites; and application of long-term chemical biobarriers for uranium tailings.

Latkovich, J.M. (comp.)

1982-05-01

458

Comparative lubrication studies of OH-58A tail rotor drive shaft bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comparative lubrication tests were run with OH-58A helicopter tail rotor drive shaft bearings. The tests were run in an outdoor environment with ambient temperatures ranging from 10 to 75 F. Dust was periodically applied to the bearings to simulate field conditions. The cause of bearing failure was associated with dust penetration. Rotor shaft failure was found to be caused by the shaft rotating in the standard rubber collar due to seizure of the bearings. Bearings with a positive rubbing seal having a MIL-G-81322 grease produced lives greater than with bearings having labyrinth seals and a mineral oil paste lubricant. An elongated collar prevented failure of the rotor shaft during bearing seizure. In a limited test, installation of tail boom shrouds over the bearings which excluded dust and water resulted in bearing lives in excess of 1800 hours or 1200 hours greater than the current 600 hours TBO, regardless of the lubricant-bearing combination used.

Dietrich, M. W.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

1972-01-01

459

Hydrodynamic pressure on arch dam and gravity dam including absorption effect of reservoir sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the scaled boundary finite element method (SBFEM), a procedure is developed for evaluation of hydrodynamic pressure acting on arch/gravity dam face. The effect of water compressibility and the absorption of reservoir bottom and sides are taken into consideration. Various factors that affect the earthquake induced hydrodynamic pressure are examined. Emphasis is placed on the influence of reservoir geometry on the magnitude and distribution of hydrodynamic pressure on arch/gravity dam face. Numerical examples demonstrate that SBFEM is a powerful numerical method dealing with hydrodynamic problems. It is computationally quite economical. The effects of water compressibility, reservoir boundary absorption as well as reservoir geometry can be considered with relative ease. Results also show that reservoir geometry affects the amplitude and distribution of hydrodynamic pressure acting on arch/gravity dam face considerably.

Lin, Gao; Wang, Yi; Hu, Zhiqiang

2010-06-01

460

On tail behavior of nonlinear autoregressive functional conditional heteroscedastic model with heavy-tailed innovations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the tail probability of the stationary distribution of nonparametric nonlinear autoregressive functional conditional\\u000a heteroscedastic (NARFCH) model with heavy-tailed innovations. Our result shows that the tail of the stationary marginal distribution\\u000a of an NARFCH series is heavily dependent on its conditional variance. When the innovations are heavy-tailed, the tail of the\\u000a stationary marginal distribution of the series will become

Jiazhu Pan; Guangxu Wu

2005-01-01

461

The Tous Dam Disaster of 1982: Risk communication and the origins of integrated flood risk management in Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The failure of Tous dam on the Júcar River near Valencia in 1982 was one of the most important socio-natural disasters in 20th century Spain. The death toll of 25 would have been much greater had not a local dam manager anticipated the failure and alerted mayors of a failure, before it actually occurred. The Tous Dam failure occurred a week before the first democratic elections in Spain after the Franco dictatorship, it received extensive coverage in the media. As a result, this disaster triggered a paradigm change in the way disaster risks were perceived and managed at multiple levels of government in Spain. Many factors, often of a qualitative and organisational nature, affect (vertical and horizontal) communication in disaster risk reduction learning and planning at the community level. Through interviews with key actors and stakeholders, content analysis of scientific literature, review of historical and media accounts, and analysis of legislation and regulation, we documented changes that resulted from the Tous Dam failure: (1) A process of institutional development, which led to the growth, and increase in complexity of the organisations involved both in vertical and horizontal communication of disaster risk reduction. (2) Actions taken and experiences gained in dealing with disaster risk reduction in the Tous area were used as a benchmark to develop new strategies, as well as new mechanisms for communication and planning in other territories and other risk domains in Spain.We identify three main stages from 1980s to present in the evolution of disaster risk reduction planning in the area, which show a progressive shift towards a more integrated and preventative approach: (1) After the collapse of the Tous Dam, disaster risk reduction strategies in Spain focused on improving preparedness in order to reduce short-term risks. (2) Disaster management in the 1990s was strongly influenced by international initiatives (e.g. the UN International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction), which emphasized the contextualization of risk and the importance in long-term disaster risk reduction measures such as land use planning. (3) The European Water Framework Directive (2000) and, more recently, the Flood Directive (2007) are exerting a strong influence on the development of a new Spanish flood policy that focuses on preventive measures and integrates, for the first time, ecological concerns and climate change adaptation in flood management strategies.

Serra-Llobet, A.; Tàbara, J.; Sauri, D.

2012-12-01

462

Dams and Rivers: A Primer on the Downstream Effects of Dams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey is charged with monitoring the water and mineral resources of the United States. Beginning in 1889, the Survey established a network of water gaging stations across most of the country's rivers; some also measured sediment content of the water. Consequently, we now have valuable long-term data with which to track water supply, sediment transport, and the occurrence of floods. Many variables affect the flow of water from mountain brook to river delta. Some are short-term perturbations like summer thunderstorms. Others occur over a longer period of time, like the El Ninos that might be separated by a decade or more. We think of these variables as natural occurrences, but humans have exerted some of the most important changes -- water withdrawals for agriculture, inter-basin transfers, and especially the construction of an extensive system of dams. Dams have altered the flow of many of the Nation's rivers to meet societal needs. We expect floods to be contained. Irrigation is possible where deserts once existed. And water is released downstream not according to natural cycles but as dictated by a region's hour-by-hour needs for water or electricity. As a result, river channels below dams have changed dramatically. Depending on annual flow, flood peaks, and a river's sediment load, we might see changes such as sand building up in one channel, vegetation crowding into another, and extensive bank erosion in another. This Circular explores the emerging scientific arena of change in rivers below dams. This science tries first to understand and then anticipate changes to river beds and banks, and to riparian habitats and animal communities. To some degree, these downstream changes can be influenced by specific strategies of dam management. Scientists and resource managers have a duty to assemble this information and present it without bias to the rest of society. Society can then more intelligently choose a balance between the benefits and adverse downstream effects of dams.

Collier, Michael; Webb, Robert H.; Schmidt, John C.

1996-01-01

463

Shock wave propagation of circular dam break problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the behavior of shock wave propagation of circular (radial) dam break problems. A dam break problem represents a reservoir having two sides of water at rest initially with different depth separated by a wall, then water flows after the wall is removed. The behavior of shock wave propagation is investigated with respect to water levels and with respect to the speeds of the shock waves. To the author's knowledge, such investigation for circular dam break problems had never been done before. Therefore, this new work shall be important for applied computational mathematics and physics communities as well as fluid dynamic researchers. Based on our research results, the propagation speed of shock wave in a circular dam break is lower than that of shock wave in a planar dam break having the same initial water levels as in the circular dam break.

Mungkasi, Sudi

2014-10-01

464

Ubiquitination of ?-integrin cytoplasmic tails  

PubMed Central

Recent findings have shown that ubiquitination is involved in regulating several proteins required for cell adhesion and migration. We showed that ?5 integrin is ubiquitinated at its cytoplasmic lysines in response to fibronectin binding, and that this is required for its sorting to lysosomes together with fibronectin. Here we speculate whether other ? integrin tails may also be ubiquitinated, and discuss the significance of ubiquitin linkages in the regulation of cell adhesion and migration. PMID:21331246

Lobert, Viola Hélène

2010-01-01

465

Modeling the costs and benefits of dam construction from a multidisciplinary perspective  

E-print Network

Modeling the costs and benefits of dam construction from a multidisciplinary perspective Philip H: Dam construction Dam removal Program evaluation a b s t r a c t Although the benefits of dam for electricity, recent experience has shown that many dams have serious negative environmental, human

Tullos, Desiree

466

Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2011 General Motors 2 Variable Height Vehicle Air Dam  

E-print Network

Vehicle Air Dam Overview The fundamental issue with fixed air dams is the bottom edge of the dam needs to be high enough to meet defined vehicle ground clearance and front approach angle criteria. Air dams must a solution to this problem by designing an variable height vehicle air dam. Objectives Our mission

Demirel, Melik C.

467

Dam Removal Express Assessment Models (DREAM). Part 1: Model development and validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many dams have been removed in the recent decades in the U.S. for reasons including economics, safety, and ecological rehabilitation. More dams are under consideration for removal; some of them are medium to large-sized dams filled with millions of cubic meters of sediment. Reaching a decision to remove a dam and deciding as how the dam should be removed, however,

YANTAO CUI; Hydraulic Engineer; GARY PARKER; CHRISTIAN BRAUDRICK; WILLIAM E. DIETRICH; BRIAN CLUER

468

Hydrologic and Hydraulic Factors Affecting Passage of Paddlefish through Dams in the Upper Mississippi River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of paddlefish Polyodon spathula have been adversely affected by dams that can block their movements. Unlike high-head dams that preclude fish passage (unless they are equipped with fishways), the dams on the upper Mississippi River are typically low-head dams with bottom release gates that may allow fish passage under certain conditions. We evaluated the relation of dam head and

Steven J. Zigler; Michael R. Dewey; Brent C. Knights; Ann L. Runstrom; Mark T. Steingraeber

2004-01-01

469

Examining the economic impacts of hydropower dams on property values using GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the era of dam building is largely over in the United States, globally dams are still being proposed and constructed. The articles in this special issue consider many aspects and impacts of dams around the world. This paper examines dam removal and the measurement of the impacts of dams on local community property values. Valuable lessons may be found.

Curtis Bohlen; Lynne Y. Lewis

2008-01-01

470

Examining the economic impacts of hydropower dams on property values using GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the era of dam building is largely over in the United States, globally dams are still being proposed and constructed. The articles in this special issue consider many aspects and impacts of dams around the world. This paper examines dam removal and the measurement of the impacts of dams on local community property values. Valuable lessons may be found.In

Curtis Bohlen; Lynne Y. Lewis

2009-01-01

471

What Makes a Tidal Tail?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galaxy interactions are famous for creating some of the most visually stunning scenes in astronomy, particularly in the cases of tidal tails. These chaotic regions are known to house breeding grounds for young stellar clusters, as shown through past imaging and spectroscopic studies, but the underlying material remains a mystery. While we know that gas is easily stripped from the parent galaxies, what about the stars? The presence of an older stellar population is crucial to dynamical simulations of tidal tails, but has not yet been confirmed by observation. We use the twin tidal tails of NGC3256 as a case study for determining the presence of an old, underlying stellar population. Newly acquired ugriz Gemini data allows us to distinguish between young and old stars, while previous HST data pinpoints the locations of these objects. Deep imaging surveys have often been used to detect tidal features, including these ancient relics, but our survey will be the first to measure the colors of such objects. This will lead us to place constraints on the original composition of the material that was ejected from the interacting/merging galaxies, and the star formation history.

Rodruck, Michael; Konstantopoulos, I.; Charlton, J. C.

2014-01-01

472

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE NORTH CHANNEL DAM FROM PUBLICLY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE NORTH CHANNEL DAM FROM PUBLICLY RESTRICTED PROPERTY OF THE RECENTLY CLOSED LOUISIANA PACIFIC LUMBER MILL. THE NORTH CHANNEL DAM'S HOLDING RESERVOIR AND TAINTER GATES ARE IN THE FOREGROUND, AND THE ROLLING SECTOR GATE IS IN THE BACKGROUND, LOOKING EAST. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, North Channel Dam, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

473

Providing protection: Agencies receive funding to repair, upgrade dams  

E-print Network

Story by Kathy Wythe tx H2O | pg. 26 Providing protection Agencies receive funding to repair, upgrade dams along with local partners, can apply for grant funds, he said. Construction of the dams began through four federal authorizations... passed between 1944 and 1981. Land rights were acquired from landowners, and local agencies constructed the dams with federal money from NRCS (formerly the Soil Conservation Service). Local sponsors?including cities, counties, local soil and water...

Wythe, Kathy

2009-01-01

474

Reassembling Hetch Hetchy: Water Supply Without O'Shaughnessy Dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hetch Hetchy System provides San Francisco with most of its water supply. O'Shaughnessy Dam is one component of this system, providing approximately 25 percent of water storage for the Hetch Hetchy System and none of its conveyance. Removing O'Shaughnessy Dam has gained interest for restoring Hetch Hetchy Valley. The water supply feasibility of removing O'Shaughnessy Dam is analyzed by

Sarah E. Null; Jay R. Lund

2006-01-01

475

Stability of landslide dams and development of knickpoints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wenchuan earthquake triggered many landslides and numerous avalanches and created 100 odd quake lakes. The quake lakes\\u000a may be removed or preserved. The removal strategy was applied to several large landslide dams, which were dangerous because\\u000a massive amounts of water pooled up in the quake lakes. The dams could eventually fail under the action of dam outburst flooding,\\u000a potentially

Zhaoyin Wang; Peng Cui; Guo-an Yu; Kang Zhang

476

Oblique view, looking west, of top side of diversion dam, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Oblique view, looking west, of top side of diversion dam, also showing eastern profiles of piers and gatehouses. Roller gate (raised position) on right. Note detail of extension shield that, when lowered to a secure position against the dam sill, creates a virtually impervious seal - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

477

The hydrogeology of a tailings impoundment formed by central discharge of thickened tailings: implications for tailings management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kidd Creek Cu-Zn sulfide mine is located near Timmins, Ontario. Mill tailings are thickened and deposited as a slurry in a circular impoundment with an area of approximately 1200 ha. Deposition of tailings as a thickened slurry from a central discharge ramp results in a conical-shaped tailings deposit with low perimeter dykes, a uniform grain-size distribution, uniform and low hydraulic conductivity, and a tension-saturated zone above the water table up to 5 to 6 m thick. These characteristics provide benefits over conventionally disposed tailings with respect to tailings management. The thick tension-saturated zone within the tailings limits the thickness of unsaturated tailings that are susceptible to rapid sulfide oxidation. The conical shape of the deposit results in the formation of a recharge area near the centre of the impoundment and discharge in the peripheral areas. In contrast, the elevated nature of many conventional, unthickened tailings impoundments results in recharge over most of the surface of the impoundment, with discharge occurring outside the impoundment through large containment dykes. Three-dimensional pore water flow modelling suggests that approximately 90% of the total discharge from the thickened tailings occurs within the tailings impoundment. When discharge is confined within the impoundment, there is improved control over low-quality effluent, and an opportunity to design passive control measures to reduce treatment costs and minimize environmental impacts.

Al, Tom A.; Blowes, David W.

1999-06-01

478

2. FORMER INTAKE DAM NO. 2 AT 560" CONSTRUCTED OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. FORMER INTAKE DAM NO. 2 AT 560" CONSTRUCTED OF RUBBLE MASONRY IN 1937-1938. VIEW LOOKING DOWN LINE FORMER INTAKE GRILLE WAS TO LEFT SIDE OF DAM (TWO 8" IRON PIPES FROM NEW INTAKE NOW ENTER OLD INTAKE OPENING), BOX FLUME EXITS AT RIGHT AND CARRIES WATER TO AERATOR. NOTE THE SMALL SLUICEWAY OPENING AT CENTER ALONG WATERLINE. THIS DAM WAS SUPERCEDED BY THE NEW INTAKE DAM TO REACH THE MORE RELIABLE WATER SOURCE OF THE MAIN STREAM. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

479

Recent sediment studies refute Glen Canyon Dam hypothesis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent studies of sedimentology hydrology, and geomorphology indicate that releases from Glen Canyon Dam are continuing to erode sandbars and beaches in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park, despite attempts to restore these resources. The current strategy for dam operations is based on the hypothesis that sand supplied by tributaries of the Colorado River downstream from the dam will accumulate in the channel during normal dam operations and remain available for restoration floods. Recent work has shown that this hypothesis is false, and that tributary sand inputs are exported downstream rapidly typically within weeks or months under the current flow regime.

Rubin, David M.; Topping, David J.; Schmidt, John C.; Hazel, Joe; Kaplinski, Matt; Melis, Theodore S.

2002-01-01

480

Assessing Sediment-Related Effects of Dam Removals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subcommittee on Sedimentation: Sediment Management and Dam Removal Workshop; Portland, Oregon, 14-16 October 2008; For a host of reasons including dam safety, maintenance costs, and ecological concerns, more dams are currently being removed each year in the United States than are being constructed. Because many reservoirs have accumulated sediments within their pools, dam removal can potentially impose a variety of sediment-related risks, including downstream effects on habitat, water quality, infrastructure, and flood storage. Sediment-related risks are particularly heightened when the sediment stored behind a dam is contaminated. Currently no standard procedure exists for assessing sediment-related risks associated with dam removal. As a result, there are wide-ranging levels of analysis used to predict and monitor sediment impacts after a dam is removed. To develop a decision framework for assessing sediment-related effects from dam removals, the U.S. Federal Subcommittee on Sedimentation (SOS) held a workshop in October on the campus of Portland State University, in Oregon, hosted by the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Oregon Water Science Center. At the meeting, attendees crafted a decision framework that will help standardize data collection and analysis methods necessary for understanding sediment-related effects associated with dam removals.

Wallick, J. Rose; Randle, Timothy

2009-04-01

481

Safety of Italian dams in the face of flood hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most rivers in Italy are segmented by dams that need rehabilitation because of (1) safety requirements by increasingly risk-averse societies, (2) changes in the downstream river and riparian system after dams building, (3) poor initial design at the time of completion and (4) modified priorities of watershed management. Safe design of flood spillways is a major concern, and requires to cope with low frequency flood hazard. One must estimate flood figures with high return periods (R ? 1000-10,000 years) but statistical methods involve large uncertainties because of the short length of the available records. This paper investigates the return period of the design flood of existing spillways RS of large dams in Italy. We used re-normalized flood frequency approach and regionalization using the Generalized Extreme Value distribution. The estimation of the site specific index flood is carried out by simple scaling with basin area at the regional level. The result show that 55% (245) of the 448 examined dams are equipped by spillway with RS > 10,000; and 71% (315) of the dams have RS > 1000. Conversely, 29% (130) of the dams display RS < 1000 years, lower than acceptable hazard. The spillway of 14% (62) of the dams has RS < 100 years, indicating potential exceedance of spillways capacity. Reservoir routing may dampen the outflow hydrograph, but one should carefully account for the need of achieving accurate dam safety assessment of these dams based on site specific investigations, also accounting for global change forcing.

Bocchiola, Daniele; Rosso, Renzo

2014-09-01

482

5. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST. WEST DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, QUARRIES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST. WEST DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, QUARRIES TO LEFT MIDDLE GROUND OF PICTURE. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

483

The evolution of gravel bed channels after dam removal: Case study of the Anaconda and Union City Dam removals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Anaconda and Union City Dams on the Naugatuck River in Connecticut were removed in February and October 1999. A detailed study of the sites prior to removal was undertaken including sediment testing and predictions of upstream channel formation post-dam removal. The 3.35-m-high timber crib/rock fill spillway of the Anaconda Dam partially breached during a storm prior to the dam's scheduled removal allowing a portion of the impounded sediment to move down through the river system. This event changed the removal plans and the remainder of the spillway was removed under an emergency order in the course of 4 days. The Union City Dam, a 2.44-m-high timber crib/rock fill dam capped with concrete and stone, was removed on schedule. A portion of the impounded sediment was removed by mechanical means during the deconstruction of the structure. The evolution of the two upstream channels post-project provided unique challenges and valuable insights as to what kind of channel transition can be expected in gravel bed river systems after a low head dam has been removed. This paper describes the initial engineering analysis and design, the subsequent removal of the two dams, and compares observations on the transition of the upstream channels following dam removal to the initial engineering predictions and other models. The relatively steep gravel bed channels evolved in a predictable manner, except where anthropogenic barriers (sanitary sewer, rock weir) interrupted.

Wildman, Laura A. S.; MacBroom, James G.

2005-10-01

484

Dam Design can Impede Adaptive Management of Environmental Flows: A Case Study from the Opuha Dam, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Opuha Dam was designed for water storage, hydropower, and to augment summer low flows. Following its commissioning in 1999, algal blooms (dominated first by Phormidium and later Didymosphenia geminata) downstream of the dam were attributed to the reduced frequency and magnitude of high-flow events. In this study, we used a 20-year monitoring dataset to quantify changes associated with the dam. We also studied the effectiveness of flushing flows to remove periphyton from the river bed. Following the completion of the dam, daily maximum flows downstream have exceeded 100 m3 s-1 only three times; two of these floods exceeded the pre-dam mean annual flood of 203 m3 s-1 (compared to 19 times >100 m3 s-1 and 6 times >203 m3 s-1 in the 8 years of record before the dam). Other changes downstream included increases in water temperature, bed armoring, frequency of algal blooms, and changes to the aquatic invertebrate community. Seven experimental flushing flows resulted in limited periphyton reductions. Flood wave attenuation, bed armoring, and a shortage of surface sand and gravel, likely limited the effectiveness of these moderate floods. Floods similar to pre-dam levels may be effective for control of periphyton downstream; however, flushing flows of that magnitude are not possible with the existing dam infrastructure. These results highlight the need for dams to be planned and built with the capacity to provide the natural range of flows for adaptive management, particularly high flows.

Lessard, JoAnna; Murray Hicks, D.; Snelder, Ton H.; Arscott, David B.; Larned, Scott T.; Booker, Doug; Suren, Alastair M.

2013-02-01

485

77 FR 14516 - Alabama Power Company, Martin Dam Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Proposed Revised Restricted...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Alabama] Alabama Power Company, Martin Dam Hydroelectric Project; Notice...for the Martin Dam Hydroelectric Project would be...Alabama SHPO; Alabama Power Company, the licensee...for the Martin Dam Hydroelectric Project to...

2012-03-12

486

Review of Studies of Fish Survival in Spill at The Dalles Dam  

E-print Network

Review of Studies of Fish Survival in Spill at The Dalles Dam Independent Scientific Advisory BoardThe Dalles Dam Contents Assignment ................................................................................................................................................. 17 Appendix 4. Estimated Total Project Survival at The Dalles Dam at the Two Spill Levels

487

33 CFR 165.T09-0405 - Safety Zone; Salvage Operations at Marseilles Dam; Illinois River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Safety Zone; Salvage Operations at Marseilles Dam; Illinois River. 165.T09-0405 ...Safety Zone; Salvage Operations at Marseilles Dam; Illinois River. (a) Location. ...extending 600 yards upstream of the Marseilles Dam to Mile Marker 247.2. (b)...

2013-07-01

488

The distribution of dams in Costa Rica and their hydrologic impacts  

E-print Network

Dam construction has increased exponentially over the past century, primarily in temperate environments. While the impacts of dams in temperate regions have been well-documented, a parallel level of research on dam impacts has not been achieved...

Laurencio, Laura Richards

2006-04-12

489

Deer Creek Dam, Hydroelectric Powerplant, 868 feet/291 degrees from intersection ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Deer Creek Dam, Hydroelectric Powerplant, 868 feet/291 degrees from intersection of dam complex access road with U.S. Highway 189, 1,340 feet/352 degrees from the dam spillway overpass, Charleston, Wasatch County, UT

490

Linking Short-term Upstream and Downstream Geomorphic Responses to the Removal of Condit Dam, White Salmon River, Washington  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamiting a hole at the base of the 38-m-high Condit Dam, on the White Salmon River, Washington, resulted in rapid reservoir drainage and erosion and produced a downstream surge of water and sediment. To document the short-term upstream and downstream responses to the October 2011 Condit breach, we combined photographic methods, topographic surveys, stage and suspended sediment measurements, and stratigraphic observations. Initial reservoir erosion occurred as a result of mass failure of thick, fine-grained reservoir sediment, which was eventually supplemented by knickpoint migration as the erosion propagated upstream from the dam. About 10 percent of total reservoir sediment eroded in the first 90 minutes after the breach, and about one-third of the reservoir sediment had evacuated in the first week. Downstream, an initially sediment-poor discharge peak with an approximately 100-year recurrence interval was followed by a hyperconcentrated sediment pulse (32% by volume) that locally produced meters-thick sand deposits. The post-breach sediment dynamics at Condit were in many respects more analogous to sediment pulses introduced by volcanic eruptions or large mass failure events than by previous dam removals.

Wilcox, A. C.; O'Connor, J. E.; Major, J. J.; Coloaiacomo, E.

2013-12-01

491

Earthquake safety assessment of concrete arch and gravity dams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on research studies currently being carried out at Dalian University of Technology, some important aspects for the earthquake safety assessment of concrete dams are reviewed and discussed. First, the rate-dependent behavior of concrete subjected to earthquake loading is examined, emphasizing the properties of concrete under cyclic and biaxial loading conditions. Second, a modified four-parameter Hsieh-Ting-Chen viscoplastic consistency model is developed to simulate the rate-dependent behavior of concrete. The earthquake response of a 278m high arch dam is analyzed, and the results show that the strain-rate effects become noticeable in the inelastic range. Third, a more accurate non-smooth Newton algorithm for the solution of three-dimensional frictional contact problems is developed to study the joint opening effects of arch dams during strong earthquakes. Such effects on two nearly 300m high arch dams have been studied. It was found that the canyon shape has great influence on the magnitude and distribution of the joint opening along the dam axis. Fourth, the scaled boundary finite element method presented by Song and Wolf is employed to study the dam-reservoir-foundation interaction effects of concrete dams. Particular emphases were placed on the variation of foundation stiffness and the anisotropic behavior of the foundation material on the dynamic response of concrete dams. Finally, nonlinear modeling of concrete to study the damage evolution of concrete dams during strong earthquakes is discussed. An elastic-damage mechanics approach for damage prediction of concrete gravity dams is described as an example. These findings are helpful in understanding the dynamic behavior of concrete dams and promoting the improvement of seismic safety assessment methods.

Lin, Gao; Hu, Zhiqiang

2005-12-01

492

Error reduction in slope stability assessment Jean-Alain Fleurisson and Roger Cojean  

E-print Network

, as well as all the types of embankments (stockpiles, tailing dams, waste dumps) resulting from mining be mentioned (e.g. Failure of the waste dump at Aberfan in Wales in 1966, many failures in tailing dams ratio (ratio between waste and ore tonnages) and/or the tonnage of recoverable ore with consequences

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

493

The Three Gorges Dam Affects Regional Precipitation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Issues regarding building large-scale dams as a solution to power generation and flood control problems have been widely discussed by both natural and social scientists from various disciplines, as well as the policy-makers and public. Since the Chinese government officially approved the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) projects, this largest hydroelectric project in the world has drawn a lot of debates ranging from its social and economic to climatic impacts. The TGD has been partially in use since June 2003. The impact of the TGD is examined through analysis of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rainfall rate and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature and high-resolution simulation using the Pennsylvania State University-National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU-NCAR) fifth-generation Mesoscale Model (MM5). The independent satellite data sets and numerical simulation clearly indicate that the land use change associated with the TGD construction has increased the precipitation in the region between Daba and Qinling mountains and reduced the precipitation in the vicinity of the TGD after the TGD water level abruptly rose from 66 to 135 m in June 2003. This study suggests that the climatic effect of the TGD is on the regional scale (approx.100 km) rather than on the local scale (approx.10 km) as projected in previous studies.

Wu, Liguang; Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Zhihong

2006-01-01

494

Libby/Hungry Horse Dams Wildlife Mitigation Habitat Protection : Interim Report.  

SciTech Connect

The Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program identified mitigation goals for Hungry Horse and Libby dams (1987). Specific programs goals included: (1) protect and/or enhance 4565 acres of wetland habitat in the Flathead Valley; (2) protect 2462 acres of prairie habitat within the vicinity of the Tobacco Plains Columbian sharp-tailed grouse; (3) protect 8590 acres riparian habitat in northwest Montana for grizzly and black bears; and (4) protect 11,500 acres of terrestrial furbearer habitat through cooperative agreements with state and federal agencies and private landowners. The purpose of this project is to continue to develop and obtain information necessary to evaluate and implement specific wildlife habitat protection actions in northwestern Montana. This report summarizes project work completed between May 1, 1990, and December 31, 1990. There were three primary project objectives during this time: obtain specific information necessary to develop the mitigation program for Columbian sharp-tailed grouse; continue efforts necessary to develop, refine, and coordinate the mitigation programs for waterfowl/wetlands and grizzly/black bears; determine the opportunity and appropriate strategies for protecting terrestrial furbearer habitat by lease or management agreements on state, federal and private lands. 19 refs., 1 tab.

Wood, Marilyn

1991-04-01

495

MFR PAPER 1222 Effects of Dams on Pacific Salmon  

E-print Network

. Their numbers were few and their total effect was relatively minor. In the 1880's dams for hydroelectric power. In the 1930's major hydroelectric dams were built on the mainstem Columbia River (Fig. I), initiating the large-scale development of the water resources of the Columbia River Basin for electrical power

496

33 CFR 117.705 - Beaver Dam Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Beaver Dam Creek. 117.705 Section 117.705 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.705 Beaver Dam Creek. The draw of the Ocean County bridge, mile...

2014-07-01

497

33 CFR 117.705 - Beaver Dam Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Beaver Dam Creek. 117.705 Section 117.705 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.705 Beaver Dam Creek. The draw of the Ocean County bridge, mile...

2012-07-01

498

33 CFR 117.705 - Beaver Dam Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Beaver Dam Creek. 117.705 Section 117.705 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.705 Beaver Dam Creek. The draw of the Ocean County bridge, mile...

2011-07-01

499

33 CFR 117.705 - Beaver Dam Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Beaver Dam Creek. 117.705 Section 117.705 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.705 Beaver Dam Creek. The draw of the Ocean County bridge, mile...

2013-07-01

500

89. AVALON DAM Photographic copy of construction drawing dated ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

89. AVALON DAM - Photographic copy of construction drawing dated February 15, 1912 (from Record Group 115, Box 17, Denver Branch of the National Archives, Denver) GUIDES, GIRDERS AND DUST GUARDS FOR 21 FT. DIA. GATES - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Avalon Dam, On Pecos River, 4 miles North of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM