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1

Reported tailings dam failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed search and re-evaluation of the known historical cases of tailings dam failure was carried out. A corpus of 147 cases of worldwide tailings dam disasters, from which 26 located in Europe, was compiled in a database. This contains six sections, including dam location, its physical and constructive characteristics, actual and putative failure cause, sludge hydrodynamics, socio-economical consequences and

M. Rico; G. Benito; A. R. Salgueiro; A. D ´ õez-Herrero; H. G. Pereira

2008-01-01

2

Floods from tailings dam failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compiles the available information on historic tailings dam failures with the purpose to establish simple correlations between tailings ponds geometric parameters (e.g., dam height, tailings volume) and the hydraulic characteristics of floods resulting from released tailings. Following the collapse of a mining waste dam, only a part of tailings and polluted water stored at the dam is released,

M. Rico; G. Benito; A. Díez-Herrero

2008-01-01

3

Geo-Seismic Environmental Aspects Affecting Tailings Dams Failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic performance evaluations of tailings dams are essential for characterizing the geo- environmental risks posed by these earthen structures, which should include the geotechnical hazards implied by slope instability failure, free board loss and the potential release of contaminants. The observed damage is more important when liquefaction occurs on the dam body and foundation, which often leads to cracking, settlements,

Juan M. Mayoral; Miguel P. Romo

2008-01-01

4

Reported tailings dam failures. A review of the European incidents in the worldwide context.  

PubMed

A detailed search and re-evaluation of the known historical cases of tailings dam failure was carried out. A corpus of 147 cases of worldwide tailings dam disasters, from which 26 located in Europe, was compiled in a database. This contains six sections, including dam location, its physical and constructive characteristics, actual and putative failure cause, sludge hydrodynamics, socio-economical consequences and environmental impacts. Europe ranks in second place in reported accidents (18%), more than one third of them in dams 10-20 m high. In Europe, the most common cause of failure is related to unusual rain, whereas there is a lack of occurrences associated with seismic liquefaction, which is the second cause of tailings dam breakage elsewhere in the world. Moreover, over 90% of incidents occurred in active mines, and only 10% refer to abandoned ponds. The results reached by this preliminary analysis show an urgent need for EU regulations regarding technical standards of tailings disposal. PMID:17854989

Rico, M; Benito, G; Salgueiro, A R; Díez-Herrero, A; Pereira, H G

2008-04-01

5

The tailings dam failures in Maramures county, Romania and their transboundary impacts on the river systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The tailings dam failures that occurred in January and March 2000 in Maramures County northwest Romania, discharged contaminated\\u000a water and sediment directly into river systems that drain into the Tisa River, a major tributary of the River Danube. To ascertain\\u000a the long-term impacts of these spills, a survey of metal contamination in surface water, river channel and floodplain sediment\\u000a in

Paul A. Brewer; Mark G. Macklin; Dan Balteanu; Tom J. Coulthard; Basarab Driga; Andy J. Howard; Graham Bird; Sorin Zaharia; Mihaela Serban

6

A Tragic Disaster Caused by the Failure of Tailings Dams Leads to the Formation of the Stava 1985 Foundation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the dynamics and causes of the Stava disaster, and highlights some risky design procedures that led to the 19 July 1985 tailings dam failure. It then presents the “Stava 1985 Foundation”, which was formed to focus attention on such risks and to strengthen the culture of respect for human lives and safety.

Onofrio Sammarco

2004-01-01

7

River system recovery following the Nova?-Ro?u tailings dam failure, Maramure? County, Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The River Vi?eu catchment in Maramure? County, northwestern Romania, has a long history of base and precious metal mining. Between 1994 and 2003 waste from mining activity at Baia Bor?a was stored in the Nova?-Ro?u tailings pond in the upper Vi?eu catchment. However, in March 2000, the tailings dam failed releasing approximately 100,000m3 of contaminated water and 20,000t of mineral-rich

Graham Bird; Paul A. Brewer; Mark G. Macklin; Dan Balteanu; Mihaela Serban; Basarab Driga; Sorin Zaharia

2008-01-01

8

Determination of the Failure Surface Geometry in Quick Slides Using Balanced Cross Section Techniques - Application to Aznalcóllar Tailings Dam Failure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a landslide investigation, the location of the failure surface is a difficult task when measures of subsurface displacement are lacking, as it occurs in old landslides or in recent but quick ones. The subsurface geological data and ground surface displacement data may not be enough to formulate a unique interpretation of the failure surface. However, an accurate determination of the failure surface is possible when balanced cross section techniques are applied to preliminary interpretations. The former is proved by means of the example of Aznalcóllar dam failure (Seville, Spain).

Moya, José

9

A TALE OF FOUR UPSTREAM TAILINGS DAMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation and performance of four upstream-constructed tailings dams in South America are presented. All four dams were constructed beginning in the 1990's. The juxtaposition of the same design to four sites, each with unique site and operating conditions, led not surprisingly to four different outcomes. These outcomes ranged from outright failure, to construction of a toe buttress, slope flattening,

T. E. Martin; E. C. McRoberts; M. P. Davies

10

Using resistivity measurements for dam safety evaluation at Enemossen tailings dam in southern Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internal erosion is a major reason for embankment dam failures. Resistivity measurements is an essentially non-destructive technique, which may have the possibility of detecting internal erosion processes and anomalous seepage at an early stage before the safety of the dam is at stake. This paper presents results from part of a dam safety investigation conducted at the Enemossen tailings dam

P. Sjödahl; T. Dahlin; S. Johansson

2005-01-01

11

Trends in Tailing Dam Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent releases of tailing effluents and solids from containment facilities around the world, including Mary Spruitt (1994), Omai (1995) and Marcopper (1996), have heightened awareness that risks associated with tailing containment must be fully addressed during all phases of a facility life. Recent studies by independent international organizations (United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 1996; United Stated Committee on Large Dams

Iain G. Bruce; Clint Logue; Lori-Ann Wilchek

12

The long term fate and environmental significance of contaminant metals released by the January and March 2000 mining tailings dam failures in MaramuresCounty, upper Tisa Basin, Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

In January and March 2000 two tailings dam failures in MaramuresCounty, northwest Romania, resulted in the release of 200,000 m3 of contaminated water and 40,000 tonnes of tailings into tributaries of the Tisa River, a major tributary of the Danube. The high concentrations of cyanide and contaminant metals released by these dam failures resulted in pollution and fish deaths not

Paul A. Brewer; Tom J. Coulthard; Andy J. Howard; Sorin Zaharia

13

Stability analysis of a copper tailings dam via laboratory model tests: A Chinese case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upstream method is a popular method for raising tailings dams. Currently in China there are more than 12,000 tailings impoundments and almost 95% of them use the upstream method for the construction of the dam. Statistical data has shown that the tailings impoundment is one of the main sources of risk in the mining industry. Failures of tailings impoundments

Guangzhi Yin; Guangzhi Li; Zuoan Wei; Ling Wan; Guohong Shui; Xiaofei Jing

2011-01-01

14

Dr. G. Ward Wilson 1 Tailings Stability TAILINGS DAM STABILITY  

E-print Network

·construction costs occur over life of mine - lower discounted cash flow, lower cash requirements at startup of mine operator ·planning and scheduling of construction required #12;Dr. G. Ward Wilson 2 TailingsDr. G. Ward Wilson 1 Tailings Stability TAILINGS DAM STABILITY · Construction staged over the life

Boisvert, Jeff

15

Using resistivity measurements for dam safety evaluation at Enemossen tailings dam in southern Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Internal erosion is a major reason for embankment dam failures. Resistivity measurements is an essentially non-destructive technique, which may have the possibility of detecting internal erosion processes and anomalous seepage at an early stage before the safety of the dam is at stake. This paper presents results from part of a dam safety investigation conducted at the Enemossen tailings dam in southern Sweden. Longitudinal resistivity sections, 2D measurements along the dam crest, provided an overview of the whole dam and served to detect anomalous zones. In selected areas, additional cross-sectional 2D surveys gave detailed information about the geo-electrical situations in the embankments. This information is valuable for similar investigations as information about resistivity in embankment construction material is scarce. Known problem areas were associated with low resistivities, even though the resistivity measurements alone did not provide enough information to confidently come to a decision about the status of the dams.

Sjödahl, P.; Dahlin, T.; Johansson, S.

2005-12-01

16

Risk analysis for seismic design of (tailings dams)  

SciTech Connect

Probabilistic seismic risk analysis is a promising method for evaluating design options and establishing seismic design parameters. However, there have been few examples in the literature to guide practitioners in its use. (This paper demonstrates the value of risk analysis for mine tailings dams and provides a case-history application for a seismically active portion of Nevada. Risk analysis provided the basis for selecting among design options having varying liquefaction resistance, and for establishing input parameters for dynamic analysis. Ranges are presented for the quantity and cleanup cost of tailings released in seismic failures to aid in determining expected failure consequences. It is shown that for many tailings dams, accepted lifetime failure probabilities of a few percent may provide a reasonable basis for probabilistic determination of seismic design criteria.)

Vick, S.G.; Atkinson, G.M.; Wilmot, C.I.

1985-07-01

17

Groundwater pollution due to a tailings dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1982, the Oman Mining Company (OMC) commenced copper mining and smelting operations in the area of Sohar (Wadi Suq), Sultanate of Oman. Seawater was used for mining operations until 1993. During this period, 11 million tonnes of tailings had been deposited behind an unlined tailings dam. This has resulted in a major groundwater pollution problem.This paper presents results from

R. S Sharma; T. S Al-Busaidi

2001-01-01

18

Design of tailing dam using red mud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Red mud, waste industrial product from aluminum industries produced approximately 75 million tonnes every year with less than half of this is used. Storage of this unutilized red mud takes vast tracts of usable land and pollutes, land, air and water. Construction of high embankments, under passes, flyovers, tailing dams uses vast tract of natural resources (top soil) is also matter of concern as its takes thousands of years to form the natural soil. This paper discusses use of red mud for construction of tailing dam based on laboratory findings and finite element analysis. The geotechnical properties such as plasticity, compaction, permeability, shear strength characteristics and dispersion of red mud are presented. Stability and seepage analysis of tailing dams as per finite element analysis using the above geotechnical parameters is presented.

Rout, Subrat K.; Sahoo, Tapaswini; Das, Sarat K.

2013-06-01

19

Tailings dams stability analysis using numerical modelling of geotechnical and geophysical data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for monitoring seepage and detecting internal erosion are essential for the safety evaluation of embankment dams. Internal erosion is one of the major reasons for embankment dam failures, and there are thousands of large tailings dams and waste-rock dumps in the world that may pe considered as hotspots for environmental impact. In this research the geophysical survey works were

S. Mihai; M. Zlagnean; I. Oancea; A. Petrescu

2009-01-01

20

FORMATION AND FAILURE OF NATURAL DAMS.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Of the numerous kinds of dams that form by natural processes, dams formed from landslides, glacial ice, and late-neoglacial moraines present the greatest threat to people and property. Landslide dams form a wide range of physiographic settings. The most common types of mass movements that form landslide dams are rock and debris avalanches; rock and soil slumps and slides; and mud, debris, and earth flows. The most common initiation mechanisms for dam-forming landslides are excessive rainfall and snowmelt and earthquakes. Natural dams may cause upstream flooding as the lake rises and downstream flooding as a result of failure of the dam. Although data are few, for the same potential energy at the dam site, downstream flood peaks from the failure of glacier-ice dams are smaller than those from landslide, moraine, and constructed earth-fill and rock-fill dam failures.

Costa, John E.; Schuster, Robert L.

1988-01-01

21

IMPACT PREDICTION OF THE REACTIVATION OF AN UNUSED TAILINGS DAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A frequent occurrence in areas with a long history of mining is the reactivation of mine residue deposits. This paper presents an impact prediction study conducted for the reactivation of a gold tailings dam. Two phases of new tailings deposition are proposed. The objective of the study was to assess the potential impact on downstream groundwater quality. The tailings dam

TERRY HARCK; BERNADETTE AZZIE; CATRIONA COYLE; TALITA GERMISHUYSE; RAVI VADAPALLI; ALBERT VAN ZYL

22

Tailings Dams and Waste-rock Dumps Safety Assessment using 3D Numerical Modelling of Geotechnical and Geophysical Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for monitoring seepage and detecting internal erosion are essential for the safety evaluation of embankment dams. Internal erosion is one of the major reasons for embankment dam failures, and there are thousands of large tailings dams and waste-rock dumps in the world that may pe considered as hotspots for environmental impact. In this research the geophysical survey works were

S. Mihai; I. Oancea; A. Petrescu

2008-01-01

23

Geological impact of some tailings dams in Sardinia, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the results of a survey carried out in Sardinia on both active and abandoned tailings dams, and we also discuss the geological impact of tailings dams of two mines: the Masua mine, a large syngenetic Pb-Zn deposit located in Cambrian limestones, and the Montevecchio mine, a Pb-Zn vein deposit near a Hercynian granite intrusion. The characteristics

Felice Di Gregorio; Raniero Massoli-Novelli

1992-01-01

24

Some considerations in the stability analysis of upstream tailings dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upstream constructed tailings dams represent a significant challenge to the geotechnical engineer in terms of analysis of their stability, in large part because the shear strength of the loose sands and fine grained or \\

T. E. Martin; E. C. McRoberts

25

Lead isotopes as seepage indicators around a uranium tailings dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead isotope ratios and lead concentrations have been measured in water from 26 bores around the Ranger uranium tailings dam, Northern Territory, Australia, and from the dam itself to determine possible migration of lead derived from the radioactive decay of uranium. Lead isotope compositions have also been measured for the particulates retained on selected filters. The concentration of lead in

Brian L. Gulson; Karen J. Mizon; Michael J. Korsch; Barry N. Noller

1989-01-01

26

Fundamental aspects of the flow characteristics of liquefied mine tailings dams  

SciTech Connect

A characteristic common to most tailings dam failures caused by earthquakes or excessive rain storm is that the tailings tend to liquefy and flow for substantial distances as a viscous fluid, with the potential for extensive damage to property and life. Failures of El Cobre, Chile (1965), Mochikoshi, Japan (1978), Aberfan, Wales (1966), Buffalo Creek, West Virginia (1972) are examples of such catastrophic incidents. In these four incidents more than 400 lives were lost, and the loss of property was approximately $200 million. In order to be able to assess the potential for damage in case of such a failure, it is necessary to predict the possible extent of flow slide movement. This paper discusses simple procedures for performing such analyses. Also, in order to illustrate the use of these analysis procedures in tailings dam design, two case histories are analyzed.

Jeyapalan, J.K.

1982-09-01

27

Resonant Column and Cyclic Triaxial Testing of Tailing Dam Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aseries of resonant column and cyclic triaxial tests has been conducted in the frame of the analysis of tailing dam stability during earthquakes, The investigation program for a silty sand fro m uranium tailings is presented. The paper describes the testing procedures and presents all significant results of these experiments, Single-stage and multi-stage resonant co­ lumn tests were performed in

S. A. Savidis; C. Vrettos

28

Primary vegetative growth on an old tailings dam, Zawar mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tailings containing toxic qualities of heavy metals are a potential source of pollution. Stabilisation by vegetative methods have been found the most effective. In an attempt to vegetate tailings dams it has been noted that while certain milky latex containing plants can be grown without any preconditioning of the soil, almost any plant can be grown after proper conditioning. However,

D. M. R. Sekhar; M. R. Jakhu

1983-01-01

29

Geological impact of some tailings dams in Sardinia, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article deals with the results of a survey carried out in Sardinia on both active and abandoned tailings dams, and we also discuss the geological impact of tailings dams of two mines: the Masua mine, a large syngenetic Pb-Zn deposit located in Cambrian limestones, and the Montevecchio mine, a Pb-Zn vein deposit near a Hercynian granite intrusion. The characteristics and metal content of material in the dams were analyzed. A high contamination of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu) was found both in the soils and water of Rio Montevecchio, a stream draining the tailings dams and other mining operations in the area. The study indicates that a control plan to minimize heavy metal pollution must be drawn up for all mines of the area, whether active or abandoned.

di Gregorio, Felice; Massoli-Novelli, Raniero

1992-05-01

30

Lead isotopes as seepage indicators around a uranium tailings dam  

SciTech Connect

Lead isotope ratios and lead concentrations have been measured in water from 26 bores around the Ranger uranium tailings dam, Northern Territory, Australia, and from the dam itself to determine possible migration of lead derived from the radioactive decay of uranium. Lead isotope compositions have also been measured for the particulates retained on selected filters. The concentration of lead in the bore waters is extremely low (usually < 1 ppb). The /sup 206/Pb//sup 204/Pb ratio measured in the bore waters differs by more than a factor of 100 from that in the tailings dam and shows no evidence of lead derived from a significant uranium accumulation. It may be possible to distinguish between lead from the tailings dam and that derived from a nearby uranium ore body.

Gulson, B.L.; Mizon, K.J.; Korsch, M.J.; Noller, B.N.

1989-03-01

31

Risk analysis for seismic design of (tailings dams)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probabilistic seismic risk analysis is a promising method for evaluating design options and establishing seismic design parameters. However, there have been few examples in the literature to guide practitioners in its use. (This paper demonstrates the value of risk analysis for mine tailings dams and provides a case-history application for a seismically active portion of Nevada. Risk analysis provided the

Steven G. Vick; Gail M. Atkinson; Charles I. Wilmot

1985-01-01

32

Characterization of pore pressure conditions in upstream tailings dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional upstream tailings dams are unique structures in that their shear strength and pore pressure conditions are often difficult to characterize, particularly during the design stage. Selection of shear strength models based on understanding contractant versus dilatant, and drained versus undrained, behaviour in shear was the subject of a companion paper. This paper addresses the complexity of proper characterization of

T. E. Martin

33

Investigation of environmental impacts of tailings dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining has been one of the key sectors for industrialisation of the world for centuries. As the mining activities enlarge, the amount of waste materials readily increases. Storage of waste materials or tailings disposal has become a serious matter for the mining industry due to its enlargement especially for the last 30 years. During the beneficiation of valuable metals and

Safak Ozkan; Bedri Ipekoglu

2002-01-01

34

Estimation of the Variability of Tailings Dams Properties in Order to Perform Probabilistic Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dams are often used for storing mine tailings. These structures present failure mechanisms that can lead to major risks for\\u000a surrounding populations. In view to managing these risks, it is necessary to take a probabilistic approach in predicting their\\u000a behaviour. The application of such approaches is limited by the difficulty of obtaining experimental data to estimate the\\u000a variability of the

A. Gabriel Villavicencio; Pierre Breul; Claude Bacconnet; Daniel Boissier; A. Raúl Espinace

35

Erosion control on tailings dams using soil bioengineering  

SciTech Connect

Increased awareness of the complexity of ecosystems has generated the need to integrate all facets of mining into the development of sustainable environmental management plans. Environmental management goals that may previously have concentrated on final closure of the mine are now becoming part of the preliminary planning and day-to-day activities of new mines, and are being integrated into planning goals of established operations. These management goals must address all components of a mining operation, including those relating to long-term maintenance of tailings areas. The long-term maintenance of tailings dams presents a challenge to the operations and reclamation divisions of minesites. Reducing, and eventually eliminating long-term maintenance and monitoring of surface slope stability on tailings dams has been identified as a cost-effective measure that can lead to the diversification of natural systems. An application of bioengineering techniques on a tailings dam at the INCO Limited Copper Cliff tailings complex is the focus of this poster. Soil bioengineering is a slope stabilization technique that uses dormant live plant material as the major engineering component. Unrooted live vegetation is installed on the slope, which provides immediate stabilization. Roots and shoots then develop to form a permanent vegetative cover and root reinforcing matrix. Bioengineered slopes strengthen over time as the root matrix develops, and provide a microclimate for the invasion of natural species, thus encouraging biodiversity and successional development. Live fascines were installed in the fall of 1994 on the face of the dam to slow the velocity of surface water runoff and to facilitate subsurface water movement in saturated conditions. The structures performed extremely well during their first growing season, and are currently being monitored to assess long-term performance.

Miller, M.

1996-12-31

36

Application to monitoring of tailings dam based on 3D laser scanning technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presented a new method of monitoring of tailing dam based on 3D laser scanning technology and gave the method flow of acquiring and processing the tailing dam data. Taking the measured data for example, the author analyzed the dam deformation by generating the TIN, DEM and the curvature graph, and proved that it's feasible to global monitor the tailing dam using 3D laser scanning technology from the theory and method.

Ren, Fang; Zhang, Aiwu

2011-06-01

37

Geochemical modeling of cyanide in tailing dam gold processing plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research is aimed at investigating possible neutralization of cyanide in tailing dam of Muteh gold processing plant in Isfahan, Iran at various conditions such as pH and temperature using USEPA Visual MINTEQ geochemical model simulation. The model is based on geochemical equilibrium which uses the simultaneous solution of the non-linear mass action expressions and linear mass balance relationships to formulate and solve the multiple-component chemical equilibrium problems. In this study the concentration of aqueous species in tailing dam as an aqueous, solid and gaseous were used as input in the model. Temperature and pH variation were simulated. The results of the model indicated that cyanide may be complexes in 10 < pH < 5. In other pH values complexation is not important. The results also indicated that cyanide reduction mechanism in acidic pH and temperature above 30°C is due to cyanide acid formation which is vaporized.

Khodadadi, Ahmad; Monjezi, M.; Mehrpouya, H.; Dehghani, H.

2009-09-01

38

Geochemical modeling of cyanide in tailing dam gold processing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research is aimed at investigating possible neutralization of cyanide in tailing dam of Muteh gold processing plant in\\u000a Isfahan, Iran at various conditions such as pH and temperature using USEPA Visual MINTEQ geochemical model simulation. The\\u000a model is based on geochemical equilibrium which uses the simultaneous solution of the non-linear mass action expressions and\\u000a linear mass balance relationships to

Ahmad Khodadadi; M. Monjezi; H. Mehrpouya; H. Dehghani

2009-01-01

39

Fractal character of lenticles and its influence on sediment state in tailings dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of tailings lenticles reflects the sediment state of tailing dam, and has a great influence on the stability\\u000a of the dam. In order to disclose the distribution law of tailings lenticles in theory, 12 geological cross-sections, including\\u000a 7 cross-sections of tailings dam constructed by the upstream method and 5 cross-sections by the middle line method, were analyzed\\u000a with

Wei-dong Jiang

2005-01-01

40

Tailings dams stability analysis using numerical modelling of geotechnical and geophysical data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods for monitoring seepage and detecting internal erosion are essential for the safety evaluation of embankment dams. Internal erosion is one of the major reasons for embankment dam failures, and there are thousands of large tailings dams and waste-rock dumps in the world that may pe considered as hotspots for environmental impact. In this research the geophysical survey works were performed on Cetatuia 2 tailings dam. Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) method was able to detect spatially anomalous zones inside the embankment dam. These anomalies are the results of internal erosion phenomena which may progressing inside the dam and is difficult to detect by conventional methods. Data aquired by geophysical survey together with their interpretations were used in the numerical model for slope stability assessment. The final results show us the structural weakness induced by the presence of internal erosion elements especially for seismic loading case. This research methodology may be also available for tailings dam monitoring purposes. Electrical Rezistivity Imaging (ERI) was performed on Cetatuia 2 dam at the Uranium Milling Plant Feldioara, in order to map areas with lateral and vertical changes in resistivity. The electrodes are connected to an automated computer operated switch box that selects the 4 electrodes to be used. A computer controls the switch box and the measuring device, and runs a program that selects the electrodes, makes the measurement, and stores the measurement. For inversion processing procedures was used Res2Din software. The measured resistivity were plotted by the pseudo section contouring method. There are five resistivity pseudosections obtained from the Cetatuia 2 tailings dam during the october 2007 measurements. Four transversal profiles trans1 to trans4 are perpendicular to the berms and the longitudinal one long1 is placed along dam's crest. The high resistivities near the berms surfaces corresponds to unsaturated fill materials and the low resistivities near the crest correspond to water saturated material. The resistivities values greater then 80 ohm.m may be explained by some error obtained for that inversion model. Profiles trans3 and trans4 were measured on perpendicular directions to berm alignment and show two distinct zones. The upward low resistivities zone correspond to water saturated materials especially from the compacted clay dam's core and the downward high resistivities zone belongs to unsaturated fill materials. The boundary between high and low resistivity at the depth of about 5 to 7 meters shows the groundwater level. The continuation of the high resistivity zones towards the end of the profile trans3, which is different from other profiles is probably due to the presence of dry coarse materials in shallow depth correspondingly to sandy clay. The sand fractions from the clay matrix may be affected by internal erosional phenomena, due to seepage currents that overpassed the material critical gradient. In this case the relative high resistivities values were considered as a presumptive erosional pattern. This profile was considered for the slope stability finite element modelling. The profile long1 which is placed along dam's crest is the longest profiles and extends up to nearly 420 m. The boundary between high and low resistivity at the depth of about 4 to 8 meters shows the groundwater across the dam core. The central part of the profile (about meter 200) shows the same relative high resistivities that occurred on transversal profile trans3. Resistivity data was used for building the 3D electrical resistivity model. The water saturated materials have locations very close to dam's crest (resistivity values usually lower then 10 ohm.m) and on both dam's arms. The groundwater levels were confirmed by the piezometric measurements. Electrical Rezistivity Imaging method had the possibility to show the most important disturbant elements that in certain conditions may weak the dam's state of safety. This study considered the SSR (Shear Strength Reduction) technique for sl

Mihai, S.; Zlagnean, M.; Oancea, I.; Petrescu, A.

2009-04-01

41

Dams and Dam Failure - Module 1: Terminology and Open Channel Hydraulics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the first module of a two-part series offering an introduction to the science explaining catastrophic dam failure and flood-wave prediction methods associated with these events. Through use of rich illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module explains key terminology and concepts including dam types and purposes, failure statistics, the general dam failure process, open channel hydraulics, critical flow, Manning's equation, and conveyance. The information covered in this two module series will provide a scientific foundation for advanced course work needed to run dam break simulations and to conduct hydraulic modeling as a part of dynamic wave forecasting.

Comet

2008-03-19

42

Physical modeling of tailings dams using centrifuge simulation techniques  

SciTech Connect

The development of the phreatic surface in a stable tailings dam is investigated by using centrifuge simulation techniques and analytical techniques. The centrifuge simulations, conducted on an 8 m (25 ft) radius machine, uses a modeling-of-models approach to determine the effects of scaling and model construction on the development of the phreatic surface. The analytical and numerical techniques include predictions of the effects of scaling on the development of the phreatic surface, determination of the location of the steady-state phreatic surface in a full scale prototype dam, and determination of the stability of a prototype dam in terms of the conventional factor-of-safety. While these analyses indicate that there should be no scaling effect on the steady-state phreatic surface, tests run at over 100 g scaling show a rise in the phreatic surface with increasing g load. Numerical predictions of the steady-state phreatic surface compare well with data taken below 100 g scaling.

Sutherland, H.J.; Rechard, R.P.

1982-08-01

43

Rehabilitation of a tailing dam at Shimen County, Hunan Province: Effectiveness assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of phytoremediation on a tailing dam located in Shimen County, Hunan Province. Quadrat survey method was employed to investigate and sample the dominant plant species growing on the rehabilitated tailing dam. The fertilities of the soils were assessed, and concentrations of arsenic and other heavy metals in the plant and soil samples

Yan-Ming Zhu; Chao-Yang Wei; Lin-Sheng Yang

2010-01-01

44

The role of capillary water in the stability of tailing dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tailings storage facilities are complex geotechnical structures. The present paper focuses on the study of a case-history, a tailing dam from the nickel industry located in Cuba, with the objective of gaining knowledge about the geotechnical behaviour of such structures. The dam behaviour was modelled by means of a coupled hydro-mechanical finite element formulation. Due to the low permeability of

María T. Zandarín; Luciano A. Oldecop; Roberto Rodríguez; Francisco Zabala

2009-01-01

45

Dams and Dam Failure - Module 2: St. Venant Equations, Modeling, and Case Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This second module in the two-part series expands on the science explaining catastrophic dam failure and flood-wave prediction methods associated with these events. Through the use of rich illustrations and interactions, this module introduces the St. Venant equations for dynamic wave flow, and flood wave characteristics. It also explains the general dam failure modeling process along with advantages and limitations of dam failure models including model stability, accuracy, and sensitivity issues. Finally, it also provides an overview of the Teton River dam failure, one of the most famous hydrologic events in U.S. history. The two modules that comprise this series are designed to be taken consecutively and together provide a fundamental understanding of this complex hydrologic topic.

Comet

2008-08-25

46

Quasi-stable Slope-Failure Dams in High Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collapses of steep mountain slopes in the Himalaya, Karakoram, Pamir, Hindu Kush, and Tibetan Plateau are well known as a result of:(1) generally high seismicity in active tectonic areas; (2) prior deglaciation leaving undercut, unstable cliffs; (3) present-day debuttressing of rock cliffs by glacial down-wasting in conditions of global warming; and (4) degradation of permafrost cohesion and water-ice cementation in high mountain slopes. Landslide dams across mountain rivers are also well known worldwide and generally do not endure for long because of the common landslide-lake outburst floods (LLOF) whose discharge is commonly sufficiently large to remove much of the dam in a short time. A number of massive slope-failure dams in south High Asia, however, have endured for centuries and require explanations for the length of duration, whereas recent examples require robust assessment for better predictive hazard analysis. Three main factors contribute to longevity of slope-failure dams: (1) mega-rocks >15-30 m that inhibit dam failure in overflow breaches; (2) mega-porosity wherein incoming discharge to the landslide lake is balanced by subterranean water through-flow within the landslide dam; (3) impermeable clay fills caused by remobilization of prior lacustrine-dammed sediment that impart dam strength to allow lasting integrity for a time, and (4) climate-change induced lake-level lowering. Several examples of long-lived or unusually stable, slope-failure dams associated with pronounced structural/tectonic associations include: (1) Pangong Tso, Ladakh and Tibet; (2) Lake Shewa, Afghanistan; (3) Sarez Lake, Tajikistan; and (4) Lake Hunza, Pakistan. Pangong Tso and Lake Shewa were emplaced thousands of years ago and only Lake Shewa shows some instability of the dam front where percolating water maintains lake level but may be causing new slumping. Sarez Lake behind the Usoi landslide dam was emplaced by an earthquake in 1911 and maintains its level by seepage. Lake Hunza developed behind a new landslide dam in 2010 but remobilized lacustrine clay from a prior damming event and large blocks have maintained dam integrity in spite of overflow beginning 29 May 2010. Character and condition of landslide dams clearly controls whether LLOF or stability will prevail.

Shroder, J. F.

2010-12-01

47

Dynamic model failure tests of dam structures Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China  

E-print Network

Dynamic model failure tests of dam structures Gao Lin Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China ABSTRACT: For the earthquake safety evaluation of dam structures, it is desirable to extend failure tests of a number of concrete gravity dams, concrete arch dams and embankment dams have been

Spencer Jr., B.F.

48

Physical modeling of marginally stable tailings dams using centrifuge simulation techniques  

SciTech Connect

The stability of a marginally stable tailings dam is investigated using centrifuge simulations and flow and stability analyses. The centrifuge simulations are conducted on Sandia's large radius machine using tailings from a coal mine. Pore pressure measurements and photographic coverage of the phreatic surface permit the determination of the flow field developed in the dam. The simulations investigate the effects of packing density and particle size distribution on the stability of a dam. The results illustrate that an increase in packing density can increase the stability of the embankment and that the addition of slurried fines to the embankment affects stability by changing the properties of the tailings used to construct the dam and by limiting the discharge of water from the reservoir through the dam. For the tailings studied here, the increase in packing density and fines increases the stability of the dam by changing the material properties of the tailings. However, these changes also restrict the flow through the embankment and thereby reduce the stability of the dam by raising the level of both the reservoir and the phreatic surface. The addition of fines into the reservoir dramatically lowers the position of the phreatic surface by restricting the flow of water into the dam. The effect of this decreased flow is to increase the stability of the embankment, if over-topping of the dam does not occur. 14 references, 15 figures, 2 tables.

Sutherland, H.J.; Rechard, R.P.; Heckes, A.A.

1984-02-01

49

Failure analysis of the granite for a dam foundation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the numerical and experimental investigation of a dam foundation. The site consists of granite and especially weathered granite. Numerical and analytical analyses have been conducted to evaluate suitability of the granite for a dam foundation. Mohr Coulomb failure criterion has been used to calculate the compressive strength of the rock mass. Finite element implementation of Mohr Coulomb criterion has been used for deformation and settlement analysis. Packer testing and in-situ estimation of rock mass deformability using the Goodman jack have been performed. The results of the evaluations show that very small normal and differential settlements can be expected in structural regions due to dam construction, and the compacted concrete dam can safely be constructed on either the competent granite or the weathered granite. However, the dam foundation on the weathered granite has high conductivity potential problems for the reservoir.

Arslan, Haydar; Rosassanchez, Leonardo

2008-05-01

50

Failure analysis of the granite for a dam foundation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the numerical and experimental investigation of a dam foundation. The site consists of granite and especially\\u000a weathered granite. Numerical and analytical analyses have been conducted to evaluate suitability of the granite for a dam\\u000a foundation. Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion has been used to calculate the compressive strength of the rock mass. Finite element\\u000a implementation of Mohr–Coulomb criterion has

Haydar Arslan; Leonardo Rosassanchez

2008-01-01

51

Field investigations and laboratory simulation of clogging in Lixi tailings dam of Jinduicheng, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clogging is one of the most important factors affecting the stability of the tailings dams. Firstly, this work investigates the clogging materials of Lixi tailings dam using ICP-AES, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and SEM analysis methods. The ICP-AES results indicate that Fe is the dominant element in the clogging materials. The iron contents of clogging samples collected from 2# radial-well

Jun Wu; Yanqing Wu; Jian Lu; Leonora Lee

2007-01-01

52

Laboratory study of the clogging process and factors affecting clogging in a tailings dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory simulation of clogging in the Lixi tailings dam (Shaanxi Province, China) is urgently required because clogging is an important factor affecting the dam stability. This work firstly presents the results of ferrous iron oxidation experiments using buffer solution. The results indicate that the ferrous iron oxidation follows first order kinetics, and the oxidation process is strongly dependent on pH,

Jun Wu; Yanqing Wu; Jian Lu

2008-01-01

53

Close-range photogrammetric reconstruction of moraine dam failures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) from moraine-dammed lakes represent a high magnitude, low frequency catastrophic glacio-fluvial phenomena, with the potential to cause significant damage to property and infrastructure in high-mountain regions. Detailed accounts of GLOF dynamics, in particular the initiation and propagation of dam breaching are extremely rare, owing to their occurrence in often remote, inaccessible areas, as well as the impracticalities associated with attempting to directly instrument such high magnitude, turbulent flows. In addition to the dearth of detailed, first-hand observations of dam failures, reconstruction of breaches and failure mechanisms derived from morphological evidence is hampered by the lack of high-quality, high-resolution DTMs of remote alpine areas. Previous studies have therefore resorted to the use of coarse resolution data products (SRTM, ASTER GDEM) to quantify characteristics of failure events, e.g. pre-flood lake volume, dam height/width, which may give rise to considerable uncertainty in related numerical simulations and assessments of downstream flood hazards. In this paper we employ a novel low-cost, close-range photogrammetric technique, termed 'Structure-from-Motion' (SfM) to provide detailed in-situ reconstructions of dam and valley topography for two moraine dam complexes which have produced historical GLOFs in the Khumbu Himal, Nepal. Requiring little more than a consumer-grade digital camera and suitable ground control for implementation, the resolution of the final data products are comparable to that obtained using ground-based or airborne LiDAR. These data facilitate the extraction of precise estimates of dam (and breach) geometry, volumes of water and sediment removed during the outburst events, and the downstream channel topography. We conclude by directly comparing such key metrics derived from low-resolution topographic datasets, with those acquired in situ using the SfM technique, and discuss the implications for the reconstruction of flood dynamics.

Westoby, M. J.; Brasington, J.; Glasser, N. F.; Hambrey, M. J.; Reynolds, J. M.

2012-04-01

54

Signature of Rhine Valley sturzstrom dam failures in Holocene sediments of Lake Constance, Germany  

E-print Network

Signature of Rhine Valley sturzstrom dam failures in Holocene sediments of Lake Constance, Germany 4 November 2003; received in revised form 12 April 2004; accepted 26 April 2004 Abstract Landslide-dammed that the hyperpycnite deposits are directly related to the failure of two sturzstrom dams and the draining of the dammed

Gilli, Adrian

55

Estimating Overall Risk of Dam Failure: Practical Considerations in Combining Failure Probabilities ANCOLD 2003 Risk Workshop Page 1  

E-print Network

Estimating Overall Risk of Dam Failure: Practical Considerations in Combining Failure Probabilities IN COMBINING FAILURE PROBABILITIES Peter Hill1 , David Bowles2 , Phillip Jordan3 and Rory Nathan4 ABSTRACT the probability of failure of dams. The majority of risk guidelines relate to the total probability of failure

Bowles, David S.

56

Late Pleistocene earthquake-triggered moraine dam failure and outburst of Lake Zurich, Switzerland  

E-print Network

Late Pleistocene earthquake-triggered moraine dam failure and outburst of Lake Zurich, Switzerland hazardous in glaciated areas throughout the world because dams can fail suddenly producing destructive of $20,600 m3 sÃ?1 . We also discuss long-term causes and short-term trigger mechanisms of the dam failure

Gilli, Adrian

57

On the liquefaction failure of an earth dam  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to better assess the potential for sliding and liquefaction failure of earthen dams when subjected to earthquake loadings, a dynamic finite element approach focusing on these two failure mechanisms as well as on the vital role of the pore water pressure was undertaken. The constitutive response of the granular soil skeleton and its coupling with the fluid phase is formulated based on the Blot dynamic equations of motion. The constitutive model for the soil material was assumed to be linear with nonlinear terms included in the hysteretic damping terms. Despite the linear character of this theoretical model, one can still draw important conclusions regarding the stability and the liquefaction resistance of the cross-section. As an example, a hypothetical earth dam constructed over a saturated soil layer was considered. The steady state conditions of in-situ stress and pore pressure distributions in both the embankment and the foundation are evaluated and implemented in the stability and liquefaction criteria in conjunction with the dynamic analysis. The latter is carried out in the frequency domain and it reflects the response of the dam-foundation system to a seismic excitation. The computational aspect of the study is performed with finite element analysis. A transmitting boundary formulation for the two phase material was used to treat the infinite space problem. It is anticipated that the intensity of the earthquake input and certain soil properties have a profound effect on the failure susceptibility of the dam section. To address the uncertainties regarding the true values of such parameters, the analysis considered them parametrically.

Simos, N.; Reich, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Costantino, C.J. [City Coll., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1993-12-01

58

NRC inventory of dams  

SciTech Connect

The NRC Inventory of Dams has been prepared as required by the charter of the NRC Dam Safety Officer. The inventory lists 51 dams associated with nuclear power plant sites and 14 uranium mill tailings dams (licensed by NRC) in the US as of February 1, 1982. Of the 85 listed nuclear power plants (148 units), 26 plants obtain cooling water from impoundments formed by dams. The 51 dams associated with the plants are: located on a plant site (29 dams at 15 plant sites); located off site but provide plant cooling water (18 dams at 11 additional plant sites); and located upstream from a plant (4 dams) - they have been identified as dams whose failure, and ensuing plant flooding, could result in a radiological risk to the public health and safety. The dams that might be considered NRC's responsibility in terms of the federal dam safety program are identified. This group of dams (20 on nuclear power plant sites and 14 uranium mill tailings dams) was obtained by eliminating dams that do not pose a flooding hazard (e.g., submerged dams) and dams that are regulated by another federal agency. The report includes the principal design features of all dams and related useful information.

Lear, G.E.; Thompson, O.O.

1983-01-01

59

The use of electroosmotic technique to improve safety conditions of abandoned tailing dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A considerable number of tailing dams is scattered all over the abandoned mining districts of Sardinia. Some of them are actually huge and represent dangerous sources of contaminant diffusion in soil and underground water. Due to the volume of the basins, the best remediation strategy appears to be the construction of low permeability barriers both at the basin bottom and

Battista Grosso; Marco Cigagna; Pier Paolo Manca; Paolo Troncia

60

A New Method for System Reliability Analysis of Tailings Dam Stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the purpose of stability evaluation, a tailings dam can be considered as an artificial slope made of special soil materials which mainly come from mine tailings. As a particular engineering project, a tailings dam generally has experienced multi-loop hydraulic sediments as well as a long-term consolidation in the process of construction. The characteristics of sediment and consolidation result in a unique distribution of the soil layers with significant uncertainties, which come from both nature development and various human activities, and thus cause the discrete and the variability of the physical-mechanical properties dramatically greater than the natural geo-materials. Therefore, the location of critical slip surface (CSS) of the dam usually presents a notable drift. So, it means that the reliability evaluation task for a tailings dam is a system reliability problem indeed. Unfortunately, the previous research of reliability of tailings dam was mainly confined to the limit equilibrium method (LEM), which has three obvious drawbacks. First, it just focused on the variability along the slip surface rather than the whole space of the dam. Second, a fixed CSS, instead of variable one, was concerned in most cases. Third, the shape of the CSS was usually simplified to a circular. The present paper tried to construct a new reliability analysis model combined with several advanced techniques involving finite difference method (FDM), Monte Carlo simulation (MCS), support vector machine (SVM) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). The new framework was consisted of four modules. The first one is the limit equilibrium finite difference mode, which employed the FLAC3D code to generate stress fields and then used PSO algorithm to search the location of CSS and corresponding minimum factor of safety (FOS). The most value of this module was that each realization of stress field would lead to a particular CSS and its FOS. In other words, the consideration of the drift of CSS was significant to system reliability analysis. Besides, the CSS was described with non-circular shape, which was much more superior to the circular one. Moreover, compare with the LEM, the numerical method has the ability to reflect the variability in a whole space of the dam. The second one is the orthogonal design modules aimed to generate high-quality training samples according to the variability of soil layers. The third one is the response surface model based on SVM, which was designed to obtain the explicit performance function through the well-prepared training samples. The fourth one is the MCS model, which can perform steady and effective reliability analysis through the explicit performance function. As a result, a new approach for reliability analysis of tailings dam stability was presented. As a case study, the Yong-ping Copper Mine Tailings Dam in Jiangxi Province of China was analyzed in detail by this new method. It was shown that the effectiveness of the new method is considerable. In sum, this research is geared towards providing new ideas and available examples for future reliability assessment of tailings dam stability.

Liu, X.; Tang, H.; Xiong, C.; Ni, W.

2012-12-01

61

RISK-BASED EVALUATION OF OPERATING RESTRICTIONS TO REDUCE THE RISK OF EARTHQUAKE-INDUCED DAM FAILURE  

E-print Network

RISK-BASED EVALUATION OF OPERATING RESTRICTIONS TO REDUCE THE RISK OF EARTHQUAKE-INDUCED DAM and consequences of an Earthquake-induced dam failure. The potential for both a sudden overtopping failure on the seismic performance of the dam, the potential life loss and economic consequences of Earthquake

Bowles, David S.

62

Groundwater Flow and Salt Transport at a Sand Tailings Dam: Field Observations and Modelling Results.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large volumes of sand tailings are produced during the extraction of bitumen from the oil sands of Northeastern Alberta. The long-term groundwater response and subsequent movement of water and solutes within the large permeable sand tailings storage areas is uncertain. At the Southwest Sand Storage (SWSS) Facility, located at Syncrude's Mildred Lake operations near Ft. McMurray, there is concern that salts from the tailings water may discharge to newly placed reclamation material that covers the sand tailings. This saline discharge water could destroy the reclamation soil structure and negatively impact vegetation. The steady-state groundwater flow and transient movement of salts at the local (bench and slope) and intermediate (pile) scales in the SWSS are investigated. Water levels, seepage and groundwater quality (including TDS) have been measured for over a year along two transects of piezometers installed in the SWSS. The field data have been used to complete traditional hydrogeological interpretations of the site, and to develop a conceptual model of flow and transport. The local and intermediate flow systems and salt transport in the dam are being evaluated with numerical models. The models will allow possible future hydrogeological behaviour of the structure to be tested. Preliminary results show differences in flow systems and salinity distribution that depend on the deposition of the SWSS. This research will facilitate better long-term environmental management of this and similar sites.

Price, A. C.; Mendoza, C. A.

2004-05-01

63

The 27 May 1937 catastrophic flow failure of gold tailings at Tlalpujahua, Michoacán, México  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 27 May 1937, after one week of sustained heavy rainfall, a voluminous flood caused the death of at least 300 people and the destruction of the historic El Carmen church and several neighborhoods in the mining region of Tlalpujahua, Michoacán, central Mexico. This destructive flood was triggered by the breaching of the impoundment of the Los Cedros tailings and the sudden release of 16 Mt of water-saturated waste materials. The muddy silty flood, moving at estimated speeds of 20-25 m s-1, was channelized along the Dos Estrellas and Tlalpujahua drainages and devastated everything along its flow path. After advancing 2.5 km downstream, the flood slammed into El Carmen church and surrounding houses at estimated speeds of ~7 m s-1, destroying many of construction walls and covering the church floor with ~2 m of mud and debris. Eyewitness accounts and newspaper articles, together with analysis of archived photographic materials, indicated that the flood consisted of three muddy pulses. This interpretation is confirmed and extended by the results of our geological investigations during 2013 and 2014. Stratigraphic relations and granulometric data for selected proximal and distal samples show that the flood behaved as a hyperconcentrated flow along most of its trajectory. Even though premonitory signs of possible impoundment failure were reported days before the flood, and people living downstream were alerted, authorities ordered no evacuations or other mitigative actions. The catastrophic flood at Tlalpujahua provides a well-documented, though tragic, example of impoundment breaching of a tailings dam caused by the combined effects of intense rainfall, dam weakness, and inadequate emergency-management protocols - unfortunately an all too common case-scenario for most of the world's mining regions.

Macías, J. L.; Corona-Chávez, P.; Sanchéz-Núñez, J. M.; Martínez-Medina, M.; Garduño-Monroy, V. H.; García-Tenorio, F.; Cisneros-Máximo, G.

2014-08-01

64

CRITERIA USED TO IDENTIFY THE RISKS OF MAJOR ACCIDENTAL POLLUTION FOR THE WATERS OF THE TAILING DAMS IN ROMANIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implementation of the recently amended Seveso II Directive, which relates to the prevention of major accidents involving hazardous substances, brings additional uncertainties, due to the lack of a certain assessment of the risks and record data gathered at European level in regards to specific risk sources, as well as tailings dams containing hazardous chemicals. This document identifies major advantages

Septimius Mara; Mihai Tanasescu; Alexandru Ozunu; Serban-Nicolae Vlad

65

Use of stone wool by-products in the construction of sanitary landfills and tailing dams.  

PubMed

The delay of the introduction of a used item or residual material in the "waste circuit" is a key factor of an effective and environmentally sound waste management policy. This principle has been fully adopted by the European legislation and consequently, in most of the member countries. In the same time, re-use of low cost materials or, even better, by-products in environment protection works (sanitary landfills, mineral processing residues dams, etc.) could make easier the effective implementation of an environmentally sound waste management policy, especially in developing countries. However, the assessment of the recovery options has to be performed on the basis of proper technical specifications concerning the kind of reuse proposed and of an accurate investigation on the technical and environmental properties of the residue. The present article reports the results of a research programme aiming at evaluating the feasibility of use of stone wool by-products, usually directly disposed in landfills, as construction materials for sanitary landfills and tailing dams. PMID:15137703

Grosso, Battista; Muntoni, Aldo; Carucci, Alessandra; Cigagna, Marco; Virdis, Bernardino

2004-01-01

66

Laboratory study of the clogging process and factors affecting clogging in a tailings dam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory simulation of clogging in the Lixi tailings dam (Shaanxi Province, China) is urgently required because clogging is an important factor affecting the dam stability. This work firstly presents the results of ferrous iron oxidation experiments using buffer solution. The results indicate that the ferrous iron oxidation follows first order kinetics, and the oxidation process is strongly dependent on pH, a higher pH resulting in a higher oxidation rate. Furthermore, when the pH exceeds 7.0, the oxidation rate constant increases significantly. Secondly, a column experiment was carried out under the conditions of the pH ranging from 6.8 to 7.5 and the natural oxygen supply. Ferrous iron oxidation and precipitation were found to reach equilibrium under these conditions. After 23 days, the column experiment was stopped when the clogging materials blocked the column outlet. The clogging materials were found to be a mixture of ferric hydroxide and its converted products, and these existed in amorphous form with a loose cluster microstructure according to the results of XRD and SEM.

Wu, Jun; Wu, Yanqing; Lu, Jian

2008-05-01

67

Dams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

National Geographic's Dams Web site offers an interactive investigation into the good and bad impacts of dam construction. Visitors choose to view a river system before, during, or after a dam is built. Then at each time interval they can click on various sections of the river and read a short description of what is happening there. For example, after the dam is built, the reservoir that is created upstream causes several hydrological problems such as loss of water from evaporation. Although the text provided on the site is somewhat lacking, the well-done graphics and interactivity make it worth a visit.

1997-01-01

68

Seismic analysis of the Par Pond Dam: Study of slope failure and liquefaction. Technical evaluation report  

SciTech Connect

Stability concerns of the Par Pond Dam, an embankment structure in the Savannah River Site complex, resulted in a comprehensive evaluation of the state of its integrity. Specifically, excessive seepage through the embankment, slope failure due to an earthquake event as well as liquefaction potential of the embankment and the foundation are addressed and the potential of failure is evaluated. Lastly, remedial benefits of the addition of a berm structure are also assessed.

Simos, N.; Reich, M.

1994-07-01

69

Dams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through eight lessons, students are introduced to many facets of dams, including their basic components, the common types (all designed to resist strong forces), their primary benefits (electricity generation, water supply, flood control, irrigation, recreation), and their importance (historically, currently and globally). Through an introduction to kinetic and potential energy, students come to understand how dams generate electricity. They learn about the structure, function and purpose of locks, which involves an introduction to Pascal's law, water pressure and gravity. Other lessons introduce students to common environmental impacts of dams and the engineering approaches to address them. They learn about the life cycle of salmon and the many engineered dam structures that aid in their river passage, as they think of their own methods and devices that could help fish migrate past dams. Students learn how dams and reservoirs become part of the Earth's hydrologic cycle, focusing on the role of evaporation. To conclude, students learn that dams do not last forever; they require ongoing maintenance, occasionally fail or succumb to "old age," or are no longer needed, and are sometimes removed. Through associated hands-on activities, students track their personal water usage; use clay and plastic containers to model and test four types of dam structures; use paper cups and water to learn about water pressure and Pascal's Law; explore kinetic energy by creating their own experimental waterwheel from two-liter plastic bottles; collect and count a stream's insects to gauge its health; play an animated PowerPoint game to quiz their understanding of the salmon life cycle and fish ladders; run a weeklong experiment to measure water evaporation and graph their data; and research eight dams to find out and compare their original purposes, current status, reservoir capacity and lifespan. Woven throughout the unit is a continuing hypothetical scenario in which students act as consulting engineers with a Splash Engineering firm, assisting Thirsty County in designing a dam for Birdseye River.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

70

DAM Safety and Deformation Monitoring in Dams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is the life and necessity to water is increasing day by day with respect to the World population, rising of living standards and destruction of nature. Thus, the importance of water and water structures have been increasing gradually. Dams are among the most important engineering structures used for water supplies, flood controls, agricultural purposes as well as drinking and hydroelectric power. There are about 150.000 large size dams in the World. Especially after the Second World War, higher and larger capacity dams have been constructed. Dams create certain risks like the other manmade structures. No one knows precisely how many dam failures have occurred in the World, whereas hundreds of dam failures have occurred throughout the U.S. history. Some basic physical data are very important for assessing the safety and performance of dams. These are movement, water pressure, seepage, reservoir and tail-water elevations, local seismic activities, total pressure, stress and strain, internal concrete temperature, ambient temperature and precipitation. These physical data are measured and monitored by the instruments and equipment. Dams and their surroundings have to be monitored by using essential methods at periodic time intervals in order to determine the possible changes that may occur over the time. Monitoring programs typically consist of; surveillance or visual observation. These programs on dams provide information for evaluating the dam's performance related to the design intent and expected changes that could affect the safety performance of the dam. Additionally, these programs are used for investigating and evaluating the abnormal or degrading performance where any remedial action is necessary. Geodetic and non-geodetic methods are used for monitoring. Monitoring the performance of the dams is critical for producing and maintaining the safe dams. This study provides some information, safety and the techniques about the deformation monitoring of the dams. Therefore, this study gives essential information about the dam safety and related analysis. Monitoring of dams is crucial since deformation might have occurred as a result of erosion, water load, hydraulic gradients, and water saturation. The case study is the deformation measurements of Ataturk Dam. This dam was constructed on Firat River and it has importance for providing drinking water, hydroelectric power and especially irrigation. In addition, brief information is given about this dam and the methods of geodetic and non-geodetic monitoring measurements applied by various disciplines. Geodetic monitoring methods are emphasized in this study. Some results have been obtained from this method for nearly seven years are presented in this work. In addition, some deformation predictions have been made especially for the cross sections where the maximum deformations took place.

Kalkan, Y.; Bilgi, S.; Potts, L.; Miiama, J.; Mahgoub, M.; Rahman, S.

2013-12-01

71

Geomicrobiological and geochemical investigation of a pyrrhotite-containing mine waste tailings dam near Selebi-Phikwe in Botswana  

Microsoft Academic Search

An acid mine drainage (AMD) generating tailings dam consisting of waste from about 32 years of Ni-, Cu-, Zn- and Co-sulfidic ore processing near Selebi-Phikwe, Botswana, was investigated to quantify the AMD generation potential for developing a remediation strategy within the mine closure plan. The climate in the region is semiarid with an average annual temperature of 21 °C. The approximately 40 m

Axel Schippers; Dagmar Kock; Michael Schwartz; Michael E. Böttcher; Horst Vogel; Mike Hagger

2007-01-01

72

The history and dynamics of a welded pyroclastic dam and its failure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2,360 BP eruption of Mount Meager, British Columbia began as an explosive, dacitic sub-Plinian eruption that waned rapidly to a sustained period of Vulcanian, eruption-triggered dome collapse events producing voluminous block and ash flow (BAF) deposits. The earliest BAF deposits accumulated rapidly enough immediately downslope of the vent to retain heat and weld; using the deposit as a paleoviscometer determines an effective viscosity of 109-1010 Pa s during welding. This prolific production of hot lava and block and ash flows, in a steep mountainous terrain, created a ˜110 m high, largely impermeable dam capped by permeable, non-welded BAF deposits and unconsolidated avalanche deposits that blocked the flow of the Lillooet River and created a temporary lake. The welded pyroclastic dam was compromised and overtopped at least once before the peak dam height was reached. Renewed eruption caused buildup of the dam to a maximum of 780 m above sea level (asl) and grew the temporary lake to an elevation of 740 m asl and a minimum volume of 0.55 km3. The rise of lake level led to catastrophic failure of the top of the dam, generating an outburst flood that carved a canyon through most of the dam and resulted in a voluminous lahar that is traced at least 65 km downstream. Based on current flow rates of the Lillooet River, the lake would have overtopped the final dam at a minimum of 39-65 days after its formation. The peak deluge lasted approximately 8 h and eroded a 2.5-km long canyon into the still-hot dam core before returning to background flow rates.

Andrews, Graham D. M.; Russell, James K.; Stewart, Martin L.

2014-04-01

73

INVESTIGATIONS INTO THE DEPTH AND RATE OF WEATHERING ON WITWATERSRAND GOLD TAILINGS DAM SURFACES AS KEY INFORMATION FOR LONG-TERM ARD RISK ASSESSMENTS 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) from tailings dams of the Witwatersrand goldfields in South Africa, is arguably one of the main strategic environmental issues facing the gold mining industry and the South African government. Fine grained, sulfidic, tailings impoundments generate AMD through the diffusive ingress of oxygen into unsaturated pore spaces. Golder Associates conducted research on behalf of

Nico Bezuidenhout; Pierre D. S. Rousseau

74

Landslide dam failure and flood hydraulics. Part II: coupled mathematical modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coupled 2D mathematical modelling study of landslide dam failure and flood is presented, complementing our experimental\\u000a investigation presented in the companion paper. The model is built upon the shallow water hydrodynamic equations. The governing\\u000a equations are numerically solved using the total-variation-diminishing version of the second-order weighted-average-flux method\\u000a along with the HLLC (Harten, Lax and van Leer with Contact wave

Zhixian Cao; Zhiyuan Yue; Gareth Pender

75

The impact of tailings dam spills and clean-up operations on sediment and water quality in river systems: the R??os Agrio–Guadiamar, Aznalcóllar, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Aznalcóllar tailings dam at Boliden Apirsa's Aznalcóllar\\/Los Frailes Ag–Cu–Pb–Zn mine 45 km west of Seville, Spain, was breached on 25 April 1998, flooding approximately 4600 hectares of land along the R??os Agrio and Guadiamar with approximately 5.5 million m3 of acidic water and 1.3×106 m3 of heavy metal-bearing tailings. Most of the deposited tailings and approximately 4.7×106 m3 of

Karen A Hudson-Edwards; Mark G Macklin; Heather E Jamieson; Paul A Brewer; Tom J Coulthard; Andy J Howard; Jon N Turner

2003-01-01

76

Tailings dam seepage at the rehabilitated Mary Kathleen uranium mine, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on the seepage of metals, metalloids and radionuclides from the Mary Kathleen uranium mill tailings repository. Since rehabilitation in the 1980s, the capped tailings have developed a stratified hydrochemistry, with acid (pH 3.7), saline, metal-rich (Fe, Mn, Ni, U±As, Pb, Zn), oxygenated (1.05 mg L?1 DO), radioactive waters in the upper tailings pile and near-neutral pH (pH

B. G. Lottermoser; P. M. Ashley

2005-01-01

77

Design of the Lohan Tailings Dam, Mamut Copper Mining Sdn. Bhd., Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major concern of today is pollution and its control. Tighter regulations and legislations on tailings disposal require the mining industry to play a more prominent role in controlling the disposal of its vast quantity of highly visible wastes.The succesful construction of a tailing disposal system however, requires extensive studies and finance. This paper briefly describes the various aspects of

K Mohd. Azizli; Tan Chee Yau; J Birrel

1995-01-01

78

Combination of sequential chemical extraction and modelling of dam-break wave propagation to aid assessment of risk related to the possible collapse of a roasted sulphide tailings dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sotiel–Coronada abandoned mining district (Iberian Pyrite Belt) produced complex massive sulphide ores which were processed by flotation to obtain Cu, Zn and Pb concentrates. The crude pyrite refuses were roasted for sulphuric acid production in a plant located close to the flotation site, and waste stored in a tailing dam. The present study was focused on the measurements of

Rafael Pérez-López; Reinaldo Sáez; Antonio M. Álvarez-Valero; José Miguel Nieto; Gaetano Pace

2009-01-01

79

Phytostabilisation of tailing dams: a quantification of physiological and biological responses in plants.  

PubMed

Effect of unamended and variously amended tailings of Rajpura-Dariba mines, Udaipur, India was studied on certain physiological and biochemical responses of plants. Plants grown in unamended tailings, showed reduction in shoot-root length, shoot-root dry weight, chlorophyll content and an increase in total phenol contents and peroxidase activity. Ameliorations resulted in an increase in growth and chlorophyll contents, a decrease in total phenol contents and reduction in peroxidase activity in the test plants. PMID:16649623

Sharma, A; Aery, N C

2004-10-01

80

Evaluation of heavy metal bio-availability from Almagrera pyrite-rich tailings dam (Iberian Pyrite Belt, SW Spain) based on a sequential extraction procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beginning of polymetallic sulphide ore exploitation at Almagrera, Iberian Pyrite Belt, SW Spain, has been dated back to pre-Roman times; mining activity lasted until 2001 when it was definitely halted. The Almagrera sulphide tailings dam was built at the Sotiel–Coronada mine, where Cu, Zn and Pb concentrates were obtained by flotation processes, and sulphide (mainly pyrite) wastes formed. The

Antonio M. Álvarez-Valero; Reinaldo Sáez; Rafael Pérez-López; Joaquín Delgado; José M. Nieto

2009-01-01

81

Ion mobility based on column leaching of South African gold tailings dam with chemometric evaluation.  

PubMed

New column leaching experiments were designed and used as an alternative rapid screening approach to element mobility assessment. In these experiments, field-moist material was treated with an extracting solution to assess the effects of acidification on element mobility in mine tailings. The main advantage of this version of column leaching experiments with partitioned segments is that they give quick information on current element mobility in conditions closely simulating field conditions to compare with common unrepresentative air-dried, sieved samples used for column leaching experiments. Layers from the tailings dump material were sampled and packed into columns. The design of columns allows extracting leachates from each layer. The extracting solutions used were natural (pH 6.8) and acidified (pH 4.2) rainwater. Metals and anions were determined in the leachates. The concentrations of metals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Al, Cr, Ni, Co, Zn, and Cu) in sample leachates were determined using ICP OES. The most important anions (NO3-, Cl-, and SO4(2)-) were determined using the closed system izotacophoresis ITP analyser. The chemical analytical data from tailings leaching and physico-chemical data from field measurements (including pH, conductivity, redox potential, temperature) were used for chemometric evaluation of element mobility. Principal factor analysis (PFA) was used to evaluate ions mobility from different layers of tailings dump arising from varied pH and redox conditions. It was found that the results from the partitioned column leaching illustrate much better complex processes of metals mobility from tailings dump than the total column. The chemometric data analysis (PFA) proofed the differences in the various layers leachability that are arising from physico-chemical processes due to chemical composition of tailings dump deposit. PMID:15109878

Cukrowska, Ewa M; Govender, Koovila; Viljoen, Morris

2004-07-01

82

Atrophy and growth failure of rat hindlimb muscles in tail-cast suspension  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of the present study is related to an evaluation of a modified tail-cast suspension model as a means of identifying metabolic factors which control or are associated with muscle atrophy and growth failure. Two different control conditions (normal and tail-casted weight bearing) were studied to determine the appropriate control for tail-cast suspension. A description is presented of a model which is most useful for studying atrophy of hindlimb muscles under certain conditions. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were employed in the experiments. Attention is given to growth rate and urinary excretion of urea and ammonia in different types of rats, the relationship between body weight and skeletal muscle weight, and the relationship between animal body weight and rates of protein synthesis and protein degradation.

Jaspers, S. R.; Tischler, M. E.

1984-01-01

83

Cardiomyopathy and right-sided congestive heart failure in a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis).  

PubMed

A 15-year-old female red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) was evaluated because of dyspnea, anorexia, and coelomic distension. Diagnostic imaging results confirmed severe coelomic effusion and revealed a markedly dilated right ventricle. The diagnosis was right-sided congestive heart failure. Results of measurements of vitamin E, selenium, lead, zinc, and cardiac troponin levels were normal or nondiagnostic. The hawk was treated with furosemide, antifungal and antimicrobial agents, and supplemental fluids and oxygen, but euthanasia was elected because of the poor prognosis and the practical difficulties associated with intensive case management. To our knowledge, this is the first described case of cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure in a captive red-tailed hawk. PMID:21657185

Knafo, S Emmanuelle; Rapoport, Gregg; Williams, Jamie; Brainard, Benjamin; Driskell, Elizabeth; Uhl, Elizabeth; Crochik, Sonia; Divers, Stephen J

2011-03-01

84

Reconstructing western Grand Canyon's lava dams and their failure mechanisms: new insights from geochemical correlation and 40Ar/39Ar dating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New geochemical analyzes and 40Ar/39Ar dating of lava dam remnants allows for the more accurate reconstruction of the timing, extent, and structure of western Grand Canyon’s lava dams. Whole-rock major, trace, and rare-earth element (REE) analyzes on over 60 basaltic lava dam remnants, cascades, plugs, and basaltic alluvium, show compositional variation from basanites to alkali basalts to tholeiites. Whitmore Canyon flows, for example, are some of the only tholeiitic flows and have a distinguishable trace and REE composition, which allows for correlation of dam remnants. Over 30 new high-precision 40Ar/39Ar dates also aid in remnant correlation and establish a better-constrained sequence of intra-canyon lava dams. Reliable 40Ar/39Ar dates on western Grand Canyon’s intra-canyon basalts range from ca. 100 ka to 840 ka (new date). The best understood lava dam formed from tholeiitic flows that erupted on the north rim, flowed down Whitmore side canyon and blocked a 6-km-long reach of the Grand Canyon. The youngest of these flows is unique because we know its age (200ka), its composition (tholeiitic), and the exact area where it entered Grand Canyon. The highest flow in the resulting dam, Whitmore Cascade, is capped with very coarse basaltic alluvium that previous workers have attributed to an upstream catastrophic dam failure event at about 200 ka. However, strong similarities between the geochemistry and age of the alluvium with the underlying Whitmore Cascade flow suggest that the alluvial deposit is related to failure of the 200 ka Whitmore Cascade dam itself. Similarly the 100 ka Upper Gray Ledge flow is commonly overlain by a balsaltic alluvium that is indistinguishable in terms of age and geochemistry from the underlying Upper Gray Ledge flow. These observations lead to a new model for Grand Canyon lava dams by which lava dams undergo multi-staged failure where the upstream parts of dams fail quickly (sometimes catastrophically) but downstream parts are longer lived because they undergo less interaction with river water and fracturing and generally fill dry portions of the river bed. Identification of far-traveled clasts on top of lava dam remnants in at least two locations supports the idea that the stable Colorado River established itself on top of the distal parts of some lava dams. Thus, whereas previous workers reported that deposits from outburst flood dam failure events exist in western grand canyon, our data identify specific dam failures and an interaction of catastrophic events at the head of lava dams and modified fluvial processes in distal portions of dams.

Crow, R.; Karlstrom, K. E.; McIntosh, W. C.; Peters, L.; Dunbar, N. W.

2010-12-01

85

Centrifuge modeling of coal tailing embankments  

SciTech Connect

Centrifuge model studies were conducted on eight homogeneous dams with 1.75:1 slopes using coal tailings (waste coal, shale, fine sand, silt, and clay) to obtain experience on the behavior of this low-strength material in a laboratory setting and, further, to examine the accuracy of predictions of embankment failure by the simplified Bishop limit equilibrium method. The failure of four of the model embankments simulated typical features of slope failures observed in the field. Centrifuge modeling verified that the simplified Bishop method using standard measurements of soil strength properly indexed the dam safety but did not accurately locate the embankment failure surface. 20 refs.

Rechard, R.P.; Sutherland, H.J.; Heckes, A.A.

1986-03-01

86

Radiation consequences of a hypothetical failure of a dam at the coolant reservoir of the chernobyl nuclear power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematical simulation is used to estimate the possible radiation consequences of an accidental failure of the protective\\u000a dam of the coolant reservoir at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. The dynamics of the emptying of the reservoir and the escape\\u000a of radionuclides is calculated. The additional contamination of bottom deposits in the Dnepr River, which can be caused by\\u000a the accidental

A. L. Kononovich; A. M. Prudovskii; S. Ya. Shkol'nikov; A. E. Asarin; A. N. Zhirkevich; B. Ya. Oskolkov; A. V. Nosovskii; L. E. Kulikov; Yu. A. Ostryanin

2000-01-01

87

Analysis of past and future dam formation and failure in the Santa Cruz River (San Juan province, Argentina)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Around 11.5 ? 106 m3 of rock detached from the eastern slope of the Santa Cruz valley (San Juan province, Argentina) in the first fortnight of January 2005. The rockslide-debris avalanche blocked the course, resulting in the development of a lake with maximum length of around 3.5 km. The increase in the inflow rate from 47,000-74,000 m3/d between April and October to 304,000 m3/d between late October and the first fortnight of November, accelerated the growing rate of the lake. On 12 November 2005 the dam failed, releasing 24.6 ? 106 m3 of water. The resulting outburst flood caused damages mainly on infrastructure, and affected the facilities of a hydropower dam which was under construction 250 km downstream from the source area. In this work we describe causes and consequences of the natural dam formation and failure, and we dynamically model the 2005 rockslide-debris avalanche with DAN3D. Additionally, as a volume ~ 24 ? 106 m3of rocks still remain unstable in the slope, we use the results of the back analysis to forecast the formation of a future natural dam. We analyzed two potential scenarios: a partial slope failure of 6.5 ? 106 m3 and a worst case where all the unstable volume remaining in the slope fails. The spreading of those potential events shows that a new blockage of the Santa Cruz River is likely to occur. According to their modeled morphometry and the contributing watershed upstream the blockage area, as the one of 2005, the dams would also be unstable. This study shows the importance of back and forward analysis that can be carried out to obtain critical information for land use planning, hazards mitigation, and emergency management.

Penna, Ivanna M.; Derron, Marc-Henri; Volpi, Michele; Jaboyedoff, Michel

2013-03-01

88

Assessment of Vegetation Establishment on Tailings Dam at an Iron Ore Mining Site of Suburban Beijing, China, 7 Years After Reclamation with Contrasting Site Treatment Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strip-mining operations greatly disturb soil, vegetation and landscape elements, causing many ecological and environmental problems. Establishment of vegetation is a critical step in achieving the goal of ecosystem restoration in mining areas. At the Shouyun Iron Ore Mine in suburban Beijing, China, we investigated selective vegetation and soil traits on a tailings dam 7 years after site treatments with three contrasting approaches: (1) soil covering (designated as SC), (2) application of a straw mat, known as "vegetation carpet", which contains prescribed plant seed mix and water retaining agent (designated as VC), on top of sand piles, and (3) combination of soil covering and application of vegetation carpet (designated as SC+VC). We found that after 7 years of reclamation, the SC+VC site had twice the number of plant species and greater biomass than the SC and VC sites, and that the VC site had a comparable plant abundance with the SC+VC site but much less biodiversity and plant coverage. The VC site did not differ with the SC site in the vegetation traits, albeit low soil fertility. It is suggested that application of vegetation carpet can be an alternative to introduction of topsoil for treatment of tailings dam with fine-structured substrate of ore sands. However, combination of topsoil treatment and application of vegetation carpet greatly increases vegetation coverage and plant biodiversity, and is therefore a much better approach for assisting vegetation establishment on the tailings dam of strip-mining operations. While application of vegetation carpet helps to stabilize the loose surface of fine-structured mine wastes and to introduce seed bank, introduction of fertile soil is necessary for supplying nutrients to plant growth in the efforts of ecosystem restoration of mining areas.

Yan, Demin; Zhao, Fangying; Sun, Osbert Jianxin

2013-09-01

89

Formation and failure of volcanic debris dams in the Chakachatna River valley associated with eruptions of the Spurr volcanic complex, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The formation of lahars and a debris avalanche during Holocene eruptions of the Spurr volcanic complex in south-central Alaska have led to the development of volcanic debris dams in the Chakachatna River valley. Debris dams composed of lahar and debris-avalanche deposits formed at least five times in the last 8000-10,000 years and most recently during eruptions of Crater Peak vent in 1953 and 1992. Water impounded by a large debris avalanche of early Holocene (?) age may have destabilized an upstream glacier-dammed lake causing a catastrophic flood on the Chakachatna River. A large alluvial fan just downstream of the debris-avalanche deposit is strewn with boulders and blocks and is probably the deposit generated by this flood. Application of a physically based dam-break model yields estimates of peak discharge (Qp) attained during failure of the debris-avalanche dam in the range 104 < Qp < 106 m3 s-1 for plausible breach erosion rates of 10-100 m h-1. Smaller, short-lived, lahar dams that formed during historical eruptions in 1953, and 1992, impounded smaller lakes in the upper Chakachatna River valley and peak flows attained during failure of these volcanic debris dams were in the range 103 < Qp < 104 m3 s-1 for plausible breach erosion rates. Volcanic debris dams have formed at other volcanoes in the Cook Inlet region, Aleutian arc, and Wrangell Mountains but apparently did not fail rapidly or result in large or catastrophic outflows. Steep valley topography and frequent eruptions at volcanoes in this region make for significant hazards associated with the formation and failure of volcanic debris dams. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

Waythomas, C. F.

2001-01-01

90

Late Pleistocene earthquake-triggered moraine dam failure and outburst of Lake Zurich, Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lakes impounded by moraines may be considered hazardous in glaciated areas throughout the world because dams can fail suddenly producing destructive floods with peak discharges far in excess of normal flows. Here we present a comprehensive case study in the Zurich, Switzerland, area that reveals several independent lines of evidences for the occurrence of a Late Pleistocene (~13,760 calibrated years

M. Strasser; C. Schindler; F. S. Anselmetti

2008-01-01

91

Late Pleistocene earthquake-triggered moraine dam failure and outburst of Lake Zurich, Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lakes impounded by moraines may be considered hazardous in glaciated areas throughout the world because dams can fail suddenly producing destructive floods with peak discharges far in excess of normal flows. Here we present a comprehensive case study in the Zurich, Switzerland, area that reveals several independent lines of evidences for the occurrence of a Late Pleistocene (?13,760 calibrated years

M. Strasser; C. Schindler; F. S. Anselmetti

2008-01-01

92

Combination of sequential chemical extraction and modelling of dam-break wave propagation to aid assessment of risk related to the possible collapse of a roasted sulphide tailings dam.  

PubMed

The Sotiel-Coronada abandoned mining district (Iberian Pyrite Belt) produced complex massive sulphide ores which were processed by flotation to obtain Cu, Zn and Pb concentrates. The crude pyrite refuses were roasted for sulphuric acid production in a plant located close to the flotation site, and waste stored in a tailing dam. The present study was focused on the measurements of flow properties, chemical characterization and mineralogical determination of the roasted pyrite refuses with the aim of assessing the potential environmental impact in case of dam collapse. Chemical studies include the determination of the total contaminant content and information about their bio-availability or mobility using sequential extraction techniques. In the hypothetical case of the tailing dam breaking up and waste spilling (ca. 4.54Mt), a high density mud flow would flood the Odiel river valley and reach both Estuary of Huelva (Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO, 1983) and Atlantic Ocean in matter of a couple of days, as it was predicted by numerical simulations of dam-break waves propagation through the river valley based on quasi-2D Saint-Venant equations. The total amount of mobile pollutants that would be released into the surrounding environment is approximately of 7.1.10(4)t of S, 1.6.10(4)t of Fe, 1.4.10(4)t of As, 1.2.10(4)t of Zn, 1.0.10(4)t of Pb, 7.4.10(3)t of Mn, 2.2.10(3)t of Cu, 1.5.10(2)t of Co, 36t of Cd and 17t of Ni. Around 90-100% of S, Zn, Co and Ni, 60-70% of Mn and Cd, 30-40% of Fe and Cu, and 5% of As and Pb of the mobile fraction would be easily in the most labile fraction (water-soluble pollutants), and therefore, the most dangerous and bio-available for the environment. This gives an idea of the extreme potential risk of roasted pyrite ashes to the environment, until now little-described in the scientific literature. PMID:19683794

Pérez-López, Rafael; Sáez, Reinaldo; Alvarez-Valero, Antonio M; Miguel Nieto, José; Pace, Gaetano

2009-10-15

93

Failure Causes in a High EarthFill Dam on the R. Marmarik  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deposition of earth in the body of the dam began in 1967and ended in 1974. The earth in the core was laid down as layers of 20-25 cm each, while in the lateral prisms, the layers were 30-40 cm and were consolidated by loaded earth-working equipment. No special measures were taken to regulate the water content or density of

N. A. Krasil'nikov

2001-01-01

94

Analyzing the spillway failure of the Montedoglio dam in Central Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Montedoglio dam, built in the 1980s for irrigation and drinking water purposes, is an important reservoir on the Tiber River located in central Italy. The earth-fill dam is 64.30 m high with a drainage area of 276 km2. The water storage volume, with the water at the height of the spillway, is approximately 153 millions m3. On December 29, 2010 during final tests of the dam consisting to raising the reservoir level to the spillway crest, three concrete blocks of the spillway collapsed causing large damages in the territory downstream mainly to agriculture, infrastructures and other constructions (over 100 millions of euros of economic losses), luckily without casualties thanks also to timely action of the national/regional Civil Protection system. The discharge hydrograph following up the Montedoglio spillway collapse and its routing along the Tiber river valley are investigated here. The mathematical modelling of the reservoir depletion allows advancing well-founded hypotheses on the breach formation and in particular on the time interval in which the spillways collapsed found equal to 0.02 hours. The analysis is based on the recorded water reservoir level during the catastrophic event and on the comparison between the computed outflow discharge hydrograph and the one recorded at Gorgabuia equipped section located just downstream Montedoglio dam. The consequent dambreak flood wave is propagated downstream by using a one-dimensional model for flood wave routing and, based on the comparison between the flooded area extension estimated by the hydraulic model and the one observed through surveys and inspections carried out during the catastrophic event, the roughness calibration is addressed assessing different Manning roughness coefficient values for the main channel and the floodplains, respectively. For the analysis of the catastrophic event, data on water reservoir levels, river cross-sections geometry, discharges recorded at two gauged river sites and flooded area extension have been collected, thus getting a valuable knowledge which can be of support to improve the understanding and the management of dambreak events.

Tarpanelli, A.; Moramarco, T.; Barbetta, S.; Melone, F.; Berni, N.; Pandolfo, C.; Morbidelli, R.

2012-04-01

95

The 1916 catastrophic flood following the Bílá Desná dam failure: The role of historical data sources in the reconstruction of its geomorphologic and landscape effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the reconstruction of the geomorphologic and landscape effects of the most catastrophic flood owing to dam failure within the territory of today's Czech Republic, namely, the Bílá Desná dam failure of 1916. Because of the realisation of the significant later transformation of the Bílá Desná river catchment almost 100 years after the flood event, the field research performed during the summer and fall of 2013 had to be supported by extensive research in regional archives for documentary data. Various data types and sources (such as court investigation notes, investigation reports for insurance companies, old maps, and old photos, as well as video and recorded testimonies of survivors) were used to reconstruct the magnitude (discharge, flood wave extent) of the flood and its effects on the channel morphology and landscape. According to the reconstruction of the dam failure, which was caused by the internal erosion of the dam, the calculated peak discharge ranged between 418.2 and 1491.7 m3s- 1 and therefore exceeded the mean flow rate of the Bílá Desná River by more than 850 times. The river channel immediately upstream and downstream of the dam reclaimed its former meandering pattern with higher sinuosity, and new gravel point bars and irregular bars have been formed. Moreover, the river channel immediately below the dam shifted by up to 30 m following the flood wave. The most significant flood impacts were apparent in the village of Desná, where the flood wave, together with transported boulders (up to 2 m in diametre) and logs from sawmills situated upstream, killed 62 inhabitants and damaged or destroyed 101 buildings. The reconstructed flood wave in the towns of Desná and Tanvald exceeded the bankfull water level twice, with a width ranging between ~ 50 and 250 m in contrast to the average channel width of a few metres.

Raška, Pavel; Emmer, Adam

2014-12-01

96

Zipingpu Concrete Face Rockfill Dam Failures caused by the 8.0R Earthquake on the 12th May 2008 (Chengdu, China)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 8.0R earthquake that struck Sichuan on the 12th of May 2008, in the district of Chengdu of Southern China resulted in tenths of thousands casualties, the complete destruction of many towns and extended damages to public works. The earthquake was triggered by a reverse fault of NE-SW trend, more than 100 km long, that divides morphologically the affected area in two sections, the eastern one with mild low topography and the western one with intense relief representing the boundary of Tibet Mountains. This mountainous section is characterized by a rich drainage network that drains the greater region of the Tibet plateau. Along the trace of this high-stand for thousands of years numerous hydraulic works have been attempted in order to manage the water supply. Especially during the past decades, 400 small and large dams have been constructed. The main dam is the Zipingpu dam. It is a Concrete Face Rockfill Dam (CFRD) that has a height of 150m, a capacity of 1.2 billion m3 and includes a hydroelectric plant of 3.4 billion Kwh power. The Zipingpu dam is located 10km east of the earthquake epicenter and after the earthquake of 8.0R, the following failures were recorded: (i) Subsidence of the crown in the central part of the dam, of the order of 50cm in relation to the side survey control points, (ii) Deformation of the lower face of the dam, an area of approximately 1000 m2, (iii) Deviations and deformations of the construction elements throughout the face of the dam, (iv) Widening of construction joints (approximately 15 cm on the upper face), (v) Extended massive landslides throughout the reservoir, and (vi) Landslides on both left and right abutments of the dam causing further damages to secondary constructions. After the evaluation of the dam damages, the discharge of the reservoir was ordered through the emergency spillway in order to minimize the risk of a potential disaster for the nearby towns and especially Dujiangyan. Finally, the causes of the failures are investigated based on the available data.

Lekkas, E.

2009-04-01

97

Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in the Lizard Psammodromus algirus After a Tailing-Dam Collapse in Aznalcóllar (Southwest Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantification of heavy metal concentrations in biota is a common technique that helps environmental managers measure the\\u000a level of pollutants circulating in ecosystems. Despite interest in heavy metals as indicators of localized pollution, few\\u000a studies have assessed these pollutants in reptiles. In 1998, the tailing pond of a pyrite mine near Aznalcóllar (southwestern\\u000a Spain), containing mud with high heavy metal

Rocío Márquez-Ferrando; Xavier Santos; Juan M. Pleguezuelos; Diego Ontiveros

2009-01-01

98

Dam Pass or Fail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students conduct Internet research to investigate the purpose and current functioning status of some of the largest dams throughout the world. They investigate the success or failure of eight dams and complete a worksheet. While researching the dams, they also gain an understanding of the scale of these structures by recording and comparing their reservoir capacities. Students come to understand that dams, like all engineered structures, have a finite lifespan and require ongoing maintenance and evaluation for their usefulness.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

99

75 FR 62024 - Metal and Nonmetal Dams  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and 57 RIN 1219-AB70 Metal and Nonmetal Dams AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration...construction, operation, and maintenance of safe dams which can assure miners are protected from the hazards of dam failures. DATES: The comment period...

2010-10-07

100

Seismic rehabilitation of earth dams  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to present methods available for engineered remediation of seismically deficient earth dams (not including tailings dams), to review their strengths and weaknesses, to present case histories of the application of these methods, and to draw conclusions about the state of practice. A survey of completed and active rehabilitation projects was made. This survey identified 30 dams with engineering fixes and 22 with operational fixes. Data was obtained and is presented in tabular form for 36 dams. Of these dams, 13 had seismically deficient foundations, 15 had deficient embankments, and 8 had deficiencies in both embankment and foundations. Synopses of case histories are presented for John Hart Dam, Sardis Dam, Mormon Island Auxiliary Dam, and Pleasant Valley Dam.

Marcuson, W.F. III; Hadala, P.F.; Ledbetter, R.H. [Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS (United States)] [Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS (United States)

1996-01-01

101

INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON LARGE DAMS  

E-print Network

Q76-R INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON LARGE DAMS 20TH CONGRESS BEIJING, CHINA THE STATUS OF METHODS FOR ESTIMATION OF THE PROBABILITY OF FAILURE OF DAMS FOR USE IN QUANTITATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT (* ) Robin FELL. INTRODUCTION The use of Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) techniques to assist in dam safety management

Bowles, David S.

102

Nonlinear Aeroelastic Behavior of Tail / Rudder Systems with Freeplay and Actuator Failure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis discusses the development of numerical simulations implemented in MATLAB and of an experimental tail/rudder model for the investigation of the effects of non-linearities on control surface flutter of a three-degree of freedom typical section airfoil. Non-linearities investigated include a structural non-linearity in the form of freeplay about the control surface hinge line as well as velocity-squared damping, simulating a failed actuator. The mathematical modeling, design, and testing of a prototype velocity-squared damper is also presented for use in the numerical simulations. In both cases, the describing function method has been used to predict the amplitudes of possible Limit-Cycle Oscillations (LCOs) in the rudder DOF. Response amplitudes and frequencies in the frequency domain, are shown to agree extremely well with results obtained in the time-domain via direct numerical integration of the equations of motion. Both stable and unstable limit-cycle behavior has been predicted, resulting in a detailed set of predictions for the response of the system below the flutter boundary.

Noble, Matthew

103

Modelling The Run-out of Mine Tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow which results from the failure of a mine tailings dam has been modelled experimentally by the sub-aerial release from behind a lock gate of a highly concen- trated monodisperse suspension of silicon carbide particles in water. The experimen- tal results suggest that in the initial stages of these flows, fluid inertia is significant; however, as the current advances and becomes shallower, the propagation is increas- ingly controlled by viscous forces, and the flow rapidly arrests, leaving a thick layer of sediment with a well-defined front. The run-out distance is controlled both by the particle-dependent rheology of the suspension and by the initial inertial flow. We describe a dynamical model in which the suspension is treated as a single-phase non-Newtonian fluid with a yield stress. The problem of a tailings dam failure is con- sidered as an analogue of the classic shallow-water dam-break problem. We inves- tigate analytically and numerically how this model may be used to characterise the inertial-viscous transition and the eventual run-out distance of the current. We discuss how simple dynamical models may help to predict the run-out of tailings following dam breaches.

Hogg, A. J.; Pritchard, D.

104

Small dams need better management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many small dams around the world are poorly maintained and represent a safety hazard, according to Pisaniello et al. Better oversight of small dams is needed, the authors argue. The researchers reviewed literature, conducted case studies in four states in Australia, and developed policy benchmarks and best practices for small-dam management. Small dams, often just several meters high and typically privately owned by individual farmers, have historically caused major damage when they fail. For instance, in China in 1975, 230,000 people died when two large dams failed because of the cumulative failure of 60 smaller upstream dams. In the United States, in 1977 the 8-meter-high Kelly Barnes Lake dam failed, killing 39 people. Many other small-dam failures around the world have resulted in casualties and severe ecological and economic damage.

Balcerak, Ernie

2012-03-01

105

Geological causes of dam incidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This General Report presents synoptic case histories of several dam failures or accidents where the mechanism for the incident\\u000a was related to the geology. The failures of Teton Dam, Baldwin Hills Reservoir, and Malpasset Dam are attributed, respectively,\\u000a to pervious rock, subsidence or pressurization of a fault, and reservoir induced pressure of abutment rock. The near catastrophe\\u000a of San Fernando

Ch. G. Flagg

1979-01-01

106

DAMS WITH IMPERVIOUS MEMBRANE OF ASPHALT CONCRETE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though the earth dams have been constructed since the earliest times, it is the increase of our ability to build safer and economical structures, which makes those dams even more acceptable. The earth dams can be constructed with impervious membranes of manufactured materials such as concrete, steel and asphalt concrete. These dams are safer against shear failure than any

Kusari Laura; Ahmedi Figene

107

Debris flows from failures Neoglacial-age moraine dams in the Three Sisters and Mount Jefferson wilderness areas, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The highest concentration of lakes dammed by Neoglacial moraines in the conterminous United States is in the Mount Jefferson and Three Sisters Wilderness Areas in central Oregon. Between 1930 and 1980, breakouts of these lakes have resulted in 11 debris flows. The settings and sequences of events leading to breaching and the downstream flow behavior of the resulting debris flows provide guidance on the likelihood and magnitude of future lake breakouts and debris flows.

O'Connor, J. E.; Hardison, J.H.; Costa, J.E.

2001-01-01

108

Earthquake induced deformation of earth dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper summarizes the different modes of failure affecting earth dams as a consequence of earthquake shaking. A case study\\u000a is presented to illustrate seismic deformation analysis using the Alibey Earth Dam, Istanbul, Turkey as an example. The dynamic\\u000a behaviour, failure modes and mechanisms of failure of the dam under possible ground motions were investigated. The results\\u000a from finite element

Bilge Siyahi; Haydar Arslan

2008-01-01

109

Dam Impacts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While the creation of a dam provides many benefits, it can have negative impacts on local ecosystems. Students learn about the major environmental impacts of dams and the engineering solutions used to address them.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

110

Dewatering of coal plant tailings: Flocculation followed by filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sustainable alternative to tailings dam disposal of coal refuse is mechanical dewatering of tailings, which provides fast production of dry solids and water reuse. In this study, flocculation followed by filtration of coal plant tailings, a new concept in tailings dewatering is investigated in detail. This paper focuses on the effect of preconditioning tailings with varying flocculants and dosages

Naureen Alam; Orhan Ozdemir; Marc A. Hampton; Anh V. Nguyen

2011-01-01

111

Dam Forces  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how the force of water helps determine the size and shape of dams. They use clay to build models of four types of dams, and observe the force of the water against each type. They conclude by deciding which type of dam they, as Splash Engineering engineers, will design for Thirsty County.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program And Laboratory

112

30 CFR 56.20010 - Retaining dams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Retaining dams. 56.20010 Section 56.20010 Mineral...MINES Miscellaneous § 56.20010 Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be of...

2012-07-01

113

30 CFR 56.20010 - Retaining dams.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Retaining dams. 56.20010 Section 56.20010 Mineral...MINES Miscellaneous § 56.20010 Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be of...

2014-07-01

114

30 CFR 57.20010 - Retaining dams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Retaining dams. 57.20010 Section 57.20010 Mineral...MINES Miscellaneous § 57.20010 Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be of...

2013-07-01

115

30 CFR 56.20010 - Retaining dams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Retaining dams. 56.20010 Section 56.20010 Mineral...MINES Miscellaneous § 56.20010 Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be of...

2013-07-01

116

30 CFR 57.20010 - Retaining dams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Retaining dams. 57.20010 Section 57.20010 Mineral...MINES Miscellaneous § 57.20010 Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be of...

2012-07-01

117

30 CFR 57.20010 - Retaining dams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Retaining dams. 57.20010 Section 57.20010 Mineral...MINES Miscellaneous § 57.20010 Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be of...

2011-07-01

118

30 CFR 56.20010 - Retaining dams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Retaining dams. 56.20010 Section 56.20010 Mineral...MINES Miscellaneous § 56.20010 Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be of...

2011-07-01

119

30 CFR 57.20010 - Retaining dams.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Retaining dams. 57.20010 Section 57.20010 Mineral...MINES Miscellaneous § 57.20010 Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be of...

2014-07-01

120

Geotechnical Characteristics of Copper Mine Tailings: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste management issue in mining industry has become increasingly important. In this regard, construction of tailings dams\\u000a plays a major role. Most of the tailings dams require some kinds of remedial actions during their operational lifetime, among\\u000a which heightening is the most common. In the first stage of the remedial provisions for Sarcheshmeh Copper Complex tailings\\u000a dam in Iran, it

Abolfazl Shamsai; Ali Pak; S. Mohyeddin Bateni; S. Amir Hossein Ayatollahi

2007-01-01

121

106. DAM EARTH DIKE SUBMERSIBLE DAMS & DIKE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

106. DAM - EARTH DIKE - SUBMERSIBLE DAMS & DIKE CONN. AT MOVABLE DAM (ML-8-52/2-FS) March 1940 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

122

Acid drainage reassessment of mining tailings, Black Swan Nickel Mine, Kalgoorlie, Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the geochemical testing of mine tailings sourced from the Black Swan Ni Mine located near Kalgoorlie, Western Australia. Acid–base accounting was used to provide an indication of the acid generating capacity of two kinds of mining tailings: disseminated-ore tailings from the Cygnet Tailings Dam Storage Facility (CTDSF) and massive-ore tailings from the Silver Swan Tailings Dam Storage

Liangqi Lei; Ron Watkins

2005-01-01

123

Lake Nyos Dam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Nyos, or to be more precise, the upper 38 m of Lake Nyos, is held back by a natural dam (Figure 1) which, if it were to fail, would wreak havoc in the valleys to the north and cause a serious flood to surge down the Katsina Ala into Nigeria. Lockwood et al., [1987], who have been investigating the Lake Nyos gas disaster, which killed an estimated 1700 people in August 1986, presented a paper on the potential for disastrous failure of the Lake Nyos dam to the AGU Fall Meeting. Part of what they said was subsequently reported in New Scientist (December 10, 1987, p. 18). They have placed on record their view that the dam is only 400 years old and are reported to have stated that it is eroding away at the alarming rate of 1.5 m/yr. If their figures are correct, then surely the dam will fail within a decade or two at the most, and there is indeed cause for alarm and immediate action. However, teams from Cameroon, France, Italy, Japan , Switzerland, Britain, Nigeria, and Germany also visited Lake Nyos in the immediate aftermath of the gas disaster, and none of their reports have suggested that the dam is in itself an imminent threat.

Freeth, S. J.

124

Twin-tailed fail-over for fileservers maintaining full performance in the presence of a failure  

DOEpatents

A method for maintaining full performance of a file system in the presence of a failure is provided. The file system having N storage devices, where N is an integer greater than zero and N primary file servers where each file server is operatively connected to a corresponding storage device for accessing files therein. The file system further having a secondary file server operatively connected to at least one of the N storage devices. The method including: switching the connection of one of the N storage devices to the secondary file server upon a failure of one of the N primary file servers; and switching the connections of one or more of the remaining storage devices to a primary file server other than the failed file server as necessary so as to prevent a loss in performance and to provide each storage device with an operating file server.

Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D. (Mount Kisco, NY)

2008-02-12

125

Physically based simulation of dam breach development for Tangjiashan Quake Dam, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physically based modeling approach has been widely developed in recent years for simulation of dam failure process resulting\\u000a from overtopping flow. Due to the lack of field data, there exist few applications to natural quake dams with complex erosion\\u000a mechanisms. This paper presents a physically based simulation of the failure process of the Tangjiashan Quake Dam formed as\\u000a a result

Fan Liu; Xudong Fu; Guangqian Wang; Jennifer Duan

126

Preliminary estimate of possible flood elevations in the Columbia River at Trojan Nuclear Power Plant due to failure of debris dam blocking Spirit Lake, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Failure of the debris dam, blocking the outflow of Spirit Lake near Mount St. Helens, could result in a mudflow down the Toutle and Cowlitz Rivers into the Columbia River. Flood elevations at the Trojan Nuclear Power Plant on the Columbia River, 5 mi upstream from the Cowlitz River, were simulated with a hydraulic routing model. The simulations are made for four Columbia River discharges in each of two scenarios, one in which Columbia River floods coincide with a mudflow and the other in which Columbia River floods follow a mudflow sediment deposit upstream from the Cowlitz River. In the first scenario, Manning 's roughness coefficients for clear water and for mudflow in the Columbia River are used; in the second scenario only clear water coefficients are used. The grade elevation at the power plant is 45 ft above sea level. The simulated elevations exceed 44 ft if the mudflow coincides with a Columbia River discharge that has a recurrence interval greater than 10 years (610,000 cu ft/sec); the mudflow is assumed to extend downstream from the Cowlitz River to the mouth of the Columbia River, and Manning 's roughness coefficients for a mudflow are used. The simulated elevation is 32 ft if the mudflow coincides with a 100-yr flood (820,000 cu ft/sec) and clear-water Manning 's coefficients are used throughout the entire reach of the Columbia River. The elevations exceed 45 ft if a flow exceeding the 2-yr peak discharge in the Columbia River (410,000 cu ft/sec) follows the deposit of 0.5 billion cu yd of mudflow sediment upstream of the Cowlitz River before there has been any appreciable scour or dredging of the deposit. In this simulation it is assumed that: (1) the top of the sediment deposited in the Columbia River is at an elevation of 30 ft at the mouth of the Cowlitz River, (2) the surface elevation of the sediment deposit decreases in an upstream direction at a rate of 2.5 ft/mi, and (3) clear water Manning 's coefficients apply to the entire modeled reach of the Columbia River. (Author 's abstract)

Kresch, D. L.; Laenen, Antonius

1984-01-01

127

Outbursts of landslide dammed lakes - mapping their potential across the Himalaya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake formation as a result of river damming by landslides is frequently observed in the Himalayas. Historic records are riddled with sudden failures of debris dams that culminated in catastrophic outburst floods and debris flows with far-reaching devastating consequences for downstream communities and infrastructure. In addition, it has been argued that the formation of large orogens is tightly coupled with the damming of these lakes as they trap sediments and abate river incision. The severity of outburst floods of landslide dammed lakes is directly related to the impounded water volume and downstream channel morphology both of which are controlled by topography. Prime insights into the spatial patterns of hazards generated by landslide dammed lakes can thus be inferred from digital elevation models (DEMs) that are available at sufficient detail at even the remotest localities. Here we quantify from topographic constraints the physically possible size range of catastrophic outburst events at the mountain-belt scale. By manipulating digital topographic, climatic, and river discharge data we estimate to first order the potential peak discharge arising from failure of hypothetical dams occurring anywhere throughout the Himalayan drainage network. Thus modelled peak discharges encompass four to six orders of magnitude, with the most extreme events surpassing the largest documented monsoon floods by a factor of >100. For a range of pre-defined breach rates, the heavy-tailed size distribution of peak discharge stretches with increasing dam height. Our simulation predicts the highest peak discharge for dam breaks outside of the Higher Himalaya, i.e. along the margins of the Tibetan Plateau, and the large orogen-parallel rivers of the Sub-Himalaya. Many of the bedrock rivers slicing through the Higher Himalaya are simply too steep to allow for trapping large quantities of water behind natural dams. This regional consistent pattern underscores the notion that high transient stream power associated with episodic natural dam breaks may play a dominant role in enhancing fluvial bedrock incision in the Higher Himalayas. From a hazard management perspective our data provide a promising and proactive tool for rapidly assessing the likely impacts of outburst events anywhere in the Himalayas.

Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Blöthe, Jan; Andermann, Christoff; Korup, Oliver

2013-04-01

128

DEEP SOIL MIXING AT THE JACKSON LAKE DAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Jackson Lake Dam was constructed in 1917 in the Grand Teton National Park near Jackson, Wyoming. The dam was a hydraulic fill placed on a natural alluvium and outwash foundation. The Bureau of Reclamation (Burec) determined that the dam and its foundation would be susceptible to liquefaction and failure during a potential earthquake; a series of contracts was let

Christopher R. Ryan; Brian H. Jasperse

129

Undamning dams  

SciTech Connect

On October 18, 1997, Vice President Gore introduced a major new initiative, the Clean Water Action Plan, commemorating the 25th anniversary of the Clean Water Act. The action plan was designed to fulfill the promise of the Clean Water Act that all US waterways would one day be fishable and swimmable. The success of the Clean Water Act in cleaning up pollution from industrial, commercial, and municipal discharges is undisputed, but the promise of fishable, swimmable waters remains unfulfilled. Nutrients, bacteria, sediment, and toxic chemicals continue to pollute the nation`s waterways from diffuse sources such as animal feedlots, storm-water runoff, agricultural drainage, and soil erosion. It is these latter sources of pollution that the Clean Water Action Plan is expected to remedy. Throughout the history of dam building, water quality has been virtually ignored. In fact, the present impact of dams on water quality is often overlooked. On the positive side, dams and their reservoirs tend to serve as settling basins. These positive benefits, however, can be offset by the negative effects dam operations have on water quality.

Crossman, J.S.

1998-12-31

130

11. VIEW OF THE ROAD TO SEDIMENT DAM LOOKING FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. VIEW OF THE ROAD TO SEDIMENT DAM LOOKING FROM EDGE OF TAILINGS. WATER PUMP (FEATURE B-25) IS VISIBLE IN CENTER LEFT OF FRAME. - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

131

Aquatic Plant Establishment on Nickel Tailings Five Years After Flooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nickel tailings were deposited between 1978 and 1988 in Falconbridge's New Tailings Area located northeast of Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. In 1996, construction of a new dam and dredging split the site into an Upper Terrace (56 ha) and a Lower Terrace (30 ha) to facilitate flooding. Water covers minimize the oxidation of acid generating tailings but some oxidation and release

F. Wilkinson; P. J. Beckett

132

Evaluation of the dynamic response of the Damlapinar CFR dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concrete faced rock-fill (CFR) dams are now very popular. The structural complexity of these dams and the high risk associated\\u000a with the social and environmental consequences of failures require very reliable analyses of their performance, especially\\u000a as regards seismic loading. In this paper, a dynamic analysis procedure for CFR dams is proposed and described, using the\\u000a Damlap?nar CFR dam as

Niyazi U. Terzi

2011-01-01

133

Cracking Dams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive activity aids students in understanding structures (particularly dams), fracture mechanics, engineering, hydraulics and geotechnology. This site emphasizes analytical thinking, iterative design, multiple solutions and teamwork. Learning in this activity is mostly collaborative, particularly in the WebQuests, which complement the simulations and activities. There are also hands-on sections and case-based reasoning. There are many references and links provided for more information.

2007-06-15

134

Peak discharge of a Pleistocene lava-dam outburst flood in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA  

E-print Network

represent extremely vigorous erosion of a dam, they still conclude that removal of the dam was a resultPeak discharge of a Pleistocene lava-dam outburst flood in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA Cassandra R Received 6 May 2005 Availble online 7 February 2006 Abstract The failure of a lava dam 165,000 yr ago

135

Analysis of landslide dams induced by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landslide dams caused by earthquakes are extremely hazardous disruptions of the flow of water and sediment in mountain rivers, capable of delivering large outburst floods that may devastate downstream areas. We analyzed a unique inventory of 828 landslide dams triggered by the Mw 7.9 2008 Wenchuan tectonic earthquake, China, constituting ˜1.4% of the >60,000 coseismic slope failures mapped and attributed to this event. While 501 landslides blocked the rivers completely, the remainder caused only partial damming or channel diversion. The spatial distribution of landslide dams follows the same trend of that of the total landslide distribution, with landslide dams being most abundant in the steep watersheds of the hanging wall of the Yingxiu-Beichuan Thrust Fault, and in the northeastern part of the strike-slip fault near Qingchuan. Besides the co-seismic landslide density, the river width also played a key role in determining the landslide dam formation. Narrow rivers are more prone to be dammed than the wide rivers. The correlation between river width and landslide dam volume follows a linear relation, which can be used to roughly estimate the dam formation possibility. However, the applicability of this correlation needs to be validated in other regions. The decay (failure) rate of dams, defined here as the percentage of the number and area of landslide dams that have failed over time, shows that ˜25% of dams accounting for ˜30% of total landslide dam area failed one week after the earthquake. These percentages increased to ˜60% within 1 month, and to >90% within 1 year. The geomorphometric parameters were analyzed, revealing power-law relations between landslide area and dam width, landslide source area and dam area, as well as lake area and lake volume. The inventory presented in this study will enrich the worldwide earthquake-induced landslide dam database and will also contribute to a better understanding of the post-earthquake dam decay.

Fan, Xuanmei; van Westen, Cees J.; Xu, Qiang; Gorum, Tolga; Dai, Fuchu

2012-09-01

136

Liquefaction assessments by field-based methodologies: foundation soils at a dam site in Northeast Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent examples show that strong earthquakes can cause damage to dams, notably tailings or hydraulic fill dams or relatively\\u000a small earth fill embankments. Liquefaction is known to be one of the most dangerous consequences of the dynamic loading of\\u000a an embankment dam and hence must be considered during the dam site selection and construction stages. This paper presents\\u000a the liquefaction

Resat Ulusay; Ergün Tuncay; Nilsun Hasancebi

2007-01-01

137

Methodology for Risk Analysis of Dam Gates and Associated Operating Equipment Using Fault Tree Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With limited maintenance dedicated to aging dam spillway gate structures, there is an increased risk of gate inoperability and corresponding dam failure due to malfunction or inadequate design. This report summarizes research on methodologies to assist in...

R. C. Patev, C. Putcha, S. D. Foltz

2005-01-01

138

Integrated Dam Assessment Models Towards Sustainability of Dams  

E-print Network

, and by the natural environment" (WCD 2000) #12;Dams in, out, and reoperated #12;Dams out: Dam removal in America (2005) ~5,000 Dam removal in America #12;Impacts of dam removal · Fate of released sediment? · ImpactsIntegrated Dam Assessment Models ­ Towards Sustainability of Dams Desiree Tullos, Bryan Tilt, Phil

Tullos, Desiree

139

Using historic aerial photography and paleohydrologic techniques to assess long-term ecological response to two Montana dam removals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The restorative potential of dam removal on ecosystem function depends on the reversibility of dam effects and its operations. While dam removal is an established engineering practice, the need for an understanding of the ecological response remains. We used paleoflood hydrology, hydrologic modeling, and aerial photo interpretation to investigate the long-term ecologic responses to dam failure and breach. We investigated

Denine Schmitz; Matt Blank; Selita Ammondt; Duncan T. Patten

2009-01-01

140

Using historic aerial photography and paleohydrologic techniques to assess long-term ecological response to two Montana dam removals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The restorative potential of dam removal on ecosystem function depends on the reversibility of dam effects and its operations. While dam removal is an established engineering practice, the need for an understanding of the ecological response remains. We used paleoflood hydrology, hydrologic modeling, and aerial photo interpretation to investigate the long-term ecologic responses to dam failure and breach. We investigated

Denine Schmitz; Matt Blank; Selita Ammondt; Duncan T. Patten

2008-01-01

141

Flood - Volume Analysis and Efficiency of The Dam Spillways  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Past experience and statistical data show that extreme floods constitute an important risk for the hydrological safety of dams. Overtopping represents more than 40% of dam failures in the world, and has been also cause of many other accidents. For this reason, the problem of selecting the appropriate design flood is a constant concern to dam engineering. This concern is even more important for those dams that are also explicitly committed to flood control target. In the present talk we investigate the hydrological safety of dams checking the efficiency of the dam spillways. A new statistical procedure based on the flood-volume analysis is developed. An application to Ceppo Morelli dam, on Anza river basin, in Piedmont, Italy, is given.

Canossi, M.; de Michele, C.; Petaccia, A.; Rosso, R.

142

Experimental Research on the Dam-Break Mechanisms of the Jiadanwan Landslide Dam Triggered by the Wenchuan Earthquake in China  

PubMed Central

Dam breaks of landslide dams are always accompanied by large numbers of casualties, a large loss of property, and negative influences on the downstream ecology and environment. This study uses the Jiadanwan landslide dam, created by the Wenchuan earthquake, as a case study example. Several laboratory experiments are carried out to analyse the dam-break mechanism of the landslide dam. The different factors that impact the dam-break process include upstream flow, the boulder effect, dam size, and channel discharge. The development of the discharge channel and the failure of the landslide dam are monitored by digital video and still cameras. Experimental results show that the upstream inflow and the dam size are the main factors that impact the dam-break process. An excavated discharge channel, especially a trapezoidal discharge channel, has a positive effect on reducing peak flow. The depth of the discharge channel also has a significant impact on the dam-break process. The experimental results are significant for landslide dam management and flood disaster prevention and mitigation. PMID:23844387

Xu, Fu-gang; Yang, Xing-guo; Hao, Ming-hui

2013-01-01

143

CRIB DAM, LOOKING ALONG DAM FROM WEST ABUTMENT, SHOWING PLANK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CRIB DAM, LOOKING ALONG DAM FROM WEST ABUTMENT, SHOWING PLANK SHEATHING IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO EAST - Kachess Dam, 1904 Cascade Canal Company Crib Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

144

49. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

49. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM -- DAM CONCRETE -- TYPICAL PIER ISOMETRIC. M-L 26(R) 40/1 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

145

50. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

50. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM -- DAM CONCRETE -- GENERAL ARRANGEMENT -- SECTION AND ELEVATIONS. M-L 26(R) 40/3 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

146

Are Dams Forever?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn that dams do not last forever. Similar to other human-made structures, such as roads and bridges, dams require regular maintenance and have a finite lifespan. Many dams built during the 1930-70s, an era of intensive dam construction, have an expected life of 50-100 years. Due to inadequate maintenance and/or for environmental reasons, some of these dams will fail or be removed in the next 50 years. The engineers with Splash Engineering have an ethical obligation to remind Thirsty County of the maintenance and lifespan concerns associated with its dam.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program And Laboratory

147

PREDICTING UNDERSEEPAGE OF MASONRY DAMS Published in Proceedings of 29th  

E-print Network

PREDICTING UNDERSEEPAGE OF MASONRY DAMS Published in Proceedings of 29th ASDSO Conference (1934) selected conservative values of safe creep ratios because of the small number of dam failures judgment is recommended in designing a dam for safety against piping, and Lane's values are a starting

148

Use of washery tailings in hydrotechnical construction  

SciTech Connect

Dam fill material must be sufficiently homogeneous to with-stand selective displacement. Tests were carried out on typical tailings, involving incremental sampling over periods of one hour, one shift, and one day for analysis. The results showed that the mineral content in the samples taken over 1 hour had the greatest qualitative and quantitative variability; those taken over a 24 hour period, the least. It was found that the tailings showed up well enough in situ, regardless of angle of wetting and internal friction angle. Tailings from Avdeev plant used in a dam and compacted by 4-6 heavy dump truck traverses in 1978. Inspection in 1979 failed to show any cracks or displacement, and filtration was found to be at a low level.

Voznyi, G.F.; Preobazhenskii, B.P.; Mandryka, C.V.; Rozanov, N.N.

1981-01-01

149

The distribution and natural degradation of cyanide in goldmine tailings and polluted soil in arid and semiarid areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farmlands and rivers have been seriously polluted by cyanide from a goldmine tailings dam that collapsed in early spring of 1995 in Yining County, Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China. The cyanide distribution in the polluted farmland and the abandoned tailings dam was studied, three and 4 years after the accident occurred. The results indicated that natural degradation of cyanide in soils

Li Shehong; Zheng Baoshan; Zhu Jianming; Yu xiaoying

2005-01-01

150

EARTHEN & CONCRETE DAMS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Civil Engineers will work on a wide variety of projects. One area that they may specialize in is Earthen and Concrete Dams. As a civil drafter you may find yourself working on one of these massive projects. This instructional unit will give you a basic introduction to the many different types of dams and how they are constructed. Lets begin by introducing you to the basic terminology and design structures of a dam. The following link will help you in gaining a basic knowledge of these amazing structures. Learn About Dams Even though you now have a basic understanding of dams, you are still a long ways away from being an ...

Taylor, Professor D.

2005-11-17

151

Arbuscular mycorrhiza status of gold and uranium tailings and surrounding soils of South Africa's deep level gold mines. II. Infectivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

An AMF infectivity study and spore viability assessment was performed on substrata obtained from gold and uranium mine tailings dumps (‘slimes dams’) in the North West and Free State provinces of South Africa. Three slimes dams in each region were categorized as recently vegetated (RV), old vegetated (OV) and never vegetated (NV), and dams then divided into five zones based

C. J. Straker; A. J. Freeman; E. T. F. Witkowski; I. M. Weiersbye

2008-01-01

152

A model of sturgeon distribution under a dam of a hydro-electric power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is dedicated to the question of passage of sturgeon through a dam of a hydro-electric power plant (HPP) during spawning migrations. A model of distribution of water velocity in the tail water of HPP was constructed. On the basis of this model a model of sturgeon distribution under a dam of HPP was created. The latter model was

V. I. Gertsev; V. V. Gertseva

1999-01-01

153

Stability analysis of White Oak Dam  

SciTech Connect

White Oak Dam is located in the White Oak Creek watershed which provides the primary surface drainage for Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A stability analysis was made on the dam by Syed Ahmed in January 1994 which included an evaluation of the liquefaction potential of the embankment and foundation. This report evaluates the stability of the dam and includes comments on the report prepared by Ahmed. Slope stability analyses were performed on the dam and included cases for sudden drawdown, steady seepage, partial pool and earthquake. Results of the stability analyses indicate that the dam is stable and failure of the structure would not occur for the cases considered. The report prepared by Ahmed leads to the same conclusions as stated above. Review of the report finds that it is complete, well documented and conservative in its selection of soil parameters. The evaluation of the liquefaction potential is also complete and this report is in agreement with the findings that the dam and foundation are not susceptible to liquefaction.

NONE

1995-04-11

154

Bringing Down Our Dams: Trends in American Dam Removal Rationales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 76,000 dams have been constructed on American rivers to provide services such as flood protection, water storage, hydroelectric power, and navigation. Although most dams continue to provide sufficient benefits to retain the structure, dam removal is becoming increasingly common. This study involved the construction of a dam removal database to analyze spatial and temporal trends in dam removal. The

Molly M. Pohl

2002-01-01

155

ECHETA DAM SPILLWAY. COMING OUT BELOW THE DAM. AT CENTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ECHETA DAM SPILLWAY. COMING OUT BELOW THE DAM. AT CENTER OF PHOTO. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Echeta Dam & Reservoir, 2.9 miles east of Echeta Road at Echeta Railroad Siding at County Road 293, Echeta, Campbell County, WY

156

Using historic aerial photography and paleohydrologic techniques to assess long-term ecological response to two Montana dam removals.  

PubMed

The restorative potential of dam removal on ecosystem function depends on the reversibility of dam effects and its operations. While dam removal is an established engineering practice, the need for an understanding of the ecological response remains. We used paleoflood hydrology, hydrologic modeling, and aerial photo interpretation to investigate the long-term ecologic responses to dam failure and breach. We investigated downstream geomorphic and vegetation responses to a dam failure (Pattengail Dam in 1927) and a controlled dam breach, which used natural sediment removal (Mystic Lake Dam in 1985). Our data showed vegetation responses indicative of channel and floodplain evolution at Pattengail. The size of the flood following the Pattengail dam failure initiated a series of channel adjustments and reworked over 19ha of floodplain downstream of the dam. In Mystic, we observed few flood stage indicators and a slight response in floodplain vegetation. We made several findings. (1) Dam removal effects on channel evolution and floodplain development depend on reach types and their responsiveness to flow regime change. (2) Ecologic response to dam removal depends on the sizes and timing of high flow events during and following removal. (3) Paleohydrology can be used to assess historic floods (>20 years). We see the utility of assessing the ecological responsiveness of a system to previous fluvial events or changes in flow regime. Informed about the character of a system based on its history, dam removal scientists can use these tools to set realistic restoration goals for removing a dam. PMID:19042079

Schmitz, Denine; Blank, Matt; Ammondt, Selita; Patten, Duncan T

2009-07-01

157

Fish assemblage response to a small dam removal in the eightmile river system, connecticut, USA.  

PubMed

We examined the effects of the Zemko Dam removal on the Eightmile River system in Salem, Connecticut, USA. The objective of this research was to quantify spatiotemporal variation in fish community composition in response to small dam removal. We sampled fish abundance over a 6-year period (2005-2010) to quantify changes in fish assemblages prior to dam removal, during drawdown, and for three years following dam removal. Fish population dynamics were examined above the dam, below the dam, and at two reference sites by indicator species analysis, mixed models, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and analysis of similarity. We observed significant shifts in fish relative abundance over time in response to dam removal. Changes in fish species composition were variable, and they occurred within 1 year of drawdown. A complete shift from lentic to lotic fishes failed to occur within 3 years after the dam was removed. However, we did observe increases in fluvial and transition (i.e., pool head, pool tail, or run) specialist fishes both upstream and downstream from the former dam site. Our results demonstrate the importance of dam removal for restoring river connectivity for fish movement. While the long-term effects of dam removal remain uncertain, we conclude that dam removals can have positive benefits on fish assemblages by enhancing river connectivity and fluvial habitat availability. PMID:25022888

Poulos, Helen M; Miller, Kate E; Kraczkowski, Michelle L; Welchel, Adam W; Heineman, Ross; Chernoff, Barry

2014-11-01

158

Fish Assemblage Response to a Small Dam Removal in the Eightmile River System, Connecticut, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examined the effects of the Zemko Dam removal on the Eightmile River system in Salem, Connecticut, USA. The objective of this research was to quantify spatiotemporal variation in fish community composition in response to small dam removal. We sampled fish abundance over a 6-year period (2005-2010) to quantify changes in fish assemblages prior to dam removal, during drawdown, and for three years following dam removal. Fish population dynamics were examined above the dam, below the dam, and at two reference sites by indicator species analysis, mixed models, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and analysis of similarity. We observed significant shifts in fish relative abundance over time in response to dam removal. Changes in fish species composition were variable, and they occurred within 1 year of drawdown. A complete shift from lentic to lotic fishes failed to occur within 3 years after the dam was removed. However, we did observe increases in fluvial and transition (i.e., pool head, pool tail, or run) specialist fishes both upstream and downstream from the former dam site. Our results demonstrate the importance of dam removal for restoring river connectivity for fish movement. While the long-term effects of dam removal remain uncertain, we conclude that dam removals can have positive benefits on fish assemblages by enhancing river connectivity and fluvial habitat availability.

Poulos, Helen M.; Miller, Kate E.; Kraczkowski, Michelle L.; Welchel, Adam W.; Heineman, Ross; Chernoff, Barry

2014-11-01

159

DSM saves the dam. [Deep Soil Mix  

SciTech Connect

As US dams age and deteriorate, there is a growing need to upgrade them to meet new regulations and factors of safety. This article describes how, at Lockington Dam in Ohio's Miami Valley, construction of a deep-soil-mix soil-cement cutoff wall offered the best solution, both technically and economically, to prevent potential seepage-induced failure. Seventy-five years ago, the largest single constructing project in the US was the flood-control works of the Miami Conservancy District in Ohio. Begun in 1918 and completed in 1921 at a cost of $33 million, the project included five hydraulic-fill flood-control dams and 73 mi of levees constructed in response to 10 major floods, including a catastrophic 1913 flood in Dayton, that had caused more than 1,000 deaths and $100 million in damages over the previous century.

Walker, A.D. (Nicholson Construction, Bridgeville, PA (United States))

1994-12-01

160

Cold Air Damming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cold Air Damming is part of the Mesoscale Meteorology Primer series. This module first presents a Navy forecast scenario prior to the development of a major cold air damming (CAD) event along the east slopes of the Appalachian Mountains. Then, from a conceptual standpoint, the classic CAD scenario is described in detail, both from an observational and modeling standpoint.

Comet

2001-06-18

161

GeoGuide: Dams!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The site offers an interactive discussion of different vantage points associated with dam building. It describes some of the engineering and environmental issues that go into the process of selecting a site for building a dam and the conditions necessary for electrical generation. Links to classroom and family activities are organized by grade level.

162

NEW ENGLAND DAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

With the National Dam Inspection Act (P.L. 92-367) of 1972, Congress authorized the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to inventory dams located in the United States. The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (P.L 99-662) authorized USACE to maintain and periodically publish...

163

Dammed or Damned?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes issues raised at a workshop on "People and Dams" organized by the Society for Participatory Research in Asia. Objectives were to (1) understand problems created by dams for people, (2) consider forces affecting displaced populations and rehabilitation efforts, and (3) gain a perspective on popular education efforts among affected…

Hirsch, Philip

1988-01-01

164

Lessons from a Dam Failure1 JAMI;S E. EVANS, SCUDDKR D. MACKKY, JOHAN F. GOTTC.KNS, AND WILFRID M. GILL, Department of Geology, Bowling Green State  

E-print Network

. Of the accumulated reservoir sediment, 9-13% was mobilized by dam breach and consequent incision (as the Chagrin, flooding, and sedimentation downstream, and erosion of fine-grained sediment within the reservoir itself River re-established its gradient by downcutting through reservoir sediment). Of this amount, 61

Gottgens, Hans

165

Hydraulics of embankment-dam breaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Constructed or natural earthen dams can pose hazards to downstream communities. Experiments to date on earthen-dam breaching have focused on dam geometries relevant to engineering practice. We have begun experiments with dam geometries more like those of natural dams. Water was impounded behind dams constructed at the downstream end of the USGS debris-flow flume. Dams were made of compacted, well-sorted, moist beach sand (D50=0.21 mm), 3.5 m from toe to toe, but varying in height from 0.5 to 1 m; the lower the dam, the smaller the reservoir volume and the broader the initially flat crest. Breaching was started by cutting a slot 30-40 mm wide and deep in the dam crest after filling the reservoir. Water level and pore pressure within the dam were monitored. Experiments were also recorded by an array of still- and video cameras above the flume and a submerged video camera pointed at the upstream dam face. Photogrammetric software was used to create DEMs from stereo pairs, and particle-image velocimetry was used to compute the surface-velocity field from the motion of tracers scattered on the water surface. As noted by others, breaching involves formation and migration of a knickpoint (or several). Once the knickpoint reaches the upstream dam face, it takes on an arcuate form whose continued migration we determined by measuring the onset of motion of colored markers on the dam face. The arcuate feature, which can be considered the head of the "breach channel", is nearly coincident with the transition from subcritical to supercritical flow; that is, it acts as a weir that hydraulically controls reservoir emptying. Photogenic slope failures farther downstream, although the morphologically dominant process at work, play no role at all in hydraulic control aside from rare instances in which they extend upstream so far as to perturb the weir, where the flow cross section is nearly self-similar through time. The domain downstream of the critical-flow section does influence the hydrograph in another way: the broader the initial dam crest, the longer the time before critical flow control is established. Flood duration is thus increased but peak discharge is decreased. Visual inspection and overhead videography reveal little turbidity in water pouring over the weir, implying that sediment there moves dominantly as bedload. Furthermore, underwater videography gives the overall impression that along the upstream dam face, erosion occurs without redeposition. Thus it would be a mistake to use empiricisms for equilibrium bedload transport to model erosion of the embankment. In mathematical terms, erosion rate cannot be backed out by calculating the divergence of transport rate; rather, transport rate should be regarded as the spatial integral of erosion rate. We use photogrammetry and motion of the colored markers to determine the erosion rate of the weir, and then infer shear stress at the weir by applying the van Rijn sediment-pickup function. Shear stress determined in this fashion is much less than what one calculates from the gradient of the energy head (an approach appropriate to steady flow). Shear stress inferred from the pickup-function calculation can serve as a constraint on computational fluid-dynamics models. Another constraint on such models, revealed by the underwater videography, is the upstream limit of sand movement, where bed shear stress equals the critical value for sand entrainment.

Walder, J. S.; Iverson, R. M.; Logan, M.; Godt, J. W.; Solovitz, S.

2012-12-01

166

Legal Perspectives on Dam Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although economic, engineering, and ecological concerns drive the debate about whether to remove or repair a dam, public acceptance of change may be the ultimate determining factor. Nonetheless, little research has looked at the socioeconomic aspects of dam removal. Drawing on Wisconsin's experience with small dam removal, this chapter synthesizes the major public concerns about dam removal and introduces the

MARGARET B. BOWMAN; Sara E. Johnson

2002-01-01

167

SEISMIC OBSERVATION IN IRRIGATION DAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of irrigation dams have been constructed in Japan. Strong earthquakes have often occurred and seismic observations in fill dams are very important for safety and countermeasures. Seismometers have been installed in 156 high irrigation dams since 1954 and seismic accelerations observed. Dynamic dam behavior is investigated by seismic observation records at the National Institute for Rural Engineering

Tamotsu FURUYA

168

Gypsum-karst problems in constructing dams in the USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gypsum is a highly soluble rock and is dissolved readily to form caves, sinkholes, disappearing streams, and other karst features that typically are also present in limestones and dolomites. Gypsum karst is widespread in the USA and has caused problems at several sites where dams were built, or where dam construction was considered. Gypsum karst is present (at least locally) in most areas where gypsum crops out, or is less than 30-60 m below the land surface. These karst features can compromise on the ability of a dam to hold water in a reservoir, and can even cause collapse of a dam. Gypsum karst in the abutments or foundation of a dam can allow water to pass through, around, or under a dam, and solution channels can enlarge quickly, once water starts flowing through such a karst system. The common procedure for controlling gypsum karst beneath the dam is a deep cut-off trench, backfilled with impermeable material, or a close-spaced grout curtain that hopefully will fill all cavities. In Oklahoma, the proposed Upper Mangum Dam was abandoned before construction, because of extensive gypsum karst in the abutments and impoundment area. Catastrophic failure of the Quail Creek Dike in southwest Utah in 1989 was due to flow of water through an undetected karstified gypsum unit beneath the earth-fill embankment. The dike was rebuilt, at a cost of US 12 million, with construction of a cut-off trench 600 m long and 25 m deep. Other dams in the USA with severe gypsum-karst leakage problems in recent years are Horsetooth and Carter Lake Dams, in Colorado, and Anchor Dam, in Wyoming.

Johnson, Kenneth S.

2008-01-01

169

1. OVERALL VIEW OF SPILLWAY SHOWING BAFFLE WALL AND TAIL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. OVERALL VIEW OF SPILLWAY SHOWING BAFFLE WALL AND TAIL WATERS, WITH POWERHOUSE (MI-98-C) AND SUBSTATION (MI-98-D) AT LEFT. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Cooke Hydroelectric Plant, Spillway, Cook Dam Road at Au Sable River, Oscoda, Iosco County, MI

170

DAM-BREAK SIMULATIONS ON UNIFORM AND Q-TREE GRIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood inundation caused by sudden failure of a dam or dyke can have catastrophic consequences. Predictive models of dam-break hydrodynamics are usually based on the shallow water equations. As Toro (2001) has shown, the ass umption of even a slightly wetted bed may lead to an incorrect prediction of the dry- bed dam-break flood wave. This paper presents Godunov-type schemes

Alistair G L BORTHWICK; Qiuhua LIANG; Ben ROGERS

171

United States Society on Dams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Society on Dams (USSD) is a professional organization that promotes the advancement of dam engineering and technology, and fosters public awareness of the importance of dams. The best feature on the society's home page is its excellent introduction to dams and their benefits. First, a short definition of a dam is given, and then some reasons for their construction are outlined with specific examples. There are many pictures of dams across the country, and most have explanations for their importance. Hydroelectric power as a renewable resource is discussed in detail. This Web site is a good learning resource for both kids and adults.

2002-01-01

172

2. GENERAL VIEW OF MORRIS DAM RESERVOIR SHOWING MORRIS DAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. GENERAL VIEW OF MORRIS DAM RESERVOIR SHOWING MORRIS DAM TEST FACILITY LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD AZUZA, Date unknown, circa 1960's. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

173

Usoi Dam (Tajikistan) the highest landslide dam on the world  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural dams an integral part of the landscape formation. They are formed when the soil from slopes blocks the watercourse. The development of such dam may lead to two rare but desirable extreme outcomes: quick easing of the new dam and leakage of water accumulated behind it or stabilization of the dam and the establishment of a permanent outflow of water from the newly formed lake before it overflows the dam. All outcomes between these two extremes pose a threat commonly resulting in catastrophic floods causing massive damage to the flooded areas. The largest known dam of this kind, more than 500 m high and existing already 100 years, is the Usoi Dam in Tajikistan. The dam is located in the Amur Darya river basin.

Roje-Bonacci, Tanja

2014-05-01

174

Management of acidic effluents from tailing dams in metalliferous mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining activity is one of the many causes of pollution of water resources and creates a condition of imbalance between the\\u000a land and water regime, in both quantitative and qualitative manners. Among the various causes of qualitative pollution, acid\\u000a mine drainage (AMD) is more predominant and is produced in mines when pyrite and other sulphide minerals become exposed to\\u000a the

M. R. Saharan; K. K. Gupta; A. Jamal; A. S. Sheoran

1995-01-01

175

Bringing Down Our Dams: Trends in American Dam Removal Rationales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over 76,000 dams have been constructed on American rivers to provide services such as flood protection, water storage, hydroelectric power, and navigation. Although most dams continue to provide sufficient benefits to retain the structure, dam removal is becoming increasingly common. This study involved the construction of a dam removal database to analyze spatial and temporal trends in dam removal. The data included information on 417 cases of dismantled American dams, 153 with known rationales for removal. Database analysis indicated that the leading purposes for dismantling structures are safety concerns and interest in environmental restoration. There is substantial geographic variability in dam removal rationales, with California leading in razing dams for environmental purposes, and Wisconsin leading in economic and safety rationales. States with substantial removals tend to have programs that support and fund dam razing. Although removals for safety reasons have been increasing steadily in the past three decades, environmental removals made a rather dramatic and sudden entry into the dam removal arena in the 1990s. Analysis of spatial and temporal trends in dam razing are of particular significance given the likely increase in dam removals in the 21st Century.

Pohl, Molly M.

2002-12-01

176

ECHETA DAM RIPRAP ON RESERVOIR SIDE OF THE DAM AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ECHETA DAM RIP-RAP ON RESERVOIR SIDE OF THE DAM AT BREACH. VIEW TO NORTH-NORTHEAST. - Echeta Dam & Reservoir, 2.9 miles east of Echeta Road at Echeta Railroad Siding at County Road 293, Echeta, Campbell County, WY

177

32. AERIAL VIEW OF TIETON DAM, UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. AERIAL VIEW OF TIETON DAM, UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM (Trashrack-structure for outlet at lower left in reservoir, spillway at upper left. Reservoir nearly empty due to drought.) - Tieton Dam, South & East of State Highway 12, Naches, Yakima County, WA

178

33 CFR 222.6 - National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams.  

...resulting from flooding due to dam failure. Loss of project benefits i.e. , municipal water supply, etc...Valley Authority TVA e. U.S. Department of Interior: (1) Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife DOI BSFW...

2014-07-01

179

An Investigation on the Characteristics of the Seismic Signals Induced by Overtopping Dam Breach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep-seated landslide masses often block rivers and form landslide dams. Most landslide dams are prone to failure by overtopping water and may induce strong surge wave in the downstream. This study discussed the characteristics of dam break surge wave by experimental methods. We established an artificial dam on a creek in Nantou, Taiwan, for the large-scale dam breach test by overtopping. Flume tests in laboratory were also setup to observe the stability and erosion process of model dams. Accelerometers were used to record the vibrational signals induced by the overtopped water. The vibration signals induced by the surge wave were successfully captured. The velocity of the surge wave front was calculated using the time-frequency spectral magnitude obtained from Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT). The frequency contents of the seismic signals of the surge waves were also analyzed. The erosion process and erosion rate and duration were discussed. The characteristics including frequency range, duration and corresponding processes, of the vibration signals from the artificial dam and flume tests were compared to the analyzed characteristics of the actual landslide dam breach event at Xiaolin, Kaohsiung occurred in 2009 (Feng, 2012).; An artificial dam on a creek in Nantou, Taiwan, for the large-scale dam breach test by overtopping. ; Opening after the large-scale dam breach test by overtopping.

Feng, Z.; Chen, S.; Kao, S.

2012-12-01

180

Risk Perception Analysis Related To Existing Dams In Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the first part of this work, the progress of Italian National Rules about dams design, construction and operation are presented to highlight the strong connection existing between the promulgation of new decrees, as a consequence of a dam accidents, and the necessity to prevent further loss of lives and goods downstream. Following the Gleno Dam failure (1923), a special Ministerial Committee wrote out the first Regulations and made the proposal to establish, within the High Council of Public Works, a special department that become soon the "Dam Service", with the tasks of control and supervision about construction and operation phases of the dams and their reservoirs. A different definition of tasks and the structure of Dam Service were provided in accordance with law n° 183/1989, which transferred all the technical services to the Office of the Prime Minister; the aim was to join the Dam Office with the Department for National Technical Services, with the objective of increasing the knowledge of the territory and promoting the study on flood propagation downstream in case of operations on bottom outlet or hypothetical dam-break. In fact, population living downstream is not ready to accept any amount of risk because has not a good knowledge of the efforts of experts involved in dam safety, both from the operators and from the safety Authority. So it's important to optimize all the activities usually performed in a dam safety program and improve the emergency planning as a response to people's primary needs and feeling about safety from Civil Protection Authority. In the second part of the work, a definition of risk is provided as the relationship existing between probability of occurrence and loss, setting out the range within to plan for prevention (risk mitigation), thanks to the qualitative assessment of the minimum safety level that is suited to assign funds to plan for Civil Protection (loss mitigation). The basic meaning of the reliability of a zoned earthfill dam is illustrated by defining the risk analysis during its construction and operation. A qualitative "Event Tree Analysis" makes clear with an example the probability of occurrence of the events triggered by an earthquake, and leads to a classification of the damage level. Finally, a System Dynamics (SD) approach is presented to investigate possibilities of a preventive planning in relationship to the risk, so that it's possible to establish shared procedures to achieve the correct management in any crisis phase. As a qualitative result of a SD application, figure 1 presents a flow-chart about a case study on the same dam so to illustrate the emergency planning in a step by step procedure according to the Regulations.

Solimene, Pellegrino

2013-04-01

181

Human Tail and Myelomeningocele  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human tail is rarely reported and is usually associated with underlying spina bifida occulta. A male newborn presenting a caudal appendage (human tail) with skin-covered myelomeningocele and tethered cord is described. Surgical excision of the human tail and repair of the myelomeningocele were performed 3 days after birth. After the operation, the patient had an uneventful convalescence and received

Pei-Jung Lin; Yu-Tang Chang; Hsing-I Tseng; Jan-You Lin; Yu-Sheng Huang

2007-01-01

182

Simulation on particle crushing of tailings material under high pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With continuous increase of the high tailings dam, it has an important practical and theoretical significance to study the mechanical characteristics of the tailings material under high pressures. It is indicated that strength envelopes of the tailings material have a remarkable nonlinear characteristics through the triaxial test under high pressures. A further study stated that the particle crushing has a critical effect on the mechanical behavior of the tailings material. In order to quantitatively research its influence, the grain size distribution of the tailings material is analyzed for pre-and post-test and the particle crushing of the tailings material is measured. The particle flow code is employed to simulate and monitor the sample during testing. Firstly, a model which considers the particle crushing is built under the plane strain condition. Then, a series of biaxial numerical tests of the tailings specimen are simulated by using the model. It is found that the simulation result agrees with the triaxial test. Finally, a law between the particle crushing and strain of the tailings material under different confining pressures is obtained.

Liu, Hai-ming; Liu, Yi-ming; Yang, Chun-he; Cao, Jing

2013-06-01

183

Dam Removal Express Assessment Models (DREAM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many dams have been removed in the recent decades in the U.S. for reasons including economics, safety, and ecological rehabilitation. More dams are under consideration for removal; some of them are medium to large-sized dams filled with millions of cubic meters of sediment. Reaching a decision to remove a dam and deciding as how the dam should be removed, however,

Yantao Cui; Gary Parker; Christian Braudrick; William E Dietrich; Brian Cluer

2006-01-01

184

Initial Geomorphic Responses to Removal of Milltown Dam, Clark Fork River, Montana, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The removal of Milltown Dam on the Clark Fork River, Montana, USA, is creating a field-scale experiment on upstream and downstream responses to dam removal and on how gravel-bed rivers respond to sediment pulses. Milltown Dam was removed in 2008, reconnecting the Clark Fork River to its upstream basin in terms of sediment transport and fish passage. This dam removal is especially notable because (1) it is the largest dam removal to date in the United States in terms of the volume of reservoir sediment potentially available for downstream transport (over 3 million m3; 1.7 million m3 are being mechanically removed); and (2) the dam is the downstream end of the largest Superfund site in the United States, the Clark Fork Complex, and reservoir sediments are composed largely of contaminated mine tailings. Data collection on pre- and post-dam removal channel morphology, bed sediment characteristics, and sediment loads are being used to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of sediment transport and deposition associated with this dam removal. In the first several months following breaching of the dam, snowmelt runoff with a 3-year recurrence interval peak caused substantial erosion and downstream transport of metals-laden sediments from Milltown reservoir. Reservoir sediments in the Clark Fork arm of Milltown reservoir eroded at levels far exceeding modeling predictions as a result of both incision to the new base level created by dam removal and bank retreat of over 200 m in reaches upstream of a constructed bypass reach and remediation area. Copper and other metals in these eroded reservoir sediments provide a tracer for identifying whether sediment deposits observed downstream of the dam originated from Milltown reservoir or uncontaminated tributaries and indicate that Milltown sediments have reached over 200 km downstream. Downstream deposition has been greatest along channel margins and in side-channel areas, whereas the transport capacity of the active channel has limited channel changes there.

Wilcox, A. C.; Brinkerhoff, D.; Woelfle-Erskine, C.

2008-12-01

185

Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks Tail Densities of Copulas  

E-print Network

Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks Tail Densities of Toronto, May 27 2014 Haijun Li Tail Densities of Copulas University of Toronto, May 27 2014 1 / 22 #12;Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks Let X = (X1

Li, Haijun

186

76 FR 12094 - Whitman River Dam, Inc.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Project No. 13237-002] Whitman River Dam, Inc. Notice of Application Tendered for Filing...February 14, 2011. d. Applicant: Whitman River Dam, Inc. e. Name of Project: Crocker Dam Hydro Project. f. Location: On the Whitman...

2011-03-04

187

Conflicts Associated with Dam Removal in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. The increasing number,of deterioratingold dams that need renovation or have lost their function make,dam removal a viable management,option. There are at least four major reasons for dam removal: safety, law and policy, economy, and ecology. Here we discuss 17 Swedish dams that were recently considered for removal. Because dam removal usually causes controversy, dam removal initiatives may succeed, fail,

Anna G. C. Lejon; Birgitta Malm Renöfält; Christer Nilsson

188

Hoover Dam and Hydroelectric Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment is adapted from Building Big, a PBS series hosted by David Macaulay. It explores Hoover Dam's hydroelectric capabilities by explaining how it is able to harness the potential energy stored in the reservoir and convert it to electricity. It also discusses environmental impacts of the dam and others like it.

Foundation, Wgbh E.; Domain, Teachers'

189

Why Do We Build Dams?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the concept of a dam and its potential benefits, which include water supply, electricity generation, flood control, recreation and irrigation. This lesson begins an ongoing classroom scenario in which student engineering teams working for the Splash Engineering firm design dams for a fictitious client, Thirsty County.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

190

War damages and reconstruction of Peruca dam  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes the heavy damages caused by blasting in the Peruca rockfill dam in Croatia in January 1993. Complete collapse of the dam by overtopping was prevented through quick action of the dam owner by dumping clayey gravel on the lowest sections of the dam crest and opening the bottom outlet of the reservoir, thus efficiently lowering the water level. After the damages were sufficiently established and alternatives for restoration of the dam were evaluated, it was decided to construct a diaphragm wall through the damaged core in the central dam part as the impermeable dam element and to rebuild the central clay core at the dam abutments. Reconstruction works are described.

Nonveiller, E. [Univ. of Zagreb (Croatia). Faculty of Civil Engineering] [Univ. of Zagreb (Croatia). Faculty of Civil Engineering; Rupcic, J. [Univ. of Zagreb (Croatia). Faculty of Civil Engineering] [Univ. of Zagreb (Croatia). Faculty of Civil Engineering; [Elektroprojekt Consulting Engineering, Zagreb (Croatia); Sever, Z. [Elektroprojekt Consulting Engineering, Zagreb (Croatia)] [Elektroprojekt Consulting Engineering, Zagreb (Croatia)

1999-04-01

191

Synthesizing Studies of Dam Removal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dam decommissioning is rapidly emerging as an important river restoration strategy in the United States. Hundreds of dams have been removed in the past few decades, including several large ones (>10-15 meters) impounding large sediment volumes (>106 cubic meters) in the past 3 years, notably Condit Dam and the Elwha River dams in Washington State. These removals and the associated studies provide for the first time an opportunity to evaluate the immediate and persistent consequences of these significant fluvial—and in some cases, coastal—perturbations. Understanding dam removal response not only improves understanding of landscape and ecosystem adjustment to profound sediment pulses but also provides important lessons for future watershed restoration efforts.

O'Connor, Jim; East, Amy

2014-10-01

192

6. GENE WASH DAM, LOOKING NORTHWEST. SURVEY REFLECTOR IN FOREGROUND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. GENE WASH DAM, LOOKING NORTHWEST. SURVEY REFLECTOR IN FOREGROUND FOR MONITORING MOVEMENT OF DAM AND EARTH. - Gene Wash Reservoir & Dam, 2 miles west of Parker Dam, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

193

History of dams at the Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina  

SciTech Connect

Since the production of nuclear material at SRS for weapons required large quantities of cooling water, a series of canals, dikes, and dams were constructed to provide conveyance systems and reservoirs. This paper presents a brief overview of the history of the construction of the dams and dikes. Attention is given to the use of asphaltic concrete for 30 years (and its maintenance and repair) to line the banks of dikes and the upstream slopes of dams to prevent erosion and possible failure. The ability of asphaltic concrete in preventing dam/dike failure was proven. Benefits and drawbacks to the use of this material are discussed based on the extensive experience at SRS.

Jones, M.P. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Wilson, C.B. [Law Engineering Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

1995-12-01

194

Helicopter tail rotor noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made of helicopter tail rotor noise, particularly that due to interactions with the main rotor tip vortices, and with the fuselage separation mean wake. The tail rotor blade-main rotor tip vortex interaction is modelled as an airfoil of infinite span cutting through a moving vortex. The vortex and the geometry information required by the analyses are obtained

S.-T. Chou; A. R. George

1986-01-01

195

The Effect of Impervious Clay Core Shape on the Stability of Embankment Dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important dangers that treat earth dams which can lead to interior failure over a prolonged period is the\\u000a hydraulic fracturing factor. In the case of zoned dams, due to differences in stiffness of the core and its abutment zone,\\u000a differential settlements occur between them. This factor is responsible for the arching phenomenon. Differential settlements\\u000a between core

R. Nayebzadeh; M. Mohammadi

2011-01-01

196

A review of catastrophic drainage of moraine-dammed lakes in British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moraine-dammed lakes are common in the high mountains of British Columbia. Most of these lakes formed when valley and cirque glaciers retreated from advanced positions achieved during the Little Ice Age. Many moraine dams in British Columbia are susceptible to failure because they are steep-sided, have relatively low width-to-height ratios, comprise loose, poorly sorted sediment, and may contain ice cores

John J. Clague; Stephen G. Evans

2000-01-01

197

Is it worth a dam?  

PubMed Central

Once a sign of modernization and growth, dams are often seen today as symbols of environmental and social devastation. Over 800,000 dams have been built worldwide to provide drinking water, flood control, hydropower, irrigation, navigation, and water storage. Dams do indeed provide these things,but at the cost of several adverse, unexpected effects: disruption of ecosystems, decline of fish stocks, forced human and animal resettlements, and diseases such as malaria, which are borne by vectors that thrive in quiet waters. PMID:9349830

Joyce, S

1997-01-01

198

Simulation of dam- and dyke-break hydrodynamics on dynamically adaptive quadtree grids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding due to the failure of a dam or dyke has potentially disastrous consequences. This paper presents a Godunov-type finite volume solver of the shallow water equations based on dynamically adaptive quadtree grids. The Harten, Lax and van Leer approximate Riemann solver with the Contact wave restored (HLLC) scheme is used to evaluate interface fluxes in both wet- and dry-bed applications. The numerical model is validated against results from alternative numerical models for idealized circular and rectangular dam breaks. Close agreement is achieved with experimental measurements from the CADAM dam break test and data from a laboratory dyke break undertaken at Delft University of Technology.

Liang, Q.; Borthwick, A. G. L.; Stelling, G.

2004-09-01

199

Seismic safety of earth dams: A probabilistic approach  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of the potential for slope sliding and/or liquefaction failure of earthen dams subjected to earthquake loadings is most often based on deterministic procedures of both the excitation input and of the physical model. Such treatment provides answers in the form of either factor of safety values or a yes or no as to whether liquefaction will occur or not. Uncertainties in the physical properties of the soil in the embankment and the foundation layers underlying the dam are typically treated with parametric studies. Consideration of probabilities pertaining to the uncertainties of the earthquake and of the site characterization is expected to augment the prediction of failure potential by associating slope and liquefaction failure to generic properties of the earthquake and of the site characterization. In this study, the procedures for conditional slope failure/liquefaction probabilities are formulated based on a series of simulated deterministic analyses of a dam cross section . These synthetic earthquakes emanate from a 1-D stationary stochastic process of zero mean and an analytical form of power spectral density function. The response of the dam section is formed upon a dynamic finite element approach which provides the temporal variations of the stresses, strains and pore water pressure throughout the model. The constitutive response of the granular soil skeleton and its coupling with the fluid phase is formulated based on the Biot dynamic equations of motion with nonlinear terms compensated for into soil hysteretic damping. Lastly, a stochastic approach to liquefaction based on the transferring of the input motion statistics to the cross section is presented.

Simos, N.; Costantino, C.J.; Reich, M.

1994-08-01

200

Error reduction in slope stability assessment Jean-Alain Fleurisson and Roger Cojean  

E-print Network

, as well as all the types of embankments (stockpiles, tailing dams, waste dumps) resulting from mining be mentioned (e.g. Failure of the waste dump at Aberfan in Wales in 1966, many failures in tailing dams

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

201

GATC Flanking Sequences Regulate Dam Activity: Evidence for how Dam Specificity may Influence  

E-print Network

contribute to the diverse biological roles of Dam. q 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Dam, the mechanisms whereby Dam methylation differentially affects diverse biological pathways is poorly understoodGATC Flanking Sequences Regulate Dam Activity: Evidence for how Dam Specificity may Influence pap

Reich, Norbert O.

202

Geomorphic responses to large check-dam removal on a mountain river in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dam removal has become an important aspect of river restoration in recent years, but studies documenting the physical and ecological response to dam removal are still lacking - particularly in mountain rivers and following major floods. This presentation documents the recent removal of a large dam on a coarse-grained, steep (an order of magnitude greater than on the Marmot) mountain channel in Taiwan. The Chijiawan river, a tributary of the Tachia River draining a 1236 km2 watershed, is the only habitat in Taiwan of the endangered Formosan landlocked salmon. The habitat of this fish has been cut significantly since the 1960s following construction of check dams designed to prevent reservoir sedimentation downstream. The largest and lowermost barrier on Chijiawan creek is the 15m high, "No. 1 Check Dam" built in 1971. Forty years later, in early 2011, the sediment wedge behind the dam had reached an estimated 0.2 million m3 and the dam toe had been scoured about 4m below its foundation, posing a serious risk of dam failure. For these reasons, the Shei-Pa National Park removed the dam in late May 2011. To monitor the response of the river to dam removal, we installed video cameras, time-lapse cameras, stage recorders, and turbidity sensors, conducted surveys of grain size distributions and longitudinal profiles, and carried out repeat photography. Channel changes were greatest immediately following removal as a result of the high stream power, steep energy slope, and unconsolidated alluvial fill behind the dam. Headcut propagation caused immediate removal of the sand-grade sediment and progressive channel widening. One month after dam removal, a minor flood event excavated a big wedge of sediment from the impoundment. Most of the subsequent downstream deposition occurred within 500m of the dam, with alluviation reaching up to 0.5m in places. Two months after dam removal, erosion had propagated 300m upstream into the impounded sediment along a bed profile of gradient at 1.4% at a headcut with a local gradient of 5.1%. The change in grain size was a fining of the sediment at the two downstream sites and a slight coarsening at the upstream site from April 2010 to July 2011. This is likely due to the increase in energy upstream of the dam post-removal, which has transported the fine-grained sediments downstream. As the river adjusts over coming months and years, we anticipate that observations such as these will help generate an important resource for all those concerned with dam removal and river restoration.

Wang, H.; Stark, C. P.; Cook, K. L.; Kuo, W.

2011-12-01

203

Battle looms over hydroelectric dam relicensing  

SciTech Connect

Environmental groups, buoyed by support from influential lawmakers, are vowing to change the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC's) hydroelectric relicensing procedures. For too long, the groups say, the hydroelectric industry has benefitted from a cozy relationship with the FERC, which has emphasized economic over environmental considerations. The success or failure of the environmentalists agenda will likely prove critical to the hydroelectric industry. With 237 hydroelectric licenses up for renewal this year - the most ever considered by the FERC in one year - and four vacant seats at the Commission, FERC hydro policy appears poised for upheaval. The groups have proposed a multipoint program to address perceived shortcomings in the FERC's hydroelectric relicensing procedures. The program includes recommendations to: Shorten dam licenses (which currently stretch 30 to 50 years) and require the FERC to periodically reevaluate the terms of hydropower licenses; Increase Congressional oversight of the FERC to assure adherence to environmental laws, including the National Environmental Policy Act, which mandates the preparation of environmental impact statements where appropriate; Mandate facilities for upstream and downstream fish passage; Establish a mitigation fund, collectable from dam owners, for river conservation and restoration programs; Promote all alternatives to relicensing projects, including denial of project licenses; and Reassign the FERC's hydropower jurisdiction to another federal agency, such as the Environmental Protection Agency or the Department of the Interior.

Simpson, J.

1993-04-15

204

The Classification of Rockslide Dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It is suggested that rockslide – rock avalanche dams are more complex than is recognized in existing landslide dam classifications.\\u000a A classification system is proposed emphasizing the three-dimensional relations of the landslide deposit to valley morphology.\\u000a This system combines a three-step classification taking account of: (A) the plan view distribution of the deposit in relation\\u000a to valley morphology and the

Reginald L. Hermanns; Kenneth Hewitt; Alexander Strom; Stephen G. Evans; Stuart A. Dunning; Gabriele Scarascia-Mugnozza

205

States improve dam safety legislation and regulations  

SciTech Connect

Several state dam safety agencies have helped their state governments pass new dam safety legislation of regulations during the past year. Improvements in the laws range from establishing or raising permit fees, to boosting requirements for professional licenses, to requiring emergency action plans for all significant and high-hazard dams. ASDSO tracks dam safety legislation and laws to help keep the association's members informed on progress in dam safety. In New Jersey, lawmakers passed legislation providing $1.7 million in loans for engineering studies on high-hazard dams. Similarly in Minnesota, lawmakers approved legislation providing $1.6 million for repair or removal of dams. In Colorado, new legislation creates an emergency dam repair cash fund for state engineers to cover costs of emergency actions. In South Carolina, the General Assembly passed major amendments to the Dams and Reservoirs Safety Act. The amendments require that dam owners notify the state within 30 days after title to a dam is transferred, and stipulate that owners of high-hazard and significant hazard dams prepare emergency action plans. The state also may require normal maintenance on a dam; previously, the dam had to be declared unsafe before and order could be issued. A number of other states are working on new legislation, guidelines, or regulations, including Massachusetts, New York, Washington, and Wyoming. Forty-eight states have dam safety legislation in place; Alabama and Delaware are without such legislation.

Spragens, L. (ASDSO, Lexington, KY (United States))

1993-05-01

206

Molycorp Guadalupe Mountain tailings disposal facility. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Molycorp proposes to construct and operate a molybdenum tailings disposal facility on 1,230 acres of public land near Questa, New Mexico and has located mill site claims for this purpose. The project would consist of a 568-acre tailings pond in the saddle of Guadalupe Mountain. The pond would be formed by the construction of two rock-filled dams at either end of the saddle. Other facilities would include a tailings pump station, an extension of the tailings pipeline, tailings distribution lines, access roads and a patrol road, a powerline, a seepage collection pond, surface water diversion channels, and a decant water channel. The project would provide additional storage for approximately 200 million tons of tailings from Molycorp's molybdenum mine located approximately 12 miles east of Guadalupe Mountain. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) completed an Environmental Assessment (EA) for this project in February 1985. As a result of that EA, the BLM determined that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) would be required. The EIS analyzes and documents the environmental impacts of the proposed project through construction, operation, and closure.

Not Available

1989-11-01

207

Geochemical signatures of discharge waters, Macraes mine flotation tailings, east Otago, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stream catchment containing the tailings dam complex at the Macraes mine, east Otago, New Zealand has three chemically distinct water types. ( 1) Natural groundwater has pH beween 6 and 8, and sulphate levels locally elevated to 30 ppm. The total carbonate\\/calcium (Ca) ratio is c. 2, consistent with carbonic acid dissolution of basement schist calcite. Sodium (Na) is

D. Craw; M. Nelson

2000-01-01

208

The Tail of BPM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Business process management suites (BPMS's) represent one of the fastest growing segments in the software industry as organizations automate their key business processes. As this market matures, it is interesting to compare it to Chris Anderson's 'Long Tail.' Although the 2004 "Long Tail" article in Wired magazine was primarily about the media and entertainment industries, it has since been applied (and perhaps misapplied) to other markets. Analysts describe a "Tail of BPM" market that is, perhaps, several times larger than the traditional BPMS product market. This paper will draw comparisons between the concepts in Anderson's article (and subsequent book) and the BPM solutions market.

Kruba, Steve; Meyer, Jim

209

Heads and Tails  

E-print Network

jHeads & tails M. Fae Glasgow Bene Dictum IV An X-Files Slash Zine Bene Dictum IV: Heads & Tails is an amateur publication, copyright ? February 1999 by Oblique Publications. All rights reserved. This copyright is not intended to infringe upon... novellas by Sebastian, Helen Raven, & M. Fae Glasgow) WARNING: THIS ANTHOLOGY CONTAINS SAME-SEX, ADULT-ORIENTED MATERIAL. IT WILL NOT BE SOLD TO ANYONE UNDER THE AGE OF EIGHTEEN. Bene Dictum IV: Heads & Tails an anthology of X-Files slash fiction...

Glasgow, M.F.

1999-01-01

210

APLLICATION OF DISTRIBUTED RAINFALL RUNOFF MODEL TO SLOPE FAILURE SIMULATION  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research is to improve prediction performance of a distributed rainfall and sediment runoff model for better reservoir sedimentation management. This paper describes an advanced slope-failure simulation method base on basin geomorphology using distributed-parameter rainfall and sediment runoff model, which considers rain-factor and physically-based slope stability. The proposed method is applied to the three dam catchements: Yahagi Dam (504.5 km2), Miwa Dam (311.1km2), and Koshibu Dam (288.0km2), in Chubu, Japan. At each catchment, the model shows very good prediction results of slope failures, which is in good agreement with the locations of actual slope failures recognized by a detailed areal photo interpretation.

Nagatani, Gen; Mizuno, Naoya; Ishida, Hiroya; Ozawa, Kazuya; Takara, Kaoru

211

Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS

... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Heart Failure What is Heart Failure? In heart failure, the heart cannot pump ... the lungs, where it picks up oxygen. The Heart's Pumping Action In normal hearts, blood vessels called ...

212

Wagging tail vibration absorber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 750-foot cantilever length of extendible-tape boom (very low stiffness) was considered as the main system to be damped. A number of tail lengths were tried from 20 feet to 80 feet after which 40 feet was investigated further as a desirable compromise between performance and practical lengths. A 40-foot damping tail produced a damping effect on the main boom for the first mode equivalent in decay rate to 3.1 percent of critical damping. In this case the spring-hinge and tail were tuned to the main boom first mode frequency and the hinge damping was set at 30 percent of critical based on the tail properties. With this same setting, damping of the second mode was .4 percent and the third mode .1 percent.

Barclay, R. G.; Humphrey, P. W.

1969-01-01

213

Human tail and myelomeningocele.  

PubMed

The human tail is rarely reported and is usually associated with underlying spina bifida occulta. A male newborn presenting a caudal appendage (human tail) with skin-covered myelomeningocele and tethered cord is described. Surgical excision of the human tail and repair of the myelomeningocele were performed 3 days after birth. After the operation, the patient had an uneventful convalescence and received follow-up at our outpatient clinic without any neurological sequelae. To our knowledge, no similar case report exists in the literature. Like other skin-related lesions in the lumbosacral area, the present case of caudal appendage with myelomeningocele is only a cutaneous sign of underlying spinal dysraphism since the skin and nerve system are related by their similar ectodermal origin. After excision of the tail and repair of an underlying lesion, long-term follow-up of the neurological status is warranted. PMID:17627154

Lin, Pei-Jung; Chang, Yu-Tang; Tseng, Hsing-I; Lin, Jan-You; Huang, Yu-Sheng

2007-01-01

214

Elwha River Riparian Vegetation Response to Dams and Dam Removal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Riparian vegetation is highly diverse and influences habitat of aquatic and terrestrial wildlife. Riparian vegetation dynamics are driven by stream flow regime, and fluxes of sediment and large woody debris, all of which can be altered by river damming. Dam removal is often implemented, in part, to help restore degraded riparian vegetation by reversing the alteration of these key drivers. However, increased disturbance and sediment flux associated with transport and exposure of trapped reservoir sediment can complicate a simple return to pre-dam conditions and can favor exotic species. We are studying the effects of dams and their removal on riparian vegetation along the Elwha River in Washington State, where removal of two large dams began in September 2011. To characterize vegetation composition, structure, and diversity prior to dam removal, we sampled 60-150 vegetation plots in 2004, 2005, and 2010 along five cross-valley transects in each of three river reaches: above both dams (upper reach), between the dams (middle reach), and downstream of both dams (lower reach). In summer 2012, we resampled a subset of our plots in the lower and middle reaches to evaluate vegetation and geomorphic change. We also sampled vegetation, topography, and grain size along newly-established transects within the exposed former reservoir behind Elwha Dam, which was removed in 2011 and 2012. Plant community distribution on bottomland geomorphic surfaces along the Elwha is typical of other systems in the region. We identified 8 overstory and 26 understory communities using multivariate analyses. Young bar surfaces (5-20 yrs) were dominated by willow, red alder, and black cottonwood. Floodplains and transitional fluvial terraces (<90yrs) were generally dominated by alder and cottonwood. Mature terraces (>90yrs) were often dominated by big-leaf maple. Douglas fir occurred on both young and old floodplains and terraces. Overstory species composition was more stable from 2005 to 2010 than understory, understory species composition was more influenced by reach than overstory, and understory communities on younger landforms were less stable. From 2005 to 2010, there was a 26% increase in species richness in the lower reach but no significant changes elsewhere. In both 2005 and 2010 there was a significant decrease in native species richness (26% and 30% respectively) from the furthest upstream to furthest downstream reach. Exotic species richness was significantly higher in the downstream reach compared to the upstream reach in both years. Following dam removal, we documented different pioneer plant communities growing on different surfaces within the former reservoir behind Elwha Dam. Some surfaces were dominated by exotic species of concern to resource managers, such as Canada thistle and reed canarygrass, while others contained typical, native pioneer communities dominated by willow, alder, and cottonwood. Along our existing monitoring transects, we documented some sediment deposition on channel margins, bars and low floodplain surfaces, particularly in the lower reach; relatively little new deposition occurred in the more armored and stable middle reach. Future monitoring will reveal changes to existing vegetation communities and development of new communities in the former reservoirs as removal of the upstream dam is completed and millions of m3 of sediment are redistributed.

Shafroth, P. B.; Brown, R. L.; Clausen, A. J.; Chenoweth, J.

2012-12-01

215

Assessing low-activity faults for the seismic safety of dams  

SciTech Connect

Dams have been a familiar construct in the northern Sierra Nevada range in California (north of the San Joaquin River) since the forty-niners and farmers diverted water to their gold mines and farms in the mid 19th century. Today, more than 370 dams dot the region from the Central Valley to the eastern escarpment. Fifty-five more dam streams on the eastern slope. The dams are of all types: 240 earth fill; 56 concrete gravity; 45 rock and earth fills; 35 rock fill; 14 concrete arch; 9 hydraulic fill; and 29 various other types. We use the northern Sierra Nevada to illustrate the assessment of low-activity faults for the seismic safety of dams. The approach, techniques, and methods of evaluation are applicable to other regions characterized by low seismicity and low-activity faults having long recurrence intervals. Even though several moderate earthquakes had shaken the Sierra Nevada since 1849 (for example, the 1875 magnitude 5.8 Honey Lake and the 1909 magnitudes 5 and 5.5 Downieville earthquakes), seismic analyses for dams in the area generally were not performed prior to the middle of this century. Following the 1971 magnitude 6.7 San Fernando earthquake, when the hydraulic-fill Lower Van Norman Dam in southern California narrowly escaped catastrophic failure, the California Division of Safety of Dams and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission required seismic safety to be addressed with increasing rigor. In 1975, the magnitude 5.7 Oroville earthquake on the Cleveland Hill fault near Oroville Dam in the Sierra Nevada foothills, showed convincingly that earthquakes and surface faulting could occur within the range. Following this event, faults along the ancient Foothills fault system have been extensively investigated at dam sites.

Page, W.D.; Savage, W.U.; McLaren, M.K. [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

216

Appropriate small dam management for minimizing catchment-wide safety threats: International benchmarked guidelines and demonstrative cases studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small dam safety is generally being ignored. The potential for dam failure resulting in catastrophic consequences for downstream communities, property, and the environment, warrants exploration of the threats and policy issues associated with the management of small/farm dams. The paper achieves this through a comparative analysis of differing levels of dam safety assurance policy: absent, driven, strong, and model. A strategic review is undertaken to establish international dam safety policy benchmarks and to identify a best practice model. A cost-effective engineering/accounting tool is presented to assist the policy selection process and complement the best practice model. The paper then demonstrates the significance of the small-dam safety problem with a case study of four Australian States,policy-absent South Australia, policy-driven Victoria, policy-strong New South Wales, and policy-modelTasmania. Surveys of farmer behavior practices provide empirical evidence of the importance of policy and its proper implementation. Both individual and cumulative farm dam failure threats are addressed and, with supporting empirical evidence, the need for "appropriate" supervision of small dams is demonstrated. The paper adds to the existing international dam policy literature by identifying acceptable minimum level practice in private/farm dam safety assurance policy as well as updated international best practice policy guidelines while providing case study demonstration of how to apply the guidelines and empirical reinforcement of the need for "appropriate" policy. The policy guidelines, cost-effective technology, and comparative lessons presented can assist any jurisdiction to determine and implement appropriate dam safety policy.

Pisaniello, John D.; Tingey-Holyoak, Joanne; Burritt, Roger L.

2012-01-01

217

Failure Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Failure assessment encompasses the identification and characterization both of potential failure mechanisms in systems under development and of actual failure occurrences in operational systems. This paper presents several of the most widely used and useful techniques for failure assessment across the system lifecycle with an emphasis on the role of softwar e. For each technique the paper describes its purpose

Robyn Lutz

218

d:\\activepdf\\uploadfolder\\$asq1rr04-4144-212200461042pm.doc Page 1 Erosional narrowing after dam removal: Theory and numerical model  

E-print Network

of the processes involved (Doyle et al., 2003). Experiments on sedimentation and erosion processes in reservoirs of a dam that is filled with sediment. A channel incises into the deposit after failure of the leadingd:\\activepdf\\uploadfolder\\$asq1rr04-4144-212200461042pm.doc Page 1 Erosional narrowing after dam

Parker, Gary

219

Effects of a Natural Dam-Break Flood on Geomorphology and Vegetation on the Elwha River, Washington, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ephemeral dams caused by landslides have been observed around the world, yet little is known about the effects of their failure on landforms and vegetation. In 1967, a landslide-dam-break flood in a pristine reach of the Elwha River valley filled the former channel and diverted the river. The reach is a reference site for restoration following the planned removal of

Steven A. Acker; Timothy J. Beechie; Patrick B. Shafroth

2008-01-01

220

American Experience: Grand Coulee Dam  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Among many great national achievements during the Great Depression, the Grand Coulee Dam remains one of the most impressive. This fine website from the American Experience program complements a documentary that was first aired on PBS in 2012. The construction of this dam would, in the worlds of President Franklin Roosevelt, be part of a "planned promised land" that would transform the lives of farm families. The site includes a great interactive timeline, a photo gallery, and a short preview of the entire film. Additionally, the site includes two nice bonus videos, including one that deals with the processes of closing the spillway. The blog on the site includes several interesting posts on the history of the dam. Also, visitors have the opportunity to share their own stories about their own favorite iconic structures in the United States.

2012-04-27

221

17. VIEW OF MAIN AND DIVERSION DAMS FROM WATERGATE AFTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. VIEW OF MAIN AND DIVERSION DAMS FROM WATER-GATE AFTER REMOVAL OF DRIFTWOOD. DIVERSION DAM IN LEFT FOREGROUND, MAIN DAM TO THE RIGHT. Photographed July 18, 1938. - Forge Creek Dam-John Cable Mill, Townsend, Blount County, TN

222

OVERALL VIEW OF CASCADE CANAL COMPANY CRIB DAM, LOOKING UPSTREAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERALL VIEW OF CASCADE CANAL COMPANY CRIB DAM, LOOKING UPSTREAM FROM DIRECTION OF KACHESS DAM. VIEW TO NORTH - Kachess Dam, 1904 Cascade Canal Company Crib Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

223

Should We Dam Nanticoke Creek?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this decision-making exercise, students investigate what would occur if a dam were built along Nanticoke Creek, a real stream just north of West Corners near the Village of Endicott, New York. They will use topographic maps to determine how much area would be flooded by the new reservoir, to study river drainages, and to consider the impacts of dams on a region. They must also consider rivers in the context of their relation to humankind. The exercise can be extended to other, more local locations having similar topography.

Childs, Philip

224

7 CFR 1724.55 - Dam safety.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...available from FEMA: (i)“Emergency Action Planning Guidelines for Dams,”FEMA 64. (ii)“Federal Guidelines for Earthquake Analysis and Design of Dams,”FEMA 65. (iii)“Federal Guidelines for Selecting and Accommodating Inflow Design...

2013-01-01

225

Simulation of Breach Outflow for Earthfill Dam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dams have been built for many reasons such as irrigation, hydropower, flood mitigation, and water supply to support development for the benefit of human. However, the huge amount of water stored behind the dam can seriously pose adverse impacts to the downstream community should it be released due to unwanted dam break event. To minimise the potential loss of lives and property damages, a workable Emergency Response Plan is required to be developed. As part of a responsible dam owner and operator, TNB initiated a study on dam breach modelling for Cameron Highlands Hydroelectric Scheme to simulate the potential dam breach for Jor Dam. Prediction of dam breach parameters using the empirical equations of Froehlich and Macdonal-Langridge-Monopolis formed the basis of the modelling, coupled with MIKE 11 software to obtain the breach outflow due to Probable Maximum Flood (PMF). This paper will therefore discuss the model setup, simulation procedure and comparison of the prediction with existing equations.

Razad, Azwin Zailti Abdul; Sabri Muda, Rahsidi; Mohd Sidek, Lariyah; Azia, Intan Shafilah Abdul; Hanum Mansor, Faezah; Yalit, Ruzaimei

2013-06-01

226

7 CFR 1724.55 - Dam safety.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...available from FEMA: (i)“Emergency Action Planning Guidelines for Dams,”FEMA 64. (ii)“Federal Guidelines for Earthquake Analysis and Design of Dams,”FEMA 65. (iii)“Federal Guidelines for Selecting and Accommodating Inflow Design...

2010-01-01

227

7 CFR 1724.55 - Dam safety.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...available from FEMA: (i)“Emergency Action Planning Guidelines for Dams,”FEMA 64. (ii)“Federal Guidelines for Earthquake Analysis and Design of Dams,”FEMA 65. (iii)“Federal Guidelines for Selecting and Accommodating Inflow Design...

2011-01-01

228

The Dramatic Methods of Hans van Dam.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interprets for the American reader the untranslated dramatic methods of Hans van Dam, a leading drama theorist in the Netherlands. Discusses the functions of drama as a method, closed dramatic methods, open dramatic methods, and applying van Dam's methods. (SR)

van de Water, Manon

1994-01-01

229

Diversion dam reduces decomposition, fungal biomass, and macroinvertebrate abundance and diversity: Implications for dam removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dam decommissioning projects are rarely accompanied by adequate baseline data needed to test if the effects of dams are reversible. Although the effects of dams on aquatic species have been well-documented, there are few studies that document the effects of dams on ecosystem processes. In this study we examine how in-stream leaf litter processing rates and associated fungal and macroinvertebrate

J. D. Muehlbauer; J. M. Lovett; K. L. Jones; J. R. Plichta; M. M. Patrick; I. A. Delaney; S. E. Bennett; P. A. Norman; K. K. Flaccus; J. A. Vlieg; C. J. Leroy; J. C. Marks

2005-01-01

230

MASTER PLAN ChiefJosephDamHatcheryProgram This Chief Joseph Dam Hatchery Program Master Plan  

E-print Network

#12;i MASTER PLAN ChiefJosephDamHatcheryProgram This Chief Joseph Dam Hatchery Program Master Plan Fisheries Enhancement Group ChiefJosephDam HatcheryProgram M A S T E R P L A N #12;ChiefJosephDamSummary "A Columbia River ecosystem that sustains an abundant, productive, and diverse community of fish

231

Teton Dam flood of June 1976, Rexburg quadrangle, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The failure of the Teton Dam caused extreme flooding along the Teton River, Henrys Fork, and Snake River in southeastern Idaho on June 5-8, 1976. No flooding occurred downstream from American Falls Reservoir. The inundated areas and maximum water-surface elevations are shown in a series of 17 hydrologic atlases. The area covered by the atlases extends from Teton Dam downstream to American Falls Reservoir, a distance of 100 miles. The extent of flooding shown on the maps was obtained by field inspections and aerial photographs made during and immediately after the flood. There may be small isolated areas within the boundaries shown that were not flooded, but the identification on these sites was beyond the scope of the study. The elevation data shown are mean-sea-level elevations of high-water marks identified in the field. This particular map (in the 17-map series) shows conditions in the Rexburg quadrangle. (Woodard-USGS)

Harenberg, W.A.; Bigelow, B.B.

1976-01-01

232

Concrete dam on the Bratsk hydroelectric station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bratsk concrete dam was designed and constructed with a sufficient degree of reliability. Settlement of the dam together with the powerhouse developed uniformly under the entire foundation. Two irreversible processes causing aging of the dam have been established by operating observations: leaching of the concrete and decompression of the contact zone of the foundation near the upstream face of

Soloveva

1988-01-01

233

Disrupting biogeochemical cycles - Consequences of damming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable management of natural water resources should include environmentally sound dam construction and operation with respect to both upstream and downstream management. Because of slowly evolv- ing alterations in riverine ecosystems following the con- struction of a dam - due to the sometimes large distances between dams and affected areas, and the interference with other anthropogenic activities - some of

Gabriela Friedl; Alfred Wüest

2002-01-01

234

TECHNICAL ISSUES IN SMALL DAM REMOVAL ENGINEERING  

Microsoft Academic Search

With thousands of communities facing decisions regarding aging small dams, dam removal is often a viable option to restore aquatic habitat and relieve what can be an economic burden and public safety hazard. Although more than 500 dams have been removed from rivers and streams throughout the United States, there is relatively little published information available to guide resource managers

Brian E. Graber; Margaret Bowman; R. Scott Carney; Martin W. Doyle; Madeline Fisher; Scudder D. Mackey; Laura Wildman

235

Dam Removal Express Assessment Models (DREAM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents sample runs of the Dam Removal Express Assessment Models (DREAM) presented in the companion paper, Cui et al. (2006): DREAM-1 for simulation of sediment transport following the removal of a dam behind which the reservoir deposit is composed primarily of noncohesive sand and silt, and DREAM-2 for simulation of sediment transport following the removal of a dam

Yantao Cui; Christian Braudrick; William E. Dietrich; Brian Cluer; Gary Parker

2006-01-01

236

"Tails" of Linguistic Survival  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the relatively short history of computerized corpora of spoken language, it is not surprising that few diachronic studies have been done on the grammatical features recently highlighted by the analysis of such corpora. This article, however, does take a diachronic perspective on one such feature: the syntactic feature of "tails" (Dik 1978).…

Timmis, Ivor

2010-01-01

237

Managing 'tail liability'.  

PubMed

To reduce and control their level of tail liability, hospitals should: Utilize a self-insurance vehicle; Consider combined limits between the hospital and physicians; Communicate any program changes to the actuary, underwriter, and auditor; Continue risk management and safety practices; Ensure credit is given to the organization's own medical malpractice program. PMID:24340649

Frese, Richard C; Weber, Ryan J

2013-11-01

238

The Dos Bocas dam in Puerto Rico.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Dos Bocas dam in Puerto Rico was constructed in 1942 to generate hydroelectric power. Dams in this region prevent the migration of shrimp and fish to areas upstream of the dam. As a result, compared to similar reaches of undammed streams, areas that are upstream of dammed rivers have higher amounts of organic and inorganic nutrients as well as altered invertebrate populations. Loss of migratory shrimp and fish upstream from dams alters basal resources and assemblages of invertebrate competitors and prey. This photograph originally appeared on the cover of Ecological Applications (16:1) in February of 2006.

Klemow, Kenneth

2010-02-11

239

Water and Dams in Today's World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the importance of dams by watching a video that presents historical and current information on dams, as well as descriptions of global water resources and the hydrologic cycle. Students also learn about different types of dams, all designed to resist the forces on dams. (If the free, 15-minute "Water and Dams in Today's World" video cannot be obtained in time, the lesson can still be taught. See the Additional Multimedia Support section for how to obtain the DVD or VHS videotape, or a PowerPoint presentation with similar content [also attached].)

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

240

Simulation of dam- and dyke-break hydrodynamics on dynamically adaptive quadtree grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flooding due to the failure of a dam or dyke has potentially disastrous consequences. This paper presents a Godunov-type finite volume solver of the shallow water equations based on dynamically adaptive quadtree grids. The Harten, Lax and van Leer approximate Riemann solver with the Contact wave restored (HLLC) scheme is used to evaluate interface fluxes in both wet- and dry-bed

Q. Liang; A. G. L. Borthwick; G. Stelling

2004-01-01

241

Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS

Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. Heart failure does not mean that your heart has stopped ... Tiredness and shortness of breath Common causes of heart failure are coronary artery disease, high blood pressure and ...

242

Seismic safety of high concrete dams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

China is a country of high seismicity with many hydropower resources. Recently, a series of high arch dams have either been completed or are being constructed in seismic regions, of which most are concrete dams. The evaluation of seismic safety often becomes a critical problem in dam design. In this paper, a brief introduction to major progress in the research on seismic aspects of large concrete dams, conducted mainly at the Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research (IWHR) during the past 60 years, is presented. The dam site-specific ground motion input, improved response analysis, dynamic model test verification, field experiment investigations, dynamic behavior of dam concrete, and seismic monitoring and observation are described. Methods to prevent collapse of high concrete dams under maximum credible earthquakes are discussed.

Chen, Houqun

2014-08-01

243

Geomorphic evolution to large check-dam removal on a mountain river in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As aging dams become obsolete or economically inefficient, dam removal has become an important aspect of river restoration in recent years. While various efforts are ongoing to enhance our understanding, studies documenting the physical and ecological responses to dam removal are still lacking, particularly for removal of large dams in mountain river and following major flood, where the size of watersheds and the amount of reservoir sediment released can be much greater than for most previously studied dam removals. This presentation documents the geomorphic evolution to removal of a large dam on a coarse-grained, steep (an order of magnitude greater than on the Marmot) mountain channel in Taiwan. The Chijiawan creek is the only habitat in Taiwan of the endangered Formosan landlocked salmon. Its habitat has been cut significantly since the 1960s following construction of check dams designed to prevent reservoir sedimentation downstream. The largest and lowermost barrier on Chijiawan creek is the 15m high, "No. 1 Check Dam" built in 1971. Forty years later, the dam had backfilled with about an estimated 0.2 million m3 sediment and its toe had been scoured about 4m below its foundation, raising a significant risk of dam failure. For these reasons, the Shei-Pa National Park removed the dam in late May 2011. To monitor the channel response to dam removal, we conducted surveys of grain size distributions, cross-sectional and longitudinal profiles, analyzed the stage and turbidity records, and carried out repeat photography. Channel changes were greatest immediately following removal as a result of the high stream power, steep energy slope, and unconsolidated alluvial fill behind the dam. Headcut propagation caused immediate removal of the sand-grade sediment and progressive channel widening. One month after dam removal, a minor flood event with the estimated peak discharge of 20 m3/s excavated a big wedge of sediment from the impoundment. Two months after dam removal, erosion had propagated 300m upstream into the impounded sediment along a bed profile of gradient at 1.4% at a headcut with a local gradient of 5.1%. The profile remained pretty much unchanged until a year after in June 2012 during a 'plum rain' with the estimated discharge of 110 m3/s. Headcut erosion migrated further up to 500m upstream from the dam and lateral erosion was documented reaching up to 50m in cross sections near the dam. An estimated amount of about 50,000 m3 sediment was released and deposited in the 1.5-km reach downstream. The change in grain size was a fining of the sediment at the two downstream sites and a slight coarsening at the upstream site from April 2010 to July 2011, and significant coarsening of the sediment (with D50 from 10 mm to 75 mm) at the downstream site and upstream site as well from July 2011 to July 2012. This is likely due to the increase in energy upstream of the dam post-removal, which has transported the fine-grained sediments downstream for the first few months. Following the major flood in June 2012, the coarser-grained sediments have been released downstream. As the river is still adjusting, we anticipate the observations will enhance understanding for all those concerned with dam removal and river restoration.

Wang, H.; Kuo, W.

2012-12-01

244

Design and application of a fiber Bragg grating strain sensor with enhanced sensitivity in the small-scale dam model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate measurement of strain variation and effective prediction of failure within models have been major objectives for strain sensors in dam model tests. In this paper, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensor with enhanced strain sensitivity that is packaged by two gripper tubes is presented and applied in the seismic tests of a small-scale dam model. This paper discusses the principle of enhanced sensitivity of the FBG strain sensor. Calibration experiments and reliability tests were conducted to evaluate the sensor's strain transferring characteristics on plates of different material. This paper also investigates the applicability of the FBG strain sensors in seismic tests of a dam model by conducting a comparison between the test measurements of FBG sensors and analytical predictions, monitoring the failure progress and predicting the cracking inside the dam model. Results of the dam model tests prove that the FBG strain sensor has the advantages of small size, high precision, and embeddability. It has a promising potential in the cracking and failure monitoring and identification of the dam model.

Ren, Liang; Chen, Jianyun; Li, Hong-Nan; Song, Gangbing; Ji, Xueheng

2009-03-01

245

Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks A tail density approach in extremal  

E-print Network

Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks A tail density of Mathematics Washington State University Munich, May 2011 Haijun Li A tail density approach in extremal dependence analysis for vine copulas Munich, May 2011 1 / 21 #12;Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail

Li, Haijun

246

Constraining the timing of the most recent cataclysmic flood event from ice-dammed lakes in the Russian Altai Mountains, Siberia, using cosmogenic in situ 10Be  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice-dammed lakes were repeatedly formed in intermontane basins in the Russian Altai Mountains throughout the Pleistocene. These cataclysmic outburst floods, caused by ice-dam failures, were documented as Earth's largest flood waves by other geoscientists. Using in situ 10Be, we successfully dated surfaces of flood-associated boulders located in a former lake basin and downvalley from a former ice dam. Our precise surface exposure ages suggest that all boulders were associated with the most recent out of a number of cataclysmic floods that occurred at 15.8 ± 1.8 ka. The field location of the boulders implies that they were deposited by the largest late Pleistocene flood that drained the Chuya-Katun Lake completely following initial dam failure. A published reconstruction of the late glacial paleoenvironment in the vicinity of the former ice dam indicates that dam failure was likely a result of climatically induced downwasting of glaciers. The failure of the ice dam provides more evidence for the timing of widespread warming during the late glacial in southern Russia. This flooding event in the headwaters of the Ob River coincides with a freshwater peak as recorded in isotopic records of the Kara Sea and the Arctic Ocean.

Reuther, Anne U.; Herget, Jürgen; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Borodavko, Pavel; Kubik, Peter W.; Heine, Klaus

2006-11-01

247

The significance of natural ground-water recharge in site selection for mill tailings disposal  

SciTech Connect

Milling operations throughout the world have created vast amounts of waste by-products, or tailings, which are often disposed on the land surface. The wastes may be disposed behind dams, on untreated ground, or on compacted clay or synthetic liners of impoundments and trenches. Often one of the principle concerns of environmental regulatory agencies is whether seepage from the waste pile could move through the vadose zone to the water table and possibly contaminate an aquifer. The seepage may be generated by the drainage of liquids initially deposited along with the tailings or by infiltrating meteoric water which leaches soluted from the tailings. The purpose of this article is to discuss some of the commonly held assumptions regarding storage of seepage wastes in the unsaturated zone. The significance of recent studies of water movement in dry climates which pertain to tailings site selection are presented.

Stephens, D.B.

1985-01-01

248

Dynamic decision making for dam-break emergency management - Part 1: Theoretical framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An evacuation decision for dam breaks is a very serious issue. A late decision may lead to loss of lives and properties, but a very early evacuation will incur unnecessary expenses. This paper presents a risk-based framework of dynamic decision making for dam-break emergency management (DYDEM). The dam-break emergency management in both time scale and space scale is introduced first to define the dynamic decision problem. The probability of dam failure is taken as a stochastic process and estimated using a time-series analysis method. The flood consequences are taken as functions of warning time and evaluated with a human risk analysis model (HURAM) based on Bayesian networks. A decision criterion is suggested to decide whether to evacuate the population at risk (PAR) or to delay the decision. The optimum time for evacuating the PAR is obtained by minimizing the expected total loss, which integrates the time-related probabilities and flood consequences. When a delayed decision is chosen, the decision making can be updated with available new information. A specific dam-break case study is presented in a companion paper to illustrate the application of this framework to complex dam-breaching problems.

Peng, M.; Zhang, L. M.

2013-02-01

249

Using hydraulic modeling to address social impacts of small dam removals in southern New Jersey.  

PubMed

Small relic mill dams are common in the watersheds of southern New Jersey, dotting the landscape with many small neighborhood lakes. Originally built in the late 1800s, most of these dams have become increasingly unable to handle current design storms due to increased urbanization of the watersheds. Several of these dams have also been classified as "high hazard" by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Dam Safety Division because their failure has the potential for loss of life or extensive property damage. The current private owners are generally unable to afford the high repair costs needed to rehabilitate the dams to current safety standards, and are therefore more inclined to remove them. This research analyses both the physical and social impacts of the removal of two small dams in southern New Jersey, and integrates the two seemingly disparate concepts. Using hydraulic modeling and previous case studies, it is predicted that there will be limited effects to the hydrological and biological characteristics of the stream corridor. A survey distributed to the affected homeowners that live on these lakes shows that the community, however, expects significant impacts to the bio-physical characteristics of the stream corridor, as well financial impacts to their property value and social impacts to their recreational activities. The current study exposes the widening gap between policy makers and landowners, and highlights where complete stakeholder interaction could and should occur. PMID:19008035

Wyrick, Joshua R; Rischman, Brian A; Burke, Christopher A; McGee, Craig; Williams, Chasity

2009-07-01

250

Impact of a base metal slimes dam on water systems, Madziwa Mine, Zimbabwe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mazowe Valley contains several of Zimbabwe’s largest current mining operations, is densely populated and is also a major agricultural area. The urban areas of Bindura, Goromonzi, Shamva, Marondera, Murehwa and Mutoko all draw water from within the Mazowe Valley. Irrigation of commercial crops is also a major water user. Accordingly, managing the impact of mining operations on water quality in the Mazowe Valley must be a major priority for sustainable development in this area. Madziwa Mine, 150 km north-east of Harare, is a case in point. Mining took place between 1966 and 2001. The main sulphides were chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, pentlandite and pyrite. Waste from the mine’s plant has been disposed of via a tailings dam, the focus of this study. Surface water samples were collected at 12 sites around the slimes dam and groundwater samples were collected from six boreholes. The samples were analysed for dissolved metals using atomic absorption spectrometry and for anions using gravimetry and titration. The surface water chemical analyses showed that acidic effluent with high concentrations of iron, nickel and sulphate emanates from the tailings dam. Concentrations of metals are lower after the water has passed through natural wetlands. Chemical analysis of groundwater showed similarly high levels of acidity, sulphate and metal. These findings show that acid mine drainage is seeping from the tailings dam. Efforts are being made to reduce the effects of the acid mine drainage. For surface seepage from the dumps these efforts include diverting acidic effluent from the dump into natural wetlands that neutralise the acidity. To reduce drainage into the groundwater efforts are being made to plant trees with high evaporation rates to minimise the amount of water that can cause acid mine drainage.

Lupankwa, K.; Love, D.; Mapani, B. S.; Mseka, S.

251

Hydrogeophysical investigations of the earthen Martis Creek Dam, Truckee, CA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Martis Creek Dam, to the north of Lake Tahoe, was constructed for flood control in 1972 by the US Army Corp of Engineers. Since completion, all attempts to raise the level of Martis Creek Reservoir to its design level have been aborted due to seepage from locations downstream and along the west dam abutment. Following a recent evaluation, concerns have been raised regarding the potential for dam failure due to such seepage, combined with the consequences of failure on the growing population of Reno downstream. In response to these concerns, the US Geological Survey has undertaken a comprehensive suite of geophysical investigations aimed at understanding the interplay between geologic structure, seepage patterns, lake level, and ground-water levels. Investigations to date are focused upon a series of profiles, along which P- and S- wave reflection/refraction, DC resistivity, time-domain electromagnetic, and self- potential measurements have been made. Preliminary interpretation of coincident velocity, resistivity, and reflection sections suggests the dam rests upon a deep (>300 m) sedimentary section that interfingers with one or more volcanic flows derived from the Dry Lake Volcanic center to the east; this package has been subsequently offset by a NNW-trending fault of undetermined age and activity. Shallow resistivity sections further map glacial outwash deposits of variable thickness that cover most of the region to an average depth of 20-30 m. The ground-water level, as defined from seismic refraction sections, is depressed relative to current reservoir level and lies within sediments of the Truckee Formation that underlie the outwash deposits. The self-potential data are consistent with regional ground-water flow from south to north, as well as downhill flow from a topographic high on the right (east) abutment. The data show little indication of seepage through the dam from the reservoir, though this is likely due to the low reservoir level currently maintained. It is hypothesized that increased reservoir levels raise the local water table to or above the outwash/Truckee boundary, intersecting fluid transport pathways within the more permeable outwash deposits that connect to established seepage locations. The origin, extent, and connectivity of these inferred pathways, identified geophysically as disturbed zones within an otherwise homogeneous resistive layer, are the focus of follow-up studies involving extensive DC resistivity coverage.

Powers, M.; Minsley, B.; Bedrosian, P. A.; Burton, B.

2008-12-01

252

[Circulatory failures].  

PubMed

To treat circulatory failures and recognize their mechanisms, we need to understand circulatory physiology. What determines systemic venous return? How does the right ventricle feed the pulmonary circulation? Where is the left ventricular preload reserve located? Four types of circulatory failure are conventionally recognized: hypovolemic, obstructive, vasoplegic and cardiogenic. One or more of these mechanisms may account for circulatory failure in septic shock. Treatment of circulatory failure requires admission to a specialized unit and continuous or discontinuous hemodynamic monitoring. Prognosis is highly dependent on rapid treatment and correction of circulatory impairment. PMID:16764243

Charron, Cyril; Belliard, Guillaume; Vieillard-Baron, Antoine

2006-04-30

253

View of upstream face of the forebay dam of Grand ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of upstream face of the forebay dam of Grand Coulee Dam, looking west. Construction of the forebay dam, which replaced the eastern end of the original Grand Coulee Dam, was completed in 1974. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

254

18. DETAIL AT JUNCTION OF MAIN DAM AT LEFT AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. DETAIL AT JUNCTION OF MAIN DAM AT LEFT AND DIVERSION DAM AT RIGHT SHOWING LOG CRIBBING. SPACES INSIDE CRIBBING WERE FILLED WITH STONE TO ANCHOR DAM; DETERIORATION OF DAM HAS ALLOWED STONE BALLAST TO WASH AWAY. Photographed July 18, 1938. - Forge Creek Dam-John Cable Mill, Townsend, Blount County, TN

255

Downstream effects of dams on alluvial rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes changes in mean channel-bed elevation, channel width, bed-material sizes, vegetation, water discharges, and sediment loads downstream from 21 dams constructed on alluvial rivers. Most of the studied channels are in the semiarid western US. Flood peaks generally were decreased by the dams, but in other respects the post-dam water-discharge characteristics varied from river to river. Sediment concentrations

G. P. Williams; M. G. Wolman

1985-01-01

256

World Wide Web Pages for Dam Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is a very informative and well presented resource for dam design, primarily intended to give undergraduates or anyone interested in the subject a solid introduction to the basic concepts. Maintained at the University of Durham in Britain, there are many sections that provide a good overview of the many processes involved in building a dam. Many different types of dams are described in detail, including concrete and embankment dams. Hydrology and geology, important factors that need to be considered when choosing a suitable location, are also covered. The layout of the site is fairly good overall, but navigating the many sections and subsections can sometimes get confusing.

1997-01-01

257

Green River Locks and Dams 3, 4, 5, 6 and Barren River Lock and Dam 1 Disposition, Kentucky  

E-print Network

Green River Locks and Dams 3, 4, 5, 6 and Barren River Lock and Dam 1 Disposition, Kentucky 16 September 2014 ABSTRACT: Green River Locks and Dams 3 through 6 and Barren River Lock and Dam 1 were. The Green River Locks and Dams 5 and 6 ceased operations in 1951 due to a marked decline in navigation

US Army Corps of Engineers

258

CASE STUDY OF ITOSHIRO DAM ON SOIL PRODUCTION AREA CAUSING DAM SEDIMENTATION  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to realize effective and efficient countermeasures against reservoir sedimentation in the near future. This paper shows the case study of JPOWER’s Itoshiro Dam regarding analysis of soil production area in the relevant dam’s basin. The authors are trying to clarify the major soil production area causing reservoir sedimentation by geological expertise and Egashira Model.

Kawata, Nobuaki; Momoshima, Akira; Maeda, Shuuichi; Shikano, Kumetoyo; Yoshino, Hideki; Takebayashi, Hiroshi; Fujita, Masaharu

259

Evaluating dam safety retrofits with uncertain benefits: The Case of Mohawk Dam (Walhonding River, Ohio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mohawk Dam, part of the Muskingum basin flood control system, was built in 1938 and is operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps). Since this high-hazard dam could not survive a probable maximum flood (PMF), the Corps conducted a study to determine the least expensive means of enabling the dam to survive a PMF. Applying a previously proposed

Daniel Resendiz-Carrillo; Lester B. Lave

1990-01-01

260

Evaluating Dam Safety Retrofits With Uncertain Benefits: The Case of Mohawk Dam (Walhonding River, Ohio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mohawk Dam, part of the Muskingum basin flood control system, was built in 1938 and is operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps). Since this high-hazard dam could not survive a probable maximum flood (PMF), the Corps conducted a study to determine the least expensive means of enabling the dam to survive a PMF. Applying a previously proposed

Daniel Resendiz-Carrillo; Lester B. Lave

1990-01-01

261

Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS

... failure" simply means that your heart isn't pumping blood as well as it should. Heart failure does not mean ... your heart. The pictures show your doctor how well your heart is pumping. Radionuclide ventriculography involves injecting a very small amount ...

262

Productive Failure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study demonstrates an existence proof for "productive failure": engaging students in solving complex, ill-structured problems without the provision of support structures can be a productive exercise in failure. In a computer-supported collaborative learning setting, eleventh-grade science students were randomly assigned to one of two…

Kapur, Manu

2008-01-01

263

[Heart failure].  

PubMed

It seems that the causes of the insomnia are dyspnea and an orthopnea in the heart failure patient. But, only such a fit is not the cause of the insomnia because it complains about the insomnia even if heart failure is slight. An obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the risk of the heart failure. A heart failure patient often complicates a central sleep apnea (CSA) and a Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR), and has much sleep fragmentation and difficulty maintaining sleep. And sleep disorders are sometimes started by the medications such as the cardiovascular system agent thing; beta blocker and the statins. Sleep disorders represent a major challenge in terms of differential diagnosis in heart failure patients. This is particularly relevant to insomnia and sleep disordered breathing (SDB) such as OSA, CSA and CSR. Thus, expending the knowledge on both insomnia and SDB may contribute to improve medical quality among physician. PMID:19768933

Sasanabe, Ryujiro; Shiomi, Toshiaki

2009-08-01

264

Dam located to east of powerhouse, view from south. This ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Dam located to east of powerhouse, view from south. This dam holds back the waters of the Chattahoochee River to form the mill pond north of Riverdale Cotton Mill - Riverdale Cotton Mill, Powerhouse & Dam, Valley, Chambers County, AL

265

4. DETAIL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING ROLLER GATES, PIERS, HEADHOUSES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. DETAIL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING ROLLER GATES, PIERS, HEADHOUSES AND DAM BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST, DOWNSTREAM - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 5, Minneiska, Winona County, MN

266

3. DETAIL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING ROLLER AND TAINTER GATES, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. DETAIL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING ROLLER AND TAINTER GATES, PIERS, HEADHOUSES AND DAM BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, DOWNSTREAM - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 5, Minneiska, Winona County, MN

267

9. VIEW OF LATERAL GATE ON CANAL NEAR DAM, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF LATERAL GATE ON CANAL NEAR DAM, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Twin Pots Dam, Ashley National Forest, 10.1 miles North of Mountain Home, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

268

3. Upstream face of Rock Creek Diversion Dam, closeup of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Upstream face of Rock Creek Diversion Dam, close-up of gates, looking southeast - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Rock Creek Diversion Dam, One mile east of Como Dam, west of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

269

43 CFR 418.18 - Diversions at Derby Dam.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Diversions at Derby Dam. 418.18 Section 418.18 Public... Operations and Management § 418.18 Diversions at Derby Dam. (a) Diversions of Truckee River water at Derby Dam...

2011-10-01

270

43 CFR 418.18 - Diversions at Derby Dam.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diversions at Derby Dam. 418.18 Section 418.18 Public... Operations and Management § 418.18 Diversions at Derby Dam. (a) Diversions of Truckee River water at Derby Dam...

2010-10-01

271

43 CFR 418.18 - Diversions at Derby Dam.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Diversions at Derby Dam. 418.18 Section 418.18 Public... Operations and Management § 418.18 Diversions at Derby Dam. (a) Diversions of Truckee River water at Derby Dam...

2012-10-01

272

5. Downstream face of Rock Creek Diversion Dam, looking west ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Downstream face of Rock Creek Diversion Dam, looking west (Diversion into Irrigation District canal) - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Rock Creek Diversion Dam, One mile east of Como Dam, west of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

273

43 CFR 418.18 - Diversions at Derby Dam.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Diversions at Derby Dam. 418.18 Section 418.18 Public... Operations and Management § 418.18 Diversions at Derby Dam. (a) Diversions of Truckee River water at Derby Dam...

2013-10-01

274

2. OVERALL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING CREST AND DOWNSTREAM FACE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. OVERALL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING CREST AND DOWNSTREAM FACE, WITH CONCRETE EXTENSION IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING NORTH - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Fire Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

275

78 FR 47695 - Sam Rayburn Dam Power Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Southwestern Power Administration Sam Rayburn Dam Power Rate AGENCY: Southwestern Power Administration...SUMMARY: The current Sam Rayburn Dam Project rate was approved by the Federal...Southwestern has developed a proposed Sam Rayburn Dam rate to recover the required...

2013-08-06

276

10. BRIDGE IN CONTEXT OF DAM, THIRD POWER HOUSE IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. BRIDGE IN CONTEXT OF DAM, THIRD POWER HOUSE IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING NORTH BY 360 DEGREES - Columbia River Bridge at Grand Coulee Dam, Spanning Columbia River at State Route 155, Coulee Dam, Okanogan County, WA

277

Experiments in dam removal, sediment pulses and channel evolution on the Clark Fork River, MT and White Salmon River, WA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two recent dam removals on tributaries to the Columbia River in the northwestern United States present contrasting examples of how dam removal methods, reservoir contents, and geomorphic settings influence system responses. The 2008 removal of Milltown Dam, from the Clark Fork River (CFR), Montana, and the 2011 removal of Condit Dam from the White Salmon River (WSR), Washington (Table 1), represent two of the largest dam removals to date. The Milltown Dam removal was notable because the dam stored millions of cubic meters of contaminated mine tailings, a portion of which were excavated as part of Superfund remediation but a portion of which flowed downstream after the removal. On the CFR, post-breach high flows in 2008 produced reservoir erosion and downstream deposition in bed interstices, along bars, and on the floodplain, but above-average (3-15 year recurrence interval) floods since then have remobilized this material and have, to a large extent, erased signs of downstream sedimentation. The Condit Dam removal entailed dynamiting of a 4m by 5.5m hole at the base of the dam, which produced rapid and dramatic draining of fine reservoir sediments within hours of the blast. Downstream of Condit Dam, the initial hyperconcentrated flows and sediment pulse draped the WSR with fine sediment, filled pools, and, in an unconfined reach influenced by the Columbia River's backwater, caused meters of aggradation and new bar formation. In the confined, bedrock-dominated reach downstream of the Condit site, pool-riffle structure has started to reemerge as of summer 2012 and the finest bed materials have been evacuated from the main channel, although sediment storage in pools and eddies persists. Whereas post-breach geomorphic responses on the CFR have been largely driven by hydrology, the post-breach evolution of the WSR has been predominantly influenced by antecedent geomorphic conditions (slope, confinement, and Columbia River backwater). On both the CFR and WSR, the pace of post-breach reservoir erosion and of geomorphic recovery from the disturbances produced by dam removal has been rapid, far exceeding pre-breach predictions.Table 1: Comparison of Milltown and Condit Dam removals

Wilcox, A. C.

2012-12-01

278

McNary Dam, Ice Harbor Dam, and Lower Monumental Dam Smolt Monitoring Program; 1996 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The Washington Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW) assumed responsibility for the Smolt Monitoring Program at McNary Dam on the Columbia River in 1990 and at the new juvenile collection facility at Lower Monumental Dam on the Snake River in 1993. In 1996, Smolt Monitoring Program activities also began at the new juvenile collection facility located at Ice Harbor Dam. This report summarizes the 1996 Smolt Monitoring work at all three sites. The work at Ice Harbor consisted of Gas Bubble Trauma (GBT) monitoring only. In general, the 1996 passage season at both the McNary and Lower Monumental sites can be characterized by reduced passage of juveniles through the collection systems due to elevated river flows and spill, and low (<1%) overall facility mortality rates most likely resulting from cooler water temperatures. In accordance with the National Marine Fisheries Service recommendations (NMFS, 1995) all spring migrants were bypassed at McNary Dam in 1996. Mechanical problems within the McNary collection system resulted in collection and sampling activities being delayed until April 18 at this site, while sampling and collection began on the scheduled starting date of April 1 at Lower Monumental Dam. Monitoring operations were conducted through December 14 at McNary Dam and through October 28 at Lower Monumental Dam. An ongoing transportation evaluation summer migrant marking program was conducted at McNary Dam in 1996 by the NMFS. This necessitated the sampling of 394,211 additional fish beyond the recommended sampling guidelines. All total, 509,237 and 31,219 juvenile salmonids were anesthetized and individually counted, examined for scale loss, injuries, and brands by WDFW Smolt Monitoring personnel in 1996 at McNary Dam and Lower Monumental Dam, respectively.

Hillson, Todd; Lind, Sharon; Price, William (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

1997-07-01

279

GIS-based Mine Tailings Yield Mapping using RUSLE and Sediment Delivery Ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erosion of mine tailings heaped up on the side of abandoned mine is an environmental problem because they contain harmful heavy metals. These harmful heavy metals such as copper, lead, arsenic in mine tailings cause contamination of surrounding streams and soil. To prevent and reduce the damage of surrounding streams caused by harmful heavy metals leaking from mine tailings, evaluating the pollution loading amount of mine tailings is required. However, it is difficult to assess its environmental impacts accurately because of its complex processes associated with it (Lal 1994). To estimate soil erosion and develop soil erosion management plans, there are some soil erosion estimation methods. Among these methods, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) is the most widely used method. The six factors affecting soil loss such as rainfall-runoff erosivity, soil erodibility, slope length and steepness, cover management, and support practice were extracted from the spatial data and measurement data to evaluate average annual soil loss. Applying this model to mine tailings is possible, because mine tailings are regarded as soil. All the sediment generated may not be delivered at the watershed outlet because some of it may be deposited at various locations in the watershed. RUSLE does not consider the sediment delivery ratio to estimate the mine tailings delivered to the downstream point of interest. In this study, three methods are provided to compute the spatially distributed sediment delivery ratios and the results are compared with each other. Geographical Information System (GIS)-based erosion model and sediment delivery model were used to estimate the potential sediment yield from mine tailings in this study. The results achieved in this study can be used as basis data to assist mine tailings management and tailings dam installation plan. This work was supported by the Mine Reclamation Corporation funded by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy, Republic of Korea, the Brain Korea 21 Project, and the Research Institute of Engineering Science, Seoul National University, Korea.

Kim, S.; Choi, Y.; Park, H.; Kwon, H.; Yoon, S.; Go, W.

2010-12-01

280

State of the marine environment at Little Bay Arm, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, 10 years after a "do nothing" response to a mine tailings spill.  

PubMed

In 1989, the tailings pond dam at the site of a former copper mine near Little Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, ruptured and tailings spilled into Little Bay Arm. At the time, no action was taken to arrest the flow of tailings or to mitigate the effects of the spill. To date, no action has been taken to repair the dam and tailings continue to flow into Little Bay Arm. As a result, the marine environment around Little Bay Arm has become contaminated with heavy metals from the tailings. However, the tailings are not the only source of heavy metals to the ecosystem. An old slag heap and what is presumably concentrated copper ore spilled during the loading of ore freighters, are also contributing to the ecosystem's metal load. Marine sediment throughout the Arm contained elevated concentrations of Cu, Ni, Zn, As, V, Co, and Mn. Beach material also contained elevated concentrations of metals with material near the slag heap being the most contaminated. At this site, Cu concentrations were in excess of 5000 mg kg(-1) dry weight, Zn greater than 3000 mg kg(-1) and Co concentrations exceeded 700 mg kg(-1). The highest concentrations of metals in biota were found near the slag heap, near the tailings dam breach, and at the site of the former concentrate loading dock. Despite elevated metal concentrations, the tailings and nearby sediment were not devoid of life. Bivalves and seaweed were abundant in the area and there were no obvious signs of tissue damage or disease in soft shell clams (Mya arenaria) living in the tailings. These clams may be suffering from chronic exposure to the tailings, however, evidence of lipid peroxidation in the clams was inconclusive. PMID:12948239

Veinott, Geoff; Sylvester, Paul; Hamoutene, Dounia; Anderson, M Robin; Meade, Jim; Payne, Jerry

2003-08-01

281

78 FR 60271 - Hollow Dam Power Company; Ampersand Hollow Dam Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Regulatory Commission [Project No. 6972-032] Hollow Dam Power Company; Ampersand Hollow Dam Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer...Motions To Intervene On September 10, 2013, Hollow Dam Power Company (transferor) and Ampersand...

2013-10-01

282

SEDIMENT MANAGEMENT IN FLOOD CONTROL DAMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reservoir sedimentation reduces economic value and longevity of flood control dams. Periodic sediment removal allows extension of reservoir life. An optimal control model is developed to evaluate alternative sediment management strategies for flood control dams. An illustrative empirical analysis shows that sustainable management is economically desirable for a wide range of parameter values.

Maneechit Pattanapanchai; Farhed A. Shah; George Annandale

2002-01-01

283

Impact of the Three Gorges Dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Three Gorges Dam was built to provide hydroelectric power, flood control, and greater navigation access to the Yangtze River in central China. It is the largest hydroelectric dam in the world and as such is responsible for bringing both unprecedented benefits and risks to the people of the Yangtze River Valley and all of China. In some cases the

Ian Reynolds

2011-01-01

284

Dams and Hydropower for Sustainable Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global debate about large dams is at once overwhelmingly complex and fundamentally simple. It is complex because the issues are not confined to the design, construction, and operation of dams themselves but embrace the range of social, environmental, and political choices on which the human aspiration to development and improved well being depend. Over the last two decades, global

I. Yüksel; E. K. Okedu

2009-01-01

285

Horizontal displacements of rock foundations of dams  

SciTech Connect

This paper uses geodetic survey methods to assess the horizontal displacements of dam foundations for several hydroelectric power plants in the Soviet Union. The effects of filling the reservoirs are outlined and the dependence of the degree of displacement on dam height is analyzed. The results are tabulated.

Karlson, A.A.

1987-08-01

286

ROV-AIDED DAM INSPECTION: PRACTICAL RESULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUVs) are used in a growing number of underwater missions, mostly inspections of different types of installations such as: telecommunication cables, pipes or oil extraction installations. A field where UUVs are still starting to prove their utility is dam inspection. This paper presents details our first approach in dam inspection. A set of experiments carried out

Joan Batlle; Tudor Nicosevici; Rafael Garcia; Marc Carreras

287

The Impact of Dam-Reservoir-Foundation Interaction on Nonlinear Response of Concrete Gravity Dams  

SciTech Connect

To study the impact of dam-reservoir-foundation interaction on nonlinear response of concrete gravity dams, a two-dimensional finite element model of a concrete gravity dam including the dam body, a part of its foundation and a part of the reservoir was made. In addition, the proper boundary conditions were used in both reservoir and foundation in order to absorb the energy of outgoing waves at the far end boundaries. Using the finite element method and smeared crack approach, some different seismic nonlinear analyses were done and finally, we came to a conclusion that the consideration of dam-reservoir-foundation interaction in nonlinear analysis of concrete dams is of great importance, because from the performance point of view, this interaction significantly improves the nonlinear response of concrete dams.

Amini, Ali Reza; Motamedi, Mohammad Hossein; Ghaemian, Mohsen [Department of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2008-07-08

288

Groundwater Forecasting Optimization Pertain to Dam Removal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is increasing interest in removing dams due to changing ecological and societal values. Groundwater recharge rate is closely connected to reservoir presence or absence. With the removal of dams and their associated reservoirs, reductions in groundwater levels are likely to impact water supplies for domestic, industrial and agricultural use. Therefore accessible economic and time effective tools to forecast groundwater level declines with acceptable uncertainty following dam removals are critical for public welfare and healthy regional economies. These tools are also vital to project planning and provide beneficial information for restoration and remediation managements. The standard tool for groundwater forecasting is 3D Numerical modeling. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) may be an alternative tool for groundwater forecasting pertain to dam removal. This project compared these two tools throughout the Milltown Dam removal in Western Montana over a five year period. It was determined that ANN modeling had equal or greater accuracy for groundwater forecasting with far less effort and cost involved.

Brown, L.; Berthelote, A. R.

2011-12-01

289

Teratoma in Human Tail Lipoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of a rare congenital teratoma that developed in a lipoma attached to a remnant human tail. A male newborn baby presented with a large, 3-cm mass with an open margin, which pedunculated from a tail attached to the midline skin of the coccygeal area. Magnetic resonance images demonstrated multiple sacral spinal bifida without cord tethering, and

Se-Hyuck Park; Jee Soon Huh; Ki Hong Cho; Yong Sam Shin; Se Hyck Kim; Young Hwan Ahn; Kyung Gi Cho; Soo Han Yoon

2005-01-01

290

Helicopter tail rotor noise analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made of helicopter tail rotor noise, particularly that due to interactions with the main rotor tip vortices, and with the fuselage separation mean wake. The tail rotor blade-main rotor tip vortex interaction is modelled as an airfoil of infinite span cutting through a moving vortex. The vortex and the geometry information required by the analyses are obtained

A. R. George; S. T. Chou

1986-01-01

291

NOISE IN THE GEOMAGNETIC TAIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present observations have revealed a variety of magnetic wave phenomena in the tail, from ULF to ELF frequencies. However, only VLF measurements of electric fields have been made. These measurements reveal that the tail is electrically quiet at VLF fre- quencies, except in the near Earth plasma sheet during substorm expansion phases. The mag- netic waves observed iocIude: waves with

CHRISTOPHER T. RUSSELL

1972-01-01

292

[Limnetic zooplankton run-off a high-head dam and their fate in a river with high current velocity (case of the Krasnoiarsk hydroelectric power station on the Yenisei river].  

PubMed

The vertical distribution of net zooplankton in head-water of Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric power station and its horizontal distribution in the tail-water were studied during two years in winter and summer seasons. In order to distinguish living and dead individuals the special staining was used. It was revealed that on average 77% of living plankton pass through high-head dam with deep water scoop to the tailwater. While passing through dam aggregates some individuals of the reservoir plankton are traumatized and die, that results in some increase of portion of dead individuals in the tail water near dam (from 3 to 6%). Alive zooplankton passed through the dam aggregates is eliminated under the Upper Yenisei highly turbulent conditions. There is approximately 10% of it in 32 km from the dam if compare with biomass in 20-40 m layer of reservoir, the portion of dead increases to 11%. The biomass of zooplankton suspended in the water column of the tail-water sometimes increases (till > 1 g/m3) due to large Copepoda Heteroscope borealis, which inhabits near-bottom and near-shore river zones and can be found in the central part of the river during reproductive period. Limnetic zooplankton from the reservoir cannot be considered as important food for planktivores in the tail-water. PMID:15032067

Dubovskaia, O P; Gladyshev, M I; Makhutova, O N

2004-01-01

293

Lift generation by the avian tail.  

PubMed

Variation with tail spread of the lift generated by a bird tail was measured on mounted, frozen European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in a wind tunnel at a typical air speed and body and tail angle of attack in order to test predictions of existing aerodynamic theories modelling tail lift. Measured lift at all but the lowest tail spread angles was significantly lower than the predictions of slender wing, leading edge vortex and lifting line models of lift production. Instead, the tail lift coefficient based on tail area was independent of tail spread, tail aspect ratio and maximum tail span. Theoretical models do not predict bird tail lift reliably and, when applied to tail morphology, may underestimate the aerodynamic optimum tail feather length. Flow visualization experiments reveal that an isolated tail generates leading edge vortices as expected for a low-aspect ratio delta wing, but that in the intact bird body-tail interactions are critical in determining tail aerodynamics: lifting vortices shed from the body interact with the tail and degrade tail lift compared with that of an isolated tail. PMID:11454286

Maybury, W J; Rayner, J M; Couldrick, L B

2001-07-22

294

Lift generation by the avian tail.  

PubMed Central

Variation with tail spread of the lift generated by a bird tail was measured on mounted, frozen European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in a wind tunnel at a typical air speed and body and tail angle of attack in order to test predictions of existing aerodynamic theories modelling tail lift. Measured lift at all but the lowest tail spread angles was significantly lower than the predictions of slender wing, leading edge vortex and lifting line models of lift production. Instead, the tail lift coefficient based on tail area was independent of tail spread, tail aspect ratio and maximum tail span. Theoretical models do not predict bird tail lift reliably and, when applied to tail morphology, may underestimate the aerodynamic optimum tail feather length. Flow visualization experiments reveal that an isolated tail generates leading edge vortices as expected for a low-aspect ratio delta wing, but that in the intact bird body-tail interactions are critical in determining tail aerodynamics: lifting vortices shed from the body interact with the tail and degrade tail lift compared with that of an isolated tail. PMID:11454286

Maybury, W J; Rayner, J M; Couldrick, L B

2001-01-01

295

Seismic Analysis of Morrow Point Dam  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this study is to perform nonlinear dynamic earthquake time history analyses on Morrow Point Dam, which is located 263 km southwest of Denver, Colorado. This project poses many significant technical challenges, one of which is to model the entire Morrow Point Dam/Foundation Rock/Reservoir system which includes accurate geology topography. In addition, the computational model must be initialized to represent the existing dead loads on the structure and the stress field caused by the dead loads. To achieve the correct dead load stress field due to gravity and hydrostatic load, the computer model must account for the manner in which the dams were constructed. Construction of a dam finite element model with the correct as-built geometry of the dam structure and simply ''turning on'' gravity in the computer model will generally lead to an incorrect initial stress field in the structure. The sequence of segmented lifts typical of dam construction has a significant impact on the static stress fields induced in the dam. In addition, the dam model must also account for the interaction between the adjacent dam segments across the dam contraction joints. As a result of these challenges, it was determined that a significant amount of code development was required in order to accurately simulate the motion of the dam structure. Modifications to the existing slide surfaces are needed to allow for appropriate modeling of the shear keys across the contraction joints. Furthermore, a model for hydrodynamic interaction was also implemented into NIKE3D and DYNA3D for fluid representation in the 3D dam system finite element model. Finally, the modeling of the 3D dam system results in a very large computational model, which makes it difficult to perform a static initialization using an implicit code. Traditionally, for these large models, the model has been initialized over a long time scale using an explicit code. However, recent advancements have made it possible to run NIKE3D in ''parallel'' on relatively small parallel machines as well as on the ASCI platforms.

Noble, C R

2002-04-01

296

Dams and the fish fauna of the Neotropical region: impacts and management related to diversity and fisheries.  

PubMed

Reservoirs have been built in almost all of the hydrographic basins of Brazil. Their purposes include water supply for cities, irrigation and mainly, generation of electricity. There are more than 700 large dams and associated reservoirs in the large rivers of the country. These reservoirs favor local and regional economic development, but they also bring serious and irreversible alterations in the natural hydrologic regime of rivers, affecting habitat quality and the dynamics of the biota. In the impounded area, the main impact is the change from lotic to lentic water, which influences aquatic fauna, including fishes. Impacts of reservoirs present relevant spatiotemporal variations. Immediately after reservoir formation, fish species richness usually increases due to incorporation of surrounding habitats, but richness decreases as reservoirs age. However, impacts downstream of dams appear to be similar or stronger than those that occur within the reservoir. Dams promote discharge control, altering the seasonal cycles of floods. These effects are augmented when dams are constructed in cascades. Therefore, dams profoundly influence composition and structure of fish assemblages. Most affected species are the rheophilics and long distance migratory that require distinct habitats to fulfill their life cycles. Populations of migratory species may collapse or even disappear in intensely regulated stretches. Management actions taken to minimize impacts of dams in Brazil historically considered construction of fish passages, fishery control and stocking. The results of these actions are questionable and/or with clear failures. In this paper, we give emphasis to the Paraná River basin, the most affected by dams in Brazil. We describe some patterns in the alteration and decline in fish diversity in areas influenced by dams. We also discuss negative consequences in the fishery and ecosystems functioning. Finally, we argue the relevance and the success of the management actions taken and present some suggestions to improve conservation of the ichthyofauna in South American basins influenced by dams. PMID:19197482

Agostinho, A A; Pelicice, F M; Gomes, L C

2008-11-01

297

Dams on the Mekong: Cumulative sediment starvation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mekong River, largely undeveloped prior to 1990, is undergoing rapid dam construction. Seven dams are under construction on the mainstem in China and 133 proposed for the Lower Mekong River and tributaries. We delineated nine distinct geomorphic regions, for which we estimated sediment yields based on geomorphic characteristics, tectonic history, and the limited sediment transport data available. We then applied the 3W model to calculate cumulative sediment trapping by these dams, accounting for changing trap efficiency over time and multiple dams on a single river system. Under a "definite future" scenario of 38 dams (built or under construction), cumulative sediment reduction to the Delta would be 51%. Under full build-out of all planned dams, cumulative sediment trapping will be 96%. That is, once in-channel stored sediment is exhausted, only 4% of the predam sediment load would be expected to reach the Delta. This scenario would have profound consequences on productivity of the river and persistence of the Delta landform itself, and suggests that strategies to pass sediment through/around dams should be explored to prevent the consequences of downstream sediment starvation.

Kondolf, G. M.; Rubin, Z. K.; Minear, J. T.

2014-06-01

298

Congenital transmission of Neospora caninum in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Neosporosis is an important cause of bovine abortion worldwide. Many aspects of transmission of Neospora caninum in nature are unknown. The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is considered one of the most important wildlife reservoirs of N. caninum in the USA. During the hunting seasons of 2008, 2009, and 2010, brains of 155 white-tailed deer fetuses were bioassayed in mice for protozoal isolation. Viable N. caninum (NcWTDMn1, NcWTDMn2) was isolated from the brains of two fetuses by bioassays in mice, and subsequent propagation in cell culture. Dams of these two infected fetuses had antibodies to N. caninum by Neospora agglutination test at 1:100 serum dilution. DNA obtained from culture-derived N. caninum tachyzoites of the two isolates with Nc5 PCR confirmed diagnosis. Results prove congenital transmission of N. caninum in the white tailed deer for the first time. PMID:23566408

Dubey, J P; Jenkins, M C; Kwok, O C H; Ferreira, L R; Choudhary, S; Verma, S K; Villena, I; Butler, E; Carstensen, M

2013-09-23

299

Concrete dam on the Bratsk hydroelectric station  

SciTech Connect

The Bratsk concrete dam was designed and constructed with a sufficient degree of reliability. Settlement of the dam together with the powerhouse developed uniformly under the entire foundation. Two irreversible processes causing aging of the dam have been established by operating observations: leaching of the concrete and decompression of the contact zone of the foundation near the upstream face of the powerhouse sections. The decompression is due to the fact that the powerhouse sections are lighter than the spillway sections. At the present level this process can only be slowed by the combined use of grouting and drainage unloading.

Solov'eva, Z.I.

1988-07-01

300

Metals uptake and health risks associated with cattle grazing on mine tailings  

SciTech Connect

Cattle are used at a site in Arizona to revegetate mine tailings dams by dispersing seeds and adding fertilizer with their manure. Although this program has been successful in revegetating the slopes, the residual metals in the tailings may potentially be accumulated by the cattle. Using US EPA guidelines on indirect exposure pathways and data on metals in tailings and in grasses, exposure and tissue levels of metals were calculated to assess health threats to the cattle or to those consuming the beef. Lead in the tailings and cadmium in tailings and grasses were selected for detailed exposure analysis via ingestion of tailings and grasses by grazing cattle. Predicted exposures to cattle were below levels resulting in toxic effects to livestock. Estimated human exposures were below the EPA reference dose for cadmium even for a 15 kg child consuming beef or beef liver. Similarly, estimated tissue levels of lead were within reported background dietary levels of lead in beef and kidney. Necropsies of four newborn calves found no evidence of metal toxicity, but possible copper and selenium deficiencies combined with viral infection. Similarly, blood samples from pregnant cattle had non-detectable levels of lead, arsenic, and cadmium.

Tsuji, J.S. [Kleinfelder, Inc., Bellevue, WA (United States)

1994-12-31

301

Channel Bed Mobility Downstream from the Elwha Dams, Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dams are a major source of fragmentation and degradation of rivers. Although substantial research has been conducted on the environmental impacts of large structures in the United States, smaller dams have received less attention. This study evaluated the impact of two dams of moderate size, the Elwha Dams, on the downstream channel system using field data collection at river cross-sections.

Molly Pohl

2004-01-01

302

7. SOUTHEAST VIEW OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE MULTIPLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. SOUTHEAST VIEW OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE MULTIPLE ARCHES, AN UPSTREAM VIEW OF THE PARAPET WALL ALONG THE CREST OF THE DAM, AND THE SHELTER HOUSE AT THE EAST END OF THE DAM. - Big Dalton Dam, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

303

Implications of Dam Obstruction for Global Freshwater Fish Diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dams are obstructing rivers worldwide, impairing habitat and migration opportunities for many freshwater fish species; however, global data linking dam and fish distributions have been limited. Here, we quantify dam obstruction at the biogeographic scale of freshwater ecoregion, which provides the spatial framework necessary to assess the risk of fish species loss due to dams and allows us to identify

Catherine Reidy Liermann; Christer Nilsson; James Robertson; Rebecca Y. Ng

2012-01-01

304

2. Overview of the Lost River Diversion Dam House complex ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Overview of the Lost River Diversion Dam House complex taken from west edge of horseshoe-shaped Lost River Diversion Dam. Interior of east side of dam in the foreground. Facing East. - Klamath Basin Project, Lost River Diversion Dam House, Lost River near intersection of State Highway 140 & Hill Road, Klamath Falls, Klamath County, OR

305

4. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM FACE OF DAM, WITH SCARS FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM FACE OF DAM, WITH SCARS FROM EARTH MOVING TO CONSTRUCT DAM IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Five Point Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 12 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

306

Civil Engineering Explore the environmental impact of dams.  

E-print Network

Dams Civil Engineering Objective · Explore the environmental impact of dams. · Discuss the need for dams, and how environmental engineers mitigate some impacts. Standards and Objectives · Earth Systems humans' standard of living and environmental impacts. · The basic concept of constructing a dam

Provancher, William

307

9. VIEW OF BASIN BEHIND DAM, SHOWING SCARS FROM EARTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF BASIN BEHIND DAM, SHOWING SCARS FROM EARTH MOVING TO CONSTRUCT DAM, LOOKING EAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, East Timothy Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 8.4 miles North of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

308

66. AVALON DAM Photographic copy of historic photo, May ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

66. AVALON DAM - Photographic copy of historic photo, May 22, 1908 (original print filed in Record Group 115, National Archives, Washington, D.C.) W.J.Lubken, photographer 'VIEW LOOKING EAST FROM WEST END OF AVALON DAM, SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE OF DAM' - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Avalon Dam, On Pecos River, 4 miles North of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

309

53. AVALON DAM Photographic copy of historic photo, August ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

53. AVALON DAM - Photographic copy of historic photo, August 9, 1893 (original print located at the Carlsbad Irrigation District offices, Carlsbad, New Mexico) photographer unknown 'EDDY DAM. LOOKING EAST.' VIEW OF COLLAPSED DAM - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Avalon Dam, On Pecos River, 4 miles North of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

310

6. DAM AFTERBAY, WITH OWYEE RIVER IN FOREGROUND, SHOWING OUTLET ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. DAM AFTERBAY, WITH OWYEE RIVER IN FOREGROUND, SHOWING OUTLET TUNNEL PORTAL (LEFT) AND POWERHOUSE AND ENTRANCE PORTAL TO DAM INTERIOR (RIGHT). NOTE RELEASE OF WATER FROM NEEDLE VALVE NUMBER 2 IN VALVEHOUSE ON DAM. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

311

43. Credit TR. Reconstruction of Dam No. 4 after 1936 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

43. Credit TR. Reconstruction of Dam No. 4 after 1936 flood. Pouring concrete for new dam section; opening at left for flume to remove water from behind coffer dam. Photo c. 1936 - Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Plant, Potomac River, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV

312

46. Photocopy of photograph, c. 1933. VIEW OF DAM AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

46. Photocopy of photograph, c. 1933. VIEW OF DAM AND FOREBAY. NOTE ALL WATER FLOWING THROUGH FOREBAY AND OUT EITHER TAILRACE OR SLUICE GATE (INSTEAD OF OVER DAM) BECAUSE OF LOW WATER FLOW. (Courtesy of the Potomac Edison Company Library (Hagerstown, MD), Historical Data Files, Dam No. 5 listing - Dam No. 5 Hydroelectric Plant, On Potomac River, Hedgesville, Berkeley County, WV

313

8. VIEW OF BASIN BEHIND DAM, SHOWING SCARS FROM EARTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW OF BASIN BEHIND DAM, SHOWING SCARS FROM EARTH MOVING TO CONSTRUCT DAM, LOOKING NORTH - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, East Timothy Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 8.4 miles North of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

314

Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The source of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief passages is due to Mercury's proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet's lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute to Mercury's very brief Dungey cycle, approx. 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury's tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.

Slavin, James A.

2010-01-01

315

EVOLVING EXPECTATIONS OF DAM REMOVAL OUTCOMES: DOWNSTREAM GEOMORPHIC EFFECTS FOLLOWING REMOVAL OF A SMALL, GRAVEL-FILLED DAM1  

E-print Network

EVOLVING EXPECTATIONS OF DAM REMOVAL OUTCOMES: DOWNSTREAM GEOMORPHIC EFFECTS FOLLOWING REMOVAL OF A SMALL, GRAVEL-FILLED DAM1 Kelly Kibler, Desiree Tullos, and Mathias Kondolf 2 ABSTRACT: Dam removal, it is necessary to utilize information from ongoing dam removal monitoring to evolve predictive tools, including

Tullos, Desiree

316

ESTIMATION OF NAVIGATION - DAM DISCHARGE IN ILLINOIS.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Techniques were used to estimate discharge for the Brandon Road Dam on the Des Plaines River and the Dresden Island, Marseilles, and Starved Rock Dams on the Illinois River in northern Illinois. Tainter gates are operated to regulate streamflow at all dams. Additionally, headgates are used for regulation of the Brandon Road Dam. Stage-discharge, gate-opening relations were developed from a total of 91 discharge measurements that range from 198 to 86,400 cubic feet per second (5. 6 to 2,450 cubic meters per second). Values for discharge coefficients, in equations that express discharge as a function of tailwater depth, headwater depth, and vertical height of gate opening, were determined for conditions of free-orifice, submerged-orifice, free-weir, and submerged-weir flow past a tainter gate.

Weiss, Linda, S.

1987-01-01

317

The Hoover Dam: Lonely Lands Made Fruitful  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Project designer Janet Haven of the University of Virginia American Studies Program presents the construction of the Hoover Dam as an alternative narrative to the devastation of the Great Depression in her photoessay, The Hoover Dam: Lonely Lands Made Fruitful. Five slide shows created in Flash2 cover the construction from diverting the Colorado River to pouring concrete and adding the final touches to a completed dam. The slide shows are prefaced by historical background, including short essays on topics such as the Dam as the "Machine in the Desert" and the text of Franklin D. Roosevelt's Dedication Speech upon completion, September 30, 1935. Images of maps and plans are linked throughout, and a list of Works Consulted gives concise source descriptions as well as ideas for further reading.

1998-01-01

318

Toward Policies and Decision-Making for Dam Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dam removal has emerged as a critical issue in environmental management. Agencies responsible for dams face a drastic increase\\u000a in the number of potential dam removals in the near future. Given limited resources, these agencies need to develop ways to\\u000a decide which dams should be removed and in what order. The underlying science of dam removal is relatively undeveloped and

MARTIN W. DOYLE; JON M. HARBOR; EMILY H. STANLEY

2003-01-01

319

Heart Failure Overview  

MedlinePLUS

CHF; Congestive heart failure; Left-sided heart failure; Right-sided heart failure - Cor pulmonale; Cardiomyopathy - heart failure ... Heart failure is often a long-term (chronic) condition, but it may come on suddenly. It can ...

320

Leibis/Lichte Dam in Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Thuringia the second highest dam of Germany is under construction (figure 1). The new Leibis/Lichte dam is a 370 m long and 102.5 m high gravity dam of concrete with straight axis. With the completion of the Leibis/Lichte dam in 2005 more than 300.000 inhabitants of the Eastern Regions of Thuringia will be supplied with high quality drinking water. The foundation rocks at the dam site are exclusively greyish-blue argillaceous schist, silt schist and cleaved fine sandstones from the Ordovician period (phycode schist). The main joint system consists of three differently orientated joints. Geomechanically of main interest is the shallow dipping bedding, especially in the left abutment because of its downhill dip. The other joints show a generally steep dip. Wide extending faults with thick mylonites or fractured zones, which could influence the foundation of the dam, do not exist within the dam site. The engineering geological field mapping of the foundation surface confirms the rock mass parameters. The excavation works are carried out in four different stages to avoid loosening of the foundation rock. Great care is taken to assure that the foundation rock is protected against weathering. Based on the results of preliminary investigations the foundation level was planned in a depth of 4 to14 m. The abutments of the dam correspond to the expectations. Predominantly the argillaceous rock shows a low permeability. The permeability is exclusively linked to faults respectively few large joints. In order to prevent seepage and to reduce the uplift pressure, a grout curtain in two rows is arranged with a depth of 5 to 44 metres.

Kühnel, Markus

321

18 Sharp-tailed Grouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tympanuchus phasianellus (Linnaeus) 1858 Other vernacular names: Brush grouse, pintail grouse, prairie grouse, prairie pheasant, sharptail, speckle-belly, spike-tail, spring-tail, whitebelly, white-breasted grouse. Range: Currently from north central Alaska, Yukon, northern Mackenzie, northern Manitoba, northern Ontario, and central Quebec south to eastern Washington, extreme eastern Oregon, Idaho, northeastern Utah, Wyoming, and Colorado, and in the Great Plains from eastern Colorado and

Paul A. Johnsgard

2008-01-01

322

Morphogenesis of the T4 tail and tail fibers  

PubMed Central

Remarkable progress has been made during the past ten years in elucidating the structure of the bacteriophage T4 tail by a combination of three-dimensional image reconstruction from electron micrographs and X-ray crystallography of the components. Partial and complete structures of nine out of twenty tail structural proteins have been determined by X-ray crystallography and have been fitted into the 3D-reconstituted structure of the "extended" tail. The 3D structure of the "contracted" tail was also determined and interpreted in terms of component proteins. Given the pseudo-atomic tail structures both before and after contraction, it is now possible to understand the gross conformational change of the baseplate in terms of the change in the relative positions of the subunit proteins. These studies have explained how the conformational change of the baseplate and contraction of the tail are related to the tail's host cell recognition and membrane penetration function. On the other hand, the baseplate assembly process has been recently reexamined in detail in a precise system involving recombinant proteins (unlike the earlier studies with phage mutants). These experiments showed that the sequential association of the subunits of the baseplate wedge is based on the induced-fit upon association of each subunit. It was also found that, upon association of gp53 (gene product 53), the penultimate subunit of the wedge, six of the wedge intermediates spontaneously associate to form a baseplate-like structure in the absence of the central hub. Structure determination of the rest of the subunits and intermediate complexes and the assembly of the hub still require further study. PMID:21129200

2010-01-01

323

Numerical modelling of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods using physically based dam-breach models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid development and instability of moraine-dammed proglacial lakes is increasing the potential for the occurrence of catastrophic Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) in high-mountain regions. Advanced, physically-based numerical dam-breach models represent an improvement over existing methods for the derivation of breach outflow hydrographs. However, significant uncertainty surrounds the initial parameterisation of such models, and remains largely unexplored. We use a unique combination of numerical dam-breach and two-dimensional hydrodynamic modelling, employed with a Generalised Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) framework to quantify the degree of equifinality in dam-breach model output for the reconstruction of the failure of Dig Tsho, Nepal. Monte Carlo analysis was used to sample the model parameter space, and morphological descriptors of the moraine breach were used to evaluate model performance. Equifinal breach morphologies were produced by parameter ensembles associated with differing breach initiation mechanisms, including overtopping waves and mechanical failure of the dam face. The material roughness coefficient was discovered to exert a dominant influence over model performance. Percentile breach hydrographs derived from cumulative distribution function hydrograph data under- or overestimated total hydrograph volume and were deemed to be inappropriate for input to hydrodynamic modelling. Our results support the use of a Total Variation Diminishing solver for outburst flood modelling, which was found to be largely free of numerical instability and flow oscillation. Routing of scenario-specific optimal breach hydrographs revealed prominent differences in the timing and extent of inundation. A GLUE-based method for constructing likelihood-weighted maps of GLOF inundation extent, flow depth, and hazard is presented, and represents an effective tool for communicating uncertainty and equifinality in GLOF hazard assessment. However, future research should focus on the utility of the approach for predictive, as opposed to reconstructive GLOF modelling.

Westoby, M. J.; Brasington, J.; Glasser, N. F.; Hambrey, M. J.; Reynolds, J. M.; Hassan, M. A. A. M.

2014-06-01

324

TAIL VEIN INJECTION (SOP-7) INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

TAIL VEIN INJECTION (SOP-7) INTRODUCTION Several techniques can be employed which allow within the vein. If the injection is placed subcutaneously, the tail may also blanch but the resistance, the tail can be warmed under a heat lamp. Warming the tail causes the veins to dilate. 3. Locate the right

Kleinfeld, David

325

Geophysical investigations of geology and structure at the Martis Creek Dam, Truckee, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A recent evaluation of Martis Creek Dam highlighted the potential for dam failure due to either seepage or an earthquake on nearby faults. In 1972, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers constructed this earthen dam, located within the Truckee Basin to the north of Lake Tahoe, CA for water storage and flood control. Past attempts to raise the level of the Martis Creek Reservoir to its design level have been aborted due to seepage at locations downstream, along the west dam abutment, and at the base of the spillway. In response to these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey has undertaken a comprehensive suite of geophysical investigations aimed at understanding the interplay between geologic structure, seepage patterns, and reservoir and groundwater levels. This paper concerns the geologic structure surrounding Martis Creek Dam and emphasizes the importance of a regional-scale understanding to the interpretation of engineering-scale geophysical data. Our studies reveal a thick package of sedimentary deposits interbedded with Plio-Pleistocene volcanic flows; both the deposits and the flows are covered by glacial outwash. Magnetic field data, seismic tomography models, and seismic reflections are used to determine the distribution and chronology of the volcanic flows. Previous estimates of depth to basement (or the thickness of the interbedded deposits) was 100 m. Magnetotelluric soundings suggest that electrically resistive bedrock may be up to 2500 m deep. Both the Polaris Fault, identified outside of the study area using airborne LiDAR, and the previously unnamed Martis Creek Fault, have been mapped through the dam area using ground and airborne geophysics. Finally, as determined by direct-current resistivity imaging, time-domain electromagnetic sounding, and seismic refraction, the paleotopography of the interface between the sedimentary deposits and the overlying glacial outwash plays a principal role both in controlling groundwater flow and in the distribution of the observed seepage.

Bedrosian, P. A.; Burton, B. L.; Powers, M. H.; Minsley, B. J.; Phillips, J. D.; Hunter, L. E.

2012-01-01

326

Failure Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three questions to which software developers want accurate, precise answers are "How can the software system fail?", "mat bad things will happen if the software fails?t', and "How many failures will the software experience?". Numerous techniques have been devised to answer these questions; three of the best known are: 1) Software Fault Tree Analysis (SFTA) 2) Software Failure Modes, Effects, and Criticality Analysis (SFMECA 3) Software Fault/Failure Modeling. SFTA and SFMECA have been successfully used to analyze the flight software for a number of robotic planetary exploration missions, including Galileo, Cassini, and Deep Space 1. Given the increasing interest in reusing software components from mission to mission, one of us has developed techniques for reusing the corresponding portions of the SFTA and SFMECA, reducing the effort required to conduct these analyses. SFTA has also been shown to be effective in analyzing the security aspects of software systems; intrusion mechanisms and effects can easily be modeled using these techniques. The Bi- Directional Safety Analysis (BDSA) method combines a forward search (similar to SFMECA) from potential failure modes to their effects, with a backward search (similar to SFTA) from feasible hazards to the contributing causes of each hazard. BDSA offers an efficient way to identify latent failures. Recent work has extended BDSA to product-line applications such as flight-instrumentation displays and developed tool support for the reuse of the failure-analysis artifacts within a product line. BDSA has also been streamlined to support those projects having tight cost and/or schedule constraints for their failure analysis efforts. We discuss lessons learned from practice, describe available tools, and identi@ some future directions for the topic. A substantial amount of research has been devoted to estimating the number of failures that a software system will experience during test and operations, as well as the number of faults that have been inserted into that system during its development. One of us has found that the amount of structural change to a system during its development is strongly related to the number of faults inserted into it. Using techniques requiring no additional effort on the part of the development organization, the required measurements of structural evolution can be easily obtained from a development effort's configuration management system and readily transformed into an estimate of fault content. So far, structure-fault relationships have been identified for source code; current work seeks to examine artifacts available earlier in the lifecycle to determine if similar relationships between structure and fault content can be found. In particular, relationships between requirements change requests and the number of faults inserted into the implemented system would provide a significant improvement in our ability to control software quality during the early development phases.

Lutz, Robyn; Nikora, Allen

2005-01-01

327

Metallization failures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metallization-related failure mechanisms were shown to be a major cause of integrated circuit failures under accelerated stress conditions, as well as in actual use under field operation. The integrated circuit industry is aware of the problem and is attempting to solve it in one of two ways: (1) better understanding of the aluminum system, which is the most widely used metallization material for silicon integrated circuits both as a single level and multilevel metallization, or (2) evaluating alternative metal systems. Aluminum metallization offers many advantages, but also has limitations particularly at elevated temperatures and high current densities. As an alternative, multilayer systems of the general form, silicon device-metal-inorganic insulator-metal, are being considered to produce large scale integrated arrays. The merits and restrictions of metallization systems in current usage and systems under development are defined.

Beatty, R.

1971-01-01

328

Does climate have heavy tails?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When we speak about a distribution with heavy tails, we are referring to the probability of the existence of extreme values will be relatively large. Several heavy-tail models are constructed from Poisson processes, which are the most tractable models. Among such processes, one of the most important are the Lévy processes, which are those process with independent, stationary increments and stochastic continuity. If the random component of a climate process that generates the data exhibits a heavy-tail distribution, and if that fact is ignored by assuming a finite-variance distribution, then there would be serious consequences (in the form, e.g., of bias) for the analysis of extreme values. Yet, it appears that it is an open question to what extent and degree climate data exhibit heavy-tail phenomena. We present a study about the statistical inference in the presence of heavy-tail distribution. In particular, we explore (1) the estimation of tail index of the marginal distribution using several estimation techniques (e.g., Hill estimator, Pickands estimator) and (2) the power of hypothesis tests. The performance of the different methods are compared using artificial time-series by means of Monte Carlo experiments. We systematically apply the heavy tail inference to observed climate data, in particular we focus on time series data. We study several proxy and directly observed climate variables from the instrumental period, the Holocene and the Pleistocene. This work receives financial support from the European Commission (Marie Curie Initial Training Network LINC, No. 289447, within the 7th Framework Programme).

Bermejo, Miguel; Mudelsee, Manfred

2013-04-01

329

DAMS, DAM REMOVAL, AND RIVER RESTORATION: A HEDONIC PROPERTY VALUE ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the results of a hedonic property value analysis for multiple hydropower sites along the Kennebec River in Maine, including the former site of the Edwards Dam in Augusta, Maine. The effect of the removal of the Edwards Dam on the Kennebec River in Maine is examined through consumer’s marginal willingness to pay to be close to or

LYNNE Y. LEWIS; CURTIS BOHLEN; SARAH WILSON

2008-01-01

330

Dam nation: A geographic census of American dams and their large-scale hydrologic impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newly available data indicate that dams fragment the fluvial system of the continental United States and that their impact on river discharge is several times greater than impacts deemed likely as a result of global climate change. The 75,000 dams in the continental United States are capable of storing a volume of water almost equaling one year's mean runoff, but

William L. Graf

1999-01-01

331

Use of Stone Wool By-Products in the Construction of Sanitary Landfills and Tailing Dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The delay of the introduction of a used item or residual material in the “waste circuit” is a key factor of an effective and environmentally sound waste management policy. This principle has been fully adopted by the European legislation and consequently, in most of the member countries. In the same time, re-use of low cost materials or, even better, by-products

Battista Grosso; Aldo Muntoni; Alessandra Carucci; Marco Cigagna; Bernardino Virdis

2004-01-01

332

Sediment quality in Rio Guadiamar (SW, Spain) after a tailing dam collapse: Contamination, toxicity and bioavailability  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated assessment of sediment quality in the Guadiamar River after a mining spill was conducted. The concentration of different metals and other conventional parameters were measured in sediments located along the river. Four sediment toxicity tests (Hyalella azteca 28-day survival and growth test; Chironomus riparius 10-day survival and growth test; Hexagenia spp. 21-day survival and growth test; and Tubifex

Inmaculada Riba; T. Angel DelValls; Trefor B. Reynoldson; Danielle Milani

2006-01-01

333

Hiwassee Dam rehabilitation to combat concrete growth  

SciTech Connect

Hiwassee Dam is experiencing concrete growth caused by alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR). The AAR is the alkali-silica tape associated with excessive alkali in the cement and a micaceous quartzite (siliceous) aggregate used in the concrete. Concrete growth at Hiwassee Dam caused by this reaction has resulted in high stresses and deflections within the dam. These stresses and deflections have caused the nonoverflow blocks to deflect into the spillway openings causing the spillway gates to bind. This growth has also caused the spillway bridge expansion joints to close, and structural cracking in the upper portion of the dam. This is a continuation of the paper that was presented at the International conference on Hydropower {open_quotes}WATERPOWER `93{close_quotes} entitled {open_quotes}MODIFICATION AT HIWASSEE DAM DUE TO CONCRETE GROWTH PROBLEMS{close_quotes} Volume 2, page 860 to 869. It presents: The rehabilitation to date, the instrumentation that has been installed to monitor the rehabilitation, and the results of these efforts.

Newell, V.A.; Tanner, D.T.; Wagner, C.D. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States)

1995-12-31

334

The Remains of the Dam: What Have We Learned From 10 Years of Dam Removals?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 10 years in the U.S., dam removal has evolved from an occasionally implemented, rarely studied, and poorly understood intervention to improve rivers, to a much more frequently accomplished and better studied and understood approach to river restoration. Over that same time period, the numbers and sizes of dams and volumes of sediment released have dramatically increased. By some estimates close to 1000 dams have been removed over the last 100 years, with most of those occurring within the last 10. While most of these are small (less than 15 m high) dams, removals of dams up to 70 m high are presently underway. Releases of sediment associated with these removals over the past 10 years have also increased by close to four orders of magnitude; for example removal of the Elwha River dams in Washington is estimated to release almost 107 m3 of sediment into the lower Elwha River. Given a decade's worth of dam removals and, in some cases, well-orchestrated case studies of the effects of removal on the geomorphology and (to a lesser extent) ecology of rivers, what have we learned? More specifically, where do we now stand with respect to being able to predict the consequences of future dam removals? Drawing on both field examples and numerical models of dam removals in the western U.S., several key lessons stand out. Although every dam removal and river are different, removals initiate very rapid upstream river response and reservoir erosion and evacuation of sediment by various mechanisms that are strongly controlled by grain size of the deposit, volumes of residual sediment relative to total reservoir volume, and style of dam removal (instantaneous versus staged). Erosion of sediment accumulations in fully and partially filled (by sediment) reservoirs proceeds by different trajectories and rates, with full reservoirs releasing sediment primarily by upstream knickpoint retreat while erosion and sediment release in partially-filled reservoirs proceeds by vertical incision and delta progradation. Coarse grained non-cohesive sediment deposits erode by both vertical incision and lateral migration; fine-grained non-cohesive deposits can slump and fail catastrophically by landsliding. The rate of upstream reservoir erosion sets the tempo of downstream river adjustments and sedimentation. Prediction of location of sediment accumulations is bolstered by both 1- and 2-D hydrodynamic models that have proven to be remarkably accurate in predicting the spatial extent and pattern of deposition, but are less accurate with respect to predicting timing and longevity of deposits.Erosion of Marmot coffer dam on the Sandy River, OR following dam breach, October 19, 2007

Grant, G. E.; O'Connor, J. E.; Major, J. J.

2012-12-01

335

Social Impacts of Brazil's Tucuruí Dam.  

PubMed

/ The Tucuruí Dam, which blocked the Tocantins River in 1984 in Brazil's eastern Amazonian state of Pará, is a continuing source of controversy. Most benefits of the power go to aluminum smelting companies, where only a tiny amount of employment is generated. Often presented by authorities as a model for hydroelectric development because of the substantial power that it produces, the project's social and environmental impacts are also substantial. Examination of Tucuruí reveals a systematic overestimation of benefits and underestimation of impacts as presented by authorities. Tucuruí offers many as-yet unlearned lessons for hydroelectric development in Amazonia.KEY WORDS: Tucuruí Dam; Amazonia; Hydroelectric dams; Brazil; Reservoirs; Mercuryhttp://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00267/bibs/24n4p483.html

Fearnside

1999-11-01

336

Channel changes downstream from a dam  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A flood-control dam was completed during 1979 on Bear Creek, a small tributary stream to the South Platte River in the Denver, Colorado, area. Before and after dam closure, repetitive surveys between 1977 and 1992 at five cross sections downstream of the dam documented changes in channel morphology. During this 15-year period, channel width increased slightly, but channel depth increased by more than 40 percent. Within the study reach, stream gradient decreased and median bed material sizes coarsened from sand in the pools and fine gravel on the riffle to a median coarse gravel throughout the reach. The most striking visual change was from a sparse growth of streamside grasses to a dense growth of riparian woody vegetation.

Hadley, R.F.; Emmett, W.W.

1998-01-01

337

Revised Final Independent External Peer Review Report for the East Branch Dam, Clarion River,  

E-print Network

Revised Final Independent External Peer Review Report for the East Branch Dam, Clarion River, Elk County, Pennsylvania: Dam Safety Modification Report Prepared by Battelle Memorial Institute Prepared Report East Branch Dam, Clarion River, Elk County, Pennsylvania: Dam Safety Modification Report

US Army Corps of Engineers

338

7. Detail view of reinforced concrete archrings comprising dam's upstream ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Detail view of reinforced concrete arch-rings comprising dam's upstream face. Impressions of the wooden formwork used in construction are visible in the concrete. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

339

1. OVERALL VIEW SHOWING FACE OF CONCRETE GRAVITY DAM AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. OVERALL VIEW SHOWING FACE OF CONCRETE GRAVITY DAM AND FISH LADDER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST (UPSTREAM) FROM SNORE OPPOSITE FISH LADDER - Van Arsdale Dam, South Fork of Eel River, Ukiah, Mendocino County, CA

340

117. Maricopa Dam Water System, Electric Transmission Lines, Catwalk, Derrick ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

117. Maricopa Dam Water System, Electric Transmission Lines, Catwalk, Derrick at Elev. +65. October 15, 1934. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

341

87. DAM TAINTER GATE OPERATING MACHINERY TRAVELING HOIST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

87. DAM - TAINTER GATE OPERATING MACHINERY - TRAVELING HOIST - AMERICAN TYPE ASSEMBLY (ML-5-55/111-FS), February 1938 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 5, Minneiska, Winona County, MN

342

View of powerhouse and dam from third floor of original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of powerhouse and dam from third floor of original section of Langdale Cotton Mill, looking northeast - Langdale Cotton Mill, Powerhouse & Dam, 5910 Nineteenth Avenue, Valley, Chambers County, AL

343

4. VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING TAINTER GATE PIERS, TAINTER GATE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING TAINTER GATE PIERS, TAINTER GATE NO. 1 SERVICE BRIDGE, AND LOCOMOTIVE CRANE, LOOKING NORTHEAST (UPSTREAM) - Upper Mississippi River Nine-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 25, Cap au Gris, Lincoln County, MO

344

5. VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING TAINTER GATE PIERS, TAINTER GATE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING TAINTER GATE PIERS, TAINTER GATE NO. 1, AND SERVICE BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST (DOWNSTREAM) - Upper Mississippi River Nine-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 25, Cap au Gris, Lincoln County, MO

345

77. Plan of Proposed Concrete of Rubble Masonry Dam at ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

77. Plan of Proposed Concrete of Rubble Masonry Dam at Frog Tanks on the Agua Fria River, Arizona. September 1903. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

346

5. DETAIL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING ROLLER GATE HEADHOUSES, WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. DETAIL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING ROLLER GATE HEADHOUSES, WITH AUXILIARY LOCK IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING NORTHEAST, UPSTREAM - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 5, Minneiska, Winona County, MN

347

25. VIEW OF MOVABLE CRANE ON DAM BRIDGE, WITH ROLLER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. VIEW OF MOVABLE CRANE ON DAM BRIDGE, WITH ROLLER GATE HEADHOUSE/PIERS IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 5, Minneiska, Winona County, MN

348

86. DAM TAINTER GATE OPERATING MACHINERY HOIST CAR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

86. DAM - TAINTER GATE OPERATING MACHINERY - HOIST CAR NO. 2 - ELECTRIFICATION HOIST CLUTCH MODIFICATION (ML-5-55/6), March 1956 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 5, Minneiska, Winona County, MN

349

6. VIEW NORTHEAST, WEST END OF DAM DURING CONSTRUCTION OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW NORTHEAST, WEST END OF DAM DURING CONSTRUCTION OF FISHWAY, DECEMBER 1995, SHOWING REMOVAL OF PLANKING - Norwich Water Power Company, Dam, West bank of Shetucket River opposite Fourteenth Street, Greenville section, Norwich, New London County, CT

350

Seepage Chemistry Manual. Dam Safety Technology Development Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gypsum, anhydrite, calcite, dolomite, and halite are soluble minerals that are common in the western United States where the Bureau of Reclamation has constructed many dams. Dams sited on foundations and abutments containing soluble minerals have the pote...

D. Craft

2005-01-01

351

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF LITTLE FALLS DAM POWERPLANT AND NORTHWEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF LITTLE FALLS DAM POWERPLANT AND NORTHWEST END OF LITTLE FALLS TIE LINE. LOOKING WEST - Little Falls Tie Line Towers, Near Little Dam Falls on Spokane River, Wellpinit, Stevens County, WA

352

61. 'LITTLEROCK DAM LOOKING FROM LEFT TO RIGHT ABUTMENTSPILLWAY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

61. 'LITTLEROCK DAM - LOOKING FROM LEFT TO RIGHT ABUTMENT-SPILLWAY DISCHARGING.' No date; probably 1960s. Photographer unknown. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

353

1. VIEW SHOWING (LEFT TO RIGHT) DAM, PENSTOCK, SURGE TANKS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW SHOWING (LEFT TO RIGHT) DAM, PENSTOCK, SURGE TANKS AND POWERHOUSE, GREAT NORTHERN RAILWAY ROADBED (ABANDONED, CENTER), AND THE SIMILKAMEEN RIVER (LOWER FOREGROUND), LOOKING NORTHWEST - Enloe Dam, On Similkameen River, Oroville, Okanogan County, WA

354

20. VIEW OF ENLOE DAM (APPARENTLY COMPLETED), PENSTOCK UNDER CONSTRUCTION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. VIEW OF ENLOE DAM (APPARENTLY COMPLETED), PENSTOCK UNDER CONSTRUCTION (LEFT, CENTER), AND THE ORIGINAL POWERHOUSE (RIGHT, CENTER). LOOKING NORTH - Enloe Dam, On Similkameen River, Oroville, Okanogan County, WA

355

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Big dams and salmon evolution: changes in thermal  

E-print Network

salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We estimated that dams on the Rogue River, the Willamette River (Oncorhynchus spp.) across portions of their natural range, dams have arguably played a major role in many

Angilletta, Michael

356

79. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLEROCK DAM, EASTWOOD MULTIPLEARCHED TYPE: REINFORCEMENT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

79. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLEROCK DAM, EASTWOOD MULTIPLE-ARCHED TYPE: REINFORCEMENT, SHEET 6; OCTOBER 2, 1919. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

357

68. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

68. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: STRESS SHEET, SHEET 4; MAY, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

358

71. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, EASTWOOD MULTIPLEARCHED DAM: STRESS SHEET, SHEET ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

71. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, EASTWOOD MULTIPLE-ARCHED DAM: STRESS SHEET, SHEET 3; DECEMBER 20, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

359

12. VIEW SHOWING THE CLOSING OF THE GATES OF DAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. VIEW SHOWING THE CLOSING OF THE GATES OF DAM 341 ON APRIL 15, 1936, THE DAY THEY BEGAN FLOODING THE MARSHES - J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 341, Along Lower Souris River, Kramer, Bottineau County, ND

360

7. ISLAND PLANT AND HORSESHOE DAM FROM WEST BANK (negative ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. ISLAND PLANT AND HORSESHOE DAM FROM WEST BANK (negative reversed) - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

361

20. HORSESHOE DAM LOOKING EAST WITH UPPER END DEMOLISHED FOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. HORSESHOE DAM LOOKING EAST WITH UPPER END DEMOLISHED FOR NEW SPILLWAY (negative reversed) - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

362

73. GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF MECHANISM, FOR OPERATING DIVERSION DAM SLUICE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

73. GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF MECHANISM, FOR OPERATING DIVERSION DAM SLUICE GATES Courtesy of U.S.R.S., Salt River Project - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

363

"No. 190. Grand Valley Diversion Dam. Diversion gates, water flowing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

"No. 190. Grand Valley Diversion Dam. Diversion gates, water flowing into high line. June, 1917. R.B.D." - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

364

21. THE WHITNEY CONSTRUCTION CAMP AT THE DIVERSION DAM, FACING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. THE WHITNEY CONSTRUCTION CAMP AT THE DIVERSION DAM, FACING SOUTH. WOOD BURNING PLANT AT RIGHT, INTAKE GATES AT CENTER LEFT. Photographer: Walter J. Lubken, June 13, 1906 - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

365

1. DIVERSION GATE AT SPILLWAY, NORTH CANAL DAM (DIVERSION GATE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. DIVERSION GATE AT SPILLWAY, NORTH CANAL DAM (DIVERSION GATE FEEDING PIPE AT LOWER RIGHT), VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - North Canal Dam & Diversion Canals, Deschutes Reclamation & Irrigation Company Canal, Empire Boulevard vicinity, Bend, Deschutes County, OR

366

78. POWER CANAL DIVERSION DAM, EXISTING STRUCTURE Courtesy of Dept. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

78. POWER CANAL DIVERSION DAM, EXISTING STRUCTURE Courtesy of Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Salt River Project - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

367

2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

368

23. INTAKE DIVERSION DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, FACING NORTHWEST AND DOWNSTREAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. INTAKE DIVERSION DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, FACING NORTHWEST AND DOWNSTREAM Photographer: Walter J. Lubken, September 17, 1906 - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

369

72. ARRANGEMENT OF SLUICE GATES AND HOISTS, DIVERSION DAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

72. ARRANGEMENT OF SLUICE GATES AND HOISTS, DIVERSION DAM - POWER CANAL Courtesy of U.S.G.S., Reclamation Service, Salt River Project - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

370

32. AERIAL VIEW OF BOISE DIVERSION DAM. VIEW TO NORTH. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. AERIAL VIEW OF BOISE DIVERSION DAM. VIEW TO NORTH. Photocopy of photograph by Glade Walker, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Region, May 1981. - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

371

29. VIEW NORTHWEST ON SHELTON SIDE OF DAM DURING DEWATERING. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. VIEW NORTHWEST ON SHELTON SIDE OF DAM DURING DEWATERING. SHELTON GATEHOUSE IN LEFT CENTER. - Ousatonic Water Power Company, Dam & Canals, CT Routes 34 & 108, 1 mile North of Derby-Shelton Bridge, Derby, New Haven County, CT

372

9. VIEW OF DAM FROM LEFT SIDE. PUMPCRETE PIPE LINES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF DAM FROM LEFT SIDE. PUMPCRETE PIPE LINES ARE CARRIED ON WALKWAY. UPSTREAM PARTS OF BUTTRESSES ARE FOG-SPRAYED TO PERMIT PROMPT FILLING OF CONTRACTION JOINTS. July 30, 1938 - Bartlett Dam, Verde River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

373

2. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF THE SOUTH CHANNEL DAM, LOOKING WEST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF THE SOUTH CHANNEL DAM, LOOKING WEST. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, South Channel Dam, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

374

1. UPSTREAM VIEW OF THE SOUTH CHANNEL DAM, LOOKING EAST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. UPSTREAM VIEW OF THE SOUTH CHANNEL DAM, LOOKING EAST. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, South Channel Dam, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

375

19. View of low crib dam, headworks, and tramway above ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. View of low crib dam, headworks, and tramway above dam, looking southeast. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

376

3. Down river view of lock and dam to southwest ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Down river view of lock and dam to southwest - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 1, In Mississippi River at Mississippi Boulevard, below Ford Parkway Bridge, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

377

Black-Tailed Prairie Dog  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Black-tailed prairie dogs are quite susceptible to sylvatic plague, but a new plague vaccine put in their food shows significant promise in the laboratory. The prairie dogs transmit the disease to endangered black-footed ferrets, who eat the prairie dogs and are also quite susceptible to the disease...

2009-08-03

378

2. View of the southern twothirds of the dam showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. View of the southern two-thirds of the dam showing the Glens Falls Bridge over the Hudson River on the left, the Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation penstocks and inktake structure at the southeast corner of the dam, and the dam itself. The Finch Pruyn & Company Forebay is the foreground. Facing south. - Glens Falls Dam, 100' to 450' West of U.S. Route 9 Bridge Spanning Hudson River, Glens Falls, Warren County, NY

379

Seismic performance analysis of Tendaho earth fill dam, Ethiopia.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tendaho dam is found in the Afar regional state, North Eastern part of Ethiopia. It is located within an area known as the ‘Tendaho Graben' ,which forms the center of Afar triangle, a low lying area of land where East African, Red sea and the Gulf of Eden Rift systems converge. The dam is an earthfill dam with a volume of about 4 Million cubic meters and with mixed clay core. The geological setting associated with the site of the dam, the geotechnical properties of the dam materials and seismicity of the region are reviewed. Based on this review, the foundation materials and dam body include some liquefiable granular soils. Moreover, the active East African Rift Valley fault, which can generate an earthquake of magnitude greater than 6, passes through the dam body. This valley is the primary seismic source contributing to the hazard at the Tendaho dam site. The availability of liquefiable materials beneath and within the dam body and the presence of the active fault crossing the dam site demand a thorough seismic analysis of the dam. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) is selected as a measure of ground motion severity. The PGA was selected according to the guidelines of the International Commission on Large Dams, ICOLD. Based on the criteria set by the ICOLD, the dam is analyzed for two different earthquake magnitudes, the Maximum Credible Earthquake (MCE) and the Operating Basis Earthquake (OBE). Numerical codes are useful tools to investigate the safety of dams in seismic prone areas. In this paper, FLAC3D numerical tool is used to investigate the performance of the dam under dynamic loading. Based on the numerical analysis, the seismic performance of the dam is investigated.

Berhe, T.; Wu, W.

2009-04-01

380

"No. 172. General view of the dam, looking downstream from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

"No. 172. General view of the dam, looking downstream from the east end. F.E.D. June, 1916." Compare this historic image, taken upon dam completion (1916), with current-condition photograph HAER CO-90-1. The dam retains a remarkable degree of integrity of design and setting - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

381

Student Competition: Siting Potential Dams at Camp Del Webb, Utah  

E-print Network

Siting Potential Dams at Camp Del Webb, Utah Presented By: Kyle Wamser Problem ? Camp Del Webb is Lacking an Onsite Lake ? High Adventure Bases generally need aquatics ? Large lake nearby, but transportation is required ? Possible Solution... hillshade ? Finding Possible Lake Locations ? Added three potential dam sites ? Calculated watersheds ? Extended dams through terrain to prevent runoff on the sides ? Calculated watershed dam elevation, which identified lakes Results...

Wamser, William Kyle

2007-11-14

382

Lake Shewa Rock-Slope Failures and Water Impoundment, Badakshan Province, Afghanistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Shewa in northeastern Badakshan Province, Afghanistan, was dammed in antiquity when a large rock-slope failure (RSF) from the strongly fault-shattered and well weathered Archean gneisses of the Zirnokh peaks to the north moved down fault and foliation planes for ~1700 m into the Arakht River valley. This dammed up the river and its tributaries to a dam thickness of ~400 m (~1.6 cubic km volume), producing a 12-km-long lake that is as much as 270 m deep, leaving ~80 m of freeboard to the top of the dam. The valley had been glaciated in the past and the debuttressing caused by prior ice melt-out most likely reduced shear strength, while the active faulting with associated seismicity likely increased shear stress. At least five separate slope failures occurred at the site of the landslide dam, with a ~960-m-long rock glacier at the head giving evidence of long-prior emplacement of the main RSF. An additional massive rock slide also occurs in an adjacent valley 9 km north along the large strike-slip fault that passes through the main scarp. Spring seepage through the Shewa dam face has caused several recent subsidiary slump failures of the landslide mass, which if continued at a large enough scale for long enough, or with additional seismicity from the two active strike-slip fault systems that cross beneath the landslide dam, could threaten its integrity. The world’s largest known landslide dam (Usoi, ~550m thickness, ~2 - 2.5 cubic km volume) was triggered by a seismic event and occurs nearby in Tajikistan.

Shroder, J. F.; Weihs, B. J.

2009-12-01

383

Tail use in bioinspired quadrupedal locomotion  

E-print Network

Tails are seen in nature to be used in an amazing number of different applications. Many of these applications seen in nature may be of use to bioinspired roboticists in the future. I have provided a brief review of tail ...

Briggs, Randall (Randall Miller)

2012-01-01

384

From metallurgical coal tailings to thermal fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

McIntyre Mines in Canada recover coal from washery tailings slurry. The tailings are dewatered in Bird screen bowl centrifuges and thermally dried in Joy Holo-Flite dryers. The coal recovered is burned in a power station.

van den Broek

1982-01-01

385

33 CFR 100.1102 - Marine Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and Headgate Dam...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Marine Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City...1102 Marine Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City...Lake Moovalya, Parker, Arizona between river miles 179 and 185 (between the...

2010-07-01

386

33 CFR 208.19 - Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex. 208.19 Section 208.19...Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex. The Secretary of the Interior, through his agent, the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) shall operate the...

2010-07-01

387

76 FR 34799 - Permanent Dam Safety Modification at Cherokee, Fort Loudoun, Tellico, and Watts Bar Dams, TN  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...alternatives for permanent modifications to the existing dam facilities...solutions for dam safety modifications to replace interim modifications that were implemented at...assumes the most extreme weather event reasonably...

2011-06-14

388

Out, Out, Dam Spot: The Geomorphic Response of Rivers to Dam Removal. Science Findings, Issue Seventy One, March 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

About 75,000 irrigation, flood control, and hydropower dams in the United States are aging, deteriorating, or have outlived their useful lives and purposes. Not surprisingly, dam removal is emerging as both a challenge and opportunity for river management...

2005-01-01

389

Seismic performance analysis of Tendaho earth fill dam, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tendaho dam is found in the Afar regional state, North Eastern part of Ethiopia. It is located within an area known as the `Tendaho Graben' ,which forms the center of Afar triangle, a low lying area of land where East African, Red sea and the Gulf of Eden Rift systems converge. The dam is an earthfill dam with a

T. Berhe; W. Wu

2009-01-01

390

REVIEW PLAN John Redmond Dam Reservoir, Coffee County, Kansas  

E-print Network

#12;#12;REVIEW PLAN John Redmond Dam Reservoir, Coffee County, Kansas Reallocation Study Tulsa PLAN John Redmond Dam Reservoir, Coffee County, Kansas Reallocation Study Tulsa District TABLE review for the Final Reallocation Report to the John Redmond Dam and Reservoir, Coffee County, Kansas

US Army Corps of Engineers

391

55. AVALON DAM (Photographic copy of photo in Reservoirs ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

55. AVALON DAM - (Photographic copy of photo in Reservoirs for Irrigation, Water-Power, and Domestic Water Supply. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1902.) 'CANAL HEADGATES, LAKE AVALON DAM' - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Avalon Dam, On Pecos River, 4 miles North of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

392

Flood Control Reservoirs Operable September 30, 2008 Characteristics of Dam  

E-print Network

APPENDIX A Flood Control Reservoirs Operable September 30, 2008 A-1 Characteristics of Dam Name A Flood Control Reservoirs Operable September 30, 2008 A-2 Characteristics of Dam Name River Basin Stream Reservoirs Operable September 30, 2008 A-3 Characteristics of Dam Name River Basin Stream Community

US Army Corps of Engineers

393

Flood Control Reservoirs Operable September 30, 2009 Characteristics of Dam  

E-print Network

APPENDIX A Flood Control Reservoirs Operable September 30, 2009 A-1 Characteristics of Dam Name A Flood Control Reservoirs Operable September 30, 2009 A-2 Characteristics of Dam Name River Basin Stream Reservoirs Operable September 30, 2009 A-3 Characteristics of Dam Name River Basin Stream Community

US Army Corps of Engineers

394

Flood Control Reservoirs Operable September 30, 2007 Characteristics of Dam  

E-print Network

APPENDIX A Flood Control Reservoirs Operable September 30, 2007 A-1 Characteristics of Dam Name Creek Superior 960 34,500 NPP F Earth 25 978 ARKANSAS Blakely Mountain Ouachita Dam Ouachita Hot Springs,554 Narrows Dam Ouachita Little Missouri Murfreesboro 1949 407,900 2,500 FP Concrete 175 941 Nimrod Arkansas

US Army Corps of Engineers

395

LOOKING DOWNSTREAM FROM KACHESS DAM CREST, 1910 RIVER CUTOFF CHANNEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

LOOKING DOWNSTREAM FROM KACHESS DAM CREST, 1910 RIVER CUTOFF CHANNEL WITH CRIB STRUCTURE IN CENTER. BRIDGE FOOTING CRIB STRUCTURE AT RIGHT (Upstream face of Kachess Dam in foreground) - Kachess Dam, Cutoff Channel and Crib Structures, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

396

2. UPSTREAM SIDE OF DAM AND BRIDGE WITH ABANDONED SAN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. UPSTREAM SIDE OF DAM AND BRIDGE WITH ABANDONED SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER HEADGATE IN FOREGROUND. TAKEN FROM NORTH END OF DAM - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

397

The Geomorphic Response of Gravel-bed Rivers to Dams  

E-print Network

15.1 INTRODUCTION Dams and reservoirs represent the single most profound human alteration of the fluvial system. In almost all cases, dams interrupt and modify the downstream flux of sediment through controls of channel form ­ sediment and water ­ dams have the potential to alter the entire hierarchy

398

Regulated expression of the Escherichia coli dam gene.  

PubMed

Regulated expression of the Escherichia coli dam gene has been achieved with the araBAD promoter lacking a ribosome binding site. Cultures of dam mutants containing plasmid pMQ430 show no detectable methylation in the absence of arabinose and complete methylation in its presence. Dam methyltransferase is a substrate for the Lon protease. PMID:12897023

Calmann, Melissa A; Marinus, M G

2003-08-01

399

Regulated Expression of the Escherichia coli dam Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulated expression of the Escherichia coli dam gene has been achieved with the araBAD promoter lacking a ribosome binding site. Cultures of dam mutants containing plasmid pMQ430 show no detectable methylation in the absence of arabinose and complete methylation in its presence. Dam methyltransferase is a substrate for the Lon protease.

Melissa A. Calmann; M. G. Marinus

2003-01-01

400

Yangtze Sediment Decline Partly From Three Gorges Dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

It could be argued that nowhere has the impact of dams on rivers been more important of dams on rivers than in China, where since 1950 almost half of the world's large dams (higher than 15 meters) have been built [Fuggle and Smith, 2000]. China's Yangtze River (Changjiang)-the largest river in south Asia (1.8 million square kilometers) and whose basin

Kehui Xu; John D. Milliman; Zuosheng Yang; Houjie Wang

2006-01-01

401

Bed Sediment Monitoring of Multiple Contiguous Small Dam Removals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dam removal is crucial for reconnecting river habitats, restoring passage of fish and other aquatic organisms, and restoring the free flow of water and sediment. However, removal of obsolete dams is often resisted due to concerns of releasing sediment and initiating channel instability. Two dams on the Musconetcong River in northern New Jersey have been removed as part of a

J. C. Galster; J. R. Wyrick

2010-01-01

402

Effective dam removal and river channel restoration approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millions of dams have been built on the planet's rivers and streams to provide societal needs for freshwater supplies, irrigation, hydroelectric development, industrial activities and flood control. The structural and operational components of most dams include features that reflect technological advancements and changing societal priorities over time. Many dams were constructed and operated with no consideration for river ecology; some

C. Katopodis; L. P. Aadland

2006-01-01

403

29. At Willard, Little Salmon Creek. Site of former dam ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. At Willard, Little Salmon Creek. Site of former dam and water supply pond for Broughton flume. View from downstream of intake, dam wind wall to right, lower wall of overflow chute in left foreground (contains pipes and small dam, possibly for water pumping). West 320 degrees. - Broughton Flume, Hood River Junction on Columbia River at Washington/Oregon border, Hood, Skamania County, WA

404

6. VIEW SHOWING CREST OF DAM AND OUTLET GATE WHEEL, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW SHOWING CREST OF DAM AND OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Milk Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 9.4 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

405

LOCK, DOG HOUSE, CONTROL STATION, DAM GATE, MANEUVER BOAT No. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

LOCK, DOG HOUSE, CONTROL STATION, DAM GATE, MANEUVER BOAT No. 1, AND DAM. NOTE LOWER LOCK GATE IN FOREGROUND. LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST. - Illinois Waterway, La Grange Lock and Dam, 3/4 mile south of Country 795N at Illinois River, Versailles, Brown County, IL

406

Treatment for a fully weathered rock dam foundation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main dam at the upper reservoir of Tianhuanping pumped storage power station is a rockfill dam with an asphalt concrete impervious lining on the upstream face. It is constructed on a non-homogeneous fully weathered rock foundation. In this paper, we present the case study on the treatment for this non-homogeneous fully weathered rock dam foundation. The treatment includes the

Y. S. Wang; S. H. Liu

2005-01-01

407

PVC waterproofing membranes and alkali-aggregated reaction in dams  

SciTech Connect

A waterproofing polyvinylchloride (PVC) based geocomposite was installed on two dams subject to alkali-aggregate reaction, to eliminate water intrusion and to protect the facing from further deterioration. The installation system allows drainage of the infiltrated water, thus accomplishing dehydration of the dam body. On one dam, the membrane also provided protection for future slot cutting.

Scuero, A.M. [C.A.R.P.I. Technologies SA, Lugano (Czech Republic)

1995-12-31

408

3. NORTHEAST VIEW OF BIG TUJUNGA DAM SHOWING THE RIGHT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. NORTHEAST VIEW OF BIG TUJUNGA DAM SHOWING THE RIGHT ABUTMENT WITH THE SPILLWAY AND THE BRIDGE IN THE BACKGROUND. PHOTO TAKEN NEAR THE PARKING AREA SOUTH OF THE DAM. - Big Tujunga Dam, 809 West Big Tujunga Road, Sunland, Los Angeles County, CA

409

View of upstream face of the forebay dam of Grand ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of upstream face of the forebay dam of Grand Coulee Dam, looking southwest. Note the trash racks at the entrance to the penstocks. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

410

DESCHUTES PROJECT, OREGON, WICKIUP DAM, LOOKING NORTH FROM RIGHT ABUTMENT. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DESCHUTES PROJECT, OREGON, WICKIUP DAM, LOOKING NORTH FROM RIGHT ABUTMENT. BUREAU MAINTENANCE BUILDINGS LOCATED BELOW THE DAM WITH ROUND MOUNTAIN BEYOND. SHOW COVERED CULTUS MOUNTAIN TO THE LEFT. Photocopy of historic photographs (original photograph on file at National Archives, Rocky Mountain Region, Denver, CO). R.A. Baker, Photographer, April 25, 1950 - Wickiup Dam, Deschutes River, La Pine, Deschutes County, OR

411

7. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE AND TOE OF DAM, WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE AND TOE OF DAM, WITH OUTLET CULVERT AND WING RETAINING WALLS, LOOKING NORTH - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Twin Pots Dam, Ashley National Forest, 10.1 miles North of Mountain Home, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

412

Geologic Hazards Associated With a Proposed Dam on the Yarlung-  

E-print Network

-Gyala antiform. Active faults drawn in black. Approximate location of the dam and diversion tunnel proposedGeologic Hazards Associated With a Proposed Dam on the Yarlung- Tsangpo River in SE Tibet Peter K of data relevant to dam siting. Figure 8. Fission-track data from detrital zircons obtained from sands

Kidd, William S. F.

413

2. Upstream face of Rock Creek Diversion Dam, looking east ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Upstream face of Rock Creek Diversion Dam, looking east (Canal slide gates to left, Rock Creek diversion gate to right in raised position) - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Rock Creek Diversion Dam, One mile east of Como Dam, west of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

414

Three-Gorges Dam: Risk to Ancient Fish  

E-print Network

Three-Gorges Dam: Risk to Ancient Fish THE HUGETHREE-GORGES DAM (TGD) OFTHE Yangtze River is going and animals, as discussed by J. Wu et al. in their Policy Forum "Three-Gorges Dam-- experiment in habitat vulnerable. The Yangtze River basin is one of the richest areas in freshwater fish species diversity

Wu, Jianguo "Jingle"

415

Effects of Beaver Dams on Subarctic Wetland Hydrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beaver dams are ubiquitous in subarctic wetlands, where runoff in the flat terrain is highly prone to changes as the stream courses are modified by beaver activities. Depending on the state of preservation, stream flow can overtop or funnel through gaps in the dams, leak from the bottom of the dams or seep through the entire structure. Peak and low

MING-KO WOO; JAMES M. WADDINGTON

1990-01-01

416

22. THE DIVERSION DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION AT THE INTAKE OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. THE DIVERSION DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION AT THE INTAKE OF THE SALT RIVER POWER CANAL, SHOWING COMPLETED APRON OF DAM IN MAIN CHANNEL OF RIVER BED. Photographer: Walter J. Lubken, October 17, 1906 - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

417

DRAFT San Acacia Reach San Acacia Dam to Escondida Bridge  

E-print Network

by Reclamation on the San Acacia reach. The 11.6 mile long extends from the San Acacia Diversion dam (River Mile and the construction of the diversion dam. Due to the degradation, the particle diameter has coarsened from a 0.1 mmDRAFT San Acacia Reach San Acacia Dam to Escondida Bridge Hydraulic Modeling Analysis 1918

Julien, Pierre Y.

418

1. Upstream face of Rock Creek Diversion Dam, looking east ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Upstream face of Rock Creek Diversion Dam, looking east (Overflow weir right, diversion section into Irrigation District Canal to left) - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Rock Creek Diversion Dam, One mile east of Como Dam, west of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

419

4. Downstream face of Rock Creek Diversion Dam, looking west ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Downstream face of Rock Creek Diversion Dam, looking west (Irrigation District canal to right, creek gate and weir to left) - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Rock Creek Diversion Dam, One mile east of Como Dam, west of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

420

San Acacia Reach San Acacia Dam to Escondida Bridge  

E-print Network

by Reclamation on the San Acacia reach. The 11.6 mile long reach extends from the San Acacia Diversion dam (River and the construction of the diversion dam. Due to the degradation, the particle diameter has coarsened from about 0San Acacia Reach San Acacia Dam to Escondida Bridge Hydraulic Modeling Analysis 1918-2006 Middle

Julien, Pierre Y.

421

1. Overview of the Lost River Diversion Dam House complex, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Overview of the Lost River Diversion Dam House complex, showing house, workshop, and landscaping. Portions of the Lost River Diversion Dam visible to left, background of the house. Facing northwest. - Klamath Basin Project, Lost River Diversion Dam House, Lost River near intersection of State Highway 140 & Hill Road, Klamath Falls, Klamath County, OR

422

6. Downstream face of Rock Creek Diversion Dam, looking west ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Downstream face of Rock Creek Diversion Dam, looking west (Gate raised to cut off flow to Rock Creek, weir section to left of photo) - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Rock Creek Diversion Dam, One mile east of Como Dam, west of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

423

28. Photocopied August 1978. UPPER INTAKE COFFER DAM, OCTOBER 7, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. Photocopied August 1978. UPPER INTAKE COFFER DAM, OCTOBER 7, 1901. LOGS WERE PLACED ON THE WATER SIDE OF THIS DAM TO COUNTERACT WAVE ACTION AGAINST THE DAM. NOTE THE TIMBER RETAINING WALL ON THE NORTH SIDE OF THE LOWER INTAKE. (185) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

424

INCORPORATING UNCERTAINTY INTO DAM SAFETY RISK Sanjay S. Chauhan1  

E-print Network

INCORPORATING UNCERTAINTY INTO DAM SAFETY RISK ASSESSMENT Sanjay S. Chauhan1 and David S. Bowles2 ABSTRACT Risk assessment is becoming more widely used to supplement traditional approaches to dam safety decision-making. Dam owners throughout Australia, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the U.S. Bureau

Chauhan, Sanjay S.

425

THREE GORGES DAM Matthew Morioka, Alireza Abrishamkar, Yve Kay  

E-print Network

THREE GORGES DAM Matthew Morioka, Alireza Abrishamkar, Yve Kay CEE 491 #12;Specifications.3 Billion · Total Cost (2008) ¥ 148.4 Billion = $ 21.8 Billion #12;Source of Funds · Three Gorges Dam Construction Fund · Profits from the Gezhouba Dam · Policy Loans from the Chinese Development Bank · Loans from

Prevedouros, Panos D.

426

Dam-Breach Flood Wave Propagation Using Dimensionless Parameters  

E-print Network

Dam-Breach Flood Wave Propagation Using Dimensionless Parameters Victor M. Ponce, M.ASCE1 ; Ahmad to study the sensitivity of dam-breach flood waves to breach-outflow hydrograph volume, peak discharge the channel. A dam-breach Froude number is defined to enable analysis through a wide range of site and flow

Ponce, V. Miguel

427

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BRISBANE RIVER BELOW WIVENHOE DAM  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BRISBANE RIVER BELOW WIVENHOE DAM TO BRISBANE CITY This brochure for the Brisbane River below Wivenhoe Dam to Brisbane City. It includes reference information which will be useful kilometres of which about half is below Wivenhoe Dam. The Lockyer-Laidley Valley drains into the Brisbane

Greenslade, Diana

428

Executive Summary The Report of the World Commission on Dams  

E-print Network

xxvii Executive Summary The Report of the World Commission on Dams Executive Summary The global debate about large dams is at once overwhelmingly complex and fundamentally simple. It is complex because the issues are not confined to the design, construction and operation of dams themselves but embrace

Kammen, Daniel M.

429

43 CFR 418.18 - Diversions at Derby Dam.  

...2014-10-01 false Diversions at Derby Dam. 418.18 Section 418.18 Public Lands...Management § 418.18 Diversions at Derby Dam. (a) Diversions of Truckee River water at Derby Dam must be managed to maintain minimum...

2014-10-01

430

75 FR 34476 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY...renewing the charter for the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The purpose...respect to the operation of Glen Canyon Dam and the exercise of other authorities...

2010-06-17

431

25 CFR 173.16 - Reserved area, Coolidge Dam.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Reserved area, Coolidge Dam. 173.16 Section 173.16 Indians... § 173.16 Reserved area, Coolidge Dam. No permit for any commercial business...of a mile from the center of the Coolidge Dam,...

2010-04-01

432

25 CFR 173.16 - Reserved area, Coolidge Dam.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Reserved area, Coolidge Dam. 173.16 Section 173.16 Indians... § 173.16 Reserved area, Coolidge Dam. No permit for any commercial business...of a mile from the center of the Coolidge Dam,...

2011-04-01

433

25 CFR 173.16 - Reserved area, Coolidge Dam.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2011-04-01 true Reserved area, Coolidge Dam. 173.16 Section 173.16 Indians... § 173.16 Reserved area, Coolidge Dam. No permit for any commercial business...of a mile from the center of the Coolidge Dam,...

2012-04-01

434

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BRISBANE RIVER ABOVE WIVENHOE DAM  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BRISBANE RIVER ABOVE WIVENHOE DAM This brochure describes the flood above Wivenhoe Dam. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood above Wivenhoe Dam drains an area of approximately 7,000 square kilometres. The Brisbane River rises

Greenslade, Diana

435

A review of proposed Glen Canyon Dam interim operating criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three sets of interim operating criteria for Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River have been proposed for the period of November 1991, to the completion of the record of decision for the Glen Canyon Dam environmental impact statement (about 1993). These criteria set specific limits on dam releases, including maximum and minimum flows, up-ramp and down-ramp rates, and maximum

K. LaGory; I. Hlohowskyj; D. Tomasko; J. Hayse; L. Durham

1992-01-01

436

A Deep Soil Mix Cutoff Wall At Lockington Dam, Ohio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Miami Conservancy District built five flood control dams after the catastrophic flood of 1913 in Dayton, Ohio. Lockington Dam was one of these five hydraulic fill structures. The Ohio State Department of Natural Resources (ODNR) issued new regulations in 1981 requiring that design flood for class I dams be considered equal to the Probable Maximum Flood (PMF). Flood routing

Andrew D. Walker

1994-01-01

437

Facilitating fish passage at ultra low head dams: An alternative to dam removal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ecosystem sustainability and returning the biological integrity to rivers continue to change the landscape of fish passage technology. Installing a conventional fishways has a limited degree of success in accommodating fish passage needs. Recently, the option of total dam removal has been gaining momentum among resource managers, conservationists, and even engineers. Certain dams, however, cannot be removed, and conventional fishways are either too expensive to build or the real estate is simply not available; yet freedom of passage must be attained. At the Little Falls Dam on the Potomac River a notch in the crest of the dam was installed to accommodate passage of fish. The notch has three labyrinth weirs used for energy dissipation. Water velocities are maintained at less than about 4 m/s anywhere within the passage structure during migratory season of the target species (American shad). Construction of this novel design was recently completed (March 2000) and future biological evaluations are ongoing. Copyright ASCE 2004.

Odeh, M.

2004-01-01

438

The evolution of gravel bed channels after dam removal: Case study of the Anaconda and Union City Dam removals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Anaconda and Union City Dams on the Naugatuck River in Connecticut were removed in February and October 1999. A detailed study of the sites prior to removal was undertaken including sediment testing and predictions of upstream channel formation post-dam removal. The 3.35-m-high timber crib\\/rock fill spillway of the Anaconda Dam partially breached during a storm prior to the dam's

Laura A. S. Wildman; James G. MacBroom

2005-01-01

439

White Oak Dam stability analysis. Volume I  

SciTech Connect

A parametric study was conducted to evaluate the stability of the White Oak Dam (WOD) embankment and foundation. Slope stability analyses were performed for the upper and lower bound soil properties at three sections of the dam using the PCSTABL4 computer program. Minimum safety factors were calculated for the applicable seismic and static loading conditions. Liquefaction potential of the dam embankment and foundation solid during the seismic event was assessed by using simplified procedures. The WOD is classified as a low hazard facility and the Evaluation Basis Earthquake (EBE) is defined as an earthquake with a magnitude of m{sub b} = 5.6 and a Peak Ground Accelerator (PGA) of 0.13 g. This event is approximately equivalent to a Modified Mercalli Intensity of VI-VIII. The EBE is used to perform the seismic evaluation for slope stability and liquefaction potential. Results of the stability analyses and the liquefaction assessment lead to the conclusion that the White Oak Dam is safe and stable for the static and the seismic events defined in this study. Ogden Environmental, at the request of MMES, has checked and verified the calculations for the critical loading conditions and performed a peer review of this report. Ogden has determined that the WOD is stable under the defined static and seismic loading conditions and the embankment materials are in general not susceptible to liquefaction.

Ahmed, S.B.

1994-01-01

440

Dam water quality study. Report to Congress  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the report is to identify water quality effects attributable to the impoundment of water by dams as required by Section 524 of the Water Quality Act of 1987. The document presents a study of water quality effects associated with impoundments in the U.S.A.

Not Available

1989-05-01

441

Turbine venting at Clarks Hill Dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like most deep water bodies, Clarks Hill Lake undergoes thermal stratification during the summer and early fall resulting in a relatively cold, oxygen depleted bottom layer of water termed the hypolimnion. The turbine intakes are located far below the surface in this hypolimnion; therefore, it is this lower layer of water that is released from the dam year-round, and during

Mauldin

1982-01-01

442

Fish reproductive guilds downstream of dams.  

PubMed

Fish reproductive guilds were used to evaluate the responses of species with different reproductive strategies during two different periods of post-dam construction. The data used for the comparisons were collected in the upper Paraná River floodplain (Brazil), downstream of the Porto Primavera dam, 2 and 10 years after impoundment. The abundance (catch per unit effort, CPUE), species richness, evenness and structure of communities, all within reproductive guilds, were used to test the hypothesis that these metrics vary spatially and temporally. The influence of damming on species structure and the diversity of fish reproductive guilds varied spatiotemporally, and species with opportunistic reproductive strategies tended to be less affected. Conversely, long-distance migratory species responded more markedly to spatiotemporal variations, indicating that the ecosystem dynamics exert greater effects on populations of these species. Thus, the effects of a dam, even if attenuated, may extend over several years, especially downstream. This finding emphasizes the importance of maintaining large undammed tributaries downstream of reservoirs. PMID:25230203

Vasconcelos, L P; Alves, D C; Gomes, L C

2014-11-01

443

Will We. . .? Thai Dam Resource Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource book is intended as an aid to persons working with Thai Dam refugees. To help the language teacher, some differences between Lao and English are discussed, specifically tonal inflections, positioning, declension of pronouns, conjugation of verbs, interrogatives, classifiers and predicate adjectives. An outline of cultural differences…

Murphy, Richard, Ed.; And Others

444

Eye in the Sky: Floods and Dams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides general information about floods and dams. There are sections on the science, the phenomenon, and effects of floods. One video clip shows the Mississippi River at flood and non-flood levels. Another clip shows actual footage of a flood wreaking havoc on a populated area.

445

Progress in tail rotor noise analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helicopter tail rotor noise generated by interactions with the main rotor tip vortices and with the fuselage separation mean wake is investigated. The tail rotor blade-main rotor tip vortex interaction is modeled as an airfoil of infinite span cutting through a moving vortex. The present results are compared to the tail rotor loading and high speed thickness noise and are

S.-T. Chou; A. R. George

1986-01-01

446

Physical space and long-tail markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Internet is known to have had a powerful impact on on-line retailer strategies in markets characterised by long-tail distribution of sales [C. Anderson, Long Tail: Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More, Hyperion, New York, 2006]. Such retailers can exploit the long tail of the market, since they are effectively without physical limit on the number

R. Alexander Bentley; Mark E. Madsen; Paul Ormerod

2009-01-01

447

Natural Carbon Sequestration in Mine Tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have documented active sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) in chrysotile mine tailings at Clinton Creek, Yukon and Cassiar, British Columbia. Hydrated magnesium carbonate minerals develop in mine tailings as a natural consequence of the weathering process within the residues. Magnesium, leached from minerals, reacts with dissolved CO2 in rainwater, precipitating carbonates at the surface of tailings upon evaporation

S. A. Wilson; G. M. Dipple; M. Raudsepp; R. G. Anderson

2005-01-01

448

US Society on Dams Annual Conference, March 2007, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania TOLERABLE RISK FOR DAMS: HOW SAFE IS SAFE ENOUGH?  

E-print Network

US Society on Dams Annual Conference, March 2007, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 1 TOLERABLE RISK FOR DAMS: HOW SAFE IS SAFE ENOUGH? David S. Bowles 1 To grapple with this topic requires that we cross the boundary from the technical world of dam safety engineering into the far more subjective world of values

Bowles, David S.

449

Evaluating Dam Safety Retrofits With Uncertain Benefits: The Case of Mohawk Dam (Walhonding River, Ohio)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mohawk Dam, part of the Muskingum basin flood control system, was built in 1938 and is operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps). Since this high-hazard dam could not survive a probable maximum flood (PMF), the Corps conducted a study to determine the least expensive means of enabling the dam to survive a PMF. Applying a previously proposed framework to select the social cost minimizing capacity of a dam, we show that Mohawk Dam had sufficient capacity that any retrofit has a social cost larger than expected benefits. Sensitivity analyses were performed adjusting the peak flow distribution, the costs of modification, and downstream flood damage, as well as the possibility of loss of life. For any reasonable value of these variables the conclusion does not change that the structure already met so high a safety goal regarding extreme floods that no retrofit is needed. Using risk-based methods to perform reservoir safety evaluations, as recommended by a National Research Council committee in 1985, is indeed feasible. Furthermore, their use provides valuable insight and guidance into the selection of strategies to enhance the safety of dams.

Resendiz-Carrillo, Daniel; Lave, Lester B.

1990-05-01

450

Uranium mill tailings quarterly report, January-March 1982  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported on: radon barrier systems for uranium mill tailings; liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings; revegetation/rock cover for stabilization of inactive U-tailings sites; and application of long-term chemical biobarriers for uranium tailings.

Latkovich, J.M. (comp.)

1982-05-01

451

78 FR 62627 - Sam Rayburn Dam Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Power and Energy 1.1. These rates shall be applicable regardless...including, but not limited to, failure of water supply, failure of facilities, flood, earthquake...to avoid. 1.3. Hydro Power Rates, Terms, and Conditions...

2013-10-22

452

What Makes a Tidal Tail?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galaxy interactions are famous for creating some of the most visually stunning scenes in astronomy, particularly in the cases of tidal tails. These chaotic regions are known to house breeding grounds for young stellar clusters, as shown through past imaging and spectroscopic studies, but the underlying material remains a mystery. While we know that gas is easily stripped from the parent galaxies, what about the stars? The presence of an older stellar population is crucial to dynamical simulations of tidal tails, but has not yet been confirmed by observation. We use the twin tidal tails of NGC3256 as a case study for determining the presence of an old, underlying stellar population. Newly acquired ugriz Gemini data allows us to distinguish between young and old stars, while previous HST data pinpoints the locations of these objects. Deep imaging surveys have often been used to detect tidal features, including these ancient relics, but our survey will be the first to measure the colors of such objects. This will lead us to place constraints on the original composition of the material that was ejected from the interacting/merging galaxies, and the star formation history.

Rodruck, Michael; Konstantopoulos, I.; Charlton, J. C.

2014-01-01

453

Comparative lubrication studies of OH-58A tail rotor drive shaft bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comparative lubrication tests were run with OH-58A helicopter tail rotor drive shaft bearings. The tests were run in an outdoor environment with ambient temperatures ranging from 10 to 75 F. Dust was periodically applied to the bearings to simulate field conditions. The cause of bearing failure was associated with dust penetration. Rotor shaft failure was found to be caused by the shaft rotating in the standard rubber collar due to seizure of the bearings. Bearings with a positive rubbing seal having a MIL-G-81322 grease produced lives greater than with bearings having labyrinth seals and a mineral oil paste lubricant. An elongated collar prevented failure of the rotor shaft during bearing seizure. In a limited test, installation of tail boom shrouds over the bearings which excluded dust and water resulted in bearing lives in excess of 1800 hours or 1200 hours greater than the current 600 hours TBO, regardless of the lubricant-bearing combination used.

Dietrich, M. W.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

1972-01-01

454

The hydrogeology of a tailings impoundment formed by central discharge of thickened tailings: implications for tailings management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kidd Creek Cu-Zn sulfide mine is located near Timmins, Ontario. Mill tailings are thickened and deposited as a slurry in a circular impoundment with an area of approximately 1200 ha. Deposition of tailings as a thickened slurry from a central discharge ramp results in a conical-shaped tailings deposit with low perimeter dykes, a uniform grain-size distribution, uniform and low hydraulic conductivity, and a tension-saturated zone above the water table up to 5 to 6 m thick. These characteristics provide benefits over conventionally disposed tailings with respect to tailings management. The thick tension-saturated zone within the tailings limits the thickness of unsaturated tailings that are susceptible to rapid sulfide oxidation. The conical shape of the deposit results in the formation of a recharge area near the centre of the impoundment and discharge in the peripheral areas. In contrast, the elevated nature of many conventional, unthickened tailings impoundments results in recharge over most of the surface of the impoundment, with discharge occurring outside the impoundment through large containment dykes. Three-dimensional pore water flow modelling suggests that approximately 90% of the total discharge from the thickened tailings occurs within the tailings impoundment. When discharge is confined within the impoundment, there is improved control over low-quality effluent, and an opportunity to design passive control measures to reduce treatment costs and minimize environmental impacts.

Al, Tom A.; Blowes, David W.

1999-06-01

455

Effects of different soil ameliorants on karee trees (Searsia lancea) growing on mine tailings dump soil-part I: pot trials.  

PubMed

Rehabilitation of mine tailings dams is often a challenge due to a lack of nutrients and a poor humus reservoir prevailing in tailings soils. This is especially true for establishing longer lived species such as trees. For these reasons the effects of different soil ameliorants (woodchips compost, vermicompost, mature sewage sludge), added to the root system of Karee (Searsia lancea) saplings were tested in pot trials. Those pots were filled with platinum and gold tailings substrate as well as red clay soil, respectively. For three months plants remained in a greenhouse and were subsequently moved to a test field outside. Throughout the test period regular chl a fluorescence measurements were taken and subjected to JIP-test quantifying changes in photosynthetic vitality status. Additionally, growth measurements and one-off leaf analysis were carried out. Test plants growing on mine tailings experienced an up to 35% higher average photosynthetic vitality (PI(ABS)) and improved nutrient supply, when treated with mature sewage sludge. Consequently, sewage sludge treated plants showed a higher biomass build-up rate and an up to 55% higher diameter growth, compared to control. In summary the experiments present a low cost alternative for reforestation enterprises on platinum and gold tailings dams in South Africa. PMID:22908654

Lange, Christian A; Kotte, Karsten; Smit, Martin; van Deventer, Peter W; van Rensburg, Leon

2012-10-01

456

Nile River, Lake Nasser, Aswan Dam, Egypt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Egypt's High Aswan Dam on the Nile River at the first cataracts, Nile River, (24.0N, 33.0E) was completed in 1971 to provide cheap hydroelectric power and to regulate the historically uneven flow of the Nile River. The contrast between the largely base rock desert east of the Nile versus the sand covered desert west of the river and the ancient irrigated floodplain downstream from the damsite is clearly shown.

1991-01-01

457

Between a dam and a hard spot  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 1\\/27\\/78, an ice gorge in the Ohio River broke and swept down on 13 towboats and 125 barges (many carrying petrochemicals, e.g., xylene and gasoline) waiting at the icebound Markland Locks and Dam, 60 mi south of Cincinnati. During salvage operations on 2\\/5\\/78, a 108 ft wide, 1000 ft long gasoline tow became wedged solid in the lock chamber

1979-01-01

458

Evaluating the behavior of dams during earthquakes  

SciTech Connect

The severe earthquake that killed dozens of people and resulted in billions of dollars in economic loss in southern California in January 1994 provides a sobering reminder of the potential damage such events can cause... and the need to ensure that structures can withstand them. A team of California-based researchers is working on a program to give dam owners better tools for understanding their structures` response to earthquakes.

Duron, Z.H.; Aagaard, B.; Fischer, B. [Harvey Mudd College, Clarement, CA (United States)] [and others

1994-04-01

459

Sediment removal at a diversion dam  

SciTech Connect

The Central Nebraska Public Power and Irrigation District has been involved in sediment removal at their Diversion Dam on the Platte River, Lincoln County, Nebraska for 44 years. This paper summarizes methods that have been utilized, both successful and unsuccessful. The conclusion demonstrates how the District cooperated with various state agencies to alleviate water quality and sediment build-up concerns in obtaining a five-year dredging permit from the Army Corp of Engineers.

Boyd, K.M. [Central Nebraska Public Power and Irrigation District, Gothenburg, NE (United States)

1995-12-31

460

Dam removal increases American eel abundance in distant headwater streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

American eel Anguilla rostrata abundances have undergone significant declines over the last 50 years, and migration barriers have been recognized as a contributing cause. We evaluated eel abundances in headwater streams of Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, to compare sites before and after the removal of a large downstream dam in 2004 (Embrey Dam, Rappahannock River). Eel abundances in headwater streams increased significantly after the removal of Embrey Dam. Observed eel abundances after dam removal exceeded predictions derived from autoregressive models parameterized with data prior to dam removal. Mann–Kendall analyses also revealed consistent increases in eel abundances from 2004 to 2010 but inconsistent temporal trends before dam removal. Increasing eel numbers could not be attributed to changes in local physical habitat (i.e., mean stream depth or substrate size) or regional population dynamics (i.e., abundances in Maryland streams or Virginia estuaries). Dam removal was associated with decreasing minimum eel lengths in headwater streams, suggesting that the dam previously impeded migration of many small-bodied individuals (<300 mm TL). We hypothesize that restoring connectivity to headwater streams could increase eel population growth rates by increasing female eel numbers and fecundity. This study demonstrated that dams may influence eel abundances in headwater streams up to 150 river kilometers distant, and that dam removal may provide benefits for eel management and conservation at the landscape scale.

Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Eyler, Sheila; Wofford, John E.B.

2012-01-01

461

The Non-finished, Non-well Compacted Soil of the Crest of Zayzoun Dam, the Technical and Administrative Errors, and the Correct Ways of its Reinforcement and Renovation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zayzoun dam is one of the irrigation elements of the valley of (Alkhab) in northern Syria; its exploitation started in 1996 and breached on June 4th, 2002. There were many experts searching for the causes of its failure and the correct ways of its renovation. There were many reports written about the failure with different opinions, and we have been one of these experts with an objective opinion. The principal aim was to study all the technical and administrative components of the dam, and to analyze the existing and the new laboratory testing. The soil of the unfinished summit of the dam, in the end, was found to be the real cause that led to its failure. These causes will be analyzed in order to avoid them in the future and to find the suitable ways of its renovation and reinforcement.

Hamze, Youssef; Stanivska, Anna

462

The hydrogeology of a tailings impoundment formed by central discharge of thickened tailings: implications for tailings management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kidd Creek Cu–Zn sulfide mine is located near Timmins, Ontario. Mill tailings are thickened and deposited as a slurry in a circular impoundment with an area of approximately 1200 ha. Deposition of tailings as a thickened slurry from a central discharge ramp results in a conical-shaped tailings deposit with low perimeter dykes, a uniform grain-size distribution, uniform and low

Tom A Al; David W Blowes

1999-01-01

463

Kinetochores require oligomerization of Dam1 complex to maintain microtubule attachments against tension and promote biorientation.  

PubMed

Kinetochores assemble on centromeric DNA and present arrays of proteins that attach directly to the dynamic ends of microtubules. Kinetochore proteins coordinate at the microtubule interface through oligomerization, but how oligomerization contributes to kinetochore function has remained unclear. Here, using a combination of biophysical assays and live-cell imaging, we find that oligomerization of the Dam1 complex is required for its ability to form microtubule attachments that are robust against tension in vitro and in vivo. An oligomerization-deficient Dam1 complex that retains wild-type microtubule binding activity is primarily defective in coupling to disassembling microtubule ends under mechanical loads applied by a laser trap in vitro. In cells, the oligomerization-deficient Dam1 complex is unable to support stable bipolar alignment of sister chromatids, indicating failure of kinetochore-microtubule attachments under tension. We propose that oligomerization is an essential and conserved feature of kinetochore components that is required for accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis. PMID:25236177

Umbreit, Neil T; Miller, Matthew P; Tien, Jerry F; Cattin Ortolá, Jérôme; Gui, Long; Lee, Kelly K; Biggins, Sue; Asbury, Charles L; Davis, Trisha N

2014-01-01

464

Hydrodynamic pressure on arch dam and gravity dam including absorption effect of reservoir sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the scaled boundary finite element method (SBFEM), a procedure is developed for evaluation of hydrodynamic pressure acting on arch/gravity dam face. The effect of water compressibility and the absorption of reservoir bottom and sides are taken into consideration. Various factors that affect the earthquake induced hydrodynamic pressure are examined. Emphasis is placed on the influence of reservoir geometry on the magnitude and distribution of hydrodynamic pressure on arch/gravity dam face. Numerical examples demonstrate that SBFEM is a powerful numerical method dealing with hydrodynamic problems. It is computationally quite economical. The effects of water compressibility, reservoir boundary absorption as well as reservoir geometry can be considered with relative ease. Results also show that reservoir geometry affects the amplitude and distribution of hydrodynamic pressure acting on arch/gravity dam face considerably.

Lin, Gao; Wang, Yi; Hu, Zhiqiang

2010-06-01

465

Dams and Rivers: A Primer on the Downstream Effects of Dams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey is charged with monitoring the water and mineral resources of the United States. Beginning in 1889, the Survey established a network of water gaging stations across most of the country's rivers; some also measured sediment content of the water. Consequently, we now have valuable long-term data with which to track water supply, sediment transport, and the occurrence of floods. Many variables affect the flow of water from mountain brook to river delta. Some are short-term perturbations like summer thunderstorms. Others occur over a longer period of time, like the El Ninos that might be separated by a decade or more. We think of these variables as natural occurrences, but humans have exerted some of the most important changes -- water withdrawals for agriculture, inter-basin transfers, and especially the construction of an extensive system of dams. Dams have altered the flow of many of the Nation's rivers to meet societal needs. We expect floods to be contained. Irrigation is possible where deserts once existed. And water is released downstream not according to natural cycles but as dictated by a region's hour-by-hour needs for water or electricity. As a result, river channels below dams have changed dramatically. Depending on annual flow, flood peaks, and a river's sediment load, we might see changes such as sand building up in one channel, vegetation crowding into another, and extensive bank erosion in another. This Circular explores the emerging scientific arena of change in rivers below dams. This science tries first to understand and then anticipate changes to river beds and banks, and to riparian habitats and animal communities. To some degree, these downstream changes can be influenced by specific strategies of dam management. Scientists and resource managers have a duty to assemble this information and present it without bias to the rest of society. Society can then more intelligently choose a balance between the benefits and adverse downstream effects of dams.

Collier, Michael; Webb, Robert H.; Schmidt, John C.

1996-01-01

466

Shock wave propagation of circular dam break problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the behavior of shock wave propagation of circular (radial) dam break problems. A dam break problem represents a reservoir having two sides of water at rest initially with different depth separated by a wall, then water flows after the wall is removed. The behavior of shock wave propagation is investigated with respect to water levels and with respect to the speeds of the shock waves. To the author's knowledge, such investigation for circular dam break problems had never been done before. Therefore, this new work shall be important for applied computational mathematics and physics communities as well as fluid dynamic researchers. Based on our research results, the propagation speed of shock wave in a circular dam break is lower than that of shock wave in a planar dam break having the same initial water levels as in the circular dam break.

Mungkasi, Sudi

2014-10-01

467

Hydrologic and Hydraulic Factors Affecting Passage of Paddlefish through Dams in the Upper Mississippi River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of paddlefish Polyodon spathula have been adversely affected by dams that can block their movements. Unlike high-head dams that preclude fish passage (unless they are equipped with fishways), the dams on the upper Mississippi River are typically low-head dams with bottom release gates that may allow fish passage under certain conditions. We evaluated the relation of dam head and

Steven J. Zigler; Michael R. Dewey; Brent C. Knights; Ann L. Runstrom; Mark T. Steingraeber

2004-01-01

468

Examining the economic impacts of hydropower dams on property values using GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the era of dam building is largely over in the United States, globally dams are still being proposed and constructed. The articles in this special issue consider many aspects and impacts of dams around the world. This paper examines dam removal and the measurement of the impacts of dams on local community property values. Valuable lessons may be found.

Curtis Bohlen; Lynne Y. Lewis

2008-01-01

469

Dam Removal Express Assessment Models (DREAM). Part 1: Model development and validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many dams have been removed in the recent decades in the U.S. for reasons including economics, safety, and ecological rehabilitation. More dams are under consideration for removal; some of them are medium to large-sized dams filled with millions of cubic meters of sediment. Reaching a decision to remove a dam and deciding as how the dam should be removed, however,

YANTAO CUI; Hydraulic Engineer; GARY PARKER; CHRISTIAN BRAUDRICK; WILLIAM E. DIETRICH; BRIAN CLUER

470

Examining the economic impacts of hydropower dams on property values using GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the era of dam building is largely over in the United States, globally dams are still being proposed and constructed. The articles in this special issue consider many aspects and impacts of dams around the world. This paper examines dam removal and the measurement of the impacts of dams on local community property values. Valuable lessons may be found.In

Curtis Bohlen; Lynne Y. Lewis

2009-01-01

471

Modeling the costs and benefits of dam construction from a multidisciplinary perspective  

E-print Network

: Dam construction Dam removal Program evaluation a b s t r a c t Although the benefits of damModeling the costs and benefits of dam construction from a multidisciplinary perspective Philip H for electricity, recent experience has shown that many dams have serious negative environmental, human

Tullos, Desiree

472

Active tails enhance arboreal acrobatics in geckos.  

PubMed

Geckos are nature's elite climbers. Their remarkable climbing feats have been attributed to specialized feet with hairy toes that uncurl and peel in milliseconds. Here, we report that the secret to the gecko's arboreal acrobatics includes an active tail. We examine the tail's role during rapid climbing, aerial descent, and gliding. We show that a gecko's tail functions as an emergency fifth leg to prevent falling during rapid climbing. A response initiated by slipping causes the tail tip to push against the vertical surface, thereby preventing pitch-back of the head and upper body. When pitch-back cannot be prevented, geckos avoid falling by placing their tail in a posture similar to a bicycle's kickstand. Should a gecko fall with its back to the ground, a swing of its tail induces the most rapid, zero-angular momentum air-righting response yet measured. Once righted to a sprawled gliding posture, circular tail movements control yaw and pitch as the gecko descends. Our results suggest that large, active tails can function as effective control appendages. These results have provided biological inspiration for the design of an active tail on a climbing robot, and we anticipate their use in small, unmanned gliding vehicles and multisegment spacecraft. PMID:18347344

Jusufi, Ardian; Goldman, Daniel I; Revzen, Shai; Full, Robert J

2008-03-18

473

Characteristics of wing/body/tail configurations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Package of computer programs determine longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of wing/body/tail combinations including effects of nonlinear aerodynamics of components and interference between components.

Dillenius, M. F. E.; Goodwin, F. K.; Kline, D. M.; Mendenhall, M. R.

1979-01-01

474

Tests for the Elimination of Tail Flutter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On various low-wing monoplanes the horizontal tail surfaces flutter in flight at large angles of attack and occasionally in curvilinear flight. This flutter leads to torsional vibrations of the rear end of the fuselage, as manifested by vibrations of the control stick. According to the earlier DVL investigations tail flutter is due to the influence, on horizontal tail surfaces, of eddies or vortices shed at large angles of attack by the upper surface of the wing root. The cause of tail flutter on a low-wing monoplane and the means of preventing it are investigated in the present report.

Biechteler, Curt

1933-01-01

475

Characterization of landslide dams in the San Juan province (Argentina)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River blockages caused by landslide deposition are common phenomena in active mountain chains, influencing erosion-sedimentation patterns and acting as primary and secondary hazards. Regional scale analyses regarding their spatial distribution and morphometry allow establishing boundary conditions for their occurrence and stability, and determine differences among regions with different landscape and climatic conditions. Owing to the combination of endogenous and exogenous factors, landslide dams are frequent phenomena in the Andes. In the Argentinean NW and the Patagonian Andes, previous studies showed that stability of landslide dams determined by morphometric parameters generally matched satisfactorily with dam behavior, with some exceptions in which climatic component played an important role in dam longevity. Aiming to expand the knowledge of landslide dams in the Argentinean Andes, in this work we analyzed the stability of rock avalanche dams in the Pampeam flat slab subduction zone. In the study area, mountain dynamics creates suitable conditions for the occurrence of 34 rock avalanches with volumes up to 0.3 km3. They developed in deeply carved valleys (Cordillera) and Inter-thrust valleys (Precordillera). 22 impoundments of rivers resulted from channelized rock avalanches with long runouts (4-10 km) that blocked tributaries rivers, but most of them by rock avalanches that filled the valley bottom, with run up in the opposite slope and limited movement parallel to the valley axis. Most of the dams breached in unknown times, except for the last event that occurred on November 12th 2005. The quantification of morphometric parameters and contributing areas indicates the existence of dams with dimensionless blockage index above 2.75 (stable domain) and below 3.08 (instable domain). The Los Erizos dam in our study area and the Barrancas dam in the Patagonian Andes show that besides morphometric parameters, climatic conditions are decisive. Stable landslide dams lasting for millennia can collapse suddenly due to anomalous weather conditions, and unstable dams can have a higher longevity depending on the season controlling the inflow into the lake.

Penna, Ivanna; Longchamp, Celine; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel

2013-04-01

476

Seismic Simulation and Base Sliding of Concrete Gravity Dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A simplified procedure to estimate possible base sliding of concrete gravity dams induced by an earthquake is proposed on\\u000a the basis of results obtained by parametric analysis. A simple mechanical model is developed to take into account the most\\u000a relevant parameters influencing seismic response such as dam-water and dam-foundation interaction. In order to catch base\\u000a residual displacement, a threshold value

M. Basili; C. Nuti

477

Left-bank dam of the Bratsk hydroelectric station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions 1.According to the data of 16-yr observations the left-bank earth dam is operating satisfactorily.2.Settlement of the dam, forming due to consolidation of its soils, has still not ended, but is already noticeably decreasing.3.The seepage regime at the dam site meets the calculated condition, but differs somewhat from the design forecasts owing to anisotropy of the sandstones which was not

Z. I. Solov'eva; Yu. A. Zhebelev

1984-01-01

478

Innovative resettlement schemes planned for the Numata Dam project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Numata Dam, planned for the Tone River basin of Gunma Prefecture, was the largest dam construction project ever considered in Japan. This dam construction project, however, did not materialize. The proposal for the Numata Dam was first launched in 1959, at a time when the Tokyo Metropolitan area was mushrooming, both in population and industrial activity. The Numata Dam was supposed to be a prioritized dam construction project to alleviate the then anticipated water shortage in the Tokyo Metropolitan area. The Numata Dam plan experienced fierce opposition from those who would have been obliged to resettle, whereas those in Tokyo and the surrounding metropolitan area welcomed the plan. The major concern of the planned Numata Dam was the number of resettlers, which was then estimated to be around 3000 families. The resettlement plan developed for the Numata Dam included some innovative concepts, which may be applicable even today, for dam construction projects in the developing world. The plan included such ideas as (a) having resettlers share existing farmland with the present owners provided improvements were made to increase productivity, (b) paying rent to resettlers, and (c) establishing the Tone River Development Agency. After more than a decade of debate, both at national and local levels, the Numata Dam project was finally discarded through a decision of the Prime Minister in 1972. The resettlement schemes elaborated for the Numata Dam still appear to be innovative. Such schemes may be applied to projects in the developing world, in particular, in nations that are about to take off with economic development. Copyright

Nakayama, Mikiyasu

2003-10-01

479

3D effects on the seismic performance of earthfill dams.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventionally the seismic performance of earth dams is usually studied by assuming plane-strain problems. However, considerable effort is required to estimate the overall three dimensional dynamic response of dams as a result of earthquake hazard. The cumbersomeness increases when the dam is to be constructed in narrow canyon. This is so because the plane strain analysis does not take into account the arching effect of the valley which is particularly relevant for dams in narrow valleys. Researches reported in this paper represent 3D numerical study of an earthfill dam subjected to earthquake loading and 3D effects on its seismic performance. The shapes of the canyon are varied to determine the related 3D effects to the seismic performance of the assumed earthfill dam model. A finite difference numerical code, FLAC3D is used during the study. The assumed 3D model contains all details of the dam body and foundation materials of Tendaho earthfill dam. The dam is an earth fill dam located in Afar regional state of Ethiopia. The area is a seismically active area as it lies on the East African Rift valley which can generate earthquake of magnitude greater than 6. The results of the study indicated an important clue which analysis model (3D or 2D) to use for which problem. Results and discussions related with the 3D effects on the seismic performance of earthfill dams are presented and applied to the seismic performance study of Tendaho dam. Keywords: 3D, narrow canyon, seismic performance, earthquake hazard, plane-strain, arching.

Berhe, Tensay; Wu, Wei

2010-05-01

480

Providing protection: Agencies receive funding to repair, upgrade dams  

E-print Network

Story by Kathy Wythe tx H2O | pg. 26 Providing protection Agencies receive funding to repair, upgrade dams along with local partners, can apply for grant funds, he said. Construction of the dams began through four federal authorizations.... With recent funding from Congress and the Texas Legislature, the U.S. Department of Agriculture?s Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), and the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board (TSSWCB) can repair or upgrade some of these dams...

Wythe, Kathy

2009-01-01

481

Oblique view, looking west, of top side of diversion dam, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Oblique view, looking west, of top side of diversion dam, also showing eastern profiles of piers and gatehouses. Roller gate (raised position) on right. Note detail of extension shield that, when lowered to a secure position against the dam sill, creates a virtually impervious seal - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

482

IMPACTS OF LANDSLIDE DAMS ON MOUNTAIN VALLEY MORPHOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landslide dams can influence mountain-valley morphology significantly in the vicinity of the dam sites, as well as upstream\\u000a and downstream. The effects are: (1) impoundment of lakes that results in changes in stream gradients, (2) deposition of lacustrine\\u000a and deltaic sediments in these impoundments that causes changes in surficial morphology and geologic materials upstream from\\u000a the dams, (3) diversion of

R. L. SCHUSTER

483

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE NORTH CHANNEL DAM FROM PUBLICLY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE NORTH CHANNEL DAM FROM PUBLICLY RESTRICTED PROPERTY OF THE RECENTLY CLOSED LOUISIANA PACIFIC LUMBER MILL. THE NORTH CHANNEL DAM'S HOLDING RESERVOIR AND TAINTER GATES ARE IN THE FOREGROUND, AND THE ROLLING SECTOR GATE IS IN THE BACKGROUND, LOOKING EAST. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, North Channel Dam, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

484

Recent sediment studies refute Glen Canyon Dam hypothesis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent studies of sedimentology hydrology, and geomorphology indicate that releases from Glen Canyon Dam are continuing to erode sandbars and beaches in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park, despite attempts to restore these resources. The current strategy for dam operations is based on the hypothesis that sand supplied by tributaries of the Colorado River downstream from the dam will accumulate in the channel during normal dam operations and remain available for restoration floods. Recent work has shown that this hypothesis is false, and that tributary sand inputs are exported downstream rapidly typically within weeks or months under the current flow regime.

Rubin, David M.; Topping, David J.; Schmidt, John C.; Hazel, Joe; Kaplinski, Matt; Melis, Theodore S.

2002-01-01

485

2. FORMER INTAKE DAM NO. 2 AT 560" CONSTRUCTED OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. FORMER INTAKE DAM NO. 2 AT 560" CONSTRUCTED OF RUBBLE MASONRY IN 1937-1938. VIEW LOOKING DOWN LINE FORMER INTAKE GRILLE WAS TO LEFT SIDE OF DAM (TWO 8" IRON PIPES FROM NEW INTAKE NOW ENTER OLD INTAKE OPENING), BOX FLUME EXITS AT RIGHT AND CARRIES WATER TO AERATOR. NOTE THE SMALL SLUICEWAY OPENING AT CENTER ALONG WATERLINE. THIS DAM WAS SUPERCEDED BY THE NEW INTAKE DAM TO REACH THE MORE RELIABLE WATER SOURCE OF THE MAIN STREAM. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

486

Understanding contraceptive failure  

PubMed Central

Contraceptive failure is a major source of unintended pregnancy. This chapter will review sources of data and measurement of contraceptive failure, summarize results from the literature on the risks of contraceptive failure during typical and perfect use for available methods of contraception, provide a tool for communicating risks of contraceptive failure to clients, examine determinants of contraceptive failure, and identify methodological pitfalls in the published literature. PMID:19223239

Trussell, James

2013-01-01

487