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1

Floods from tailings dam failures.  

PubMed

This paper compiles the available information on historic tailings dam failures with the purpose to establish simple correlations between tailings ponds geometric parameters (e.g., dam height, tailings volume) and the hydraulic characteristics of floods resulting from released tailings. Following the collapse of a mining waste dam, only a part of tailings and polluted water stored at the dam is released, and this outflow volume is difficult to estimate prior the incident. In this study, tailings' volume stored at the time of failure was shown to have a good correlation (r2=0.86) with the tailings outflow volume, and the volume of spilled tailings was correlated with its run-out distance (r2=0.57). An envelope curve was drawn encompassing the majority of data points indicating the potential maximum downstream distance affected by a tailings' spill. The application of the described regression equations for prediction purposes needs to be treated with caution and with support of on-site measurement and observations. However, they may provide a universal baseline approximation on tailing outflow characteristics (even if detailed dam information is unavailable), which is of a great importance for risk analysis purposes. PMID:18096316

Rico, M; Benito, G; Díez-Herrero, A

2008-06-15

2

Safety of Tailings Dams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Contains information on different aspects of tailings dams; tailings dam properties, disasters, failure modes, slurry waves, stability analysis, and safe tailings disposal. Also includes a slope stability calculator and a tailings flow slide calculator.

2008-08-25

3

Reported tailings dam failures. A review of the European incidents in the worldwide context.  

PubMed

A detailed search and re-evaluation of the known historical cases of tailings dam failure was carried out. A corpus of 147 cases of worldwide tailings dam disasters, from which 26 located in Europe, was compiled in a database. This contains six sections, including dam location, its physical and constructive characteristics, actual and putative failure cause, sludge hydrodynamics, socio-economical consequences and environmental impacts. Europe ranks in second place in reported accidents (18%), more than one third of them in dams 10-20 m high. In Europe, the most common cause of failure is related to unusual rain, whereas there is a lack of occurrences associated with seismic liquefaction, which is the second cause of tailings dam breakage elsewhere in the world. Moreover, over 90% of incidents occurred in active mines, and only 10% refer to abandoned ponds. The results reached by this preliminary analysis show an urgent need for EU regulations regarding technical standards of tailings disposal. PMID:17854989

Rico, M; Benito, G; Salgueiro, A R; Díez-Herrero, A; Pereira, H G

2008-04-01

4

Determination of the Failure Surface Geometry in Quick Slides Using Balanced Cross Section Techniques - Application to Aznalcóllar Tailings Dam Failure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a landslide investigation, the location of the failure surface is a difficult task when measures of subsurface displacement are lacking, as it occurs in old landslides or in recent but quick ones. The subsurface geological data and ground surface displacement data may not be enough to formulate a unique interpretation of the failure surface. However, an accurate determination of the failure surface is possible when balanced cross section techniques are applied to preliminary interpretations. The former is proved by means of the example of Aznalcóllar dam failure (Seville, Spain).

Moya, José

5

Stability analysis of a copper tailings dam via laboratory model tests: A Chinese case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upstream method is a popular method for raising tailings dams. Currently in China there are more than 12,000 tailings impoundments and almost 95% of them use the upstream method for the construction of the dam. Statistical data has shown that the tailings impoundment is one of the main sources of risk in the mining industry. Failures of tailings impoundments

Guangzhi Yin; Guangzhi Li; Zuoan Wei; Ling Wan; Guohong Shui; Xiaofei Jing

2011-01-01

6

Survey of Radionuclide Distributions Resulting from the Church Rock, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Pond Dam Failure  

SciTech Connect

An intensive site survey and on-site analysis program were conducted to evaluate the distribution of four radionucliGes in the general vicinity of Gallup, New Mexico, subsequent to the accidental breach of a uranium mill tailings pond dam and the release of a large quantity of tailings pond materials. The objective of this work was to determine the distribution and concentration levels of {sup 210}Pb, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 230}Th, and {sup 238}U in the arroyo that is immediately adjacent to the uranium tailings pond (pipeline arroyo) and in the Rio Puerco arroyo into which the pipeline arroyo drains. An intensive survey between the United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) Church Rock Mill site and the New Mexico-Arizona state border was performed. Sampling locations were established at approximately 500-ft intervals along the arroyo. During the weeks of September 24 through October 5, 1979, a series of samples was collected from alternate sampling locations along the arroyo. The purpose of this collection of samples and their subsequent analysis was to provide an immediate evaluation of the extent and the levels of radioactive contamination. The data obtained from this extensive survey were then compared to action levels which had been proposed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and were adapted by the New Mexico Environmental Improvement Division (NMEID) for {sup 230}Th and {sup 226}Ra concentrations that would require site cleanup. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory/Nuclear Regulatory Commission mobile laboratory van was on-site at the UNC Church Rock Mill from September 22, 1979, through December 13, 1979, and was manned by one or more PNL personnel for all but four weeks of this time period. Approximately 1200 samples associated with the Rio Puerco survey were analyzed 1n the laboratory. An additional 1200 samples related to the Rio Puerco cleanup operations which the United Nuclear Corporation was conducting were analyzed on-site in the mobile laboratory. The purpose of these analyses was to determine the effectiveness of the cleanup operations that were ongoing and to evaluate what additional cleanup would be required. This on-site analysis of radioactive contamination constituted the principal task of this project, with the identification of those portions of the arroyo exceeding the NMEID proposed cleanup criteria being the major output. Additiond1 tasks included an evaluation of the initial soil sampling scheme (letter from T. Wolff [NMEID] to J. Abiss [UNC]. oated September 25, 1979) and the proposed NMEID verification sampling scheme (letter from T. Buhl [NMEID] to H. Miller [NRC]. dated April 23, 1980).

Weimer, W. C.; Kinnison, R. R.; Reeves, J. H.

1981-12-01

7

Using resistivity measurements for dam safety evaluation at Enemossen tailings dam in southern Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Internal erosion is a major reason for embankment dam failures. Resistivity measurements is an essentially non-destructive technique, which may have the possibility of detecting internal erosion processes and anomalous seepage at an early stage before the safety of the dam is at stake. This paper presents results from part of a dam safety investigation conducted at the Enemossen tailings dam in southern Sweden. Longitudinal resistivity sections, 2D measurements along the dam crest, provided an overview of the whole dam and served to detect anomalous zones. In selected areas, additional cross-sectional 2D surveys gave detailed information about the geo-electrical situations in the embankments. This information is valuable for similar investigations as information about resistivity in embankment construction material is scarce. Known problem areas were associated with low resistivities, even though the resistivity measurements alone did not provide enough information to confidently come to a decision about the status of the dams.

Sjödahl, P.; Dahlin, T.; Johansson, S.

2005-12-01

8

Design of tailing dam using red mud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Red mud, waste industrial product from aluminum industries produced approximately 75 million tonnes every year with less than half of this is used. Storage of this unutilized red mud takes vast tracts of usable land and pollutes, land, air and water. Construction of high embankments, under passes, flyovers, tailing dams uses vast tract of natural resources (top soil) is also matter of concern as its takes thousands of years to form the natural soil. This paper discusses use of red mud for construction of tailing dam based on laboratory findings and finite element analysis. The geotechnical properties such as plasticity, compaction, permeability, shear strength characteristics and dispersion of red mud are presented. Stability and seepage analysis of tailing dams as per finite element analysis using the above geotechnical parameters is presented.

Rout, Subrat; Sahoo, Tapaswini; Das, Sarat

2013-06-01

9

FORMATION AND FAILURE OF NATURAL DAMS.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Of the numerous kinds of dams that form by natural processes, dams formed from landslides, glacial ice, and late-neoglacial moraines present the greatest threat to people and property. Landslide dams form a wide range of physiographic settings. The most common types of mass movements that form landslide dams are rock and debris avalanches; rock and soil slumps and slides; and mud, debris, and earth flows. The most common initiation mechanisms for dam-forming landslides are excessive rainfall and snowmelt and earthquakes. Natural dams may cause upstream flooding as the lake rises and downstream flooding as a result of failure of the dam. Although data are few, for the same potential energy at the dam site, downstream flood peaks from the failure of glacier-ice dams are smaller than those from landslide, moraine, and constructed earth-fill and rock-fill dam failures.

Costa, John E.; Schuster, Robert L.

1988-01-01

10

12. Credit PED. View of tail race and dam showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Credit PED. View of tail race and dam showing dumping of construction rubble into river bed by rail car; and preparations for pouring a concrete cap onto tail race wall. Photo c. 1909. - Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Plant, Potomac River, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV

11

Environmentally safe design of tailing dams for the management of iron ore tailings in Indian context.  

PubMed

The need for the disposal of iron ore tailings in an enviornmentally firiendly manner is of great concern. This paper investigates the soil engineering properties for the construction of iron ore tailing dam, its foundation, construction materials and design data used for the construction analysis of the tailing dam. Geophysical investigations were carried out to establish the bedrock below the spillway. A computer programme taking into account the Swedish Slip Circle Method of analysis was used in the stability analysis of dam. It also focuses on the charactierstics of the tailings reponsible for the determination of optimum size of tailing pond for the containment of the tailings. The studies on the settling characteristics of tailings indicate much less area in comparison to the area provided in the existing tailing ponds in India. In the proposed scheme, it is suggested to provide an additional unit of sedimentation tank before the disposal of tailings to the tailing pond. PMID:17051916

Ghose, Mrinal K; Sen, P K

2005-10-01

12

Resonant Column and Cyclic Triaxial Testing of Tailing Dam Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aseries of resonant column and cyclic triaxial tests has been conducted in the frame of the analysis of tailing dam stability during earthquakes, The investigation program for a silty sand fro m uranium tailings is presented. The paper describes the testing procedures and presents all significant results of these experiments, Single-stage and multi-stage resonant co­ lumn tests were performed in

S. A. Savidis; C. Vrettos

13

Geological impact of some tailings dams in Sardinia, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article deals with the results of a survey carried out in Sardinia on both active and abandoned tailings dams, and we also discuss the geological impact of tailings dams of two mines: the Masua mine, a large syngenetic Pb-Zn deposit located in Cambrian limestones, and the Montevecchio mine, a Pb-Zn vein deposit near a Hercynian granite intrusion. The characteristics and metal content of material in the dams were analyzed. A high contamination of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu) was found both in the soils and water of Rio Montevecchio, a stream draining the tailings dams and other mining operations in the area. The study indicates that a control plan to minimize heavy metal pollution must be drawn up for all mines of the area, whether active or abandoned.

di Gregorio, Felice; Massoli-Novelli, Raniero

1992-05-01

14

Dam Failure Inundation Map Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the end of the first year, we remain on schedule. Property owners were identified and contacted for land access purposes. A prototype software package has been completed and was demonstrated to the Division of Land and Natural Resources (DLNR), National Weather Service (NWS) and Pacific Disaster Center (PDC). A field crew gathered data and surveyed the areas surrounding two dams in Waimea. (A field report is included in the annual report.) Data sensitivity analysis was initiated and completed. A user's manual has been completed. Beta testing of the software was initiated, but not completed. The initial TNK and property owner data collection for the additional test sites on Oahu and Kauai have been initiated.

Johnson, Carl; Iokepa, Judy; Dahlman, Jill; Michaud, Jene; Paylor, Earnest (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

15

Environmental risk assessment system for phosphogypsum tailing dams.  

PubMed

This paper may be of particular interest to the readers as it provides a new environmental risk assessment system for phosphogypsum tailing dams. In this paper, we studied the phosphogypsum tailing dams which include characteristics of the pollution source, environmental risk characteristics and evaluation requirements to identify the applicable environmental risk assessment methods. Two analytical methods, that is, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy logic, were used to handle the complexity of the environmental and nonquantitative data. Using our assessment method, different risk factors can be ranked according to their contributions to the environmental risk, thereby allowing the calculation of their relative priorities during decision making. Thus, environmental decision-makers can use this approach to develop alternative management strategies for proposed, ongoing, and completed PG tailing dams. PMID:24382947

Sun, Xin; Ning, Ping; Tang, Xiaolong; Yi, Honghong; Li, Kai; Zhou, Lianbi; Xu, Xianmang

2013-01-01

16

1. VIEW OF THE MILL TAILINGS FACING NORTHWEST. SEDIMENT DAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF THE MILL TAILINGS FACING NORTHWEST. SEDIMENT DAM AND POND IN THE FOREGROUND, AND WATER PUMP (FEATURE B-25) ON THE LOWER RIGHT SIDE OF PHOTO. - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

17

Application to monitoring of tailings dam based on 3D laser scanning technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presented a new method of monitoring of tailing dam based on 3D laser scanning technology and gave the method flow of acquiring and processing the tailing dam data. Taking the measured data for example, the author analyzed the dam deformation by generating the TIN, DEM and the curvature graph, and proved that it's feasible to global monitor the tailing dam using 3D laser scanning technology from the theory and method.

Ren, Fang; Zhang, Aiwu

2011-06-01

18

Geochemical modeling of cyanide in tailing dam gold processing plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research is aimed at investigating possible neutralization of cyanide in tailing dam of Muteh gold processing plant in Isfahan, Iran at various conditions such as pH and temperature using USEPA Visual MINTEQ geochemical model simulation. The model is based on geochemical equilibrium which uses the simultaneous solution of the non-linear mass action expressions and linear mass balance relationships to formulate and solve the multiple-component chemical equilibrium problems. In this study the concentration of aqueous species in tailing dam as an aqueous, solid and gaseous were used as input in the model. Temperature and pH variation were simulated. The results of the model indicated that cyanide may be complexes in 10 < pH < 5. In other pH values complexation is not important. The results also indicated that cyanide reduction mechanism in acidic pH and temperature above 30°C is due to cyanide acid formation which is vaporized.

Khodadadi, Ahmad; Monjezi, M.; Mehrpouya, H.; Dehghani, H.

2009-09-01

19

Tailings dams stability analysis using numerical modelling of geotechnical and geophysical data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods for monitoring seepage and detecting internal erosion are essential for the safety evaluation of embankment dams. Internal erosion is one of the major reasons for embankment dam failures, and there are thousands of large tailings dams and waste-rock dumps in the world that may pe considered as hotspots for environmental impact. In this research the geophysical survey works were performed on Cetatuia 2 tailings dam. Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) method was able to detect spatially anomalous zones inside the embankment dam. These anomalies are the results of internal erosion phenomena which may progressing inside the dam and is difficult to detect by conventional methods. Data aquired by geophysical survey together with their interpretations were used in the numerical model for slope stability assessment. The final results show us the structural weakness induced by the presence of internal erosion elements especially for seismic loading case. This research methodology may be also available for tailings dam monitoring purposes. Electrical Rezistivity Imaging (ERI) was performed on Cetatuia 2 dam at the Uranium Milling Plant Feldioara, in order to map areas with lateral and vertical changes in resistivity. The electrodes are connected to an automated computer operated switch box that selects the 4 electrodes to be used. A computer controls the switch box and the measuring device, and runs a program that selects the electrodes, makes the measurement, and stores the measurement. For inversion processing procedures was used Res2Din software. The measured resistivity were plotted by the pseudo section contouring method. There are five resistivity pseudosections obtained from the Cetatuia 2 tailings dam during the october 2007 measurements. Four transversal profiles trans1 to trans4 are perpendicular to the berms and the longitudinal one long1 is placed along dam's crest. The high resistivities near the berms surfaces corresponds to unsaturated fill materials and the low resistivities near the crest correspond to water saturated material. The resistivities values greater then 80 ohm.m may be explained by some error obtained for that inversion model. Profiles trans3 and trans4 were measured on perpendicular directions to berm alignment and show two distinct zones. The upward low resistivities zone correspond to water saturated materials especially from the compacted clay dam's core and the downward high resistivities zone belongs to unsaturated fill materials. The boundary between high and low resistivity at the depth of about 5 to 7 meters shows the groundwater level. The continuation of the high resistivity zones towards the end of the profile trans3, which is different from other profiles is probably due to the presence of dry coarse materials in shallow depth correspondingly to sandy clay. The sand fractions from the clay matrix may be affected by internal erosional phenomena, due to seepage currents that overpassed the material critical gradient. In this case the relative high resistivities values were considered as a presumptive erosional pattern. This profile was considered for the slope stability finite element modelling. The profile long1 which is placed along dam's crest is the longest profiles and extends up to nearly 420 m. The boundary between high and low resistivity at the depth of about 4 to 8 meters shows the groundwater across the dam core. The central part of the profile (about meter 200) shows the same relative high resistivities that occurred on transversal profile trans3. Resistivity data was used for building the 3D electrical resistivity model. The water saturated materials have locations very close to dam's crest (resistivity values usually lower then 10 ohm.m) and on both dam's arms. The groundwater levels were confirmed by the piezometric measurements. Electrical Rezistivity Imaging method had the possibility to show the most important disturbant elements that in certain conditions may weak the dam's state of safety. This study considered the SSR (Shear Strength Reduction) technique for sl

Mihai, S.; Zlagnean, M.; Oancea, I.; Petrescu, A.

2009-04-01

20

Dams and Dam Failure - Module 1: Terminology and Open Channel Hydraulics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the first module of a two-part series offering an introduction to the science explaining catastrophic dam failure and flood-wave prediction methods associated with these events. Through use of rich illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module explains key terminology and concepts including dam types and purposes, failure statistics, the general dam failure process, open channel hydraulics, critical flow, Manning's equation, and conveyance. The information covered in this two module series will provide a scientific foundation for advanced course work needed to run dam break simulations and to conduct hydraulic modeling as a part of dynamic wave forecasting.

2014-09-14

21

Dams and Dam Failure - Module 2: St. Venant Equations, Modeling, and Case Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This second module in the two-part series expands on the science explaining catastrophic dam failure and flood-wave prediction methods associated with these events. Through the use of rich illustrations and interactions, this module introduces the St. Venant equations for dynamic wave flow, and flood wave characteristics. It also explains the general dam failure modeling process along with advantages and limitations of dam failure models including model stability, accuracy, and sensitivity issues. Finally, it also provides an overview of the Teton River dam failure, one of the most famous hydrologic events in U.S. history. The two modules that comprise this series are designed to be taken consecutively and together provide a fundamental understanding of this complex hydrologic topic.

Comet

2008-08-25

22

Dynamic model failure tests of dam structures Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China  

E-print Network

Dynamic model failure tests of dam structures Gao Lin Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China ABSTRACT: For the earthquake safety evaluation of dam structures, it is desirable to extend failure tests of a number of concrete gravity dams, concrete arch dams and embankment dams have been

Spencer Jr., B.F.

23

Analysis of Dam Failure in the Saluda River February 8, 2005  

E-print Network

Analysis of Dam Failure in the Saluda River Valley February 8, 2005 Abstract We identify and model two possible failure modes for the Saluda Dam: gradual failure due to an enlarging breach and sudden catas- trophic failure due to liqui#12;cation of the dam. For the #12;rst case we de- scribe the breach

Morrow, James A.

24

Estimating Overall Risk of Dam Failure: Practical Considerations in Combining Failure Probabilities ANCOLD 2003 Risk Workshop Page 1  

E-print Network

Estimating Overall Risk of Dam Failure: Practical Considerations in Combining Failure Probabilities ANCOLD 2003 Risk Workshop Page 1 ESTIMATING OVERALL RISK OF DAM FAILURE: PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS With the move to a risk based approach to dam safety there has been a concomitant focus on estimating

Bowles, David S.

25

Signature of Rhine Valley sturzstrom dam failures in Holocene sediments of Lake Constance, Germany  

E-print Network

Signature of Rhine Valley sturzstrom dam failures in Holocene sediments of Lake Constance, Germany 4 November 2003; received in revised form 12 April 2004; accepted 26 April 2004 Abstract Landslide-dammed that the hyperpycnite deposits are directly related to the failure of two sturzstrom dams and the draining of the dammed

Gilli, Adrian

26

Hydrogeophysical Modeling of Spatial and Temporal Salt Flushing of a Tailings Dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southwest Sand Storage (SWSS) is a large tailings dam located at Syncrude Canada's Mildred Lake Operations, 40 km north of Fort McMurray, Alberta. It is 25 km2 in area, up to 40 m high and contains 300 million cubic metres of tailings sand. Sand was mounded and compacted to form a perimeter dyke that consists of 10 m high

T. J. Cheema; C. A. Mendoza; A. Price

2009-01-01

27

On the liquefaction failure of an earth dam  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to better assess the potential for sliding and liquefaction failure of earthen dams when subjected to earthquake loadings, a dynamic finite element approach focusing on these two failure mechanisms as well as on the vital role of the pore water pressure was undertaken. The constitutive response of the granular soil skeleton and its coupling with the fluid phase is formulated based on the Blot dynamic equations of motion. The constitutive model for the soil material was assumed to be linear with nonlinear terms included in the hysteretic damping terms. Despite the linear character of this theoretical model, one can still draw important conclusions regarding the stability and the liquefaction resistance of the cross-section. As an example, a hypothetical earth dam constructed over a saturated soil layer was considered. The steady state conditions of in-situ stress and pore pressure distributions in both the embankment and the foundation are evaluated and implemented in the stability and liquefaction criteria in conjunction with the dynamic analysis. The latter is carried out in the frequency domain and it reflects the response of the dam-foundation system to a seismic excitation. The computational aspect of the study is performed with finite element analysis. A transmitting boundary formulation for the two phase material was used to treat the infinite space problem. It is anticipated that the intensity of the earthquake input and certain soil properties have a profound effect on the failure susceptibility of the dam section. To address the uncertainties regarding the true values of such parameters, the analysis considered them parametrically.

Simos, N.; Reich, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Costantino, C.J. [City Coll., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1993-12-01

28

Dynamic decision making for dam-break emergency management - Part 2: Application to Tangjiashan landslide dam failure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tangjiashan landslide dam, which was triggered by the Ms = 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 in China, threatened 1.2 million people downstream of the dam. All people in Beichuan Town 3.5 km downstream of the dam and 197 thousand people in Mianyang City 85 km downstream of the dam were evacuated 10 days before the breaching of the dam. Making such an important decision under uncertainty was difficult. This paper applied a dynamic decision-making framework for dam-break emergency management (DYDEM) to help rational decision in the emergency management of the Tangjiashan landslide dam. Three stages are identified with different levels of hydrological, geological and social-economic information along the timeline of the landslide dam failure event. The probability of dam failure is taken as a time series. The dam breaching parameters are predicted with a set of empirical models in stage 1 when no soil property information is known, and a physical model in stages 2 and 3 when knowledge of soil properties has been obtained. The flood routing downstream of the dam in these three stages is analyzed to evaluate the population at risk (PAR). The flood consequences, including evacuation costs, flood damage and monetized loss of life, are evaluated as functions of warning time using a human risk analysis model based on Bayesian networks. Finally, dynamic decision analysis is conducted to find the optimal time to evacuate the population at risk with minimum total loss in each of these three stages.

Peng, M.; Zhang, L. M.

2013-02-01

29

Design, construction and management of tailings storage facilities for surface disposal in China: case studies of failures.  

PubMed

Rapid development of China's economy demands for more mineral resources. At the same time, a vast quantity of mine tailings, as the waste byproduct of mining and mineral processing, is being produced in huge proportions. Tailings impoundments play an important role in the practical surface disposal of these large quantities of mining waste. Historically, tailings were relatively small in quantity and had no commercial value, thus little attention was paid to their disposal. The tailings were preferably discharged near the mines and few tailings storage facilities were constructed in mainland China. This situation has significantly changed since 2000, because the Chinese economy is growing rapidly and Chinese regulations and legislation require that tailings disposal systems must be ready before the mining operation begins. Consequently, data up to 2008 shows that more than 12 000 tailings storage facilities have been built in China. This paper reviews the history of tailings disposal in China, discusses three cases of tailings dam failures and explores failure mechanisms, and the procedures commonly used in China for planning, design, construction and management of tailings impoundments. This paper also discusses the current situation, shortcomings and key weaknesses, as well as future development trends for tailings storage facilities in China. PMID:23064963

Wei, Zuoan; Yin, Guangzhi; Wang, J G; Wan, Ling; Li, Guangzhi

2013-01-01

30

A New Method for System Reliability Analysis of Tailings Dam Stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the purpose of stability evaluation, a tailings dam can be considered as an artificial slope made of special soil materials which mainly come from mine tailings. As a particular engineering project, a tailings dam generally has experienced multi-loop hydraulic sediments as well as a long-term consolidation in the process of construction. The characteristics of sediment and consolidation result in a unique distribution of the soil layers with significant uncertainties, which come from both nature development and various human activities, and thus cause the discrete and the variability of the physical-mechanical properties dramatically greater than the natural geo-materials. Therefore, the location of critical slip surface (CSS) of the dam usually presents a notable drift. So, it means that the reliability evaluation task for a tailings dam is a system reliability problem indeed. Unfortunately, the previous research of reliability of tailings dam was mainly confined to the limit equilibrium method (LEM), which has three obvious drawbacks. First, it just focused on the variability along the slip surface rather than the whole space of the dam. Second, a fixed CSS, instead of variable one, was concerned in most cases. Third, the shape of the CSS was usually simplified to a circular. The present paper tried to construct a new reliability analysis model combined with several advanced techniques involving finite difference method (FDM), Monte Carlo simulation (MCS), support vector machine (SVM) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). The new framework was consisted of four modules. The first one is the limit equilibrium finite difference mode, which employed the FLAC3D code to generate stress fields and then used PSO algorithm to search the location of CSS and corresponding minimum factor of safety (FOS). The most value of this module was that each realization of stress field would lead to a particular CSS and its FOS. In other words, the consideration of the drift of CSS was significant to system reliability analysis. Besides, the CSS was described with non-circular shape, which was much more superior to the circular one. Moreover, compare with the LEM, the numerical method has the ability to reflect the variability in a whole space of the dam. The second one is the orthogonal design modules aimed to generate high-quality training samples according to the variability of soil layers. The third one is the response surface model based on SVM, which was designed to obtain the explicit performance function through the well-prepared training samples. The fourth one is the MCS model, which can perform steady and effective reliability analysis through the explicit performance function. As a result, a new approach for reliability analysis of tailings dam stability was presented. As a case study, the Yong-ping Copper Mine Tailings Dam in Jiangxi Province of China was analyzed in detail by this new method. It was shown that the effectiveness of the new method is considerable. In sum, this research is geared towards providing new ideas and available examples for future reliability assessment of tailings dam stability.

Liu, X.; Tang, H.; Xiong, C.; Ni, W.

2012-12-01

31

Quantitative and Qualitative Geospatial Analysis of a Probable Catastrophic Dam Failure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geospatial techniques were used in assessing inundation extents that would occur in the event of a catastrophic failure of Fort Peck dam. Fort Peck dam, located in Montana, USA has a spillway design which under dam failure the crest is expected to reach Williston a major economic hub in North Dakota in 1.4 days with a peak elevation of 1891 ft (576.377 m) msl (mean sea level). In this study, we address flooding extents and impacts on establishments with respect to a peak elevation of 1891 ft. From this study, we can unequivocally state that the City of Williston will be significantly impacted if Fort Peck dam fails with almost all critical needs, for example, gasoline stations, emergency facilities and grocery stores completely inundated. A secondary catastrophic event may be tied to the primary economic activity in Williston, that is, oil rigs of which most lie on the pathway of an inadvertent flood crest. We also applied a Discrete Fourier Transformation (DFT), and Lomb-Scargle normalized periodogram analyses and fitting of Fort Peck dam reservoir level fluctuations to gauge (a) likelihood of the dam overtopping, and (b) anatomic life span. Whereas we found that inasmuch as the dam could be considered stable by directly analyzing other dams that have failed, there is still a lower likelihood of it to fail at a 99-232 years range from construction. There was lack of concomitancy between overtopping and dam failure rates.

Oduor, P. G.; Stenehjem, J.

2011-12-01

32

ISSUES, RESOLUTIONS, AND RESEARCH NEEDS RELATED TO EMBANKMENT DAM FAILURE ANALYSIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This document is the proceedings of a 3-day workshop on "Issues, Resolutions, and Research Needs Related to Embankment Dam Failure Analysis," held in Oklahoma City, OK, June 26-28th, 2001. The workshop consisted of convening and facilitating a group of experts with respect to dam safety associated ...

33

Failure Dynamics of a Homogeneous Earth Dam Leaking Through a Fissure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Often, the catastrophic failure of a dam is due to water passing over the crest. The initial length of the overflow front may be from a few meters up to hundreds while the structure is undamaged or only a few meters if a fissure or breach is formed. There are several models for dam erosion through fissures, which use river

V. Kh. Davletshin

2001-01-01

34

Comparison of two process based earthen dam failure computation models  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dams are an important part of this nation's infrastructure providing flood control, water supply, irrigation, hydropower, navigation, and recreation. Despite their many beneficial uses, dams present a risk to property and life due to their potential to fail. They are also a part of the nation's ag...

35

Hydrogeophysical Modeling of Spatial and Temporal Salt Flushing of a Tailings Dam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southwest Sand Storage (SWSS) is a large tailings dam located at Syncrude Canada’s Mildred Lake Operations, 40 km north of Fort McMurray, Alberta. It is 25 km2 in area, up to 40 m high and contains 300 million cubic metres of tailings sand. Sand was mounded and compacted to form a perimeter dyke that consists of 10 m high slopes separated by benches that are either “tipped-in” or “tipped-out”. The dyke is undrained and has an overall shallow slope of 10:1. The pond within the dam receives a slurry of sand tailings containing about 50% (by weight) of process affected water with high concentrations of sodium, calcium, sulphate and bicarbonate ions. The performance and viability of the reclaimed and vegetated landform following closure was questioned because the landscape might be negatively affected by the movement and discharge of process affected water through the dam. Some degree of temporal salt flushing from the percolation of rainwater was anticipated, but the vertical and the lateral extent of this flushing could not be modeled in the absence of detailed field measurements. To quantify the spatial and temporal flushing of salt at SWSS, two detailed monitoring transects were established. Nests of piezometers were installed along each transect to obtain point measurements for hydraulic head, electrical conductivity, soil-moisture and temperature. Water samples were periodically collected from the piezometers and from multi-level sampling ports distributed across the watertable. To supplement and complement the hydrogeologic data, Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) surveys were conducted concurrently with hydrogeologic data collection in 2001, 2004, and 2008. Electrical conductivity difference plots (DmS/m) illustrate temporal salt flushing along the transects. The results indicate that the degree of flushing is closely associated with groundwater flow system scale, recharge rates, and dyke topography. Tipped-in (i.e., relatively flat) benches result in higher recharge rates and deeper water tables that are more favourable to salt flushing and to enhanced separation between plant roots and salty groundwater, as compared to tipped-out (i.e., slightly sloped) benches. Similarly, local flow systems established over the bench scale have a greater tendency for flushing compared to intermediate flow systems that may require centuries to flush. The conductivity difference plots closely match the hydrogeologic data, thus demonstrating the effectiveness of ERT as a non-invasive technique to model salt flushing within a tailings dam.

Cheema, T. J.; Mendoza, C. A.; Price, A.

2009-12-01

36

Application of correspondence analysis in the assessment of mine tailings dam breakage risk in the Mediterranean region.  

PubMed

A new statistical approach for preliminary risk evaluation of breakage in tailings dam is presented and illustrated by a case study regarding the Mediterranean region. The objective of the proposed method is to establish an empirical scale of risk, from which guidelines for prioritizing the collection of further specific information can be derived. The method relies on a historical database containing, in essence, two sets of qualitative data: the first set concerns the variables that are observable before the disaster (e.g., type and size of the dam, its location, and state of activity), and the second refers to the consequences of the disaster (e.g., failure type, sludge characteristics, fatalities categorization, and downstream range of damage). Based on a modified form of correspondence analysis, where the second set of attributes are projected as "supplementary variables" onto the axes provided by the eigenvalue decomposition of the matrix referring to the first set, a "qualitative regression" is performed, relating the variables to be predicted (contained in the second set) with the "predictors" (the observable variables). On the grounds of the previously derived relationship, the risk of breakage in a new case can be evaluated, given observable variables. The method was applied in a case study regarding a set of 13 test sites where the ranking of risk obtained was validated by expert knowledge. Once validated, the procedure was included in the final output of the e-EcoRisk UE project (A Regional Enterprise Network Decision-Support System for Environmental Risk and Disaster Management of Large-Scale Industrial Spills), allowing for a dynamic historical database updating and providing a prompt rough risk evaluation for a new case. The aim of this section of the global project is to provide a quantified context where failure cases occurred in the past for supporting analogue reasoning in preventing similar situations. PMID:18304103

Salgueiro, Ana Rita; Pereira, Henrique Garcia; Rico, Maria-Teresa; Benito, Gerado; Díez-Herreo, Andrés

2008-02-01

37

Groundwater Flow and Salt Transport at a Sand Tailings Dam: Field Observations and Modelling Results.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large volumes of sand tailings are produced during the extraction of bitumen from the oil sands of Northeastern Alberta. The long-term groundwater response and subsequent movement of water and solutes within the large permeable sand tailings storage areas is uncertain. At the Southwest Sand Storage (SWSS) Facility, located at Syncrude's Mildred Lake operations near Ft. McMurray, there is concern that salts from the tailings water may discharge to newly placed reclamation material that covers the sand tailings. This saline discharge water could destroy the reclamation soil structure and negatively impact vegetation. The steady-state groundwater flow and transient movement of salts at the local (bench and slope) and intermediate (pile) scales in the SWSS are investigated. Water levels, seepage and groundwater quality (including TDS) have been measured for over a year along two transects of piezometers installed in the SWSS. The field data have been used to complete traditional hydrogeological interpretations of the site, and to develop a conceptual model of flow and transport. The local and intermediate flow systems and salt transport in the dam are being evaluated with numerical models. The models will allow possible future hydrogeological behaviour of the structure to be tested. Preliminary results show differences in flow systems and salinity distribution that depend on the deposition of the SWSS. This research will facilitate better long-term environmental management of this and similar sites.

Price, A. C.; Mendoza, C. A.

2004-05-01

38

Methods for predicting peak discharge of floods caused by failure of natural and constructed earthen dams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Floods from failures of natural and constructed dams constitute a widespread hazard to people and property. Expeditious means of assessing flood hazards are necessary, particularly in the case of natural dams, which may form suddenly and unexpectedly. We revise statistical relations (derived from data for past constructed and natural dam failures) between peak discharge (Q(p)) and water volume released (V(0)) or drop in lake level (d) but assert that such relations, even when cast into a dimensionless form, are of limited utility because they fail to portray the effect of breach-formation rate. We then analyze a simple, physically based model of dam-breach formation to show that the hydrograph at the breach depends primarily on a dimensionless parameter ?? = kV0/g1/2d7/2, where k is the mean erosion rate of the breach and g is acceleration due to gravity. The functional relationship between Q(p) and ?? takes asymptotically distinct forms depending on whether ?? > 1 (relatively fast breach formation or large lake volume). Theoretical predictions agree well with data from dam failures for which k, and thus ??, can be estimated. The theory thus provides a rapid means of predicting the plausible range of values of peak discharge at the breach in an earthen dam as long as the impounded water volume and the water depth at the dam face can be estimated.

Walder, J.S.; O'Connor, J. E.

1997-01-01

39

Spirit Lake dam-failure flood routing assessment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Potential clear-water floodflows resulting from uncontrolled breaching by Spirit Lake of a debris dam deposited by the May 18 , 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington, were evaluated. U.S. Geological Survey dam-break model K-634 was utilized, first to compute clear-water flood hydrographs for various hypothetical breach scenarios, and then to hydraulically route them downstream to the mouth of the Toutle River. Dam-break computations were obtained for 12 breach-development scenarios. Eight of the scenarios modeled breaches caused by overtopping of the June 1982 crest of the debris dam, while the other four modeled breaches resulting from overtopping of the debris dam at a possible future crest altitude of 3,490 feet. Equal numbers of scenarios, six each, were modeled for breach development durations of 0.25 hour and 1.0 hour. Peak discharges and times of arrival at selected locations for scenarios with breach development durations of 1.0 hour are presented in tables. Peak discharges computed for dam-break scenarios with breach crest widths of 400 feet are almost twice the magnitude of those computed for scenarios identical in all other respects, but with widths of 200 feet. Peak discharges computed for breaches caused by overtopping of the debris dam at an altitude of 3,531.8 feet were generally found to be roughly five times greater than those caused by overtopping at an altitude of 3,490 feet, if the breaches had identical crest elevations and crest widths. Decreases in peak discharge from Spirit Lake to the mouth of the Toutle River ranged from 16 to 26 percent for the scenarios modeled. This lack of significant attenuation is primarily due to the large volume and surface area of Spirit lake (in excess of 360,000 acre-feet and 3,000 acres, respectively, for all scenarios modeled), which result in the continued discharge of high flows long after breach development is complete. The degree of attenuation is also minimized by the generally steep narrow valleys through which the North Fork Toutle and Toutle Rivers flow. Elapsed time from beginning of breach development to arrival of peak discharges at the mouth of the Toutle River ranged from 4.3 to 7.4 hours for the scenarios modeled. (USGS)

Kresch, D.L.

1985-01-01

40

Laboratory study of the clogging process and factors affecting clogging in a tailings dam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory simulation of clogging in the Lixi tailings dam (Shaanxi Province, China) is urgently required because clogging is an important factor affecting the dam stability. This work firstly presents the results of ferrous iron oxidation experiments using buffer solution. The results indicate that the ferrous iron oxidation follows first order kinetics, and the oxidation process is strongly dependent on pH, a higher pH resulting in a higher oxidation rate. Furthermore, when the pH exceeds 7.0, the oxidation rate constant increases significantly. Secondly, a column experiment was carried out under the conditions of the pH ranging from 6.8 to 7.5 and the natural oxygen supply. Ferrous iron oxidation and precipitation were found to reach equilibrium under these conditions. After 23 days, the column experiment was stopped when the clogging materials blocked the column outlet. The clogging materials were found to be a mixture of ferric hydroxide and its converted products, and these existed in amorphous form with a loose cluster microstructure according to the results of XRD and SEM.

Wu, Jun; Wu, Yanqing; Lu, Jian

2008-05-01

41

Dams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

National Geographic's Dams Web site offers an interactive investigation into the good and bad impacts of dam construction. Visitors choose to view a river system before, during, or after a dam is built. Then at each time interval they can click on various sections of the river and read a short description of what is happening there. For example, after the dam is built, the reservoir that is created upstream causes several hydrological problems such as loss of water from evaporation. Although the text provided on the site is somewhat lacking, the well-done graphics and interactivity make it worth a visit.

1997-01-01

42

Mineralogical characterization of tailing dams: incidence of abandoned mining works on soil pollution (Linares, Jaén)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The metallogenic district of Linares-La Carolina (Jaén, Spain) consists of dyke mineralizations mainly of galena, accompanied by blende, chalcopyrite and barite. Associated to these abandoned mines, relatively extensive areas occupied by spoil heaps and tailing impoundments exist and constitute potential sources of soil pollution by metals and semimetals. In order to analyze the pollution potential of these mining wastes, we have carried out a mineralogical and geochemical study of seven tailing dams and surrounding soils in the area. The mineralogy of the samples was studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition, the total metal content of samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. Samples were taken from the first 30 cm of the waste piles and soil deposits and white efflorescences were also obtained from the surface of the tailings. In all analyzed heaps, high to very high total contents in Pb (1220-22890 mg/kg), Zn (150-51280 mg/kg), Mn (2658-4160 mg/kg), Ba (1026-19610 mg/kg) and Fe (19400-138000 mg/kg) were observed. The concentrations for these same elements in the studied soils range from 527-9900 mg/kg for Pb, 27-1700 mg/kg for Zn, 506-2464 mg/kg for Mn, 2832-4306 for Ba and 8642-29753 mg/kg for Fe, and these figures indicate a contamination of the soils, according to the guidelines established by the Spanish law. The XRD and SEM results indicate that the tailings are primarily constituted by gangue of the exploited mineralization: quartz, calcite, ankerite, feldspars and phyllosilicates. They are inherited, primary mineral phases. Galena, also primary, appears in low proportion, as well as lepidocrocite, melanterite and cerussite, being these three last secondary minerals and indicating a certain remobilization of metal cations, especially lead and iron. On the other hand, quartz and phyllosilicates predominate in the soils, in which, in addition, is identified a little proportion of galena (primary mineral) and ferro-hexahydrite, also indicating mobilization of Fe. As regarding white surface blooms, they are formed mostly of magnesium sulphate with different hydration states. The morphology of these mineral precipitates reveals that they have been subject to cycle of washing and subsequent dehydration, which indicates that these phases present a great mobility in the environment, and they may be contributing to the transport of metals from the tailings into the surroundings soils.

de la Torre, M. J.; Hidalgo, C.; Rey, J.; Martínez, J.

2012-04-01

43

Dams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through eight lessons, students are introduced to many facets of dams, including their basic components, the common types (all designed to resist strong forces), their primary benefits (electricity generation, water supply, flood control, irrigation, recreation), and their importance (historically, currently and globally). Through an introduction to kinetic and potential energy, students come to understand how dams generate electricity. They learn about the structure, function and purpose of locks, which involves an introduction to Pascal's law, water pressure and gravity. Other lessons introduce students to common environmental impacts of dams and the engineering approaches to address them. They learn about the life cycle of salmon and the many engineered dam structures that aid in their river passage, as they think of their own methods and devices that could help fish migrate past dams. Students learn how dams and reservoirs become part of the Earth's hydrologic cycle, focusing on the role of evaporation. To conclude, students learn that dams do not last forever; they require ongoing maintenance, occasionally fail or succumb to "old age," or are no longer needed, and are sometimes removed. Through associated hands-on activities, students track their personal water usage; use clay and plastic containers to model and test four types of dam structures; use paper cups and water to learn about water pressure and Pascal's Law; explore kinetic energy by creating their own experimental waterwheel from two-liter plastic bottles; collect and count a stream's insects to gauge its health; play an animated PowerPoint game to quiz their understanding of the salmon life cycle and fish ladders; run a weeklong experiment to measure water evaporation and graph their data; and research eight dams to find out and compare their original purposes, current status, reservoir capacity and lifespan. Woven throughout the unit is a continuing hypothetical scenario in which students act as consulting engineers with a Splash Engineering firm, assisting Thirsty County in designing a dam for Birdseye River.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

44

REPORT ON WORKSHOP ON ISSUES, RESOLUTIONS, AND RESEARCH NEEDS RELATED TO EMBANKMENT DAM FAILURE ANALYSIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper summarizes the purpose, methodology, and outcomes of the June 2001 USDA/FEMA Workshop on Issues, Resolutions, and Research Needs Related to Embankment Dam Failure Analysis. The purpose of this workshop was to determine state of the practice, identify short-term and long-term research nee...

45

Morphological responses and sediment processes following a typhoon-induced dam failure, Dahan  

E-print Network

Morphological responses and sediment processes following a typhoon-induced dam failure, Dahan River adjustments following an abrupt and voluminous sediment pulse are investigated in the context of site and valley characteristics and time-varying sediment transport regimes. Approximately 10.5 x 106 m3 of stored

Tullos, Desiree

46

Characteristics of Landslide Dam Failure by Practicing an Original Scale Field Experiment in Landow Creek, Huisun Experimental Forest, Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research built two artificial landslide dams, an original scale field experiment, in Landow creek, Huisun experimental forest on November 7th 2012. The purposes are to discuss characteristics of landslide dam failure, such as variations of velocity, development of the breach, and alteration of topography. We present four CCDs at upstream and downstream sides of two artificial landslide dams and used the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for monitoring and recording the processes of landslide dam failures. Besides, six water level sensors set up at upstream, and downstream sides of dams to identify inflow and outflow water level and determine the flow discharge; then, applying image judgments technique to determine the flow velocity and direction. Landslide dam failure proceeds with three steps, pipping, turning into retrogressive erosion, and overtopping; however, overtopping dominates the most phenomenon in this experiment. During the impoundment filling, the downstream slope of landslide dam tends to steep as the retrogressive erosion occurs. After dam failure, the impoundment filled with sedimentary deposits; in addition, the original downstream main channel develops into many new flow paths and becomes braided river morphology. The sediment concentration was inversely proportional to time at both upstream and downstream side due to the armor layer decreased. The first dam breach dimension and the impoundment volume are both smaller than the second; hence we assumed that the breach dimension and impoundment volume have a significant correlation. The research results could provide better analyzing landslide dam hazards.

Wang, C.; Chen, S.

2013-12-01

47

75 FR 49429 - Metal and Nonmetal Dams  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...steep slopes, and absence of internal drains, contributed to the failure. A 70-foot high tailings dam failed at an andesite quarry in Wisconsin in 1992, tearing apart a railroad track and leveling a power line at the mine. The dam failed at 3...

2010-08-13

48

Statistical source identification of major and trace elements in groundwater downward the tailings dam of Miduk Copper Complex, Kerman, Iran.  

PubMed

Identifying the possible sources of potential harmful metals in groundwater systems plays a crucial role in evaluating the potential risks to residents and local plant cover. An attempt was made to define the origin of Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, and Pb in groundwater using multivariate statistic approaches [principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis], and tailings sequential extraction by the method of Tessier et al. The concentrations of studied elements were measured in 42 samples collected from 15 stations surrounding and downward the tailings dam of Miduk Copper Complex, central province of Kerman, Iran. According to the PCA results, confirmed by cluster dendrogram and metal content measurement of tailings sequential extracts, two components accounting for nearly 73% of the total variance, controlled the heavy metal variability and classified the possible source of groundwater contamination into two categories: (1) upper seepage which controls the variability of Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Pb and (2) toe seepage of tailings dump affecting on Mo and Al concentration in downstream groundwater. PMID:22048922

Kargar, Maryam; Khorasani, Neamatolah; Karami, Mahmoud; Rafiee, Gholamreza; Naseh, Reza

2012-10-01

49

Moraine-dammed lake failures in Patagonia and assessment of outburst susceptibility in the Baker Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glacier retreat since the Little Ice Age has resulted in the development or expansion of hundreds of glacial lakes in Patagonia. Some of these lakes have produced large (?106 m3) Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) damaging inhabited areas. GLOF hazard studies in Patagonia have been mainly based on the analysis of short-term series (?50 years) of flood data and until now no attempt has been made to identify the relative susceptibility of lakes to failure. Power schemes and associated infrastructure are planned for Patagonian basins that have historically been affected by GLOFs, and we now require a thorough understanding of the characteristics of dangerous lakes in order to assist with hazard assessment and planning. In this paper, the conditioning factors of 16 outbursts from moraine dammed lakes in Patagonia were analysed. These data were used to develop a classification scheme designed to assess outburst susceptibility, based on image classification techniques, flow routine algorithms and the Analytical Hierarchy Process. This scheme was applied to the Baker Basin, Chile, where at least 7 moraine-dammed lakes have failed in historic time. We identified 386 moraine-dammed lakes in the Baker Basin of which 28 were classified with high or very high outburst susceptibility. Commonly, lakes with high outburst susceptibility are in contact with glaciers and have moderate (>8°) to steep (>15°) dam outlet slopes, akin to failed lakes in Patagonia. The proposed classification scheme is suitable for first-order GLOF hazard assessments in this region. However, rapidly changing glaciers in Patagonia make detailed analysis and monitoring of hazardous lakes and glaciated areas upstream from inhabited areas or critical infrastructure necessary, in order to better prepare for hazards emerging from an evolving cryosphere.

Iribarren Anacona, P.; Norton, K. P.; Mackintosh, A.

2014-07-01

50

Moraine-dammed lake failures in Patagonia and assessment of outburst susceptibility in the Baker Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glacier retreat since the Little Ice Age has resulted in the development or expansion of hundreds of glacial lakes in Patagonia. Some of these lakes have produced large (? 106 m3) Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) damaging inhabited areas. GLOF hazard studies in Patagonia have been mainly based on the analysis of short-term series (? 50 years) of flood data and until now no attempt has been made to identify the relative susceptibility of lakes to failure. Power schemes and associated infrastructure are planned for Patagonian basins that have historically been affected by GLOFs, and we now require a thorough understanding of the characteristics of dangerous lakes in order to assist with hazard assessment and planning. In this paper, the conditioning factors of 16 outbursts from moraine-dammed lakes in Patagonia were analysed. These data were used to develop a classification scheme designed to assess outburst susceptibility, based on image classification techniques, flow routine algorithms and the Analytical Hierarchy Process. This scheme was applied to the Baker Basin, Chile, where at least seven moraine-dammed lakes have failed in historic time. We identified 386 moraine-dammed lakes in the Baker Basin of which 28 were classified with high or very high outburst susceptibility. Commonly, lakes with high outburst susceptibility are in contact with glaciers and have moderate (> 8°) to steep (> 15°) dam outlet slopes, akin to failed lakes in Patagonia. The proposed classification scheme is suitable for first-order GLOF hazard assessments in this region. However, rapidly changing glaciers in Patagonia make detailed analysis and monitoring of hazardous lakes and glaciated areas upstream from inhabited areas or critical infrastructure necessary, in order to better prepare for hazards emerging from an evolving cryosphere.

Iribarren Anacona, P.; Norton, K. P.; Mackintosh, A.

2014-12-01

51

Groundwater Flow and Salt Transport at a Sand Tailings Dam: Field Observations and Modelling Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large volumes of sand tailings are produced during the extraction of bitumen from the oil sands of Northeastern Alberta. The long-term groundwater response and subsequent movement of water and solutes within the large permeable sand tailings storage areas is uncertain. At the Southwest Sand Storage (SWSS) Facility, located at Syncrude's Mildred Lake operations near Ft. McMurray, there is concern that

A. C. Price; C. A. Mendoza

2004-01-01

52

Hydrology, geomorphology, and dam-break modeling of the July 15, 1982, Lawn Lake Dam and Cascade Lake Dam failures, Larimer County, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On July 15, 1982, Lawn Lake Dam, a 26-foot-high earthfill irrigation dam built in 1903 in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, failed, due to piping, releasing 674 acre-feet of water with a peak discharge of 18,000 cubic feet per second down the Roaring River. Three people were killed, and damages were estimated at $31 million. Cascade Lake Dam, downstream from Lawn Lake Dam, subsequently failed as a result of the flood, increasing the peak flow at this point from 7,210 cubic feet per second to 16,000 cubic feet per second. The flood wave took 3.28 hours to travel 12.5 miles to Lake Estes, where all the floodwater was stored. The channel of the Roaring River was scoured as much as 50 feet and widened 300 feet. An alluvial fan of 42.3 acres, containing 10 million cubic feet of material, was deposited at the mouth of the Roaring River, damming the Fall River and forming a 17-acre lake. Various methods were used to indirectly compute peak discharge, attenuation of flow, and flood traveltime. A version of the National Weather Service dam-break flood model was used to evaluate its performance on high-gradient streams, to provide supplemental hydrologic information, and to evaluate various scenarios of dam-break development. (USGS)

Jarrett, R.D.; Costa, J.E.

1984-01-01

53

Lessons from a Dam Failure1 JAMI;S E. EVANS, SCUDDKR D. MACKKY, JOHAN F. GOTTC.KNS, AND WILFRID M. GILL, Department of Geology, Bowling Green State  

E-print Network

Lessons from a Dam Failure1 JAMI;S E. EVANS, SCUDDKR D. MACKKY, JOHAN F. GOTTC.KNS, AND WILFRID M, OH 43606, and Enecotech Southwest, Inc., Phoenix, AZ 85004. ABSTRACT. The IVEX Dam (Chagrin River of the dam. The failure was the result of seepage piping at the toe of the dam, near the masonry spillway

Gottgens, Hans

54

RISK-BASED EVALUATION OF OPERATING RESTRICTIONS TO REDUCE THE RISK OF EARTHQUAKE-INDUCED DAM FAILURE  

E-print Network

RISK-BASED EVALUATION OF OPERATING RESTRICTIONS TO REDUCE THE RISK OF EARTHQUAKE-INDUCED DAM A risk assessment was performed for the Sacramento District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and a delayed "seepage erosion through cracks" failure were considered. The risk assessment focused

Bowles, David S.

55

REPORT ON THE OUTCOMES OF A WORKSHOP ON ISSUES, RESOLUTIONS, AND RESEARCH NEEDS RELATED TO EMBANKMENT DAM FAILURE ANALYSES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper summarizes the purpose, methodology, and outcomes of the June 2001 USDA/FEMA Workshop on Issues, Resolutions, and Research Needs Related to Embankment Dam Failure Analysis held in Oklahoma City, OK. The purpose of this workshop was to determine state of the practice, identify short-term ...

56

Ion mobility based on column leaching of South African gold tailings dam with chemometric evaluation.  

PubMed

New column leaching experiments were designed and used as an alternative rapid screening approach to element mobility assessment. In these experiments, field-moist material was treated with an extracting solution to assess the effects of acidification on element mobility in mine tailings. The main advantage of this version of column leaching experiments with partitioned segments is that they give quick information on current element mobility in conditions closely simulating field conditions to compare with common unrepresentative air-dried, sieved samples used for column leaching experiments. Layers from the tailings dump material were sampled and packed into columns. The design of columns allows extracting leachates from each layer. The extracting solutions used were natural (pH 6.8) and acidified (pH 4.2) rainwater. Metals and anions were determined in the leachates. The concentrations of metals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Al, Cr, Ni, Co, Zn, and Cu) in sample leachates were determined using ICP OES. The most important anions (NO3-, Cl-, and SO4(2)-) were determined using the closed system izotacophoresis ITP analyser. The chemical analytical data from tailings leaching and physico-chemical data from field measurements (including pH, conductivity, redox potential, temperature) were used for chemometric evaluation of element mobility. Principal factor analysis (PFA) was used to evaluate ions mobility from different layers of tailings dump arising from varied pH and redox conditions. It was found that the results from the partitioned column leaching illustrate much better complex processes of metals mobility from tailings dump than the total column. The chemometric data analysis (PFA) proofed the differences in the various layers leachability that are arising from physico-chemical processes due to chemical composition of tailings dump deposit. PMID:15109878

Cukrowska, Ewa M; Govender, Koovila; Viljoen, Morris

2004-07-01

57

Design and Implementation of Dam Failure Risk Assessment System Based on Fuzzy Mathematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protecting the security of the dam is a vital problem for the reasonable use of the water resources, so it is important and meaningful to research methods of assessing the safety of dam for which is related with the national economy and the people's livelihood, and it is necessary to build a system to estimate the security risk of dams.

Ying Jiang; Qiuwen Zhang

2008-01-01

58

Atrophy and growth failure of rat hindlimb muscles in tail-cast suspension  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of the present study is related to an evaluation of a modified tail-cast suspension model as a means of identifying metabolic factors which control or are associated with muscle atrophy and growth failure. Two different control conditions (normal and tail-casted weight bearing) were studied to determine the appropriate control for tail-cast suspension. A description is presented of a model which is most useful for studying atrophy of hindlimb muscles under certain conditions. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were employed in the experiments. Attention is given to growth rate and urinary excretion of urea and ammonia in different types of rats, the relationship between body weight and skeletal muscle weight, and the relationship between animal body weight and rates of protein synthesis and protein degradation.

Jaspers, S. R.; Tischler, M. E.

1984-01-01

59

Cardiomyopathy and right-sided congestive heart failure in a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis).  

PubMed

A 15-year-old female red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) was evaluated because of dyspnea, anorexia, and coelomic distension. Diagnostic imaging results confirmed severe coelomic effusion and revealed a markedly dilated right ventricle. The diagnosis was right-sided congestive heart failure. Results of measurements of vitamin E, selenium, lead, zinc, and cardiac troponin levels were normal or nondiagnostic. The hawk was treated with furosemide, antifungal and antimicrobial agents, and supplemental fluids and oxygen, but euthanasia was elected because of the poor prognosis and the practical difficulties associated with intensive case management. To our knowledge, this is the first described case of cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure in a captive red-tailed hawk. PMID:21657185

Knafo, S Emmanuelle; Rapoport, Gregg; Williams, Jamie; Brainard, Benjamin; Driskell, Elizabeth; Uhl, Elizabeth; Crochik, Sonia; Divers, Stephen J

2011-03-01

60

Geochemistry of Mercury and other trace elements in fluvial tailings upstream of Daguerre Point Dam, Yuba River, California, August 2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study was designed to characterize the particle-size distribution and the concentrations of total mercury (HgT), methylmercury (MeHg), and other constituents in sediments trapped behind Daguerre Point Dam, a 28-foot-high structure on the lower Yuba River in California. The results of the study will assist other agencies in evaluating potential environmental impacts from mobilization of sediments if Daguerre Point Dam is modified or removed to improve the passage of anadromous fish. Methylmercury is of particular concern owing to its toxicity and propensity to bioaccumulate. A limited amount of recent work on hydraulic and dredge tailings in other watersheds has indicated that mercury and MeHg concentrations may be elevated in the fine-grained fractions of placer mining debris, particularly clay and silt. Mercury associated with tailings from placer gold mines is a source of continued contamination in Sierra Nevada watersheds and downstream water bodies, including the Sacramento?San Joaquin Delta and the San Francisco Bay of northern California. Churn drilling was used to recover sediments and heavy minerals at 5-foot intervals from six locations upstream of Daguerre Point Dam. Maximum depth of penetration ranged from 17.5 to 35 feet below land surface, resulting in 31 discreet drilled intervals. Drilling in permeable, unconsolidated sediments below the streambed of the Yuba River released a significant volume of water along with the sediment, which complicated the sampling and characterization effort. Overflow of a silty fraction sampled at the drill site contained suspended sediment consisting predominantly of silt and clay, with HgT concentration ranging from 33 to 1,100 ng/g (nanogram per gram) dry weight. A sandy fraction, collected after sieving sediment through a 2-millimeter vibratory screen, contained from 14 to 82 percent sand and 1 to 29 percent silt plus clay, and had HgT concentrations ranging from 6.8 to 81 ng/g dry weight. A clay-silt fraction, sampled from material remaining in suspension after the sandy fraction settled for 15-20 minutes, contained mercury concentrations from 23 to 370 ng/g dry weight. Concentrations of MeHg were less than the detection limit (<0.001 ng/g dry weight) in 30 of 31 samples of the sandy fraction. In the suspended clay-silt fraction, MeHg was detected in 16 of 31 samples, in which it ranged in concentration from 0.04 (estimated) to 0.61 ng/g wet weight. Potential rates of mercury methylation and demethylation were evaluated in seven samples using radiotracer methods. Mercury methylation (MeHg production) potentials were generally low, ranging from less than 0.15 to about 1.6 ng/g/d (nanogram per gram of dry sediment per day). Mercury demethylation (MeHg degradation) potentials were moderately high, ranging from 1.0 to 2.2 ng/g/d. The ratio of methylation potential (MP) to demethylation potential (DP) ranged from less than 0.14 to about 1.4 (median = 0.24, mean = 0.44, number of samples = 7), suggesting that the potential for net production of MeHg in deep sediments is generally low. The MeHg production rates and MP/DP ratios were higher in the shallower interval in two of the three holes where two depth intervals were assessed, whereas the MeHg concentrations were higher in the shallower interval for all three holes. A similar spatial distribution was found for concentrations of solid-phase sulfide (measured as total reduced sulfur and likely representing iron-sulfide and iron-disulfide compounds), which were much higher in shallower samples (about 700 to about 2,100 nanomoles per gram, dry sediment) than in deeper samples (32 to 55 nanomoles per gram, dry sediment) in these three holes. If reduced sulfur compounds are oxidized to sulfate as a consequence of sediment disturbance, the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria might be stimulated, causing a short-term increase in methylation of inorganic Hg(II) (divalent mercury). The extent of increased Hg(II)-methylation w

Hunerlach, Michael P.; Alpers, Charles N.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Taylor, Howard E.; DeWild, John F.

2004-01-01

61

Assessment of vegetation establishment on tailings dam at an iron ore mining site of suburban Beijing, China, 7 years after reclamation with contrasting site treatment methods.  

PubMed

Strip-mining operations greatly disturb soil, vegetation and landscape elements, causing many ecological and environmental problems. Establishment of vegetation is a critical step in achieving the goal of ecosystem restoration in mining areas. At the Shouyun Iron Ore Mine in suburban Beijing, China, we investigated selective vegetation and soil traits on a tailings dam 7 years after site treatments with three contrasting approaches: (1) soil covering (designated as SC), (2) application of a straw mat, known as "vegetation carpet", which contains prescribed plant seed mix and water retaining agent (designated as VC), on top of sand piles, and (3) combination of soil covering and application of vegetation carpet (designated as SC+VC). We found that after 7 years of reclamation, the SC+VC site had twice the number of plant species and greater biomass than the SC and VC sites, and that the VC site had a comparable plant abundance with the SC+VC site but much less biodiversity and plant coverage. The VC site did not differ with the SC site in the vegetation traits, albeit low soil fertility. It is suggested that application of vegetation carpet can be an alternative to introduction of topsoil for treatment of tailings dam with fine-structured substrate of ore sands. However, combination of topsoil treatment and application of vegetation carpet greatly increases vegetation coverage and plant biodiversity, and is therefore a much better approach for assisting vegetation establishment on the tailings dam of strip-mining operations. While application of vegetation carpet helps to stabilize the loose surface of fine-structured mine wastes and to introduce seed bank, introduction of fertile soil is necessary for supplying nutrients to plant growth in the efforts of ecosystem restoration of mining areas. PMID:23811774

Yan, Demin; Zhao, Fangying; Sun, Osbert Jianxin

2013-09-01

62

Assessment of Vegetation Establishment on Tailings Dam at an Iron Ore Mining Site of Suburban Beijing, China, 7 Years After Reclamation with Contrasting Site Treatment Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strip-mining operations greatly disturb soil, vegetation and landscape elements, causing many ecological and environmental problems. Establishment of vegetation is a critical step in achieving the goal of ecosystem restoration in mining areas. At the Shouyun Iron Ore Mine in suburban Beijing, China, we investigated selective vegetation and soil traits on a tailings dam 7 years after site treatments with three contrasting approaches: (1) soil covering (designated as SC), (2) application of a straw mat, known as "vegetation carpet", which contains prescribed plant seed mix and water retaining agent (designated as VC), on top of sand piles, and (3) combination of soil covering and application of vegetation carpet (designated as SC+VC). We found that after 7 years of reclamation, the SC+VC site had twice the number of plant species and greater biomass than the SC and VC sites, and that the VC site had a comparable plant abundance with the SC+VC site but much less biodiversity and plant coverage. The VC site did not differ with the SC site in the vegetation traits, albeit low soil fertility. It is suggested that application of vegetation carpet can be an alternative to introduction of topsoil for treatment of tailings dam with fine-structured substrate of ore sands. However, combination of topsoil treatment and application of vegetation carpet greatly increases vegetation coverage and plant biodiversity, and is therefore a much better approach for assisting vegetation establishment on the tailings dam of strip-mining operations. While application of vegetation carpet helps to stabilize the loose surface of fine-structured mine wastes and to introduce seed bank, introduction of fertile soil is necessary for supplying nutrients to plant growth in the efforts of ecosystem restoration of mining areas.

Yan, Demin; Zhao, Fangying; Sun, Osbert Jianxin

2013-09-01

63

A physically-based method for predicting peak discharge of floods caused by failure of natural and constructed earthen dams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We analyse a simple, physically-based model of breach formation in natural and constructed earthen dams to elucidate the principal factors controlling the flood hydrograph at the breach. Formation of the breach, which is assumed trapezoidal in cross-section, is parameterized by the mean rate of downcutting, k, the value of which is constrained by observations. A dimensionless formulation of the model leads to the prediction that the breach hydrograph depends upon lake shape, the ratio r of breach width to depth, the side slope ?? of the breach, and the parameter ?? = (V.D3)(k/???gD), where V = lake volume, D = lake depth, and g is the acceleration due to gravity. Calculations show that peak discharge Qp depends weakly on lake shape r and ??, but strongly on ??, which is the product of a dimensionless lake volume and a dimensionless erosion rate. Qp(??) takes asymptotically distinct forms depending on whether < ??? 1 or < ??? 1. Theoretical predictions agree well with data from dam failures for which k could be reasonably estimated. The analysis provides a rapid and in many cases graphical way to estimate plausible values of Qp at the breach.We analyze a simple, physically-based model of breach formation in natural and constructed earthen dams to elucidate the principal factors controlling the flood hydrograph at the breach. Formation of the breach, which is assumed trapezoidal in cross-section, is parameterized by the mean rate of downcutting, k, the value of which is constrained by observations. A dimensionless formulation of the model leads to the prediction that the breach hydrograph depends upon lake shape, the ratio r of breach width to depth, the side slope ?? of the breach, and the parameter ?? = (V/D3)(k/???gD), where V = lake volume, D = lake depth, and g is the acceleration due to gravity. Calculations show that peak discharge Qp depends weakly on lake shape r and ??, but strongly on ??, which is the product of a dimensionless lake volume and a dimensionless erosion rate. Qp(??) takes asymptotically distinct forms depending on whether ?????1 or ?????1. Theoretical predictions agree well with data from dam failures for which k could be reasonably estimated. The analysis provides a rapid and in many cases graphical way to estimate plausible values of Qp at the breach.

Walder, J.S.; O'Connor, J. E.; Costa, J.E.

1997-01-01

64

Tails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monte Carlo simulation software applied to ion beam analysis use the main scattering event (MSE) approximation. This approximation consist in generating ion trajectories in different directions, making the detection rate independent of the cross-section dependence on the scattering angle, therefore speeding up calculations by a factor 104-106. The event generated bear a probability weight proportional to the cross-section, so in the case of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), events generated with a small scattering angle bear a very large weight, sometimes producing few events with a very large amplitude in the spectrum. They are avoided by setting a cut-off angle, but the signal they represent is in fact an actual contribution to the background signal. Here, it is shown that experimental spectra that include a significant contribution from several wide-angle scattering, such as tails or background signal in heavy ion RBS can be reproduced by a combination of two simulations: one featuring at least one wide-angle scattering, simulated accurately within the MSE approximation, and a background signal part, corresponding to trajectories featuring a series of small-angle scattering, simulated without the MSE approximation; this second simulation is achieved in a few minutes by increasing the detector size and mean free path by large factors, typically 100 each. The events included from the two parts of the simulation are discriminated by the minimum angle of the MSE.

Schiettekatte, François

2014-08-01

65

A physically-based method for predicting peak discharge of floods caused by failure of natural and constructed earthen dams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We analyse a simple, physically-based model of breach formation in natural and constructed earthen dams to elucidate the principal factors controlling the flood hydrograph at the breach. Formation of the breach, which is assumed trapezoidal in cross-section, is parameterized by the mean rate of downcutting, k, the value of which is constrained by observations. A dimensionless formulation of the model leads to the prediction that the breach hydrograph depends upon lake shape, the ratio r of breach width to depth, the side slope ?? of the breach, and the parameter ?? = (V/ D3)(k/???gD), where V = lake volume, D = lake depth, and g is the acceleration due to gravity. Calculations show that peak discharge Qp depends weakly on lake shape r and ??, but strongly on ??, which is the product of a dimensionless lake volume and a dimensionless erosion rate. Qp(??) takes asymptotically distinct forms depending on whether ?? > 1. Theoretical predictions agree well with data from dam failures for which k could be reasonably estimated. The analysis provides a rapid and in many cases graphical way to estimate plausible values of Qp at the breach.

Walder, J.S.

1997-01-01

66

Analyzing the spillway failure of the Montedoglio dam in Central Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Montedoglio dam, built in the 1980s for irrigation and drinking water purposes, is an important reservoir on the Tiber River located in central Italy. The earth-fill dam is 64.30 m high with a drainage area of 276 km2. The water storage volume, with the water at the height of the spillway, is approximately 153 millions m3. On December 29, 2010 during final tests of the dam consisting to raising the reservoir level to the spillway crest, three concrete blocks of the spillway collapsed causing large damages in the territory downstream mainly to agriculture, infrastructures and other constructions (over 100 millions of euros of economic losses), luckily without casualties thanks also to timely action of the national/regional Civil Protection system. The discharge hydrograph following up the Montedoglio spillway collapse and its routing along the Tiber river valley are investigated here. The mathematical modelling of the reservoir depletion allows advancing well-founded hypotheses on the breach formation and in particular on the time interval in which the spillways collapsed found equal to 0.02 hours. The analysis is based on the recorded water reservoir level during the catastrophic event and on the comparison between the computed outflow discharge hydrograph and the one recorded at Gorgabuia equipped section located just downstream Montedoglio dam. The consequent dambreak flood wave is propagated downstream by using a one-dimensional model for flood wave routing and, based on the comparison between the flooded area extension estimated by the hydraulic model and the one observed through surveys and inspections carried out during the catastrophic event, the roughness calibration is addressed assessing different Manning roughness coefficient values for the main channel and the floodplains, respectively. For the analysis of the catastrophic event, data on water reservoir levels, river cross-sections geometry, discharges recorded at two gauged river sites and flooded area extension have been collected, thus getting a valuable knowledge which can be of support to improve the understanding and the management of dambreak events.

Tarpanelli, A.; Moramarco, T.; Barbetta, S.; Melone, F.; Berni, N.; Pandolfo, C.; Morbidelli, R.

2012-04-01

67

The 1916 catastrophic flood following the Bílá Desná dam failure: The role of historical data sources in the reconstruction of its geomorphologic and landscape effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the reconstruction of the geomorphologic and landscape effects of the most catastrophic flood owing to dam failure within the territory of today's Czech Republic, namely, the Bílá Desná dam failure of 1916. Because of the realisation of the significant later transformation of the Bílá Desná river catchment almost 100 years after the flood event, the field research performed during the summer and fall of 2013 had to be supported by extensive research in regional archives for documentary data. Various data types and sources (such as court investigation notes, investigation reports for insurance companies, old maps, and old photos, as well as video and recorded testimonies of survivors) were used to reconstruct the magnitude (discharge, flood wave extent) of the flood and its effects on the channel morphology and landscape. According to the reconstruction of the dam failure, which was caused by the internal erosion of the dam, the calculated peak discharge ranged between 418.2 and 1491.7 m3s- 1 and therefore exceeded the mean flow rate of the Bílá Desná River by more than 850 times. The river channel immediately upstream and downstream of the dam reclaimed its former meandering pattern with higher sinuosity, and new gravel point bars and irregular bars have been formed. Moreover, the river channel immediately below the dam shifted by up to 30 m following the flood wave. The most significant flood impacts were apparent in the village of Desná, where the flood wave, together with transported boulders (up to 2 m in diametre) and logs from sawmills situated upstream, killed 62 inhabitants and damaged or destroyed 101 buildings. The reconstructed flood wave in the towns of Desná and Tanvald exceeded the bankfull water level twice, with a width ranging between ~ 50 and 250 m in contrast to the average channel width of a few metres.

Raška, Pavel; Emmer, Adam

2014-12-01

68

Dam Pass or Fail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students conduct Internet research to investigate the purpose and current functioning status of some of the largest dams throughout the world. They investigate the success or failure of eight dams and complete a worksheet. While researching the dams, they also gain an understanding of the scale of these structures by recording and comparing their reservoir capacities. Students come to understand that dams, like all engineered structures, have a finite lifespan and require ongoing maintenance and evaluation for their usefulness.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

69

Characteristics of chemical weathering and water-rock interaction in Lake Nyos dam (Cameroon): Implications for vulnerability to failure and re-enforcement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time, comprehensive study of hydrogeochemistry of water seeps, role of chemical weathering on dam failure, estimation of minimum width of dam to resist failure and simulation of changes in dissolved ions and secondary mineral was conducted on the Lake Nyos dam. The salient results and conclusions were; the dam spring water represented a mixture of 60-70% rainwater and 30-40% Lake water (from 0 to -40 m). The chemistry of the observed waters was Ca-HCO3 for rainwater, Ca-Mg-HCO3 in boreholes, and Mg-Ca-HCO3- for spring water. The relative rate at which ions dissolved in water was HCO3- > Mg2+ > Ca2+ > Na+ > SiO2 > K+ > NO3- > SO42- > Cl-. Weathering of rocks resulted in the formation of clay minerals such as kaolinite and smectite. Relative mobility of elements compared to Alumina (Al2O3) indicated that in monzonites there was a loss of CaO, Na2O, K2O, P2O5 and gain of SiO2, Fe2O3, TiO2, MnO and MgO, while in basalts there was a loss of SiO2, Fe2O3, Ca2O, NaO, MgO and gain of TiO2, K2O and P2O5. Values of chemical alteration index that ranged from 49 to 82 suggest a weak to intermediate categories of chemical weathering that occurred at a rate of 5.7 mm/year. Paired to that rate, which suggests that the dam is not vulnerable to failure at the previously thought time scale, some other processes (physical weathering, secondary mineral formation and lake overflow) can cause instant failure. Hydrostatic pressure of 1.6 GN generated by Lake water can be supported only when the width of the dam is greater than 19 m. PHREEQC-based simulation for 10 years indicates decoupling of Ca and Mg, and Na and Mg. Multidisciplinary monitoring of the dam is advocated.

Fantong, Wilson Y.; Kamtchueng, Brice T.; Yamaguchi, Kohei; Ueda, Akira; Issa; Ntchantcho, Romaric; Wirmvem, Mengnjo J.; Kusakabe, Minoru; Ohba, Takeshi; Zhang, Jing; Aka, Festus T.; Tanyileke, Gregory; Hell, Joseph V.

2015-01-01

70

75 FR 62024 - Metal and Nonmetal Dams  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and 57 RIN 1219-AB70 Metal and Nonmetal Dams AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration...construction, operation, and maintenance of safe dams which can assure miners are protected from the hazards of dam failures. DATES: The comment period...

2010-10-07

71

Elevations and discharges produced by a simulated flood wave on the lower Sabine River, Louisiana and Texas, caused by a theoretical dam failure  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Toledo Bend Reservoir is located on the lower Sabine River between Louisiana and Texas. Two mathematical models were coupled to calculate the flood wave that would result from the theoretical failure of 25 percent of Toledo Bend Dam and route the wave downstream to Orange, Tex. Computations assumed failure (1) at the peak of the 100-year flood when discharge of the Sabine River is 102,000 cubic feet per second and (2) when the average discharge is 10,000 cubic feet per second. Two techniques were used in the dam-break model. The method of characteristics was used to propagate the shock wave following dam failure. The linear implicit finite-difference solution was used to route the flood wave following shock wave dissipation. The magnitude of the flow was determined for Burkeville, Bon Wier, Ruliff, and Orange, Tex., along the lower Sabine River. For these sites, respectively, the following peak elevations were calculated: 119, 82, 31, and 13 feet for the 100-year flood and 110, 75, 27, and 9 feet for the average discharge. (Woodard-USGS)

Neely, Braxtel L.; Stiltner, Gloria J.

1979-01-01

72

Northwest Montana Libby/Hungry Horse Dams Wildlife Mitigation; Columbian Sharp-Tailed Grouse, 1990-1991 Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

Distribution, habitat use and survival of transplanted Columbian sharp-tailed grouse in the Tobacco Plains, Montana were studied from April, 1990 to August, 1991. For transplant purposes, 12 grouse (5 female and 7 male) were trapped on dancing grounds near Douglas Lake, British Columbia, Canada during spring, 1990. In April, 1991, trapping of 4 female and 2 male grouse for transplant occurred on the Sand Creek Wildlife Management Area in southeast Idaho while 3 additional males were transplanted from Douglas Lake. Minimum annual survival of transplanted grouse in the Tobacco Plains is relatively high (47%). High survival is possibly due to 2 factors: (1) topography and habitat characteristics that discourage dispersal and (2) the presence of limited but relatively good habitat. Two of 18 radio-equipped grouse dispersed out of the study area, while 2 others survived in the area for over 590 days. A negative correlation in distances moved between consecutive relocations and length of survival was seen in radio-equipped grouse in this study. Data collected during this study showed the importance of habitat associated with the Dancing Prairie Preserve. Three of 5 females transplanted in 1990 attempted to nest after being released. Nesting and brood rearing sites were characterized by dense grass cover with an average effective height {ge}20 cm. Shrub cover was associated only with brood rearing sites. Overall habitat use by transplanted Columbian Sharp-tailed grouse showed an apparent avoidance of agricultural land and use of other habitat types in proportion to their availability.

Cope, Michael G. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)]|[Montana Dept. of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Kalispell, MT (United States)

1992-07-01

73

Failure analysis of 18CrNi3MoA drilling tails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fracture of a drilling tail made of 18CrNi3MoA steel in the exchanging water hole was analyzed in terms of inclusions, prior austenite grain size, carburized layers, and fatigue fracture morphology by means of optical microscopy, quantitative metallography, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fatigue crack initiation and propagation on the drilling tail were also studied. The results showed that the fracture on the drilling tail was not induced by inclusions and the distribution inhomogeneity of prior austenite grain size. Instead, because the outside surface of the exchanging water hole was not continuously geometric, there was a great deal of stress concentration in those areas under continuous twisting, axial impact, and corrosion of mineral water. Thus three crack sources emerged in these areas. Initial cracks centered on these sources spread from the outside surface to the inside surface, and eventually the drilling tail ruptured. Furthermore, the fractograph of the region around the crack sources exhibited a typical ductile dimple fracture pattern, and cracks initiated on the outside surface of the carburized layers of the exchanging water hole. Three crack sources could be the sources of fatigue crack propagation. Based on the analysis of fatigue crack propagation, it was further demonstrated that fatigue damage originated from the outside surface of the exchanging water hole.

Zhu, Hong-wu; Liu, Ya-zheng; Zhou, Le-yu; Wang, Lei-ying; Huang, Bin

2012-05-01

74

Seismic rehabilitation of earth dams  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to present methods available for engineered remediation of seismically deficient earth dams (not including tailings dams), to review their strengths and weaknesses, to present case histories of the application of these methods, and to draw conclusions about the state of practice. A survey of completed and active rehabilitation projects was made. This survey identified 30 dams with engineering fixes and 22 with operational fixes. Data was obtained and is presented in tabular form for 36 dams. Of these dams, 13 had seismically deficient foundations, 15 had deficient embankments, and 8 had deficiencies in both embankment and foundations. Synopses of case histories are presented for John Hart Dam, Sardis Dam, Mormon Island Auxiliary Dam, and Pleasant Valley Dam.

Marcuson, W.F. III; Hadala, P.F.; Ledbetter, R.H. [Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS (United States)] [Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS (United States)

1996-01-01

75

Modelling The Run-out of Mine Tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow which results from the failure of a mine tailings dam has been modelled experimentally by the sub-aerial release from behind a lock gate of a highly concen- trated monodisperse suspension of silicon carbide particles in water. The experimen- tal results suggest that in the initial stages of these flows, fluid inertia is significant; however, as the current advances and becomes shallower, the propagation is increas- ingly controlled by viscous forces, and the flow rapidly arrests, leaving a thick layer of sediment with a well-defined front. The run-out distance is controlled both by the particle-dependent rheology of the suspension and by the initial inertial flow. We describe a dynamical model in which the suspension is treated as a single-phase non-Newtonian fluid with a yield stress. The problem of a tailings dam failure is con- sidered as an analogue of the classic shallow-water dam-break problem. We inves- tigate analytically and numerically how this model may be used to characterise the inertial-viscous transition and the eventual run-out distance of the current. We discuss how simple dynamical models may help to predict the run-out of tailings following dam breaches.

Hogg, A. J.; Pritchard, D.

76

Nonlinear Aeroelastic Behavior of Tail / Rudder Systems with Freeplay and Actuator Failure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis discusses the development of numerical simulations implemented in MATLAB and of an experimental tail/rudder model for the investigation of the effects of non-linearities on control surface flutter of a three-degree of freedom typical section airfoil. Non-linearities investigated include a structural non-linearity in the form of freeplay about the control surface hinge line as well as velocity-squared damping, simulating a failed actuator. The mathematical modeling, design, and testing of a prototype velocity-squared damper is also presented for use in the numerical simulations. In both cases, the describing function method has been used to predict the amplitudes of possible Limit-Cycle Oscillations (LCOs) in the rudder DOF. Response amplitudes and frequencies in the frequency domain, are shown to agree extremely well with results obtained in the time-domain via direct numerical integration of the equations of motion. Both stable and unstable limit-cycle behavior has been predicted, resulting in a detailed set of predictions for the response of the system below the flutter boundary.

Noble, Matthew

77

Debris flow from 2012 failure of moraine-dammed lake, Three Fingered Jack volcano, Mount Jefferson Wilderness, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Three Fingered Jack debris flow is one of several that have issued from moraine-dammed lakes in the Oregon Cascade Range. A thorough summary of those lakes and the hazards associated with them was published in 2001, based largely on fieldwork by Jim O’Connor and Jasper Hardison in the early 1990s. Described here are details of the 2012 event, an update to the O’Connor story begun earlier.

Sherrod, David R.; Wills, Barton B.

2014-01-01

78

The 26 May 1982 breakout flows derived from failure of a volcanic dam at El Chicho??n, Chiapas, Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The eruptions of El Chicho??n between 28 March and 4 April 1982 produced a variety of pyroclastic deposits. The climactic phase, on 3 April at 07:35 (4 April at 01:35 GMT), destroyed the central andesitic dome and fed pyroclastic surges and flows that dammed nearby drainages, including the Magdalena River. By late April, a lake had formed, 4 km long and 300-400 m wide, containing a volume of 26 ?? 106 m3 of hot water. At 01:30 on 26 May, the pyroclastic dam was breached and surges of sediment and hot water soon inundated the town of Ostuaca??n, 10 km downstream. This hot flood was finally contained at Pen??itas Hydroelectric Dam, 35 km downstream, where one fatality occurred and three workers were badly scalded. Stratigraphic and sedimentologic evidence indicates that the rapidly draining lake initially discharged two debris flows, followed by five smaller debris flows and water surges. The main debris flows became diluted with distance, and by the time they reached Ostuaca??n, they merged into a single hyperconcentrated flow with a sediment concentration of ???30 vol%. Deposits from this hyperconcentrated flow were emplaced for 15 km, as far as the confluence with another river, the Mas-Pac, below which the flow was diluted to sediment-laden streamflow. The minimum volume of the breakout-flow deposits is estimated at 17 ?? 106 m3. From high-water marks, flow profiles, and simulations utilizing the DAMBRK code from the National Weather Service, we calculated a maximum peak discharge of 11,000 m3/s at the breach; this maximum peak discharge occurred 1 h after initial breaching. The calculations indicated that ???2 h were required to drain the lake.

Macias, J.L.; Capra, L.; Scott, K.M.; Espindola, J.M.; Garcia-Palomo, A.; Costa, J.E.

2004-01-01

79

Failure of a mine waste dump in Zimbabwe: Causes and consequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combination of factors are considered important in causing the failure and subsequent development of a flowslide of a gold mine waste dump (or tailings dam) at Arcturus, near Harare, Zimbabwe. These factors comprise poor basal drainage, steep perimeter walls, saturation of the walls and basal sediments through continued spigoting of slurry during a period of heavy rainfall, and the effect of this saturation on the tailings. Properties of the tailings, eyewitness accounts, documentary evidence, and site characteristics are discussed. The failure and subsequent development of a fatal 300-m flowslide are reconstructed in a five-phase developmental model. The general applicability of the results is discussed.

Shakesby, Richard A.; Whitlow, J. Richard

1991-09-01

80

Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings.  

PubMed

Mining activities in Chile have generated large amounts of solid waste, which have been deposited in mine tailing impoundments. These impoundments cause concern to the communities due to dam failures or natural leaching to groundwater and rivers. This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. The results show that electric current could remove copper from watery tailing if the potential gradient was higher than 2 V/cm during 21 days. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was enhanced because the pH decreased to around 4, and the copper by this reason was released in the solution. Furthermore, with acidic tailing the potential gradient was less than 2 V/cm. The maximum copper removal reached in the anode side was 53% with addition of sulphuric acid in 21 days experiment at 20 V using approximately 1.8 kg mine tailing on dry basis. In addition, experiments with acidic tailing show that the copper removal is proportional with time. PMID:15629576

Hansen, Henrik K; Rojo, Adrián; Ottosen, Lisbeth M

2005-01-31

81

Phosphorus deficiency is the major limiting factor for wheat on alluvium polluted by the copper mine pyrite tailings: a black box approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Failures of tailings dams have degraded large areas of agricultural alluvial soils worldwide, and concomitant soil pollution\\u000a studies are abundant. Yet, the data on the actual effects of thereby imposed stresses on major crops are scarce. This work\\u000a analyses the effect of pyrite tailings from a copper mine, deposited over crop fields by long-term flooding, on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Nina Nikolic; Ljiljana Kostic; Aleksandar Djordjevic; Miroslav Nikolic

2011-01-01

82

Dam Impacts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While the creation of a dam provides many benefits, it can have negative impacts on local ecosystems. Students learn about the major environmental impacts of dams and the engineering solutions used to address them.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

83

30 CFR 56.20010 - Retaining dams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Retaining dams. 56.20010 Section 56.20010 Mineral...MINES Miscellaneous § 56.20010 Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be of...

2011-07-01

84

30 CFR 57.20010 - Retaining dams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Retaining dams. 57.20010 Section 57.20010 Mineral...MINES Miscellaneous § 57.20010 Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be of...

2013-07-01

85

30 CFR 56.20010 - Retaining dams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Retaining dams. 56.20010 Section 56.20010 Mineral...MINES Miscellaneous § 56.20010 Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be of...

2013-07-01

86

30 CFR 57.20010 - Retaining dams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Retaining dams. 57.20010 Section 57.20010 Mineral...MINES Miscellaneous § 57.20010 Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be of...

2012-07-01

87

30 CFR 57.20010 - Retaining dams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Retaining dams. 57.20010 Section 57.20010 Mineral...MINES Miscellaneous § 57.20010 Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be of...

2014-07-01

88

30 CFR 56.20010 - Retaining dams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Retaining dams. 56.20010 Section 56.20010 Mineral...MINES Miscellaneous § 56.20010 Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be of...

2014-07-01

89

30 CFR 57.20010 - Retaining dams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retaining dams. 57.20010 Section 57.20010 Mineral...MINES Miscellaneous § 57.20010 Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be of...

2010-07-01

90

30 CFR 56.20010 - Retaining dams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Retaining dams. 56.20010 Section 56.20010 Mineral...MINES Miscellaneous § 56.20010 Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be of...

2012-07-01

91

30 CFR 56.20010 - Retaining dams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retaining dams. 56.20010 Section 56.20010 Mineral...MINES Miscellaneous § 56.20010 Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be of...

2010-07-01

92

30 CFR 57.20010 - Retaining dams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Retaining dams. 57.20010 Section 57.20010 Mineral...MINES Miscellaneous § 57.20010 Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be of...

2011-07-01

93

Dam Forces  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how the force of water helps determine the size and shape of dams. They use clay to build models of four types of dams, and observe the force of the water against each type. They conclude by deciding which type of dam they, as Splash Engineering engineers, will design for Thirsty County.

2014-09-18

94

Numerical modelling dam break analysis for water supply project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dam provides many benefits to the society, but it can also cause extensive damage to downstream area when it fails. Dam failure can cause extensive damage to properties and loss of human life due to short warning time available. In general, dam spillway was designed to drain the maximum discharge from the dam during the Probable Maximum Flood (PMF). The spillway is functioned to prevent the dam from failure due to overtopping, which can lead to the dam failure. Dam failure will result in large volume of water travelling at very high velocity to the downstream area of the dam. It can cause extensive property damage, destruction of important facilities, and significant loss of human life along the way. Due to the potential of high hazard it poses to the downstream area, a dam break analysis is considered very essential. This paper focuses into the dam failure analysis for Kahang Dam by prediction of breach flow hydrographs and generation of inundation map at downstream area. From the PMF scenario simulation, the maximum inflow is 525.12 m3/s and peak discharge from the dam during dam failure is 6188m3/s. The results are able to provide information for preparation of Emergency Response Plan (PMF), in which appropriate steps can be taken by relevant authorities to avoid significant loss of human lives.

Lariyah, M. S.; Vikneswaran, M.; Hidayah, B.; Muda, Z. C.; Thiruchelvam, S.; Abd Isham, A. K.; Rohani, H.

2013-06-01

95

106. DAM EARTH DIKE SUBMERSIBLE DAMS & DIKE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

106. DAM - EARTH DIKE - SUBMERSIBLE DAMS & DIKE CONN. AT MOVABLE DAM (ML-8-52/2-FS) March 1940 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

96

Cracking Dams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a comprehensive site that looks at many components of dams, including construction, destruction, and other issues. Access is organized into three levels by grade level. Information on cracks, case histories of the building and problems associated with some well known dams, and some real and imagined scenarios are included.

Polaha, Megann

97

Hydroelectric Dams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although hydroelectric power represents a relatively small portion of the world's energy resources, it is still an important commodity with great potential. To harness hydropower, civil engineers must design dams that convert the kinetic energy of water into electricity.The fundamentals of general-use dams are discussed on the home page of the US Society on Dams (1). Besides providing brief background information, there are a few examples of the benefits of dams to society. For a much more technical perspective, check out the Hydropower Program of the US Department of Energy (2). This site examines (among other things) research and development and turbine systems used in hydropower operations. There are several reports available for download, many of which deal with improved technology that minimizes environmental hazards. A good place for grade school students to learn about dams is at National Geographic's Geoguide Web site (3). On the main page, the user can learn about different stages of development in dam construction. A section for classroom and family activities suggests many fun, educational projects that are suitable for kindergarten through high school. The Hydroelectric Design Center (see #4 above for URL) is part of the Army Corps of Engineers. The center's home page has a lot of information about hydropower projects with which it is involved, as well as descriptions of processes and components of a hydropower plant. Possibly the most famous dam in North America is the Hoover Dam (5). History, articles, functional descriptions, pictures, and other media are on the Hoover Dam Web site. A sharp contrast to the glory of the Hoover Dam is the Three Gorges Dam project in China (6). If it is completed, it will be the biggest dam on Earth; however, environmental concerns plague the project with controversy. This Web site outlines the enormous scale of the project and explains the possible benefits and disastrous consequences that may result. The Three Gorges Dam is the subject of a great activity for middle school students at DiscoverySchool.com (7). The activity is set up as a detailed lesson plan that lets teachers introduce the problems and benefits of the dam; additionally, basic engineering concepts are discussed. Hydropower could mean more than just electricity for the Lao People's Democratic Republic, a small country in Indochina where poverty is widespread. The Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project (8) could bring substantial revenues from exported electricity.

Leske, Cavin.

2002-01-01

98

Peak outflow from a breached embankment dam  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A relation for rapidly predicting the peak outflow rate from a breached embankment dam has been presented. The prediction equation is based on reliable data from 19 embankment dam failures and requires as input the volume of water in the reservoir at the time a breach begins to form, and the estimated height of the final breach. Peak outflow predicted by the equation can be used with simplified flood routing procedures to determine peak flows at locations downstream of a dam. Use of the prediction equation will improve the accuracy of rapid assessments of damage that would be caused by the flood resulting from an embankment dam failure.

Froehlich, David C.

1989-01-01

99

14. Credit PED. Downstream elevation, near completion, showing tail race ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Credit PED. Downstream elevation, near completion, showing tail race and trestle used to carry excavated rock and construction materials across tail race. Photo c. 1909. - Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Plant, Potomac River, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV

100

EMBANKMENT-DAM BREACH PARAMETERS.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The study used data from 43 embankment-dam failures to develop equations that predict breach formation model parameters. These data include the failure mode, embankment characteristics, reservoir conditions at the time of failure, geometry of the final breach, and the time taken to form the breach. Regression equations were developed to predict (1) the average width of a trapezoidal breach, (2) the average side-slope factor of a trapezoidal breach, and (3) the breach formation time.

Froehlich, David C.

1987-01-01

101

Twin-tailed fail-over for fileservers maintaining full performance in the presence of a failure  

DOEpatents

A method for maintaining full performance of a file system in the presence of a failure is provided. The file system having N storage devices, where N is an integer greater than zero and N primary file servers where each file server is operatively connected to a corresponding storage device for accessing files therein. The file system further having a secondary file server operatively connected to at least one of the N storage devices. The method including: switching the connection of one of the N storage devices to the secondary file server upon a failure of one of the N primary file servers; and switching the connections of one or more of the remaining storage devices to a primary file server other than the failed file server as necessary so as to prevent a loss in performance and to provide each storage device with an operating file server.

Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D. (Mount Kisco, NY)

2008-02-12

102

Q00906010024 rock check dam  

E-print Network

00906010024 rock check dam Q00906010025 rock check dam Q00906010021 rock check dam Q00906010022 rock check dam Q00906010027 rock check dam Q00906010026 rock check dam Q00906010018 rock check dam Q00906010023 rock check dam Q00906010011 rock check dam Q00906010008 rock check dam Q00906010007 rock check dam Q

103

Natural Debris Dams and Debris-Dam Lakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains information that will help students to realize that in addition to the direct risk from debris flows and debris avalanches, voluminous deposition of volcanic material in valleys commonly forms unstable natural dams by blocking preexisting drainages and that if the size and structural integrity of the blockage is insufficient to hold back the reservoir that will form, catastrophic failure of the dam will result. Such a hazardous situation may persist for months, years, or decades following an eruption. An example is given of Mount St. Helens, where the debris avalanche raised the level of Spirit Lake 64 meters and dammed its natural outlet even higher and lakes formed in the tributaries of Coldwater and Castle Creeks. In addition, the site has links to publications and reports documenting historical landslide dams from around the world.

104

Development of dam safety management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, we can see an increasing amount of dam damage or failure due to aging, earthquakes occurrence and unusual changes in weather. For this reason, dam safety is gaining more importance than ever before in terms of disaster management at a national level. Therefore, the government is trying to come up with an array of legal actions to secure consistent

Jesung Jeon; Jongwook Lee; Donghoon Shin

2009-01-01

105

WinDAM C earthern embankment internal erosion analysis software  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The USDA has partnered with landowners to build rural flood control dams. Overtopping and internal erosion are the causes of most dam failures. To estimate the peak discharge associated with a dam incident, the USDA-NRCS, -ARS, and Kansas State University have collaboratively developed software. ...

106

11. VIEW OF THE ROAD TO SEDIMENT DAM LOOKING FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. VIEW OF THE ROAD TO SEDIMENT DAM LOOKING FROM EDGE OF TAILINGS. WATER PUMP (FEATURE B-25) IS VISIBLE IN CENTER LEFT OF FRAME. - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

107

Cracking Dams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive activity aids students in understanding structures (particularly dams), fracture mechanics, engineering, hydraulics and geotechnology. This site emphasizes analytical thinking, iterative design, multiple solutions and teamwork. Learning in this activity is mostly collaborative, particularly in the WebQuests, which complement the simulations and activities. There are also hands-on sections and case-based reasoning. There are many references and links provided for more information.

2007-06-15

108

Aquatic Plant Establishment on Nickel Tailings Five Years After Flooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nickel tailings were deposited between 1978 and 1988 in Falconbridge's New Tailings Area located northeast of Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. In 1996, construction of a new dam and dredging split the site into an Upper Terrace (56 ha) and a Lower Terrace (30 ha) to facilitate flooding. Water covers minimize the oxidation of acid generating tailings but some oxidation and release

F. Wilkinson; P. J. Beckett

109

The effects of hardpan layers on the water chemistry from the leaching of pyrrhotite-rich tailings material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Column leaching experiments were used to determine the effects of an iron-rich hardpan layer, on the rate of tailings oxidation and the composition of leachate waters, from the Renison Bell tailings dams in western Tasmania, Australia. One-meter-long PVC columns, filled with tailings, cover material (Cassiterite Flotation Tailings) and hardpan samples from the tailings dams, were leached over a period of

S. E. Gilbert; D. R. Cooke; P. Hollings

2003-01-01

110

Correlation of serum IgG concentration in foals and refractometry index of the dam's pre- and post-parturient colostrums: an assessment for failure of passive transfer in foals.  

PubMed

The object of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of measuring the differences in the values of the serum total protein (DVSTP) concentration of foals and the refractometry index (DVRI) of the milk of dams before and after nursing of the colostrum for assessing failure of passive transfer (FPT) in foals. Serum samples from 31 foals were collected before the first nursing and other 1 to 6 times between 4 and 24 hr after birth. Paired colostrum and milk samples were collected from 14 of their dams at the same time. Serum samples were analyzed for IgG concentration using a single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) test (98 samples) and total protein concentration using a temperature-compensating refractometer (98 samples). Colostrum and milk samples were analyzed for refractometry index (RI) using a Brix refractometer (71 samples). DVSTP concentration and DVRI were significantly correlated with serum IgG concentration. The negative predictive values (NPVs) of DVSTP concentration for detecting serum IgG concentrations<400 mg/dl and<800 mg/dl were 98.2% and 91.3% when the cutoff value is set to 0.4 mg/dl and 0.8 mg/dl, respectively. Furthermore, the NPVs of DVRI for detecting serum IgG concentrations<400 mg/dl and<800 mg/dl were 97.3% and 96.3% when the cutoff value is set to 6% and 10%, respectively. The results suggest that measurement of DVRI is useful in assessing FPT as an initial "stall-side" screening test, because it is easy, inexpensive to perform and allows for rapid interpretation. PMID:22785030

Korosue, Kenji; Murase, Harutaka; Sato, Fumio; Ishimaru, Mutsuki; Kotoyori, Yasumitsu; Nambo, Yasuo

2012-11-01

111

Integrated Dam Assessment Models Towards Sustainability of Dams  

E-print Network

Integrated Dam Assessment Models ­ Towards Sustainability of Dams Desiree Tullos, Bryan Tilt, Phil Brown, Darrin Magee, and Aaron Wolf #12;Costs and benefits of dams "Dams have made an important, and by the natural environment" (WCD 2000) #12;Dams in, out, and reoperated #12;Dams out: Dam removal in America

Tullos, Desiree

112

Enhancing the safety of tailings management facilities  

SciTech Connect

Unsafe tailings management facilities (TMFs) have caused serious accidents in Europe threatening human health/life and the environment. While advanced design, construction and management procedures are available, their implementation requires greater emphasis. An integrated research project funded by the European Union was carried out between 2002 and 2005 with the overall goal of improving the safety of TMFs (Sustainable Improvement in Safety of Tailings Facilities - TAILSAFE, http://www.tailsafe.com/). The objective of TAILSAFE was to develop and apply methods of parameter evaluation and measurement for the assessment and improvement of the safety state of tailings facilities, with particular attention to the stability of tailings dams and slurries, the special risks inherent when such materials include toxic or hazardous wastes, and authorization and management procedures for tailings facilities. Aspects of tailings facilities design, water management and slurry transport, non-destructive and minimally intrusive testing methods, monitoring and the application of sensors, intervention and remediation options were considered in TAILSAFE. A risk reduction framework (the TAILSAFE Parameter Framework) was established to contribute to the avoidance of catastrophic accidents and hazards from tailings facilities. Tailings from the mining and primary processing of metals, minerals and coal were included within the scope of TAILSAFE. The project focused on the avoidance of hazards by developing procedures and methods for investigating and improving the stability of tailings dams and tailings bodies.

Meggyes, T.; Niederleithinger, E.; Witt, K.J.; Csovari, M.; Kreft-Burman, K.; Engels, J.; McDonald, C.; Roehl, K.E. [BAM, Berlin (Germany). Federal Institute for Material Research & Testing

2008-07-01

113

Experimental Research on the Dam-Break Mechanisms of the Jiadanwan Landslide Dam Triggered by the Wenchuan Earthquake in China  

PubMed Central

Dam breaks of landslide dams are always accompanied by large numbers of casualties, a large loss of property, and negative influences on the downstream ecology and environment. This study uses the Jiadanwan landslide dam, created by the Wenchuan earthquake, as a case study example. Several laboratory experiments are carried out to analyse the dam-break mechanism of the landslide dam. The different factors that impact the dam-break process include upstream flow, the boulder effect, dam size, and channel discharge. The development of the discharge channel and the failure of the landslide dam are monitored by digital video and still cameras. Experimental results show that the upstream inflow and the dam size are the main factors that impact the dam-break process. An excavated discharge channel, especially a trapezoidal discharge channel, has a positive effect on reducing peak flow. The depth of the discharge channel also has a significant impact on the dam-break process. The experimental results are significant for landslide dam management and flood disaster prevention and mitigation. PMID:23844387

Xu, Fu-gang; Yang, Xing-guo; Hao, Ming-hui

2013-01-01

114

Experimental research on the dam-break mechanisms of the Jiadanwan landslide dam triggered by the Wenchuan earthquake in China.  

PubMed

Dam breaks of landslide dams are always accompanied by large numbers of casualties, a large loss of property, and negative influences on the downstream ecology and environment. This study uses the Jiadanwan landslide dam, created by the Wenchuan earthquake, as a case study example. Several laboratory experiments are carried out to analyse the dam-break mechanism of the landslide dam. The different factors that impact the dam-break process include upstream flow, the boulder effect, dam size, and channel discharge. The development of the discharge channel and the failure of the landslide dam are monitored by digital video and still cameras. Experimental results show that the upstream inflow and the dam size are the main factors that impact the dam-break process. An excavated discharge channel, especially a trapezoidal discharge channel, has a positive effect on reducing peak flow. The depth of the discharge channel also has a significant impact on the dam-break process. The experimental results are significant for landslide dam management and flood disaster prevention and mitigation. PMID:23844387

Xu, Fu-gang; Yang, Xing-guo; Zhou, Jia-wen; Hao, Ming-hui

2013-01-01

115

50. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

50. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM -- DAM CONCRETE -- GENERAL ARRANGEMENT -- SECTION AND ELEVATIONS. M-L 26(R) 40/3 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

116

49. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

49. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM -- DAM CONCRETE -- TYPICAL PIER ISOMETRIC. M-L 26(R) 40/1 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

117

CRIB DAM, LOOKING ALONG DAM FROM WEST ABUTMENT, SHOWING PLANK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CRIB DAM, LOOKING ALONG DAM FROM WEST ABUTMENT, SHOWING PLANK SHEATHING IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO EAST - Kachess Dam, 1904 Cascade Canal Company Crib Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

118

Are Dams Forever?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn that dams do not last forever. Similar to other human-made structures, such as roads and bridges, dams require regular maintenance and have a finite lifespan. Many dams built during the 1930-70s, an era of intensive dam construction, have an expected life of 50-100 years. Due to inadequate maintenance and/or for environmental reasons, some of these dams will fail or be removed in the next 50 years. The engineers with Splash Engineering have an ethical obligation to remind Thirsty County of the maintenance and lifespan concerns associated with its dam.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program And Laboratory

119

V00306010057 rock check dam  

E-print Network

¬« ¬« ¬« ¬« ¬« XY! 16-020 16-030(c) 16-026(l) 16-028(c) 16-026(l) V00306010057 rock check dam V00306010012 rock check dam V00306010040 rock check dam V00306010039 rock check dam V00306010058 rock check dam V00306010064 rock check dam V00306010061 rock check dam V00306010062 rock check dam V00306010063

120

Peak discharge of a Pleistocene lava-dam outburst flood in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA  

E-print Network

Peak discharge of a Pleistocene lava-dam outburst flood in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA Cassandra R Received 6 May 2005 Availble online 7 February 2006 Abstract The failure of a lava dam 165,000 yr ago produced the largest known flood on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. The Hyaloclastite Dam was up to 366

121

W02106010008 rock check dam  

E-print Network

W-SMA-14.1 5.169 Acres W02106010008 rock check dam W02106010009 rock check dam W02106010010 rock check dam W02106010011 rock check dam W02106010012 rock check dam W02103010018 earthen berm W02103010016 dam Established vegetation Seed and mulch Sediment trap/basin Gabion Cap SWMU boundary SMA drainage

122

J00206010020 rock check dam  

E-print Network

XY! J00206010020 rock check dam J00206010023 rock check dam 09-009 09-009 09-009 PJ-SMA-2 0.901 Acres J00206010021 rock check dam J00206010019 rock check dam J00206010014 rock check dam J00203010007 Smith DATE: 14-November-2014 REVISION NUMBER: 8 XY! IP sampler location Berm Channel/swale Check dam

123

Glen Canyon Dam  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River in Arizona. At noon Monday, Nov. 19, U.S. Interior Secretary Ken Salazar will open the dam’s river outlet tubes, releasing controlled flows larger than the usual 8,000-25,000 cubic feet per second that flows through the turbines of the Glen...

124

Hoover Dam Learning Packet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning packet provides background information about Hoover Dam (Nevada) and the surrounding area. Since the dam was built at the height of the Depression in 1931, people came from all over the country to work on it. Because of Hoover Dam, the Colorado River was controlled for the first time in history and farmers in Nevada, California, and…

Bureau of Reclamation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

125

V01406010015 rock check dam  

E-print Network

XY! ¬« ¬« V01406010015 rock check dam V01406010014 rock check dam V01406010013 rock check dam 1501403010012 earthen berm V01403010008 earthen berm V01406010003 rock check dam V01406010004 rock check dam V01406010010 rock check dam V01406010011 rock check dam 15-0651 15-0307 15-0588 15-0532 15-0575 stormdrain 7160

126

Animal Tails  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Call it tail envy. With only a vestigial nub to show for ourselves, perhaps it's no wonder that animal tails capture our attention. The following Web sites present some of the more interesting tails to be found in the animal kingdom. The first Web site contains a recent article from Discovery News describing new findings that at least one species of scorpion produces two distinct types of tail venom, which have completely different effects on their victims (1). The next site from Singapore Zoological Gardens introduces the cebids (our New World monkey cousins), some of which have amazing prehensile tails that are used like a fifth limb (2). The rattlesnake is another famously-tailed creature, highlighted in the following site from the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum (3). The site covers the main aspects of rattlesnake natural history, including a section on how the rattle forms. The Great Plains Nature Center in Wichita, Kansas, offers a Web page devoted to the beaver, including tail trivia and an audio clip of a resident beaver surprised in his den at the Kansas Wildlife Exhibit (4). Anyone who has witnessed the freakishly fascinating spectacle of a gecko leaving its tail behind to distract a would-be predator will appreciate this brief bio of the Tokay gecko, presented by ReptileCenter.com, the Herpetologist's Portal (5). Stacy's Wag'N'Train -- offering dog-training classes in San Jose, California -- provides this online guide to dog body language, which would have a very limited vocabulary without the tail (6). So, how did the peacock get its tail? It's a simple question that has driven zoologists crazy for over a century. The next Web site (7) contains an in-depth article on the subject from the Independent (London), offered through National Geographic News. And finally, the bizarre gulper eel -- able to tie its tail in several knots -- gets is own Web page on Pangea, the Web server for the Department of Educational Leadership and Technology at Southeastern Louisiana University (8). This deep-sea curiosity uses its bioluminescent tail tip to lure hapless prey into its impossibly gigantic mouth.

Sohmer, Rachel.

2003-01-01

127

16. Parker Dam, only top fourth of dam visible, at ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. Parker Dam, only top fourth of dam visible, at 320' high, Parker Dam is one of the highest in the world. Much of this height is because dam penetrates well below river bottom to fasten to bedrock. - Parker Dam, Spanning Colorado River between AZ & CA, Parker, La Paz County, AZ

128

A model of sturgeon distribution under a dam of a hydro-electric power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is dedicated to the question of passage of sturgeon through a dam of a hydro-electric power plant (HPP) during spawning migrations. A model of distribution of water velocity in the tail water of HPP was constructed. On the basis of this model a model of sturgeon distribution under a dam of HPP was created. The latter model was

V. I. Gertsev; V. V. Gertseva

1999-01-01

129

9. Excavation work at Pleasant Dam (now called Waddell Dam). ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Excavation work at Pleasant Dam (now called Waddell Dam). Photographer unknown, July, 22, 1926. Source: Maricopa County Municipal Water Conservation District Number One (MWD). - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

130

DETERMINING THE ERODIBILITY OF COMPACTED SOILS FOR EMBANKMENT DAMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Embankment overtopping is one of the main causes of failures and incidents in embankment dams and levees. The erosion of the embankment soil material plays a key role in both the process and rate of failure. A battery of jet erosion tests were conducted on laboratory compacted samples of two soils...

131

T00406010008 rock check dam  

E-print Network

XY! ¬« T00406010008 rock check dam T00406010009 rock check dam T00406010010 rock check dam T00406010011 rock check dam T-SMA-2.85 0.344 Acres 35-014(g) 35-016(n) T00406010005 rock check dam T00406010006 rock check dam T00403090004 curb T00402040007 established vegetation, green hatch area 7200 7200 7180

132

NEW ENGLAND DAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

With the National Dam Inspection Act (P.L. 92-367) of 1972, Congress authorized the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to inventory dams located in the United States. The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (P.L 99-662) authorized USACE to maintain and periodically publish...

133

Maple River Dam Spillway  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Maple River Dam is a pass-through dam that lets a limited amount of water flow through year round and fills the reservoir only during high flow. If the water rises high enough to fill the reservoir, water flows over the spillway shown in this photo.  Video taken at the same time is availabl...

134

Cold Air Damming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cold Air Damming is part of the Mesoscale Meteorology Primer series. This module first presents a Navy forecast scenario prior to the development of a major cold air damming (CAD) event along the east slopes of the Appalachian Mountains. Then, from a conceptual standpoint, the classic CAD scenario is described in detail, both from an observational and modeling standpoint.

2014-09-14

135

Dammed or Damned?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes issues raised at a workshop on "People and Dams" organized by the Society for Participatory Research in Asia. Objectives were to (1) understand problems created by dams for people, (2) consider forces affecting displaced populations and rehabilitation efforts, and (3) gain a perspective on popular education efforts among affected…

Hirsch, Philip

1988-01-01

136

GeoGuide: Dams!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The site offers an interactive discussion of different vantage points associated with dam building. It describes some of the engineering and environmental issues that go into the process of selecting a site for building a dam and the conditions necessary for electrical generation. Links to classroom and family activities are organized by grade level.

137

Glen Canyon Dam  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The USGS Glen Canyon Adaptive Management Working Group took a trip in August from Glen Canyon Dam to Lees Ferry on Friday, August 31, 2012. This spot at Four Mile (four miles downstream from the dam) is where a lot of people fish: There were fishermen that day that claimed to have c...

138

A Redundant Function for the N-Terminal Tail of Ndc80 in Kinetochore–Microtubule Interaction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

The N-terminal tail of Ndc80 is essential for kinetochore–microtubule binding in human cells but is not required for viability in yeast. We show that the yeast Ndc80 tail is required for timely mitotic progression and accurate chromosome segregation. The tail is essential when cells are limited for Dam1, demonstrating a redundant function for the Ndc80 and Dam1 complexes in vivo. PMID:22851650

Demirel, Pinar B.; Keyes, Brice E.; Chatterjee, Mandovi; Remington, Courtney E.; Burke, Daniel J.

2012-01-01

139

Simulating dam-breach flood scenarios of the Tangjiashan landslide dam induced by the Wenchuan Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floods from failures of landslide dams can pose a hazard to people and property downstream, which have to be rapidly assessed and mitigated in order to reduce the potential risk. The Tangjiashan landslide dam induced by the Mw = 7.9 2008 Wenchuan earthquake had impounded the largest lake in the earthquake affected area with an estimated volume of 3 × 108 m3, and the potential catastrophic dam breach posed a serious threat to more than 2.5 million people in downstream towns and Mianyang city, located 85 km downstream. Chinese authorities had to evacuate parts of the city until the Tangjiashan landslide dam was artificially breached by a spillway, and the lake was drained. We propose an integrated approach to simulate the dam-breach floods for a number of possible scenarios, to evaluate the severity of the threat to Mianyang city. Firstly, the physically-based BREACH model was applied to predict the flood hydrographs at the dam location, which were calibrated with observational data of the flood resulting from the artificial breaching. The output hydrographs from this model were inputted into the 1-D-2-D SOBEK hydrodynamic model to simulate the spatial variations in flood parameters. The simulated flood hydrograph, peak discharge and peak arrival time at the downstream towns fit the observations. Thus this approach is capable of providing reliable predictions for the decision makers to determine the mitigation plans. The sensitivity analysis of the BREACH model input parameters reveals that the average grain size, the unit weight and porosity of the dam materials are the most sensitive parameters. The variability of the dam material properties causes a large uncertainty in the estimation of the peak flood discharge and peak arrival time, but has little influence on the flood inundation area and flood depth downstream. The effect of cascading breaches of smaller dams downstream of the Tangjiashan dam was insignificant, due to their rather small volumes, which were only 2% of the volume of the Tangjiashan lake. The construction of the spillway was proven to have played a crucial role in reducing the dam-breach flood, because all the other natural breach scenarios would have caused the flooding of the downstream towns and parts of Mianyang city. However, in retrospect improvements on the spillway design and the evacuation planning would have been possible. The dam-break flood risk will be better controlled by reducing the spillway channel gradient and the porosity of the coating of the channel bottom. The experience and lessons we learned from the Tangjiashan case will contribute to improving the hazard mitigation and risk management planning of similar events in future.

Fan, X.; Tang, C. X.; van Westen, C. J.; Alkema, D.

2012-10-01

140

1. GORGE HIGH DAM. THIS THIN ARCH DAM WITH A ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GORGE HIGH DAM. THIS THIN ARCH DAM WITH A GRAVITY SECTION IS THE THIRD DAM BUILT BY SEATTLE CITY LIGHT TO PROVIDE WATER FOR GORGE POWERHOUSE AND WAS COMPLETED IN 1961, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge High Dam, On Skagit River, 2.9 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

141

Hoover Dam Intake Towers  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Hoover Dam impounds Lake Mead and provides drinking water and hydroelectric power to the surrounding area. It was constructed between 1931 and 1936. The Intake Towers are where water enters to generate electricity....

142

The Influence of Ground Water on Stream Restoration Following Dam Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the exception of ground-water seepage beneath dams and the resulting impact on structural failure, there is a void of work directly examining the downstream impacts of dams from the perspective of ground-water\\/surface-water interaction. This work considers alterations in an alluvial basin caused by: (1) erection of a dam upstream, (2) followed by ground-water pumping in the basin, and (3)

J. Constantz; H. Essaid

2003-01-01

143

United States Society on Dams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Society on Dams (USSD) is a professional organization that promotes the advancement of dam engineering and technology, and fosters public awareness of the importance of dams. The best feature on the society's home page is its excellent introduction to dams and their benefits. First, a short definition of a dam is given, and then some reasons for their construction are outlined with specific examples. There are many pictures of dams across the country, and most have explanations for their importance. Hydroelectric power as a renewable resource is discussed in detail. This Web site is a good learning resource for both kids and adults.

2002-01-01

144

Dams and Intergovernmental Transfers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gainers and Losers are always associated with large scale hydrological infrastructure construction, such as dams, canals and water treatment facilities. Since most of these projects are public services and public goods, Some of these uneven impacts cannot fully be solved by markets. This paper tried to explore whether the governments are paying any effort to balance the uneven distributional impacts caused by dam construction or not. It showed that dam construction brought an average 2% decrease in per capita tax revenue in the upstream counties, a 30% increase in the dam-location counties and an insignificant increase in downstream counties. Similar distributional impacts were observed for other outcome variables. like rural income and agricultural crop yields, though the impacts differ across different crops. The paper also found some balancing efforts from inter-governmental transfers to reduce the unevenly distributed impacts caused by dam construction. However, overall the inter-governmental fiscal transfer efforts were not large enough to fully correct those uneven distributions, reflected from a 2% decrease of per capita GDP in upstream counties and increase of per capita GDP in local and downstream counties. This paper may shed some lights on the governmental considerations in the decision making process for large hydrological infrastructures.

Bao, X.

2012-12-01

145

140. PLAN AND SECTION OF NEW DAM AND OLD DAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

140. PLAN AND SECTION OF NEW DAM AND OLD DAM From Annual Report of 1872, Water Department of Philadelphia - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

146

Documented historical landslide dams from around the world  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This data compilation consists of dBase IV1 data files of the location, date, triggering mechanism, kind, size, failure time and mechanism, breach dimensions, subsequent controls, materials, and references for 463 historical landslide dams and associated natural reservoirs that have been recorded throughout the World. The data base presented in this report is a compilation of information on the characteristics of 463 landslide dams from around the World. It forms a basis on which to assess potential threats from existing landslide dams, or newly-formed landslide dams. The data base includes only landslide dams that have formed in historical times - that is, those formed during times when humans were able to record their occurrence, and the information transferred through various means of written and/or oral documentation. There have been far more prehistoric landslide dams about which relatively little is known. None of these is included in this data base. The focus on historical landslide dams allows insights into this natural process that will aid in understanding their role as a significant geologic process in recent Earth history.

Costa, John E.; Schuster, Robert L.

1991-01-01

147

Dam health diagnosis and evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the bionics principle in the life sciences field, we regard a dam as a vital and intelligent system. A bionics model is constructed to observe, diagnose and evaluate dam health. The model is composed of a sensing system (nerve), central processing unit (cerebrum) and decision-making implement (organism). In addition, the model, index system and engineering method on dam health assessment are presented. The proposed theories and methods are applied to evaluate dynamically the health of one concrete dam.

Wu, Zhongru; Su, Huaizhi

2005-06-01

148

Wim van Dam CURRICULUM VITAE  

E-print Network

Wim van Dam CURRICULUM VITAE Department of Computer Science Work: +1-805-893 5211 Harold Frank Hall in physics. #12;Curriculum Vitae Wim van Dam, June 2008 2 PUBLICATIONS Journal and Conference Articles [1] "Quantum Algorithms for Algebraic Problems", Andrew M. Childs and Wim van Dam, to appear in Reviews

California at Santa Barbara, University of

149

EARTH DAM OR SPILLWAY?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aging of the US water control and management infrastructure is increasing the likelihood that some dams will be overtopped during extreme floods. As structures approach their planned service life, sediment pools fill and continued sedimentation results in a reduction in the volume available for flo...

150

Risk Perception Analysis Related To Existing Dams In Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the first part of this work, the progress of Italian National Rules about dams design, construction and operation are presented to highlight the strong connection existing between the promulgation of new decrees, as a consequence of a dam accidents, and the necessity to prevent further loss of lives and goods downstream. Following the Gleno Dam failure (1923), a special Ministerial Committee wrote out the first Regulations and made the proposal to establish, within the High Council of Public Works, a special department that become soon the "Dam Service", with the tasks of control and supervision about construction and operation phases of the dams and their reservoirs. A different definition of tasks and the structure of Dam Service were provided in accordance with law n° 183/1989, which transferred all the technical services to the Office of the Prime Minister; the aim was to join the Dam Office with the Department for National Technical Services, with the objective of increasing the knowledge of the territory and promoting the study on flood propagation downstream in case of operations on bottom outlet or hypothetical dam-break. In fact, population living downstream is not ready to accept any amount of risk because has not a good knowledge of the efforts of experts involved in dam safety, both from the operators and from the safety Authority. So it's important to optimize all the activities usually performed in a dam safety program and improve the emergency planning as a response to people's primary needs and feeling about safety from Civil Protection Authority. In the second part of the work, a definition of risk is provided as the relationship existing between probability of occurrence and loss, setting out the range within to plan for prevention (risk mitigation), thanks to the qualitative assessment of the minimum safety level that is suited to assign funds to plan for Civil Protection (loss mitigation). The basic meaning of the reliability of a zoned earthfill dam is illustrated by defining the risk analysis during its construction and operation. A qualitative "Event Tree Analysis" makes clear with an example the probability of occurrence of the events triggered by an earthquake, and leads to a classification of the damage level. Finally, a System Dynamics (SD) approach is presented to investigate possibilities of a preventive planning in relationship to the risk, so that it's possible to establish shared procedures to achieve the correct management in any crisis phase. As a qualitative result of a SD application, figure 1 presents a flow-chart about a case study on the same dam so to illustrate the emergency planning in a step by step procedure according to the Regulations.

Solimene, Pellegrino

2013-04-01

151

Post Falls Dam stabilization  

SciTech Connect

The stability of Washington Water Power`s (WWP) Middle Channel and South Channel Dams at Post Falls, Idaho, were evaluated as required by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and did not meet guideline stability criteria under Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) loading. This paper describes the stability analysis, stabilization design, design parameters, construction of the anchors, and compares the design and as-built conditions. Value engineering was used to select the optimal stabilization measure. Constructibility, cost, and schedule were major considerations. The value engineering study evaluated 41 potential stabilization alternatives, selected post tensioning, and used scheduling criteria to optimize the design. Access considerations required the installation of five 47 strand, 7400 kN (1645{sup k}) anchors in the Middle Dam, and installation of six anchors with different capacities anchors in the South Channel Dam. The Washington Water Power - Black & Veatch team used value engineering, contractor prequalification, resident engineering services provided by the engineer, and strong construction support provided by the Owner to successfully complete the project on a very tight schedule.

Gorny, R.H. [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States); Gibson, J.Z. [Washington Water Power, Spokane, WA (United States)

1995-12-31

152

Geomorphic and Ecological Issues in Removal of Sediment-Filled Dams in the California Coast Ranges (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water-supply reservoirs in the actively eroding California Coast Ranges are vulnerable to sediment filling, thus creating obsolete impounding dams (Minear & Kondolf 2009). Once full of sediment, there is more impetus to remove dams for public safety and fish passage, but managing accumulated sediments becomes a dominant issue in dam removal planning. We analyzed the planning process and sediment management analyses for five dams, all of which have important ecological resources but whose dam removal options are constrained by potential impacts to downstream urban populations. Ringe Dam on Malibu Ck, Matilija Dam on the Ventura River, Searsville Dam on San Francisquito Ck, and Upper York Creek Dam on York Ck cut off important habitat for anadromous steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). San Clemente Dam on the Carmel River has a working fish ladder, but only some of the migratory steelhead use it. By virtue of having filled with sediment, all five dams are at greater risk of seismic failure. San Clemente Dam is at greater risk because its foundation is on alluvium (not bedrock), and the poor-quality concrete in Matilija Dam is deteriorating from an akali-aggregate reaction. Simply removing the dams and allowing accumulated sediments to be transported downstream is not an option because all these rivers have extremely expensive houses along downstream banks and floodplains, so that allowing the downstream channel to aggrade with dam-dervied sediments could expose agencies to liability for future flood losses. Analyses of potential sediment transport have been based mostly on application of tractive force models, and have supported management responses ranging from in-situ stabilization (San Clemente and Matilija) to removal of stored sediment (York) to annual dredging to maintain capacity and prevent sediment passing over the dam (proposed for Searsville).

Kondolf, G. M.; Oreilly, C.

2010-12-01

153

Health impacts of large dams  

SciTech Connect

Large dams have been criticized because of their negative environmental and social impacts. Public health interest largely has focused on vector-borne diseases, such as schistosomiasis, associated with reservoirs and irrigation projects. Large dams also influence health through changes in water and food security, increases in communicable diseases, and the social disruption caused by construction and involuntary resettlement. Communities living in close proximity to large dams often do not benefit from water transfer and electricity generation revenues. A comprehensive health component is required in environmental and social impact assessments for large dam projects.

Lerer, L.B. [Medical Research Council (South Africa). Health Consulting Office] [Medical Research Council (South Africa). Health Consulting Office; Scudder, T. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States)] [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States)

1999-03-01

154

Kidney Failure  

MedlinePLUS

... Details» www.kidneyfund.org > Kidney Disease > Kidney Failure Kidney Failure Kidney failure is when your kidneys stop ... are the tests for kidney failure? How is kidney failure (ESRD) different from chronic kidney disease (CKD)? ...

155

Owyhee River intracanyon lava flows: does the river give a dam?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rivers carved into uplifted plateaus are commonly disrupted by discrete events from the surrounding landscape, such as lava flows or large mass movements. These disruptions are independent of slope, basin area, or channel discharge, and can dominate aspects of valley morphology and channel behavior for many kilometers. We document and assess the effects of one type of disruptive event, lava dams, on river valley morphology and incision rates at a variety of time scales, using examples from the Owyhee River in southeastern Oregon. Six sets of basaltic lava flows entered and dammed the river canyon during two periods in the late Cenozoic ca. 2 Ma–780 ka and 250–70 ka. The dams are strongly asymmetric, with steep, blunt escarpments facing up valley and long, low slopes down valley. None of the dams shows evidence of catastrophic failure; all blocked the river and diverted water over or around the dam crest. The net effect of the dams was therefore to inhibit rather than promote incision. Once incision resumed, most of the intracanyon flows were incised relatively rapidly and therefore did not exert a lasting impact on the river valley profile over time scales >106 yr. The net long-term incision rate from the time of the oldest documented lava dam, the Bogus Rim lava dam (?1.7 Ma), to present was 0.18 mm/yr, but incision rates through or around individual lava dams were up to an order of magnitude greater. At least three lava dams (Bogus Rim, Saddle Butte, and West Crater) show evidence that incision initiated only after the impounded lakes filled completely with sediment and there was gravel transport across the dams. The most recent lava dam, formed by the West Crater lava flow around 70 ka, persisted for at least 25 k.y. before incision began, and the dam was largely removed within another 35 k.y. The time scale over which the lava dams inhibit incision is therefore directly affected by both the volume of lava forming the dam and the time required for sediment to fill the blocked valley. Variations in this primary process of incision through the lava dams could be influenced by additional independent factors such as regional uplift, drainage integration, or climate that affect the relative base level, discharge, and sediment yield within the watershed. By redirecting the river, tributaries, and subsequent lava flows to different parts of the canyon, lava dams create a distinct valley morphology of flat, broad basalt shelves capping steep cliffs of Tertiary sediment. This stratigraphy is conducive to landsliding and extends the effects of intracanyon lava flows on channel geomorphology beyond the lifetime of the dams.

Ely, Lisa L.; Brossy, Cooper C.; House, P. Kyle; Safran, Elizabeth B.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Champion, Duane E.; Fenton, Cassandra R.; Bondre, Ninad R.; Orem, Caitlin A.; Grant, Gordon E.; Henry, Christopher D.; Turrin, Brent D.

2013-01-01

156

Initial Geomorphic Responses to Removal of Milltown Dam, Clark Fork River, Montana, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The removal of Milltown Dam on the Clark Fork River, Montana, USA, is creating a field-scale experiment on upstream and downstream responses to dam removal and on how gravel-bed rivers respond to sediment pulses. Milltown Dam was removed in 2008, reconnecting the Clark Fork River to its upstream basin in terms of sediment transport and fish passage. This dam removal is especially notable because (1) it is the largest dam removal to date in the United States in terms of the volume of reservoir sediment potentially available for downstream transport (over 3 million m3; 1.7 million m3 are being mechanically removed); and (2) the dam is the downstream end of the largest Superfund site in the United States, the Clark Fork Complex, and reservoir sediments are composed largely of contaminated mine tailings. Data collection on pre- and post-dam removal channel morphology, bed sediment characteristics, and sediment loads are being used to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of sediment transport and deposition associated with this dam removal. In the first several months following breaching of the dam, snowmelt runoff with a 3-year recurrence interval peak caused substantial erosion and downstream transport of metals-laden sediments from Milltown reservoir. Reservoir sediments in the Clark Fork arm of Milltown reservoir eroded at levels far exceeding modeling predictions as a result of both incision to the new base level created by dam removal and bank retreat of over 200 m in reaches upstream of a constructed bypass reach and remediation area. Copper and other metals in these eroded reservoir sediments provide a tracer for identifying whether sediment deposits observed downstream of the dam originated from Milltown reservoir or uncontaminated tributaries and indicate that Milltown sediments have reached over 200 km downstream. Downstream deposition has been greatest along channel margins and in side-channel areas, whereas the transport capacity of the active channel has limited channel changes there.

Wilcox, A. C.; Brinkerhoff, D.; Woelfle-Erskine, C.

2008-12-01

157

76 FR 12094 - Whitman River Dam, Inc.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Project No. 13237-002] Whitman River Dam, Inc. Notice of Application Tendered for Filing...February 14, 2011. d. Applicant: Whitman River Dam, Inc. e. Name of Project: Crocker Dam Hydro Project. f. Location: On the Whitman...

2011-03-04

158

Germination, Growth, and Nodulation of Sesbania rostrata Grown in Pb/Zn Mine Tailings  

PubMed

/ This study examined the possibility of growth, nodulation, and nitrogen accumulation of Sesbania rostrata in pure and amended Pb/Zn tailings. About 90% of seeds of S. rostrata germinated in pure Pb/Zn tailings, which contained high concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd. Although seedling growth suffered from the adverse environment of Pb/Zn tailings, they became established on tailings stands, in the greenhouse, as well as on the actual tailings dam, and completed their life cycle in 4 months. Dry matter production and nitrogen accumulation was 3200 kg/ha and 69.4 kg/ha, respectively in the actual tailings dam. Applying inorganic fertilizer to Pb/Zn tailings led to no obvious improvement in growth and nodulation of S. rostrata, while tailings amended by river sediment or domestic refuse rich in organic matter improved the growth and nodulation of the species. Azorhizobium caulinodans survived and formed N-fixing stem and root nodules in S. rostrata grown in pure Pb/Zn tailings with a nodule biomass exceeding 300 mg fresh matter per plant.KEY WORDS: Sesbania rostrata; Azorhizobium caulinodans; Pb/Zn mine tailings; Revegetation; Nitrogen fixation; Heavy metals; Tolerance PMID:9175548

Yang; Yuan; Xin; Chang; Wong

1997-07-01

159

Hydromechanical Analysis of Masonry Gravity Dams and their Foundations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical model for the hydromechanical analysis of masonry dams based on the discrete element method is presented. The dam and the rock foundation are represented as block assemblies, and a coupled flow-stress analysis is performed in an integrated manner for the entire system. Complex block shapes may be obtained by assembling elementary blocks into macroblocks, allowing the application of the model to situations ranging from equivalent continuum to fully discontinuum analysis. A contact formulation was developed based on an accurate edge-edge approach, incorporating mechanical and hydraulic behavior. The main numerical aspects are described, with an emphasis in the flow analysis explicit algorithm. An application to an existing masonry dam is presented, analyzing its present condition, with excessive seepage, and the proposed rehabilitation intervention. An evaluation of sliding failure mechanisms was also performed, showing the expected improvement in the safety of the structure.

Bretas, Eduardo M.; Lemos, José V.; Lourenço, Paulo B.

2013-03-01

160

Peak discharge of a Pleistocene lava-dam outburst flood in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The failure of a lava dam 165,000 yr ago produced the largest known flood on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. The Hyaloclastite Dam was up to 366 m high, and geochemical evidence linked this structure to outburst-flood deposits that occurred for 32 km downstream. Using the Hyaloclastite outburst-flood deposits as paleostage indicators, we used dam-failure and unsteady flow modeling to estimate a peak discharge and flow hydrograph. Failure of the Hyaloclastite Dam released a maximum 11 ?? 109 m3 of water in 31 h. Peak discharges, estimated from uncertainty in channel geometry, dam height, and hydraulic characteristics, ranged from 2.3 to 5.3 ?? 105 m3 s-1 for the Hyaloclastite outburst flood. This discharge is an order of magnitude greater than the largest known discharge on the Colorado River (1.4 ?? 104 m3 s-1) and the largest peak discharge resulting from failure of a constructed dam in the USA (6.5 ?? 104 m3 s-1). Moreover, the Hyaloclastite outburst flood is the oldest documented Quaternary flood and one of the largest to have occurred in the continental USA. The peak discharge for this flood ranks in the top 30 floods (>105 m3 s-1) known worldwide and in the top ten largest floods in North America. ?? 2005 University of Washington. All rights reserved.

Fenton, C.R.; Webb, R.H.; Cerling, T.E.

2006-01-01

161

Why Do We Build Dams?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the concept of a dam and its potential benefits, which include water supply, electricity generation, flood control, recreation and irrigation. This lesson begins an ongoing classroom scenario in which student engineering teams working for the Splash Engineering firm design dams for a fictitious client, Thirsty County.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

162

Tubes at Glen Canyon Dam  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The river outlet tubes at Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River in Arizona. At noon Monday, Nov. 19, U.S. Interior Secretary Ken Salazar will open the dam's river outlet tubes, releasing controlled flows larger than the usual 8,000-25,000 cubic feet per second that flows through the turbines of...

163

Length of Magnetospheric Tail  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that hydromagnetic waves, through the action of radiation pressure, can prevent the tail of the magnetosphere from closing near the earth. It is argued that the tail of the magnetosphere may be 20 to 50 AU long. The tail can close at such heliocentric distances in the charge-exchange boundary shell where the solar wind is terminated and

A. J. Dessler

1964-01-01

164

Geotechnical practice in dam rehabilitation  

SciTech Connect

This proceedings, Geotechnical Practice in Dam Rehabilitation, consists of papers presented at the Specialty Conference sponsored by the Geotechnical Engineering Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers held in Raleigh, North Carolina, April 25-28, 1993. The conference provided a forum for the discussion of the rehabilitation of dams, including case histories and current geotechnical practice. The topics covered by this proceeding include: (1) inspection and monitoring of dams; (2) investigation and evaluation of dams and foundations; (3) risk and reliability assessment; (4) increasing reservoir capacity, spillway modifications and overtopping; (5) seepage control; (6) improving stability of dams, foundations and reservoir slopes; (7) rehabilitation for seismic stability; and (8) geosynthetics and ground improvement techniques.

Anderson, L.R. (ed.)

1993-01-01

165

Synthesizing Studies of Dam Removal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dam decommissioning is rapidly emerging as an important river restoration strategy in the United States. Hundreds of dams have been removed in the past few decades, including several large ones (>10-15 meters) impounding large sediment volumes (>106 cubic meters) in the past 3 years, notably Condit Dam and the Elwha River dams in Washington State. These removals and the associated studies provide for the first time an opportunity to evaluate the immediate and persistent consequences of these significant fluvial—and in some cases, coastal—perturbations. Understanding dam removal response not only improves understanding of landscape and ecosystem adjustment to profound sediment pulses but also provides important lessons for future watershed restoration efforts.

O'Connor, Jim; East, Amy

2014-10-01

166

Simulation on particle crushing of tailings material under high pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With continuous increase of the high tailings dam, it has an important practical and theoretical significance to study the mechanical characteristics of the tailings material under high pressures. It is indicated that strength envelopes of the tailings material have a remarkable nonlinear characteristics through the triaxial test under high pressures. A further study stated that the particle crushing has a critical effect on the mechanical behavior of the tailings material. In order to quantitatively research its influence, the grain size distribution of the tailings material is analyzed for pre-and post-test and the particle crushing of the tailings material is measured. The particle flow code is employed to simulate and monitor the sample during testing. Firstly, a model which considers the particle crushing is built under the plane strain condition. Then, a series of biaxial numerical tests of the tailings specimen are simulated by using the model. It is found that the simulation result agrees with the triaxial test. Finally, a law between the particle crushing and strain of the tailings material under different confining pressures is obtained.

Liu, Hai-ming; Liu, Yi-ming; Yang, Chun-he; Cao, Jing

2013-06-01

167

6. GENE WASH DAM, LOOKING NORTHWEST. SURVEY REFLECTOR IN FOREGROUND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. GENE WASH DAM, LOOKING NORTHWEST. SURVEY REFLECTOR IN FOREGROUND FOR MONITORING MOVEMENT OF DAM AND EARTH. - Gene Wash Reservoir & Dam, 2 miles west of Parker Dam, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

168

Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Heart Failure? Heart failure is a condition in which the ... underway for Heart Failure, visit www.clinicaltrials.gov . Heart Failure in the News April 9, 2014 Drug does ...

169

A review of catastrophic drainage of moraine-dammed lakes in British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moraine-dammed lakes are common in the high mountains of British Columbia. Most of these lakes formed when valley and cirque glaciers retreated from advanced positions achieved during the Little Ice Age. Many moraine dams in British Columbia are susceptible to failure because they are steep-sided, have relatively low width-to-height ratios, comprise loose, poorly sorted sediment, and may contain ice cores

John J. Clague; Stephen G. Evans

2000-01-01

170

Geomorphic responses to large check-dam removal on a mountain river in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dam removal has become an important aspect of river restoration in recent years, but studies documenting the physical and ecological response to dam removal are still lacking - particularly in mountain rivers and following major floods. This presentation documents the recent removal of a large dam on a coarse-grained, steep (an order of magnitude greater than on the Marmot) mountain channel in Taiwan. The Chijiawan river, a tributary of the Tachia River draining a 1236 km2 watershed, is the only habitat in Taiwan of the endangered Formosan landlocked salmon. The habitat of this fish has been cut significantly since the 1960s following construction of check dams designed to prevent reservoir sedimentation downstream. The largest and lowermost barrier on Chijiawan creek is the 15m high, "No. 1 Check Dam" built in 1971. Forty years later, in early 2011, the sediment wedge behind the dam had reached an estimated 0.2 million m3 and the dam toe had been scoured about 4m below its foundation, posing a serious risk of dam failure. For these reasons, the Shei-Pa National Park removed the dam in late May 2011. To monitor the response of the river to dam removal, we installed video cameras, time-lapse cameras, stage recorders, and turbidity sensors, conducted surveys of grain size distributions and longitudinal profiles, and carried out repeat photography. Channel changes were greatest immediately following removal as a result of the high stream power, steep energy slope, and unconsolidated alluvial fill behind the dam. Headcut propagation caused immediate removal of the sand-grade sediment and progressive channel widening. One month after dam removal, a minor flood event excavated a big wedge of sediment from the impoundment. Most of the subsequent downstream deposition occurred within 500m of the dam, with alluviation reaching up to 0.5m in places. Two months after dam removal, erosion had propagated 300m upstream into the impounded sediment along a bed profile of gradient at 1.4% at a headcut with a local gradient of 5.1%. The change in grain size was a fining of the sediment at the two downstream sites and a slight coarsening at the upstream site from April 2010 to July 2011. This is likely due to the increase in energy upstream of the dam post-removal, which has transported the fine-grained sediments downstream. As the river adjusts over coming months and years, we anticipate that observations such as these will help generate an important resource for all those concerned with dam removal and river restoration.

Wang, H.; Stark, C. P.; Cook, K. L.; Kuo, W.

2011-12-01

171

Is it worth a dam?  

PubMed Central

Once a sign of modernization and growth, dams are often seen today as symbols of environmental and social devastation. Over 800,000 dams have been built worldwide to provide drinking water, flood control, hydropower, irrigation, navigation, and water storage. Dams do indeed provide these things,but at the cost of several adverse, unexpected effects: disruption of ecosystems, decline of fish stocks, forced human and animal resettlements, and diseases such as malaria, which are borne by vectors that thrive in quiet waters. PMID:9349830

Joyce, S

1997-01-01

172

Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks Tail Densities of Copulas  

E-print Network

Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks Tail Densities of Toronto, May 27 2014 Haijun Li Tail Densities of Copulas University of Toronto, May 27 2014 1 / 22 #12;Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks Let X = (X1

Li, Haijun

173

MASTER PLAN ChiefJosephDamHatcheryProgram This Chief Joseph Dam Hatchery Program Master Plan  

E-print Network

subbasin. Construction of Grand Coulee Dam eliminated salmon from the majority of the Colville Reservation#12;i MASTER PLAN ChiefJosephDamHatcheryProgram This Chief Joseph Dam Hatchery Program Master Plan Fisheries Enhancement Group ChiefJosephDam HatcheryProgram M A S T E R P L A N #12;ChiefJosephDam

174

Deer Creek Dam, Dam, 1,204 feet/238 degrees from intersection of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Deer Creek Dam, Dam, 1,204 feet/238 degrees from intersection of dam complex access road and U.S. Highway 189 to center of dam, 874 feet/352 degrees from Hydroelectric Powerplant (HAER UT-93-B) to center of dam, Charleston, Wasatch County, UT

175

EFFECT OF ENCROACHMENT OF WANAPUM DAM RESERVOIR ON FISH PASSAGE OVER ROCK ISLAND DAM, COLUMBIA RIVER  

E-print Network

EFFECT OF ENCROACHMENT OF WANAPUM DAM RESERVOIR ON FISH PASSAGE OVER ROCK ISLAND DAM, COLUMBIA the lower sections of the three fish ladders at Rock Island Dam, 61 km upstream from Wanapum Dam of the center and left-bank fish ladders of Rock Island Dam were rebuilt and a new sequence of spill patterns

176

Study of damage to a high concrete dam subjected to underwater shock waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study the effect of a strong underwater shock wave on a concrete dam, this research aims to improve hammer impact methods in model tests. Six 1:200 scale models were designed and tested under distributed impact loads. A device was deployed for a direct measurement of the impact force at the upstream face of the dams. The model dam bases were anchored to prevent displacement. The experimental results indicate that the top part of the concrete dam is a weak zone, and the impact failure initiates with a fracture on the top of the dam. The peak value of impact stress increases when the second crack appears in the concrete dam from the upstream face to the downstream face. And, the level of the second crack in the dam body is lower as the peak value of impact stress increases. In this study, dynamic analysis was conducted by calculating the results to verify the effectiveness of a device to directly measure the impact force. This method may be used to approximately forecast the damage of concrete dam and may also be useful in other engineering applications.

Lu, Lu; Li, Xin; Zhou, Jing

2014-06-01

177

Hoover Dam Intake Towers Panorama  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Hoover Dam impounds Lake Mead and provides drinking water and hydroelectric power to the surrounding area. It was constructed between 1931 and 1936. The Intake Towers are where water enters to generate electricity....

178

CLEARWATER SUBBASIN, ID -- DAM LOCATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This map includes locations of dams in the Clearwater subbasin, Idaho. Source: US Army Corps of Engineers, BPA, and State Water Resource Departments from the Eastside Ecosystems Management Project. ...

179

Tail posture predicts tail damage among weaned piglets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tail biting in pigs is a widespread behavioural vice with significant animal welfare and economic consequences. All too often, tail biting is not diagnosed nor dealt with until tail damage is present. To effectively reduce the negative effects of tail biting, it must be diagnosed in an early stage. So far no predictors for tail damage have been found. Predictors

Johan J. Zonderland; Johan W. van Riel; Marc B. M. Bracke; Bas Kemp; Leo A. den Hartog; Hans A. M. Spoolder

2009-01-01

180

Theseus Tail Being Unloaded  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tail of the Theseus prototype research aircraft is seen here being unloaded at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in May of 1996. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global environmental change measurements. Dryden's Project Manager was John Del Frate.

1996-01-01

181

A pre-dam-removal assessment of sediment transport for four dams on the Kalamazoo River between Plainwell and Allegan, Michigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four dams on the Kalamazoo River between the cities of Plainwell and Allegan, Mich., are in varying states of disrepair. The Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) are considering removing these dams to restore the river channels to pre-dam conditions. This study was initiated to identify sediment characteristics, monitor sediment transport, and predict sediment resuspension and deposition under varying hydraulic conditions. The mathematical model SEDMOD was used to simulate streamflow and sediment transport using three modeling scenarios: (1) sediment transport simulations for 730 days (Jan. 2001 to Dec. 2002), with existing dam structures, (2) sediment transport simulations based on flows from the 1947 flood at the Kalamazoo River with existing dam structures, and (3) sediment transport simulations based on flows from the 1947 flood at the Kalamazoo River with dams removed. Sediment transport simulations based on the 1947 flood hydrograph provide an estimate of sediment transport rates under maximum flow conditions. These scenarios can be used as an assessment of the sediment load that may erode from the study reach at this flow magnitude during a dam failure. The model was calibrated using suspended sediment as a calibration parameter and root mean squared error (RMSE) as an objective function. Analyses of the calibrated model show a slight bias in the model results at flows higher than 75 m3/s; this means that the model-simulated suspended-sediment transport rates are higher than the observed rates; however, the overall calibrated model results show close agreement between simulated and measured values of suspended sediment. Simulation results show that the Kalamazoo River sediment transport mechanism is in a dynamic equilibrium state. Model results during the 730-day simulations indicate significant sediment erosion from the study reach at flow rates higher than 55 m3/s. Similarly, significant sediment deposition occurs during low to average flows (monthly mean flows between 25.49 m3/s and 50.97 m3/s) after a high-flow event. If the flow continues to stay in the low to average range the system shifts towards equilibrium, resulting in a balancing effect between sediment deposition and erosion rates. The 1947 flood-flow simulations show approximately 30,000 m3 more instream sediments erosion for the first 21 days of the dams removed scenario than for the existing-dams scenario, with the same initial conditions for both scenarios. Application of a locally weighted regression smoothing (LOWESS) function to simulation results of the dams removed scenario indicates a steep downtrend with high sediment transport rates during the first 21 days. In comparison, the LOWESS curve for the existing-dams scenario shows a smooth transition of sediment transport rates in response to the change in streamflow. The high erosion rates during the dams-removed scenario are due to the absence of the dams; in contrast, the presence of dams in the existing-dams scenario helps reduce sediment erosion to some extent. The overall results of 60-day simulations for the 1947 flood show no significant difference in total volume of eroded sediment between the two scenarios, because the dams in the study reach have low heads and no control gates. It is important to note that the existing-dams and dams-removed scenarios simulations are run for only 60 days; therefore, the simulations take into account the changes in sediment erosion and deposition rates only during that time period. Over an extended period, more erosion of instream sediments would be expected to occur if the dams are not properly removed than under the existing conditions. On the basis of model simulations, removal of dams would further lower the head in all the channels. This lowering of head could produce higher flow velocities in the study reach, which ultimately would result in accelerated erosion rates.

Syed, Atiq U.; Bennett, James P.; Rachol, Cynthia M.

2005-01-01

182

Arsenic and heavy metals in native plants at tailings impoundments in Queretaro, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten native plants species that grow in three tailings dams from Ag, Pb, Cu and Zn mine in Queretaro, Mexico were studied. Total concentrations in tailings were 183-14,660 mg/kg As, 45-308 mg/kg Cd, 327-1754 mg/kg Pb, 149-459 mg/kg Cu and 448-505 mg/kg Zn. In the three tailings dams, the solubility of these elements is low. Tailings in dam 1 are acid generating while tailings in dams 2 and 3 are not acid-generating potential. Plants species that accumulate arsenic and heavy metals was identified; Nicotina glauca generally presented the highest concentrations (92 mg/kg As, 106 mg/kg Cd, 189 mg/kg Pb, 95 mg/kg Cu and 1985 mg/kg Zn). Other species that accumulate these elements are Flaveria pubescens, Tecoma stans, Prosopis Sp, Casuarina Sp and Maurandia antirrhiniflora. Two species were found that accumulates a large amount of metals in the root, Cenchrus ciliaris and Opuntia lasiacantha. Concentrations in soils in which plants grow were 488-5990 mg/kg As, 5-129 mg/kg Cd, 169-3638 mg/kg Pb, 159-1254 mg/kg Cu and 1431-13,488 mg/kg Zn. The Accumulation Factor (AF) determined for plants was less than 1, with exception of N. glauca for Cd. The correlation between arsenic and heavy metals found in soils and plants was low. Knowledge of plant characteristics allows it use in planning the reforestation of tailings dams in controlled manner. This will reduce the risk of potentially toxic elements are integrated into the food chain of animal species.

Santos-Jallath, José; Castro-Rodríguez, Alejandrina; Huezo-Casillas, José; Torres-Bustillos, Luis

183

Elwha River Riparian Vegetation Response to Dams and Dam Removal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Riparian vegetation is highly diverse and influences habitat of aquatic and terrestrial wildlife. Riparian vegetation dynamics are driven by stream flow regime, and fluxes of sediment and large woody debris, all of which can be altered by river damming. Dam removal is often implemented, in part, to help restore degraded riparian vegetation by reversing the alteration of these key drivers. However, increased disturbance and sediment flux associated with transport and exposure of trapped reservoir sediment can complicate a simple return to pre-dam conditions and can favor exotic species. We are studying the effects of dams and their removal on riparian vegetation along the Elwha River in Washington State, where removal of two large dams began in September 2011. To characterize vegetation composition, structure, and diversity prior to dam removal, we sampled 60-150 vegetation plots in 2004, 2005, and 2010 along five cross-valley transects in each of three river reaches: above both dams (upper reach), between the dams (middle reach), and downstream of both dams (lower reach). In summer 2012, we resampled a subset of our plots in the lower and middle reaches to evaluate vegetation and geomorphic change. We also sampled vegetation, topography, and grain size along newly-established transects within the exposed former reservoir behind Elwha Dam, which was removed in 2011 and 2012. Plant community distribution on bottomland geomorphic surfaces along the Elwha is typical of other systems in the region. We identified 8 overstory and 26 understory communities using multivariate analyses. Young bar surfaces (5-20 yrs) were dominated by willow, red alder, and black cottonwood. Floodplains and transitional fluvial terraces (<90yrs) were generally dominated by alder and cottonwood. Mature terraces (>90yrs) were often dominated by big-leaf maple. Douglas fir occurred on both young and old floodplains and terraces. Overstory species composition was more stable from 2005 to 2010 than understory, understory species composition was more influenced by reach than overstory, and understory communities on younger landforms were less stable. From 2005 to 2010, there was a 26% increase in species richness in the lower reach but no significant changes elsewhere. In both 2005 and 2010 there was a significant decrease in native species richness (26% and 30% respectively) from the furthest upstream to furthest downstream reach. Exotic species richness was significantly higher in the downstream reach compared to the upstream reach in both years. Following dam removal, we documented different pioneer plant communities growing on different surfaces within the former reservoir behind Elwha Dam. Some surfaces were dominated by exotic species of concern to resource managers, such as Canada thistle and reed canarygrass, while others contained typical, native pioneer communities dominated by willow, alder, and cottonwood. Along our existing monitoring transects, we documented some sediment deposition on channel margins, bars and low floodplain surfaces, particularly in the lower reach; relatively little new deposition occurred in the more armored and stable middle reach. Future monitoring will reveal changes to existing vegetation communities and development of new communities in the former reservoirs as removal of the upstream dam is completed and millions of m3 of sediment are redistributed.

Shafroth, P. B.; Brown, R. L.; Clausen, A. J.; Chenoweth, J.

2012-12-01

184

Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS

... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Heart Failure Sign Up for Our Heart-Health E-news ... with brochures and downloadable patient information sheets. Downloadable Heart Failure Resources What is Heart Failure? (PDF) How Can ...

185

Respiratory Failure  

MedlinePLUS

... the air sacs. This process is called gas exchange. In respiratory failure, gas exchange is impaired. Respiratory failure can be acute (short ... oxygen—into your airways and then your lungs. Rate This Content: Next >> December 19, 2011 Respiratory Failure ...

186

Tails of Lorenz curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lorenz dominance criterion is the centre piece of inequality analysis. Yet, the appeal of this criterion, which requires considering Lorenz curves in their entirety, is undermined by the practical problem that many sample Lorenz curves intersect in the tails. The commonly used inferential methods, based on central limit theorem arguments, do not apply to the tails since these contain

Christian Schluter; Mark Trede

2002-01-01

187

Assessing low-activity faults for the seismic safety of dams  

SciTech Connect

Dams have been a familiar construct in the northern Sierra Nevada range in California (north of the San Joaquin River) since the forty-niners and farmers diverted water to their gold mines and farms in the mid 19th century. Today, more than 370 dams dot the region from the Central Valley to the eastern escarpment. Fifty-five more dam streams on the eastern slope. The dams are of all types: 240 earth fill; 56 concrete gravity; 45 rock and earth fills; 35 rock fill; 14 concrete arch; 9 hydraulic fill; and 29 various other types. We use the northern Sierra Nevada to illustrate the assessment of low-activity faults for the seismic safety of dams. The approach, techniques, and methods of evaluation are applicable to other regions characterized by low seismicity and low-activity faults having long recurrence intervals. Even though several moderate earthquakes had shaken the Sierra Nevada since 1849 (for example, the 1875 magnitude 5.8 Honey Lake and the 1909 magnitudes 5 and 5.5 Downieville earthquakes), seismic analyses for dams in the area generally were not performed prior to the middle of this century. Following the 1971 magnitude 6.7 San Fernando earthquake, when the hydraulic-fill Lower Van Norman Dam in southern California narrowly escaped catastrophic failure, the California Division of Safety of Dams and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission required seismic safety to be addressed with increasing rigor. In 1975, the magnitude 5.7 Oroville earthquake on the Cleveland Hill fault near Oroville Dam in the Sierra Nevada foothills, showed convincingly that earthquakes and surface faulting could occur within the range. Following this event, faults along the ancient Foothills fault system have been extensively investigated at dam sites.

Page, W.D.; Savage, W.U.; McLaren, M.K. [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

188

Group prepares guidelines for documenting dam performance  

SciTech Connect

The Association of State Dam Safety Officials and the Center on the Performance of Dams at Stanford University later this summer expect to complete guidelines for reporting the performance of state, federal, and private dams: A working group of state and federal dam safety engineers and consultants is developing the guidelines to identify incidents that should be reported and to establish reporting requirements. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is funding preparation and publication of the guidelines. The guidelines are expected to expedite the process for reporting information on dam incidents in a timely and complete manner. Much the same as the health care industry compiles and evaluates data related to the incidence of disease and the benefits of treatment, a single standard for reporting the performance of dams in the US will help create a national information base on the occurrence and consequence of dam incidents. Currently, incidents involving dam performance are not reported on a regular basis. The guidelines will define dam incidents in terms of events of engineering interest that provide insights to the safety and structural or operational integrity of dams. Examples of incidents include the performance of a dam that experiences ground motion from a large earthquake, extreme spillway or dam overtopping, rehabilitations made to satisfy dam safety requirements, embankment sliding of an earthen dam, and improper operations that leads to damage downstream. When an incident occurs, the satisfactory or unsatisfactory performance of a dam will be reported, either by a state dam safety official, the owner of the dam, or the owner's engineer.

McCann, M.W. Jr. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

1993-06-01

189

17. VIEW OF MAIN AND DIVERSION DAMS FROM WATERGATE AFTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. VIEW OF MAIN AND DIVERSION DAMS FROM WATER-GATE AFTER REMOVAL OF DRIFTWOOD. DIVERSION DAM IN LEFT FOREGROUND, MAIN DAM TO THE RIGHT. Photographed July 18, 1938. - Forge Creek Dam-John Cable Mill, Townsend, Blount County, TN

190

OVERALL VIEW OF CASCADE CANAL COMPANY CRIB DAM, LOOKING UPSTREAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERALL VIEW OF CASCADE CANAL COMPANY CRIB DAM, LOOKING UPSTREAM FROM DIRECTION OF KACHESS DAM. VIEW TO NORTH - Kachess Dam, 1904 Cascade Canal Company Crib Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

191

American Experience: Grand Coulee Dam  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Among many great national achievements during the Great Depression, the Grand Coulee Dam remains one of the most impressive. This fine website from the American Experience program complements a documentary that was first aired on PBS in 2012. The construction of this dam would, in the worlds of President Franklin Roosevelt, be part of a "planned promised land" that would transform the lives of farm families. The site includes a great interactive timeline, a photo gallery, and a short preview of the entire film. Additionally, the site includes two nice bonus videos, including one that deals with the processes of closing the spillway. The blog on the site includes several interesting posts on the history of the dam. Also, visitors have the opportunity to share their own stories about their own favorite iconic structures in the United States.

2012-04-27

192

Helicopter tail rotor noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was made of helicopter tail rotor noise, particularly that due to interactions with the main rotor tip vortices, and with the fuselage separation mean wake. The tail rotor blade-main rotor tip vortex interaction is modelled as an airfoil of infinite span cutting through a moving vortex. The vortex and the geometry information required by the analyses are obtained through a free wake geometry analysis of the main rotor. The acoustic pressure-time histories for the tail rotor blade-vortex interactions are then calculated. These acoustic results are compared to tail rotor loading and thickness noise, and are found to be significant to the overall tail rotor noise generation. Under most helicopter operating conditions, large acoustic pressure fluctuations can be generated due to a series of skewed main rotor tip vortices passing through the tail rotor disk. The noise generation depends strongly upon the helicopter operating conditions and the location of the tail rotor relative to the main rotor.

Chou, S.-T.; George, A. R.

1986-01-01

193

The Dramatic Methods of Hans van Dam.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interprets for the American reader the untranslated dramatic methods of Hans van Dam, a leading drama theorist in the Netherlands. Discusses the functions of drama as a method, closed dramatic methods, open dramatic methods, and applying van Dam's methods. (SR)

van de Water, Manon

1994-01-01

194

GATC Flanking Sequences Regulate Dam Activity: Evidence for how Dam Specificity may Influence  

E-print Network

GATC Flanking Sequences Regulate Dam Activity: Evidence for how Dam Specificity may Influence pap coli DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) plays essential roles in DNA replication, mismatch repair and gene regulation. The differential methylation by Dam of the two GATC sequences in the pap promoter

Reich, Norbert O.

195

Webinar: Stepped chute design for embankment dams  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Changing demographics in the vicinity of dams have led to hazard creep in a number of dams worldwide. Many of these dams now have insufficient spillway capacity as a result of these changes in hazard classification from low to significant or high hazard. Stepped chutes applied to the embankment da...

196

Inception point for embankment dam stepped spillways  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stepped spillways applied to embankment dams have become a common design practice with the rehabilitation of aging watershed dams, especially those experiencing a hazard classification change from low to high hazard. Previous research on stepped spillways focused on gravity dams where aerated flow ...

197

Disrupting biogeochemical cycles - Consequences of damming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable management of natural water resources should include environmentally sound dam construction and operation with respect to both upstream and downstream management. Because of slowly evolv- ing alterations in riverine ecosystems following the con- struction of a dam - due to the sometimes large distances between dams and affected areas, and the interference with other anthropogenic activities - some of

Gabriela Friedl; Alfred Wüest

2002-01-01

198

On Quantum Computation Theory Wim van Dam  

E-print Network

On Quantum Computation Theory Wim van Dam #12;#12;On Quantum Computation Theory #12;ILLC woensdag 9 oktober 2002, te 14.00 uur door Willem Klaas van Dam geboren te Breda. #12;Promotor: Prof. dr. P Dam, 2002 ISBN: 90­5776­091­6 #12;" . . . Many errors have been made in the world which today

ten Cate, Balder

199

ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT ROCK ISLAND DAM  

E-print Network

ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON, 1959 :y .iiJA/i-3ri ^' WUUUi. ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT - ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON, 1959 by Paul D. Zimmer, Clifton and observations 10 Summary 13 #12;#12;ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT - ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON

200

Viscoplastic dam breaks and the Bostwick consistometer  

E-print Network

Viscoplastic dam breaks and the Bostwick consistometer N. J. Balmforth, a R. V. Craster, b P'Informazione, Universit`a di Milano, Crema, Italy Abstract We present a theoretical and experimental analysis of the dam the broken dam) that may assist an experimentalist to unravel those dependences. Experiments are conducted

Balmforth, Neil

201

A GIS for dam safety management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dam safety management demands a large volume of data related to the dam and its safety structures, the watershed and the downstream valley. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are powerful tools which allow to store, analyze, update and visualize geographic data sets. In the framework of the NATO project - Dam Break Flood Risk management in Portugal a GIS is being

Miguel Gamboa; Maria A. Santos

202

A Database for Dam Safety Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dam safety management demands the knowledge of several characteristics about dams, reservoirs, downstream valleys and much more information. The present text presents a client-server database that is one of the components of an information system. This database is aimed at managing data related to dams, watersheds, reservoirs and the downstream valley. System analysis, as well as different implementation stages such

João Palha Fernandes; Manuel Jorge Andrade

203

Middle Dam (Maine) Well Drilling  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS hydrologist Martha Nielsen examines cuttings as a drill crew works to drill a new monitoring well at USGS station 443647070552303 (ME-OW400A) near Middle Dam on Lower Richardson Lake. The existing well heaved due to frost and had to be replaced....

204

Water and Dams in Today's World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the importance of dams by watching a video that presents historical and current information on dams, as well as descriptions of global water resources and the hydrologic cycle. Students also learn about different types of dams, all designed to resist the forces on dams. (If the free, 15-minute "Water and Dams in Today's World" video cannot be obtained in time, the lesson can still be taught. See the Additional Multimedia Support section for how to obtain the DVD or VHS videotape, or a PowerPoint presentation with similar content [also attached].)

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

205

Geomorphic evolution to large check-dam removal on a mountain river in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As aging dams become obsolete or economically inefficient, dam removal has become an important aspect of river restoration in recent years. While various efforts are ongoing to enhance our understanding, studies documenting the physical and ecological responses to dam removal are still lacking, particularly for removal of large dams in mountain river and following major flood, where the size of watersheds and the amount of reservoir sediment released can be much greater than for most previously studied dam removals. This presentation documents the geomorphic evolution to removal of a large dam on a coarse-grained, steep (an order of magnitude greater than on the Marmot) mountain channel in Taiwan. The Chijiawan creek is the only habitat in Taiwan of the endangered Formosan landlocked salmon. Its habitat has been cut significantly since the 1960s following construction of check dams designed to prevent reservoir sedimentation downstream. The largest and lowermost barrier on Chijiawan creek is the 15m high, "No. 1 Check Dam" built in 1971. Forty years later, the dam had backfilled with about an estimated 0.2 million m3 sediment and its toe had been scoured about 4m below its foundation, raising a significant risk of dam failure. For these reasons, the Shei-Pa National Park removed the dam in late May 2011. To monitor the channel response to dam removal, we conducted surveys of grain size distributions, cross-sectional and longitudinal profiles, analyzed the stage and turbidity records, and carried out repeat photography. Channel changes were greatest immediately following removal as a result of the high stream power, steep energy slope, and unconsolidated alluvial fill behind the dam. Headcut propagation caused immediate removal of the sand-grade sediment and progressive channel widening. One month after dam removal, a minor flood event with the estimated peak discharge of 20 m3/s excavated a big wedge of sediment from the impoundment. Two months after dam removal, erosion had propagated 300m upstream into the impounded sediment along a bed profile of gradient at 1.4% at a headcut with a local gradient of 5.1%. The profile remained pretty much unchanged until a year after in June 2012 during a 'plum rain' with the estimated discharge of 110 m3/s. Headcut erosion migrated further up to 500m upstream from the dam and lateral erosion was documented reaching up to 50m in cross sections near the dam. An estimated amount of about 50,000 m3 sediment was released and deposited in the 1.5-km reach downstream. The change in grain size was a fining of the sediment at the two downstream sites and a slight coarsening at the upstream site from April 2010 to July 2011, and significant coarsening of the sediment (with D50 from 10 mm to 75 mm) at the downstream site and upstream site as well from July 2011 to July 2012. This is likely due to the increase in energy upstream of the dam post-removal, which has transported the fine-grained sediments downstream for the first few months. Following the major flood in June 2012, the coarser-grained sediments have been released downstream. As the river is still adjusting, we anticipate the observations will enhance understanding for all those concerned with dam removal and river restoration.

Wang, H.; Kuo, W.

2012-12-01

206

Nonlinear Seismic Analysis of Morrow Point Dam  

SciTech Connect

This research and development project was sponsored by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), who are best known for the dams, power plants, and canals it constructed in the 17 western states. The mission statement of the USBR's Dam Safety Office, located in Denver, Colorado, is ''to ensure Reclamation dams do not present unacceptable risk to people, property, and the environment.'' The Dam Safety Office does this by quickly identifying the dams which pose an increased threat to the public, and quickly completing the related analyses in order to make decisions that will safeguard the public and associated resources. The research study described in this report constitutes one element of USBR's research and development work to advance their computational and analysis capabilities for studying the response of dams to strong earthquake motions. This project focused on the seismic response of Morrow Point Dam, which is located 263 km southwest of Denver, Colorado.

Noble, C R; Nuss, L K

2004-02-20

207

Seismic safety of high concrete dams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

China is a country of high seismicity with many hydropower resources. Recently, a series of high arch dams have either been completed or are being constructed in seismic regions, of which most are concrete dams. The evaluation of seismic safety often becomes a critical problem in dam design. In this paper, a brief introduction to major progress in the research on seismic aspects of large concrete dams, conducted mainly at the Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research (IWHR) during the past 60 years, is presented. The dam site-specific ground motion input, improved response analysis, dynamic model test verification, field experiment investigations, dynamic behavior of dam concrete, and seismic monitoring and observation are described. Methods to prevent collapse of high concrete dams under maximum credible earthquakes are discussed.

Chen, Houqun

2014-08-01

208

Respiratory Failure  

MedlinePLUS

Respiratory failure happens when not enough oxygen passes from your lungs into your blood. Your body's organs, ... brain, need oxygen-rich blood to work well. Respiratory failure also can happen if your lungs can' ...

209

Case history and hazard analysis of two lake-damming landslides in the Himalayas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In investigating the hazard and case history of natural dams in the Himalayas, two sites of landslides and their former dammed lakes in the hinterland were visited between May 1994 and October 1995 and analysed from the geomorphological, geotechnical, geohydrological, tectonic, sedimentary and climatic points of view. One of the examples studied, the landslide in the valley of Birahi Ganga (Northern India), is one of the most impressive examples of recent hazards in alpinotype high mountain regions. This study was complemented by a study of the Ghatta Khola landslide (Western Nepal). In both cases, lithotectonic and climatic conditions led to the destabilisation and failure of carbonate bedrock. The occurrence of lakes, dammed over long periods behind the barriers, is of great importance, because after the sometimes fatal landslide event itself, one is confronted and has to cope with a secondary natural hazard, the possibility of a major flood due to the failure of the dam. That is why the preparatory causal factors of the origin of the two lakes (by damming up the river due to the landslide) and their stepwise disappearance (by secondary landslides within the barrier and sedimentation into the basin) were additionally focused upon. It is shown that due to very special circumstances (availability of sediments, heavy rainfall) in the Himalayas there is a progressive decrease in the potential hazard to the landscape and to human beings lower down the main valleys over a period of only a few decades.

Weidinger, Johannes T.

1998-04-01

210

A tool to aid emergency managers and communities in appraising private dam safety and policy.  

PubMed

Issues concerning dam safety and equitable sharing of catchment run-off are receiving more attention throughout the world. This paper assesses these matters in the context of Australia, and the need for policy responses. Landholders often overlook the common law obligation to review/design dams to current standards because of high costs, leaving them vulnerable to litigation if their dam fails. The paper reports on an innovative spillway design/review procedure, applicable to southeast Australia, but transferable to any region worldwide. Dam safety policy models and guidelines derived from international best practice are linked to the procedure and intended to aid government decision-making. The procedure minimises costs to landholders and provides an acceptable level of safety assurance to downstream communities. Also discussed are recent surveys testing community attitudes to the procedure and implemented dam safety and water allocation policies. These further guide any government wanting to implement this'integrated engineering and community partnerships'approach to preventing potential disasters due to private dam failure and achieving sustainable and safe water storage and use. PMID:17461922

Pisaniello, John D; McKay, Jennifer

2007-06-01

211

Human tail: nature's aberration.  

PubMed

Human tail refers to a congenital cutaneous appendix protruding from the lumbosacral region. It is usually associated with an underlying spina bifida occulta, a form of spinal dysraphism. A contiguous fibrolipoma can sometimes be seen extending from the subcutaneous portion of the tail into the inferior spinal cord, resulting in tethered cord syndrome. Management of such lesions includes complete neurologic examination and magnetic resonance imaging. Early diagnosis and microsurgical intervention can prevent development or progression of severe neurologic defects in later life. PMID:22241711

Kumar, Dipti; Kapoor, Akshay

2012-07-01

212

Pseudo Random Coins Show More Heads Than Tails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tossing a coin is the most elementary Monte-Carlo experiment. In a computer the coin is replaced by a pseudo random number generator. It can be shown analytically and by exact enumerations that popular random number generators are not capable of imitating a fair coin: pseudo random coins show more “heads” than “tails.” This bias explains the empirically observed failure of

Heiko Bauke; Stephan Mertens

2004-01-01

213

Impact of a base metal slimes dam on water systems, Madziwa Mine, Zimbabwe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mazowe Valley contains several of Zimbabwe’s largest current mining operations, is densely populated and is also a major agricultural area. The urban areas of Bindura, Goromonzi, Shamva, Marondera, Murehwa and Mutoko all draw water from within the Mazowe Valley. Irrigation of commercial crops is also a major water user. Accordingly, managing the impact of mining operations on water quality in the Mazowe Valley must be a major priority for sustainable development in this area. Madziwa Mine, 150 km north-east of Harare, is a case in point. Mining took place between 1966 and 2001. The main sulphides were chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, pentlandite and pyrite. Waste from the mine’s plant has been disposed of via a tailings dam, the focus of this study. Surface water samples were collected at 12 sites around the slimes dam and groundwater samples were collected from six boreholes. The samples were analysed for dissolved metals using atomic absorption spectrometry and for anions using gravimetry and titration. The surface water chemical analyses showed that acidic effluent with high concentrations of iron, nickel and sulphate emanates from the tailings dam. Concentrations of metals are lower after the water has passed through natural wetlands. Chemical analysis of groundwater showed similarly high levels of acidity, sulphate and metal. These findings show that acid mine drainage is seeping from the tailings dam. Efforts are being made to reduce the effects of the acid mine drainage. For surface seepage from the dumps these efforts include diverting acidic effluent from the dump into natural wetlands that neutralise the acidity. To reduce drainage into the groundwater efforts are being made to plant trees with high evaporation rates to minimise the amount of water that can cause acid mine drainage.

Lupankwa, K.; Love, D.; Mapani, B. S.; Mseka, S.

214

18. DETAIL AT JUNCTION OF MAIN DAM AT LEFT AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. DETAIL AT JUNCTION OF MAIN DAM AT LEFT AND DIVERSION DAM AT RIGHT SHOWING LOG CRIBBING. SPACES INSIDE CRIBBING WERE FILLED WITH STONE TO ANCHOR DAM; DETERIORATION OF DAM HAS ALLOWED STONE BALLAST TO WASH AWAY. Photographed July 18, 1938. - Forge Creek Dam-John Cable Mill, Townsend, Blount County, TN

215

View of upstream face of the forebay dam of Grand ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of upstream face of the forebay dam of Grand Coulee Dam, looking west. Construction of the forebay dam, which replaced the eastern end of the original Grand Coulee Dam, was completed in 1974. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

216

DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT1 PINE CREEK DAM, OKLAHOMA2  

E-print Network

#12;#12;DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT1 PINE CREEK DAM, OKLAHOMA2 DAM SAFETY MODIFICATION3 &4 Environmental Assessment Pine Creek Dam, Oklahoma Dam Safety Modification & Interim Risk Reduction Measure and risk reduction measures necessary to correct structural and maintenance deficiencies of Pine Creek Dam

US Army Corps of Engineers

217

Analysis of dam safety management system in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to an increasing amount of dam damage or break in resent years, great importance is attached to dam safety management in many countries. This paper analyzes the status of Chinese dam safety management according to the integral safety concept for dam including structural safety, dam safety monitoring, operational safety and emergency planning. Comparing with the safety management of large

Cheng Cuiyun; Qian Xin; Zhang Yuchao; Sheng Jinbao

2010-01-01

218

Crocodile Skeleton - Tail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The crocodile is a reptile that has a long and narrow skeleton. The backbone (a gliding joint) of this animal extends into a powerful tail, allowing it to swim through water. The ribs of the crocodile are small and serve to protect its inner organs.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Science)

2007-07-14

219

Dolphin Skeleton - Tail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The dolphin is built to be sleek. Its body is made of almost entirely backbone (a gliding joint) which makes it very flexible under water. The ribs protect the inner organs of the dolphin and the tail beats from side to side, thrusting the animal forward.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-07-14

220

"Tails" of Linguistic Survival  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the relatively short history of computerized corpora of spoken language, it is not surprising that few diachronic studies have been done on the grammatical features recently highlighted by the analysis of such corpora. This article, however, does take a diachronic perspective on one such feature: the syntactic feature of "tails" (Dik 1978).…

Timmis, Ivor

2010-01-01

221

REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK STAND, SHOWING AIRCRAFT NUMBER (319), HORIZONTAL STABILIZER, TAIL CONE AND COOLING CTS FOR THE AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), MECHANIC PAUL RIDEOUT IS LOWERING THE BALANCE PANELS ON THE STABILIZERS FOR LUBRICATION AND INSPECTION. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

222

Downstream effects of dams on alluvial rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes changes in mean channel-bed elevation, channel width, bed-material sizes, vegetation, water discharges, and sediment loads downstream from 21 dams constructed on alluvial rivers. Most of the studied channels are in the semiarid western US. Flood peaks generally were decreased by the dams, but in other respects the post-dam water-discharge characteristics varied from river to river. Sediment concentrations

G. P. Williams; M. G. Wolman

1985-01-01

223

Spillway sizing of large dams in Austria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the basic philosophy of defining and calculating design floods for large dams in Austria, both for the construction of new dams and for a re-assessment of the safety of existing dams. Currently the consensus is to choose flood peak values corresponding to a probability of exceedance of 2*10-4 for a given year. A two step procedure is

Ch. Reszler; D. Gutknecht; G. Blöschl

2003-01-01

224

World Wide Web Pages for Dam Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is a very informative and well presented resource for dam design, primarily intended to give undergraduates or anyone interested in the subject a solid introduction to the basic concepts. Maintained at the University of Durham in Britain, there are many sections that provide a good overview of the many processes involved in building a dam. Many different types of dams are described in detail, including concrete and embankment dams. Hydrology and geology, important factors that need to be considered when choosing a suitable location, are also covered. The layout of the site is fairly good overall, but navigating the many sections and subsections can sometimes get confusing.

225

Hoover Dam: The American Experience Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Experience Online presents this companion site to its recent American Experience film about the one of the greatest hydroengineering feats in history. The Hoover Dam, in Black Canyon on the Colorado River, at the Arizona-Nevada border, was built between 1930 and 1936 and is the highest concrete arch dam in the US. The site provides a program description, an enhanced transcript of the film, a brief bibliography, a list of the dam facts, an essay that explores the economic and environmental effects of the dam, a timeline, a map, a People and Events Database, and a teacher's guide.

1999-01-01

226

33 CFR 208.19 - Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado... § 208.19 Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado...shall operate the Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir in the interest of flood control as...

2013-07-01

227

33 CFR 208.19 - Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado... § 208.19 Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado...shall operate the Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir in the interest of flood control as...

2012-07-01

228

33 CFR 208.19 - Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado... § 208.19 Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado...shall operate the Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir in the interest of flood control as...

2011-07-01

229

33 CFR 208.19 - Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Texas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado... § 208.19 Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado...shall operate the Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir in accordance with the water...

2014-07-01

230

Green River Locks and Dams 3, 4, 5, 6 and Barren River Lock and Dam 1 Disposition, Kentucky  

E-print Network

Green River Locks and Dams 3, 4, 5, 6 and Barren River Lock and Dam 1 Disposition, Kentucky 16 September 2014 ABSTRACT: Green River Locks and Dams 3 through 6 and Barren River Lock and Dam 1 were. The Green River Locks and Dams 5 and 6 ceased operations in 1951 due to a marked decline in navigation

US Army Corps of Engineers

231

HGMS of tin ore tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two samples of Bolivian tin ore tailings have been subjected to High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) for the purpose of increasing the tin content, and reducing the iron content which interferes with smelting. The Colavi mine tailing was the discarded product of a froth flotation process and contains about 0.7% by weight of valuable tin. The Atoroma tailing was the

M. Arellano; D. Kelland

1979-01-01

232

Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks A tail density approach in extremal  

E-print Network

Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks A tail density of Mathematics Washington State University Munich, May 2011 Haijun Li A tail density approach in extremal dependence analysis for vine copulas Munich, May 2011 1 / 21 #12;Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail

Li, Haijun

233

View of Lake Sabrina Dam downstream face from parking lot ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of Lake Sabrina Dam downstream face from parking lot showing concrete outlet structure on tow of dam at left edge of photo, view southeast - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 2, Lake Sabrina Dam, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

234

3. OVERALL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE, LOOKING EAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. OVERALL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE, LOOKING EAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

235

4. VIEW SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM, LOOKING NORTHEAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM, LOOKING NORTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

236

5. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE AND TOE OF DAM, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE AND TOE OF DAM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

237

6. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE AND TOE OF DAM, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE AND TOE OF DAM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

238

21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

2011-04-01

239

21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

2014-04-01

240

78 FR 7810 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY...SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG...Secretary of the Interior concerning Glen Canyon Dam operations and other management...

2013-02-04

241

76 FR 24516 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY...SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG...Secretary of the Interior concerning Glen Canyon Dam operations and other management...

2011-05-02

242

77 FR 9265 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY...SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG...Secretary of the Interior concerning Glen Canyon Dam operations and other management...

2012-02-16

243

77 FR 43117 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY...SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG...Secretary of the Interior concerning Glen Canyon Dam operations and other management...

2012-07-23

244

21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

2012-04-01

245

21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

2010-04-01

246

78 FR 47695 - Sam Rayburn Dam Power Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Southwestern Power Administration Sam Rayburn Dam Power Rate AGENCY: Southwestern Power Administration...SUMMARY: The current Sam Rayburn Dam Project rate was approved by the Federal...Southwestern has developed a proposed Sam Rayburn Dam rate to recover the required...

2013-08-06

247

21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

2013-04-01

248

77 FR 67813 - Sam Rayburn Dam Project Power Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Southwestern Power Administration Sam Rayburn Dam Project Power Rate AGENCY: Southwestern...existing power rate for the Sam Rayburn Dam Project (Rayburn), Rate Schedule SRD-08...Hydro Power and Energy Sold to Sam Rayburn Dam Electric Cooperative, Inc., for a...

2012-11-14

249

78 FR 21415 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY...SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG...Secretary of the Interior concerning Glen Canyon Dam operations and other management...

2013-04-10

250

14. VIEW OF DAM SITE, LOOKING SOUTH (DOWNSTREAM). MIXING PLANT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. VIEW OF DAM SITE, LOOKING SOUTH (DOWNSTREAM). MIXING PLANT IS VISIBLE AT RIGHT, COFFER DAM IS UPSTREAM OF PLACING TOWER. EAST DOME IS VISIBLE AT LEFT OF TOWER, c. 1927 - Coolidge Dam, Gila River, Peridot, Gila County, AZ

251

National dam inventory provides data for analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Association of State Dam Safety Officials completed a dam inventory this fall. Information on approximately 90,000 state-regulated dams in the US collected during the four-year inventory is being used to build a database managed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency. In addition to ASDSO's work, the federal government conducted an inventory of federal dams. This data will be added to the state information to form one national database. The database will feature 35 data fields for each entry, including the name of the dam, its size, the name of the nearest downstream community, maximum discharge and storage volume, the date of the last inspection, and details about the emergency action plan. The program is an update of the nation's first dam inventory, required by the Dam Safety Act of 1972. The US Army Corps of Engineers completed the original inventory in 1981. The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 authorized appropriations of $2.5 million for the Corps to update the inventory. FEMA and the Corps entered into an agreement for FEMA to undertake the task for the Corps and to coordinate work on both the federal and state inventories. ASDSO compiles existing information on state-regulated dams into a common format for the database, added missing information, and established a process for continually updating data. ASDSO plans to analyze the information collected for the database. It will look at statistics for the number of dams regulated, communities that could be affected, and the number of high-hazard dams. FEMA is preparing reports for Congress on the project. The reports, which are expected to be ready by May 1993, will include information on the methodology used and facts about regulated dams under state jurisdiction.

Spragens, L. (ASDSO, Lexington, KY (United States))

1992-12-01

252

Time-Lapse Seismic Tomography and Electrical Resistivity Mapping of a Small Embankment Dam with Possible Zones of Weakness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthen dam or levee failure can occur with little to no warning. Internal problems such as seepage and piping are among the major causes of failure in earthen embankment dams and levees. Identifying and mitigating these problems requires a cost effective and non-invasive method of investigating these critical structures. This study focuses on the early detection of internal problems such as seepage and piping using time lapse seismic refraction tomography (SRT) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). For this study, two quarter scale model dams were built at the USDA-ARS Hydraulic Engineering Research Unit in Stillwater, OK. These dams were constructed with two internal compromised zones that would be susceptible to seepage and piping. The zones consist of a sandy region and a region compacted at lower moisture content. Time lapse seismic refraction and electrical resistivity measurements were conducted over a course of two years to monitor changes in the internal structure of the model dams due to seasonal changes, cyclic loadings and internal erosion failure. The results will provide an insight on how compromised zones due to seepage and piping can be identified at an early stage using both SRT and ERT time-lapse measurements and how joint interpretation of these two methods helps in closely identifying what attributed to the compromised zone. [This research was funded by the department of Homeland Security- sponsored Southeast Region Research Initiative (SERRI) at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Wodajo, L. T.; Hickey, C. J.; Song, C. R.

2013-12-01

253

McNary Dam, Ice Harbor Dam, and Lower Monumental Dam Smolt Monitoring Program; 1996 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The Washington Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW) assumed responsibility for the Smolt Monitoring Program at McNary Dam on the Columbia River in 1990 and at the new juvenile collection facility at Lower Monumental Dam on the Snake River in 1993. In 1996, Smolt Monitoring Program activities also began at the new juvenile collection facility located at Ice Harbor Dam. This report summarizes the 1996 Smolt Monitoring work at all three sites. The work at Ice Harbor consisted of Gas Bubble Trauma (GBT) monitoring only. In general, the 1996 passage season at both the McNary and Lower Monumental sites can be characterized by reduced passage of juveniles through the collection systems due to elevated river flows and spill, and low (<1%) overall facility mortality rates most likely resulting from cooler water temperatures. In accordance with the National Marine Fisheries Service recommendations (NMFS, 1995) all spring migrants were bypassed at McNary Dam in 1996. Mechanical problems within the McNary collection system resulted in collection and sampling activities being delayed until April 18 at this site, while sampling and collection began on the scheduled starting date of April 1 at Lower Monumental Dam. Monitoring operations were conducted through December 14 at McNary Dam and through October 28 at Lower Monumental Dam. An ongoing transportation evaluation summer migrant marking program was conducted at McNary Dam in 1996 by the NMFS. This necessitated the sampling of 394,211 additional fish beyond the recommended sampling guidelines. All total, 509,237 and 31,219 juvenile salmonids were anesthetized and individually counted, examined for scale loss, injuries, and brands by WDFW Smolt Monitoring personnel in 1996 at McNary Dam and Lower Monumental Dam, respectively.

Hillson, Todd; Lind, Sharon; Price, William (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

1997-07-01

254

Experiments in dam removal, sediment pulses and channel evolution on the Clark Fork River, MT and White Salmon River, WA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two recent dam removals on tributaries to the Columbia River in the northwestern United States present contrasting examples of how dam removal methods, reservoir contents, and geomorphic settings influence system responses. The 2008 removal of Milltown Dam, from the Clark Fork River (CFR), Montana, and the 2011 removal of Condit Dam from the White Salmon River (WSR), Washington (Table 1), represent two of the largest dam removals to date. The Milltown Dam removal was notable because the dam stored millions of cubic meters of contaminated mine tailings, a portion of which were excavated as part of Superfund remediation but a portion of which flowed downstream after the removal. On the CFR, post-breach high flows in 2008 produced reservoir erosion and downstream deposition in bed interstices, along bars, and on the floodplain, but above-average (3-15 year recurrence interval) floods since then have remobilized this material and have, to a large extent, erased signs of downstream sedimentation. The Condit Dam removal entailed dynamiting of a 4m by 5.5m hole at the base of the dam, which produced rapid and dramatic draining of fine reservoir sediments within hours of the blast. Downstream of Condit Dam, the initial hyperconcentrated flows and sediment pulse draped the WSR with fine sediment, filled pools, and, in an unconfined reach influenced by the Columbia River's backwater, caused meters of aggradation and new bar formation. In the confined, bedrock-dominated reach downstream of the Condit site, pool-riffle structure has started to reemerge as of summer 2012 and the finest bed materials have been evacuated from the main channel, although sediment storage in pools and eddies persists. Whereas post-breach geomorphic responses on the CFR have been largely driven by hydrology, the post-breach evolution of the WSR has been predominantly influenced by antecedent geomorphic conditions (slope, confinement, and Columbia River backwater). On both the CFR and WSR, the pace of post-breach reservoir erosion and of geomorphic recovery from the disturbances produced by dam removal has been rapid, far exceeding pre-breach predictions.Table 1: Comparison of Milltown and Condit Dam removals

Wilcox, A. C.

2012-12-01

255

78 FR 60271 - Hollow Dam Power Company; Ampersand Hollow Dam Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Regulatory Commission [Project No. 6972-032] Hollow Dam Power Company; Ampersand Hollow Dam Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer...Motions To Intervene On September 10, 2013, Hollow Dam Power Company (transferor) and Ampersand...

2013-10-01

256

Analysis and dynamic modeling of a moraine failure and glacier lake outburst flood at Ventisquero Negro, Patagonian Andes (Argentina)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryAlthough moraine dams are inherently prone to failure because of their often weak structure, loose internal composition and lack of an engineered spillway, the understanding of dam breaching processes remains largely incomplete and appropriate modeling approaches are scarce. This paper analyzes a recent glacier lake outburst, caused by the failure of the terminal moraine of Ventisquero Negro (Patagonian Andes, Argentina) in May 2009. The dam breach trigger, breaching and lake emptying processes, plus the dynamics of the outburst flood were reconstructed based on field evidence and the application of a dynamic dam break model. Results indicate that the moraine failure was caused most probably by a rising lake level due to heavy precipitation, resulting in high lake outflow which led to dam erosion and finally to dam failure. The lake volume of ca. 10 × 106 m3 was released in ca. 3 h, producing high-discharge (ca. 4100 m3 s-1) debris flows and hyperconcentrated flows as the escaping water entrained large volumes of clastic material. The methodology presented in this paper provides valuable insights into complex dam breach and GLOF processes, and closes a critical gap in dynamic dam break modeling aimed at providing the lake outburst hydrograph. An accurate determination of outburst hydrographs constitutes one of the most crucial aspects for hazard assessment of unstable lakes and will gain further importance with ongoing glacier retreat and glacier lake formation.

Worni, Raphael; Stoffel, Markus; Huggel, Christian; Volz, Christian; Casteller, Alejandro; Luckman, Brian

2012-06-01

257

Gravel Augmentation Below Dams: California Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most dams block all coarse sediment traveling downstream, such that reaches downstream are commonly typically depleted of gravel, causing a variety of effects such as incision, bank erosion, coarsening of the bed material, and reduction of salmonid spawning habitiat. To compensate for this reduction in coarse sediment supply, gravel has been artificially added below dams, using techniques such as high

G. M. Kondolf; J. T. Minear

2004-01-01

258

Tiger Dams Reinforce Baton Rouge Levees  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Tiger Dams line the Baton Rouge Mississippi River levee during the 2011 Flood.  Previously used to prevent oil from reaching Louisiana's coast during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, these Tiger Dams are filled with water and reinforced with sandbags to give the Baton Rouge Mississippi Riv...

259

Groundwater Forecasting Optimization Pertain to Dam Removal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is increasing interest in removing dams due to changing ecological and societal values. Groundwater recharge rate is closely connected to reservoir presence or absence. With the removal of dams and their associated reservoirs, reductions in groundwater levels are likely to impact water supplies for domestic, industrial and agricultural use. Therefore accessible economic and time effective tools to forecast groundwater level declines with acceptable uncertainty following dam removals are critical for public welfare and healthy regional economies. These tools are also vital to project planning and provide beneficial information for restoration and remediation managements. The standard tool for groundwater forecasting is 3D Numerical modeling. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) may be an alternative tool for groundwater forecasting pertain to dam removal. This project compared these two tools throughout the Milltown Dam removal in Western Montana over a five year period. It was determined that ANN modeling had equal or greater accuracy for groundwater forecasting with far less effort and cost involved.

Brown, L.; Berthelote, A. R.

2011-12-01

260

Application of parallel computing to seismic damage process simulation of an arch dam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simulation of damage process of high arch dam subjected to strong earthquake shocks is significant to the evaluation of its performance and seismic safety, considering the catastrophic effect of dam failure. However, such numerical simulation requires rigorous computational capacity. Conventional serial computing falls short of that and parallel computing is a fairly promising solution to this problem. The parallel finite element code PDPAD was developed for the damage prediction of arch dams utilizing the damage model with inheterogeneity of concrete considered. Developed with programming language Fortran, the code uses a master/slave mode for programming, domain decomposition method for allocation of tasks, MPI (Message Passing Interface) for communication and solvers from AZTEC library for solution of large-scale equations. Speedup test showed that the performance of PDPAD was quite satisfactory. The code was employed to study the damage process of a being-built arch dam on a 4-node PC Cluster, with more than one million degrees of freedom considered. The obtained damage mode was quite similar to that of shaking table test, indicating that the proposed procedure and parallel code PDPAD has a good potential in simulating seismic damage mode of arch dams. With the rapidly growing need for massive computation emerged from engineering problems, parallel computing will find more and more applications in pertinent areas.

Zhong, Hong; Lin, Gao; Li, Jianbo

2010-06-01

261

Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... and empower Americans to make heart-healthy choices. Web Sites with More Information About Heart Failure For ...

262

[Limnetic zooplankton run-off a high-head dam and their fate in a river with high current velocity (case of the Krasnoiarsk hydroelectric power station on the Yenisei river].  

PubMed

The vertical distribution of net zooplankton in head-water of Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric power station and its horizontal distribution in the tail-water were studied during two years in winter and summer seasons. In order to distinguish living and dead individuals the special staining was used. It was revealed that on average 77% of living plankton pass through high-head dam with deep water scoop to the tailwater. While passing through dam aggregates some individuals of the reservoir plankton are traumatized and die, that results in some increase of portion of dead individuals in the tail water near dam (from 3 to 6%). Alive zooplankton passed through the dam aggregates is eliminated under the Upper Yenisei highly turbulent conditions. There is approximately 10% of it in 32 km from the dam if compare with biomass in 20-40 m layer of reservoir, the portion of dead increases to 11%. The biomass of zooplankton suspended in the water column of the tail-water sometimes increases (till > 1 g/m3) due to large Copepoda Heteroscope borealis, which inhabits near-bottom and near-shore river zones and can be found in the central part of the river during reproductive period. Limnetic zooplankton from the reservoir cannot be considered as important food for planktivores in the tail-water. PMID:15032067

Dubovskaia, O P; Gladyshev, M I; Makhutova, O N

2004-01-01

263

The geomagnetic tail  

SciTech Connect

A review is presented of the plasma sheet and lobe regions of the magnetotail, focusing principally on large-scale processes or microprocesses with some large-scale effects. Consideration is given to quiet and average structures, not necessarily related to activity phases, with quasi-steady convection aspects, and with the characteristics of dynamic phases including acceleration mechanisms and single particle aspects. Attention is given to various activity models, average and quiet time properties, properties and effects of magnetospheric convection, dynamics of the magnetotail, and the near tail, substorm current wedge.

Birn, J. (USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States))

1991-01-01

264

State of the marine environment at Little Bay Arm, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, 10 years after a "do nothing" response to a mine tailings spill.  

PubMed

In 1989, the tailings pond dam at the site of a former copper mine near Little Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, ruptured and tailings spilled into Little Bay Arm. At the time, no action was taken to arrest the flow of tailings or to mitigate the effects of the spill. To date, no action has been taken to repair the dam and tailings continue to flow into Little Bay Arm. As a result, the marine environment around Little Bay Arm has become contaminated with heavy metals from the tailings. However, the tailings are not the only source of heavy metals to the ecosystem. An old slag heap and what is presumably concentrated copper ore spilled during the loading of ore freighters, are also contributing to the ecosystem's metal load. Marine sediment throughout the Arm contained elevated concentrations of Cu, Ni, Zn, As, V, Co, and Mn. Beach material also contained elevated concentrations of metals with material near the slag heap being the most contaminated. At this site, Cu concentrations were in excess of 5000 mg kg(-1) dry weight, Zn greater than 3000 mg kg(-1) and Co concentrations exceeded 700 mg kg(-1). The highest concentrations of metals in biota were found near the slag heap, near the tailings dam breach, and at the site of the former concentrate loading dock. Despite elevated metal concentrations, the tailings and nearby sediment were not devoid of life. Bivalves and seaweed were abundant in the area and there were no obvious signs of tissue damage or disease in soft shell clams (Mya arenaria) living in the tailings. These clams may be suffering from chronic exposure to the tailings, however, evidence of lipid peroxidation in the clams was inconclusive. PMID:12948239

Veinott, Geoff; Sylvester, Paul; Hamoutene, Dounia; Anderson, M Robin; Meade, Jim; Payne, Jerry

2003-08-01

265

GIS-based Mine Tailings Yield Mapping using RUSLE and Sediment Delivery Ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erosion of mine tailings heaped up on the side of abandoned mine is an environmental problem because they contain harmful heavy metals. These harmful heavy metals such as copper, lead, arsenic in mine tailings cause contamination of surrounding streams and soil. To prevent and reduce the damage of surrounding streams caused by harmful heavy metals leaking from mine tailings, evaluating the pollution loading amount of mine tailings is required. However, it is difficult to assess its environmental impacts accurately because of its complex processes associated with it (Lal 1994). To estimate soil erosion and develop soil erosion management plans, there are some soil erosion estimation methods. Among these methods, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) is the most widely used method. The six factors affecting soil loss such as rainfall-runoff erosivity, soil erodibility, slope length and steepness, cover management, and support practice were extracted from the spatial data and measurement data to evaluate average annual soil loss. Applying this model to mine tailings is possible, because mine tailings are regarded as soil. All the sediment generated may not be delivered at the watershed outlet because some of it may be deposited at various locations in the watershed. RUSLE does not consider the sediment delivery ratio to estimate the mine tailings delivered to the downstream point of interest. In this study, three methods are provided to compute the spatially distributed sediment delivery ratios and the results are compared with each other. Geographical Information System (GIS)-based erosion model and sediment delivery model were used to estimate the potential sediment yield from mine tailings in this study. The results achieved in this study can be used as basis data to assist mine tailings management and tailings dam installation plan. This work was supported by the Mine Reclamation Corporation funded by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy, Republic of Korea, the Brain Korea 21 Project, and the Research Institute of Engineering Science, Seoul National University, Korea.

Kim, S.; Choi, Y.; Park, H.; Kwon, H.; Yoon, S.; Go, W.

2010-12-01

266

Uranium mill tailings and radon  

SciTech Connect

The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

Hanchey, L A

1981-01-01

267

Sustainability of dams-an evaluation approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Situated in the stream bed of a river, dams and reservoirs interrupt the natural hydrological cycle. They are very sensitive to all kinds of changes in the catchment, among others global impacts on land use, climate, settlement structures or living standards. Vice versa dams strongly affect the spatially distributed, complex system of ecology, economy and society in the catchment both up- and downstream of the reservoir. The occurrence of negative impacts due to large dams led to serious conflicts about future dams. Nevertheless, water shortages due to climatic conditions and their changes, that are faced by enormous water and energy demands due to rising living standards of a growing world population, seem to require further dam construction, even if both supply and demand management are optimised. Although environmental impact assessments are compulsory for dams financed by any of the international funding agencies, it has to be assumed that the projects lack sustainability. Starting from an inventory of today's environmental impact assessments as an integral part of a feasibility study the presentation will identify their inadequacies with regard to the sustainability of dams. To improve the sustainability of future dams and avoid the mistakes of the past, the planning procedures for dams have to be adapted. The highly complex and dynamical system of interrelated physical and non-physical processes, that involves many different groups of stakeholders, constitutes the need for a model-oriented decision support system. In line with the report of the World Commission of Dams an integrated analysis and structure of the complex interrelations between dams, ecology, economy and society will be presented. Thus the system, that a respective tool will be based on, is analysed. Furthermore an outlook will be given on the needs of the potential users of a DSS and how it has to be embedded in the overall planning process. The limits of computer-based decision-support in the very specific context of dam construction will be identified. Special focus will be on the constraints arising from the need to jointly evaluate qualitative and quantitative aspects and the methodological potential of multi-criteria evaluation in this respect.

Petersson, E.

2003-04-01

268

Prediction of Flooding due to Assumed Breaching of Mangla Dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mangla Dam is one of the world's largest earth and rock filled dam, built across the Jhelum River, Pakistan. Downstream of the Mangla dam there are major towns such as Jhelum, Rasul, Khushab, etc. In 1992 a very large flood occurred due to excessive inflow into the reservoir and very large release from the Mangla dam caused a large

Tawatchai Tingsanchali; Noor Muhammad Khan

269

9. VIEW OF BASIN BEHIND DAM, SHOWING SCARS FROM EARTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF BASIN BEHIND DAM, SHOWING SCARS FROM EARTH MOVING TO CONSTRUCT DAM, LOOKING EAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, East Timothy Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 8.4 miles North of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

270

46. Photocopy of photograph, c. 1933. VIEW OF DAM AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

46. Photocopy of photograph, c. 1933. VIEW OF DAM AND FOREBAY. NOTE ALL WATER FLOWING THROUGH FOREBAY AND OUT EITHER TAILRACE OR SLUICE GATE (INSTEAD OF OVER DAM) BECAUSE OF LOW WATER FLOW. (Courtesy of the Potomac Edison Company Library (Hagerstown, MD), Historical Data Files, Dam No. 5 listing - Dam No. 5 Hydroelectric Plant, On Potomac River, Hedgesville, Berkeley County, WV

271

8. WEST DAM, LOOKING DUE NORTH OVER TOP OF WEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. WEST DAM, LOOKING DUE NORTH OVER TOP OF WEST DAM, SHOWING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OUTLET TO RIGHT OF DAM, NEW PUMP PLANT BUILDING AND CANAL TO LEFT OF DAM. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

272

66. AVALON DAM Photographic copy of historic photo, May ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

66. AVALON DAM - Photographic copy of historic photo, May 22, 1908 (original print filed in Record Group 115, National Archives, Washington, D.C.) W.J.Lubken, photographer 'VIEW LOOKING EAST FROM WEST END OF AVALON DAM, SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE OF DAM' - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Avalon Dam, On Pecos River, 4 miles North of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

273

7. SOUTHEAST VIEW OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE MULTIPLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. SOUTHEAST VIEW OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE MULTIPLE ARCHES, AN UPSTREAM VIEW OF THE PARAPET WALL ALONG THE CREST OF THE DAM, AND THE SHELTER HOUSE AT THE EAST END OF THE DAM. - Big Dalton Dam, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

274

2. Overview of the Lost River Diversion Dam House complex ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Overview of the Lost River Diversion Dam House complex taken from west edge of horseshoe-shaped Lost River Diversion Dam. Interior of east side of dam in the foreground. Facing East. - Klamath Basin Project, Lost River Diversion Dam House, Lost River near intersection of State Highway 140 & Hill Road, Klamath Falls, Klamath County, OR

275

8. VIEW OF BASIN BEHIND DAM, SHOWING SCARS FROM EARTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW OF BASIN BEHIND DAM, SHOWING SCARS FROM EARTH MOVING TO CONSTRUCT DAM, LOOKING NORTH - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, East Timothy Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 8.4 miles North of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

276

4. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM FACE OF DAM, WITH SCARS FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM FACE OF DAM, WITH SCARS FROM EARTH MOVING TO CONSTRUCT DAM IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Five Point Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 12 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

277

6. DAM AFTERBAY, WITH OWYEE RIVER IN FOREGROUND, SHOWING OUTLET ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. DAM AFTERBAY, WITH OWYEE RIVER IN FOREGROUND, SHOWING OUTLET TUNNEL PORTAL (LEFT) AND POWERHOUSE AND ENTRANCE PORTAL TO DAM INTERIOR (RIGHT). NOTE RELEASE OF WATER FROM NEEDLE VALVE NUMBER 2 IN VALVEHOUSE ON DAM. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

278

43. Credit TR. Reconstruction of Dam No. 4 after 1936 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

43. Credit TR. Reconstruction of Dam No. 4 after 1936 flood. Pouring concrete for new dam section; opening at left for flume to remove water from behind coffer dam. Photo c. 1936 - Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Plant, Potomac River, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV

279

53. AVALON DAM Photographic copy of historic photo, August ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

53. AVALON DAM - Photographic copy of historic photo, August 9, 1893 (original print located at the Carlsbad Irrigation District offices, Carlsbad, New Mexico) photographer unknown 'EDDY DAM. LOOKING EAST.' VIEW OF COLLAPSED DAM - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Avalon Dam, On Pecos River, 4 miles North of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

280

Design of a Sediment Mitigation System for Conowingo Dam  

E-print Network

Design of a Sediment Mitigation System for Conowingo Dam Rayhan Ain, Kevin Cazenas, Sheri Gravette with the Dam. During these events, the sediment build up at Conowingo Dam in the Lower Susquehanna River has the best mitigation technique to address the scouring of sediment at Conowingo Dam. Design alternatives

281

Three-Gorges Dam: Risk to Ancient Fish  

E-print Network

Three-Gorges Dam: Risk to Ancient Fish THE HUGETHREE-GORGES DAM (TGD) OFTHE Yangtze River is going and animals, as discussed by J. Wu et al. in their Policy Forum "Three-Gorges Dam-- experiment in habitat). The construction of the Gezhou Dam (38 km downstream from the TGD) in 1981 led to sharp declines in the popula

Wu, Jianguo "Jingle"

282

dam logic: qualitative reasoning about benthic macroinvertebrate responses  

E-print Network

dam logic: qualitative reasoning about benthic macroinvertebrate responses to dam removal desiree reliability of biotic and abiotic indicators (e.g. responsiveness to dam removal, detectability, feasibility relationships "there appears to be a wide range of ecological responses to dam removal. It is therefore

Tullos, Desiree

283

Molecular requirements for the formation of a kinetochore–microtubule interface by Dam1 and Ndc80 complexes  

PubMed Central

Kinetochores are large protein complexes that link sister chromatids to the spindle and transduce microtubule dynamics into chromosome movement. In budding yeast, the kinetochore–microtubule interface is formed by the plus end–associated Dam1 complex and the kinetochore-resident Ndc80 complex, but how they work in combination and whether a physical association between them is critical for chromosome segregation is poorly understood. Here, we define structural elements required for the Ndc80–Dam1 interaction and probe their function in vivo. A novel ndc80 allele, selectively impaired in Dam1 binding, displayed growth and chromosome segregation defects. Its combination with an N-terminal truncation resulted in lethality, demonstrating essential but partially redundant roles for the Ndc80 N-tail and Ndc80–Dam1 interface. In contrast, mutations in the calponin homology domain of Ndc80 abrogated kinetochore function and were not compensated by the presence of Dam1. Our experiments shed light on how microtubule couplers cooperate and impose important constraints on structural models for outer kinetochore assembly. PMID:23277429

Lampert, Fabienne; Mieck, Christine; Alushin, Gregory M.; Nogales, Eva

2013-01-01

284

EVOLVING EXPECTATIONS OF DAM REMOVAL OUTCOMES: DOWNSTREAM GEOMORPHIC EFFECTS FOLLOWING REMOVAL OF A SMALL, GRAVEL-FILLED DAM1  

E-print Network

EVOLVING EXPECTATIONS OF DAM REMOVAL OUTCOMES: DOWNSTREAM GEOMORPHIC EFFECTS FOLLOWING REMOVAL OF A SMALL, GRAVEL-FILLED DAM1 Kelly Kibler, Desiree Tullos, and Mathias Kondolf 2 ABSTRACT: Dam removal is a promising river restoration technique, particularly for the vast number of rivers impounded by small dams

Tullos, Desiree

285

7 CFR 1724.55 - Dam safety.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Electric System Design § 1724...financed electric system facilities...NARA). For information on the availability...Engineering and Design Dam Safety...For more information and guidance...Earthquake Analysis and Design of...

2010-01-01

286

The Hoover Dam: Lonely Lands Made Fruitful  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Project designer Janet Haven of the University of Virginia American Studies Program presents the construction of the Hoover Dam as an alternative narrative to the devastation of the Great Depression in her photoessay, The Hoover Dam: Lonely Lands Made Fruitful. Five slide shows created in Flash2 cover the construction from diverting the Colorado River to pouring concrete and adding the final touches to a completed dam. The slide shows are prefaced by historical background, including short essays on topics such as the Dam as the "Machine in the Desert" and the text of Franklin D. Roosevelt's Dedication Speech upon completion, September 30, 1935. Images of maps and plans are linked throughout, and a list of Works Consulted gives concise source descriptions as well as ideas for further reading.

1998-01-01

287

Earthquake-dammed lakes in New Zealand  

SciTech Connect

Eleven small lakes were formed by landslides caused by the 1929 Buller earthquake; four others were formed by other historic earthquakes in New Zealand. At least nine other New Zealand lakes are also dammed by landslides and were probably formed by prehistoric earthquakes. When recognized by morphology, synchronous age, and areal distribution, earthquake-dammed lakes could provide an estimate of paleoseismicity for the past few hundred or thousand years.

Adams, J.

1981-05-01

288

The Earth and Comets' Tails  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN spite of the unreserved predictions of astronomers, the earth did not pass through the tail of Halley's comet on May 18-19, nor subsequently. The tail as seen in the morning sky, previous to the transit of the comet across the sun's disc, appeared like a long and straight beam of light stretching from the horizon to Aquila. It was

R. T. A. Innes

1910-01-01

289

Runaway tails in magnetized plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of a runaway tail driven by a dc electric field in a magnetized plasma is analyzed. Depending on the strength of the electric field and the ratio of plasma to gyrofrequency, there are three different regimes in the evolution of the tail. The tail can be (1) stable with electrons accelerated to large parallel velocities, (2) unstable to Cerenkov resonance because of the depletion of the bulk and the formation of a positive slope, (3) unstable to the anomalous Doppler resonance instability driven by the large velocity anisotropy in the tail. Once an instability is triggered (Cerenkov or anomalous Doppler resonance) the tail relaxes into an isotropic distribution. The role of a convection type loss term is also discussed.

Moghaddam-Taaheri, E.; Vlahos, L.; Rowland, H. L.; Papadopoulos, K.

1985-11-01

290

Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS

... of breath Common causes of heart failure are coronary artery disease, high blood pressure and diabetes. It is more common in people who are 65 years old or older, African Americans, people who are ... treatments fail. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

291

Congenital transmission of Neospora caninum in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Neosporosis is an important cause of bovine abortion worldwide. Many aspects of transmission of Neospora caninum in nature are unknown. The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is considered one of the most important wildlife reservoirs of N. caninum in the USA. During the hunting seasons of 2008, 2009, and 2010, brains of 155 white-tailed deer fetuses were bioassayed in mice for protozoal isolation. Viable N. caninum (NcWTDMn1, NcWTDMn2) was isolated from the brains of two fetuses by bioassays in mice, and subsequent propagation in cell culture. Dams of these two infected fetuses had antibodies to N. caninum by Neospora agglutination test at 1:100 serum dilution. DNA obtained from culture-derived N. caninum tachyzoites of the two isolates with Nc5 PCR confirmed diagnosis. Results prove congenital transmission of N. caninum in the white tailed deer for the first time. PMID:23566408

Dubey, J P; Jenkins, M C; Kwok, O C H; Ferreira, L R; Choudhary, S; Verma, S K; Villena, I; Butler, E; Carstensen, M

2013-09-23

292

Types and processes of short-term sediment and uranium-tailings storage in arroyos: an example from the Rio Puerco of the West, New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1979, United Nuclear Corporation's Churchrock mill tailings dam was breached releasing 1 x 10 kg of sediment and 3.5 x 10 m of liquid wastes enriched in trace elements and radionuclides into the Rio Puerco of the West, a deeply incised arroyo. Subsequently, the transport and storage of sediment and contaminants along the Rio Puerco was quantitatively studied using

Jerry R. Miller; Stephen G. Wells

293

Dam nation: A geographic census of American dams and their large-scale hydrologic impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newly available data indicate that dams fragment the fluvial system of the continental United States and that their impact on river discharge is several times greater than impacts deemed likely as a result of global climate change. The 75,000 dams in the continental United States are capable of storing a volume of water almost equaling one year's mean runoff, but

William L. Graf

1999-01-01

294

Helicopter tail rotor noise analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was made of helicopter tail rotor noise, particularly that due to interactions with the main rotor tip vortices, and with the fuselage separation mean wake. The tail rotor blade-main rotor tip vortex interaction is modelled as an airfoil of infinite span cutting through a moving vortex. The vortex and the geometry information required by the analyses are obtained through a free wake geometry analysis of the main rotor. The acoustic pressure-time histories for the tail rotor blade-vortex interactions are then calculated. These acoustic results are compared to tail rotor loading and thickness noise, and are found to be significant to the overall tail rotor noise generation. Under most helicopter operating conditions, large acoustic pressure fluctuations can be generated due to a series of skewed main rotor tip vortices passing through the tail rotor disk. The noise generation depends strongly upon the helicopter operating conditions and the location of the tail rotor relative to the main rotor.

George, A. R.; Chou, S. T.

1986-01-01

295

[Tail Plane Icing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aviation Safety Program initiated by NASA in 1997 has put greater emphasis in safety related research activities. Ice-contaminated-tailplane stall (ICTS) has been identified by the NASA Lewis Icing Technology Branch as an important activity for aircraft safety related research. The ICTS phenomenon is characterized as a sudden, often uncontrollable aircraft nose- down pitching moment, which occurs due to increased angle-of-attack of the horizontal tailplane resulting in tailplane stall. Typically, this phenomenon occurs when lowering the flaps during final approach while operating in or recently departing from icing conditions. Ice formation on the tailplane leading edge can reduce tailplane angle-of-attack range and cause flow separation resulting in a significant reduction or complete loss of aircraft pitch control. In 1993, the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) and NASA embarked upon a four-year research program to address the problem of tailplane stall and to quantify the effect of tailplane ice accretion on aircraft performance and handling characteristics. The goals of this program, which was completed in March 1998, were to collect aerodynamic data for an aircraft tail with and without ice contamination and to develop analytical methods for predicting the effects of tailplane ice contamination. Extensive dry air and icing tunnel tests which resulted in a database of the aerodynamic effects associated with tailplane ice contamination. Although the FAA/NASA tailplane icing program generated some answers regarding ice-contaminated-tailplane stall (ICTS) phenomena, NASA researchers have found many open questions that warrant further investigation into ICTS. In addition, several aircraft manufacturers have expressed interest in a second research program to expand the database to other tail configurations and to develop experimental and computational methodologies for evaluating the ICTS phenomenon. In 1998, the icing branch at NASA Lewis initiated a second multi-phase research program for tailplane icing (TIP II) to develop test methodologies and tailplane performance and handling qualities evaluation tools. The main objectives of this new NASA/Industry/Academia collaborative research programs were: (1) define and evaluate a sub-scale wind tunnel test methodology for determining tailplane performance degradation due to icing. (2) develop an experimental database of tailplane aerodynamic performance with and without ice contamination for a range of tailplane configurations. Wind tunnel tests were planned with representative general aviation aircraft, i.e., the Learjet 45, and a twin engine low speed aircraft. This report summarizes the research performed during the first year of the study, and outlines the work tasks for the second year.

1997-01-01

296

Metallization failures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metallization-related failure mechanisms were shown to be a major cause of integrated circuit failures under accelerated stress conditions, as well as in actual use under field operation. The integrated circuit industry is aware of the problem and is attempting to solve it in one of two ways: (1) better understanding of the aluminum system, which is the most widely used metallization material for silicon integrated circuits both as a single level and multilevel metallization, or (2) evaluating alternative metal systems. Aluminum metallization offers many advantages, but also has limitations particularly at elevated temperatures and high current densities. As an alternative, multilayer systems of the general form, silicon device-metal-inorganic insulator-metal, are being considered to produce large scale integrated arrays. The merits and restrictions of metallization systems in current usage and systems under development are defined.

Beatty, R.

1971-01-01

297

Failure Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three questions to which software developers want accurate, precise answers are "How can the software system fail?", "mat bad things will happen if the software fails?t', and "How many failures will the software experience?". Numerous techniques have been devised to answer these questions; three of the best known are: 1) Software Fault Tree Analysis (SFTA) 2) Software Failure Modes, Effects, and Criticality Analysis (SFMECA 3) Software Fault/Failure Modeling. SFTA and SFMECA have been successfully used to analyze the flight software for a number of robotic planetary exploration missions, including Galileo, Cassini, and Deep Space 1. Given the increasing interest in reusing software components from mission to mission, one of us has developed techniques for reusing the corresponding portions of the SFTA and SFMECA, reducing the effort required to conduct these analyses. SFTA has also been shown to be effective in analyzing the security aspects of software systems; intrusion mechanisms and effects can easily be modeled using these techniques. The Bi- Directional Safety Analysis (BDSA) method combines a forward search (similar to SFMECA) from potential failure modes to their effects, with a backward search (similar to SFTA) from feasible hazards to the contributing causes of each hazard. BDSA offers an efficient way to identify latent failures. Recent work has extended BDSA to product-line applications such as flight-instrumentation displays and developed tool support for the reuse of the failure-analysis artifacts within a product line. BDSA has also been streamlined to support those projects having tight cost and/or schedule constraints for their failure analysis efforts. We discuss lessons learned from practice, describe available tools, and identi@ some future directions for the topic. A substantial amount of research has been devoted to estimating the number of failures that a software system will experience during test and operations, as well as the number of faults that have been inserted into that system during its development. One of us has found that the amount of structural change to a system during its development is strongly related to the number of faults inserted into it. Using techniques requiring no additional effort on the part of the development organization, the required measurements of structural evolution can be easily obtained from a development effort's configuration management system and readily transformed into an estimate of fault content. So far, structure-fault relationships have been identified for source code; current work seeks to examine artifacts available earlier in the lifecycle to determine if similar relationships between structure and fault content can be found. In particular, relationships between requirements change requests and the number of faults inserted into the implemented system would provide a significant improvement in our ability to control software quality during the early development phases.

Lutz, Robyn; Nikora, Allen

2005-01-01

298

Delineation of subsurface structures using resistivity, VLF and radiometric measurement around a U-tailings pond and its hydrogeological implication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrogeological characteristics of the uranium mill tailings pond in the vicinity of Jaduguda (Jharkhand, India) were investigated to examine possible contamination and suggest suitable remedial measures, if required. As the hydrogeological characteristics of subsurface geology are closely related to the electrical properties of the subsurface, geophysical measurements using electrical resistivity coupled with Very Low Frequency electromagnetic method and radiation study were used to investigate the geophysical and geological condition of mill tailings in order to characterize the subsurface structures of the tailings pond. The resistivity interpretation depicted the thickness of the soil cover and thickness of tailings in the pond, as well as the depth to the basement. It also suggested the possible flow direction of leachate. It was observed that the resistivity of the top layer decreases in the direction opposite to the dam axis, which in turn, indicated that the groundwater movement occurs in the opposite direction of the dam axis (in the northwest direction). The VLF method depicted the fractures through which groundwater moves, and also showed the current density alignment in the northwest direction at 10 m depth. The radiation measurement showed relatively higher counts in the northwest direction. This correlated well with the resistivity measurement. The current density at a depth of 20 m showed a closed contour suggesting no groundwater movement in the area at this depth, and that high conductivity material was confined to the tailings area only. It was concluded that groundwater moves in opposite direction of the dam axis at shallower depth only. It was found that continuation of fractures do not extend to deeper depths, which suggested that the tailings storage facility at Jaduguda was reasonably safe from any downward contamination.

Banerjee, K. S.; Sharma, S. P.; Sarangi, A. K.; Sengupta, D.

299

School Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

School failure is an important worldwide issue, leading to underemployment (unemployment or job dissatisfaction) and a lower\\u000a quality of life. The overall dropout rate in the United States is 10–25%, depending on how it is reckoned. But it is common\\u000a for the most struggling high schools to lose 25–50% of their students between 9th and 12th grade, and on any

Peter W. Dowrick; Natalie Crespo

300

Ipl1-dependent phosphorylation of Dam1 is reduced by tension applied on kinetochores.  

PubMed

The conserved Aurora B protein kinase (Ipl1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is essential for ensuring that sister kinetochores become attached to microtubules from opposite spindle poles (bi-orientation) before anaphase onset. When sister chromatids become attached to microtubules from a single pole, Aurora B/Ipl1 facilitates turnover of kinetochore-microtubule attachments. This process requires phosphorylation by Aurora B/Ipl1 of kinetochore components such as Dam1 in yeast. Once bi-orientation is established and tension is applied on kinetochores, Aurora B/Ipl1 must stop promoting this turnover, otherwise correct attachment would never be stabilised. How this is achieved remains elusive: it might be due to dephosphorylation of Aurora B/Ipl1 substrates at kinetochores, or might take place independently, for example because of conformational changes in kinetochores. Here, we show that Ipl1-dependent phosphorylation at crucial sites on Dam1 is maximal during S phase and minimal during metaphase, matching the cell cycle window when chromosome bi-orientation occurs. Intriguingly, when we reduced tension at kinetochores through failure to establish sister chromatid cohesion, Dam1 phosphorylation persisted in metaphase-arrested cells. We propose that Aurora B/Ipl1-facilitated bi-orientation is stabilised in response to tension at kinetochores by dephosphorylation of Dam1, resulting in termination of kinetochore-microtubule attachment turnover. PMID:19923271

Keating, Patrick; Rachidi, Najma; Tanaka, Tomoyuki U; Stark, Michael J R

2009-12-01

301

Field verification of reconstructed dam-break flood, Laurel Run, Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A one-dimensional dam-break flood routing model is verified by using observed data on the flash flood resulting from the failure of Laurel Run Reservoir Dam near Johnstown, Pennsylvania. The model has been developed on the basis of an explicit scheme of the characteristics method with specified time intervals. The model combines one of the characteristic equations with the Rankine-Hugoniot shock equations to trace the corresponding characteristic backward to the known state for solving the depth and velocity of flow at the wave front. The previous version of the model has called for a modification of the method of solution to overcome the computational difficulty at the narrow breach and at any geomorphological constraints where channel geometry changes rapidly. The large reduction in the computational inaccuracies and oscillations was achieved by introducing the actual "storage width" in the equation of continuity and the imaginary "conveyance width" in the equation of motion. Close agreement between observed and computed peak stages at several stations downstream of the dam strongly suggests the validity and applicability of the model. However, small numerical noise appearing in the computed stage and discharge hydrographs at the dam site as well as discrepancy of attenuated peaks in the discharge hydrographs indicate the need for further model improvement.

Chen, Cheng-lung; Armbruster, Jeffrey T.

1979-01-01

302

Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The source of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief passages is due to Mercury's proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet's lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute to Mercury's very brief Dungey cycle, approx. 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury's tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.

Slavin, James A.

2010-01-01

303

Marmot Dam Removal: Predictions and Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 14-m tall Marmot Dam on the Sandy River, Oregon was removed in the summer of 2007, allowing the approximately 730,000 cubic meters of sand and gravel to remain in the river for natural erosion by the flow. Pre-dam removal studies included sediment transport modeling that simulated several dam removal alternatives and provided key pieces of information that allowed a diverse stakeholder group to unanimously agree on the "blow-and-go" alternative, allowing a large amount of sediment to be released to a major salmonid-bearing river in the Columbia River basin. Although it is still too early to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the model performance because morphological responses in the downstream reaches, if any, are likely years away, observations to date (one year after dam removal) indicate that model predictions are generally accurate. Here we present some of the key findings of pre-dam-removal sediment transport modeling predictions and compare them with post-removal observations.

Cui, Y.; Orr, B. K.; Wilcox, A.; Vick, J.; Podolak, C.; Wilcox, P.

2008-12-01

304

Tail Risk Measures Heavy-Tail Asymptotics: Regular Variation Multivariate Risks Concluding Remarks Regularly Varying Asymptotics for Tail Risk  

E-print Network

Tail Risk Measures Heavy-Tail Asymptotics: Regular Variation Multivariate Risks Concluding Remarks Regularly Varying Asymptotics for Tail Risk Haijun Li Department of Mathematics Washington State University Humboldt Univ-Berlin Haijun Li Regularly Varying Asymptotics for Tail Risk Humboldt Univ-Berlin 1 / 26 #12

Li, Haijun

305

The Remains of the Dam: What Have We Learned From 10 Years of Dam Removals?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 10 years in the U.S., dam removal has evolved from an occasionally implemented, rarely studied, and poorly understood intervention to improve rivers, to a much more frequently accomplished and better studied and understood approach to river restoration. Over that same time period, the numbers and sizes of dams and volumes of sediment released have dramatically increased. By some estimates close to 1000 dams have been removed over the last 100 years, with most of those occurring within the last 10. While most of these are small (less than 15 m high) dams, removals of dams up to 70 m high are presently underway. Releases of sediment associated with these removals over the past 10 years have also increased by close to four orders of magnitude; for example removal of the Elwha River dams in Washington is estimated to release almost 107 m3 of sediment into the lower Elwha River. Given a decade's worth of dam removals and, in some cases, well-orchestrated case studies of the effects of removal on the geomorphology and (to a lesser extent) ecology of rivers, what have we learned? More specifically, where do we now stand with respect to being able to predict the consequences of future dam removals? Drawing on both field examples and numerical models of dam removals in the western U.S., several key lessons stand out. Although every dam removal and river are different, removals initiate very rapid upstream river response and reservoir erosion and evacuation of sediment by various mechanisms that are strongly controlled by grain size of the deposit, volumes of residual sediment relative to total reservoir volume, and style of dam removal (instantaneous versus staged). Erosion of sediment accumulations in fully and partially filled (by sediment) reservoirs proceeds by different trajectories and rates, with full reservoirs releasing sediment primarily by upstream knickpoint retreat while erosion and sediment release in partially-filled reservoirs proceeds by vertical incision and delta progradation. Coarse grained non-cohesive sediment deposits erode by both vertical incision and lateral migration; fine-grained non-cohesive deposits can slump and fail catastrophically by landsliding. The rate of upstream reservoir erosion sets the tempo of downstream river adjustments and sedimentation. Prediction of location of sediment accumulations is bolstered by both 1- and 2-D hydrodynamic models that have proven to be remarkably accurate in predicting the spatial extent and pattern of deposition, but are less accurate with respect to predicting timing and longevity of deposits.Erosion of Marmot coffer dam on the Sandy River, OR following dam breach, October 19, 2007

Grant, G. E.; O'Connor, J. E.; Major, J. J.

2012-12-01

306

18 Sharp-tailed Grouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tympanuchus phasianellus (Linnaeus) 1858 Other vernacular names: Brush grouse, pintail grouse, prairie grouse, prairie pheasant, sharptail, speckle-belly, spike-tail, spring-tail, whitebelly, white-breasted grouse. Range: Currently from north central Alaska, Yukon, northern Mackenzie, northern Manitoba, northern Ontario, and central Quebec south to eastern Washington, extreme eastern Oregon, Idaho, northeastern Utah, Wyoming, and Colorado, and in the Great Plains from eastern Colorado and

Paul A. Johnsgard

2008-01-01

307

NOVA: Bombing Hitlerâ??s Dams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NOVA is well-known for its engaging documentaries and the team delivers once more with â??Bombing Hitlerâ??s Dams.â? Located within the Military + Espionage section of the NOVA site, this episode follows experts as they recreate the 1943 efforts of the â??dam busterâ? pilots and their one-of-a-kind bouncing bomb. A revolutionary secret weapon, the bomb was used to destroy two German dams, effectively cutting off the water supply to vital arms factories during WWII. The entire episode (nearly 2 hours in length) can be viewed here, accompanied by a complete Transcript of the program and Related Links, such as â??D-Dayâ??s Sunken Secretsâ? and â??Escaping a Nazi Prison Camp.â? Visitors can also read through the TV Schedule to view Upcoming Broadcasts or Recent Broadcasts that can all be viewed online and are accompanied by related websites, articles, interviews, slideshows, and other great features.

2012-01-11

308

Channel changes downstream from a dam  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A flood-control dam was completed during 1979 on Bear Creek, a small tributary stream to the South Platte River in the Denver, Colorado, area. Before and after dam closure, repetitive surveys between 1977 and 1992 at five cross sections downstream of the dam documented changes in channel morphology. During this 15-year period, channel width increased slightly, but channel depth increased by more than 40 percent. Within the study reach, stream gradient decreased and median bed material sizes coarsened from sand in the pools and fine gravel on the riffle to a median coarse gravel throughout the reach. The most striking visual change was from a sparse growth of streamside grasses to a dense growth of riparian woody vegetation.

Hadley, R.F.; Emmett, W.W.

1998-01-01

309

Optimizing the dammed: water supply losses and fish habitat gains from dam removal in California.  

PubMed

Dams provide water supply, flood protection, and hydropower generation benefits, but also harm native species by altering the natural flow regime and degrading aquatic and riparian habitat. Restoring some rivers reaches to free-flowing conditions may restore substantial environmental benefits, but at some economic cost. This study uses a systems analysis approach to preliminarily evaluate removing rim dams in California's Central Valley to highlight promising habitat and unpromising economic use tradeoffs for water supply and hydropower. CALVIN, an economic-engineering optimization model, is used to evaluate water storage and scarcity from removing dams. A warm and dry climate model for a 30-year period centered at 2085, and a population growth scenario for year 2050 water demands represent future conditions. Tradeoffs between hydropower generation and water scarcity to urban, agricultural, and instream flow requirements were compared with additional river kilometers of habitat accessible to anadromous fish species following dam removal. Results show that existing infrastructure is most beneficial if operated as a system (ignoring many current institutional constraints). Removing all rim dams is not beneficial for California, but a subset of existing dams are potentially promising candidates for removal from an optimized water supply and free-flowing river perspective. Removing individual dams decreases statewide delivered water by 0-2282 million cubic meters and provides access to 0 to 3200 km of salmonid habitat upstream of dams. The method described here can help prioritize dam removal, although more detailed, project-specific studies also are needed. Similarly, improving environmental protection can come at substantially lower economic cost, when evaluated and operated as a system. PMID:24594701

Null, Sarah E; Medellín-Azuara, Josué; Escriva-Bou, Alvar; Lent, Michelle; Lund, Jay R

2014-04-01

310

1. TEMPORARY POWER HOUSE AT ROOSEVELT DAM. TRAMWAY LINES CAN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. TEMPORARY POWER HOUSE AT ROOSEVELT DAM. TRAMWAY LINES CAN BE SEEN AT TOP OF PHOTOGRAPH Photographer: Walter J. Lubken, May 10, 1906 - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

311

23. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS WITH MILNER DAM IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS WITH MILNER DAM IN DISTANCE; LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

312

22. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS WITH MILNER DAM IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS WITH MILNER DAM IN DISTANCE; LOOKING EAST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

313

9. VIEW OF DAM FROM LEFT SIDE. PUMPCRETE PIPE LINES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF DAM FROM LEFT SIDE. PUMPCRETE PIPE LINES ARE CARRIED ON WALKWAY. UPSTREAM PARTS OF BUTTRESSES ARE FOG-SPRAYED TO PERMIT PROMPT FILLING OF CONTRACTION JOINTS. July 30, 1938 - Bartlett Dam, Verde River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

314

11. VIEW OF HOCK OUTCROPPING, CONCRETE GRAVITY DAM FACE AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. VIEW OF HOCK OUTCROPPING, CONCRETE GRAVITY DAM FACE AND LAKE WITH TUNNEL INLET STRUCTURE IN DISTANCE, SHOWN AT MINIMUM WATER FLOW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST (UPSTREAM) - Van Arsdale Dam, South Fork of Eel River, Ukiah, Mendocino County, CA

315

12. DETAIL VIEW OF STEPPED CONCRETE GRAVITY DAM FACE AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. DETAIL VIEW OF STEPPED CONCRETE GRAVITY DAM FACE AND ROCK OUTCROPPING, WITH LAKE IN BACKGROUND, SHOWN AT MINIMUM WATER FLOW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST (UPSTREAM) - Van Arsdale Dam, South Fork of Eel River, Ukiah, Mendocino County, CA

316

44. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). LOCK LOCK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

44. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). LOCK -- LOCK GUIDEWALLS -DOWNSTREAM GUIDEWALL, PARTIAL ISOMETRIC VIEW. M-L 26(R) 26/40 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

317

5. VIEW SHOWING THE DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SWAN FALLS DAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW SHOWING THE DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SWAN FALLS DAM AND POWER HOUSE, LOOKING UPSTREAM TO SOUTH FROM THE A MOUND OF DEBRIS ABOUT THIRTY TO FORTY FEET ABOVE THE RIVER - Swan Falls Dam, Snake River, Kuna, Ada County, ID

318

3. Keechelus Dam from northern shoulder, with spillway boom at ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Keechelus Dam from northern shoulder, with spillway boom at right foreground and outlet gate tower at right background. View to south. - Keechelus Dam, Yakima River, 10 miles northwest of Easton, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

319

12. Downstream face of Keechelus Dam, with access bridge for ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Downstream face of Keechelus Dam, with access bridge for outlet gate tower at left background. View to south. - Keechelus Dam, Yakima River, 10 miles northwest of Easton, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

320

7. Keechelus Dam, showing upstream face and crest, with outlet ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Keechelus Dam, showing upstream face and crest, with outlet gate tower at left background. View to northeast. - Keechelus Dam, Yakima River, 10 miles northwest of Easton, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

321

14. Detail of concrete stairway from downstream toe of dam ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Detail of concrete stairway from downstream toe of dam to access bridge of outlet gate tower. View to southwest. - Keechelus Dam, Yakima River, 10 miles northwest of Easton, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

322

6. GENERAL CONSTRUCTION VIEW ALONG AXIS OF DAM FROM THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. GENERAL CONSTRUCTION VIEW ALONG AXIS OF DAM FROM THE EAST ABUTMENT.... Volume XVII, No. 18, December 18, 1939. - Prado Dam, Embankment, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

323

15. AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF DAM SITE SHOWING SPILLWAY OGEE SECTION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF DAM SITE SHOWING SPILLWAY OGEE SECTION AND SPILLWAY APRON EXCAVATION IN FOREGROUND.... Volume XVIII, No. 10, January 18, 1940. - Prado Dam, Spillway, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

324

4. AERIAL VIEW OF DAM SITE SHOWING OUTLET WORKS AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. AERIAL VIEW OF DAM SITE SHOWING OUTLET WORKS AND DIVERSION CHANNEL IN FOREGROUND.... Volume XVIII, No. 9, March 5, 1940. - Prado Dam, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

325

54. Downstream face of Agua Fria project's diversion dam showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

54. Downstream face of Agua Fria project's diversion dam showing initial masonry construction and poured concrete capping. Photographer Mark Durben, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

326

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF LITTLE FALLS DAM POWERPLANT AND NORTHWEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF LITTLE FALLS DAM POWERPLANT AND NORTHWEST END OF LITTLE FALLS TIE LINE. LOOKING WEST - Little Falls Tie Line Towers, Near Little Dam Falls on Spokane River, Wellpinit, Stevens County, WA

327

2. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR UNDER CONSTRUCTION LOOKING WEST WITH EAST DAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR UNDER CONSTRUCTION LOOKING WEST WITH EAST DAM IN MIDDLE GROUND, WEST DAM IN DISTANCE. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

328

4. Aerial view of Whitsett intake (lower right), Parker Dam ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Aerial view of Whitsett intake (lower right), Parker Dam and village (left), Gene Wash Reservoir, Gene Pump Plant and village (right). - Parker Dam, Spanning Colorado River between AZ & CA, Parker, La Paz County, AZ

329

1. OVERALL VIEW SHOWING FACE OF CONCRETE GRAVITY DAM AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. OVERALL VIEW SHOWING FACE OF CONCRETE GRAVITY DAM AND FISH LADDER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST (UPSTREAM) FROM SNORE OPPOSITE FISH LADDER - Van Arsdale Dam, South Fork of Eel River, Ukiah, Mendocino County, CA

330

A dam in the middle of a river  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dams have negative impacts on the plants and animals that have adapted to the specific movement of natural rivers and streams. Dams also cause temperature changes, erosion, and movement of sediment that are deadly to many organisms.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-12

331

1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and silt sluice gate (center), main canal headworks (to right), view to northwest - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

332

2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

333

77. Plan of Proposed Concrete of Rubble Masonry Dam at ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

77. Plan of Proposed Concrete of Rubble Masonry Dam at Frog Tanks on the Agua Fria River, Arizona. September 1903. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

334

JiTT - Dam Removal - A Good Idea or Not?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

1) What are some of the biological effects of dam removal (good and bad)? 2) What are some of the more pressing/compelling reasons to remove a dam? Explain. 3) The Stanley and Doyle (2003) article states that, ...

Guertin, Laura

335

29. VIEW NORTHWEST ON SHELTON SIDE OF DAM DURING DEWATERING. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. VIEW NORTHWEST ON SHELTON SIDE OF DAM DURING DEWATERING. SHELTON GATEHOUSE IN LEFT CENTER. - Ousatonic Water Power Company, Dam & Canals, CT Routes 34 & 108, 1 mile North of Derby-Shelton Bridge, Derby, New Haven County, CT

336

7. CLOSEUP VIEW OF WASHED UP 12' x 12' DAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF WASHED UP 12' x 12' DAM SUPPORT TIMBERS, THREE BEARS LAKE, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SOUTH SIDE OF LAKE - Three Bears Lake & Dams, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

337

44. Credit TR. Dam No. 4 after 1936 flood from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

44. Credit TR. Dam No. 4 after 1936 flood from downstream showing break closed and installation of new concrete cap piece under way. Photo c. 1936. - Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Plant, Potomac River, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV

338

2. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF THE SOUTH CHANNEL DAM, LOOKING WEST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF THE SOUTH CHANNEL DAM, LOOKING WEST. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, South Channel Dam, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

339

1. UPSTREAM VIEW OF THE SOUTH CHANNEL DAM, LOOKING EAST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. UPSTREAM VIEW OF THE SOUTH CHANNEL DAM, LOOKING EAST. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, South Channel Dam, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

340

10. Downstream face of Mormon Flat Dam under construction. Cement ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Downstream face of Mormon Flat Dam under construction. Cement storage shed is at center right. Photographer unknown, September 1924. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

341

11. DETAIL OF EXTREMELY DETERIORATED CONDITION OF ORIGINAL STONE DAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. DETAIL OF EXTREMELY DETERIORATED CONDITION OF ORIGINAL STONE DAM ABUTMENT AND REASON FOR ENCASING ABUTMENT IN CONCRETE, c. 1918. - Dam No. 5 Hydroelectric Plant, On Potomac River, Hedgesville, Berkeley County, WV

342

DETAIL VIEW OF TOP OF DAM GATE STRUCTURE. UPSTREAM LOCK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF TOP OF DAM GATE STRUCTURE. UPSTREAM LOCK GATE AT RIGHT REAR. LOOKING WEST. - Illinois Waterway, La Grange Lock and Dam, 3/4 mile south of Country 795N at Illinois River, Versailles, Brown County, IL

343

34. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF COOLIDGE DAM COMPLETED. POWER HOUSE, INTAKE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF COOLIDGE DAM COMPLETED. POWER HOUSE, INTAKE TOWERS, WEST SPILLWAY CHANNEL AND DECORATIVE EAGLES ALL CLEARLY VISIBLE, c. 1928 - Coolidge Dam, Gila River, Peridot, Gila County, AZ

344

45. Reinforcement work to buttresses at Pleasant Dam. Support work ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

45. Reinforcement work to buttresses at Pleasant Dam. Support work for roadway and roadway visible. Photographer unknown, 1935. Source: Huber Collection. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

345

75 FR 34476 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior...for the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group is to advise and to provide...

2010-06-17

346

77 FR 22801 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation...The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) makes recommendations to...advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work group, a Grand Canyon Monitoring and...

2012-04-17

347

32. Otter Lake Dam. View from downstream show how the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. Otter Lake Dam. View from downstream show how the dam blends into its environment. Looking east-northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

348

4. View of dam front and sluiceway outlets Mississippi ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. View of dam front and sluiceway outlets - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 1, In Mississippi River at Mississippi Boulevard, below Ford Parkway Bridge, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

349

3. Down river view of lock and dam to southwest ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Down river view of lock and dam to southwest - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 1, In Mississippi River at Mississippi Boulevard, below Ford Parkway Bridge, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

350

2. Distant view of lock and dam to northwest ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Distant view of lock and dam to northwest - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 1, In Mississippi River at Mississippi Boulevard, below Ford Parkway Bridge, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

351

1. Distant view of lock and dam to northeast ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Distant view of lock and dam to northeast - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 1, In Mississippi River at Mississippi Boulevard, below Ford Parkway Bridge, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

352

3. POOL, DAM, AND INTAKE TO PIPELINE LEADING TO FISH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. POOL, DAM, AND INTAKE TO PIPELINE LEADING TO FISH WHEEL, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Bear Creek Diversion Dam & Confluence Pool, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

353

View of Read Sawmill masonry dam, site of submerged sawmill ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of Read Sawmill masonry dam, site of submerged sawmill remains and earthen dam, facing north - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

354

7. ISLAND PLANT AND HORSESHOE DAM FROM WEST BANK (negative ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. ISLAND PLANT AND HORSESHOE DAM FROM WEST BANK (negative reversed) - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

355

20. HORSESHOE DAM LOOKING EAST WITH UPPER END DEMOLISHED FOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. HORSESHOE DAM LOOKING EAST WITH UPPER END DEMOLISHED FOR NEW SPILLWAY (negative reversed) - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

356

1. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, VIEW OF NORTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, VIEW OF NORTH ELEVATION OF INTAKE ON EAST SIDE OF DAM - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

357

73. GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF MECHANISM, FOR OPERATING DIVERSION DAM SLUICE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

73. GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF MECHANISM, FOR OPERATING DIVERSION DAM SLUICE GATES Courtesy of U.S.R.S., Salt River Project - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

358

Evaluating the effects of dam breach methodologies on Consequence Estimation through Sensitivity Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dam breach modeling often includes application of models that are sophisticated, yet computationally intensive to compute flood propagation at high temporal and spatial resolutions. This results in a significant need for computational capacity that requires development of newer flood models using multi-processor and graphics processing techniques. Recently, a comprehensive benchmark exercise titled the 12th Benchmark Workshop on Numerical Analysis of Dams, is organized by the International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD) to evaluate the performance of these various tools used for dam break risk assessment. The ICOLD workshop is focused on estimating the consequences of failure of a hypothetical dam near a hypothetical populated area with complex demographics, and economic activity. The current study uses this hypothetical case study and focuses on evaluating the effects of dam breach methodologies on consequence estimation and analysis. The current study uses ICOLD hypothetical data including the topography, dam geometric and construction information, land use/land cover data along with socio-economic and demographic data. The objective of this study is to evaluate impacts of using four different dam breach methods on the consequence estimates used in the risk assessments. The four methodologies used are: i) Froehlich (1995), ii) MacDonald and Langridge-Monopolis 1984 (MLM), iii) Von Thun and Gillete 1990 (VTG), and iv) Froehlich (2008). To achieve this objective, three different modeling components were used. First, using the HEC-RAS v.4.1, dam breach discharge hydrographs are developed. These hydrographs are then provided as flow inputs into a two dimensional flood model named Flood2D-GPU, which leverages the computer's graphics card for much improved computational capabilities of the model input. Lastly, outputs from Flood2D-GPU, including inundated areas, depth grids, velocity grids, and flood wave arrival time grids, are input into HEC-FIA, which provides the consequence assessment for the solution to the problem statement. For the four breach methodologies, a sensitivity analysis of four breach parameters, breach side slope (SS), breach width (Wb), breach invert elevation (Elb), and time of failure (tf), is conducted. Up to, 68 simulations are computed to produce breach hydrographs in HEC-RAS for input into Flood2D-GPU. The Flood2D-GPU simulation results were then post-processed in HEC-FIA to evaluate: Total Population at Risk (PAR), 14-yr and Under PAR (PAR14-), 65-yr and Over PAR (PAR65+), Loss of Life (LOL) and Direct Economic Impact (DEI). The MLM approach resulted in wide variability in simulated minimum and maximum values of PAR, PAR 65+ and LOL estimates. For PAR14- and DEI, Froehlich (1995) resulted in lower values while MLM resulted in higher estimates. This preliminary study demonstrated the relative performance of four commonly used dam breach methodologies and their impacts on consequence estimation.

Kalyanapu, A. J.; Thames, B. A.

2013-12-01

359

SUBAQUEOUS DISPOSAL OF MILL TAILINGS  

SciTech Connect

A study of mill tailings and sulfide minerals was carried out in order to understand their behavior under subaqueous conditions. A series of electrochemical experiments, namely, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanic coupling tests were carried out in artificial seawater and in pH 6.8 buffer solutions with chloride and ferric salts. Two mill tailings samples, one from the Kensington Mine, Alaska, and the other from the Holden Mine, Washington, were studied along with pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite and copper-activated sphalerite. SEM analysis of mill tailings revealed absence of sulfide minerals from the Kensington Mine mill tailings, whereas the Holden Mine mill tailings contained approximately 8% pyrite and 1% sphalerite. In order to conduct electrochemical tests, carbon matrix composite (CMC) electrodes of mill tailings, pyrite and galena were prepared and their feasibility was established by conducting a series of cyclic voltammetry tests. The cyclic voltammetry experiments carried out in artificial seawater and pH 6.8 buffer with chloride salts showed that chloride ions play an important role in the redox processes of sulfide minerals. For pyrite and galena, peaks were observed for the formation of chloride complexes, whereas pitting behavior was observed for the CMC electrodes of the Kensington Mine mill tailings. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy conducted in artificial seawater provided with the Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena. The Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena exhibited an inert range of potential indicating a slower rate of leaching of sulfide minerals in marine environments. The galvanic coupling experiments were carried out to study the oxidation of sulfide minerals in the absence of oxygen. It was shown that in the absence of oxygen, ferric (Fe3+) ions might oxidize the sulfide minerals, thereby releasing undesirable oxidation products in the marine environment. The source of Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions may be attributed to iron-bearing sulfide (and oxide) minerals present in the mill tailings. However, the concentration of available Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions can be reduced by the precipitation of insoluble ferric hydroxides (Fe(OH ){sub 3}) by seawater due to its near neutral pH. In such case, the oxidation of a sulfide mineral is inhibited due to the absence of an oxidizing agent (viz. oxygen and/or Fe{sup 3+} ions). The experiments carried out in this study provided a better understanding of behavior of sulfide minerals and mill tailings in subaqueous conditions and may be useful for further investigation of sulfide minerals and mill tailings in other environments.

Neeraj K. Mendiratta; Roe-Hoan Yoon; Paul Richardson

1999-09-03

360

Evaluation of major constraints to revegetation of lead/zinc mine tailings using bioassay techniques.  

PubMed

The residues from the extraction of lead/zinc (Pb/Zn) ores of most Pb/Zn mines are permanently stored in tailings ponds, which require revegetation to reduce their environmental impact. This can only be done if the main constraints on plant establishment are evaluated. This can readily be done by field and greenhouse studies. To test this, the properties of different tailings from Lechang Pb/Zn mine located at the north of Guangdong Province in southern China have been studied. Physical and chemical properties including concentrations of metals (Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu) in the tailings and soils collected from different sites have been measured. The results showed that tailings contain low nitrogen (0.016-0.075%), low-organic matter (0.58-1.78%), high salt (3.55-13.85 dS/m), and high total and diethylene-tetramine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable metal concentrations (total: 1,019-1,642 microg g(-1) Pb, 3,078-6,773 microg g(-1) Zn, 8-23 microg g(-1) Cd, and 85-192 microg g(-1) Cu; DTPA-extractable: 59-178 microig g(-1) Pb, 21-200 microg g(-1) Zn, 0.30-1.5 mcirog g(-1) Cd, and 4.3-12 microg g(-1) Cu). Aqueous extracts of tailings/soils (10%, 20% and 30%, w/v) from different sites were prepared for testing their effects on seed germination and root elongation of a vegetable crop Brassica chinensis and a grass species Cynodon dactylon. It was found that root elongation provided a better evaluation of toxicity than seed germination. The ranking of toxicity using root elongation was: high-sulfur tailings > tailing dam > sparsely vegetated tailings > densely vegetated tailings > mountain soil for both plants. This order was consistent with DTPA-extractable Pb contents in the tailings and soils. B. chinensis seedlings were then grown in the mixtures of different proportions of tailings and farm soil for 4 weeks, and the results (dry weights of seedlings) were in line with the root elongation test. All these demonstrated that heavy metal toxicity, especially available Pb, low content of nutrient, and poor physical structure were major constraints on plant establishment and colonization on the Pb/Zn mine tailings. PMID:12137044

Ye, Z H; Shu, W S; Zhang, Z Q; Lan, C Y; Wong, M H

2002-06-01

361

2. View of the southern twothirds of the dam showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. View of the southern two-thirds of the dam showing the Glens Falls Bridge over the Hudson River on the left, the Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation penstocks and inktake structure at the southeast corner of the dam, and the dam itself. The Finch Pruyn & Company Forebay is the foreground. Facing south. - Glens Falls Dam, 100' to 450' West of U.S. Route 9 Bridge Spanning Hudson River, Glens Falls, Warren County, NY

362

The Conceptual Basis for Ecological Responses to Dam Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

the removal of nonfunctioning dams or dams that cause environmental harm or present unsafe conditions (Poff et al. 1997, Hart and Poff 2002). The basis for assessment of the eco-logical responses to dam removal and for the design of eco-logically effective removal practices is largely conceptual. Par-ticularly in the Pacific Northwest, the adverse effects that large dams have on endangered

STAN GREGORY; HIRAM LI; JUDY LI

2002-01-01

363

"No. 172. General view of the dam, looking downstream from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

"No. 172. General view of the dam, looking downstream from the east end. F.E.D. June, 1916." Compare this historic image, taken upon dam completion (1916), with current-condition photograph HAER CO-90-1. The dam retains a remarkable degree of integrity of design and setting - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

364

[Large dams, health and nutrition in Africa: beyond the controversy].  

PubMed

The population in sub-Saharan Africa is growing faster than increases in food production, resulting in a net decrease in food production per capita. The Food and Agriculture Organization has stated that there is a "risk of widespread hunger" which could be prevented by "effective planning of water resources". However, the potential effects of such schemes on the human population are often inadequately assessed and the effect of large dams on human health is not clear. The potential risk to human health of water resources was emphasized a few years ago but no effective preventive programs were implemented, probably because of inadequate availability of information and lack of awareness. The effects on health of "large" water resource projects are not uniform within a population. Decision-makers have tended to focus on the positive effects, to obtain support for their plans. These include: 1) improvement in the well-being of the population (safe water more readily available, new infrastructure, better access to health care) and 2) increases in the food supply (more vegetables and fish available due to irrigation). Thus, there has been a logical expectation that more, better quality food will become available as a result of these schemes, whereas in fact, health and nutrition has often worsened, particularly in young children. Most of the diseases associated with water resource management are communicable, including diseases directly related to the presence of large quantities of water, such as: malaria, which increases in incidence immediately after the building of the dam, after which a new balance develops between the human population and the parasites, schistosomiasis, the disease which increases most in response to the building of dams, particularly in its most severe gastrointestinal form, diarrhea, as water is a major means of dissemination for many organisms, including those causing digestive tract infections and gastroenteritis (amebiasis, salmonellosis, cholera), due to poor sanitation, other parasitic infections, such as onchocerciasis and trypanosomiasis, which should be monitored as they may also threaten the population. Other communicable diseases may appear or increase in incidence with the influx of migrants to the irrigated area. Sexually-transmitted diseases and HIV infection are a particular problem. The large numbers of insects (mosquitoes, blackflies) may also have harmful effects on populations adapting to the new environment. These effects are related to each other and to the environmental changes. New types of food affect people's feeding habits and generate new sources of income. However, they may also lead to new and higher expenditure. There are also likely to be major socio-demographic changes associated with changes in reproductive behavior and women's activities. The location and nature of new homes and infrastructure (e.g. schools, health centers, roads) also contribute to the success or failure of the dam project. There are many constraints to be considered and a more comprehensive approach to the problem is required. Health and nutritional status may be used as simple indicators of the ability of the population to adapt to a new environment. This makes it possible to construct a causal model to identify the most effective and relevant areas of intervention. Health and nutrition issues are of vital importance and scientific findings should be used in decision-making processes for planning future large dam schemes. PMID:9503500

Parent, G; Ouédraogo, A; Zagré, N M; Compaoré, I; Kambiré, R; Poda, J N

1997-01-01

365

Distribution of trace element pollutants in a contaminated ecosystem established on metalliferous fluorspar tailings. 3: fluoride.  

PubMed

High total soil fluoride (10 000 microg g(-1)) in the metalliferous fluorspar tailings was reflected by elevated concentrations in standing live vegetation (300-1000 microg g(-1)); plant roots (c. 6000 microg g(-1)); plant litter (c. 4000 microg g(-1)); total body concentrations of invertebrates (400-4000 microg g(-1)) and the small mammals Microtus agrestis (120-360 microg g(-1)) and Sorex araneus (140-250 microg g(-1)). Seasonal changes in the standing live vegetation and the availability of soil fluoride to plants are discussed. Seasonal changes in total body concentrations of the small mammals were related to the age structure of the populations as well as dietary levels. In the small mammals, the concentration ratios were < 0.5 at the tailings dam and > 1.1 at the control site, indicating that both species were able to regulate fluoride accumulation at the higher levels of intake. Soft tissue concentrations were, as expected, very low compared to the hard tissues but, still, were generally significantly higher at the tailings dam compared to the control site. Evidence of dental fluorosis was found in Microtus agrestis, but not Sorex araneus. PMID:15092395

Andrews, S M; Cooke, J A; Johnson, M S

1989-01-01

366

Dams and Water Developments1 Robert H. Schueneman  

E-print Network

best exemplified by the concrete dam. In the early 1900's these structures, such as Roosevelt Dam. Characteristically, in terms of size, form, material and texture, the concrete dam is an imposing structure from the proposed reser- voir area often requiring extensive cutting and filling operations

Standiford, Richard B.

367

2. UPSTREAM SIDE OF DAM AND BRIDGE WITH ABANDONED SAN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. UPSTREAM SIDE OF DAM AND BRIDGE WITH ABANDONED SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER HEADGATE IN FOREGROUND. TAKEN FROM NORTH END OF DAM - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

368

3. View of the northern twothirds of the dam showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. View of the northern two-thirds of the dam showing the Finch, Pruyn & Company intake structure and forebay canal on the right and the ice-covered log chute along the dam. Facing south-southwest. - Glens Falls Dam, 100' to 450' West of U.S. Route 9 Bridge Spanning Hudson River, Glens Falls, Warren County, NY

369

Bed Sediment Monitoring of Multiple Contiguous Small Dam Removals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dam removal is crucial for reconnecting river habitats, restoring passage of fish and other aquatic organisms, and restoring the free flow of water and sediment. However, removal of obsolete dams is often resisted due to concerns of releasing sediment and initiating channel instability. Two dams on the Musconetcong River in northern New Jersey have been removed as part of a

J. C. Galster; J. R. Wyrick

2010-01-01

370

6. VIEW OF NORTH END OF EAST DAM, LOOKING SOUTH. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW OF NORTH END OF EAST DAM, LOOKING SOUTH. (View is taken from lakeside with lowered water level. This view encompasses the same area as MT-88-A-5 above.) - Three Bears Lake & Dams, East Dam, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

371

2. VIEW SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM, WITH UPRIGHT (INOPERABLE) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM, WITH UPRIGHT (INOPERABLE) OUTLET GATE, LOOKING WEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Water Lily Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 1.1 miles Northeast of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

372

3. VIEW SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM, WITH UPRIGHT (INOPERABLE) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM, WITH UPRIGHT (INOPERABLE) OUTLET GATE, LOOKING EAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Water Lily Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 1.1 miles Northeast of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

373

7. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE AND TOE OF DAM, WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE AND TOE OF DAM, WITH OUTLET CULVERT AND WING RETAINING WALLS, LOOKING NORTH - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Twin Pots Dam, Ashley National Forest, 10.1 miles North of Mountain Home, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

374

LOCK, DOG HOUSE, CONTROL STATION, DAM GATE, MANEUVER BOAT No. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

LOCK, DOG HOUSE, CONTROL STATION, DAM GATE, MANEUVER BOAT No. 1, AND DAM. NOTE LOWER LOCK GATE IN FOREGROUND. LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST. - Illinois Waterway, La Grange Lock and Dam, 3/4 mile south of Country 795N at Illinois River, Versailles, Brown County, IL

375

Dental dams: the secret tool for infection control.  

PubMed

Dental dams, although in existence for over 100 years, are the most widely underused tool of infection control. This article addresses the many benefits of using dental dams and discusses simplified methods of incorporating dams into the dental practice. PMID:16553008

Costello, Mary R

2006-03-01

376

75 FR 50777 - Minidoka Dam Spillway Replacement, Minidoka County, ID  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Reclamation [INT-FES 10-43] Minidoka Dam Spillway Replacement, Minidoka County...prepared a FEIS on the proposed Minidoka Dam Spillway Replacement. The U.S. Fish...be submitted electronically to minidoka_dam_eis@usbr.gov. FOR FURTHER...

2010-08-17

377

43 CFR 418.18 - Diversions at Derby Dam.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2011-10-01 true Diversions at Derby Dam. 418.18 Section 418.18 Public Lands...Management § 418.18 Diversions at Derby Dam. (a) Diversions of Truckee River water at Derby Dam must be managed to maintain minimum...

2012-10-01

378

43 CFR 418.18 - Diversions at Derby Dam.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Diversions at Derby Dam. 418.18 Section 418.18 Public Lands...Management § 418.18 Diversions at Derby Dam. (a) Diversions of Truckee River water at Derby Dam must be managed to maintain minimum...

2011-10-01

379

25 CFR 173.16 - Reserved area, Coolidge Dam.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Reserved area, Coolidge Dam. 173.16 Section 173.16 Indians... § 173.16 Reserved area, Coolidge Dam. No permit for any commercial business...of a mile from the center of the Coolidge Dam,...

2014-04-01

380

43 CFR 418.18 - Diversions at Derby Dam.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Diversions at Derby Dam. 418.18 Section 418.18 Public Lands...Management § 418.18 Diversions at Derby Dam. (a) Diversions of Truckee River water at Derby Dam must be managed to maintain minimum...

2010-10-01

381

Financial Analysis of Experimental Releases Conducted at Glen Canyon Dam  

E-print Network

Financial Analysis of Experimental Releases Conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during Water Years 2006 Canyon Dam during Water Years 2006 through 2010 ANL/DIS-11-4 by L.A. Poch,1 T.D. Veselka,1 C.S. Palmer,2 Canyon Dam (GCD) conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Western Area Power Administration (Western

Kemner, Ken

382

INCORPORATING UNCERTAINTY INTO DAM SAFETY RISK Sanjay S. Chauhan1  

E-print Network

INCORPORATING UNCERTAINTY INTO DAM SAFETY RISK ASSESSMENT Sanjay S. Chauhan1 and David S. Bowles2 ABSTRACT Risk assessment is becoming more widely used to supplement traditional approaches to dam safety decision-making. Dam owners throughout Australia, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the U.S. Bureau

Chauhan, Sanjay S.

383

GEOSYNTHETIC DAM LINING SYSTEMS By: Christine T. Weber1  

E-print Network

GEOSYNTHETIC DAM LINING SYSTEMS By: Christine T. Weber1 and Jorge Zornberg, Advisor Abstract: The overall goal of this project is to contribute towards the use of geosynthetics in the design of dams geomembrane and composite liners under conditions representative of dams. There has been previous work done

Zornberg, Jorge G.

384

25 CFR 173.16 - Reserved area, Coolidge Dam.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Reserved area, Coolidge Dam. 173.16 Section 173.16 Indians... § 173.16 Reserved area, Coolidge Dam. No permit for any commercial business...of a mile from the center of the Coolidge Dam,...

2010-04-01

385

Wavelet-Based Multiresolution Analysis of Wivenhoe Dam Water Temperatures  

E-print Network

Wavelet-Based Multiresolution Analysis of Wivenhoe Dam Water Temperatures Don Percival Applied monitoring program recently upgraded with perma- nent installation of vertical profilers at Lake Wivenhoe dam in a subtropical dam as a function of time and depth · will concentrate on a 600+ day segment of temperature fluc

Percival, Don

386

77 FR 50493 - Sam Rayburn Dam Project Power Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Southwestern Power Administration Sam Rayburn Dam Project Power Rate AGENCY: Southwestern...SUMMARY: The current Sam Rayburn Dam Project rate was approved by the Federal...with the Sam Rayburn and Robert D. Willis Dams, two Corps projects that are isolated...

2012-08-21

387

25 CFR 173.16 - Reserved area, Coolidge Dam.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2011-04-01 true Reserved area, Coolidge Dam. 173.16 Section 173.16 Indians... § 173.16 Reserved area, Coolidge Dam. No permit for any commercial business...of a mile from the center of the Coolidge Dam,...

2012-04-01

388

Geologic Hazards Associated With a Proposed Dam on the Yarlung-  

E-print Network

Geologic Hazards Associated With a Proposed Dam on the Yarlung- Tsangpo River in SE Tibet Peter K-Gyala antiform. Active faults drawn in black. Approximate location of the dam and diversion tunnel proposed of data relevant to dam siting. Figure 8. Fission-track data from detrital zircons obtained from sands

Kidd, William S. F.

389

THREE GORGES DAM Matthew Morioka, Alireza Abrishamkar, Yve Kay  

E-print Network

THREE GORGES DAM Matthew Morioka, Alireza Abrishamkar, Yve Kay CEE 491 #12;Specifications.3 Billion · Total Cost (2008) ¥ 148.4 Billion = $ 21.8 Billion #12;Source of Funds · Three Gorges Dam Construction Fund · Profits from the Gezhouba Dam · Policy Loans from the Chinese Development Bank · Loans from

Prevedouros, Panos D.

390

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BRISBANE RIVER ABOVE WIVENHOE DAM  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BRISBANE RIVER ABOVE WIVENHOE DAM This brochure describes the flood above Wivenhoe Dam. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood above Wivenhoe Dam drains an area of approximately 7,000 square kilometres. The Brisbane River rises

Greenslade, Diana

391

43 CFR 418.18 - Diversions at Derby Dam.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Diversions at Derby Dam. 418.18 Section 418.18 Public Lands...Management § 418.18 Diversions at Derby Dam. (a) Diversions of Truckee River water at Derby Dam must be managed to maintain minimum...

2014-10-01

392

Three gorges : the biggest dam in the world  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will understand the following:The enormous Three Gorges Dam is now being constructed in China on the upper Yangtze River.The dam will benefit many people, but it may also cause serious problems.Dams are built according to complex principles of engineering.

Leaf, Jeffrey

2006-01-01

393

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BRISBANE RIVER BELOW WIVENHOE DAM  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BRISBANE RIVER BELOW WIVENHOE DAM TO BRISBANE CITY This brochure for the Brisbane River below Wivenhoe Dam to Brisbane City. It includes reference information which will be useful kilometres of which about half is below Wivenhoe Dam. The Lockyer-Laidley Valley drains into the Brisbane

Greenslade, Diana

394

25 CFR 173.16 - Reserved area, Coolidge Dam.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Reserved area, Coolidge Dam. 173.16 Section 173.16 Indians... § 173.16 Reserved area, Coolidge Dam. No permit for any commercial business...of a mile from the center of the Coolidge Dam,...

2013-04-01

395

Dam-Breach Flood Wave Propagation Using Dimensionless Parameters  

E-print Network

Dam-Breach Flood Wave Propagation Using Dimensionless Parameters Victor M. Ponce, M.ASCE1 ; Ahmad to study the sensitivity of dam-breach flood waves to breach-outflow hydrograph volume, peak discharge the channel. A dam-breach Froude number is defined to enable analysis through a wide range of site and flow

Ponce, V. Miguel

396

43 CFR 418.18 - Diversions at Derby Dam.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Diversions at Derby Dam. 418.18 Section 418.18 Public Lands...Management § 418.18 Diversions at Derby Dam. (a) Diversions of Truckee River water at Derby Dam must be managed to maintain minimum...

2013-10-01

397

25 CFR 173.16 - Reserved area, Coolidge Dam.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Reserved area, Coolidge Dam. 173.16 Section 173.16 Indians... § 173.16 Reserved area, Coolidge Dam. No permit for any commercial business...of a mile from the center of the Coolidge Dam,...

2011-04-01

398

6. SOUTHERLYVIEW OF BIG TUJUNGA DAM SHOWING THE PARAPET WALL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. SOUTHERLYVIEW OF BIG TUJUNGA DAM SHOWING THE PARAPET WALL ALONG THE CREST, THE ELEVATOR SHAFT, AND THE CONTROL HOUSE AT THE END OF THE DAM. PHOTO TAKEN AT THE SOUTH OF THE SPILLWAY BRIDGE. - Big Tujunga Dam, 809 West Big Tujunga Road, Sunland, Los Angeles County, CA

399

REVIEW PLAN John Redmond Dam Reservoir, Coffee County, Kansas  

E-print Network

#12;#12;REVIEW PLAN John Redmond Dam Reservoir, Coffee County, Kansas Reallocation Study Tulsa PLAN John Redmond Dam Reservoir, Coffee County, Kansas Reallocation Study Tulsa District TABLE review for the Final Reallocation Report to the John Redmond Dam and Reservoir, Coffee County, Kansas

US Army Corps of Engineers

400

RIVER VIEW FROM EXTERIOR LOCK WALL SHOWING DAM GATE, MANEUVER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

RIVER VIEW FROM EXTERIOR LOCK WALL SHOWING DAM GATE, MANEUVER BOAT No. 1, AND DAM. LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST. - Illinois Waterway, La Grange Lock and Dam, 3/4 mile south of Country 795N at Illinois River, Versailles, Brown County, IL

401

30. Otter Lake Dam. View shows rustic stone facade of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. Otter Lake Dam. View shows rustic stone facade of the dam. The stepped face of the dam gives the illusion of a natural cascade. Facing southeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

402

75. AVALON DAM Photographic copy of historic photo, April ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

75. AVALON DAM - Photographic copy of historic photo, April 10, 1938 (original print in '1938 Annual Report of the Carlsbad Project,' located at the Carlsbad Irrigation District offices, Carlsbad, New Mexico) photographer unknown 'AVALON DAM - CCC ROCK WORK AT SPILLWAY NO. 2' - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Avalon Dam, On Pecos River, 4 miles North of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

403

6. VIEW SHOWING CREST OF DAM AND OUTLET GATE WHEEL, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW SHOWING CREST OF DAM AND OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Milk Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 9.4 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

404

20. VIEW FROM DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF DAM SHOWING BUTTS OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. VIEW FROM DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF DAM SHOWING BUTTS OF LOGS PROJECTING BETWEEN CROSS LOGS. FREQUENTLY WHOLE TREES WERE USED IN CONSTRUCTING THESE DAMS. THE BRANCHES WERE PLACED UPSTREAM AND COVERED WITH EARTH AND STONE TO ANCHOR THEM. Photographed November 6, 1935. - Forge Creek Dam-John Cable Mill, Townsend, Blount County, TN

405

1. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF DIVERSION DAM ON THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF DIVERSION DAM ON THE SNAKE RIVER, LOOKING NORTHEAST. NOTE HEADGATE STRUCTURE ON NORTH BANK, SPILLWAY ON LEFT SIDE OF DAM, AND SPLASH LOGS ON DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF DAM. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

406

Facilitating fish passage at ultra low head dams: An alternative to dam removal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ecosystem sustainability and returning the biological integrity to rivers continue to change the landscape of fish passage technology. Installing a conventional fishways has a limited degree of success in accommodating fish passage needs. Recently, the option of total dam removal has been gaining momentum among resource managers, conservationists, and even engineers. Certain dams, however, cannot be removed, and conventional fishways are either too expensive to build or the real estate is simply not available; yet freedom of passage must be attained. At the Little Falls Dam on the Potomac River a notch in the crest of the dam was installed to accommodate passage of fish. The notch has three labyrinth weirs used for energy dissipation. Water velocities are maintained at less than about 4 m/s anywhere within the passage structure during migratory season of the target species (American shad). Construction of this novel design was recently completed (March 2000) and future biological evaluations are ongoing. Copyright ASCE 2004.

Odeh, M.

2004-01-01

407

Migration of arsenic from old tailings ponds--a case study on the King Edward Mine, Cornwall, UK.  

PubMed

A methodology is presented to study the physico-chemical processes in old tailings ponds using an array of analytical-physical chemistry approaches. A case study was conducted on the sorption/desorption behaviour of arsenic in tailings pond 2406, at the King Edward Mine (KEM) in Cornwall, UK. The tailings pond was in operation from approximately 1907 to 1921. The methodology involves two principal stages: (1) sequential extraction followed by subsequent arsenic species determination to characterise the material with regards to the association of arsenic with soil phases and identification of As (III/V) in the easily accessible soil phase; (2) batch contacting/equilibrating the tailings pond material with As(III/V), followed by a similar procedure as in stage 1 to establish the material's As(III/V) phase distribution kinetics/thermodynamics. By extrapolating the data from present day samples we infer past and future elemental mobility. From this study it is concluded that adsorption and desorption from tailings material is a rapid process for the most unstable soil phases (non-specific and specific) and a slow process for the more stable phases (poorly crystalline and well crystalline). The hypothetical application of this conclusion to the tailings from dam 2406 is that, during the initial phases of the dam's creation (ca. 100 years ago), when arsenic was both in solution and bound to mineralogical components, arsenic must have dispersed into the environment as a result of slow As(V) adsorption/phase distribution processes. Aging of the tailings material sees the movement of the arsenic to the more stable soil phases, producing a situation that is seen at present day. PMID:18639871

Beeston, Michael Philip; van Elteren, Johannes Teun; Slejkovec, Zdenka; Glass, Hylke Jan

2008-09-01

408

Percy Quin Dam LiDAR Scan  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A 3-D terrestrial LiDAR scan of the Percy Quin Mississippi State Park Dam in McComb, Mississippi, taken Monday, September 3, 2012. The U.S. Geological Survey is using this new technology in select areas of Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama to map impacts by Hurricane Isaac....

409

Radar proves its worth in dam rehabilitation  

SciTech Connect

This article outlines the use of radar techniques to survey the masonry structure of White Marble Dam. The survey used a subsurface interface radar, and this equipment displayed a cross-sectional profile of the entire structure, revealing the size and location of any faults. By avoiding the draining and dredging of the upstream pool, it is estimated that this technique saved three months.

NONE

1996-08-01

410

Aging Dams and Watersheds: Rehabilitation and Restoration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Department of Agriculture's Water Quality Information Center at the National Agricultural Library has placed a new database online. The bibliography on Aging Dams and Watersheds includes 33 citations (1984-1998) "intended primarily to provide awareness of recent investigations and discussions" of related topics; several citations are hyperlinked to the full-text articles.

411

Renwick Dam RCC stepped spillway research  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Small Watershed Program administered through the USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly the Soil Conservation Service) has provided technical and financial assistance for the construction of nearly 11,000 embankment dams across the U.S. The construction peak in the Small Watershe...

412

Dams and Salmon: A Northwest Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an experiential exercise in which participants assume the roles of various stakeholder groups in the controversy surrounding possible dam removal to revive northwestern U. S. salmon populations. The role-play (a) increases environmental awareness in the context of the competing interests various stakeholders have in our…

Tucker, Michael; Tromley, Cheryl L.

2005-01-01

413

Chapter 13 Water Resources Hoover Dam  

E-print Network

management Water shortage linked to food supply Learning Objectives #12; The global water cycle due to surface runoff #12; A drainage basin or watershed is an area of land that contributes waterChapter 13 Water Resources #12;Hoover Dam #12;The Colorado River Basin Population growth

Pan, Feifei

414

Will We. . .? Thai Dam Resource Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource book is intended as an aid to persons working with Thai Dam refugees. To help the language teacher, some differences between Lao and English are discussed, specifically tonal inflections, positioning, declension of pronouns, conjugation of verbs, interrogatives, classifiers and predicate adjectives. An outline of cultural differences…

Murphy, Richard, Ed.; And Others

415

Eye in the Sky: Floods and Dams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides general information about floods and dams. There are sections on the science, the phenomenon, and effects of floods. One video clip shows the Mississippi River at flood and non-flood levels. Another clip shows actual footage of a flood wreaking havoc on a populated area.

416

Fish reproductive guilds downstream of dams.  

PubMed

Fish reproductive guilds were used to evaluate the responses of species with different reproductive strategies during two different periods of post-dam construction. The data used for the comparisons were collected in the upper Paraná River floodplain (Brazil), downstream of the Porto Primavera dam, 2 and 10 years after impoundment. The abundance (catch per unit effort, CPUE), species richness, evenness and structure of communities, all within reproductive guilds, were used to test the hypothesis that these metrics vary spatially and temporally. The influence of damming on species structure and the diversity of fish reproductive guilds varied spatiotemporally, and species with opportunistic reproductive strategies tended to be less affected. Conversely, long-distance migratory species responded more markedly to spatiotemporal variations, indicating that the ecosystem dynamics exert greater effects on populations of these species. Thus, the effects of a dam, even if attenuated, may extend over several years, especially downstream. This finding emphasizes the importance of maintaining large undammed tributaries downstream of reservoirs. PMID:25230203

Vasconcelos, L P; Alves, D C; Gomes, L C

2014-11-01

417

Dam break threshold value and risk probability assessment for an earth dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

In dam safety assessment, it is customary to focus on stability analysis, and the safety factor is regarded as an assessment\\u000a index that cannot correctly reflect the effect of multi-factors and variable uncertainty. The factors that induce dam breaks\\u000a are complex and uncertain; however, three primary ones can be identified: hydrological factors, seepage and bank slope instability.\\u000a In this paper,

Denghua Zhong; Yuefeng Sun; Mingchao Li

418

Optimizing the Dammed: water supply losses and fish habitat gains from dam removal in California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dams provide water supply, flood protection, and hydropower generation benefits, but have also harmed native species by altering the natural flow regime and degrading aquatic and riparian habitat. Restoring some river reaches to free-flowing conditions may restore substantial environmental benefits, but at some economic cost. This study uses a systems analysis approach to evaluate removing rim dams in California's Central Valley to highlight dams that could be removed as well as existing dams that are most beneficial for providing water supply and hydropower benefits. CALVIN, an economic-engineering optimization model was used to evaluate water storage and scarcity from removing dams. A warm and dry climate model (GFDL CM2.1 A2 emissions scenario) for a 30 year period centered at 2085, and double population scenario for year 2050 water demands represent future conditions. Tradeoffs between water scarcity to urban, agricultural, and instream flow requirements were compared with additional river miles accessible to anadromous species following dam removal. Results show that existing infrastructure is most beneficial if operated as a system (ignoring many current political and institutional constraints). Removing all rim dams is not beneficial for California, but a subset of existing dams are potentially promising candidates for removal from an optimized water supply and free-flowing river perspective. Incorporating environmental considerations into decision-making may lead to better solutions than focusing only on human benefits such as water supply, flood protection, hydropower generation, and recreation. Similarly, improving environmental flows can come at substantially lower economic cost, when viewed and operated as a system.Ratio of Surface Storage to Mean Annual Flow by Watershed

Null, S. E.; Medellin-Azuara, J.; Lund, J. R.

2012-12-01

419

The tail of integrin activation  

PubMed Central

Integrins are essential adhesion receptors found on the surfaces of all metazoan cells. As regulators of cell migration and extracellular matrix assembly, these membrane-spanning heterodimers are critical for embryonic development, tissue repair and immune responses. Signals transmitted by integrins from outside to inside the cell promote cell survival and proliferation, but integrin affinity for extracellular ligands can also be controlled by intracellular cues. This bidirectional signaling is mediated by the short cytoplasmic tails of the two integrin subunits. Recent structural and functional studies of various integrin fragments and complexes between the cytoplasmic tails and intracellular proteins, such as talin, have provided new insight into the signaling processes centered around the tails, particularly inside-out integrin activation. PMID:21216149

Anthis, Nicholas J; Campbell, Iain D

2010-01-01

420

Magnetospheric Substorms and Tail Dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This grant funded several studies of magnetospheric substorms and their effect on the dynamics of the earth's geomagnetic tail. We completed an extensive study of plasmoids, plasma/magnetic field structures that travel rapidly down the tail, using data from the ISEE 3 and IMP 8 spacecraft. This study formed the PhD thesis of Mark Moldwin. We found that magnetically plasmoids are better described as flux-ropes (twisted magnetic flux tubes) rather than plasma bubbles, as had been generally regarded up to that point (Moldwin and Hughes, 1990; 1991). We published several examples of plasmoids observed first in the near tail by IMP 8 and later in the distant tail by ISEE 3, confirming their velocities down tail. We showed how the passage of plasmoids distorts the plasma sheet. We completed the first extensive statistical survey of plasmoids that showed how plasmoids evolve as they move down tail from their formation around 30 RE to ISEE 3 apogee at 240 RE. We established a one-to-one correspondence between the observation of plasmoids in the distant tail and substorm onsets at earth or in the near tail. And we showed that there is a class of plasmoid-like structures that move slowly earthward, especially following weak substorms during northward IMF. Collectively this work constituted the most extensive study of plasmoids prior to the work that has now been done with the GEOTAIL spacecraft. Following our work on plasmoids, we turned our attention to signatures of substorm onset observed in the inner magnetosphere near geosynchronous orbit, especially signatures observed by the CRRES satellite. Using data from the magnetometer, electric field probe, plasma wave instrument, and low energy plasma instrument on CRRES we were able to better document substorm onsets in the inner magnetosphere than had been possible previously. Detailed calculation of the Poynting flux showed energy exchange between the magnetosphere and ionosphere, and a short burst of tailward convective flow just prior to onset, suggesting the active role of the ionosphere in the onset process, and adding credibility to the ballooning instability theory of substorm onset. This grant also supported a number of other substorm studies and reviews. These are represented by the list of publications and meeting presentations resulting out of this grant.

Hughes, W. Jeffrey

1998-01-01

421

Gabcikovo dam and Liptovska Mara dam - statistical analysis of measurement data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: Water level in the observation wells is measured regularly and one of the reasons is evaluation of the safety of the water constructions. In this paper we are exploring the reliability of the measuring devices that are responsible for evaluation of the safety of the two largest and the most important dams in Slovakia. We test ability of selected statistical methods to detect early inaccuracies of measuring devices and thus improve the evaluation of the safety of the water constructions. As a follow-up study, we used the time series model (Neural network) to predict water levels in the observation wells that were considered to be without defects. Neural Network is also able to show dynamics of the filtration stability of the observational well. Methods: On the Liptovska Mara dam weekly data was used as a monitoring tool. On the Gabcikovo dam five minute time series of the measurements of the water level in observation wells around the right lock chamber were used. Data from the measuring devices of the dams were explored with boxplots, correlations, neural network, etc. The mentioned statistical tools analyze time series and detect the errors that measuring devices make when generating data and can be used to predict errors even in real time. In the second step, agreement between predicted data from neural network and measured data in the real time was evaluated. We used grid search for finding the optimal number of neurons and then predicted errors by using this model. The ability of the neural network in evaluation of the sealing of the dilatation joints on the filtration stability in the years 2009 - 2011 is presented. Results: From the 18 selected measuring devices on the Liptovska Mara dam there are only 3 devices which can be considered as reliable. On the Gabcikovo dam, 8 of 9 measuring devices (observation wells around right lock chamber) were considered as a reliable. There was very good agreement between the predicted and measured data at the Liptovska Mara dam using the neural network model. At the Gabcikovo dam the dynamics of the filtration stability around the right lock chamber is presented. Conclusions: The significance of the neural network is the ability to predict the water level in the observation wells at a dam site and total filtration stability of the dams by using the real measures in the time series. This is a desirable step to ensure adequate safety with the possibility to solve potential defects earlier.

Hakac, J.; Sabo, M.

2012-04-01

422

IMPACTS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER ON FOREST REGENERATION IN NORTHWEST ERN PENNSYLVANIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is a major cause of regeneration failure in Allegheny hardwood forests of northwestern Pennsylvania. I examined the impact of deer at 5 different densities (0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 deer\\/259 ha) on tree seedlings, woody shrubs, and herbaceous plants in large enclosures over 5 years. I examined 3 silvicultural treatments (clearcut, thinning, and

NANCY G. TILGHMAN

423

The Non-finished, Non-well Compacted Soil of the Crest of Zayzoun Dam, the Technical and Administrative Errors, and the Correct Ways of its Reinforcement and Renovation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zayzoun dam is one of the irrigation elements of the valley of (Alkhab) in northern Syria; its exploitation started in 1996 and breached on June 4th, 2002. There were many experts searching for the causes of its failure and the correct ways of its renovation. There were many reports written about the failure with different opinions, and we have been one of these experts with an objective opinion. The principal aim was to study all the technical and administrative components of the dam, and to analyze the existing and the new laboratory testing. The soil of the unfinished summit of the dam, in the end, was found to be the real cause that led to its failure. These causes will be analyzed in order to avoid them in the future and to find the suitable ways of its renovation and reinforcement.

Hamze, Youssef; Stanivska, Anna

424

Lobster Tail Ice Formation on Aerosurface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Glace Ice formation commonly refered to as 'Lobster Tail' by scientists and engineers, is caused to form on the leading edge of a aircraft tail section in the icing research tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio.

1999-01-01

425

Radial gate evaluation: Olympus Dam, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The report presents a structural analysis of the radial gates of Olympus Dam in eastern Colorado. Five 20-foot wide by 17-foot high radial gates are used to control flow through the spillway at Olympus Dam. The spillway gates were designed in 1947. The gate arm assemblies consist of two separate wide flange beams, with a single brace between the arms. The arms pivot about a 4.0-inch diameter pin and bronze graphite-insert bushing. The pin is cantilevered from the pier anchor girder. The radial gates are supported by a pin bearing on a pier anchor birder bolted to the end of the concrete pier. The gates are operated by two-part wire rope 15,000-pound capacity hoise. Stoplog slots upstream of the radial gates are provided in the concrete piers. Selected drawings of the gates and hoists are located in appendix A.

NONE

1997-06-01

426

Acute kidney failure  

MedlinePLUS

Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute ... There are many possible causes of kidney damage. They include: ... cholesterol (cholesterol emboli) Decreased blood flow due to very ...

427

Living with Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Heart Failure Currently, heart failure has no cure. You'll ... avoid harmful side effects. Take Steps To Prevent Heart Failure From Getting Worse Certain actions can worsen your ...

428

Dam removal increases American eel abundance in distant headwater streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

American eel Anguilla rostrata abundances have undergone significant declines over the last 50 years, and migration barriers have been recognized as a contributing cause. We evaluated eel abundances in headwater streams of Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, to compare sites before and after the removal of a large downstream dam in 2004 (Embrey Dam, Rappahannock River). Eel abundances in headwater streams increased significantly after the removal of Embrey Dam. Observed eel abundances after dam removal exceeded predictions derived from autoregressive models parameterized with data prior to dam removal. Mann–Kendall analyses also revealed consistent increases in eel abundances from 2004 to 2010 but inconsistent temporal trends before dam removal. Increasing eel numbers could not be attributed to changes in local physical habitat (i.e., mean stream depth or substrate size) or regional population dynamics (i.e., abundances in Maryland streams or Virginia estuaries). Dam removal was associated with decreasing minimum eel lengths in headwater streams, suggesting that the dam previously impeded migration of many small-bodied individuals (<300 mm TL). We hypothesize that restoring connectivity to headwater streams could increase eel population growth rates by increasing female eel numbers and fecundity. This study demonstrated that dams may influence eel abundances in headwater streams up to 150 river kilometers distant, and that dam removal may provide benefits for eel management and conservation at the landscape scale.

Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Eyler, Sheila; Wofford, John E.B.

2012-01-01

429

Descending from infinity: Convergence of tailed distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the relaxation of long-tailed distributions under stochastic dynamics that do not support such tails. Linear relaxation is found to be a borderline case in which long tails are exponentially suppressed in time but not eliminated. Relaxation stronger than linear suppresses long tails immediately, but may lead to strong transient peaks in the probability distribution. We also find that a ? -function initial distribution under stronger than linear decay displays not one but two different regimes of diffusive spreading.

Van den Broeck, Christian; Harbola, Upendra; Toral, Raul; Lindenberg, Katja

2015-01-01

430

Tailings Pond Characterization And Designing Through Geophysical Surveys In Dipping Sedimentary Formations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mining activities results into generation of disintegrated waste materials attaining increased mobilization status and requires a safe disposal mechanism through back filling process or secluded storage on surface with prevention of its interaction with environment cycle. The surface disposal of waste materials will become more critical in case of mined minerals having toxic or radioactive elements. In such cases, the surface disposal site is to be characterized for its sub-surface nature to understand its role in environmental impact due to the loading of waste materials. Near surface geophysics plays a major role in mapping the geophysical characters of the sub-surface formations in and around the disposal site and even to certain extent helps in designing of the storage structure. Integrated geophysical methods involving resistivity tomography, ground magnetic and shallow seismic studies were carried out over proposed tailings pond area of 0.3 sq. kms underlined by dipping sedimentary rocks consisting of ferruginous shales and dolomitic to siliceous limestone with varying thicknesses. The investigated site being located in tectonically disturbed area, geophysical investigations were carried out with number of profiles to visualize the sub-surface nature with clarity. The integration of results of twenty profiles of resistivity tomography with 2 m (shallow) and 10 m (moderate depth) electrode spacing’s enabled in preparing probable sub-surface geological section along the strike direction of the formation under the tailings pond with some geo-tectonic structure inferred to be a fault. Similarly, two resistivity tomography profiles perpendicular to the strike direction of the formations brought out the existence of buried basic intrusive body on the northern boundary of the proposed tailings pond. Two resistivity tomography profiles in criss-cross direction over the suspected fault zone confirmed fault existence on the north-eastern part of tailings pond. Thirty two magnetic profiles inside the tailings pond and surrounding areas on the southern part of the tailings pond enabled in identifying two parallel east-west intrusive bodies forming the impermeable boundary for the tailings pond. The shallow seismic refraction and the geophysical studies in and around the proposed tailings pond brought out the suitability of the site, even when the toxic elements percolates through the subsurface formations in to the groundwater system, the existence of dykes on either side of the proposed ponding area won’t allow the water to move across them thus by restricting the contamination within the tailings pond area. Similarly, the delineation of a fault zone within the tailings pond area helped in shifting the proposed dam axis of the pond to avoid leakage through the fault zone causing concern to environment pollution.

Muralidharan, D.; Andrade, R.; Anand, K.; Sathish, R.; Goud, K.

2009-12-01

431

Critical points and transitions in an electric power transmission model for cascading failure blackouts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cascading failures in large-scale electric power transmission systems are an important cause of blackouts. Analysis of North American blackout data has revealed power law (algebraic) tails in the blackout size probability distribution which suggests a dynamical origin. With this observation as motivation, we examine cascading failure in a simplified transmission system model as load power demand is increased. The model

B. A. Carreras; V. E. Lynch; I. Dobson; D. E. Newman

2002-01-01

432

Anaplasma phagocytophilum in White-tailed Deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the reservoir potential of white-tailed deer for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Results suggest that white-tailed deer harbor a variant strain not associated with human infection, but contrary to published reports, white- tailed deer are not a reservoir for strains that cause human disease. These results will affect surveillance studies of vector and reservoir populations.

Robert F. Massung; Joshua W. Courtney; Shannon L. Hiratzka; Virginia E. Pitzer; Gary Smith; Richard L. Dryden

433

An acceleration mechanism for cometary plasma tails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cometary plasma tail formation by the interaction between the solar wind plasma flow and the plasma at the head of the coma is discussed using the unipolar electric generation theory. The plasma in the 'plasma tail' is almost directly accelerated from the cometary ionopause along the sun-nucleus line where the tail current flows. For steady state solar wind conditions, the

Shigeyuki Minami; R. S. White

1986-01-01

434

Assessment methodology for the prediction of landslide dam hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper represents a contribution to the study of hazard caused by the interaction between landslides and river courses. The effects of such interferences are often catastrophic and could include the formation of backwater lakes, potential dam failure, river bed dynamics and morphological alterations. These scenarios could be substantially reduced if it was possible to predict the eventuality that a moving landslide could block the river. This is a complex topic because it involves composite geomorphic phenomena concerning both hillslope and river systems and their interpretation, through model approaches, is still under development and testing. In this study, a methodology developed in the framework of the European Research Project IMPRINTS (FP7), was adopted and integrated in order to identify the areas of triggering and propagation of landslides and to characterize the possible scenarios of the interaction with river networks. Different deterministic and probabilistic approaches, calibrated using a case test in the middle valley of Noce River in Basilicata region (Italy), were applied and compared at basin scale. In this area, a landslide mobilized in July 2007 on the right side slope of the river invaded a gravel-bed reach, characterized by a narrow and confined section, causing its progressive morpho-hydrodynamic change.

Dal Sasso, S. F.; Sole, A.; Pascale, S.; Sdao, F.; Bateman Pinzòn, A.; Medina, V.

2013-10-01

435

Assessment methodology for the prediction of landslide dam hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper represents a contribution to the study of hazard caused by the interaction between landslides and river courses. The effects of such interferences are often catastrophic and could include the formation of upstream lakes, potential dam failure, river bed dynamics and morphological alterations. These scenarios could be substantially reduced if it was possible to predict the eventuality that a moving landslide would block the river. This is a complex topic because it involves composite geomorphic phenomena concerning both hillslope and river systems and their interpretation, through model approaches, is still under development and testing. In this study, a methodology developed in the framework of European Research Project IMPRINTS (FP7) was adopted and integrated in order to identify the areas of triggering and propagation of landslides and to characterize the possible scenarios of the interaction with river networks. Different deterministic and probabilistic approaches, calibrated using a case test in the middle valley of the Noce River in Basilicata (Italy), were applied and compared at basin scale.

Dal Sasso, S. F.; Sole, A.; Pascale, S.; Sdao, F.; Bateman Pinzòn, A.; Medina, V.

2014-03-01

436

Uranium mill tailings quarterly report, January-March 1982  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported on: radon barrier systems for uranium mill tailings; liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings; revegetation/rock cover for stabilization of inactive U-tailings sites; and application of long-term chemical biobarriers for uranium tailings.

Latkovich, J.M. (comp.)

1982-05-01

437

The Tous Dam Disaster of 1982: Risk communication and the origins of integrated flood risk management in Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The failure of Tous dam on the Júcar River near Valencia in 1982 was one of the most important socio-natural disasters in 20th century Spain. The death toll of 25 would have been much greater had not a local dam manager anticipated the failure and alerted mayors of a failure, before it actually occurred. The Tous Dam failure occurred a week before the first democratic elections in Spain after the Franco dictatorship, it received extensive coverage in the media. As a result, this disaster triggered a paradigm change in the way disaster risks were perceived and managed at multiple levels of government in Spain. Many factors, often of a qualitative and organisational nature, affect (vertical and horizontal) communication in disaster risk reduction learning and planning at the community level. Through interviews with key actors and stakeholders, content analysis of scientific literature, review of historical and media accounts, and analysis of legislation and regulation, we documented changes that resulted from the Tous Dam failure: (1) A process of institutional development, which led to the growth, and increase in complexity of the organisations involved both in vertical and horizontal communication of disaster risk reduction. (2) Actions taken and experiences gained in dealing with disaster risk reduction in the Tous area were used as a benchmark to develop new strategies, as well as new mechanisms for communication and planning in other territories and other risk domains in Spain.We identify three main stages from 1980s to present in the evolution of disaster risk reduction planning in the area, which show a progressive shift towards a more integrated and preventative approach: (1) After the collapse of the Tous Dam, disaster risk reduction strategies in Spain focused on improving preparedness in order to reduce short-term risks. (2) Disaster management in the 1990s was strongly influenced by international initiatives (e.g. the UN International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction), which emphasized the contextualization of risk and the importance in long-term disaster risk reduction measures such as land use planning. (3) The European Water Framework Directive (2000) and, more recently, the Flood Directive (2007) are exerting a strong influence on the development of a new Spanish flood policy that focuses on preventive measures and integrates, for the first time, ecological concerns and climate change adaptation in flood management strategies.

Serra-Llobet, A.; Tàbara, J.; Sauri, D.

2012-12-01

438

Characterization of grain sizes in the reservoir impoundment behind Marmot Dam post-dam removal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marmot Dam was built in 1913 and stood until 2007 to divert water from the Sandy River to the Bull Run Hydroelectric Plant. During that time Marmot Dam impounded a reservoir deposit of approximately 750,000 cubic meters of sediment. Prior to dam removal Squier Associates completed a series of sediment cores and bulk samples to estimate the composition of the deposit (Stillwater 2000). Since 2007 the Sandy River has carved a path through the reservoir leaving vertical sections of the deposit exposed. This study aims to use these remains of the deposit to make another estimate of its composition using pebble counts and a bulk sample. It serves as a back of the envelope double check of the Squier Associates study and an experiment with a new sampling method. Our results suggest that the deposit may be coarser than previously thought

di Leonardo, D. R.; Podolak, C.; Wilcock, P.

2009-12-01

439

Shock wave propagation of circular dam break problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the behavior of shock wave propagation of circular (radial) dam break problems. A dam break problem represents a reservoir having two sides of water at rest initially with different depth separated by a wall, then water flows after the wall is removed. The behavior of shock wave propagation is investigated with respect to water levels and with respect to the speeds of the shock waves. To the author's knowledge, such investigation for circular dam break problems had never been done before. Therefore, this new work shall be important for applied computational mathematics and physics communities as well as fluid dynamic researchers. Based on our research results, the propagation speed of shock wave in a circular dam break is lower than that of shock wave in a planar dam break having the same initial water levels as in the circular dam break.

Mungkasi, Sudi

2014-10-01

440

Modeling the costs and benefits of dam construction from a multidisciplinary perspective  

E-print Network

Modeling the costs and benefits of dam construction from a multidisciplinary perspective Philip H: Dam construction Dam removal Program evaluation a b s t r a c t Although the benefits of dam for electricity, recent experience has shown that many dams have serious negative environmental, human

Tullos, Desiree

441

Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2011 General Motors 2 Variable Height Vehicle Air Dam  

E-print Network

Vehicle Air Dam Overview The fundamental issue with fixed air dams is the bottom edge of the dam needs to be high enough to meet defined vehicle ground clearance and front approach angle criteria. Air dams must a solution to this problem by designing an variable height vehicle air dam. Objectives Our mission

Demirel, Melik C.

442

Extracting aluminum from dross tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminum dross tailings, an industrial waste, from the Egyptian Aluminium Company (Egyptalum) was used to produce two types of alums: aluminum-sulfate alum [itAl2(SO4)3.12H2O] and ammonium-aluminum alum [ (NH 4)2SO4AL2(SO4)3.24H2O]. This was carried out in two processes. The first process is leaching the impurities using diluted H2SO4 with different solid/liquid ratios at different temperatures to dissolve the impurities present in the starting material in the form of solute sulfates. The second process is the extraction of aluminum (as aluminum sulfate) from the purifi ed aluminum dross tailings thus produced. The effects of temperature, time of reaction, and acid concentration on leaching and extraction processes were studied. The product alums were analyzed using x-ray diffraction and thermal analysis techniques.

Amer, A. M.

2002-11-01

443

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE NORTH CHANNEL DAM FROM PUBLICLY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE NORTH CHANNEL DAM FROM PUBLICLY RESTRICTED PROPERTY OF THE RECENTLY CLOSED LOUISIANA PACIFIC LUMBER MILL. THE NORTH CHANNEL DAM'S HOLDING RESERVOIR AND TAINTER GATES ARE IN THE FOREGROUND, AND THE ROLLING SECTOR GATE IS IN THE BACKGROUND, LOOKING EAST. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, North Channel Dam, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

444

Providing protection: Agencies receive funding to repair, upgrade dams  

E-print Network

Story by Kathy Wythe tx H2O | pg. 26 Providing protection Agencies receive funding to repair, upgrade dams along with local partners, can apply for grant funds, he said. Construction of the dams began through four federal authorizations... passed between 1944 and 1981. Land rights were acquired from landowners, and local agencies constructed the dams with federal money from NRCS (formerly the Soil Conservation Service). Local sponsors?including cities, counties, local soil and water...

Wythe, Kathy

2009-01-01

445

Effects of different soil ameliorants on karee trees (Searsia lancea) growing on mine tailings dump soil-part I: pot trials.  

PubMed

Rehabilitation of mine tailings dams is often a challenge due to a lack of nutrients and a poor humus reservoir prevailing in tailings soils. This is especially true for establishing longer lived species such as trees. For these reasons the effects of different soil ameliorants (woodchips compost, vermicompost, mature sewage sludge), added to the root system of Karee (Searsia lancea) saplings were tested in pot trials. Those pots were filled with platinum and gold tailings substrate as well as red clay soil, respectively. For three months plants remained in a greenhouse and were subsequently moved to a test field outside. Throughout the test period regular chl a fluorescence measurements were taken and subjected to JIP-test quantifying changes in photosynthetic vitality status. Additionally, growth measurements and one-off leaf analysis were carried out. Test plants growing on mine tailings experienced an up to 35% higher average photosynthetic vitality (PI(ABS)) and improved nutrient supply, when treated with mature sewage sludge. Consequently, sewage sludge treated plants showed a higher biomass build-up rate and an up to 55% higher diameter growth, compared to control. In summary the experiments present a low cost alternative for reforestation enterprises on platinum and gold tailings dams in South Africa. PMID:22908654

Lange, Christian A; Kotte, Karsten; Smit, Martin; van Deventer, Peter W; van Rensburg, Leon

2012-10-01

446

Safety of Italian dams in the face of flood hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most rivers in Italy are segmented by dams that need rehabilitation because of (1) safety requirements by increasingly risk-averse societies, (2) changes in the downstream river and riparian system after dams building, (3) poor initial design at the time of completion and (4) modified priorities of watershed management. Safe design of flood spillways is a major concern, and requires to cope with low frequency flood hazard. One must estimate flood figures with high return periods (R ? 1000-10,000 years) but statistical methods involve large uncertainties because of the short length of the available records. This paper investigates the return period of the design flood of existing spillways RS of large dams in Italy. We used re-normalized flood frequency approach and regionalization using the Generalized Extreme Value distribution. The estimation of the site specific index flood is carried out by simple scaling with basin area at the regional level. The result show that 55% (245) of the 448 examined dams are equipped by spillway with RS > 10,000; and 71% (315) of the dams have RS > 1000. Conversely, 29% (130) of the dams display RS < 1000 years, lower than acceptable hazard. The spillway of 14% (62) of the dams has RS < 100 years, indicating potential exceedance of spillways capacity. Reservoir routing may dampen the outflow hydrograph, but one should carefully account for the need of achieving accurate dam safety assessment of these dams based on site specific investigations, also accounting for global change forcing.

Bocchiola, Daniele; Rosso, Renzo

2014-09-01

447

5. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST. WEST DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, QUARRIES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST. WEST DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, QUARRIES TO LEFT MIDDLE GROUND OF PICTURE. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

448

2. FORMER INTAKE DAM NO. 2 AT 560" CONSTRUCTED OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. FORMER INTAKE DAM NO. 2 AT 560" CONSTRUCTED OF RUBBLE MASONRY IN 1937-1938. VIEW LOOKING DOWN LINE FORMER INTAKE GRILLE WAS TO LEFT SIDE OF DAM (TWO 8" IRON PIPES FROM NEW INTAKE NOW ENTER OLD INTAKE OPENING), BOX FLUME EXITS AT RIGHT AND CARRIES WATER TO AERATOR. NOTE THE SMALL SLUICEWAY OPENING AT CENTER ALONG WATERLINE. THIS DAM WAS SUPERCEDED BY THE NEW INTAKE DAM TO REACH THE MORE RELIABLE WATER SOURCE OF THE MAIN STREAM. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

449

ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF SARDAR SAROVAR DAM RESETTLEMENT.  

E-print Network

?? In many countries large dams provide electricity, irrigation and water for drinking, and sanitation purposes. Infrastructure development strategies often neglect social and environmental impacts… (more)

Barve, Nita S.

2010-01-01

450

A semi-analytical method for predicting the outflow hydrograph due to dam-break in natural valleys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a semi-analytical method for predicting the flow rate hydrograph due to a hypothetical sudden and total dam failure in a natural valley. The method generalizes the approach proposed by Hunt for the dam-break problem in a rectangular frictionless sloping channel to a valley with a cross-section area expressed by a power-law function of water depth, in order to take into account the most common shapes of natural valleys. The parameters of the deriving model can be set by exploiting data usually available concerning the dam section geometry and the reservoir storage-depth curve. The application of the technique to three different reservoirs is discussed. The results show that the flow rate hydrographs obtained at the dam site agree with the ones calculated by means of a finite volume numerical code based on two-dimensional shallow water equations. The method requires moderate computational and data collecting effort, so it can be regarded as a useful alternative to other procedures commonly adopted in the practice.

Aureli, Francesca; Maranzoni, Andrea; Mignosa, Paolo

2014-01-01

451

Understanding contraceptive failure  

PubMed Central

Contraceptive failure is a major source of unintended pregnancy. This chapter will review sources of data and measurement of contraceptive failure, summarize results from the literature on the risks of contraceptive failure during typical and perfect use for available methods of contraception, provide a tool for communicating risks of contraceptive failure to clients, examine determinants of contraceptive failure, and identify methodological pitfalls in the published literature. PMID:19223239

Trussell, James

2013-01-01

452

The evolution of gravel bed channels after dam removal: Case study of the Anaconda and Union City Dam removals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Anaconda and Union City Dams on the Naugatuck River in Connecticut were removed in February and October 1999. A detailed study of the sites prior to removal was undertaken including sediment testing and predictions of upstream channel formation post-dam removal. The 3.35-m-high timber crib/rock fill spillway of the Anaconda Dam partially breached during a storm prior to the dam's scheduled removal allowing a portion of the impounded sediment to move down through the river system. This event changed the removal plans and the remainder of the spillway was removed under an emergency order in the course of 4 days. The Union City Dam, a 2.44-m-high timber crib/rock fill dam capped with concrete and stone, was removed on schedule. A portion of the impounded sediment was removed by mechanical means during the deconstruction of the structure. The evolution of the two upstream channels post-project provided unique challenges and valuable insights as to what kind of channel transition can be expected in gravel bed river systems after a low head dam has been removed. This paper describes the initial engineering analysis and design, the subsequent removal of the two dams, and compares observations on the transition of the upstream channels following dam removal to the initial engineering predictions and other models. The relatively steep gravel bed channels evolved in a predictable manner, except where anthropogenic barriers (sanitary sewer, rock weir) interrupted.

Wildman, Laura A. S.; MacBroom, James G.

2005-10-01

453

Measured and predicted velocity and longitudinal dispersion at steady and unsteady flow, Colorado River, Glen Canyon Dam to lake mead  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effect of unsteadiness or dam releases on velocity and longitudinal dispersion of flow was evaluated by injecting a fluorescent dye into the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam and sampling for dye concentration at selected sites downstream. In Glen Canyon, average flow velocity through the study reach increased directly with discharge, but dispersion was greatest at the lowest of the three flows measured. In Grand Canyon, average flow velocity varied slightly from subreach to subreach at both steady and unsteady flow over the entire study reach. Also, longitudinal dispersion was not significantly different during steady and unsteady flow. Absence of tails on the curves shows that, at the measured flows, the eddies that are characteristic of the Grand Canyon reach do not trap water for a significant length of time. Data from the measurements were used to calibrate a one-dimensional now modeland a solute-transport model. The combined set of calibrated flow and solute-transport models was then used to predict velocity and dispersion at potential dam-release patterns.

Graf, J.B.

1995-01-01

454

Deer Creek Dam, Hydroelectric Powerplant, 868 feet/291 degrees from intersection ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Deer Creek Dam, Hydroelectric Powerplant, 868 feet/291 degrees from intersection of dam complex access road with U.S. Highway 189, 1,340 feet/352 degrees from the dam spillway overpass, Charleston, Wasatch County, UT

455

Review of Studies of Fish Survival in Spill at The Dalles Dam  

E-print Network

Review of Studies of Fish Survival in Spill at The Dalles Dam Independent Scientific Advisory BoardThe Dalles Dam Contents Assignment ................................................................................................................................................. 17 Appendix 4. Estimated Total Project Survival at The Dalles Dam at the Two Spill Levels

456

78 FR 34255 - Regulated Navigation Area; Vessel Traffic in Vicinity of Marseilles Dam; Illinois River  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Vessel Traffic in Vicinity of Marseilles Dam; Illinois River AGENCY: Coast Guard...related to the restoration of the Marseilles Dam, and salvage operations being conducted...salvage operations around the Marseilles Dam, the Coast Guard established a...

2013-06-07

457

33 CFR 165.T09-0405 - Safety Zone; Salvage Operations at Marseilles Dam; Illinois River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Safety Zone; Salvage Operations at Marseilles Dam; Illinois River. 165.T09-0405 ...Safety Zone; Salvage Operations at Marseilles Dam; Illinois River. (a) Location. ...extending 600 yards upstream of the Marseilles Dam to Mile Marker 247.2. (b)...

2013-07-01

458

75 FR 44809 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG...SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (AMP) was...Decision on the Operation of Glen Canyon Dam Final Environmental Impact Statement...

2010-07-29

459

75 FR 20381 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG...SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (AMP) was...Decision on the Operation of Glen Canyon Dam Final Environmental Impact Statement...

2010-04-19

460

77 FR 14516 - Alabama Power Company, Martin Dam Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Proposed Revised Restricted...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Alabama] Alabama Power Company, Martin Dam Hydroelectric Project; Notice...for the Martin Dam Hydroelectric Project would be...Alabama SHPO; Alabama Power Company, the licensee...for the Martin Dam Hydroelectric Project to...

2012-03-12

461

BASINWIDE SEDIMENTATION PROCESSES AT GLACIER-DAMMED ICEBERG LAKE, SOUTHCENTRAL ALASKA  

E-print Network

BASINWIDE SEDIMENTATION PROCESSES AT GLACIER-DAMMED ICEBERG LAKE, SOUTHCENTRAL 2012 BASINWIDE SEDIMENTATION PROCESSES AT GLACIER-DAMMED ICEBERG LAKE, SOUTHCENTRAL ALASKA by Katie E examining sedimentation rates and varve thickness at Iceberg Lake, a glacier-dammed proglacial lake

Loso, Michael G.

462

The distribution of dams in Costa Rica and their hydrologic impacts  

E-print Network

Dam construction has increased exponentially over the past century, primarily in temperate environments. While the impacts of dams in temperate regions have been well-documented, a parallel level of research on dam impacts has not been achieved...

Laurencio, Laura Richards

2006-04-12

463

Effect of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) Vaccination of the Dam on PCV2 Replication In Utero?  

PubMed Central

The aims of this study were to determine if porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination of the dam is effective in preventing fetal PCV2 infection and reproductive failure. Twelve pregnant, PCV2-naïve sows were randomly divided into four groups, with three sows in each group. Group 1 sows served as noninoculated, nonvaccinated negative controls, group 2 sows were vaccinated with a commercially available PCV2 vaccine at 28 days of gestation and were not inoculated, group 3 sows were vaccinated at 28 days of gestation and inoculated with PCV2b at 56 days of gestation, and group 4 sows were inoculated with PCV2b but were not vaccinated. Serum samples from all sows were collected weekly throughout the gestation period, and sows were allowed to farrow naturally. At parturition, sow colostrum samples, presuckle serum samples, and tissues from the piglets were collected. Reproductive failure was not observed under the study conditions. PCV2 vaccination induced PCV2-specific immunoglobulin G and serum neutralizing antibodies in sows from groups 2 and 3 and prevented detectable PCV2 viremia in the dams after challenge. In group 3, PCV2 DNA was detected in colostrum samples, fetuses, and live-born pigs; however, microscopic lesions and PCV2-specific antigen were not present in any of the fetuses in this group. The results from this study indicate that vertical transmission of PCV2 can occur in PCV2-vaccinated dams. PMID:19357312

Madson, D. M.; Patterson, A. R.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Pal, N.; Meng, X. J.; Opriessnig, T.

2009-01-01

464

Linking Short-term Upstream and Downstream Geomorphic Responses to the Removal of Condit Dam, White Salmon River, Washington  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamiting a hole at the base of the 38-m-high Condit Dam, on the White Salmon River, Washington, resulted in rapid reservoir drainage and erosion and produced a downstream surge of water and sediment. To document the short-term upstream and downstream responses to the October 2011 Condit breach, we combined photographic methods, topographic surveys, stage and suspended sediment measurements, and stratigraphic observations. Initial reservoir erosion occurred as a result of mass failure of thick, fine-grained reservoir sediment, which was eventually supplemented by knickpoint migration as the erosion propagated upstream from the dam. About 10 percent of total reservoir sediment eroded in the first 90 minutes after the breach, and about one-third of the reservoir sediment had evacuated in the first week. Downstream, an initially sediment-poor discharge peak with an approximately 100-year recurrence interval was followed by a hyperconcentrated sediment pulse (32% by volume) that locally produced meters-thick sand deposits. The post-breach sediment dynamics at Condit were in many respects more analogous to sediment pulses introduced by volcanic eruptions or large mass failure events than by previous dam removals.

Wilcox, A. C.; O'Connor, J. E.; Major, J. J.; Coloaiacomo, E.

2013-12-01

465

Interaction of Dams and Landslides--Case Studies and Mitigation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the first half of the 20th century, engineering geology and geotechnical engineering were in their infancy, and dams were often built where landslides provided valley constrictions, often without expert site investigation. Only the most important projects were subjected to careful geologic examination. Thus, dams were often built without complete understanding of the possible geotechnical problems occurring in foundations or abutments. Most of these dams still exist, although many have undergone costly repairs because of stability or leakage problems. Today, however, every effort is made in the selection of damsites, including those sited on landslides, to provide foundations and abutments that are generally impervious and capable of withstanding the stresses imposed by the proposed dam and reservoir, and possible landslides. By means of a literature search, technical interviews, and field inventory, I have located 254 large (at least 10 m high) dams worldwide that directly interact with landslides; that is, they have been built on pre-existing landslides or have been subjected to landslide activity during or after construction. A table (Appendix table A) summarizes dam characteristics, landslide conditions, and remedial measures at each of the dams. Of the 254 dams, 164 are earthfill, 23 are rockfill, and 18 are earthfill-rockfill; these are flexible dam types that generally perform better on the possibly unstable foundations provided by landslides than do more rigid concrete dams. Any pre-existing landslides that might impinge on the foundation or abutments of a dam should be carefully investigated. If a landslide is recognized in a dam foundation or abutment, the landslide deposits commonly are avoided in siting the dam or are removed during stripping of the dam foundation and abutment contacts. Contrarily, it has often been found to be technically feasible and economically desirable to site and construct dams on known landslides or on the remnants of these features. In these cases, proven preventive and remedial measures have been used to ensure the stability of the foundations and abutments, and to reduce seepage to acceptable levels.

Schuster, Robert L.

2006-01-01

466

5. GENERAL VIEW OF DAM FROM TOP OF MIXING PLANT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. GENERAL VIEW OF DAM FROM TOP OF MIXING PLANT, SHOWING BUTTRESSES 6 TO 10 INCLUSIVE. NOTE CONTRACTION JOINTS ARE GENERALLY FILLED TO ELEVATION 1650. PUMPCRETE TRESTLE IS AT ELEVATION 1698. April 21, 1938 - Bartlett Dam, Verde River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

467

1. Wideangle view of the Glens Falls Dam with the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Wide-angle view of the Glens Falls Dam with the Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation intakes structure on the left and the Finch, Pruyn & Company intake structure and power canal on the right. Facing south to southwest. - Glens Falls Dam, 100' to 450' West of U.S. Route 9 Bridge Spanning Hudson River, Glens Falls, Warren County, NY

468

22. Lake Whitney Dam, 1895 Photocopied from an original photograph, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. Lake Whitney Dam, 1895 Photocopied from an original photograph, NHCHSL. Shows the rear of the dam building, and on Lake Whitney, Day's Store and Boathouse, and an ice house and steam-powered elevators. - Eli Whitney Armory, West of Whitney Avenue, Armory Street Vicinity, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

469

42. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). LOCK LOCK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). LOCK -- LOCK GATES -- LIFT GATE, DOWNSTREAM LEAF, D.S. ELEVATION & GIRDERS. M-L 26(R) 21/29 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

470

Development of next-generation embankment dam breach models  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Dam Safety Interest Group (DSIG) of the Centre for Energy Advancement through Technological Innovation (CEATI International Inc.) is an international group of dam owners that pursues collaborative research on a wide range of topics. Since 2004 the DSIG has been working to facilitate the develop...

471

New flow depth relationships for embankment dam stepped spillway design  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A common deficiency for embankment dams changing from a low hazard to a high hazard dam is inadequate spillway capacity. Roller compacted concrete (RCC) stepped spillways are a popular method to address this issue. Stepped spillway research has gained momentum in recent years due to the need for d...

472

WINDAM-ANALYSIS OF OVERTOPPED EARTH EMBANKMENT DAMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Windows Dam Analysis Modules (WINDAM) is a modular software application which is being developed for the analysis of overtopped earth embankments. The development is being carried out in stages with the initial computational model addressing the routing of the flood through the reservoir with dam o...

473

Dam safety's future: What will the headlines say  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. dam safety program is entering a critical period. Decisions made during the next several years will set the program's course for years to come. This article examines how the program looks and will look at the end of the decade, using assessments by four men with important roles in the dam safety community.

Byers, W.

1993-10-01

474

5. GENERAL VIEW FROM EAST ABUTMENT ALONG AXIS OF DAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. GENERAL VIEW FROM EAST ABUTMENT ALONG AXIS OF DAM SHOWING STEEL SHEET PILE CUTOFF WALL COMPLETED, AND EMBANKMENT MATERIAL BEING COMPACTED INTO POSITION. Volume XVI, No. 11, July 21, 1939. - Prado Dam, Embankment, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

475

52. Humbug Creek Diversion Dam showing original masonry structure at ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

52. Humbug Creek Diversion Dam showing original masonry structure at right and concrete weir at left added later. Photographer James Eastwood, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

476

Institutionalizing the option of dam removal: the New Hampshire initiative.  

PubMed

For two years, the State of New Hampshire has worked to institutionalize the option of dam removal. The high gradient streams that flow through the granite hills and mountains of this small northeastern state provided ideal conditions for dam construction, particularly during America's Industrial Revolution of the 1800s when mills were constructed throughout the area. With more than 4,800 dams in the state's database, there are many opportunities for the removal of dams that no longer serve a useful purpose, have become a public safety hazard and impact the river environment. Efforts to facilitate removal of dams in New Hampshire include the formation of a River Restoration Task Force and the creation of a dam removal program within the state agency responsible for regulating dams. This has led to the removal of two dams in the past year, with approximately ten additional projects in various stages of planning. A history of this agency-led initiative, as well as a discussion of the program's strengths, challenges and goals for the future are presented. PMID:14653629

Lindloff, S D

2003-01-01

477

VIEW OF WARRIOR RIVER, OLIVER LOCK AND DAM LOOKING NORTHEAST, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF WARRIOR RIVER, OLIVER LOCK AND DAM LOOKING NORTHEAST, LURLEEN WALLACE BRIDGE IN BACKGROUND, GULF MOBILE & OHIO RAILROAD BRIDGE IN FRONT OF LURLEEN WALLACE BRIDGE, NORTHPORT LEFT SIDE, TUSCALOOSA RIGHT SIDE, UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - William Baker Oliver Lock & Dam, Spans Warrior River between Tuscaloosa & Northport, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

478

Fallback by Adult Sockeye Salmon at Columbia River Dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We implanted radio transmitters into sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka in 1997 to determine the (1) fallback percentage and rate at eight Columbia River dams, (2) effect of fallback on adult counts at each dam, (3) relations between spillway discharge and fallback, (4) relations between injuries and fallback, and (5) relations of fallback and survival to spawning tributaries. The rate of

George P. Naughton; Christopher C. Caudill; Matthew L. Keefer; Theodore C. Bjornn; Christopher A. Peery; Lowell C. Stuehrenberg

2006-01-01

479

52. THE DOWNSTREAM FACE OF ROOSEVELT DAM. THE ROOSEVELT POWER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

52. THE DOWNSTREAM FACE OF ROOSEVELT DAM. THE ROOSEVELT POWER HOUSE IS LOCATED AT THE CENTER OF THE PHOTO WITH THE TRANSFORMER HOUSE LOCATED AT THE RIGHT. THE NORTH SPILLWAY IS AT THE FAR LEFT AND SOUTH SPILLWAY AT THE FAR RIGHT Photographer: Mark Durben, 1984 - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

480

21. Mormon Flat Dam and reservoir. HEFU penstock and unit ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. Mormon Flat Dam and reservoir. HEFU penstock and unit are at center. The original power house is located behind the HEFU penstock. Transformer equipment is located at center right. Photographer Mark Durben, 1988. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

481

59. Downstream view of Waddell Dam showing buttress ties, crane, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

59. Downstream view of Waddell Dam showing buttress ties, crane, housing over penstock outlet (left) and storage building (right). Photographer Mark Durben, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

482

2. Photocopied June 1978 'THE IRON DAM.' VIEW OF THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Photocopied June 1978 'THE IRON DAM.' VIEW OF THE IRON DAM, THE OUTCROPPING OF THE ORE FOUND IN 1826 BY HENDERSON. FURNISHED WATER TO SAWMILL. SOURCE: BENSON LOSSING, THE HUDSON, FROM THE WILDERNESS TO THE SEA, TROY, NEW YORK, 1866, p. 25 - Adirondack Iron & Steel Company, New Furnace, Hudson River, Tahawus, Essex County, NY

483

5. DIABLO DAM: DETAIL VIEW OF RELIEF VALVES AT ELEVATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. DIABLO DAM: DETAIL VIEW OF RELIEF VALVES AT ELEVATION 1044. VALVE IN FOREGROUND IS A BUTTERFLY VALVE SIX FEET IN DIAMETER; VALVE TO THE REAR IS A JOHNSON-TYPE NEEDLE VALVE BOTH VALVES WERE MANUFACTURED BY THE PELTON WATER WHEEL COMPANY, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Dam, On Skagit River, 6.9 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

484

The design of the intelligent monitoring system for dam safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Being a vital manmade water-control structure, a dam plays a very important role in the living and production of human being. To make a dam run safely, the best design and the superior construction quality are paramount; moreover, with working periods increasing, various dynamic, alternative and bad loads generate little by little various distortions on the dam structure inevitably, which shall lead to potential safety problems or further a disaster (dam burst). There are many signs before the occurrence of a dam accident, so the timely and effective surveying on the distortion of a dam is important. On the basis of the cause supra, two intelligent (automatic) monitoring systems about the dam's safety based on the RTK-GPS technology and the measuring robot has been developed. The basic principle, monitoring method and monitoring process of these two intelligent (automatic) monitoring systems are introduced. It presents examples of monitor and puts forward the basic rule of dam warning based on data of actual monitor.

Yuan, Chun-qiao; Jiang, Chen-guang; Wang, Guo-hui

2008-12-01

485

The Removal of the Edwards Dam: Renewed Debates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On July 1, 1999, the destruction of the Edwards Dam in Maine began, marking the first case of an order to remove a hydroelectric dam against the owner's wishes. Dams were constructed to provide mechanical power, and later electrical power, mainly for saw, grist, and textile mills. These mills were a substantial asset to the economy by providing jobs, but as the mills closed, the economic necessity of dams diminished. Ecologists have been identifying the environmental benefits fish and wildlife receive when rivers are restored by removing dams. The Edwards River is in the process of being restored, but the restoration of another, much larger river, the Snake River in Oregon, continues to be a source of debate. Ecologists and biologists believe restoring the Snake River will help the endangered wild salmon regain their numbers. Agricultural and industrial users of the Snake River argue that the dam still provides substantial economic benefits. The eight resources listed for this In the News topic provide current information on the Edwards dam removal, the Snake River debates, and general information on dams.

Schultz, Jennifer J.

486

23. The Salt River, downstream, from atop Mormon Flat Dam. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. The Salt River, downstream, from atop Mormon Flat Dam. HEFU generator deck is at center bottom. Photographer Mark Durben, 1988. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

487

San Acacia Reach San Acacia Dam to Escondida Bridge  

E-print Network

San Acacia Reach San Acacia Dam to Escondida Bridge Hydraulic Modeling Analysis 1918-2006 Middle, hydraulic modeling analyses have been performed on the San Acacia reach to determine the changes by Reclamation on the San Acacia reach. The 11.6 mile long reach extends from the San Acacia Diversion dam (River

Julien, Pierre Y.

488

DRAFT San Acacia Reach San Acacia Dam to Escondida Bridge  

E-print Network

DRAFT San Acacia Reach San Acacia Dam to Escondida Bridge Hydraulic Modeling Analysis 1918, hydraulic modeling analyses have been performed on the San Acacia reach to determine the changes by Reclamation on the San Acacia reach. The 11.6 mile long extends from the San Acacia Diversion dam (River Mile

Julien, Pierre Y.

489

5. LOOKING WEST ALONG THE AXIS OF THE DAM TOWARD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. LOOKING WEST ALONG THE AXIS OF THE DAM TOWARD THE OUTLET STRUCTURE. HAND OPERATED MECHANICAL TAMPERS ARE COMPACTING THE FILL ALONG THE STEEL SHEET PILING CUTOFF WALL IN THE FOREGROUND. Volume XIX, No. 6, April 12, 1940. - Prado Dam, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

490

22. Close up view of Mormon Flat Dam, original power ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. Close up view of Mormon Flat Dam, original power house and HEFU upgrades. Spillway lip, at center, is part of the approach road. Photographer Mark Durben, 1988. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

491

33 CFR 117.705 - Beaver Dam Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Beaver Dam Creek. 117.705 Section 117.705 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.705 Beaver Dam Creek. The draw of the Ocean County bridge, mile...

2013-07-01

492

33 CFR 117.705 - Beaver Dam Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Beaver Dam Creek. 117.705 Section 117.705 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.705 Beaver Dam Creek. The draw of the Ocean County bridge, mile...

2010-07-01

493

33 CFR 117.705 - Beaver Dam Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Beaver Dam Creek. 117.705 Section 117.705 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.705 Beaver Dam Creek. The draw of the Ocean County bridge, mile...

2012-07-01

494

33 CFR 117.705 - Beaver Dam Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Beaver Dam Creek. 117.705 Section 117.705 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.705 Beaver Dam Creek. The draw of the Ocean County bridge, mile...

2011-07-01

495

Attitudes of Operative Dentistry Faculty toward Rubber Dam Isolation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dental faculty responses (N=332) to a survey concerning use of rubber dams for excluding fluids from the working field in operative dentistry procedures indicated students receive adequate instruction in rubber dam use and are proficient at graduation, though motivating students to its use is problematic and patient resistance a factor. (MSE)

Brackett, William W.; And Others

1989-01-01

496

Correlations among the WISC-R, PIAT, and DAM.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The WISC-R, PIAT, and DAM were examined to ascertain relationships among the three instruments. Correlations indicate that information yielded by the PIAT may be obtained through WISC-R results, while the DAM may be tapping other abilities not adequately assessed by either of the other two measures. (Author)

White, Thomas H.

1979-01-01

497

33 CFR 117.705 - Beaver Dam Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Beaver Dam Creek. 117.705 Section 117.705 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.705 Beaver Dam Creek. The draw of the Ocean County bridge, mile...

2014-07-01

498

28. VIEW NORTH TOWARD DERBY DURING DEWATERING. DAM IN CENTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. VIEW NORTH TOWARD DERBY DURING DEWATERING. DAM IN CENTER OF PICTURE WITH SHELTON GATEHOUSE ON LEFT AND DERBY GATEHOUSE ON RIGHT. - Ousatonic Water Power Company, Dam & Canals, CT Routes 34 & 108, 1 mile North of Derby-Shelton Bridge, Derby, New Haven County, CT

499

30. VIEW SOUTHEAST ON SHELTON SIDE OF DAM DURING DEWATERING. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. VIEW SOUTHEAST ON SHELTON SIDE OF DAM DURING DEWATERING. CORNER OF SHELTON LOCKS AND MITRE GATES AT RIGHT. - Ousatonic Water Power Company, Dam & Canals, CT Routes 34 & 108, 1 mile North of Derby-Shelton Bridge, Derby, New Haven County, CT

500

Controlling Works, Section AA at Bear Trap Dam, Section BB ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Controlling Works, Section A-A at Bear Trap Dam, Section B-B at Bear-Trap Dam, Section C-C at Sluice Gate - Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Lockport Controlling Works, Illinois Waterway River Mile 293.2, Lockport, Will County, IL