Sample records for taiwan strong motion

  1. Finite-Source Modeling of the 1999 Taiwan (Chi-Chi) Earthquake Derived from a Dense Strong-Motion Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wu-Cheng Chi; Douglas Dreger; Anastasia Kaverina

    2004-01-01

    The 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (MW 7.6) (20 September 1999, 17:47:15.9 UTC) (located at 23.853 N, 120.816 E, and depth of 7.5 km) inicted severe re- gional scale damage to Taiwan. The strong-motion waveeld was captured by a dense network of stations (with average station spacing of 5 km), which represents the most complete strong-motion dataset to date to use to

  2. Numerical earthquake models of the 2013 Nantou, Taiwan, earthquake series: Characteristics of source rupture processes, strong ground motions and their tectonic implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shiann-Jong; Yeh, Te-Yang

    2015-04-01

    On 27 March and 2 June in 2013, two moderate large earthquakes with magnitude ML 6.2 and ML 6.5, named the Nantou earthquake series, struck the Central Taiwan. These two events located in middle-to-deep crust at about 15-20 km and their epicenter were very close to the historic Nantou earthquake series which cause destructive damages in 1916-1917. These events indicate that the deep crust of Central Taiwan is an active seismogenic area even there is no evidence show a subsurface structure directly related to any faults at surface. In order to know the origins of Nantou earthquake series and their influence of strong ground shakings, we investigated the rupture processes and seismic wave propagations by using inverse and forward numerical simulation techniques. First, joint source inversions were performed by using teleseismic body wave, GPS coseismic displacements and near field ground motion data. A 3D seismic wave propagation simulation was then carrying out based on the inverted source model. Source inversion results indicate that the rupture characteristics of these two events are different. One ruptures from deep to shallow crust in northwest direction, while the other ruptures to the southwest. Three dimensional wave propagation simulation results show that the thrust movement on eastern dipping fault planes of the two events result in distinct rupture directivity effects with different amplified shaking patterns in western Taiwan. From results of the numerical earthquake models, we deduce that the occurrence of Nantou earthquake series might be related to stress releasing from the easternmost edge of a preexistent strong basement under middle-to-deep crust in Central Taiwan.

  3. Detecting changes in long-period site responses after the M w 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake, Taiwan, using strong motion records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Teng-To; Wu, Chi-Shin; Cheng, Youg-Sin

    2015-06-01

    Temporal changes in site effects are obtained using the HVSR (horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio) method and strong motion records after the M w 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake, Taiwan. Seismic data recorded between 1995 and 2010 are used, comprising 3,708 data from 15 stations adjacent to the Chelungpu fault. Temporal fluctuations are determined by analyzing the site effect variation using a time-frequency variation (TFV) diagram based on these seismic data. Stations adjacent to the fault show significant disturbances in the resonance frequency at 16-26 Hz. Station TCU129 shows a 40% drop in fundamental frequency after the main shock, and a gradual return to the original state over nine years. For stations located farther from the fault zone, sudden changes in tectonic stress play a dominant role in temporal changes to the HVSR. An impact analysis of the directional factor confirms our finding that the proximity of the fault to seismic stations has the most influence on data.

  4. PEER Strong Motion Database

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2000-01-01

    Processed by Dr. Walt Silva of Pacific Engineering and supported by the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) at the University of California Berkley, the PEER Strong Motion Database "contains 1557 records from 143 earthquakes from tectonically active regions." Searches can be done by earthquake, type of plate movement (e.g., strike slip), magnitude, and several other criteria. The correct browser and JAVA version even allows dynamic sorting and interactive plotting of data.

  5. Vertical and Horizontal Ground-Motion Prediction Equatioin for Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, P.; Hsieh, P.; Cheng, C.; Wu, Y.; Chien, Y.

    2010-12-01

    A suitable attenuation equation can express the characteristics of the strong ground-motion attenuation for a region, and can be used to predict the ground-motion value of a specific site for seismic resistance design. In this study, well processed strong ground-motion data from TSMIP in Taiwan are used to establish horizontal and vertical PGA and SA attenuation equations. A total of 60 earthquakes with 5968 records are selected and nonlinear mixed-effect model with maximum likelihood method is used to accomplish the regression analysis of ground-motion attenuation relationships for PGA and SA. From the analysis we can estimate ground-motion value with certain earthquake source, distance and site condition. Strong motion data from Taiwan with at least 20 earthquakes recorded at each station are used to estimate the site and path effects on the standard deviation of empirical ground motion models. For PGA, the intra-event standard deviation of 0.54 ln units is separated into an inter-site term (0.238), an inter-path term (0.317), and the remaining aleatory variability. The inter-event standard deviation of 0.342 is separated into an inter-region term (0.177) and the remaining aleatory variability. Removing inter-site, inter-path, and inter-region terms, the aleatory standard deviation is 28% lower than the total standard deviation with the ergodic assumption. Models of the spatial correlation of the intra-event path terms and the inter-event source region terms are developed for PGA and spectral periods of 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 seconds.

  6. Coseismic Fault Slip Rupture from the Joint Inversion of Teleseismic, Local Strong-Motion and CGPS Related to the 2010 Jia-Shian Earthquake in Southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kuan-Chuan; Delouis, Bertrand; Hu, Jyr-Ching; Nocquet, Jean-Mathieu; Mozziconacci, Laetitia; Bethoux, Nicole

    2013-04-01

    The Jia-Shian earthquake (Mw=6.3) occurred on 04th March 2010 in the southwestern Taiwan. We used the waveforms of teleseismics to identify the strike, dip and rake of focal mechanism are 311/33/37. Furthermore, we explored the strike, dip and rake are 316/40/44 on the first pulse of the teleseismic P wave. We also took account of the Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) data for the coseismic offset. The maximum horizontal and vertical (uplift) of coseismic offsets at the surface are 29.8mm± 1.0mm and 30.6mm± 5.1mm, respectively at station GS51. Moreover, the space and time distribution of slip during the coseismic rupture was modeled by the joint inversion, which includes the CGPS coseismic offset, the teleseismic, and near field seismic records. We identified the faults geometry and reconstructed the rupture process of coseismic faults slip. The initial rupture was generated on the northwest - southeast trending fault and propagated to the northeast - southwest trending structure after 5 s of main shock. Their strike, dip and rake are 311/33/37 and 020/25/108, respectively. The average slip of rupture was 20.1 cm, with the maximum slip of 50.4 cm. The rupture of the seismic moment was 4.0 × 10 ^ 25 dyne-cm in 30 s of duration time.The slip rupture constrained the synthetic data quite well, especially for the CGPS coseismic offset. We inferred the Jia-Shian earthquake took place on blind fault and the northeast - southwest trending structure was activated following the rupture on main northwest - southeast trending fault.

  7. Single Site Strong-Motion Attenuation Relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, C.; Lee, C.

    2009-12-01

    The standard deviation of the logarithmic residuals in ground-motion prediction may directly influence the result of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, especially in low probability. Therefore, “how to reduce the ??” becomes an important issue in recent years. In most modern empirical ground motion studies, the total variability was separated into inter-event and intra-event components to distinction between epistemic uncertainty and aleatory uncertainty. Another approach is gaining control over the value of ? is to investigate in more detail the behavior of the individual components of variability with a single event or a single station (e.g., Niazi and Bozorgnia 1991; Ordaz and Reyes 1999; Jain et al. 2000; Atkinson 2006; Morikawa et al (2008)). In this study, we use the large data set available from the Taiwan Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) and select stations which recorded more than 700 strong-motion records (six stations). The ground motion attenuation is modified based on Campbell form which includes source term, distance term and site term Vs30. It is worth noting that a single site strong motion attenuation model does not include the site term, because the site is fixed at a station. Finally, we use hemisphere projection to show the path effect of residual in this study and compare the standard deviation for a single station (?i) and total stations (?T). We find that the single-station standard deviation is 20% smaller than the total standard deviation in this study and the result is better than Atkinson (2006). In the future work, a single source-region where occurred more than 5 earthquakes which triggered more than 50 stations will be selected for single source-region attenuation study.

  8. A Study of Site Effect (Vs30) for Attenuation Relations of Ground Motion in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.; TEC, Taiwan Earthquake Research Center

    2011-12-01

    An evaluation of seismic hazards requires an estimate of the expected ground motion at the site of interest. The most common means of estimating this ground motion in engineering practice is the use of an attenuation relation. A number of developments have arisen recently to suggest that a new generation of attenuation relationships is warranted. The project named Next Generation Attenuation of Ground Motions (NGA) Project was developed by Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) in response to a core objective: reducing uncertainty in earthquake ground motion estimation. This objective reflects recognition from industry sponsors that improvements in earthquake ground motion estimation will result in significant cost savings and will result in improved system performance in the event of a large earthquake. The Central Weather Bureau has implemented the Taiwan Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) to collect high-quality instrumental recordings of strong earthquake shaking. It is necessary for us to study the strong ground motion characteristics in Taiwan. Further analyses using a good quality data base are required to derive the next generation attenuation of ground motion in Taiwan. In this study, the site response factor, the mean shear-wave velocity over the first 30 m (VS30), is incorporated in the present ground motion prediction models. Such prediction models will result in more realistic peak ground motion estimates for assessment of seismic hazard potential. These results provide an important database for the site evaluation of critical facilities in those relatively high earthquake hazard potential regions and will be helpful for the plan of land-using.

  9. Magnitude estimation using the covered areas of strong ground motion in earthquake early warning

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yih-Min

    since even a few seconds are sufficient for preprogrammed EEW systems to take emergent safety responses by the Taiwan Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) stations to find an empirical relationship between reporting systems. The proposed magnitude estimation method is directly related to the level of strong

  10. Stochastic Ground Motion Simulation with Site Correction in Ilan Area, Northeastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NFN, Megawati; Kuo-Liang, Wen

    2015-04-01

    Earthquake waveform is controlled by three factors - source properties, path characteristics, and local site effects. The local site effect is the important factor participate strong ground motion prediction. In this study, we used stochastic point-source method for simulating ground motion (Boore, 2005). This method has been widely used in the development of ground-motion prediction equation and in modeling the parameters that controls observed ground motion (Atkinson et al., 2009). The shallow earthquake events which recorded by Taiwan Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) from 1992 to 2012 are simulated with the stochastic point-source method (Boore, 1983; Boore, 2003). The earthquake records are selected with the depth from 0 to 30 km and the magnitude (Mw) from 4 to 6.5. The study area is situated in Ilan area which is located in the northeastern Taiwan. There are 70 TSMIP stations which based on the Vs30 consist of site class B, C, D, and E. Seismic parameters for stochastic method were selected based on previous studies (Sokolov et al., 2006; 2009). The crustal amplification parameter is set to the halfspace. The empirical transfer functions from 0.2 Hz to 10 Hz for each station in Ilan area will be calculated by H/H method between observed and simulated spectra (Borcheret, 1970). Ground motion prediction is calculated by selecting several target events for stochastic point-source simulating to the halfspace. The prediction of peak ground acceleration (PGA) is estimated after doing the site correction with the empirical transfer function. Finally, the simulated ground motion was compared in time domain (PGA) and frequency domain (Degree of spectrum difference, DSPD) to show the goodness of the simulation. Keywords : Stochastic point-source method, Site effect, Empirical transfer function

  11. A hybrid method of simulating broadband ground motion : A case study of the 2006 Pingtung earthquake, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Y.; Ma, K.; Cheng, C.; Shao, K.; Lin, P.

    2011-12-01

    For the demand of engineering, the time-history of ground motions which consider the reliability and earthquake physical characters have been provided for earthquake resistant design of important building structures. However, the high frequency portion ( > 1 Hz) of near-fault ground motions was restricted by the insufficient resolution of velocity structure. Considering the relative small events which contain path and site effect in waveforms as Green's functions (i.e. empirical Green's function (EGF) method) can resolve the problem of lack of precise velocity structure to replace the path effect evaluation. Alternatively, a stochastic Green's function (SGF) method can be employed when the EGF is unavailable. Further, the low frequency ( < 1 Hz) can be obtained numerically by the Frequency-Wavenumber (FK) method. Thus, broadband frequency strong ground motion can be calculation by a hybrid method that combining a deterministic FK method for the low frequency simulation and the EGF or SGF method for high frequency simulation. The slip models had been investigated from Taiwan dense strong motion and global teleseismic data. Characterizing the slip models derived from the waveform inversion can directly extract the source parameters needed for the ground motion prediction in the EGF method or the SGF method. The nuclear power plant in southern tip of Taiwan was experienced a strong shaking by the 26 December 2006 Pingtung, Taiwan offshore earthquake. The closest strong motion station of the Central Weather Bureau, KAU082, recorded the peak acceleration value (PGA) of 0.24 g. We considered the adjacent stations to be the case study for possibility evaluation of predicting ground motion utilizing the EGF method or SGF method. The possible damage impact toward nuclear power plant for specific sites can be estimated and verified according to the simulation results

  12. Strong Motion Recording in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archuleta, R. J.; Fletcher, J. B.; Shakal, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    The United States strong motion program began in 1932 when the Coast and Geodetic Survey (C&GS) installed eight strong motion accelerographs in California. During the March 1933 Long Beach earthquake, three of these produced the first strong motion records. With this success the C&GS expanded the number of accelerographs to 71 by 1964. With development of less expensive, mass-produced accelerographs the number of strong motion accelerographs expanded to ~575 by 1972. Responsibilities for operating the network and disseminating data were transferred to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in 1970 and then to the U.S. Geological Survey in 1973. In 1972 the California Legislature established the California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP). CSMIP operates accelerographs at 812 ground stations, with multi-channel accelerographs in 228 buildings, 125 lifelines and 37 geotechnical arrays, in California. The USGS and the ANSS effort operate accelerographs at 1584 ground stations, 96 buildings, 14 bridges, 70 dams, and 15 multi-channel geotechnical arrays. The USC Los Angeles array has 78 ground stations; UCSB operates 5 geotechnical arrays; other government and private institutions also operate accelerographs. Almost all accelerographs are now digital with a sampling rate of 200 Hz. Most of the strong motion data can be downloaded from the Center for Engineering Strong Motion Data (http://strongmotioncenter.org). As accelerographs have become more sophisticated, the concept of what constitutes strong motion has blurred because small earthquakes (M ~3) are well recorded on accelerometers as well as seismometers. However, when accelerations are over ~10%g and velocities over ~1 cm/s, the accelerometers remain on scale, providing the unclipped data necessary to analyze the ground motion and its consequences. Strong motion data are essential to the development of ground motion prediction equations, understanding structural response, performance based engineering, soil response, and inversions for earthquake rupture parameters. While an important number of stations have been installed, many areas of the US are significantly deficient, e.g., recordings were obtained from only 2 stations within 60 km of the Mineral earthquake that damaged the nation's capital and other areas.

  13. Tilts in strong-ground motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graizer, V.

    2006-12-01

    Most instruments used in seismological practice to record ground motion are pendulum seismographs, velocigraphs or accelerographs. In most cases it is assumed that seismic instruments are only sensitive to the translational motion of the instrument's base. In this study the full equation of pendulum motion including the inputs of rotations and tilts is considered. It is shown that tilting the accelerograph's base can severely impact its response to the ground motion. The method of tilt evaluation using uncorrected strong-motion accelerograms was first suggested by Graizer (1989), and later tested in a number of laboratory experiments with different strong-motion instruments. The method is based on the difference in the tilt sensitivity of the horizontal and vertical pendulums. The method was applied to a number of strongest records of the Mw 6.7 Northridge earthquake of 1994. Examples are shown when relatively large tilts of up to a few degrees occurred during strong earthquake ground motion. Residual tilt extracted from the strong-motion record at the Pacoima Dam Upper Left Abutment reached 3.1 degrees in N45E direction, and was a result of local earthquake induced tilting due to high amplitude shaking. This value is in agreement with the residual tilt measured using electronic level a few days after the earthquake. The method was applied to the building records from the Northridge earthquake. According to the estimates, residual tilt reached 2.6 degrees on the ground floor of the 12-story Hotel in Ventura. Processing of most of the strongest records of the Northridge earthquake shows that tilts, if happened, were within the error of the method, or less than about 0.5 degree.

  14. A Strong-motion catalog for Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudyanto, A.; Cummins, P. R.; Ghasemi, H.; Gunawan, I.; Sukanta, N.; Suhardjono, S.

    2012-12-01

    Since the Indonesian islands of Sumatra and Java lie adjacent to an active subduction zone and include some of the world's most densely populated areas, the reduction of potential earthquake fatalities through improved building codes and seismic hazard assessments is a high priority. One of the most critical parts of an earthquake hazard assessment is a quantitative description of the level of ground motion generated by an earthquake, also known as Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs). We have developed a strong ground motion database for of Sumatra and Java. This catalog includes: best-available earthquake catalogue parameters; a compilation of site response information using various techniques; and ground motion parameters commonly used in seismology and engineering applications, such as response spectra. We will show how the database can be used for investigating which published Ground Motion Prediction Equation (GMPE) are appropriate to use for Indonesian earthquake hazard assessment.

  15. The Italian Strong Motion Network (RAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Giovanni; Ammirati, Alfredo; de Nardis, Rita; Filippi, Luisa; Gallo, Antonella; Lavecchia, Giusy; Sirignano, Sebastiano; Zambonelli, Elisa; Nicoletti, Mario

    2014-05-01

    A network for the strong motion monitoring of the territory allows recording data that provide an excellent opportunity to study the source, path, and site effects on the ground motions, specifically in near source area, for updating seismic hazard map and consequently construction codes and earthquake resistant design. Strong motion data also help to increase the effective preparation and response to seismic emergencies and the ability of a community to quickly recover from the damages of an earthquake contributes to lower the seismic risk usually measured in term of casualties and economic losses. The Italian network for monitoring the strong movement of the national territory (RAN) is the result of a fruitful cooperation over the last 16 years between the Italian government, the regions and local authorities and now counts more than 500 stations. Over the years, as a priority the DPC has focused mainly on the expansion of the network in terms of the number of measurement points and technological improvement of instrumentation as well as the data transmission system. A data acquisition centre was implemented in which the Antelope software collects, processes and archives, automatically, the data of the RAN and of the external strong motion networks that contribute to the database of the RAN. Recently the DPC has dedicated specific resources to improve the response of the network, in particular, in case of emergency. The efficiency of the network on a daily basis is not less than 95% and temporary networks were installed in the epicentral area within 24 hours after the earthquake and connected to the data acquisition centre in Rome. A fast seismic data analysis is essential to provide useful information to Authorities which make decisions immediately after a strong earthquake occurrence. During a strong earthquake, the modern accelerometers are the only instruments which can provide near source high-quality data that are important both for scientific and for civil protection purposes. Automatic and fast techniques have been developed by the University of Trieste for the automatic real-time strong motion data analysis. These techniques have been installed and customized in the data acquisition centre of the Department of Civil Protection of Italy (DPC) to process the quasi real-time data of the Italian Strong Motion Network (RAN) and to exploit information from RAN stations during seismic emergences for Civil protection purposes. RAN counts more than 500 stations covering all the Italian territory. Two local networks, the Friuli Venezia Giulia Accelerometric Network (RAF), located in NE Italy, and the Irpinia Seismic Network (ISNet), contribute their data into the RAN data acquisition system. The performance of the network and of the fast automatic strong motion data analysis during the Emilia 2012 sequence is analyzed.

  16. Strong ground motion prediction using virtual earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Denolle, M A; Dunham, E M; Prieto, G A; Beroza, G C

    2014-01-24

    Sedimentary basins increase the damaging effects of earthquakes by trapping and amplifying seismic waves. Simulations of seismic wave propagation in sedimentary basins capture this effect; however, there exists no method to validate these results for earthquakes that have not yet occurred. We present a new approach for ground motion prediction that uses the ambient seismic field. We apply our method to a suite of magnitude 7 scenario earthquakes on the southern San Andreas fault and compare our ground motion predictions with simulations. Both methods find strong amplification and coupling of source and structure effects, but they predict substantially different shaking patterns across the Los Angeles Basin. The virtual earthquake approach provides a new approach for predicting long-period strong ground motion. PMID:24458636

  17. Next Generation Attenuation of Ground Motions in Ilan, Taiwan: Establishment and Analysis of Attenuation Relations for Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and Peak Ground Velocity (PGV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.

    2009-12-01

    An evaluation of seismic hazards requires an estimate of the expected ground motion at the site of interest. The most common means of estimating this ground motion in engineering practice is the use of an attenuation relation. A number of developments have arisen recently to suggest that a new generation of attenuation relationships is warranted. The project named Next Generation Attenuation of Ground Motions (NGA) Project was developed by Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) in response to a core objective: reducing uncertainty in earthquake ground motion estimation. This objective reflects recognition from industry sponsors that improvements in earthquake ground motion estimation will result in significant cost savings and will result in improved system performance in the event of a large earthquake. The Central Weather Bureau has implemented the Taiwan Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) to collect high-quality instrumental recordings of strong earthquake shaking.It is necessary for us to study the strong ground motion characteristics at the Ilan area of northeastern Taiwan. Further analyses using a good quality data base that includes 486 events and 4172 recordings of magnitude greater than 4.0 are required to derive the next generation attenuation of ground motion in Ilan area. In addition, Liu and Tsai (2007) used a catalog of more than 1840 shallow earthquakes with homogenized Mw magnitude ranging from 5.0 to 8.2 in 1900-2007 to estimate the seismic hazard potential in Taiwan. As a result, the PGA and PGV contour patterns of maximum ground motion show that Ilan Plain has high values of 0.2g and 80cm/sec with respect to MMI intensity VII and IX, respectively. Furthermore, from the mean ground motion and the seismic intensity rate analyses, they show that a high annul probability of MMI > VI greater than 35 percents are located at the Chianan area of western Taiwan and Ilan Plain in northeastern Taiwan. However, these results was estimated by used attenuation relationship of Taiwan which conducted by Liu and Tsai (2005). Hence, Next Generation Attenuation of Ground Motions (NGA) of Ilan Plain must be developed as soon as possible, in order to provide more important information for the site evaluation of critical facilities in those relatively high earthquake hazard potential regions and will be helpful for the plan of land-using.

  18. A STUDY ON THE DURATION OF STRONG EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MI D. TRIFUNAC; A. G. BRADY

    1975-01-01

    A simple definition of the duration of strong earthquake ground motion based on the mean-square integral of motion has been presented. It is closely related to that part of the strong motion which contributes significantly to the seismic energy as recorded at a point and to the related spectral amplitudes. Correlations have been established between the duration of strong-motion acceleration,

  19. Using Tremor to Predict Strong Ground Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltay, A.; Asawachaisujja, S.; Beroza, G. C.

    2012-12-01

    Due to its widespread occurrence, frequency content, and location, tectonic tremor presents an exceptional opportunity to test and improve strong ground motion attenuation relations for subduction zones. We characterize the amplitude of thousands of individual tremor events to constrain the distance attenuation relationship of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and peak ground velocity (PGV) of tremor for application to strong ground motion prediction. Ground motion prediction equations (GMPE) relate ground motion amplitude to earthquake magnitude and distance, and are critically important for creating seismic hazard maps. In practice, GMPEs are determined empirically with earthquake data, recorded at many stations. In some areas of high earthquake hazard, such as Cascadia, the data set of recorded earthquakes for ground motion prediction is extremely sparse. Tectonic tremor, however, occurs frequently and abundantly in many subduction zones, including Cascadia. Moreover, the tremor band of 1-10 Hz, corresponds precisely to the frequency band of greatest interest for engineering seismology. Finally, tremor is thought to occur at or near the down-dip limit of rupture in large megathrust earthquakes, which is the area that is likely to control high frequency shaking in large earthquakes. Tremor in Cascadia is strong enough to be recorded at borehole stations of the Plate Boundary Observatory to distances of nearly 200 km, which is sufficient to place important constraints on ground motion decay with distance. We characterize the amplitude of thousands of individual tremor events occurring nearly continuously throughout an ETS event, using tremor locations and timings from independently determined catalogs [Wech and Creager, 2008]. Because tremor bursts do not have a defined absolute magnitude, we normalize all events to a reference magnitude. PGA and PGV for tremor shows a distance decay that is similar to subduction-zone-specific GMPEs developed from both data and simulations [e.g. Atkinson and Boore, 1997]; however, the massive amount of data present in the tremor observations allows us to improve the fit of the GMPEs, to refine distance-amplitude attenuation relationships, and to search for regional variations in behavior.

  20. Strong motion instrumentation of an RC building structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, H.-J.; Celebi, M.

    2001-01-01

    The strong-motion instrumentation scheme of a reinforced concrete building observed by California Strong-Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP) is introduced in this paper. The instrumented building is also described and the recorded responses during 1994 Northridge earthquake are provided.

  1. The Commercial TREMOR Strong-Motion Seismograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. R.; Hamstra, R. H.; Kuendig, C.; Camina, P.

    2001-12-01

    The emergence of major seismological and earthquake-engineering problems requiring large, dense instrument arrays led several of us to investigate alternate solutions. Evans and Rogers (USGS Open File Report 95-555, 1995) and Evans (USGS Open File Report 98-109, 1998) demonstrated the efficacy of low-cost robust silicon accelerometers in strong-motion seismology, making possible a vast increase in the spatial density of such arrays. The 1998 design displays true 16-bit performance and excellent robustness and linearity---13 of these prototype near-real-time instruments are deployed in Oakland, California, and have recorded data from seven small events (up to 5.7 %g). Since this technology is a radical departure from past efforts, it was necessary for the USGS to develop the sensor and demonstrate its efficacy thoroughly. Since it is neither practical nor appropriate for the USGS to produce instrumentation beyond a demonstration phase, the US Geological Survey and GeoSIG Ltd undertook a collaborative effort (a ``CRAD'') to commercialize the new technology. This effort has resulted in a fully temperature-compensated 16-bit system, the GeoSIG GT-316, announced in April, 2001, combining the ICS-3028 TM-based USGS sensor, temperature compensation technique, and peak ground velocity (PGV) computation with a highly customized 16-bit GeoSIG recorder. The price has not been set but is likely to be around \\2000 in large quantities. The result is a near-real-time instrument telemetering peak ground acceleration (PGA) and PGV about 90 s after onset of the P wave, then minutes later transmitting the waveform. The receiving software, ``HomeBase()'', also computes spectral acceleration, S_{a}. PGA, PGV, S_{a}, and waveforms are forwarded immediately by HomeBase() for ShakeMap generation and other uses. Shaking metrics from the prototypes in Oakland are consistently among the first to arrive for the northern California ShakeMap. For telemetry we use a low-cost always-connected cell-phone-based Internet technology (CDPD), but any RS-232 connected telemetry system is a viable candidate (spread spectrum, CDMA, GSM, POT). The instruments can be synchronized via CDPD to a few tenths of a second, or to full precision with an optional GPS receiver. Sensor RMS noise is 33 \\mathrm \\mu g over the band 0.1 to 35 Hz, 11 \\mathrm \\mu g$ over the band 0.1 to 1.0 Hz; the sensor is extremely linear (far better than 1% of full scale); temperature compensation is to better than 1% of full scale. TREMOR-class instruments are intended to fill the niche of high spatial resolution with an economical low-maintenance device, while conventional instruments continue to pursue maximum amplitude resolution. The TREMOR instrument also has applications in areas where budget or access limitations require lower purchase, installation, or maintenance cost (commercial ANSS partners, remote sites, on-call aftershock arrays, extremely dense arrays, and organizations with limited budgets). However, we primarily envision large, mixed arrays of conventional and TREMOR instruments in urban areas, the former providing better early information from small events and the TREMOR instruments guaranteeing better spatial resolution and more near-field recording of large events. Together, they would meet the ANSS goal of dense near-real-time urban monitoring and the collection of requisite data for risk mitigation.

  2. Seismic Response of a Sedimentary Basin: Preliminary Results from Strong Motion Downhole Array in Taipei Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, B.; Chen, K.; Chiu, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Strong Motion Downhole Array (SMDA) is an array of 32 triggered strong motion broadband seismometers located at eight sites in Taipei Basin. Each site features three to five co-located three-component accelerometers--one at the surface and an additional two to four each down independent boreholes. Located in the center of Taipei Basin is Taipei City and the Taipei metropolitan area, the capital of Taiwan and home to more than 7 million residents. Taipei Basin is in a major seismic hazard area and is prone to frequent large earthquakes producing strong ground motion. This unique three-dimension seismic array presents new frontiers for seismic research in Taiwan and, along with it, new challenges. Frequency-dependent and site-specific amplification of seismic waves from depth to surface has been observed: preliminary results indicate that the top few tens of meters of sediment--not the entire thickness--are responsible for significant frequency-dependent amplification; amplitudes of seismic waves at the surface may be as much as seven times that at depth. Dominant amplification frequencies are interpreted as quarter-wavelength constructive interference between the surface and major interfaces in the sediments. Using surface stations with known orientation as a reference, borehole seismometer orientations in these data--which are unknown, and some of which vary considerably from event to event--have been determined using several methods. After low-pass filtering the strong motion data, iteratively rotating the two horizontal components from an individual borehole station and cross-correlating them with that from a co-located surface station has proven to be very effective. In cases where the iterative cross-correlation method does not provide a good fit, rotating both surface and borehole stations to a common axis of maximum seismic energy provides an alternative approach. The orientation-offset of a borehole station relative to the surface station may be estimated by iteratively rotating the horizontal components of both and calculating the time-integral of the amplitude squared of each component; the difference in orientation between the maximum at the surface and at depth indicates the difference in orientation of the seismometers. After the horizontal orientations of borehole seismometers are correctly resolved, these data can be used in various scientific studies. Up-going and reflected down-going shear waves can be clearly identified, providing an excellent dataset for the study of interval velocity and seismic Q, localized shear wave splitting, and anisotropy. Further refinement of the geophysical structure of Taipei Basin and Northern Taiwan is also possible by combining data from the SMDA with that from the large array of surface stations maintained by the Central Weather Bureau.

  3. DETERMINATION OF LOCAL MAGNITUDE, ML, FROM STRONG MOTION ACCELEROGRAMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HIROO KANAMORI; PAUL C. JENNINGS

    1978-01-01

    A technique is presented for determination of local magnitude, ML, from strong-motion accelerograms. The accelerograph records are used as an accel- eration input to the equation of motion of the Wood-Anderson torsion seismo- graph to produce a synthetic seismogram which is then read in the standard manner. When applied to 14 records from the San Fernando earthquake, the resulting ML

  4. Integration of strong motion networks and accelerometric data in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luzi, L.; Clinton, J. F.; Akkar, S.; Sleeman, R.; Van Eck, T.

    2014-12-01

    Efforts for an organized collection of strong motion data in Europe started during the Fourth Framework Program granted by the European Union, with the first release of the European Strong Motion database. Subsequently other attempts were made, but the initiatives were carried out within a project by a single or few institutions, often isolated from data providers. During the Seventh Framework Program, in the context of the project NERA, parallel to the establishment of infrastructures, major efforts were devoted on the improvement of networking among strong-motion data providers in the broader European countries. Two major infrastructures for storing and disseminating accelerometric data and metadata were built: a. The Rapid-Raw Strong Motion (RRSM) database that automatically delivers strong motion products in near-real time. The system collects and uses all relevant, unrestricted waveform data from the European Integrated waveform Data Archive (EIDA) within minutes after an earthquake (M>=3.5) in the European- Mediterranean region. The RRSM web interface is available at http://orfeusdev.knmi.nl:8080/opencms/rrsm b. A prototype of strong-motion database (Engineering Strong Motion database, ESM) that contains an initial core formed by the accelerograms recorded by Italian and Turkish strong-motion data providers. ESM is structured to contain not only the data available in EIDA but also off-line data; earthquake and strong-motion metadata contain more detailed information than the corresponding metadata in RRSM. A Working Group (WG5 - acceleration and strong motion data), operating under ORFEUS, has been created to build the basis for the sustainable integrated pan-European accelerometric data distribution. The responsibilities and duties of the WG5 are envisaged as follows: 1. Setting rules for data dissemination; 2. Establishing MoU's with data providers; 3. Collaborating with the European project EPOS for the preparation of projects; 4. Contacting similar establishments in the other parts of the world; 5. Ensure quality of metadata and waveforms; 6. Ensure IT development improvements. The steps made in two years towards the Integration of strong motion networks in Europe are illustrated and the major results of this initiative discussed.

  5. Strong southward transport events due to typhoons in the Taiwan Wen-Zhou Zhang,1,2,3

    E-print Network

    Strong southward transport events due to typhoons in the Taiwan Strait Wen-Zhou Zhang,1,2,3 Hua the influence of five typhoons was investigated using both buoy observations and numerical model simulations during the period of 27 August to 5 October 2005. The results show that the effects of typhoons

  6. Rrsm: The European Rapid Raw Strong-Motion Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauzzi, C.; Clinton, J. F.; Sleeman, R.; Domingo Ballesta, J.; Kaestli, P.; Galanis, O.

    2014-12-01

    We introduce the European Rapid Raw Strong-Motion database (RRSM), a Europe-wide system that provides parameterised strong motion information, as well as access to waveform data, within minutes of the occurrence of strong earthquakes. The RRSM significantly differs from traditional earthquake strong motion dissemination in Europe, which has focused on providing reviewed, processed strong motion parameters, typically with significant delays. As the RRSM provides rapid open access to raw waveform data and metadata and does not rely on external manual waveform processing, RRSM information is tailored to seismologists and strong-motion data analysts, earthquake and geotechnical engineers, international earthquake response agencies and the educated general public. Access to the RRSM database is via a portal at http://www.orfeus-eu.org/rrsm/ that allows users to query earthquake information, peak ground motion parameters and amplitudes of spectral response; and to select and download earthquake waveforms. All information is available within minutes of any earthquake with magnitude ? 3.5 occurring in the Euro-Mediterranean region. Waveform processing and database population are performed using the waveform processing module scwfparam, which is integrated in SeisComP3 (SC3; http://www.seiscomp3.org/). Earthquake information is provided by the EMSC (http://www.emsc-csem.org/) and all the seismic waveform data is accessed at the European Integrated waveform Data Archive (EIDA) at ORFEUS (http://www.orfeus-eu.org/index.html), where all on-scale data is used in the fully automated processing. As the EIDA community is continually growing, the already significant number of strong motion stations is also increasing and the importance of this product is expected to also increase. Real-time RRSM processing started in June 2014, while past events have been processed in order to provide a complete database back to 2005.

  7. Validation and modeling of earthquake strong ground motion using a composite source model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Y.

    2001-12-01

    Zeng et al. (1994) have proposed a composite source model for synthetic strong ground motion prediction. In that model, the source is taken as a superposition of circular subevents with a constant stress drop. The number of subevents and their radius follows a power law distribution equivalent to the Gutenberg and Richter's magnitude-frequency relation for seismicity. The heterogeneous nature of the composite source model is characterized by its maximum subevent size and subevent stress drop. As rupture propagates through each subevent, it radiates a Brune's pulse or a Sato and Hirasawa's circular crack pulse. The method has been proved to be successful in generating realistic strong motion seismograms in comparison with observations from earthquakes in California, eastern US, Guerrero of Mexico, Turkey and India. The model has since been improved by including scattering waves from small scale heterogeneity structure of the earth, site specific ground motion prediction using weak motion site amplification, and nonlinear soil response using geotechnical engineering models. Last year, I have introduced an asymmetric circular rupture to improve the subevent source radiation and to provide a consistent rupture model between overall fault rupture process and its subevents. In this study, I revisit the Landers, Loma Prieta, Northridge, Imperial Valley and Kobe earthquakes using the improved source model. The results show that the improved subevent ruptures provide an improved effect of rupture directivity compared to our previous studies. Additional validation includes comparison of synthetic strong ground motions to the observed ground accelerations from the Chi-Chi, Taiwan and Izmit, Turkey earthquakes. Since the method has evolved considerably when it was first proposed, I will also compare results between each major modification of the model and demonstrate its backward compatibility to any of its early simulation procedures.

  8. Fundamental characteristics of strong-motion radiation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushima, S.; Sato, T.

    2002-12-01

    Since strong motions around frequency of 1 Hz strongly affect the degree of structural damage, it is a major concern for us to simulate strong motions in this frequency range accurately for use in disaster mitigation. One of the important characteristics that control strong motions in this frequency range is the radiation pattern. However, the fundamental characteristics of radiation patterns of strong motions in this range are complex (Liu and Hemlberger, 1985, Vidale, 1989). In this study, we investigated the fundamental characteristics of high frequency strong-motion including 1 Hz using dense strong-motion network data for an aftershock event (Mj5.5, depth=9km) of the 2000 Tottori-ken Seibu, Japan, earthquake. First we calculated Fourier amplitude ratios of radial and transverse components (R/T) in order to remove local site effects from the data and compared them with those of the synthetics. For frequencies lower than 1 to 2 Hz the R/T of the synthetics matches that of the data fairly well, but for frequencies higher than 2 Hz the difference became notable. This result is consistent with recent statistical studies (Satoh, 2002). Then we calculated amplitude ratios of radial to transverse components (R/Tt) and orbit shapes for the theoretical velocity time histories and compared them with those of the data observed at a rock station having an epicentral distance of 20 km, to investigate their frequency and time dependence. The dominant direction of oscillation of the data was clear for frequencies lower than 2 to 5 Hz but for higher frequencies the oscillation became isotropic. The results for the synthetics for frequencies between 0.5 to 2 Hz during the S-wave matched those of the data fairly well. We can conclude that the frequency range of transition from determinant to random phenomena of radiation patterns is approximately 1 to 5 Hz. We need to incorporate a radiation pattern model based on this result for development in strong motion simulation methods. We acknowledge NIED for the use of KiK-net data. Some figures were made using GMT. This study was supported by the project "Study on the master model for strong ground motion prediction toward earthquake disaster prevention" funded by Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, from MEXT (2000-2004).

  9. Processing of strong-motion accelerograms: Needs, options and consequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.; Bommer, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    Recordings from strong-motion accelerographs are of fundamental importance in earthquake engineering, forming the basis for all characterizations of ground shaking employed for seismic design. The recordings, particularly those from analog instruments, invariably contain noise that can mask and distort the ground-motion signal at both high and low frequencies. For any application of recorded accelerograms in engineering seismology or earthquake engineering, it is important to identify the presence of this noise in the digitized time-history and its influence on the parameters that are to be derived from the records. If the parameters of interest are affected by noise then appropriate processing needs to be applied to the records, although it must be accepted from the outset that it is generally not possible to recover the actual ground motion over a wide range of frequencies. There are many schemes available for processing strong-motion data and it is important to be aware of the merits and pitfalls associated with each option. Equally important is to appreciate the effects of the procedures on the records in order to avoid errors in the interpretation and use of the results. Options for processing strong-motion accelerograms are presented, discussed and evaluated from the perspective of engineering application. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Probabilistic Motion Planning of Balloons in Strong, Uncertain Wind Fields

    E-print Network

    Williams, Brian C.

    ´e (hot air) balloons using wind models for time-efficient paths. The method was developed for studyingProbabilistic Motion Planning of Balloons in Strong, Uncertain Wind Fields Michael T. Wolf, Lars for Montgolfier´e balloons in the atmosphere of Titan. The goal of the algorithm is to determine what altitude

  11. A simple model for strong ground motions and response spectra

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, Erdal; Mueller, Charles; Boatwright, John

    1988-01-01

    A simple model for the description of strong ground motions is introduced. The model shows that response spectra can be estimated by using only four parameters of the ground motion, the RMS acceleration, effective duration and two corner frequencies that characterize the effective frequency band of the motion. The model is windowed band-limited white noise, and is developed by studying the properties of two functions, cumulative squared acceleration in the time domain, and cumulative squared amplitude spectrum in the frequency domain. Applying the methods of random vibration theory, the model leads to a simple analytical expression for the response spectra. The accuracy of the model is checked by using the ground motion recordings from the aftershock sequences of two different earthquakes and simulated accelerograms. The results show that the model gives a satisfactory estimate of the response spectra.

  12. Strong Ground Motion Database System for the Mexican Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Yanez, C.; Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Ruiz, A. L.; Delgado, R.; Macías, M. A.; Sandoval, H.; Alcántara, L.; Quiroz, A.

    2014-12-01

    A web-based system for strong Mexican ground motion records dissemination and archival is presented. More than 50 years of continuous strong ground motion instrumentation and monitoring in Mexico have provided a fundamental resource -several thousands of accelerograms- for better understanding earthquakes and their effects in the region. Lead by the Institute of Engineering (IE) of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), the engineering strong ground motion monitoring program at IE relies on a continuously growing network, that at present includes more than 100 free-field stations and provides coverage to the seismic zones in the country. Among the stations, approximately 25% send the observed acceleration to a processing center in Mexico City in real-time, and the rest require manual access, remote or in situ, for later processing and cataloguing. As part of a collaboration agreement between UNAM and the National Center for Disaster Prevention, regarding the construction and operation of a unified seismic network, a web system was developed to allow access to UNAM's engineering strong motion archive and host data from other institutions. The system allows data searches under a relational database schema, following a general structure relying on four databases containing the: 1) free-field stations, 2) epicentral location associated with the strong motion records available, 3) strong motion catalogue, and 4) acceleration files -the core of the system. In order to locate and easily access one or several records of the data bank, the web system presents a variety of parameters that can be involved in a query (seismic event, region boundary, station name or ID, radial distance to source or peak acceleration). This homogeneous platform has been designed to facilitate dissemination and processing of the information worldwide. Each file, in a standard format, contains information regarding the recording instrument, the station, the corresponding earthquake, the record itself, and the numerical data. The standard format used was designed and preserved by many institutions in Mexico. At this stage, only cataloged accelerograms (M>=5) from IE are integrated. Institutions expected to become part of the unified network of Mexico, will make available data through the platform described in this paper.

  13. Strong coupling between single-electron tunneling and nanomechanical motion.

    PubMed

    Steele, G A; Hüttel, A K; Witkamp, B; Poot, M; Meerwaldt, H B; Kouwenhoven, L P; van der Zant, H S J

    2009-08-28

    Nanoscale resonators that oscillate at high frequencies are useful in many measurement applications. We studied a high-quality mechanical resonator made from a suspended carbon nanotube driven into motion by applying a periodic radio frequency potential using a nearby antenna. Single-electron charge fluctuations created periodic modulations of the mechanical resonance frequency. A quality factor exceeding 10(5) allows the detection of a shift in resonance frequency caused by the addition of a single-electron charge on the nanotube. Additional evidence for the strong coupling of mechanical motion and electron tunneling is provided by an energy transfer to the electrons causing mechanical damping and unusual nonlinear behavior. We also discovered that a direct current through the nanotube spontaneously drives the mechanical resonator, exerting a force that is coherent with the high-frequency resonant mechanical motion. PMID:19628816

  14. Strong Coupling Between Single-Electron Tunneling and Nanomechanical Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, G. A.; Hüttel, A. K.; Witkamp, B.; Poot, M.; Meerwaldt, H. B.; Kouwenhoven, L. P.; van der Zant, H. S. J.

    2009-08-01

    Nanoscale resonators that oscillate at high frequencies are useful in many measurement applications. We studied a high-quality mechanical resonator made from a suspended carbon nanotube driven into motion by applying a periodic radio frequency potential using a nearby antenna. Single-electron charge fluctuations created periodic modulations of the mechanical resonance frequency. A quality factor exceeding 105 allows the detection of a shift in resonance frequency caused by the addition of a single-electron charge on the nanotube. Additional evidence for the strong coupling of mechanical motion and electron tunneling is provided by an energy transfer to the electrons causing mechanical damping and unusual nonlinear behavior. We also discovered that a direct current through the nanotube spontaneously drives the mechanical resonator, exerting a force that is coherent with the high-frequency resonant mechanical motion.

  15. Enhancement of the national strong-motion network in Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gulkan, Polat; Ceken, U.; Colakoglu, Z.; Ugras, T.; Kuru, T.; Apak, A.; Anderson, J.G.; Sucuoglu, H.; Celebi, M.; Akkar, D.S.; Yazgan, U.; Denizlioglu, A.Z.

    2007-01-01

    Two arrays comprising 20 strong-motion sensors were established in western Turkey. The 14 stations of BYTNet follow a N-S trending line about 65 km in length, normal to strands of the North Anatolian fault that runs between the cities of Bursa and Yalova. Here the dominant character of the potential fault movement is a right-lateral transform slip. The DATNet array, comprising a total of eight stations, is arranged along a 110-km-long E-W trending direction along the Menderes River valley between Denizli and Aydin. (Two stations in this array were incorporated from the existing Turkish national strong-motion network.) This is an extensional tectonic environment, and the network mornitors potential large normal-faulting earthquakes on the faults in the valley. The installation of the arrays was supported by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) under its Science for Peace Program. Maintenance and calibration is performed by the General Directorate of Disaster Affairs (GDDA) according to a protocol between Middle East Technical University (METU) and GDDA. Many young engineers and scientists have been trained in network operation and evaluation during the course of the project, and an international workshop dealing with strong-motion instrumentation has been organized as part of the project activities.

  16. CSMIP (California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program) strong-motion records from the Santa Cruz Mountains (Loma Prieta), California earthquake of 17 October 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Shakal, A.; Reichle, M.; Ventura, C.; Cao, T.; Sherburne, R.; Savage, M.; Darragh, R.; Petersen, C.

    1990-01-01

    Strong-motion records were recovered from 93 stations of the California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP) after the earthquake. CSMIP provides information on the force of ground motion and the deformation induced in structures and in rock and soil by earthquake-generated ground motion. This information is recorded by strong-motion sensors placed in engineered structures and at free field (ground) sites, and is used by earthquake engineers and earth scientists to improve the design of earthquake-resistant structures. The strong-motion instrumentation program was established after the San Fernando earthquake in 1971. A total of 125 records were recovered from the 93 CSMIP stations which recorded the Loma Prieta event. These 125 records contain data from a total of 690 strong-motion sensors. These data are important because of the unique structures and sites at which records were obtained during this event. Some highlights of particular interest are included in this paper.

  17. Database for earthquake strong motion studies in Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scasserra, G.; Stewart, J.P.; Kayen, R.E.; Lanzo, G.

    2009-01-01

    We describe an Italian database of strong ground motion recordings and databanks delineating conditions at the instrument sites and characteristics of the seismic sources. The strong motion database consists of 247 corrected recordings from 89 earthquakes and 101 recording stations. Uncorrected recordings were drawn from public web sites and processed on a record-by-record basis using a procedure utilized in the Next-Generation Attenuation (NGA) project to remove instrument resonances, minimize noise effects through low- and high-pass filtering, and baseline correction. The number of available uncorrected recordings was reduced by 52% (mostly because of s-triggers) to arrive at the 247 recordings in the database. The site databank includes for every recording site the surface geology, a measurement or estimate of average shear wave velocity in the upper 30 m (Vs30), and information on instrument housing. Of the 89 sites, 39 have on-site velocity measurements (17 of which were performed as part of this study using SASW techniques). For remaining sites, we estimate Vs30 based on measurements on similar geologic conditions where available. Where no local velocity measurements are available, correlations with surface geology are used. Source parameters are drawn from databanks maintained (and recently updated) by Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and include hypocenter location and magnitude for small events (M< ??? 5.5) and finite source parameters for larger events. ?? 2009 A.S. Elnashai & N.N. Ambraseys.

  18. Site response and attenuation analyses using strong motion and short-period data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fangyin

    Site amplification and seismic attenuation are analyzed in this study using strong ground motion records and short period records. Site amplification factors at instrumented free-field sites are inferred from recorded motions using: (1) Generalized Inversion of S-waves; (2) the H/V method (i.e., the ratio of the spectral amplitudes of the horizontal and vertical components of motion); (3) Coda-wave Inversion; (4) the Standard Spectral Ratio method; and (5) the Coda Normalization method. The site amplification factors inferred from the above methods are compared to each other. The amplification factors obtained from the Generalized Inversion are validated by the other four methods. The correlation of site amplification to site condition is also analyzed and the results demonstrate that site amplification appears to be stronger for the geologically younger (and thus softer) sediments, and the site classification in conformance with UBC provisions provides smaller scatter than the classification based on geological formation. The site amplification factors for the different site classes of the NEHRP classification (i.e., site class C, D and E), which is important for engineering application, are provided and compared with the values proposed by Borcherdt (1994) and adopted in the 1997 UBC and 2003 IBC design codes. The agreement between the site amplification obtained in this study and those proposed by Borcherdt (1994) and adopted by the design codes is good. The nonlinearity of site amplification, resulting from the intensity of ground motion, is clearly identified at selected station where this is feasible. The intrinsic and scattering attenuation are analyzed at stations SML and TYC using the Multiple Lapse Time Window (MLTW) method. The total attenuation is derived from the intrinsic and scattering attenuation. The coda attenuation is analyzed for 14 stations from coda decay curves using linear regression. The S-wave attenuation is analyzed using the coda normalization method at the stations SML and TYC. The coda attenuation estimated from the coda decay curves is close to the intrinsic attenuation. The intrinsic attenuation is the dominant component in the total attenuation. The total attenuation, estimated using the MLTW method, closely agrees with the results from the Coda Normalization Method. The scattering coefficient is estimated to be 3--8 x 10 -3km-1, consistent with estimates of this parameter for other tectonically active regions (see figure 3.10 in Sato and Fehler, 1998). The data sets used in this study are collected from a strong motion network and a short period network in Taiwan province, China. The strong motion data set contains: (1) 2751 motions recorded at 407 stations from 33 aftershocks ranging from ML = 4.11--6.80 and depths from 1.05km to 21.28km, following 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake; and (2) 410 motions recorded at 410 stations from the main event of 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. The short period data set contains 5499 records recorded by 71 stations instrumented with the Teledyne S-13 seismometers. The 108 events have a magnitude ranging from ML = 2.90--4.97, and depths from 2.21km to 30.82km; these events occurred over a period of time from 2000 to 2003.

  19. A two-dimensional numerical model for tidal motion in the Taiwan Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Guohong; Yang, Jingfei; Thao, Yucai

    1984-03-01

    A finite difference solution for two-dimensional nonlinear hydrodynamic equations is obtained to model the tides and tidal currents in the Taiwan Strait. The major semidiurnal waves are computed simultaneously. The agreement between the computed results and the observed data is considered satisfactory. The distributions of tides and tidal currents are illustrated.

  20. Lotung large-scale seismic test strong motion records

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), in cooperation with the Taiwan Power Company (TPC), constructed two models (1/4 scale and 1/12 scale) of a nuclear plant concrete containment structure at a seismically active site in Lotung, Taiwan. Extensive instrumentation was deployed to record both structural and ground responses during earthquakes. The experiment, generally referred to as the Lotung Large-Scale Seismic Test (LSST), was used to gather data for soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis method evaluation and validation as well as for site ground response investigation. A number of earthquakes having local magnitudes ranging from 4.5 to 7.0 have been recorded at the LSST site since the completion of the test facility in September 1985. This report documents the earthquake data, both raw and processed, collected from the LSST experiment. Volume 1 of the report provides general information on site location, instrument types and layout, data acquisition and processing, and data file organization. The recorded data are described chronologically in subsequent volumes of the report.

  1. Perceptual Training Strongly Improves Visual Motion Perception in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Daniel J.; McBain, Ryan K.; Ongur, Dost; Chen, Yue

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients exhibit perceptual and cognitive deficits, including in visual motion processing. Given that cognitive systems depend upon perceptual inputs, improving patients' perceptual abilities may be an effective means of cognitive intervention. In healthy people, motion perception can be enhanced through perceptual learning, but it…

  2. Effect of tilt on strong motion data processing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graizer, V.M.

    2005-01-01

    In the near-field of an earthquake the effects of the rotational components of ground motion may not be negligible compared to the effects of translational motions. Analyses of the equations of motion of horizontal and vertical pendulums show that horizontal sensors are sensitive not only to translational motion but also to tilts. Ignoring this tilt sensitivity may produce unreliable results, especially in calculations of permanent displacements and long-period calculations. In contrast to horizontal sensors, vertical sensors do not have these limitations, since they are less sensitive to tilts. In general, only six-component systems measuring rotations and accelerations, or three-component systems similar to systems used in inertial navigation assuring purely translational motion of accelerometers can be used to calculate residual displacements. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 14 State of the Art and Progress in the Earthquake Early Warning System in Taiwan

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yih-Min

    at the Central Weather Bureau (CWB), using the telemetered signals from strong-motion instruments. Utilizing a quick magnitude determination based on the first 10 sec of signals from a virtual and sub-network which was experimented. We used the Taiwan Strong-Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) accelerograms recorded within

  4. Comparison Studies on the Observation of Raindrop Size Distribution in Strong Precipitation Frontal Case in Northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Pay-Liam; Chen, Ying-Jhen

    2015-04-01

    In the nighttime of 11th June 2012, a mature Mai-Yu front passed through northern Taiwan. The leading edge of front associated with southwesterly flow produced strong precipitation in a short time. The extreme rainfall event caused multiple areas flooding. In order to investigate the characteristic of drop size distribution (DSD) accompanied with this heavy rainfall event, we used an impact type Joss-Waldgovel disdrometer (JWD), a laser-optical OTT Parsivel disdrometer (Parsivel) and a two dimensional video disdrometer (2DVD) collocated at NCU, and we also used three JWDs in FeiCui, NanGang and XiaYung to investigate the frontal precipitation. In the weak precipitation period, we found the concentration of small raindrops would be underestimated because the velocity detected by Parsivel is faster than the real situation. But we also made sure that before the strong precipitation happens, the three type disdrometers (JWD, 2DVD and Parsivel) operate consistently.During strong precipitation period, we found a significant DSD variation characteristic. As a convective cell passes, the concentration of medium to large drops increases in Parsivel, while decreases in JWD. Due to the limitation of instrument, Parsivel tended to overestimate the concentration of medium to large drops in the strong rainfall intensity. Comparing the rain drops concentration with the rain rate varies with time, Parsivel showed a good agreement but JWD even did not get the most significant characteristic as the strongest rainfall occurred. The rain rates of JWD and Parsivel varied in the same trend, but compared the rain rates with the rain gauge observation in the 10 m tower at NCU, both of them showed obvious underestimation. We suspected the limitation of instrument made the rain rate underestimated.

  5. Simulation of strong earthquake motion by explosions --experiments at the Lyaur testing range in Tajikistan

    E-print Network

    Southern California, University of

    of earthquake resistant design codes and for providing new independent data for development of improved methods of analysis and design. Since the 1933 Long Beach, California, earthquake, many strong motion recordings haveSimulation of strong earthquake motion by explosions -- experiments at the Lyaur testing range

  6. Strong Ground-Motion Prediction from Stochastic-Dynamic Source Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariagiovanna Guatteri; P. Martin Mai; Gregory C. Beroza; John Boatwright

    2003-01-01

    In the absence of sufficient data in the very near source, predictions of the intensity and variability of ground motions from future large earthquakes depend strongly on our ability to develop realistic models of the earthquake source. In this article we simulate near-fault strong ground motion using dynamic source models. We use a boundary integral method to simulate dynamic rupture

  7. SISMA (Site of Italian Strong Motion Accelerograms): a Web-Database of Ground Motion Recordings for Engineering Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Scasserra, Giuseppe; Lanzo, Giuseppe; D'Elia, Beniamino [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Strutturale e Geotecnica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Via A. Gramsci 53, 00197, Rome (Italy); Stewart, Jonathan P. [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, 5371 Boelter Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2008-07-08

    The paper describes a new website called SISMA, i.e. Site of Italian Strong Motion Accelerograms, which is an Internet portal intended to provide natural records for use in engineering applications for dynamic analyses of structural and geotechnical systems. SISMA contains 247 three-component corrected motions recorded at 101 stations from 89 earthquakes that occurred in Italy in the period 1972-2002. The database of strong motion accelerograms was developed in the framework of a joint project between Sapienza University of Rome and University of California at Los Angeles (USA) and is described elsewhere. Acceleration histories and pseudo-acceleration response spectra (5% damping) are available for download from the website. Recordings can be located using simple search parameters related to seismic source and the recording station (e.g., magnitude, V{sub s30}, etc) as well as ground motion characteristics (e.g. peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, peak ground displacement, Arias intensity, etc.)

  8. Site Characterization of Italian Strong Motion Recording Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Scasserra, Giuseppe; Lanzo, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Strutturale e Geotecnica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Via A. Gramsci 53, 00197, Rome (Italy); Stewart, Jonathan P. [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, 5731 Boelter Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Kayen, Robert E. [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California (United States)

    2008-07-08

    A dataset of site conditions at 101 Italian ground motion stations with recorded motions has been compiled that includes geologic characteristics and seismic velocities. Geologic characterization is derived principally from local geologic investigations by ENEL that include detailed mapping and cross sections. For sites lacking such detailed geologic characterization, the geology maps of the by Servizio Geologico d'Italia are used. Seismic velocities are extracted from the literature and the files of consulting engineers, geologists and public agencies for 33 sites. Data sources utilized include post earthquake site investigations (Friuli and Irpinia events), microzonation studies, and miscellaneous investigations performed by researchers or consulting engineers/geologists. Additional seismic velocities are measured by the authors using the controlled source spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) method for 18 sites that recorded the 1997-1998 Umbria Marche earthquake sequence. The compiled velocity measurements provide data for 51 of the 101 sites. For the remaining sites, the average seismic velocity in the upper 30 m (V{sub s30}) is estimated using a hybrid approach. For young Quaternary alluvium, V{sub s30} an existing empirical relationship for California sites by Wills and Clahan (2006) is used, which we justify by validating this relationship against Italian data. For Tertiary Limestone and Italian Mesozoic rocks, empirical estimates of V{sub s30} are developed using the available data. This work is also presented in Scasserra et al. (2008: JEE, in review)

  9. Implications of the Northridge earthquake for strong ground motions from thrust faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Somerville, P.; Saikia, C.; Wald, D.; Graves, R.

    1996-01-01

    The peak accelerations recorded on alluvial sites during the Northridge earthquake were about 50% larger than the median value predicted by current empirical attenuation relations at distances less than about 30 km. This raises the question of whether the ground motions from the Northridge earthquake are anomalous for thrust events or are representative of ground motions expected in future thrust earthquakes. Since the empirical data base contains few strong-motion records close to large-thrust earthquakes, it is difficult to assess whether the Northridge ground motions are anomalous based on recorded data alone. For this reason, we have used a broadband strong-motion simulation procedure to help assess whether the ground motions were anomalous. The simulation procedure has been validated against a large body of strong-motion data from California earthquakes, and so we expect it to produce accurate estimates of ground motions for any given rupture scenario, including blind-thrust events for which no good precedent existed in the strong-motion data base until the occurrence of the Northridge earthquake. The ground motions from the Northridge earthquake and our simulations of these ground motions have a similar pattern of departure from empirical attenuation relations for thrust earthquakes: the peak accelerations are at about the 84th percentile level for distances within 20 to 30 km and follow the median level for larger distances. This same pattern of departure from empirical attenuation relations was obtained in our simulations of the peak accelerations of an Elysian Park blind-thrust event prior to the occurrence of the Northridge earthquake. Since we are able to model this pattern with broadband simulations, and had done so before the Northridge earthquake occurred, this suggests that the Northridge strong-motion records are not anomalous and are representative of ground motions close to thrust faults. Accordingly, it seems appropriate to include these recordings in strong-motion data sets that are used to develop empirical ground-motion attenuation relations for thrust faults and to use this augmented data set as the basis for evaluating the need for modifications in design coefficients in the seismic provisions of building codes.

  10. What Can Strong-Motion Data Tell Us about Slip-Weakening Fault-Friction Laws?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariagiovanna Guatteri; Paul Spudich

    2000-01-01

    We consider the resolution of parameters, such as strength excess, ry ro, and slip-weakening distance, dc, related to fault-constitutive properties, that may be obtained from the analysis of strong-ground motions. We show that wave- form inversion of a synthetic strong-motion-data set from a hypothetical M 6.5 event resembling the 1979 Imperial Valley earthquake cannot uniquely resolve both strength excess and

  11. Analysis of the strong motion data of the 1995 Dinar, Turkey earthquake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Durukal; M Erdik; J Avci; Ö Yüzügüllü; Y Alpay; B Avar; C Zülfikar; T Biro; A Mert

    1998-01-01

    Dinar earthquake (Mw=6.0, USGS) occurred on October 1, 1995 causing casualties and physical damage (Io=VII–VIII MSK). The earthquake was associated with predominantly normal faulting. The PGA in Dinar was 0.33g. Strong motion data associated with the mainshock and aftershocks of the 1995 Dinar, Turkey earthquake have been analyzed to investigate the source, attenuation and site response parameters. Strong motion data

  12. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Seismic Strong-Motion Instrumentation Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    \\u000a The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) currently operates a seismic Strong-Motion Instrumentation Program (SMIP) throughout\\u000a the United States to provide a measure of project performance, provide insight into the safety of USACE projects, and establish\\u000a a data base for earthquake research. Strong-motion instruments used for SMIP consist of digital and analog accelerographs,\\u000a peak acceleration recorders, and seismic alarm devices.

  13. Generation of Strong Motion Pulses during the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Their Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozu, A.

    2012-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku, Japan, earthquake is obviously the first M9 earthquake which was recorded by dense strong motion networks such as K-NET, etc. From engineering point of view, the most striking feature of strong ground motions of the earthquake is the generation of pulses. Strong ground motions in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1 Hz observed at many sites along the coast of Miyagi through Ibaraki Prefecture during the Tohoku earthquake are characterized by distinctive pulses. It is significantly important to consider the generation of such pulses in the strong-motion prediction for mega earthquakes, especially when the prediction is aimed at seismic design of structures. To model strong motion pulses from the Tohoku earthquake, a source model with rectangular subevents was newly developed for the earthquake. The locations of the subevents were determined from the arrival times. The sizes of the subevents were determined so that the width of the pulses can be reproduced appropriately. The constructed source model involves 9 subevents with relatively small size (on the order of several kilometers), located off-the-coast of Miyagi through off-the-coast of Ibaraki. The strong ground motions from the source model were calculated based on site amplification and phase characteristics (Nozu et al., 2006). The agreement between the observed and calculated ground motions was quite satisfactory, especially for velocity waveforms (0.2-1.0 Hz) including near-source pulses. Strong ground motions from the same earthquake have been modeled using a source model with SMGAs with a size of tens of kilometers (e.g., Kurahashi and Irikura, 2011; Satoh, 2011; Asano and Iwata, 2011; Kawabe et al., 2011). However, the relatively small width of the observed pulses requires smaller subevents. The small subevents used in the present study is, in essence, equivalent to the "super asperities" proposed by Matsushima and Kawase (2006) to explain strong motion pulses from the 1978 Miyagi-ken oki earthquake (Mw7.6). The author redefines the subevents as SPGAs (Strong-motion Pulse Generation Areas), because the definition of "asperity" itself is currently somewhat ambiguous. The observed strong motion pulses require a very high moment rate within a small area. The future work should be aimed at revealing the dynamics of SPGAs. The SPGA model for the 2011 Tohoku earthquake

  14. Estimation of strong ground motions from hypothetical earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone, Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heaton, T.H.; Hartzell, S.H.

    1989-01-01

    Strong ground motions are estimated for the Pacific Northwest assuming that large shallow earthquakes, similar to those experienced in southern Chile, southwestern Japan, and Colombia, may also occur on the Cascadia subduction zone. Fifty-six strong motion recordings for twenty-five subduction earthquakes of Ms???7.0 are used to estimate the response spectra that may result from earthquakes Mw<81/4. Large variations in observed ground motion levels are noted for a given site distance and earthquake magnitude. When compared with motions that have been observed in the western United States, large subduction zone earthquakes produce relatively large ground motions at surprisingly large distances. An earthquake similar to the 22 May 1960 Chilean earthquake (Mw 9.5) is the largest event that is considered to be plausible for the Cascadia subduction zone. This event has a moment which is two orders of magnitude larger than the largest earthquake for which we have strong motion records. The empirical Green's function technique is used to synthesize strong ground motions for such giant earthquakes. Observed teleseismic P-waveforms from giant earthquakes are also modeled using the empirical Green's function technique in order to constrain model parameters. The teleseismic modeling in the period range of 1.0 to 50 sec strongly suggests that fewer Green's functions should be randomly summed than is required to match the long-period moments of giant earthquakes. It appears that a large portion of the moment associated with giant earthquakes occurs at very long periods that are outside the frequency band of interest for strong ground motions. Nevertheless, the occurrence of a giant earthquake in the Pacific Northwest may produce quite strong shaking over a very large region. ?? 1989 Birkha??user Verlag.

  15. Strong Motion Deficits in Dyslexia Associated with DCDC2 Gene Alteration.

    PubMed

    Cicchini, Guido Marco; Marino, Cecilia; Mascheretti, Sara; Perani, Daniela; Morrone, Maria Concetta

    2015-05-27

    Dyslexia is a specific impairment in reading that affects 1 in 10 people. Previous studies have failed to isolate a single cause of the disorder, but several candidate genes have been reported. We measured motion perception in two groups of dyslexics, with and without a deletion within the DCDC2 gene, a risk gene for dyslexia. We found impairment for motion particularly strong at high spatial frequencies in the population carrying the deletion. The data suggest that deficits in motion processing occur in a specific genotype, rather than the entire dyslexia population, contributing to the large variability in impairment of motion thresholds in dyslexia reported in the literature. PMID:26019324

  16. A strong-motion database from the Central American subduction zone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Cristina Arango; Fleur O. Strasser; Julian J. Bommer; Douglas A. Hernández; Jose M. Cepeda

    2011-01-01

    Subduction earthquakes along the Pacific Coast of Central America generate considerable seismic risk in the region. The quantification\\u000a of the hazard due to these events requires the development of appropriate ground-motion prediction equations, for which purpose\\u000a a database of recordings from subduction events in the region is indispensable. This paper describes the compilation of a\\u000a comprehensive database of strong ground-motion

  17. A comparison of observations of ground response to weak and strong ground motion at Coalinga, California

    SciTech Connect

    Jarpe, S.P. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Cramer, C.H.; Tucker, B.E.; Shakal, A.F. (California Division of Mines, Sacramento, CA (United States))

    1988-04-01

    Measurements of the response to earthquake motion of an unsaturated soil in Coalinga, California, indicate that this response is linear, within the limits of random errors, for frequencies below 10 Hz and for accelerations up to 0.7 g. The response of the soil site relative to a bedrock site was determined by dividing the amplitude spectrum of the soil site ground motion for a given event by the amplitude spectrum of the bedrock site ground motion for the same event. The relative response of this pair of sites to 23 regional and small local earthquakes is the same in the 1- to 10-Hz band as the response to seven strong motion events, within a random error of a factor of 1.3 At 10 to 11 Hz, the relative response to strong motion is significantly reduced by as much as a factor of 2 from the relative response to the 23 regional and small local earthquakes at the 95 per cent confidence level, suggesting the possibility of nonlinear response. The response of the soil site is a factor of 2 to 3 times larger than that of the bedrock site. The variation in the spectral ratios for strong motion events and for regional and small local events about their respective averages has a standard deviation of about a factor of 2.

  18. Characteristics of the Strong Ground Motions from the 23 October 2011 Van earthquake, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinci, A.; Antonioli, A.

    2012-12-01

    The recent 23 October 2011 Mw 7.1 Van Earthquake occurred at 13:41 local time in Eastern Turkey with an epicenter at 43.36oE, 38.76oN (KOERI) caused severe damage in the epicenter area. Intenseve aftershocks followed, activating the several previously unknown small scale faults around the main fault rupture. Twenty-two accelerometric stations belonging to the National Strong Ground Motion Network (operated by the Earthquake Department of the Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency, AFAD) and eleven accelerometric stations of the Iranian Strong Motion Network (ISMN) recorded the main shock. In this study a great effort has been directed towards understanding the characteristics of ground motion associated with the Van Lake seismic sequences. In this respect we study the features of the strong ground motion recordings obtained during the main shock by means of the spatial variations of the peak ground accelerations and peak ground velocities, and the spectral accelerations (5% of critical damping) together with the site amplifications. High frequency ground motion stochastic simulations are performed in the near-fault area and compared with the empirical Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs). Finally, regarding the October-November Van earthquake sequence, a static analysis of the Coulomb Failure Function variation is carried out adopting the slip distributions retrieved by USGS (Hayes, 2011).

  19. ANALYSIS OF STRONG-MOTION EARTHQUAKE RECORDS FROM A WELL-INSTRUMENTED EARTH DAM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fedock, Joseph J.

    1986-01-01

    Strong-motion records from Long Valley Dam during the Mammoth Lakes earthquake sequence of May 1980 are analyzed to determine the main features of the dam's motions. The dam was instrumented with 22 accelerometers on its embankment and in the immediate vicinity, and more than 60 high-quality, long-duration accelerograms were recorded for the three largest earthquakes of the sequence. Free-field responses are compared with embankment responses to help establish the amplification of the structural motions and to identify modes of vibration of the structure.

  20. An evaluation of the strong ground motion recorded during the May 1, 2003 Bingol Turkey, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akkar, Sinan; Boore, David M.; Gulkan, Polat

    2005-01-01

    An important record of ground motion from a M6.4 earthquake occurring on May 1, 2003, at epicentral and fault distances of about 12 and 9 km, respectively, was obtained at a station near the city of Bingöl, Turkey. The maximum peak ground values of 0.55g and 36 cm/s are among the largest ground-motion amplitudes recorded in Turkey. From simulations and comparisons with ground motions from other earthquakes of comparable magnitude, we conclude that the ground motion over a range of frequencies is unusually high. Site response may be responsible for the elevated ground motion, as suggested from analysis of numerous aftershock recordings from the same station. The mainshock motions have some interesting seismological features, including ramps between the P- and S-wave that are probably due to near- and intermediate-field elastic motions and strong polarisation oriented at about 39 degrees to the fault (and therefore not in the fault-normal direction). Simulations of motions from an extended rupture explain these features. The N10E component shows a high-amplitude spectral acceleration at a period of 0.15 seconds resulting in a site specific design spectrum that significantly overestimates the actual strength and displacement demands of the record. The pulse signal in the N10E component affects the inelastic spectral displacement and increases the inelastic displacement demand with respect to elastic demand for very long periods.

  1. Comparing action gestures and classifier verbs of motion: evidence from Australian Sign Language, Taiwan Sign Language, and nonsigners' gestures without speech.

    PubMed

    Schembri, Adam; Jones, Caroline; Burnham, Denis

    2005-01-01

    Recent research into signed languages indicates that signs may share some properties with gesture, especially in the use of space in classifier constructions. A prediction of this proposal is that there will be similarities in the representation of motion events by sign-naive gesturers and by native signers of unrelated signed languages. This prediction is tested for deaf native signers of Australian Sign Language (Auslan), deaf signers of Taiwan Sign Language (TSL), and hearing nonsigners using the Verbs of Motion Production task from the Test Battery for American Sign Language (ASL) Morphology and Syntax. Results indicate that differences between the responses of nonsigners, Auslan signers, and TSL signers and the expected ASL responses are greatest with handshape units; movement and location units appear to be very similar. Although not definitive, these data are consistent with the claim that classifier constructions are blends of linguistic and gestural elements. PMID:15858072

  2. PSHA for Strong Ground-Motion Hazards in Marmara Region, Turkey with Physically-based Ground Motion Prediction Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mert, A.; Fahjan, Y.; Hutchings, L. J.

    2014-12-01

    We perform a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for strong ground motion within the Marmara region, Turkey, from potential earthquakes along the North Anatolian fault segments in and around Marmara Sea. Because of the increasing awareness of earthquake threat in the Marmara Region, the need for seismic hazard studies has become progressively more important for planning risk reduction actions. We perform the PSHA utilizing empirical Green's functions (EGFs) along with models of finite rupture in place of standard "attenuation relations". The important aspect of this study is that we combined the basic PSHA with ground motion simulations and obtained hazard analysis for all significant magnitude earthquakes, and provide the necessary full-waveform simulated ground motions to calculate building response, and thus risk. Recordings of small earthquakes from a local seismic array operated by Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) were used as EGFs. Over the past 50 years, probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) has been based upon estimating annual frequency of exceedance for a ground-motion parameter at a particular site (i.e., a hazard curve, Cornell, 1968). In the present study, we estimated the seismic hazard in Marmara Region and we expand and utilize the "physically based" approach proposed by Hutchings et al. (2007), Scognamiglio and Hutchings (2009). This approach replaces the aleatory uncertainty that current PSHA studies estimate by regression of empirical parameters with epistemic uncertainty that is expressed by the variability in the physical parameters of earthquake rupture. Epistemic uncertainty can be reduced by further research. By 'physically based' we refer to ground motion synthesized with quasi-dynamic rupture models derived from physics and an understanding of earthquake process. This methodology provides source- and site-specific calculations of full-waveform ground motion time histories, which is important for nonlinear dynamic analysis of structures, and reduce uncertainties in estimating standard engineering parameters. Further, based on these calculations, PSHA results are presented 2%, 10% and 50% hazards for all investigated sites in Marmara Region.

  3. Basin and crustral velocity structure modeling for strong motion simulation in Kinki area, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, T.; Kagawa, T.; Petukhin, A.; Onishi, Y.

    2006-12-01

    We constructed a prototype of the basin and crustal velocity structure model in Kinki area, SW of Japan, for the strong ground motion simulation of a hypothetical disastrous crustal and subduction earthquakes. Two deep seismic exploration experiments were conducted in the Kinki area, by the project of regional characterization of the crust in metropolitan areas for prediction of strong ground motion supported by MEXT (Ito et al., 2005; Sato et al., 2005). The obtained profiles give new information for underground structures of the crust, from the surface to the subducting slab. Three-dimensional seismic tomography results and seismic imaging results are also used for constraining of the crustal velocity structure model. The Osaka, Kyoto, Nara, and Ohmi basin velocity models, constructed many geophysical exploration survey results, are inserted into the crustal velocity structure model. The applicability of the constructed velocity structure model to the ground motion simulation is examined by simulating observed waveforms of appropriate size events.

  4. Magnitude determination using strong ground motion attenuation in earthquake early warning

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yih-Min

    Click Here for Full Article Magnitude determination using strong ground motion attenuation. This relationship can be used to dynamically define a "Mpga magnitude" for earthquakes using earthquake locations determined by earthquake early warning process. The Mpga magnitude using this strongmotion attenuation

  5. THE EMILIA THRUST EARTHQUAKE OF 20 MAY 2012 (NORTHERN ITALY): STRONG MOTION AND GEOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS

    E-print Network

    Fleskes, Joe

    1 THE EMILIA THRUST EARTHQUAKE OF 20 MAY 2012 (NORTHERN ITALY): STRONG MOTION AND GEOLOGICAL INTRODUCTION On 20 May 2012, at 02:03:53 (UTC), Northern Italy was struck by an earthquake of magnitude Ml 5 with Ml 4.8. Eleven events with magnitude 4.0 Ml 4.5, plus several other minor earthquakes, occurred

  6. Strong Motion Site Effects in the Athens, 1999 Assimaki Dominic,a)

    E-print Network

    Entekhabi, Dara

    , [Italy 1976], the Irpinia Earthquake [Italy, 1980], the Chile Earthquake [1985], the Whittier Narrows1 Strong Motion Site Effects in the Athens, 1999 Earthquake Assimaki Dominic,a) and Eduardo Kausel,b) M. EERI During the 1999 Athens Earthquake, the town of Adàmes, located on the eastern side

  7. Hanford strong motion accelerometer network: A summary of the first year of operation

    SciTech Connect

    Conrads, T.J.

    1997-09-22

    The Hanford Seismic Monitoring Network consists of two designs of equipment and sites: seismometer sites and strong motion accelerometer (SMA) sites. Seismometer sites are designed to locate earthquakes on and near the Hanford Site and determine their magnitude and hypocenter location. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards (DOE 1993) requires that facilities or sites that have structures or components in Performance Category 2 with hazardous material, and all Performance Category 3 and 4 facilities shall have instrumentation or other means to detect and record the occurrence and severity of seismic events. In order to comply with DOE Order 5480.28, the Hanford Seismic Monitoring Network seismometer sites needed to be complemented with strong motion accelerometers to record the ground motion at specific sites. The combined seismometer sites and strong motion accelerometer sites provide the Hanford Site with earthquake information to comply with DOE Order 5480.28. The data from these instruments will be used by the PHMC staff to assess the damage to facilities following a significant earthquake.

  8. Development of an Earthquake Early Warning System Using Real-Time Strong Motion Signals

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yih-Min; Kanamori, Hiroo

    2008-01-01

    As urbanization progresses worldwide, earthquakes pose serious threat to lives and properties for urban areas near major active faults on land or subduction zones offshore. Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) can be a useful tool for reducing earthquake hazards, if the spatial relation between cities and earthquake sources is favorable for such warning and their citizens are properly trained to respond to earthquake warning messages. An EEW system forewarns an urban area of forthcoming strong shaking, normally with a few sec to a few tens of sec of warning time, i.e., before the arrival of the destructive S-wave part of the strong ground motion. Even a few second of advanced warning time will be useful for pre-programmed emergency measures for various critical facilities, such as rapid-transit vehicles and high-speed trains to avoid potential derailment; it will be also useful for orderly shutoff of gas pipelines to minimize fire hazards, controlled shutdown of high-technological manufacturing operations to reduce potential losses, and safe-guarding of computer facilities to avoid loss of vital databases. We explored a practical approach to EEW with the use of a ground-motion period parameter ?c and a high-pass filtered vertical displacement amplitude parameter Pd from the initial 3 sec of the P waveforms. At a given site, an earthquake magnitude could be determined from ?c and the peak ground-motion velocity (PGV) could be estimated from Pd. In this method, incoming strong motion acceleration signals are recursively converted to ground velocity and displacement. A P-wave trigger is constantly monitored. When a trigger occurs, ?c and Pd are computed. The earthquake magnitude and the on-site ground-motion intensity could be estimated and the warning could be issued. In an ideal situation, such warnings would be available within 10 sec of the origin time of a large earthquake whose subsequent ground motion may last for tens of seconds.

  9. ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 427, Vol. 39, No. 4, December 2002, pp. 273-310 EMPIRICAL SCALING OF STRONG EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Vinay Kumar

    ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 427, Vol. 39, No. 4, December 2002, pp. 273-310 EMPIRICAL SCALING OF STRONG EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION - PART III: SYNTHETIC STRONG MOTION V.W. Lee Civil A comprehensive and general method for the prediction of strong motion amplitudes, developed by Strong Motion

  10. Designed microtremor array based actual measurement and analysis of strong ground motion at Palu city, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thein, Pyi Soe; Pramumijoyo, Subagyo; Brotopuspito, Kirbani Sri; Wilopo, Wahyu; Kiyono, Junji; Setianto, Agung; Putra, Rusnardi Rahmat

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the strong ground motion characteristics under Palu City, Indonesia. The shear wave velocity structures evaluated by eight microtremors measurement are the most applicable to determine the thickness of sediments and average shear wave velocity with Vs ? 300 m/s. Based on subsurface underground structure models identified, earthquake ground motion was estimated in the future Palu-Koro earthquake by using statistical green's function method. The seismic microzonation parameters were carried out by considering several significant controlling factors on ground response at January 23, 2005 earthquake.

  11. 7. Strong Markov property. Stopping times are amazingly useful for study-ing Brownian motion. There are two key properties of BM that matter. The strong

    E-print Network

    Krishnapur, Manjunath

    . There are two key properties of BM that matter. The strong Markov property is one, the other is optional8 7. Strong Markov property. Stopping times are amazingly useful for study- ing Brownian motion the strong Markov property without invoking martingales. 33. Let Xt = Wt +t. Then 0 is almost surely

  12. Comparison of damping in buildings under low-amplitude and strong motions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of damping values and other dynamic characteristics of five buildings using strong-motion and low-amplitude (ambient vibration) data. The strong-motion dynamic characteristics of five buildings within the San Francisco Bay area are extracted from recordings of the 17 October 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (LPE). Ambient vibration response characteristics for the same five buildings were inferred using data collected in 1990 following LPE. Additional earthquake data other than LPE for one building and ambient vibration data collected before LPE for two other buildings provide additional confirmation of the results obtained. For each building, the percentages of critical damping and the corresponding fundamental periods determined from low-amplitude test data are appreciably lower than those determined from strong-motion recordings. These differences are attributed mainly to soil-structure interaction and other non-linear behavior affecting the structures during strong shaking. Significant contribution of radiation damping to the effective damping of a specific building is discussed in detail.

  13. Influence of strong monsoon winds on the water quality around a marine cage-culture zone in a shallow and semi-enclosed bay in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuan-Chao Angelo; Huang, Shou-Chung; Meng, Pei-Jie; Hsieh, Hernyi Justin; Chen, Chaolun Allen

    2012-04-01

    Influences of marine cage culture and monsoonal disturbances, northeasterly (NE) and southwesterly (SW) monsoons on the proximal marine environment were investigated across a gradient of sites in a semi-enclosed bay, Magong Bay (Penghu Islands, Taiwan). Elevated levels of ammonia produced by the cages were the main pollutant and distinguished the cage-culture and intermediary zones (1000 m away from the cages) from the reference zone in the NE monsoon, indicating currents produced by the strong monsoon may have extended the spread of nutrient-enriched waters without necessarily flushing such effluents outside Magong Bay. Moreover, the levels of chlorophyll-a, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity were distinguishable between two seasons, suggesting that resuspension caused by the NE monsoon winds may also influence the water quality across this bay. It indicated that the impacts of marine cage culture vary as a function of distance, and also in response to seasonal movements of water driven by local climatic occurrences. PMID:22306313

  14. Investigations on Strong Ground Motion of the Wenchuan Earthquake of 12 May 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Zhang, W.; Zhu, G.

    2012-12-01

    The strong ground motion records of Wenchuan earthquake of 12 May 2008 contain rich physical information although only very few of them have been revealed. This talk will present our recent studies on the strong ground motion of this earthquake. First, since Wenchuan earthquake occurred in a transition region between the basin and plateau, erosion and river incision result in a rough morphology with steep topographic slopes, which provide the geo-morphological setting prone to landslides during a strong earthquake, as reported after the Wenchuan earthquake. To understand how this rough topography affecting the seismic hazard, we simulated the strong ground motion caused by the earthquake, incorporating three-dimensional (3D) earth structure, finite-fault rupture, and realistic surface topography by using the recently developed Curved-Grid FDM (Zhang & Chen, 2006,2012) which can adequately deal with arbitrarily rough topography. The simulated ground motions reveal that the fault rupture and basin structure control the overall pattern of the peak ground shaking. Rough topography above the rupture fault causes wave scattering, resulting in significantly larger peak ground motion on the apex of topographic relief than in the valley. Topography and scattering also reduce the wave energy in the forward direction of fault rupture but increase the PGV in other parts of the basin. These results suggest the need for a localized hazard assessment in places of rough topography that takes the topographic effects into account. Secondly, we measured the fmax from strong ground motion records of the main-shock, and found that fmax values presented a V-shaped distribution along the ruptured fault. The minimal fmax value is recorded at the 051PXZ station which is near the epicenter, and fmax increases as the distance deviates farther from the station. The maximal fmax is recorded at the most northern station with respect to the epicenter. According to the relation between fmax and size of cohesive zone (Papageorgiou and Aki,1983), such a V-shaped fmax distribution implies that the cohesive zone distribution along the ruptured fault presents a rhombus shape.

  15. Modelling of Strong Ground Motions from 1991 Uttarkashi, India, Earthquake Using a Hybrid Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dinesh Kumar; S. S. Teotia; V. Sriram

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple and efficient hybrid technique for simulating earthquake strong ground motion. This procedure is the combination\\u000a of the techniques of envelope function (Midorikawa\\u000a et al. Tectonophysics 218:287–295, 1993) and composite source model (Zeng\\u000a et al. Geophys Res Lett 21:725–728, 1994). The first step of the technique is based on the construction of the envelope function of the

  16. Analysis of strong-motion data from the New Hampshire earthquake of 18 January 1982

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1983-01-01

    This report provides a permanent record and presents an analysis of the strong-motion data from the New Hampshire earthquake of 18 January 1982 which occurred at latitude 43.5 degrees N. longtitude 71.6 degrees W. Thirty-six accelerograms were recorded and digitized. The raw digitized accelerograms were processed by the US Geological Survey, Seismic Engineering Branch, to provide baseline correction and integrals

  17. Relativistic electron motion in cylindrical waveguide with strong guiding magnetic field and high power microwave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ping; Sun, Jun; Cao, Yibing

    2015-06-01

    In O-type high power microwave (HPM) devices, the annular relativistic electron beam is constrained by a strong guiding magnetic field and propagates through an interaction region to generate HPM. Some papers believe that the E × B drift of electrons may lead to beam breakup. This paper simplifies the interaction region with a smooth cylindrical waveguide to research the radial motion of electrons under conditions of strong guiding magnetic field and TM01 mode HPM. The single-particle trajectory shows that the radial electron motion presents the characteristic of radial guiding-center drift carrying cyclotron motion. The radial guiding-center drift is spatially periodic and is dominated by the polarization drift, not the E × B drift. Furthermore, the self fields of the beam space charge can provide a radial force which may pull electrons outward to some extent but will not affect the radial polarization drift. Despite the radial drift, the strong guiding magnetic field limits the drift amplitude to a small value and prevents beam breakup from happening due to this cause.

  18. Rapid Temporal Changes of Fault Zone Site Response Associated With Strong Ground Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C.; Peng, Z.; Ben-Zion, Y.

    2007-12-01

    We systematically analyze temporal changes in fault zone (FZ) site response along the Karadere-Düzce branch of the North Anatolian fault that ruptured during the 1999 ?zmit and Düzce earthquake sequences. The study involves primarily comparisons of strong motion seismic data recorded by station VO inside the Karadere fault and station FP ~300 m away from the fault starting 8 days before and ending 72 days after the D¨¹zce mainshock. The spectral ratio between stations VO and FP is computed from the averaged spectra for the two horizontal components, and is used as a measure for FZ site response. The peak spectral ratio increases 80-150% and the peak frequency drops 20-40% at the time of the Düzce mainshock, and is followed by near-complete recovery with time scale of ~1 day. The observed temporal changes of FZ site response can be explained as reduction of seismic velocities by opening of pre-existing cracks inside the FZ due to strong ground motion, followed by logarithmic recovery. Our observations suggest nonlinear behavior of the fault zone material under strong ground motion of nearby major earthquakes. We also apply this method to the weak motion records generated by the 36 repeating earthquake clusters identified by Peng and Ben-Zion (2006) during the same period, but no clear temporal changes of peak spectral ratio or peak frequency is observed. This is likely because the first post-Düzce events in the repeating clusters occurred at least a few hours after the Düzce mainshock, when most of the rapid coseismic changes have been recovered.

  19. Translational motion of two interacting bubbles in a strong acoustic field.

    PubMed

    Doinikov, A A

    2001-08-01

    Using the Lagrangian formalism, equations of radial and translational motions of two coupled spherical gas bubbles have been derived up to terms of third order in the inverse distance between the bubbles. The equations of radial pulsations were then modified, for the purpose of allowing for effects of liquid compressibility, using Keller-Miksis' approach, and the equations of translation were added by viscous forces in the form of the Levich drag. This model was then used in a numerical investigation of the translational motion of two small, driven well below resonance, bubbles in strong acoustic fields with pressure amplitudes exceeding 1 bar. It has been found that, if the forcing is strong enough, the bubbles form a bound pair with a steady spacing rather than collide and coalesce, as classical Bjerknes theory predicts. Moreover, the viscous forces cause skewness in the system, which results in self-propulsion of the bubble pair. The latter travels as a unit along the center line in a direction that is determined by the ratio of the initial bubble radii. The results obtained are of immediate interest for understanding and modeling collective bubble phenomena in strong fields, such as acoustic cavitation streamers. PMID:11497693

  20. Three-Dimensional Finite-Difference Simulations of Strong Ground Motions in the Beijing Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.; Igel, H.; Zhou, X.; Wang, H.

    2002-12-01

    The metropolitain area of Beijing is situated in a seismically active region. In connection with a project aiming at "Preparing Beijing for the 2008 Olympic Games", the present study focuses on the calculation of ground motion following earthquakes in the Beijing Basin. A 3D velocity model of the Beijing Area was constructed from studies that analyzed available geological information, seismic-reflection suverys, borehole logs, and gavity data. Beijing is located in a sedimentary basin of which the maximum depth is approx. 1 km. These low-velocity sediments are likely to amplify ground motion for earthquakes inside and outside the basin. To estimate the influence of the 3D structure on the ground motion, 3D-FD simulations of elastic waves were performed for the 1665 Tongxian earthquake (Mw 6.5) and the 1679 Sanhe-Pingu earthquake (Mw 8.0) using an extended rupture model. The scenario earthquakes are simulated in a block of size 210 km x 200 km x 20 km. The simulations are performed on high-performance computing facilities, which makes it possible to simulate the seismic wavefield with a dominant frequency exceeding 1 Hz. From the resulting ground motion at the surface contour maps of the peak ground velocities (accelerations), shaking duration, and 5%-damped response spectra at certain periods (e.g., 0.8 sec, 1.0 sec, 2.0 sec, 5.0 sec, 10.0 sec) are calculated. Our simulations highlight the effects of the basin structure on strong ground motion, and illustrate the possibility of using the 3D-FD method in connection with large scale seismic hazard assessment.

  1. The SCEC Broadband Platform: A Collaborative Open-Source Software Package for Strong Ground Motion Simulation and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, F.; Maechling, P. J.; Goulet, C.; Somerville, P.; Jordan, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Broadband Platform is a collaborative software development project involving SCEC researchers, graduate students, and the SCEC Community Modeling Environment. The SCEC Broadband Platform is open-source scientific software that can generate broadband (0-100Hz) ground motions for earthquakes, integrating complex scientific modules that implement rupture generation, low and high-frequency seismogram synthesis, non-linear site effects calculation, and visualization into a software system that supports easy on-demand computation of seismograms. The Broadband Platform operates in two primary modes: validation simulations and scenario simulations. In validation mode, the Broadband Platform runs earthquake rupture and wave propagation modeling software to calculate seismograms of a historical earthquake for which observed strong ground motion data is available. Also in validation mode, the Broadband Platform calculates a number of goodness of fit measurements that quantify how well the model-based broadband seismograms match the observed seismograms for a certain event. Based on these results, the Platform can be used to tune and validate different numerical modeling techniques. During the past year, we have modified the software to enable the addition of a large number of historical events, and we are now adding validation simulation inputs and observational data for 23 historical events covering the Eastern and Western United States, Japan, Taiwan, Turkey, and Italy. In scenario mode, the Broadband Platform can run simulations for hypothetical (scenario) earthquakes. In this mode, users input an earthquake description, a list of station names and locations, and a 1D velocity model for their region of interest, and the Broadband Platform software then calculates ground motions for the specified stations. By establishing an interface between scientific modules with a common set of input and output files, the Broadband Platform facilitates the addition of new scientific methods, which are written by earth scientists in a number of languages such as C, C++, Fortran, and Python. The Broadband Platform's modular design also supports the reuse of existing software modules as building blocks to create new scientific methods. Additionally, the Platform implements a wrapper around each scientific module, converting input and output files to and from the specific formats required (or produced) by individual scientific codes. Working in close collaboration with scientists and research engineers, the SCEC software development group continues to add new capabilities to the Broadband Platform and to release new versions as open-source scientific software distributions that can be compiled and run on many Linux computer systems. Our latest release includes the addition of 3 new simulation methods and several new data products, such as map and distance-based goodness of fit plots. Finally, as the number and complexity of scenarios simulated using the Broadband Platform increase, we have added batching utilities to substantially improve support for running large-scale simulations on computing clusters.

  2. The Quake-Catcher Network: Improving Earthquake Strong Motion Observations Through Community Engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, E. S.; Lawrence, J. F.; Christensen, C. M.; Chung, A. I.; Neighbors, C.; Saltzman, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) involves the community in strong motion data collection by utilizing volunteer computing techniques and low-cost MEMS accelerometers. Volunteer computing provides a mechanism to expand strong-motion seismology with minimal infrastructure costs, while promoting community participation in science. Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) triaxial accelerometers can be attached to a desktop computer via USB and are internal to many laptops. Preliminary shake table tests show the MEMS accelerometers can record high-quality seismic data with instrument response similar to research-grade strong-motion sensors. QCN began distributing sensors and software to K-12 schools and the general public in April 2008 and has grown to roughly 1500 stations worldwide. We also recently tested whether sensors could be quickly deployed as part of a Rapid Aftershock Mobilization Program (RAMP) following the 2010 M8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake. Volunteers are recruited through media reports, web-based sensor request forms, as well as social networking sites. Using data collected to date, we examine whether a distributed sensing network can provide valuable seismic data for earthquake detection and characterization while promoting community participation in earthquake science. We utilize client-side triggering algorithms to determine when significant ground shaking occurs and this metadata is sent to the main QCN server. On average, trigger metadata are received within 1-10 seconds from the observation of a trigger; the larger data latencies are correlated with greater server-station distances. When triggers are detected, we determine if the triggers correlate to others in the network using spatial and temporal clustering of incoming trigger information. If a minimum number of triggers are detected then a QCN-event is declared and an initial earthquake location and magnitude is estimated. Initial analysis suggests that the estimated locations and magnitudes are similar to those reported in regional and global catalogs. As the network expands, it will become increasingly important to provide volunteers access to the data they collect, both to encourage continued participation in the network and to improve community engagement in scientific discourse related to seismic hazard. In the future, we hope to provide access to both images and raw data from seismograms in formats accessible to the general public through existing seismic data archives (e.g. IRIS, SCSN) and/or through the QCN project website. While encouraging community participation in seismic data collection, we can extend the capabilities of existing seismic networks to rapidly detect and characterize strong motion events. In addition, the dense waveform observations may provide high-resolution ground shaking information to improve source imaging and seismic risk assessment.

  3. WHITTIER NARROWS, CALIFORNIA EARTHQUAKE OF OCTOBER 1, 1987-PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF STRONG GROUND MOTION RECORDS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, A.G.; Etheredge, E.C.; Porcella, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    More than 250 strong-motion accelerograph stations were triggered by the Whittier Narrows, California earthquake of 1 October 1987. Considering the number of multichannel structural stations in the area of strong shaking, this set of records is one of the more significant in history. Three networks, operated by the U. S. Geological Survey, the California Division of Mines and Geology, and the University of Southern California produced the majority of the records. The excellent performance of the instruments in these and the smaller arrays is attributable to the quality of the maintenance programs. Readiness for a magnitude 8 event is directly related to these maintenance programs. Prior to computer analysis of the analog film records, a number of important structural resonant modes can be identified, and frequencies and simple mode shapes have been scaled.

  4. Surface Waves in Strong-Motion Records and their Importance for Engineering Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jetson Ronald, A.; Lai, C. G.; Papageoriou, A. S.

    2012-04-01

    Strong motion records are composed by body as well as surface waves, however traditionally surface waves are considered of less engineering importance. Yet, surface waves generated within the sedimentary basin as a consequence of the interaction of incoming body waves with the heterogeneous basin structure could be a concern both in the near and the far-fields. The basin recorded ground-motion is distinct from the rocky site record. Typically, it has longer duration with long-period surface waves arriving at the later part of the seismogram. In order to properly explain the observation of surface waves in the basin records, we used a simple plane wave model propagating in a layered half-space medium. We considered basins with and without irregular boundary and seismic sources located both outside and beneath the basin. The multiple reflections and refractions within the basin due to the irregular basin structure is the primary cause for generating large-amplitude surface waves. Furthermore it appears that the source located outside the basin is more efficient in generating surface waves compared to the source beneath the basin. This feature is also supported by the observations during the earthquakes. In this communication, we used records from an aftershock of 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake to demonstrate the significance of surface waves in the strong motion records and we also explained a simplified yet powerful band-pass filtering approach to isolate the surface waves form the body waves. Later, we carried out a nonlinear dynamic analysis of steel framed structures ranging from 3 to 20 stories for both a basin record and the rocky site record. We noted that the long period surface waves have a significant contribution in the structural response especially for long-period structures (above 10 stories) and ignoring the surface waves in the structural design for structures located in the basin would heavily undermine the seismic risk.

  5. Site effects by generalized inversion technique using strong motion recordings of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yefei; Wen, Ruizhi; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Kashima, Toshihide

    2013-06-01

    The generalized inversion of S-wave amplitude spectra from the free-field strong motion recordings of the China National Strong Motion Observation Network System (NSMONS) are used to evaluate the site effects in the Wenchuan area. In this regard, a total of 602 recordings from 96 aftershocks of the Wenchuan earthquake with magnitudes of M3.7- M6.5 were selected as a dataset. These recordings were obtained from 28 stations at a hypocenter distance ranging from 30 km to 150 km. The inversion results have been verified as reliable by comparing the site response at station 62WUD using the Generalized Inversion Technique (GIT) and the Standard Spectral Ratio method (SSR). For all 28 stations, the site predominant frequency F p and the average site amplification in different frequency bands of 1.0-5.0 Hz, 5.0-10.0 Hz and 1.0-10.0 Hz have been calculated based on the inversion results. Compared with the results from the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) method, it shows that the HVSR method can reasonably estimate the site predominant frequency but underestimates the site amplification. The linear fitting between the average site amplification for each frequency band and the V s20 (the average uppermost-20 m shear wave velocity) shows good correlation. A distance measurement called the asperity distance D Aspt is proposed to reasonably characterize the source-to-site distance for large earthquakes. Finally, the inversed site response is used to identify the soil nonlinearity in the main shock and aftershocks of Wenchuan earthquake. In ten of the 28 stations analyzed in the main shock, the soil behaved nonlinearly, where the ground motion level is apparently beyond a threshold of PGA > 300 cm/s2 or PGV > 20 cm/s, and only one station coded 51SFB has evidence of soil nonlinear behavior in the aftershocks.

  6. Preliminary results of strong ground motion simulation for the Lushan earthquake of 20 April 2013, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Gengshang; Zhang, Zhenguo; Wen, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Xiaofei

    2013-08-01

    The earthquake occurred in Lushan County on 20 April, 2013 caused heavy casualty and economic loss. In order to understand how the seismic energy propagates during this earthquake and how it causes the seismic hazard, we simulated the strong ground motions from a representative kinematic source model by Zhang et al. (Chin J Geophys 56(4):1408-1411, 2013) for this earthquake. To include the topographic effects, we used the curved grids finite difference method by Zhang and Chen (Geophys J Int 167(1):337-353, 2006), Zhang et al. (Geophys J Int 190(1):358-378, 2012) to implement the simulations. Our results indicated that the majority of seismic energy concentrated in the epicentral area and the vicinal Sichuan Basin, causing the XI and VII degree intensity. Due to the strong topographic effects of the mountain, the seismic intensity in the border area across the northeastern of Boxing County to the Lushan County also reached IX degree. Moreover, the strong influence of topography caused the amplifications of ground shaking at the mountain ridge, which is easy to cause landslides. These results are quite similar to those observed in the Wenchuan earthquake of 2008 occurred also in a strong topographic mountain area.

  7. A strong-motion database from the Central American subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arango, Maria Cristina; Strasser, Fleur O.; Bommer, Julian J.; Hernández, Douglas A.; Cepeda, Jose M.

    2011-04-01

    Subduction earthquakes along the Pacific Coast of Central America generate considerable seismic risk in the region. The quantification of the hazard due to these events requires the development of appropriate ground-motion prediction equations, for which purpose a database of recordings from subduction events in the region is indispensable. This paper describes the compilation of a comprehensive database of strong ground-motion recordings obtained during subduction-zone events in Central America, focusing on the region from 8 to 14° N and 83 to 92° W, including Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua and Costa Rica. More than 400 accelerograms recorded by the networks operating across Central America during the last decades have been added to data collected by NORSAR in two regional projects for the reduction of natural disasters. The final database consists of 554 triaxial ground-motion recordings from events of moment magnitudes between 5.0 and 7.7, including 22 interface and 58 intraslab-type events for the time period 1976-2006. Although the database presented in this study is not sufficiently complete in terms of magnitude-distance distribution to serve as a basis for the derivation of predictive equations for interface and intraslab events in Central America, it considerably expands the Central American subduction data compiled in previous studies and used in early ground-motion modelling studies for subduction events in this region. Additionally, the compiled database will allow the assessment of the existing predictive models for subduction-type events in terms of their applicability for the Central American region, which is essential for an adequate estimation of the hazard due to subduction earthquakes in this region.

  8. Basement Imaging Using Sp Converted Phases from a Dense Strong-Motion Array in Lan-Yang Plain, Taiwan

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yih-Min

    and Shakal, 1991; Langston, 2003a). In addition to high values of site amplification and anelastic (Chiang, 1976). According to seismic survey by the Chinese Petroleum Corporation presented in the study-wave velocities and layer thicknesses are given in Chiang (1976) and

  9. Site effects in Avcilar, West of Istanbul, Turkey, from strong- and weak-motion data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ozel, O.; Cranswick, E.; Meremonte, M.; Erdik, M.; Safak, E.

    2002-01-01

    Approximately 1000 people were killed in the collapse of buildings in Istanbul, Turkey, during the 17 August 1999 I??zmit earthquake, whose epicenter was roughly 90 km east of the city. Most of the fatalities and damage occurred in the suburb of Avcilar that is 20 km further west of the epicenter than the city proper. To investigate this pattern of damage, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI), deployed portable digital seismographs at seven free-field sites in western Istanbul, to record aftershocks during the period from 24 August to 2 September. The primary objective of this deployment was to study the site effects by comparing the aftershock ground motions recorded at sites inside and outside the damaged area, and to correlate site effects with the distribution of the damaged buildings. In addition to using weak-motion data, mainshock and aftershock acceleration records from the KOERI permanent strong-motion array were also used in estimating the site effects. Site effects were estimated using S waves from both types of records. For the weak-motion data set, 22 events were selected according to the criteria of signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ratio) and the number of stations recording the same event. The magnitudes of these events ranged from 3.0 to 5.2. The acceleration data set consisted of 12 events with magnitudes ranging from 4.3 to 5.8 and included two mainshock events. Results show that the amplifying frequency band is, in general, less than 4 Hz, and the physical properties of the geologic materials are capable of amplifying the motions by a factor of 5-10. In this frequency band, there is a good agreement among the spectral ratios obtained from the two mainshocks and their aftershocks. The damage pattern for the 17 August I??zmit earthquake is determined by several factors. However, our study suggests that the site effects in Avcilar played an important role in contributing to the damage.

  10. Final report on repair procedure of strong ground motion data from underground nuclear tests

    SciTech Connect

    Tunnell, T.W.

    1995-04-01

    Certain difficulties arise when recording close-in around motion from underground nuclear explosions. Data quality can be compromised by a variety of factors, including electromagnetic pulse, noise spikes, direct current effect, and gauge clipping and gauge tilt. From March 1988 through September 1994, EG&G Energy Measurements repaired strong round-motion data (acceleration data) from underground nuclear tests for the Los Alamos National Laboratory using, an automated repair procedure. The automated repair determined and implemented the required repairs based on user input and a consistent set of criteria. A log was kept of each repair so that the repair procedure could be duplicated. This relaxed the requirement to save the repaired data. Developed for the VAX system, the procedure allowed the user to stack up a large number of repairs, plot the repaired data, and obtain hard copies. The plotted data could then be reviewed for a given test to determine the consistency of repair for a given underground test. This feature released the user to perform other tasks while the data were being repaired.

  11. Real-Time Baseline Error Estimation and Correction for GNSS/Strong Motion Seismometer Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C. Y. N.; Groves, P. D.; Ziebart, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate and rapid estimation of permanent surface displacement is required immediately after a slip event for earthquake monitoring or tsunami early warning. It is difficult to achieve the necessary accuracy and precision at high- and low-frequencies using GNSS or seismometry alone. GNSS and seismic sensors can be integrated to overcome the limitations of each. Kalman filter algorithms with displacement and velocity states have been developed to combine GNSS and accelerometer observations to obtain the optimal displacement solutions. However, the sawtooth-like phenomena caused by the bias or tilting of the sensor decrease the accuracy of the displacement estimates. A three-dimensional Kalman filter algorithm with an additional baseline error state has been developed. An experiment with both a GNSS receiver and a strong motion seismometer mounted on a movable platform and subjected to known displacements was carried out. The results clearly show that the additional baseline error state enables the Kalman filter to estimate the instrument's sensor bias and tilt effects and correct the state estimates in real time. Furthermore, the proposed Kalman filter algorithm has been validated with data sets from the 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake. The results indicate that the additional baseline error state can not only eliminate the linear and quadratic drifts but also reduce the sawtooth-like effects from the displacement solutions. The conventional zero-mean baseline-corrected results cannot show the permanent displacements after an earthquake; the two-state Kalman filter can only provide stable and optimal solutions if the strong motion seismometer had not been moved or tilted by the earthquake. Yet the proposed Kalman filter can achieve the precise and accurate displacements by estimating and correcting for the baseline error at each epoch. The integration filters out noise-like distortions and thus improves the real-time detection and measurement capability. The system will return precise and accurate displacements at a high rate for real-time earthquake monitoring.

  12. Source process of the 2010 Chilean earthquake using strong-motion and geodetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyrat, S.; Socquet, A.; Vigny, C.; Ruiz, S.; Aranda, C.

    2010-12-01

    We investigate the detailed source process of the Maule earthquake (Mw 8.8) of the 27 February 2010 that occurred in Central Chile using regional seismic and geodetic data. The Concepción - Consitución region has been identified as one of the major seismic gap of Chile. In this region the last large earthquake occurred in 1835, and the seismogenic zone of the plate interface was fully coupled. We studied if the slip deficit accumulated since 1835 was released during the 2010 event by determining the slip distribution of the mainshock. Accurate recordings of strong motion near earthquakes source are crucial to provide valuable information on source processes, allowing detailed mapping of the rupture in space and time. The seismological available observations are the near-source accelerograms recorded in Chile, data come from the stations operated by the Sismological Service of DGF (U. de Chile). However the data coverage remains poor to the south of the rupture, we then use in addition to accelerometric data, high-rate cGPS to invert for the displacement distribution. These data are from the network installed within the framework of the French-Chilean collaboration and have in addition the advantage to directly record displacement including static offset, and are then complementary to existing strong motion networks for recording near-source and regional ground motions. We also constrain our inverted models as solutions compatible with teleseismic data and a systematic comparison with inverted geodetic models is also performed in order to converge towards a well-constrained seismo-geodetic compatible source. Our low frequency inversion provides a relatively smooth image of the rupture history. The mainshock start in the region of Cauquenes and propagated bilaterally, filling the Concepción - Consitución gap. To the south the rupture stopped in the northern extension of the rupture zone of the 1960 mega earthquake (Mw 9.5). The rupture propagated northward overlapping the 1928 rupture zone (Mw 7.6). This clearly shows evidences that rupture length and coseismic slip vary between successive earthquake cycles in the same segment of the subduction zone.

  13. Centroid Fault-Plane Inversion in Three-Dimensional Velocity Structure Using Strong-Motion Records

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yih-Min

    by Wei-An Chao, Li Zhao, and Yih-Min Wu Abstract The Chia-yi area in southwestern Taiwan is a region out on imaging the 3D changes of the regional crustal and uppermost mantle structures (e.g., Wu, 1978; Roecker et al., 1987; Rau and Wu, 1995; Ma et al., 1996; Kim et al., 2005; Wu et al., 2007; Wu, Chang, et

  14. Analysis of Iranian strong-motion data using the specific barrier model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, M.; Zafarani, H.; Noorzad, A.; Ansari, A.; Bargi, K.

    2007-12-01

    Two decades after the development of the specific barrier model (SBM) by Papageorgiou and Aki (1983a Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 73 693-722, 1983b Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 73 953-78), it remains to be the most sophisticated, yet simple, theoretical description of the earthquake faulting process. In this study, strong-motion accelerograms recorded in Iran are used in the context of 'random vibration theory' to calibrate the SBM. The database consists of 136 three-component records from 19 earthquakes of magnitude ranging from Mw 5.2 to Mw 7.4, recorded at hypocentral distances up to 200 km. Regression analysis has been conducted for pseudospectral velocity (PSV) using the 'random-effects' model that accounts for correlations in the data recorded by a single earthquake. A rough estimation of site amplification functions, is first obtained by the incorporation of mean frequency-dependent site-amplification factors, based on a gross characterization of the site class. However, a repetition of regression analysis with the use of a site-specific amplification function estimated by the horizontal-to-vertical ratio technique improved the fit to the observed amplitudes over the lower frequencies. The average values of the local and global stress drops, which are the two key parameters of the SBM, are determined to be 90 and 44 bars, respectively. The predicted PSV values agree well with available Iranian strong-motion data, as evidenced by the near-zero average of differences between the logarithms of the observed and predicted values (residuals) for all frequencies and the lack of any significant residual trends with distance and magnitude. A comparison of the SBM source spectra of this study with those of California and eastern North America (ENA) reveals that the spectral amplitudes are more like typical Californian source models than ENA in the frequency range studied here, from 1 to 10 Hz. Moreover, the calibrated model of this study which provides an efficient and physical representation of Iranian plateau source characteristics is found to be in reasonably good agreement with other local and regional attenuation relationships. Investigation of the residuals showed only a weak influence of soil nonlinearity; however, because of the relatively weak levels of acceleration in our database, it is not yet adequate to clearly distinguish this effect.

  15. Preliminary site classification of free-field strong motion stations based on Wenchuan earthquake records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Ruizhi; Ren, Yefei; Zhou, Zhenghua; Shi, Dacheng

    2010-02-01

    During the great Wenchuan earthquake, about 460 permanent free-field stations in National Strong Motion Observation Network System (NSMONS) of China captured the main shock acceleration records. These records can be applied to site effect analyses, and then the site classification of those permanent stations can be carried out firstly, which will served as the fundamental information for further research. In this paper, the site of near-fault stations is classified by horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) method according to the site class description of Japan earthquake resistant design code and response spectral shapes (RSS) method following the site class description of the 1997 Uniform Building Code (UBC) provisions. Then based on the detailed borehole data of those free-field stations, the equivalent shear wave velocity and overburden thickness are calculated and the site classifications are given by Chinese code for seismic design of buildings. Furthermore, for the stations having successful microtremor test data, the site dominant periods are computed to verify the results of site classification. Finally, combined with all the above results, the recommended site classes of near-fault permanent free-field stations are given.

  16. Proschema: A Matlab application for processing strong motion records and estimating earthquake engineering parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segou, M.; Voulgaris, N.

    2010-07-01

    Strong motion records are the original input data for earthquake engineering studies and earthquake resistant building codes. Records originating from both, analogue and modern digital instruments should be subjected to processing in order to derive credible engineering parameters, such as spectral ordinates. A number of processing procedures have been proposed by many researchers through the past few decades; the goal, however, is always the same, identification and removal of noise and performing necessary adjustments related to the operating instrument or the record's quality. A careful inspection of previous processing schemes and the design of several development tests related to major processing steps proved to be helpful in determining the necessary features that the presented software should include. These have been incorporated in a Matlab application in order to produce a reliable and user-friendly interface giving the researcher several options on major processing steps. It is noteworthy that this computer program can be used either as an interactive process tool when individual record processing corresponds to the researcher's needs or, for processing a vast number of records without user supervision and even through a scheduled task.

  17. Site correction of earthquake early warning system in Ilan, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiao Chu, Hsu; Liang, Wen Kuo; Jyun Yan, Huang

    2015-04-01

    When large earthquake occurs, earthquake early warning (EEW) provides alerts to urban areas of the forthcoming strong ground shaking. Depending on the specific geometry of the epicenter and the strong motion network used in EEW, the warning time can be a few seconds to tens of seconds. This warning time can be extremely important since even a few seconds can be sufficient for pre-programmed systems to have emergency response. The Central Weather Bureau (CWB) had already used network EEW system to predict intensity map. Due to leveling of intensity was roughly divided into seven grades according to peak acceleration (PGA) in Taiwan, the warning message is not cautious for company, home and school use, the accuracy of predicted PGA were discuss for our result. A practical site correction approach for EEW was constructed in this study. Period parameter (?c) and an amplitude parameter (Pd)from the initial 3 seconds of P waves were calculated after Wu et al.(2005) first for each site of Taiwan Strong-Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) in Ilan, Taiwan for focal depths less than 35 km and magnitude Mw>=5.0. Two pairs of linear relations had showed in each station between ?c, magnitude (Mw) and Pd, hypocenter distance (R) that could be corrected individually. Prediction results of PGA from site correction based ground motion prediction equation (Jean et al. 2006) indicated that the corrected parameters of EEW in this study had improved the accuracy of ground motion prediction. Which means reasonable site correction of each station was needed for EEW system. Key works: earthquake early warning, P wave, site correction

  18. Strong ground motion synthesis along the Sanyi-Tungshih-Puli seismic zone using empirical Green`s functions

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchings, L.; Foxall, W.; Kasameyer, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Wu, F.T. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Rau, R.-J. [Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Inst. of Earth Sciences; Jarpe, S. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Inst. for Crustal Studies

    1997-01-01

    We synthesize strong ground motion from a M=7.25 earthquake along the NW-trending Sanyi-Tungshih-Puli seismic zone. This trend extends from Houlong to Taichung and forms a nearly continuous 78 km long seismic zone identified by the occurrence of M<5 events. It extends from a shallow depth all the way down to about 40 km. The entire length of the fault, if activated at one time, can lead to an event comparable to that the 1995 Kobe earthquake. With the improved digital CWBSN data now provided routinely by CWBSN, it becomes possible to use these data as empirical Green`s functions to synthesize potential ground motion for future large earthquakes. We developed a suite of 100 rupture scenarios for the earthquake and computed the commensurate strong ground motion time histories. We synthesized strong ground motion with physics-based solutions of earthquake rupture and applied physical bounds on rupture parameters. the synthesized ground motions obtained for a fixed magnitude and identifying the hazard to a site from the statistical distribution of engineering parameters, we have introduced a probabilistic component to the deterministic hazard calculation, The time histories suggested for engineering design are the ones that most closely match either the average or one standard deviation absolute acceleration response values.

  19. The nearby strongly reddened open cluster Stock2 . A new study based on accurate proper motions and 2MASS photometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Spagna; F. Cossu; M. G. Lattanzi; G. Massone

    2009-01-01

    The open cluster Stock 2 is situated in the Orion spiral arm and is affected by a strong and patchy interstellar extinction. These characteristics make its investigation rather demanding and a difficult task. We decided to tackle this cluster by means of an integrate use of astrometric and photometric observations. Here we present new results based on accurate proper motions,

  20. PEAK HORIZONTAL ACCELERATION AND VELOCITY FROM STRONG MOTION RECORDS INCLUDING RECORDS FROM THE 1979 IMPERIAL VALLEY, CALIFORNIA, EARTHQUAKE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM B. JOYNER; DAVID M. BOORE

    1981-01-01

    We have taken advantage of the recent increase in strong-motion data at close distances to derive new attenuation relations for peak horizontal acceler- ation and velocity. This new analysis uses a magnitude-independent shape, based on geometrical spreading and anelastic attenuation, for the attenuation curve. An innovation in technique is introduced that decouples the determination of the distance dependence of the

  1. Complexity of the Mw 6.3 2009 L'Aquila (central Italy) earthquake: 2. Broadband strong motion modeling

    E-print Network

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    Complexity of the Mw 6.3 2009 L'Aquila (central Italy) earthquake: 2. Broadband strong motion. Gallovic, and F. Pacor (2012), Complexity of the Mw 6.3 2009 L'Aquila (central Italy) earthquake: 2 during the Mw 6.3 2009 L'Aquila earthquake exhibit great spatial variability. Modeling the observed

  2. 44444444 00000000 EE-21C, Topic 2: Strong Ground Motion, Engineering Seismology, Earthquake Hazard and Risk Assessment

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    TTT222 44444444 00000000 EE-21C, Topic 2: Strong Ground Motion, Engineering Seismology, Earthquake.Aochi@brgm.fr 3 Department of Earth Sciences, University of Trieste Via E. Weiss, 1,34127 Trieste, Italy suhadolc manuscript, published in "Earthquake Engineering in the 21st Century (EE-21C), Ohrid : Macedonia, The Former

  3. Basin and crustal velocity structure models for the simulation of strong ground motions in the Kinki area, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Tomotaka; Kagawa, Takao; Petukhin, Anatoly; Ohnishi, Yoshihiro

    2008-04-01

    We constructed a prototype of the basin and crustal structure model for the Kinki area, southwest of Japan, for the simulation of strong ground motions of hypothetical crustal and subduction earthquakes. We collected results of the deep seismic velocity profiles obtained by the reflection experiments and seismic imaging results, which were conducted in the Kinki area. The obtained profiles give underground velocity structures of the crust, from the surface to the subducting slab. We also gather the basin velocity structure information of the Osaka, Kyoto, Nara, and Ohmi basins. To examine the applicability of the constructed velocity structure model to the ground motion simulation, we simulated waveforms of an intermediate size event occurred near the source area of the hypothetical subduction earthquakes. Simulated ground motions using the basin and crustal velocity structure model are fairly well reproducing the observations at most of stations, and the constructed basin and crustal velocity structure model is applicable for the long-period ground motion simulations.

  4. Lotung large-scale seismic test strong motion records. Volume 1, General description: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), in cooperation with the Taiwan Power Company (TPC), constructed two models (1/4 scale and 1/12 scale) of a nuclear plant concrete containment structure at a seismically active site in Lotung, Taiwan. Extensive instrumentation was deployed to record both structural and ground responses during earthquakes. The experiment, generally referred to as the Lotung Large-Scale Seismic Test (LSST), was used to gather data for soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis method evaluation and validation as well as for site ground response investigation. A number of earthquakes having local magnitudes ranging from 4.5 to 7.0 have been recorded at the LSST site since the completion of the test facility in September 1985. This report documents the earthquake data, both raw and processed, collected from the LSST experiment. Volume 1 of the report provides general information on site location, instrument types and layout, data acquisition and processing, and data file organization. The recorded data are described chronologically in subsequent volumes of the report.

  5. Modelling of Strong Ground Motions from 1991 Uttarkashi, India, Earthquake Using a Hybrid Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Teotia, S. S.; Sriram, V.

    2011-10-01

    We present a simple and efficient hybrid technique for simulating earthquake strong ground motion. This procedure is the combination of the techniques of envelope function (M idorikawa et al. Tectonophysics 218:287-295, 1993) and composite source model (Z eng et al. Geophys Res Lett 21:725-728, 1994). The first step of the technique is based on the construction of the envelope function of the large earthquake by superposition of envelope functions for smaller earthquakes. The smaller earthquakes (sub-events) of varying sizes are distributed randomly, instead of uniform distribution of same size sub-events, on the fault plane. The accelerogram of large event is then obtained by combining the envelope function with a band-limited white noise. The low-cut frequency of the band-limited white noise is chosen to correspond to the corner frequency for the target earthquake magnitude and the high-cut to the Boore's f max or a desired frequency for the simulation. Below the low-cut frequency, the fall-off slope is 2 in accordance with the ?2 earthquake source model. The technique requires the parameters such as fault area, orientation of the fault, hypocenter, size of the sub-events, stress drop, rupture velocity, duration, source-site distance and attenuation parameter. The fidelity of the technique has been demonstrated by successful modeling of the 1991 Uttarkashi, Himalaya earthquake (Ms 7). The acceptable locations of the sub-events on the fault plane have been determined using a genetic algorithm. The main characteristics of the simulated accelerograms, comprised of the duration of strong ground shaking, peak ground acceleration and Fourier and response spectra, are, in general, in good agreement with those observed at most of the sites. At some of the sites the simulated accelerograms differ from observed ones by a factor of 2-3. The local site geology and topography may cause such a difference, as these effects have not been considered in the present technique. The advantage of the technique lies in the fact that detailed parameters such as velocity-Q structures and empirical Green's functions are not required or the records of the actual time history from the past earthquakes are not available. This method may find its application in preparing a wide range of scenarios based on simulation. This provides information that is complementary to the information available in probabilistic hazard maps.

  6. Structural, geodetic and seismological evidence for tectonic escape in SW Taiwan

    E-print Network

    Lin, Andrew Tien-Shun

    -strike and along-strike motions on these major faults. Although direct onland structural evidence of tectonic in the Manila trench, incipient collision south of Taiwan, active collision in south-central Taiwan, past

  7. Simulation of a strong ground motion exceeding 4G during the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido, N.; Aoi, S.; Suzuki, W.

    2008-12-01

    The Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake, a powerful reverse fault event that occurred on the southern Iwate prefecture Japan (2008/6/14), produced the largest peak ground acceleration recorded to date (4G), at the West Ichinoseki, KiK-net/NIED strong motion station (IWTH25), which is located immediately above the hypocenter. This KiK-net station which is equipped with surface and borehole accelerometers (GL -260m), also recorded very high peak accelerations up to 1G at the borehole level, despite being located in a rock site (Vs ~ 1800m/s). Preliminary analyses of these waveforms show a very strong content of high frequencies (HF). To understand the generation process of this extreme shaking we simulated the three components of ground motion at the IWTH25 borehole and surface levels, by applying a strong motion simulation methodology based on a dynamic model of fault rupture (Pulido and Dalguer 2008, PD08). Following PD08 we investigated the contribution of rupture velocity changes (? Vr) and stress drop (??) across the fault plane to the HF ground motion radiation of the earthquake at the borehole level, and then calculated the non-linear response of the shallow layers to obtain the ground motion at the surface. To calculate the stress drop distribution of the earthquake we apply the methodology of Ripperger and Mai (2004), by using the slip model obtained from an inversion of near-source strong motion recordings (Suzuki et al. 2008), and a 1D velocity model for the Kanto region. The dislocation model of this earthquake is characterized by two patches of large slip, the first one located at the hypocenter and the second at ~7 km south of the hypocenter. Our results for the calculation of stress drop follow a similar pattern, namely a very large stress drop of ~80MPa concentrated at the hypocenter, as well as a large value of ~50MPa for the southern patch. To calculate the HF ground motion we follow PD08 who found that the HF radiation from earthquakes is confined to regions in the fault plane where the product ??? Vr is relatively large. Based on this result we calculate a stochastic distribution of ? Vr values in the ±3.0 km/s range for areas in the fault plane where ?? > 15 MPa, and in the ±0.5 km/s range for the remaining areas. We calculate the ground motion at the IWTH25 station following the methodology of PD08, by using the mapped HF radiation distribution and an average rupture velocity of 2 km/s. Our simulated waveforms incorporate the contribution of the P and S waves to the HF ground motion at the horizontals and vertical component. Our simulation is able to reproduce the overall characteristics of the observed waveform at IWTH25, including the observed ? -2 spectral radiation. Our results show a strong contribution of the P wave radiation pattern to the relative amplitudes of ground motion for the three components at IWTH25. In the present calculation our assumption of ? Vr is entirely ad hoc. Future research includes the calculation of a dynamic model of the earthquake to put physical constraints on the fault rupture process and the simulation of near-source ground motion. ReferencesRipperger, J., and P.M., Mai (2004), Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L18610. Pulido, N., and L.A. Dalguer (2008), Estimation of the high-frequency radiation of the 2000 Tottori (Japan) earthquake based on a dynamic model of fault rupture: Application to the strong ground motion simulation, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 2008 (in review). Suzuki, W., S. Aoi, and H. Sekiguchi (2008), 2008 AGU fall meeting.

  8. Observing Structure and Motion in Molecules with Ultrafast Strong Field and Short Wavelength Laser Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bucksbaum, Philip H.

    2011-04-13

    The term "molecular movie" has come to describe efforts to track and record Angstrom-scale coherent atomic and electronic motion in a molecule. The relevant time scales for this range cover several orders of magnitude, from sub-femtosecond motion associated with electron-electron correlations, to 100-fs internal vibrations, to multi-picosecond motion associated with the dispersion and quantum revivals of molecular reorientation. Conventional methods of cinematography do not work well in this ultrafast and ultrasmall regime, but stroboscopic "pump and probe" techniques can reveal this motion with high fidelity. This talk will describe some of the methods and recent progress in exciting and controlling this motion, using both laboratory lasers and the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source x-ray free electron laser, and will further try to relate the date to the goal of molecular movies.

  9. Characteristics of strong motions and damage implications of M S6.5 Ludian earthquake on August 3, 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Peibin; Wen, Ruizhi; Wang, Hongwei; Ji, Kun; Ren, Yefei

    2015-02-01

    The Ludian County of Yunnan Province in southwestern China was struck by an M S6.5 earthquake on August 3, 2014, which was another destructive event following the M S8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, M S7.1 Yushu earthquake in 2010, and M S7.0 Lushan earthquake in 2013. National Strong-Motion Observation Network System of China collected 74 strong motion recordings, which the maximum peak ground acceleration recorded by the 053LLT station in Longtoushan Town was 949 cm/s2 in E-W component. The observed PGAs and spectral ordinates were compared with ground-motion prediction equation in China and the NGA-West2 developed by Pacific Earthquake Engineering Researcher Center. This earthquake is considered as the first case for testing applicability of NGA-West2 in China. Results indicate that the observed PGAs and the 5 % damped pseudo-response spectral accelerations are significantly lower than the predicted ones. The field survey around some typical strong motion stations verified that the earthquake damage was consistent with the official isoseismal by China Earthquake Administration.

  10. Modeling and simulation of near-fault strong ground motions for earthquake engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavroeidis, George P.

    This dissertation aims at providing to earthquake engineers simple tools and techniques that enhance the physical understanding, characterization, proper parameterization, analytical modeling, and numerical simulation of near-fault ground motions for earthquake engineering applications. A simple analytical model is proposed for the representation of near-source ground motions that adequately describes the impulsive character of near-fault seismic excitations both qualitatively and quantitatively. In addition, it can be used to analytically reproduce empirical observations that are based on available near-source records. The model input parameters have an unambiguous physical interpretation and scale, to the extent possible, with physical parameters of the fault rupture. A simplified methodology, for generating realistic broadband near-fault ground motions that are adequate for engineering analysis and design, is outlined and applied. A comprehensive study of the elastic and inelastic response of the single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system subjected to near-fault ground motion excitations is also presented. As a key parameter of the ground motion model emerges the pulse duration that is used to normalize the abscissa (period-axis) of response spectra. Such normalization makes feasible the specification of design spectra and reduction factors appropriate for near-fault ground motions. The effect of fault rupture characteristics on near-fault ground motions is also investigated using a kinematic approach in an attempt to identify physical processes that lead to specific ground motion patterns. Finally, the primary characteristics of strain, rocking, and torsional components of ground motion in the near-fault region induced by seismic excitations are discussed and a simplified approach is presented for the qualitative and quantitative description of the torsional component of the dynamic ground deformation field.

  11. Clastic Pipes: Proxies of High Water Tables and Strong Ground Motion, Jurassic Carmel Formation, Southern Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheatley, David; Chan, Marjorie

    2015-04-01

    Multiple soft sediment deformation features from bed-scale to basin-scale are well preserved within the Jurassic Carmel Formation of Southern Utah. Field mapping reveals thousands of small-scale clastic injectite pipes (10 cm to 10 m diameter, up to 20 m tall) in extremely high densities (up to 500+ pipes per 0.075 square kilometers). The pipes weather out in positive relief from the surrounding host strata of massive sandstone (sabkha) and crossbedded sands with minor conglomerate and shale (fluvial) deposits. The host rock shows both brittle and ductile deformation. Reverse, normal, and antithetical faulting is common with increased frequency, including ring faults, surrounding the pipes. The pipes formed from liquefaction and subsequent fluidization induced by strong ground motion. Down-dropped, graben blocks and ring faults surrounding pipes indicate initial sediment volume increase during pipe emplacement followed by sediment volume decrease during dewatering. Complex crosscutting relationships indicate several injection events where some pipe events reached the surface as sand blows. Multiple ash layers provide excellent stratigraphic and temporal constraints for the pipe system with the host strata deposited between 166 and 164 Ma. Common volcanic fragments and rounded volcanic cobbles occur within sandstone and conglomerate beds, and pipes. Isolated volcanic clasts in massive sandstone indicate explosive volcanic events that could have been the exogenic trigger for earthquakes. The distribution of pipes are roughly parallel to the Middle Jurassic paleoshoreline located in marginal environments between the shallow epicontinental Sundance Sea and continental dryland. At the vertical stratigraphic facies change from dominantly fluvial sediments to dominantly massive sabkha sediments, there is a 1-2 m-thick floodplain mudstone that was a likely seal for underlying, overpressurized sediments. The combination of loose porous sediment at a critical depth of water saturation made the system extremely susceptible to liquefaction. Fluid inclusions of carbonate nodules present on the pipe margins indicate salinity, temperature, and character of possible early diagenetic fluids before significant burial. These inclusions can reveal information about brines from point sources or fed via groundwater. Overall, the combination of clastic pipes and their related soft deformation structures in the host rock provide proxies for the existence of high water table conditions within arid climate regimes and transitional paleoenvironments previously assumed to be devoid of significant amounts of water. The pipe distribution and evidence of multiple injectite events paralleling an ancient paleoshoreline provides basin-scale insights on repeated paleoseismicity and volcanism along the convergent boundary of the Cordilleran.

  12. Strong-Field Modulated Diffraction Effects in the Correlated Electron-Nuclear Motion in Dissociating H{sub 2}{sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    He Feng [James R. Macdonald Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506-2604 (United States); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik of Komplexer Systeme, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Becker, Andreas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik of Komplexer Systeme, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Thumm, Uwe [James R. Macdonald Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506-2604 (United States)

    2008-11-21

    We show that the electronic dynamics in a molecule driven by a strong field is complex and potentially even counterintuitive. As a prototype example, we simulate the interaction of a dissociating H{sub 2}{sup +} molecule with an intense infrared laser pulse. Depending on the laser intensity, the direction of the electron's motion between the two nuclei is found to follow or oppose the classical laser-electric force. We explain the sensitive dependence of the correlated electronic-nuclear motion in terms of the diffracting electronic momentum distribution of the dissociating two-center system. The distribution is dynamically modulated by the nuclear motion and periodically shifted in the oscillating infrared electric field.

  13. Slip history of the 2003 San Simeon earthquake constrained by combining 1-Hz GPS, strong motion, and teleseismic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ji, C.; Larson, K.M.; Tan, Y.; Hudnut, K.W.; Choi, K.

    2004-01-01

    The slip history of the 2003 San Simeon earthquake is constrained by combining strong motion and teleseismic data, along with GPS static offsets and 1-Hz GPS observations. Comparisons of a 1-Hz GPS time series and a co-located strong motion data are in very good agreement, demonstrating a new application of GPS. The inversion results for this event indicate that the rupture initiated at a depth of 8.5 km and propagated southeastwards with a speed ???3.0 km/sec, with rake vectors forming a fan structure around the hypocenter. We obtained a peak slip of 2.8 m and total seismic moment of 6.2 ?? 1018 Nm. We interpret the slip distribution as indicating that the hanging wall rotates relative to the footwall around the hypocenter, in a sense that appears consistent with the shape of the mapped fault trace. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. The influence of critical Moho reflections on strong ground motions recorded in San Francisco and Oakland during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Somerville; Joanne Yoshimura

    1990-01-01

    The amplitudes of strong ground motions from the Loma Prieta earthquake recorded in the San Francisco and Oakland areas exceeded the levels predicted by standard empirical attenuation relations. Preliminary analysis of accelerograms having known trigger times strongly suggests that the elevation of ground motion amplitudes in the distance range of approximately 40 to 100 km was due to critical reflections

  15. ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 471, Vol. 43, No. 3, September 2006, pp. 65-74 ESTIMATION OF NEAR-FAULT STRONG GROUND MOTIONS FOR

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Vinay Kumar

    ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 471, Vol. 43, No. 3, September 2006, pp. 65 of the recorded strong motions. The spectral differences between small and strong earthquakes are described ground motions of the Northridge (Mw = 6.7) earthquake. It is concluded that the finite-fault effect

  16. Peak horizontal acceleration and velocity from strong-motion records including records from the 1979 imperial valley, California, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joyner, William B.; Boore, David M.

    1981-01-01

    We have taken advantage of the recent increase in strong-motion data at close distances to derive new attenuation relations for peak horizontal acceleration and velocity. This new analysis uses a magnitude-independent shape, based on geometrical spreading and anelastic attenuation, for the attenuation curve. An innovation in technique is introduced that decouples the determination of the distance dependence of the data from the magnitude dependence.

  17. Distributed system for strong motion data retrieval and archiving : metadata, databases and data exchange within the NA5 framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Pequegnat; P. Gueguen; R. Jacquot

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the NERIES NA5 activity (http:\\/\\/www.neries-eu.org, Improving Accelerometric Data Access) is the development of common access to equally formatted event based accelerometric data and to the corresponding sheet of strong motion parameters. The core of the NA5 is made of 5 European institutes and the final protocol should permit other European institutes to integrate the NA5 portal. More

  18. Short Note Site Effect of the Strong-Motion Site at Tolmezzo-Ambiesta Dam in Northeastern Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Barnaba; E. Priolo; A. Vuan; M. Romanelli

    2007-01-01

    A spectral analysis of strong-motion data and ambient noise at the Tolmezzo-Ambiesta dam accelerograph (TLM1) site is performed to explain the high horizontal peak acceleration of 0.36g recorded during the Mw 6.4, 6 May 1976 Friuli (northeastern Italy) earthquake. The spectral response of the accelerographic site is estimated from the mainshocks and aftershocks of the 1976 seismic sequence by different

  19. Synchrotron radiation with radiation reaction. [relativistic electron motion in strong astrophysical magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Robert W.; Wasserman, Ira

    1991-01-01

    A rigorous discussion is presented of the classical motion of a relativistic electron in a magnetic field and the resulting electromagnetic radiation when radiation reaction is important. In particular, for an electron injected with initial energy gamma(0), a systematic perturbative solution to the Lorentz-Dirac equation of motion is developed for field strengths satisfying gamma(0) B much less than 6 x 10 to the 15th G. A particularly accurate solution to the electron orbital motion in this regime is found and it is demonstrated how lowest-order corrections can be calculated. It is shown that the total energy-loss rate corresponds to what would be found using the exact Larmor power formula without including radiation reaction. Provided that the particle energy and field strength satisfy the same contraint, it is explicitly demonstrated that the intuitive prescription for calculating the time-integrated radiation spectrum described above is correct.

  20. A preliminary investigation of strong-motion data from the French Antilles

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of the recent tectonics and related seismic and volcanic activity in the Lesser Antilles. In the northern part at certain stations; and also with respect to their predictability by ground motion estimation equations located on shallow faults. The most active area is shown to be between Marie-Galante and Grande

  1. A source model of the 2014 South Napa Earthquake by the EGF broad-band strong ground motion simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, T.; Asano, K.; Kubo, H.

    2014-12-01

    The source model of the 2014 South Napa earthquake (Mw6.0) is estimated using broad band strong ground motion simulation by the empirical Green's function method (Irikura, 1986, Irikura et al., 1997). We used the CESMD strong motion data. Aftershock ground motion records of Mw3.6 which occurred at 05:33 on 24th August (PDT), are used as an empirical Green's function. We refer to the finite source model by Dreger et al. (2014) for setting the geometry of the source fault plane and the rupture velocity. We assume a single rectangular strong motion generation area (e.g. Miyake et al., 2003; Asano and Iwata, 2012). The seismic moment ratio between the target and EGF events is fixed from the moment magnitudes. As only five station data are available for the aftershock records, the size of SMGA area, rupture starting point, and the rise time on the SMGA are determined by the trial and error.?Preliminary SMGA model is 6x6km2 and the rupture mainly propagates WNW and shallower directions. The SMGA size we obtained follows the empirical relationship of Mw and SMGA size for the inland crustal events (Irikura and Miyake, 2011). Waveform fittings are fairly well at the near source station NHC (Huichica creek) and 68150 (Napa Collage), where as the fitting is not good at the south-side stations, 68206 (Crockett - Carquinez Br. Geotech Array) and 68310 (Vallejo - Hwy 37/Napa River E Geo. Array). Particularly, we did not succeed in explaining the high PGA at the 68206 surface station. We will try to improve our SMGA model and will discuss the origin of the high PGA observed at that station.

  2. A Test of a Strong Ground Motion Prediction Methodology for the 7 September 1999, Mw=6.0 Athens Earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchings, L; Ioannidou, E; Voulgaris, N; Kalogeras, I; Savy, J; Foxall, W; Stavrakakis, G

    2004-08-06

    We test a methodology to predict the range of ground-motion hazard for a fixed magnitude earthquake along a specific fault or within a specific source volume, and we demonstrate how to incorporate this into probabilistic seismic hazard analyses (PSHA). We modeled ground motion with empirical Green's functions. We tested our methodology with the 7 September 1999, Mw=6.0 Athens earthquake, we: (1) developed constraints on rupture parameters based on prior knowledge of earthquake rupture processes and sources in the region; (2) generated impulsive point shear source empirical Green's functions by deconvolving out the source contribution of M < 4.0 aftershocks; (3) used aftershocks that occurred throughout the area and not necessarily along the fault to be modeled; (4) ran a sufficient number of scenario earthquakes to span the full variability of ground motion possible; (5) found that our distribution of synthesized ground motions span what actually occurred and their distribution is realistically narrow; (6) determined that one of our source models generates records that match observed time histories well; (7) found that certain combinations of rupture parameters produced ''extreme'' ground motions at some stations; (8) identified that the ''best fitting'' rupture models occurred in the vicinity of 38.05{sup o} N 23.60{sup o} W with center of rupture near 12 km, and near unilateral rupture towards the areas of high damage, and this is consistent with independent investigations; and (9) synthesized strong motion records in high damage areas for which records from the earthquake were not recorded. We then developed a demonstration PSHA for a source region near Athens utilizing synthesized ground motion rather that traditional attenuation. We synthesized 500 earthquakes distributed throughout the source zone likely to have Mw=6.0 earthquakes near Athens. We assumed an average return period of 1000 years for this magnitude earthquake in the particular source zone, thereby having simulated a catalog of ground motion for a period of 500,000 years. The distribution of traditional ground motion parameters of peak acceleration or spectral ordinates then becomes the synthesized record from which we develop hazard curves in the form of the annual probability of exceedance. This approach replaces the aleatory uncertainty that current PSHA studies estimate by regression of empirical parameters from the worldwide database with epistemic uncertainty on what specific sources actually do at specific sites. This is a fundamental change for PSHA and eliminates the need to extrapolate current empirical data that was gathered over about 50 years to represent values for 10{sup -3} annual probability of exceedance or less. This difference becomes especially significant for very sensitive structures that require estimates for 10{sup -5} or less exceedance.

  3. Calculation of broadband time histories of ground motion: Comparison of methods and validation using strong-ground motion from the 1994 Northridge earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, S.; Harmsen, S.; Frankel, A.; Larsen, S.

    1999-01-01

    This article compares techniques for calculating broadband time histories of ground motion in the near field of a finite fault by comparing synthetics with the strong-motion data set for the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Based on this comparison, a preferred methodology is presented. Ground-motion-simulation techniques are divided into two general methods: kinematic- and composite-fault models. Green's functions of three types are evaluated: stochastic, empirical, and theoretical. A hybrid scheme is found to give the best fit to the Northridge data. Low frequencies ( 1 Hz) are calculated using a composite-fault model with a fractal subevent size distribution and stochastic, bandlimited, white-noise Green's functions. At frequencies below 1 Hz, theoretical elastic-wave-propagation synthetics introduce proper seismic-phase arrivals of body waves and surface waves. The 3D velocity structure more accurately reproduces record durations for the deep sedimentary basin structures found in the Los Angeles region. At frequencies above 1 Hz, scattering effects become important and wave propagation is more accurately represented by stochastic Green's functions. A fractal subevent size distribution for the composite fault model ensures an ??-2 spectral shape over the entire frequency band considered (0.1-20 Hz).

  4. Periodic Orbits in a Mechanical System with Strongly Coupled Spin and Orbital Motions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith Hagenbuch

    1996-01-01

    An ideal superball bouncing on a rigid surface is an interesting and tractible example of a mechanical system in which 'orbital' and 'spin' angular momenta are strongly coupled. Unlike weakly coupled planetary orbits that are planar, strongly coupled orbits are non-planar and quite complex. In particular, orbits of such a ball inside a sphere, while having a certain symmetry in

  5. Nonstationary Stochastic Simulation of Strong Ground-Motion Time Histories : Application to the Japanese Database

    E-print Network

    Laurendeau, Aurore; Bonilla, Luis Fabian

    2012-01-01

    For earthquake-resistant design, engineering seismologists employ time-history analysis for nonlinear simulations. The nonstationary stochastic method previously developed by Pousse et al. (2006) has been updated. This method has the advantage of being both simple, fast and taking into account the basic concepts of seismology (Brune's source, realistic time envelope function, nonstationarity and ground-motion variability). Time-domain simulations are derived from the signal spectrogram and depend on few ground-motion parameters: Arias intensity, significant relative duration and central frequency. These indicators are obtained from empirical attenuation equations that relate them to the magnitude of the event, the source-receiver distance, and the site conditions. We improve the nonstationary stochastic method by using new functional forms (new surface rock dataset, analysis of both intra-event and inter-event residuals, consideration of the scaling relations and VS30), by assessing the central frequency with...

  6. Strong Ground-Motion Prediction in Seismic Hazard Analysis: PEGASOS and Beyond

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Scherbaum; J. J. Bommer; F. Cotton; H. Bungum; F. Sabetta

    2005-01-01

    The SSHAC Level 4 approach to probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), which could be considered to define the state-of-the-art in PSHA using multiple expert opinions, has been fully applied only twice, firstly in the multi-year Yucca Mountain study and subsequently (2002-2004) in the PEGASOS project. The authors of this paper participated as ground-motion experts in this latter project, the objective

  7. Displaced rocks, strong motion, and the mechanics of shallow faulting associated with the 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michael, A.J.; Ross, S.L.; Stenner, H.D.

    2002-01-01

    The paucity of strong-motion stations near the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake makes it impossible to make instrumental studies of key questions about near-fault strong-motion patterns associated with this event. However, observations of displaced rocks allow a qualitative investigation of these problems. By observing the slope of the desert surface and the frictional coefficient between these rocks and the desert surface, we estimate the minimum horizontal acceleration needed to displace the rocks. Combining this information with observations of how many rocks were displaced in different areas near the fault, we infer the level of shaking. Given current empirical shaking attenuation relationships, the number of rocks that moved is slightly lower than expected; this implies that slightly lower than expected shaking occurred during the Hector Mine earthquake. Perhaps more importantly, stretches of the fault with 4 m of total displacement at the surface displaced few nearby rocks on 15?? slopes, suggesting that the horizontal accelerations were below 0.2g within meters of the fault scarp. This low level of shaking suggests that the shallow parts of this rupture did not produce strong accelerations. Finally, we did not observe an increased incidence of displaced rocks along the fault zone itself. This suggests that, despite observations of fault-zone-trapped waves generated by aftershocks of the Hector Mine earthquake, such waves were not an important factor in controlling peak ground acceleration during the mainshock.

  8. Combining High Rate GPS and Strong Motion Data: A Kalman Filter Formulation for Real-Time Displacement Waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melgar Moctezuma, D.; Bock, Y.; Crowell, B. W.

    2010-12-01

    Displacement waveforms in seismology are traditionally obtained by integration, polynomial fitting and filtering of strong motion records. The displacements so obtained are band-limited since the low frequency components (including the static deformation) are not accurately determined. Additionally there is no objective way of determining the proper parameters for this numerical process (filter corner frequency, polynomial order, etc.) and they have to be tailored by each researcher to what “works best” for every station-event pair. This hinders the automatization of the process, the application to large networks, and real-time processing. We demonstrate a new technique that utilizes elements from the theory of stochastic estimation and control to derive a multi-rate Kalman filter that fuses data from strong motion and GPS instruments in order to obtain real-time total (dynamic and static) displacement waveforms. The filter allows one to combine data streams with different sampling rates. Our formulation assumes Gaussian white noise in both accelerometer and GPS observations, whose variances are determined objectively from pre-event windows for each data type. We demonstrate the multi-rate Kalman filter with two examples: (1) Outdoor experiments at the NEES Large High-Performance Outdoor Shake Table at UCSD in which real recorded seismograms from the 1971 San Fernando and 1994 Northridge earthquakes were utilized as input, with observations taken by 250 Hz accelerometers and 50 Hz GPS receivers; (2) Data from the April 4, 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake (Mw 7.2) collected by 100 Hz strong motion recordings from stations of the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) and 1 Hz GPS data from the California Real Time Network (CRTN), at co-located stations as far as 300 km from the epicenter. Spectral analysis of the resulting displacement waveforms shows some limitations in the Kalman filter’s real-time epoch-by-epoch formulation that depend on the slower sampling rate of the GPS receivers. However, as we show these limitations have little practical consequence, and near-real-time Kalman filter smoothing can recover the full spectral content. We conclude that this formulation is superior to traditional methodologies by providing total displacement waveforms at the sampling rate of the higher-rate accelerometers. As such, we propose that the future of strong motion sensing should include a co-location of accelerometers and high rate GPS and the corresponding integrated processing of both data streams. This configuration is ideal as part of earthquake early warning systems.

  9. Engineering Analysis of Strong-motion Data Recorded During German Task Force Missions To Turkey (1998-2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, J.; Ende, C.; Habenberger, J.; Lang, D. H.; Raschke, M.

    Obviously, structural damage caused by strong earthquakes can not only be attributed to defects in design or construction, but rather the widely discussed phenomenon of local site effects has to be considered as well. In the last decade extensive strong-motion measurements were carried out by the reconnaissance team of the German TaskForce for Earthquakes. Missions to Turkey in 1998 (Adana, Ceyhan) and in 1999 (Izmit/Kocaeli and Duezce) provided a unique database of recorded aftershocks at sites where building damage occurred. To gain more insight into the effect of local site conditions post-earthquake investigations were initiated in Adana and Kocaeli (October 2000). Microtremors were recorded at sites of the previously installed strong-motion accelerographs and locations of evident concentration or variation of building damage spreaded over the area of main shaking effects. The predominant frequencies and amplification potential at recording sites were identified by H/V spectral ratio method. On the basis of H/V-spectra the sites were classified (into soft soil, stiff soil, rock-type conditions) enabling more detailed studies of recorded strong motion data which were obtained by previous TaskForce missions. Attenuation laws for spectral and peak ground acceleration were statistically determined similar to the approach by Ambraseys et al. (1996). As it can be concluded, the differences between ground motion on soft and stiff soil are less pronounced and of a similar level of amplitudes. It has to be emphasized that the studies are supported by different data types referring to an unique and consistent data-set. Thus, conclusions concerning the reliability of recently applied site response estimation techniques will be derived in dependence on soil conditions. Finally, it will be discussed to which extent subsoil conditions are responsible for the enforcement of building damage. For this purpose and in relation to geological features, a macroseismic map of shaking effects (intensity) was prepared taking into consideration the results of a damage survey undertaken immediately after the 1999 Izmit/Kocaeli earthquake as well as meanwhile presented intensity assignments of other research groups. As a result, instrumentally investigated (micro)sites are correlated with macroseismic shaking effects.

  10. Strong motion simulation at Abu Zenima city, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Amin Esmail

    2013-06-01

    Earthquake hazard assessments are an important task for the design of earthquake resistant structures and insurance industry. Such assessments get more importance when the site of interest is located near an active earthquake zone. Such situation is present for the location of Abu Zenima city. The city is characterized by the presence of industrial and Maritime platform in addition to other Oil production facilities. These industrial facilities motivated the present work. The simulated earthquake ground motion time histories are conducted using stochastic technique. The magnitude used for simulation is obtained using both probabilistic and deterministic approaches. An analysis using both approaches shows that moderate earthquakes in the vicinity of the site could have the largest effects on the area. Thus an earthquake of magnitude 4.5 at a distance of 21 km is chosen as design earthquake. The simulated ground motions are presented in terms of acceleration, velocity, and displacement time histories. In addition the response spectra are also presented that may be used for engineering purposes.

  11. Structure and dynamics of an imidazoline nitroxide side chain with strongly hindered internal motion in proteins

    PubMed Central

    Warshaviak, Dora Toledo; Khramtzov, Valery V.; Cascio, Duilio; Altenbach, Christian; Hubbell, Wayne L.

    2013-01-01

    A disulfide-linked imidazoline nitroxide side chain (V1) has a similar and highly constrained internal motion at diverse topological sites in a protein, unlike that for the disulfide-linked pyrroline nitroxide side chain (R1) widely used in site directed spin labeling EPR. Crystal structures of V1 at two positions in a helix of T4 Lysozyme and quantum mechanical calculations suggest the source of the constraints as intra-side chain interactions of the disulfide sulfur atoms with both the protein backbone and the 3-nitrogen in the imidazoline ring. These interactions apparently limit the conformation of the side chain to one of only three possible rotamers, two of which are observed in the crystal structure. An inter-spin distance measurement in frozen solution using double electron-electron resonance (DEER) gives a value essentially identical to that determined from the crystal structure of the protein containing two copies of V1, indicating that lattice forces do not dictate the rotamers observed. Collectively, the results suggest the possibility of predetermining a unique rotamer of V1 in helical structures. In general, the reduced rotameric space of V1 compared to R1 should simplify interpretation of interspin distance information in terms of protein structure, while the highly constrained internal motion is expected to extend the dynamic range for characterizing large amplitude nanosecond backbone fluctuations. PMID:23694751

  12. Structure and dynamics of an imidazoline nitroxide side chain with strongly hindered internal motion in proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo Warshaviak, Dora; Khramtsov, Valery V.; Cascio, Duilio; Altenbach, Christian; Hubbell, Wayne L.

    2013-07-01

    A disulfide-linked imidazoline nitroxide side chain (V1) has a similar and highly constrained internal motion at diverse topological sites in a protein, unlike that for the disulfide-linked pyrroline nitroxide side chain (R1) widely used in site directed spin labeling EPR. Crystal structures of V1 at two positions in a helix of T4 Lysozyme and quantum mechanical calculations suggest the source of the constraints as intra-side chain interactions of the disulfide sulfur atoms with both the protein backbone and the 3-nitrogen in the imidazoline ring. These interactions apparently limit the conformation of the side chain to one of only three possible rotamers, two of which are observed in the crystal structure. An inter-spin distance measurement in frozen solution using double electron-electron resonance (DEER) gives a value essentially identical to that determined from the crystal structure of the protein containing two copies of V1, indicating that lattice forces do not dictate the rotamers observed. Collectively, the results suggest the possibility of predetermining a unique rotamer of V1 in helical structures. In general, the reduced rotameric space of V1 compared to R1 should simplify interpretation of inter-spin distance information in terms of protein structure, while the highly constrained internal motion is expected to extend the dynamic range for characterizing large amplitude nanosecond backbone fluctuations.

  13. Site-dependent spectra from the 1999 Turkey earthquakes considering different sets of strong-motion data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, J.; Ende, C.; Habenberger, J.; Lang, D. H.

    2003-04-01

    In the last decade extensive strong-motion measurements were carried out by the reconnaissance team of the German TaskForce for Earthquakes. Aftershocks were recorded by a mesh of temporarily installed strong-motion recorders during the field surveys to Turkey in 1998 (Adana/Ceyhan), 1999 (Izmit/Kocaeli and Duezce/Bolu) and 2002 (Sultandagi/Afyon). Particularly the two missions in 1999 provided a unique and comprehensive database of recorded aftershocks at sites where building damage occurred. In addition, post-earthquake investigations were initiated around the provinces Adana and Kocaeli in October 2000 to gain more insight into the effect of local site conditions. Therefore, microtremors were recorded at sites of the previously installed strong-motion accelerographs and locations of evident concentration or remarkable scatter of building damage. By applying H/V-spectral ratio method on microtremor data, a classification of the recording sites (into soft soil, stiff soil, rock-type conditions) was performed. For the derivation of attenuation laws different databases were applied. In addition to the aftershock records of the strong-motion stations of German TaskForce for Earthquakes (Schwarz et al., 2002), a small dataset of main- and aftershocks from the 1999 Turkey earthquakes provided by the Kandilli Observatory (KOERI, 2002) and the General Directorate of Disaster Affairs (AFET) could be implied. The magnitude-distance composition of both datasets are quite different in terms of the covered magnitude and distance range. While the dataset of the German TaskForce mainly consists of small magnitude aftershocks (at the present state of elaboration: Ml <= 4.9) being recorded in epicentral distances Re < 70 km, the KOERI dataset is featured by larger magnitudes (Ml = 4.8-7.2) and by a distance range of about 10--250 km. The aftershock database of German TaskForce consists of 538 triaxial acceleration records (rock 53, stiff 52, soft 433), while that of KOERI comprises 145 triaxial acceleration records (rock 6, stiff 36, soft 103). On this basis, three sets of strong motion records were investigated by an one-step as well as a two-step regression analysis (similar to the approach by Ambraseys et al., 1996). Furthermore, parametric studies with respect to the lower bounds of magnitude and source depth were performed. Results indicate that the composition of the dataset and in particular the decision on the lower bound magnitude significantly determine the qualitative spectrum shape. In comparison to the spectra determined by Ambraseys et al. (1996) attenuation functions, the recorded data lead to significant lower accelerations for the borizontal as well as for the vertical components. Furthermore, no significant differences between data from soft and stiff soil recording sites can be observed, supporting the authors opinion that the severity of ground motion during earthquakes is less responsible for the high extent of building damage than the vulnerability of the building stock (which seem to be quite different for one particular building type in dependence on the date of construction). Therefore more attention should be attributed to the investigation of the building inventory.

  14. Seismic Strong Motion Array Project (SSMAP) to Record Future Large Earthquakes in the Nicoya Peninsula area, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simila, G.; McNally, K.; Quintero, R.; Segura, J.

    2006-12-01

    The seismic strong motion array project (SSMAP) for the Nicoya Peninsula in northwestern Costa Rica is composed of 10 13 sites including Geotech A900/A800 accelerographs (three-component), Ref-Teks (three- component velocity), and Kinemetric Episensors. The main objectives of the array are to: 1) record and locate strong subduction zone mainshocks [and foreshocks, "early aftershocks", and preshocks] in Nicoya Peninsula, at the entrance of the Nicoya Gulf, and in the Papagayo Gulf regions of Costa Rica, and 2) record and locate any moderate to strong upper plate earthquakes triggered by a large subduction zone earthquake in the above regions. Our digital accelerograph array has been deployed as part of our ongoing research on large earthquakes in conjunction with the Earthquake and Volcano Observatory (OVSICORI) at the Universidad Nacional in Costa Rica. The country wide seismographic network has been operating continuously since the 1980's, with the first earthquake bulletin published more than 20 years ago, in 1984. The recording of seismicity and strong motion data for large earthquakes along the Middle America Trench (MAT) has been a major research project priority over these years, and this network spans nearly half the time of a "repeat cycle" (50 years) for large (Ms 7.5- 7.7) earthquakes beneath the Nicoya Peninsula, with the last event in 1950. Our long time co-collaborators include the seismology group OVSICORI, with coordination for this project by Dr. Ronnie Quintero and Mr. Juan Segura. Numerous international investigators are also studying this region with GPS and seismic stations (US, Japan, Germany, Switzerland, etc.). Also, there are various strong motion instruments operated by local engineers, for building purposes and mainly concentrated in the population centers of the Central Valley. The major goal of our project is to contribute unique scientific information pertaining to a large subduction zone earthquake and its related seismic activity when the next large earthquake occurs in Nicoya. A centralized data base will be created within the main seismic network files at OVSICORI, with various local personnel working in teams that will be responsible to collect data within 3 days following a large mainshock.

  15. Strong Erosion-Driven Nongravitational Effects in Orbital Motions of the Kreutz Sungrazing System's Dwarf Comets

    E-print Network

    Sekanina, Zdenek

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the relationship among the angular orbital elements --- the longitude of the ascending node, Omega, the inclination, i, and the argument of perihelion, omega --- of dwarf sungrazing comets of the Kreutz system, whose catalogued orbits were derived using a parabolic gravitational approximation. While in a plot of omega against Omega the major and dwarf sungrazers follow a similar law, in a plot of i against Omega they behave differently. The major sungrazers fit a curve of invariable (reference) apsidal orientation, whereas the dwarf comets lie along a curve that makes with it 15 deg. While the perihelion longitude of dwarf sungrazers is statistically constant, the perihelion latitude increases systematically with Omega. A perturbation analysis indicates that this is due to an acceleration normal to the orbit plane. The culprit is neglect of an erosion-driven acceleration in the motions of the dwarf sungrazers, as illustrated by computing, for several test SOHO/STEREO sungrazers, orbital solutio...

  16. Unbound motion of massive particles in the Schwarzschild metric: Analytical description in case of strong deflection

    E-print Network

    Oleg Yu. Tsupko

    2015-05-26

    Deflection angles of massive test particles moving along an unbound trajectory in the Schwarzschild metric are considered for the case of large deflection. We analytically consider the strong deflection limit, which is opposite to the commonly applied small deflection approximation and corresponds to the situation when a massive particle moves from infinity, makes several revolutions around a central object and goes to infinity. For this purpose we rewrite an integral expression for the deflection angle as an explicit function of the parameters determining the trajectory and expand it. Remarkably, in the limiting case of strong deflection, we succeed in deriving for the first time the analytical formulas for deflection angles as explicit functions of parameters at infinity. In particular, we show that in this case the deflection angle can be calculated as an explicit function of the impact parameter and velocity at infinity beyond the usual assumption of small deflection.

  17. Unbound motion of massive particles in the Schwarzschild metric: Analytical description in case of strong deflection

    E-print Network

    Tsupko, Oleg Yu

    2015-01-01

    Deflection angles of massive test particles moving along an unbound trajectory in the Schwarzschild metric are considered for the case of large deflection. We analytically consider the strong deflection limit, which is opposite to the commonly applied small deflection approximation and corresponds to the situation when a massive particle moves from infinity, makes several revolutions around a central object and goes to infinity. For this purpose we rewrite an integral expression for the deflection angle as an explicit function of the parameters determining the trajectory and expand it. Remarkably, in the limiting case of strong deflection, we succeed in deriving for the first time the analytical formulas for deflection angles as explicit functions of parameters at infinity. In particular, we show that in this case the deflection angle can be calculated as an explicit function of the impact parameter and velocity at infinity beyond the usual assumption of small deflection.

  18. The Quake-Catcher Network: A Community-Led, Strong-Motion Network with Implications for Earthquake Advanced Alert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, E. S.; Lawrence, J. F.; Christensen, C. M.; Jakka, R. S.; Chung, A. I.

    2009-12-01

    The goal of the Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) is to dramatically increase the number of strong-motion observations by exploiting recent advances in sensing technologies and cyberinfrastructure. Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) triaxial accelerometers are very low cost (50-100), interface to any desktop computer via USB cable, and provide high-quality acceleration data. Preliminary shake table tests show the MEMS accelerometers can record high-fidelity seismic data and provide linear phase and amplitude response over a wide frequency range. Volunteer computing provides a mechanism to expand strong-motion seismology with minimal infrastructure costs, while promoting community participation in science. Volunteer computing also allows for rapid transfer of metadata, such as that used to rapidly determine the magnitude and location of an earthquake, from participating stations. QCN began distributing sensors and software to K-12 schools and the general public in April 2008 and has grown to roughly 1000 stations. Initial analysis shows metadata are received within 1-14 seconds from the observation of a trigger; the larger data latencies are correlated with greater server-station distances. Currently, we are testing a series of triggering algorithms to maximize the number of earthquakes captured while minimizing false triggers. We are also testing algorithms to automatically detect P- and S-wave arrivals in real time. Trigger times, wave amplitude, and station information are currently uploaded to the server for each trigger. Future work will identify additional metadata useful for quickly determining earthquake location and magnitude. The increased strong-motion observations made possible by QCN will greatly augment the capability of seismic networks to quickly estimate the location and magnitude of an earthquake for advanced alert to the public. In addition, the dense waveform observations will provide improved source imaging of a rupture in near-real-time. These same observations will provide new images of the subsurface, which will improve earthquake hazard scenarios by predicting shaking outcomes from a dynamic rupture through the earth. QCN has the potential to produce wide-reaching outcomes for: earthquake advanced alert, improved seismic safety, and increased public knowledge of earthquakes.

  19. Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic of motion. Contents include: (1) "First Word" (Zach Tobias); (2) "Cosmic Collisions" (Robert Irion); (3) "The Mobile Cell" (Karen E. Kalumuck); (4) "The Paths of Paths" (Steven Vogel); (5) "Fragments" (Pearl Tesler); (6) "Moving Pictures" (Amy Snyder); (7) "Plants on the Go" (Katharine…

  20. Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhart, James B.; Nussbaum, Rudi H.

    This monograph was written for the Conference on the New Instructional Materials in Physics held at the University of Washington in summer, 1965. It is intended for use in an introductory course in college physics. It consists of an extensive qualitative discussion of motion followed by a detailed development of the quantitative methods needed to…

  1. A PHYSICAL MODEL OF THE EFFECT OF A SHALLOW WEAK LAYER ON STRONG GROUND MOTION FOR STRIKE-SLIP RUPTURES

    SciTech Connect

    JAMES N. BRUNE AND ABDOLRASOOL ANOOSHEHPOOR

    1998-02-23

    We report results of foam-rubber modeling of the effect of a shallow weak layer on ground motion from strike-slip ruptures. Computer modeling of strong ground motion from strike-slip earthquakes has involved somewhat arbitrary assumptions about the nature of slip along the shallow part of the fault (e.g., fixing the slip to be zero along the upper 2 kilometers of the fault plane) in order to match certain strong motion accelerograms. Most modeling studies of earthquake strong ground motion have used what is termed kinematic dislocation modeling. In kinematic modeling the time function for slip on the fault is prescribed, and the response of the layered medium is calculated. Unfortunately, there is no guarantee that the model and the prescribed slip are physically reasonable unless the true nature of the medium and its motions are known ahead of time. There is good reason to believe that in many cases faults are weak along the upper few kilometers of the fault zone and may not be able to maintain high levels of shear strain required for high dynamic energy release during earthquakes. Physical models of faulting, as distinct from numerical or mathematical models, are guaranteed to obey static and dynamic mechanical laws. Foam-rubber modeling studies have been reported in a number of publications. The object of this paper is to present results of physical modeling using a shallow weak layer, in order to verify the physical basis for assuming a long rise time and a reduced high frequency pulse for the slip on the shallow part of faults. It appears a 2-kilometer deep, weak zone along strike-slip faults could indeed reduce the high frequency energy radiated from shallow slip, and that this effect can best be represented by superimposing a small amplitude, short rise-time pulse at the onset of a much longer rise-time slip. A weak zone was modeled by inserting weak plastic layers of a few inches in thickness into the foam rubber model. For the 15 cm weak zone the average pulse is reduced by a factor of 0.46. The factor for the 20 cm case reduction is 0.11. For the 30 cm case it is 0.045. From these results we can see that, the thicker the weak layer, the more difficult it is for a short rise-time acceleration pulse to push its way through the weak layer to the surface. This is thus an approximate justification for reducing the high frequency radiation from shallower parts of strike-slip faults if it is known that the shallow part of the fault is weak or has not stored up shear stress.

  2. Installation of a digital, wireless, strong-motion network for monitoring seismic activity in a western Colorado coal mining region

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Swanson; Collin Stewart; Wendell Koontz [NIOSH, Spokane, WA (USA). Spokane Research Laboratory

    2007-01-15

    A seismic monitoring network has recently been installed in the North Fork Valley coal mining region of western Colorado as part of a NIOSH mine safety technology transfer project with two longwall coal mine operators. Data recorded with this network will be used to characterize mining related and natural seismic activity in the vicinity of the mines and examine potential hazards due to ground shaking near critical structures such as impoundment dams, reservoirs, and steep slopes. Ten triaxial strong-motion accelerometers have been installed on the surface to form the core of a network that covers approximately 250 square kilometers (100 sq. miles) of rugged canyon-mesa terrain. Spread-spectrum radio networks are used to telemeter continuous streams of seismic waveform data to a central location where they are converted to IP data streams and ported to the Internet for processing, archiving, and analysis. 4 refs.

  3. Seismically induced rock slope failures resulting from topographic amplification of strong ground motions: The case of Pacoima Canyon, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, S.A.; Murphy, W.; Jibson, R.W.; Petley, D.N.

    2005-01-01

    The 1994 Northridge earthquake (Mw = 6.7) triggered extensive rock slope failures in Pacoima Canyon, immediately north of Los Angeles, California. Pacoima Canyon is a narrow and steep canyon incised in gneissic and granitic rocks. Peak accelerations of nearly 1.6 g were recorded at a ridge that forms the left abutment of Pacoima Dam; peak accelerations at the bottom of the canyon were less than 0.5 g, suggesting the occurrence of topographic amplification. Topographic effects have been previously suggested to explain similarly high ground motions at the site during the 1971 (Mw = 6.7) San Fernando earthquake. Furthermore, high landslide concentrations observed in the area have been attributed to unusually strong ground motions rather than higher susceptibility to sliding compared with nearby zones. We conducted field investigations and slope stability back-analyses to confirm the impact of topographic amplification on the triggering of landslides during the 1994 earthquake. Our results suggest that the observed extensive rock sliding and falling would have not been possible under unamplified seismic conditions, which would have generated a significantly lower number of areas affected by landslides. In contrast, modelling slope stability using amplified ground shaking predicts slope failure distributions matching what occurred in 1994. This observation confirms a significant role for topographic amplification on the triggering of landslides at the site, and emphasises the need to select carefully the inputs for seismic slope stability analyses. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Comments on baseline correction of digital strong-motion data: Examples from the 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.; Stephens, C.D.; Joyner, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    Residual displacements for large earthquakes can sometimes be determined from recordings on modern digital instruments, but baseline offsets of unknown origin make it difficult in many cases to do so. To recover the residual displacement, we suggest tailoring a correction scheme by studying the character of the velocity obtained by integration of zeroth-order-corrected acceleration and then seeing if the residual displacements are stable when the various parameters in the particular correction scheme are varied. For many seismological and engineering purposes, however, the residual displacement are of lesser importance than ground motions at periods less than about 20 sec. These ground motions are often recoverable with simple baseline correction and low-cut filtering. In this largely empirical study, we illustrate the consequences of various correction schemes, drawing primarily from digital recordings of the 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquake. We show that with simple processing the displacement waveforms for this event are very similar for stations separated by as much as 20 km. We also show that a strong pulse on the transverse component was radiated from the Hector Mine earthquake and propagated with little distortion to distances exceeding 170 km; this pulse leads to large response spectral amplitudes around 10 sec.

  5. The influence of critical Moho reflections on strong ground motions recorded in San Francisco and Oakland during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Somerville, P.; Yoshimura, J. (Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Pasadena, CA (USA))

    1990-07-01

    The amplitudes of strong ground motions from the Loma Prieta earthquake recorded in the San Francisco and Oakland areas exceeded the levels predicted by standard empirical attenuation relations. Preliminary analysis of accelerograms having known trigger times strongly suggests that the elevation of ground motion amplitudes in the distance range of approximately 40 to 100 km was due to critical reflections from the base of the crust. These reflections, which are identified on the basis of their arrival times and phase velocity, and by comparison with simulated accelerograms, were large and occurred at relatively close range because of the deep focal depth of the earthquake and the strong velocity gradient at the base of the crust. These motions were further amplified, presumably by impedance contrast effects, at soft soil sites in San Francisco and Oakland. The effect of the critical reflections in amplifying peak accelerations of the Loma Prieta earthquake in the San Francisco and Oakland regions was as large as the effect of soft soil site conditions. Focal depth has an important influence on strong motion attenuation at distances beyond about 40 km, and empirical attenuation relations derived from shallow crustal earthquakes may underpredict the ground motions of deeper crustal events in this distance range. Further analyses using an expanded data base that includes recordings of aftershocks are required to rigorously test the proposed explanation of the ground motions recorded in San Francisco and Oakland, and the conclusions drawn from that explanation.

  6. Source parameters of the 2013 Lushan, Sichuan, Ms7.0 earthquake and estimation of the near-fault strong ground motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, L.; Zhou, L.; Liu, J.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract: The April 20, 2013 Ms 7.0 earthquake in Lushan city, Sichuan province of China occurred as the result of east-west oriented reverse-type motion on a north-south striking fault. The source location suggests the event occurred on the Southern part of Longmenshan fault at a depth of 13km. The Lushan earthquake caused a great of loss of property and 196 deaths. The maximum intensity is up to VIII to IX at Boxing and Lushan city, which are located in the meizoseismal area. In this study, we analyzed the dynamic source process and calculated source spectral parameters, estimated the strong ground motion in the near-fault field based on the Brune's circle model at first. A dynamical composite source model (DCSM) has been developed further to simulate the near-fault strong ground motion with associated fault rupture properties at Boxing and Lushan city, respectively. The results indicate that the frictional undershoot behavior in the dynamic source process of Lushan earthquake, which is actually different from the overshoot activity of the Wenchuan earthquake. Based on the simulated results of the near-fault strong ground motion, described the intensity distribution of the Lushan earthquake field. The simulated intensity indicated that, the maximum intensity value is IX, and region with and above VII almost 16,000km2, which is consistence with observation intensity published online by China Earthquake Administration (CEA) on April 25. Moreover, the numerical modeling developed in this study has great application in the strong ground motion prediction and intensity estimation for the earthquake rescue purpose. In fact, the estimation methods based on the empirical relationship and numerical modeling developed in this study has great application in the strong ground motion prediction for the earthquake source process understand purpose. Keywords: Lushan, Ms7.0 earthquake; near-fault strong ground motion; DCSM; simulated intensity

  7. Brownian Motion as Limit of Random Walk Claim 1 A (, ) Brownian motion is the limiting case of

    E-print Network

    Lyuu, Yuh-Dauh

    Brownian Motion as Limit of Random Walk Claim 1 A (µ, ) Brownian motion is the limiting case, National Taiwan University Page 519 #12;Brownian Motion as Limit of Random Walk (continued) · Assume n t ] = 1 - (2p - 1)2 . c 2014 Prof. Yuh-Dauh Lyuu, National Taiwan University Page 520 #12;Brownian Motion

  8. Transition tectonics of northern Taiwan induced by convergence and trench retreat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jyr-Ching Hu; Shui-Beih Yu; Jacques Angelier

    As an active collision zone between the Luzon arc and the China continental margin, the Taiwan mountain belt is undergoing strong crustal shortening and rapid uplift, especially in its south-central part. In contrast, northeast Taiwan, located near the junction between the Taiwan orogen and the Ryukyu arc, is subject to both the compressional force exerted by the indentation of Philippine

  9. Third-and-a-half order post-Newtonian equations of motion for relativistic compact binaries using the strong field point particle limit

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, Yousuke [Astronomical Institute, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aoba Aramaki Aoba Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    We report our rederivation of the equations of motion for relativistic compact binaries through the third-and-a-half post-Newtonian (3.5 PN) order approximation to general relativity using the strong field point particle limit to describe self-gravitating stars instead of the Dirac delta functional. The computation is done in harmonic coordinates. Our equations of motion describe the orbital motion of the binary consisting of spherically symmetric nonrotating stars. The resulting equations of motion fully agree with the 3.5 PN equations of motion derived in the previous works. We also show that the locally defined energy of the star has a simple relation with its mass up to the 3.5 PN order.

  10. Typhoons Affecting Taiwan: Current Understanding and Future Challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-Chieh Wu; Ying-Hwa Kuo

    1999-01-01

    Of all the natural disasters occurring in Taiwan, tropical cyclones are the most serious. Over a 20-yr period, Taiwan was hit by an average of 3.7 typhoons per year. These storms can produce heavy rainfall and strong winds, leading to severe damage to agriculture and industry, and serious loss of human life. An outstanding example is Typhoon Herb, which made

  11. Strong motion characteristics of the M w 6.6 Lushan earthquake, Sichuan, China — an insight into the spatial difference of a typical thrust fault earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinjun; Zhang, Wenbo; Xie, Lili; Zhang, Qi; Jiang, Zhijun

    2015-06-01

    Near-field strong ground motions are useful for engineering seismology studies and seismic design, but dense observation networks of damaging earthquakes are still rare. In this study, based on the strong-motion data from the M w 6.6 Lushan earthquake, the ground motion parameters in different spatial regions are systematically analyzed, and the contributions from different effects, like the hanging-wall effect, directivity effect, and attenuation effect are separated to the extent possible. Different engineering parameters from the observed ground motions are compared with the local design response spectra and a new attenuation relation of Western China. General results indicate that the high frequency ground motion, like the peak ground acceleration, on two sides of the fault plane is sensitive to the hanging-wall effect, whereas the low frequency ground motion, like the long period spectral acceleration, in the rupture propagation direction is affected by the directivity effect. Moreover, although the M w 6.6 Lushan earthquake is not a large magnitude event, the spatial difference of ground motion is still obvious; thus, for a thrust faulting earthquake, in addition to the hanging effect, the directivity effect should also be considered.

  12. Determination of site amplification in the Los Angeles urban area from inversion of strong-motion records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harmsen, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    The amplification of strong ground motion at sites in the greater Los Angeles, California, region is determined using the generalized-inverse method of Andrews (1986). Site-amplification estimates are determined at 281 strong-motion sites that provided horizontal-component accelerograms from the 1971 San Fernando, 1987 Whittier Narrows, 1991 Sierra Madre, or 1994 Northridge mainshocks. The estimates are determined relative to the spectral level recorded at a single reference site. In a second inversion, a source-site interaction term is added to Andrews's (1986) model to quantify the effect selected mainshock records have on site-amplification estimates. The source-site interaction term is applied to the San Fernando Valley sites' records of the Northridge earthquake and to three Los Angeles basin sites' records of the Whittier Narrows mainshock. Site-amplification spectra are averaged within two frequency bands: the intermediate-frequency band (IFB) from 0.5 to 1.5 Hz and the high-frequency band (HFB) from 2 to 6 Hz. Results are displayed on maps of surficial geology. Average spectral levels are correlated with average shear-wave velocity in the uppermost 30 m, a geotechnical parameter used by the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) to characterize site amplification. Statistically significant correlation is found in both frequency bands. Average spectral amplification levels for NEHRP class B, C, and D sites in the LA urban area are determined. These averages display an expected increase in spectral amplification with category, with a more pronounced variation in the IFB than in the HFB. Considerable overlap in the one-standard-deviation range of the C and D site levels is found in both IFB and HFB, suggesting that site-specific spectral amplification is influenced by more than just near-surface shear-wave velocity. Average site-amplification levels are compared with those obtained from Northridge aftershock records at 28 collocated sites and are found to be in reasonably good agreement in both frequency bands. Some interesting outliers, that is, sites for which the mainshock- and aftershock-determined amplifications differ significantly, are identified as sites that experienced ground failure during the Northridge mainshock.

  13. Comparing Action Gestures and Classifier Verbs of Motion: Evidence from Australian Sign Language, Taiwan Sign Language, and Nonsigners' Gestures without Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schembri, Adam; Jones, Caroline; Burnham, Denis

    2005-01-01

    Recent research into signed languages indicates that signs may share some properties with gesture, especially in the use of space in classifier constructions. A prediction of this proposal is that there will be similarities in the representation of motion events by sign-naive gesturers and by native signers of unrelated signed languages. This…

  14. Simulation of Strong ground motions from the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, using a source model with a combination of super asperities and SMGAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakai, A.; Nozu, A.

    2012-12-01

    In the past study, the following was proposed for the evaluation of strong ground motions due to a large subduction earthquake [Nozu et al., 2006]: 1) To use a source model composed of subevents with relatively small size. 2) To calculate strong ground motions based on site amplification and phase characteristics. In the past study, the applicability of the above strategy was investigated for M8 and M9 class earthquakes [Nozu et al., 2006; Nozu and Sugano, 2008; Nozu, 2012]. As a result, it was shown that the agreement between the observed and synthesized ground motions was quite satisfactory, especially for the velocity waveforms (0.2-1.0 Hz) including near-source pulses. On the other hand, some source models composed of SMGAs have already been proposed for the 2011 Tohoku earthquake [e.g., Kurahashi and Irikura, 2011; Satoh, 2011; Asano and Iwata, 2011; Kawabe and Kamae, 2011]. When strong ground motions were calculated by means of these source models, it was indicated that the agreement between the observed and the synthesized envelopes of waveforms was satisfactory. These results may indicate that the reproduction of strong ground motions can be further improved by using a source model with a combination of super asperities and SMGAs. It would be meaningful to investigate whether the combination of super asperities and SMGAs leads to better results than super asperities alone. In this study, simulations of strong ground motions from the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, using a source model with a combination of super asperities and SMGAs, will be conducted, and the simulation results will be compared with those obtained from super asperities alone.

  15. A teleseismic study of the 2002 Denali fault, Alaska, earthquake and implications for rapid strong-motion estimation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ji, C.; Helmberger, D.V.; Wald, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Slip histories for the 2002 M7.9 Denali fault, Alaska, earthquake are derived rapidly from global teleseismic waveform data. In phases, three models improve matching waveform data and recovery of rupture details. In the first model (Phase I), analogous to an automated solution, a simple fault plane is fixed based on the preliminary Harvard Centroid Moment Tensor mechanism and the epicenter provided by the Preliminary Determination of Epicenters. This model is then updated (Phase II) by implementing a more realistic fault geometry inferred from Digital Elevation Model topography and further (Phase III) by using the calibrated P-wave and SH-wave arrival times derived from modeling of the nearby 2002 M6.7 Nenana Mountain earthquake. These models are used to predict the peak ground velocity and the shaking intensity field in the fault vicinity. The procedure to estimate local strong motion could be automated and used for global real-time earthquake shaking and damage assessment. ?? 2004, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  16. ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 506, Vol. 46, No. 3-4, Sept.-Dec. 2009, pp. 125132 SIMULATION OF STRONG GROUND MOTIONS OF WENCHUAN

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Vinay Kumar

    the n Spectrum", Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 87, No. 1, pp. 67­84. 2. Hanks Empirical Relations in Seismology", Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 65, No. 5, pp.-X. and Shi, J.-P. (2008). "Study and Simulation on Near-Site Strong Ground Motions", Seismological Research

  17. Equation of motion for relativistic compact binaries with the strong field point particle limit: Formulation, the first post-Newtonian order, and multipole terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Yousuke; Futamase, Toshifumi; Asada, Hideki

    2000-09-01

    We derive the equation of motion for the relativistic compact binaries in the post-Newtonian approximation taking explicitly their strong internal gravity into account. For this purpose we adopt the method of the point particle limit where the equation of motion is expressed in terms of the surface integrals. We examine carefully the behavior of the surface integrals in the derivation. As a result, we obtain the Einstein-Infeld-Hoffman equation of motion at the first post-Newtonian (1PN) order, and a part of the 2PN order which depends on the quadrupole moments and the spins of component stars. Hence, it is found that the equation of motion in the post-Newtonian approximation is valid for compact binaries by a suitable definition of the mass, spin, and quadrupole moment.

  18. Stochastic strong ground motion simulations for the intermediate-depth earthquakes of the south Aegean subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kkallas, Harris; Papazachos, Konstantinos; Boore, David; Margaris, Vasilis

    2015-04-01

    We have employed the stochastic finite-fault modelling approach of Motazedian and Atkinson (2005), as described by Boore (2009), for the simulation of Fourier spectra of the Intermediate-depth earthquakes of the south Aegean subduction zone. The stochastic finite-fault method is a practical tool for simulating ground motions of future earthquakes which requires region-specific source, path and site characterizations as input model parameters. For this reason we have used data from both acceleration-sensor and broadband velocity-sensor instruments from intermediate-depth earthquakes with magnitude of M 4.5-6.7 that occurred in the south Aegean subduction zone. Source mechanisms for intermediate-depth events of north Aegean subduction zone are either collected from published information or are constrained using the main faulting types from Kkallas et al. (2013). The attenuation parameters for simulations were adopted from Skarladoudis et al. (2013) and are based on regression analysis of a response spectra database. The site amplification functions for each soil class were adopted from Klimis et al., (1999), while the kappa values were constrained from the analysis of the EGELADOS network data from Ventouzi et al., (2013). The investigation of stress-drop values was based on simulations performed with the EXSIM code for several ranges of stress drop values and by comparing the results with the available Fourier spectra of intermediate-depth earthquakes. Significant differences regarding the strong-motion duration, which is determined from Husid plots (Husid, 1969), have been identified between the for-arc and along-arc stations due to the effect of the low-velocity/low-Q mantle wedge on the seismic wave propagation. In order to estimate appropriate values for the duration of P-waves, we have automatically picked P-S durations on the available seismograms. For the S-wave durations we have used the part of the seismograms starting from the S-arrivals and ending at the 95%-energy limit of the Husid plots. After appropriate calibration of all parameters involved in the simulations we generated separate stochastic waveforms for both P- and S-waves, and produce the final synthetics by appropriate merging of the two stochastic waveforms. This work has been partly supported by the 3D-SEGMENTS project #1337 funded by EC European Social Fund and the Operational Programme "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the ARISTEIA-I call of the Greek Secretariat of Research and Technology.

  19. 3D Modeling of Strong Ground Motion in the Pacific Northwest From Large Earthquakes in the Cascadia Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, K. B.; Geisselmeyer, A.; Stephenson, W. J.; Mai, P. M.

    2007-12-01

    The Cascadia subduction zone in the Pacific Northwest, USA, generates Great (megathrust) earthquakes with a recurrence period of about 500 years, most recently the M~9 event on January 26, 1700. Since no earthquake of such magnitude has occurred in the Pacific Northwest since the deployment of strong ground motion instruments, a large uncertainty is associated with the ground motions expected from such event. To decrease this uncertainty, we have carried out the first 3D simulations of megathrust earthquakes (Mw8.5 and Mw9.0) rupturing along the Cascadia subduction zone. The simulations were carried out in a recently developed 3D velocity model of the region of dimensions 1050 km by 550 km, discretized into 2 billion 250 m3 cubes with a minimum S-wave velocity of 625 m/s. The model includes the subduction slab, accretionary sediments, local sedimentary basins, and the ocean layer. About 6 minutes of wave propagation for each scenario consumed about 24 Wall-clock hours using a parallel fourth-order finite-difference method with 1600 processors on the San Diego Supercomputer Center Datastar supercomputer. The source descriptions for the Mw9.0 scenarios were designed by mapping the inversion results for the December 26, 2004 M9+ Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake (Ji, 2006) onto a 950 km by 150 km large rupture for the Pacific Northwest model. Simulations were carried out for hypocenters located toward the northern and southern ends of the subduction zone. In addition, we simulated two M8.5 events with a source area of 275 km by 150 km located in the northern and central parts of the model area. The sources for the M8.5 events were generated using the pseudo-dynamic model by Guatteri et al. (2004). All sources used spatially-variable slip, rise time and rupture velocity. Three major metropolitan areas are located in the model region, namely Seattle (3 million+ people), Vancouver (2 million+ people), and Portland (2 million+ people), all located above sedimentary basins amplifying the waves incident from the subduction zone. The estimated peak ground velocities (PGVs) for frequencies less than 0.5 Hz vary significantly with the assumed rise time. Using a mean rise of 32 s, as estimated from source inversion of the 2004 M9+ Sumatra-Andeman event (Ji, 2006), PGVs reached 40 cm/s in Seattle and 10 cm/s in Vancouver and Portland. However, if the mean rise time is decreased to about 14 s, as suggested by the empirical regression by Somerville et al. (1999), PGVs are increased by 2-3 times at these locations. For the Mw8.5 events, PGVs would reach about 10 cm/s in Seattle, and about 5 cm/s in Vancouver and Portland. Combined with extended duration of the shaking exceeding 1 minute for the Mw8.5 events and 2 minutes for the Mw9 events, these long-period ground motions may inflict significant damage on the built environment, in particular on the highrises in downtown Seattle. However, the strongest shaking arrives 1-2 minutes after the earthquake nucleates, indicating that an early warning system in place may help mitigate loss of life in case of a megathrust earthquake in the Pacific Northwest. Additional efforts should analyse the simulated displacements on the ocean bottom for tsunami generation potential.

  20. The July 12, 1993, Hokkaido-Nansei-Oki, Japan, earthquake: Coseismic slip pattern from strong-motion and teleseismic recordings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendoza, C.; Fukuyama, E.

    1996-01-01

    We employ a finite fault inversion scheme to infer the distribution of coseismic slip for the July 12, 1993, Hokkaido-Nansei-Oki earthquake using strong ground motions recorded by the Japan Meteorological Agency within 400 km of the epicenter and vertical P waveforms recorded by the Global Digital Seismograph Network at teleseismic distances. The assumed fault geometry is based on the location of the aftershock zone and comprises two fault segments with different orientations: a northern segment striking at N20??E with a 30?? dip to the west and a southern segment with a N20??W strike. For the southern segment we use both westerly and easterly dip directions to test thrust orientations previously proposed for this portion of the fault. The variance reduction is greater using a shallow west dipping segment, suggesting that the direction of dip did not change as the rupture propagated south from the hypocenter. This indicates that the earthquake resulted from the shallow underthrusting of Hokkaido beneath the Sea of Japan. Static vertical movements predicted by the corresponding distribution of fault slip are consistent with the general pattern of surface deformation observed following the earthquake. Fault rupture in the northern segment accounts for about 60% of the total P wave seismic moment of 3.4 ?? 1020 N m and includes a large circular slip zone (4-m peak) near the earthquake hypocenter at depths between 10 and 25 km. Slip in the southern segment is also predominantly shallower than 25 km, but the maximum coseismic displacements (2.0-2.5 m) are observed at a depth of about 5 km. This significant shallow slip in the southern portion of the rupture zone may have been responsible for the large tsunami that devastated the small offshore island of Okushiri. Localized shallow faulting near the island, however, may require a steep westerly dip to reconcile the measured values of ground subsidence.

  1. Slip history of the 2003 San Simeon earthquake constrained by combining 1--Hz GPS, strong motion, and teleseismic data

    E-print Network

    Larson, Kristine

    obtained a peak slip of 2.8 m and total seismic moment of 6.2 Â 1018 Nm. We interpret the slip distribution of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake [Ji et al., 2003]. [3] Detailed measurement of 3D particle motion at a site: Seismic deformations (7205); 7212 Seismology: Earthquake ground motions and engineering; 8123

  2. Rigorous noise test and calibration check of strong-motion instrumentation at the Conrad Observatory in Austria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, R.; Costa, G.; Lenhardt, W.; Horn, N.; Suhadolc, P.

    2012-04-01

    In the framework of the European InterregIV Italy/Austria project: "HAREIA - Historical and Recent Earthquakes in Italy and Austria" the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) and Mathematic and Geosciences Department of University of Trieste (DMG) are upgrading the transfrontier seismic network of South-Eastern Alps with new 12 accelerometric stations to enhance the strong motion instrument density near the Austria/Italy border. Various public institutions of the provinces Alto Adige (Bolzano Province), Veneto (ARPAV) and Friuli Venezia Giulia (Regional Civil Defense) in Italy and in the Austrian province of Tyrol are involved in the project. The site selection was carried out to improve the present local network geometry thus meeting the needs of public Institutions in the involved regions. In Tyrol and Alto Adige some strategic buildings (hospitals and public buildings) have been selected, whereas in Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia the sites are in the free field, mainly located near villages. The instruments will be installed in an innovative box, designed by ZAMG, that provides electric and water isolation. The common choice regarding the instrument selection has been the new Kinemetrics Basalt ® accelerograph to guarantee homogeneity with the already installed instrumentation and compatibility with the software already in use at the different seismic institutions in the area. Prior to deployment the equipment was tested at the Conrad Observatory and a common set-up has been devised. The Conrad Observatory, seismically particularly quiet, permits to analyze both the sensor and the acquisition system noise. The instruments were connected to the network and the data sent in real-time to the ZAMG data center in Vienna and the DMG data center in Trieste. The data have been collected in the database and analyzed using signal processing modules PQLX and Matlab. The data analysis of the recordings at the ultra-quiet Conrad Observatory pointed out some differences in the seismic response of the 12 instruments, mainly within the tolerance stated by the factory, and an optimization of a few sensors can be carried out in order to guarantee compatible high quality measurements.

  3. Microtremor Array Measurement Survey and Strong Ground Motion Observation Activities of The MarDiM (SATREPS) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozgur Citak, Seckin; Karagoz, Ozlem; Chimoto, Kosuke; Ozel, Oguz; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Aksahin, Bengi; Arslan, Safa; Hatayama, Ken; Ohori, Michihiro; Hori, Muneo

    2015-04-01

    Since 1939, devastating earthquakes with magnitude greater than seven ruptured North Anatolian Fault (NAF) westward, starting from 1939 Erzincan (Ms=7.9) at the eastern Turkey and including the latest 1999 Izmit-Golcuk (Ms=7.4) and the Duzce (Ms=7.2) earthquakes in the eastern Marmara region, Turkey. On the other hand, the west of the Sea of Marmara an Mw7.4 earthquake ruptured the NAF' s Ganos segment in 1912. The only un-ruptured segments of the NAF in the last century are within the Sea of Marmara, and are identified as a "seismic gap" zone that its rupture may cause a devastating earthquake. In order to unravel the seismic risks of the Marmara region a comprehensive multidisciplinary research project The MarDiM project "Earthquake And Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey", has already been started since 2003. The project is conducted in the framework of "Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS)" sponsored by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). One of the main research field of the project is "Seismic characterization and damage prediction" which aims to improve the prediction accuracy of the estimation of the damages induced by strong ground motions and tsunamis based on reliable source parameters, detailed deep and shallow velocity structure and building data. As for detailed deep and shallow velocity structure microtremor array measurement surveys were conducted in Zeytinburnu district of Istanbul and Tekirdag province at about 81 sites on October 2013 and September 2014. Also in September 2014, 11 accelerometer units were installed mainly in public buildings in both Zeytinburnu and Tekirdag area and are currently in operation. Each accelerometer unit compose of a Network Sensor (CV-374A2) by Tokyo Sokushin, post processing PC for data storage and power supply unit. The Network Sensor (CV-374A2) consist of three servo type accelerometers for two horizontal and one vertical component combined with 24 bit AD converter. In the presentation current achievements and activities of research group, preliminary results of microtremor array measurement surveys and recorded data by the newly installed stations will be introduced.

  4. Application of bounding spectra to seismic design of piping based on the performance of above ground piping in power plants subjected to strong motion earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, J.D. [Stevenson and Associates, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This report extends the potential application of Bounding Spectra evaluation procedures, developed as part of the A-46 Unresolved Safety Issue applicable to seismic verification of in-situ electrical and mechanical equipment, to in-situ safety related piping in nuclear power plants. The report presents a summary of earthquake experience data which define the behavior of typical U.S. power plant piping subject to strong motion earthquakes. The report defines those piping system caveats which would assure the seismic adequacy of the piping systems which meet those caveats and whose seismic demand are within the bounding spectra input. Based on the observed behavior of piping in strong motion earthquakes, the report describes the capabilities of the piping system to carry seismic loads as a function of the type of connection (i.e. threaded versus welded). This report also discusses in some detail the basic causes and mechanisms for earthquake damages and failures to power plant piping systems.

  5. INVERSION OF STRONG GROUND MOTION AND TELESEISMIC WAVEFORM DATA FOR THE FAULT RUPTURE HISTORY OF THE 1979 IMPERIAL VALLEY, CALIFORNIA, EARTHQUAKE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEPHEN H. HARTZELL; THOMAS H. HEATON

    1983-01-01

    A least-squares point-by-point inversion of strong ground motion and tele- seismic body waves is used to infer the fault rupture history of the 1979 Imperial Valley, California, earthquake. The Imperial fault is represented by a plane embedded in a half-space where the elastic properties vary with depth. The inversion yields both the spatial and temporal variations in dislocation on the

  6. Application of Earthquake Early Warning System and Real-time Strong-motion Monitoring System to Earthquake Disaster Mitigation of a High-Rise Building in Tokyo, Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomohiro Kubo; Yoshiaki Hisada; Shigeki Horiuchi; Shunroku Yamamoto

    We apply Earthquake Early Warning System (EEWS) and Real-time Strong-motion Monitoring System (RSMS) to reduce earthquake-related damage of the 29-story building of Kogakuin University in the downtown Tokyo, Shinjuku, Japan. EEWS, which is operated by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, is the system to provide earthquake information, such as the location and magnitude of an earthquake,

  7. Evaluation of P- and S- Wave Velocities at CGS Geotechnical Arrays Using Wave Propagation Analysis of Strong Ground-Motion Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddadi, H. R.; Shakal, A. F.; Hagos, L. Z.

    2014-12-01

    The average compressional and shear wave velocities of ground layers at the California Geological Survey's instrumented geotechnical arrays are evaluated by analyzing the strong ground-motion records of the earthquakes. The Normalized Input-Output Minimization Method (NIOM) has been employed to correlate the ground motion waveforms recorded at various depths of the geotechnical arrays, and to calculate the P- and S- wave travel times and velocities between the depths at which the seismic sensors have been installed. As of August 2014, the California Geological Survey's Strong-Motion Instrumentation Program (CGS CSMIP) operates 35 geotechnical arrays, a large number of them with cooperation of the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans). As of this date, 140 records from 68 earthquakes with magnitude 3.5 and larger have been recorded at 28 geotechnical arrays. The records are available for download through the Center for Engineering Strong Motion Data (CESMD), the joint center of the U.S. Geological Survey and the California Geological Survey. The velocities obtained in this study for the cases of weak and strong shaking are compared with the measured velocities at the geotechnical array sites obtained using geophysical methods such as SASW, PS suspension logging and downhole methods. The average shear wave velocities in the upper 30 m of the geotechnical arrays from this study are compared with the Vs30 values from geophysical investigations. Application of wave propagation analysis is especially important in studying the dynamic characteristics of ground layers during high stress ground shaking and yields average values for a larger area under a site as opposed to the area in the very close vicinity of the geotechnical array.

  8. Prediction of Strong Earthquake Ground Motion for the M=7.4 and M=7.2 1999, Turkey Earthquakes based upon Geological Structure Modeling and Local Earthquake Recordings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Gok; L. Hutchings

    2004-01-01

    We test a means to predict strong ground motion using the Mw=7.4 and Mw=7.2 1999 Izmit and Duzce, Turkey earthquakes. We generate 100 rupture scenarios for each earthquake, constrained by a prior knowledge, and use these to synthesize strong ground motion and make the prediction. Ground motion is synthesized with the representation relation using impulsive point source Green's functions and

  9. Strong ground motion data from the 1983 Borah Peak, Idaho earthquake recorded at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Jackson; J. Boatwright

    1985-01-01

    The 1983 Borah Peak, Idaho Earthquake was the largest normal faulting event to occur in the last 20 years. There were no near-field recordings of ground motion during the main shock, however, thirteen accelerographs in a permanent array at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) recorded the event at epicentral distances of 90 to 110 km. Peak horizontal accelerations (PGA)

  10. Reconciling strong slab pull and weak plate bending: The plate motion constraint on the strength of mantle slabs

    E-print Network

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Keywords: subduction zones plate bending mantle slabs plate tectonics mantle convection rheology Although subducting slabs undergo a bending deformation that resists tectonic plate motions, the magnitude. This gentle bending may ultimately permit plate tectonics on Earth. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

  11. Rupture processes of the 2010 Canterbury earthquake and the 2011 Christchurch earthquake inferred from InSAR, strong motion and teleseismic datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, S.; Koketsu, K.; Aoki, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The September 4, 2010, Canterbury earthquake with a moment magnitude (Mw) of 7.1 is a crustal earthquake in the South Island, New Zealand. The February 22, 2011, Christchurch earthquake (Mw=6.3) is the biggest aftershock of the 2010 Canterbury earthquake that is located at about 50 km to the east of the mainshock. Both earthquakes occurred on previously unrecognized faults. Field observations indicate that the rupture of the 2010 Canterbury earthquake reached the surface; the surface rupture with a length of about 30 km is located about 4 km south of the epicenter. Also various data including the aftershock distribution and strong motion seismograms suggest a very complex rupture process. For these reasons it is useful to investigate the complex rupture process using multiple data with various sensitivities to the rupture process. While previously published source models are based on one or two datasets, here we infer the rupture process with three datasets, InSAR, strong-motion, and teleseismic data. We first performed point source inversions to derive the focal mechanism of the 2010 Canterbury earthquake. Based on the focal mechanism, the aftershock distribution, the surface fault traces and the SAR interferograms, we assigned several source faults. We then performed the joint inversion to determine the rupture process of the 2010 Canterbury earthquake most suitable for reproducing all the datasets. The obtained slip distribution is in good agreement with the surface fault traces. We also performed similar inversions to reveal the rupture process of the 2011 Christchurch earthquake. Our result indicates steep dip and large up-dip slip. This reveals the observed large vertical ground motion around the source region is due to the rupture process, rather than the local subsurface structure. To investigate the effects of the 3-D velocity structure on characteristic strong motion seismograms of the two earthquakes, we plan to perform the inversion taking 3-D velocity structure of this region into account.

  12. A test of a physically-based strong ground motion prediction methodology with the 26 September 1997, Mw = 6.0 Colfiorito (Umbria-Marche sequence), Italy earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scognamiglio, Laura; Hutchings, Lawrence

    2009-10-01

    We test the physically-based ground motion hazard prediction methodology of Hutchings et al. [Hutchings, L., Ioannidou, E., Kalogeras, I., Voulgaris, N., Savy, J., Foxall, W., Scognamiglio, L., and Stavrakakis, G., (2007). A physically-based strong ground motion prediction methodology; Application to PSHA and the 1999 M = 6.0 Athens Earthquake. Geophys. J. Int. 168, 569-680.] through an a posteriori prediction of the 26 September 1997, Mw 6.0 Colfiorito (Umbria-Marche, Italy) earthquake at four stations. By "physically-based" we refer to ground motion synthesized with quasi-dynamic rupture models derived from physics and an understanding of the earthquake process. We test five hypotheses proposed by Hutchings et al. [Hutchings, L., Ioannidou, E., Kalogeras, I., Voulgaris, N., Savy, J., Foxall, W., Scognamiglio, L., and Stavrakakis, G., (2007). A physically-based strong ground motion prediction methodology; Application to PSHA and the 1999 M = 6.0 Athens Earthquake. Geophys. J. Int. 168, 569-680.] that support application of the methodology to physically-based probabilistic seismic hazard or risk analysis. We use two methods to test the hypotheses. First, we test whether observed records fall within the 68% log-normal confidence interval for the distribution of absolute acceleration response (AAR), pseudo velocity response (PSV), and Fourier amplitude spectra (FFT) created by a suite of source models. We also used the godness of fit between synthesized seismograms to verify whether at least one of the source models in the suite generates seismograms that match the observed waveforms, and if good fits to seismograms are due to source models that are close to what is actually known about the Colfiorito earthquake. We tested the hypotheses with a range of source parameters proposed by Hutchings et al. [Hutchings, L., Ioannidou, E., Kalogeras, I., Voulgaris, N., Savy, J., Foxall, W., Scognamiglio, L., and Stavrakakis, G., (2007). A physically-based strong ground motion prediction methodology; Application to PSHA and the 1999 M = 6.0 Athens Earthquake. Geophys. J. Int. 168, 569-680.]. We synthesized records from 100 rupture scenarios that were generated by a Monte Carlo selection of parameters within the range. This range was based upon having some prior knowledge of where the earthquake would occur. Observed values of AAR, PSV and FFT fit within the 68% confidence interval for all four stations, and one of the models generated seismograms that had a good fit compared to the observations. Moreover, a strict test for validating a physically-based ground motion hazard prediction methodology is that as more information is known about the source, the uncertainty of the prediction should narrow, but still include the actual ground motion. Then, we tightened the source parameters to be centered about the known parameters for the Colfiorito earthquake, and allowed for less uncertainty in their values. We found this to be true for this test. While the 68% confidence interval narrowed from a factor of ± about 4 to ± about 2 for the distributions, observed values of AAR, PSV and FFT still fit within the distributions for all four stations. Ultimately, we have calculated peak ground velocity (PGV) and peak ground acceleration (PGA) for all the synthetic seismograms obtained from the computed scenarios, and we have found that they are comparable with the actual and with those from the attenuation relation. We conclude that the methodology of Hutchings et al. [Hutchings, L., Ioannidou, E., Kalogeras, I., Voulgaris, N., Savy, J., Foxall, W., Scognamiglio, L., and Stavrakakis, G., (2007). A physically-based strong ground motion prediction methodology; Application to PSHA and the 1999 M = 6.0 Athens Earthquake. Geophys. J. Int. 168, 569-680.] is promising in giving ground motion hazard prediction estimates.

  13. Structure and evolution of the active fold and thrust belt of southwestern Taiwan using GPS geodesy 

    E-print Network

    Hickman, John Bibb

    1999-01-01

    Using GPS and published geologic data, we have crographics. investigated the current deformation rates and local kinematic relationships for the southern region of the Taiwan fold-thrust belt. The GPS measurements suggest complex motions across...

  14. Geometric Brownian Motion Consider the geometric Brownian motion process

    E-print Network

    Lyuu, Yuh-Dauh

    Geometric Brownian Motion · Consider the geometric Brownian motion process Y (t) eX(t) ­ X(t) is a (µ, ) Brownian motion. · As Y/X = Y and 2 Y/X2 = Y , Ito's formula (51) on p. 453 implies dY Y = µ-Dauh Lyuu, National Taiwan University Page 459 Product of Geometric Brownian Motion Processes · Let d

  15. Strong-motion, site-effects and hazard issues in rebuilding Turkey: In light of the 17 August, 1999 earthquake and its aftershocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.; Toprak, S.; Holzer, T.

    2000-01-01

    The August 17, 1999 Izmit (Turkey) earthquake (Mw=7.4) will be remembered as one of the largest earthquakes of recent times that affected a large urban environment (U.S. Geological Survey, 1999). The shaking that caused the widespread damage and destruction was recorded only by a handful of accelerographs in the earthquake area operated by different networks. The characteristics of these records show that the recorded peak accelerations, even those from near field stations, are smaller than expected. On the other hand, smaller magnitude aftershocks yielded larger peak accelerations. This is attributed to the sparse networks, which possibly missed recording of larger motions during the main shock. As rebuilding of Turkey starts, strong-motion networks that yield essential data must be enlarged. In addition, attention must be paid to new developments elsewhere, such as earthquake zoning maps, earthquake hazard maps, liquefaction potentials and susceptibility. This paper aims to discuss these issues. Copyright??2000 IAHS.

  16. Urban waste recycling in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon C. C. Yang

    1995-01-01

    The urban waste recycling program in Taiwan is discussed. During the past few years, the quantity of urban waste generated in Taiwan has greatly increased, about 8–10% per year. Approx., 50 wt.% or more of the waste items in urban waste are found to be valuable and worth recycling. Recycling is of much significance to Taiwan because of a lack

  17. Sea Level Variation around Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Chen; C. T. Kuo

    If sea level is rising around Taiwan coast, it will cause many extremely disasters in nearshore area such as flooding, wave overtopping, beach erosion etc. The purpose of this paper is to discussing the sea water level fluctuation in Taiwan; the results were analyzed from the tidal data those survey from all the tidal sites around Taiwan coast. There show

  18. Seismic Structures of the Kuroshio Current off eastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, C.; Yeh, Y.; Hsu, S.; Ku, C.

    2009-12-01

    Kuroshio current is originated from North Equatorial Current that flows in the east of Taiwan then extends to southeast along coast of Japan. The high speed (~100cm/s) and high salinity (> 35 ‰) water of the Kuroshio current partially intrudes the Luzon Strait that flows into South China Sea then merged with the main flow around east of il-Lan, Taiwan annually. The seismic fine structure of Kuroshio current off Japan shows that the existence of strong linear reflections could be affected down to 1.5 TWT (~1,125 meters). However, due to only few profiles were analyzed and lack of comparison of physical oceanographic measurements (e.g. CTD), the characteristics of Kuroshio current is still unclear. In this study, we present all available multichannel seismic data east of Taiwan (e.g. beginning of Kuroshio current) including R/V Maurice Ewing collected in year 1995 and latest collected data by R/V Marcus G. Langseth this year. The result shows two branches of Kuroshio current east of Taiwan. One is close to east coast of Taiwan. The whole current column could be down to 1.6 TWT (~1,200 meters). The water from onland Taiwan also mix with the main Kuroshio current and reveals an obvious eastward dipping high seismic reflector. Second branch is situated at 110 km distance east of Taiwan, near the Gugua Ridge. This column forms oval-shaped and also be extended to 1,200 meters in deep.

  19. Strong ground motion generated by controlled blasting experiments and mining induced seismic events recorded underground at deep level mines in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milev, A.; Selllers, E.; Skorpen, L.; Scheepers, L.; Murphy, S.; Spottiswoode, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    A number of simulated rockbursts were conducted underground at deep level gold mines in South Africa in order to estimate the rock mass response when subjected to strong ground motion. The rockbursts were simulated by means of large blasts detonated in solid rock close to the sidewall of a tunnel. The simulated rockbursts involved the design of the seismic source, seismic observations in the near and far field, high-speed video filming, a study of rock mass conditions such as fractures, joints, rock strength etc. Knowledge of the site conditions before and after the simulated rockbursts was also gained. The numerical models used in the design of the simulated rockbursts were calibrated by small blasts taking place at each experimental site. A dense array of shock type accelerometers was installed along the blasting wall to monitor the attenuation of the strong ground motion as a function of the distance from the source. The attenuation of peak particle velocities, was found to be proportional to R^-1.7. Special investigations were carried out to evaluate the mechanism and the magnitude of damage, as well as the support behaviour under excessive dynamic loading. The strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events was studied, as part of this work, not only to characterize the rock mass response, but also to estimate the site effect on the surface of the underground excavations. A stand-alone instrument especially designed for recording strong ground motions was used to create a large database of peak particle velocities measured on stope hangingwalls. A total number of 58 sites located in stopes where the Carbon Leader Reef, Ventersdorp Contact Reef, Vaal Reef and Basal Reef are mined, were monitored. The peak particle velocities were measured at the surface of the excavations to identify the effect of the free surface and the fractures surrounding the underground mining. Based on these measurements the generally accepted velocity criterion of 3 m/s was found to be an adequate value to meet the requirements of support systems during a rockburst. The data recorded on the skin of the excavations were compared to the data recorded by the mine seismic networks to determine the site response, defined as the ratio of the measured peak ground velocity to the peak ground velocity inferred from the mine seismic data. The site response measured at all mines studied was found to be 9 ± 3 times larger on average.

  20. A Source Study of the 9 September 1998 (Mw 5.6) Castelluccio Earthquake in Southern Italy using Teleseismic and Strong Motion Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Arrigo; Z. Roumelioti; Ch. Benetatos; A. Kiratzi; A. Bottari; G. Neri; D. Termini; A. Gorini; S. Marcucci

    2006-01-01

    Teleseismic and strong motion data are used to derive the source parameters of the September 9, 1998 Castelluccio earthquake\\u000a (M5.6). Teleseismic body-wave modeling indicates normal faulting (Plane 1: strike = 328, dip = 50, rake = ?75; Plane 2:\\u000a strike = 126, dip = 42, rake = ?107) along NW–SE striking planes. Both nodal planes of the computed focal mechanism are\\u000a tested for their capability of reproducing the mainshock acceleration time histories

  1. Application of an iterative least-squares waveform inversion of strong-motion and teleseismic records to the 1978 Tabas, Iran, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, S.; Mendoza, C.

    1991-01-01

    An iterative least-squares technique is used to simultaneously invert the strong-motion records and teleseismic P waveforms for the 1978 Tabas, Iran, earthquake to deduce the rupture history. The effects of using different data sets and different parametrizations of the problem (linear versus nonlinear) are considered. A consensus of all the inversion runs indicates a complex, multiple source for the Tabas earthquake, with four main source regions over a fault length of 90 km and an average rupture velocity of 2.5 km/sec. -from Authors

  2. Current crustal deformation at the junction of collision to subduction around the Hualien area, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sean Kuanhsiang; Chan, Yu-Chang; Hu, Jyr-Ching; Kuo, Long-Chen

    2014-03-01

    We analyzed continuous GPS (CGPS) data recorded on 15 stations from 2002 to 2009 and examined the CGPS-derived strain along with local seismicity to characterize the current crustal deformation at the plate junction around the Hualien area in Taiwan. By examining the CGPS time series in detail, we discovered abnormal variations in the CGPS horizontal displacements and an annual cycle with a peak-to-peak difference of more than 20 mm. Most stations move in the ESE direction during May to October, and move in the opposite direction during November to April every year. We found that the average semi-annual velocity of each CGPS station is generally parallel to the direction of convergence between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea plates, and that the CGPS temporal areal strain is strongly related to the occurrence of larger local earthquakes, while the strain reverses from contraction to extension. The CGPS displacement is well known to have been influenced by seasonal changes or loadings from several environmental factors. We tested these perceptions with the newly acquired CGPS data and seismicity, and found that the environmental factors are unlikely to explain the patterns of surface motion in the study area. We also compared our results with previously reported cases and found distinctive patterns in the temporal and spatial distributions of the CGPS data and seismic behavior. The geodetic and seismic observations should provide motion constraints for further studies of the plate junction kinematics from collision to subduction around the Hualien area in Taiwan.

  3. Source Rupture Process for the February 21, 2011, Mw6.1, New Zealand Earthquake and the Characteristics of Near-field Strong Ground Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, L.; Shi, B.

    2011-12-01

    The New Zealand Earthquake of February 21, 2011, Mw 6.1 occurred in the South Island, New Zealand with the epicenter at longitude 172.70°E and latitude 43.58°S, and with depth of 5 km. The Mw 6.1 earthquake occurred on an unknown blind fault involving oblique-thrust faulting, which is 9 km away from southern of the Christchurch, the third largest city of New Zealand, with a striking direction from east toward west (United State Geology Survey, USGS, 2011). The earthquake killed at least 163 people and caused a lot of construction damages in Christchurch city. The Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) observed at station Heathcote Valley Primary School (HVSC), which is 1 km away from the epicenter, is up to almost 2.0g. The ground-motion observation suggests that the buried earthquake source generates much higher near-fault ground motion. In this study, we have analyzed the earthquake source spectral parameters based on the strong motion observations, and estimated the near-fault ground motion based on the Brune's circular fault model. The results indicate that the larger ground motion may be caused by a higher dynamic stress drop,??d , or effect stress drop named by Brune, in the major source rupture region. In addition, a dynamical composite source model (DCSM) has been developed to simulate the near-fault strong ground motion with associated fault rupture properties from the kinematic point of view. For comparison purpose, we also conducted the broadband ground motion predictions for the station of HVSC; the synthetic seismogram of time histories produced for this station has good agreement with the observations in the waveforms, peak values and frequency contents, which clearly indicate that the higher dynamic stress drop during the fault rupture may play an important role to the anomalous ground-motion amplification. The preliminary simulated result illustrated in at Station HVSC is that the synthetics seismograms have a realistic appearance in the waveform and time duration to the observations, especially for the vertical component. Synthetics Fourier spectra are reasonably similar to the recordings. The simulated PGA values of vertical and S26W components are consistent with the recorded, and for the S64E component, the PGA derived from our simulation is smaller than that from observation. The resultant Fourier spectra both for the synthetic and observation is much similar with each other for three components of acceleration time histories, except for the vertical component, where the derived spectra from synthetic data is smaller than that resultant from observation when the frequency is above 10 Hz. Both theoretical study and numerical simulation indicate that, for the 2011 Mw 6.1, New Zealand Earthquake, the higher dynamic stress drop during the source rupture process could play an important role to the anomalous ground-motion amplification beside to the other site-related seismic effects. The composite source modeling based on the simple Brune's pulse model could approximately provide us a good insight into earthquake source related rupture processes for a moderate-sized earthquake.

  4. Earthquake Rupture Process Inferred from Joint Inversion of 1-Hz GPS and Strong Motion Data: The 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku, Japan, Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Y.; Koketsu, K.; Hikima, K.; Miyazaki, S.

    2009-12-01

    1-Hz GPS data can be used as a ground displacement seismogram. The capability of high-rate GPS to record seismic wave fields for large magnitude (M8 class) earthquakes has been demonstrated [Larson et al., 2003]. Rupture models were inferred solely and supplementarily from 1-Hz GPS data [Miyazaki et al., 2004; Ji et al., 2004; Kobayashi et al., 2006]. However, none of the previous studies have succeeded in inferring the source process of the medium-sized (M6 class) earthquake solely from 1-Hz GPS data. We first compared 1-Hz GPS data with integrated strong motion waveforms for the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku, Japan, earthquake. We performed a waveform inversion for the rupture process using 1-Hz GPS data only [Yokota et al., 2009]. We here discuss the rupture processes inferred from the inversion of 1-Hz GPS data of GEONET only, the inversion of strong motion data of K-NET and KiK-net only, and the joint inversion of 1-Hz GPS and strong motion data. The data were inverted to infer the rupture process of the earthquake using the inversion codes by Yoshida et al. [1996] with the revisions by Hikima and Koketsu [2005]. In the 1-Hz GPS inversion result, the total seismic moment is 2.7×1019 Nm (Mw: 6.9) and the maximum slip is 5.1 m. These results are approximately equal to 2.4×1019 Nm and 4.5 m from the inversion of strong motion data. The difference in the slip distribution on the northern fault segment may come from long-period motions possibly recorded only in 1-Hz GPS data. In the joint inversion result, the total seismic moment is 2.5×1019 Nm and the maximum slip is 5.4 m. These values also agree well with the result of 1-Hz GPS inversion. In all the series of snapshots that show the dynamic features of the rupture process, the rupture propagated bilaterally from the hypocenter to the south and north. The northern rupture speed is faster than the northern one. These agreements demonstrate the ability of 1-Hz GPS data to infer not only static, but also dynamic features of a medium-sized (M6 class) earthquake, although some details, such as the shallow extension of the southern asperity, are missing, due possibly to their limitations such as the sampling interval of 1 s and the sparse GPS stations distiribution in the near field of the earthquake. The result of the joint inversion indiates that these minor discrepancies can be reduced by the introduction of strong motion data. Continuous GPS monitoring at a much higher rate (e.g., 10 Hz) will also be helpful for reducing the minor discrepancies.

  5. THE FERRARA ARC THRUST EARTHQUAKES OF MAY-JUNE 2012 (NORTHERN ITALY): STRONG-MOTION AND GEOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS

    E-print Network

    Fleskes, Joe

    1 THE FERRARA ARC THRUST EARTHQUAKES OF MAY-JUNE 2012 (NORTHERN ITALY): STRONG earthquake. (A) Schematic map of the Padan-Adriatic Thrust Belt of northern Italy with boundary of the study. Ponziani, A. Formica INTRODUCTION On 29 May 2012, at 07:00:03 (UTC), Northern Italy was struck

  6. Calculating the Probability of Strong Ground Motions Using 3D Seismic Waveform Modeling - SCEC CyberShake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, N.; Callaghan, S.; Graves, R.; Mehta, G.; Zhao, L.; Deelman, E.; Jordan, T. H.; Kesselman, C.; Okaya, D.; Cui, Y.; Field, E.; Gupta, V.; Vahi, K.; Maechling, P. J.

    2006-12-01

    Researchers from the SCEC Community Modeling Environment (SCEC/CME) project are utilizing the CyberShake computational platform and a distributed high performance computing environment that includes USC High Performance Computer Center and the NSF TeraGrid facilities to calculate physics-based probabilistic seismic hazard curves for several sites in the Southern California area. Traditionally, probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is conducted using intensity measure relationships based on empirical attenuation relationships. However, a more physics-based approach using waveform modeling could lead to significant improvements in seismic hazard analysis. Members of the SCEC/CME Project have integrated leading-edge PSHA software tools, SCEC-developed geophysical models, validated anelastic wave modeling software, and state-of-the-art computational technologies on the TeraGrid to calculate probabilistic seismic hazard curves using 3D waveform-based modeling. The CyberShake calculations for a single probablistic seismic hazard curve require tens of thousands of CPU hours and multiple terabytes of disk storage. The CyberShake workflows are run on high performance computing systems including multiple TeraGrid sites (currently SDSC and NCSA), and the USC Center for High Performance Computing and Communications. To manage the extensive job scheduling and data requirements, CyberShake utilizes a grid-based scientific workflow system based on the Virtual Data System (VDS), the Pegasus meta-scheduler system, and the Globus toolkit. Probabilistic seismic hazard curves for spectral acceleration at 3.0 seconds have been produced for eleven sites in the Southern California region, including rock and basin sites. At low ground motion levels, there is little difference between the CyberShake and attenuation relationship curves. At higher ground motion (lower probability) levels, the curves are similar for some sites (downtown LA, I-5/SR-14 interchange) but different for others (Whittier Narrows, Santa Ana). We suggest this is due to rupture directivity and basin effects leading to increased ground motion in the CyberShake simulations.

  7. Automatic Imaging the Rupture Process of the 2014 South Napa Earthquake by Iterative Deconvolution and Stacking the Strong-motion Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Wang, R.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 South Napa earthquake was well recorded by a densely distributed strong-motion network. By using the automatic iterative deconvolution and stacking (IDS) method, we invert data of strong-motion networks with different apertures and station spacings for rupture processes, in order to examine the influences of networks on the rupture models. By performing a series of inversions, we have found that networks, with apertures more than 60 km and station spacings less than 10 km, are sufficient to imaging the rupture process of the South Napa earthquake. The automatically estimated rupture models of different networks are consistent with each other; all of them suggest that the ruptures mainly propagated to the north and to shallow depths, and formed a unilateral rupture event. The peak slip of this earthquake is about 0.5-0.7 m, located near the ground surface and about 5 km to the north of the epicenter. This work suggests that, with the IDS method, it is feasible in principle to automatically estimate the earthquake rupture process after the earthquake occurrence. This would be beneficial to the earthquake emergency responses, such as earthquake relief and disaster mitigations.

  8. Rupture process of 2009 Mw 8.1 Samoa earthquake constrained by joint inverting teleseismic body, surface waves and local strong motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Shao, G.; Ji, C.

    2009-12-01

    The 2009 Mw 8.1 Samoa earthquake occurred in the outer rise region of the Tonga subduction zone where the pacific plane subducts down the Australia plane in a speed of 9 cm/s to the west. This event is the largest earthquake in year 2009 and also the largest normal fault earthquake since the 2007 Mw 8.1 Kuril island earthquake. The Tsunami excited by this event killed nearly 200 people. Unlike other magnitude 8 earthquakes, there were big controversies among the preliminary seismological solutions in terms of the size of non-double couple component and the causative fault plane. Here, we intend to better constrain the rupture process of this earthquake with the additional strong motion record at GSN station AFI, 178 km away from the hypocenter. Our preliminary result shows that combined dataset including teleseismic P, SH, surface waves and AFI strong motion records favors a causative fault plane striking 345° and dipping 54° northeast, consistent with the preliminary USGS finite fault solution; but if we only use the teleseismic P waves, the conjugate fault plane striking 124 degrees and dipping southwest is the optimal, agreeing with Dr. Yagi's solution. The major slip located in the northwest of hypocenter, regardless of the choice of the preferred nodal plane

  9. Rupture history of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan, China, earthquake: Evaluation of separate and joint inversions of geodetic, teleseismic, and strong-motion data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, Stephen; Mendoza, Carlos; Ramírez-Guzmán, Leonardo; Zeng, Yuesha; Mooney, Walter

    2013-01-01

    earthquake. A linear multiple-time-window approach is used to parameterize the rupture. Because of the complexity of the Wenchuan faulting, three separate planes are used to represent the rupturing surfaces. This earthquake clearly demonstrates the strengths and limitations of geodetic, teleseismic, and strong-motion data sets. Geodetic data (static offsets) are valuable for determining the distribution of shallower slip but are insensitive to deeper faulting and reveal nothing about the timing of slip. Teleseismic data in the distance range 30°–90° generally involve no modeling difficulties because of simple ray paths and can distinguish shallow from deep slip. Teleseismic data, however, cannot distinguish between different slip scenarios when multiple fault planes are involved because steep takeoff angles lead to ambiguity in timing. Local strong-motion data, on the other hand, are ideal for determining the direction of rupture from directivity but can easily be over modeled with inaccurate Green’s functions, leading to misinterpretation of the slip distribution. We show that all three data sets are required to give an accurate description of the Wenchuan rupture. The moment is estimated to be approximately 1:0×1021 N · m with the slip characterized by multiple large patches with slips up to 10 m. Rupture initiates on the southern end of the Pengguan fault and proceeds unilaterally to the northeast. Upon reaching the cross-cutting Xiaoyudong fault, rupture of the adjacent Beichuan fault starts at this juncture and proceeds bilaterally to the northeast and southwest.

  10. Respiratory motion compensation for simultaneous PET/MR based on a 3D-2D registration of strongly undersampled radial MR data: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rank, Christopher M.; Heußer, Thorsten; Flach, Barbara; Brehm, Marcus; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2015-03-01

    We propose a new method for PET/MR respiratory motion compensation, which is based on a 3D-2D registration of strongly undersampled MR data and a) runs in parallel with the PET acquisition, b) can be interlaced with clinical MR sequences, and c) requires less than one minute of the total MR acquisition time per bed position. In our simulation study, we applied a 3D encoded radial stack-of-stars sampling scheme with 160 radial spokes per slice and an acquisition time of 38 s. Gated 4D MR images were reconstructed using a 4D iterative reconstruction algorithm. Based on these images, motion vector fields were estimated using our newly-developed 3D-2D registration framework. A 4D PET volume of a patient with eight hot lesions in the lungs and upper abdomen was simulated and MoCo 4D PET images were reconstructed based on the motion vector fields derived from MR. For evaluation, average SUVmean values of the artificial lesions were determined for a 3D, a gated 4D, a MoCo 4D and a reference (with ten-fold measurement time) gated 4D reconstruction. Compared to the reference, 3D reconstructions yielded an underestimation of SUVmean values due to motion blurring. In contrast, gated 4D reconstructions showed the highest variation of SUVmean due to low statistics. MoCo 4D reconstructions were only slightly affected by these two sources of uncertainty resulting in a significant visual and quantitative improvement in terms of SUVmean values. Whereas temporal resolution was comparable to the gated 4D images, signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio were close to the 3D reconstructions.

  11. New Taiwan macrolichens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Aptroot; L B Sparrius; M-J Lai

    2002-01-01

    [New to Taiwan: Baeomyces rufus, Candelaria concolor, Cladonia glauca, C. incrassata, C. phyllopoda, C. strepsilis, C. subsquamosa, C. umbricola, Dibaeis baeomyces, D. pulogensis, D. sorediata, Dirinaria aegialita, D. confluens, Ephebe lanata, Heterodermia microphylla, H. verrucifera, Hyperphyscia adglutinata, H. cochlearis, H. granulata, Hypotrachyna rockii, Leioderma sorediatum, Leptogium austroamericanum, L. burnetiae, L. corticola, L. denticulatum, L. laceroides, L. marginellum, L. phyllocarpum, L.

  12. Technology Education in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lung-Sheng Steven

    Technology education focusing on technological literacy is provided to Taiwanese students in grades 1-11, primarily through the secondary school subject Living Technology (LT). Taiwan's newly promulgated national curriculum for grades 1-9 has integrated LT with natural science for the key learning area (KLA) Natural Science and Living Technology.…

  13. Surface Waves Observed in the Western Coast Plain of the Taiwan Island During the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, Earthquake and its Aftershocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.; Tang, G.; Burbach, G.; Jackson, C. R.; Lin, Q.

    2004-12-01

    During the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake and its consequent aftershocks, significant surface waves were observed in the western coast plain of the Taiwan island. Ground-motion records from the 1999 Chi-Chi mainshock and its five aftershocks with magnitude larger than Mw 6.0 are analyzed in this study. The ground-motions in the western coast plain, which can be classified as NEHRP E site, were dominated by the surface wave in the period range larger than 1.0 second. The distance between the sources and the instruments in the western coast plain are about 20--45 km. We study the attenuation of the surface waves with distance to source. The Rayleigh waves attenuate faster than the Love waves in the coast plain. The amplitude of horizontal Rayleigh wave is about 1.5 time of that of the corresponding Love wave on average in the near-source area. The strong-motions observed in the coast plain are a mixture of P, S, Love, and Rayleigh waves. S-wave was overlapped by the surface waves in a relative wide period range (0.5--1.5 sec). However, the body wave and the surface wave were separated quite well in some seismograms triggered by one aftershock (Sep. 20, 1999, 18:03:41.16, Mw 6.2) of the Chi-Chi mainshock. Based on a basic structural model of the studied area, we use 3D finite-difference modeling to study the special mechanism separating the body wave and surface wave. We find it is really difficult to generate the near-source seismograms with the body wave and surface wave being separated perfectly. Depth of the source and the azimuth of instrument to source are the two key elements that control the separating of the body wave and surface wave.

  14. Economic evaluation model for post-earthquake bridge repair\\/rehabilitation: Taiwan case studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min-Yuan Cheng; Yu-Wei Wu; Sheng-Jin Chen; Ming-Chuan Weng

    2009-01-01

    Taiwan, located in a zone of strong seismic activity, is subject to earthquakes that regularly threaten human life, property and transportation facilities. The importance of bridges to Taiwan's transportation grid makes the impact of their destruction or damage during an earthquake significant on people's livelihoods. However, within the overall transportation grid, the relative importance of individual bridges differs, based on

  15. A study on the structure and precipitation of Morakot (2009) induced by the Central Mountain Range of Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yi-Chih; Lin, Yuh-Lang

    2014-02-01

    The three-dimensional structures and ingredients leading to extremely heavy precipitation associated with the passage of Typhoon Morakot (2009) over the Central Mountain Range (CMR) of Taiwan are investigated. Using a numerical model, the track, track deflection, characteristic rainbands, and precipitation patterns and maxima are successfully reproduced after verification against observational data. The high-level outward flow of the secondary circulation around the eyewall is not very clear even during Morakot's strongest stage. In the control case, the eyewall collapses within 5 h after landfall that is closely associated with limited precipitation along the track after landfall. During the early stage of landfall, the deep convection on the windward (west) side of the CMR helps strengthening the secondary circulation. A quantitative comparison of total precipitable water, translation speed, and orographic lifting among 12 typhoons in recent years causing large accumulated rainfall in Taiwan shows that the abundant water vapor around Taiwan outweighs translation speed and orographic lifting in resulting in the record-breaking precipitation. It is found that the major processes leading to strong upward motion in the extremely heavy precipitation during 0000 UTC 8 August-0000 UTC 9 August are initiated by orographic lifting by CMR.

  16. Preliminary study on soil to rock spectral ratio method of microtremor measurement in Taipei Basin, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jyun Yan; Wen, Kuo Liang; Te Chen, Chun; Chang, Shun Chiang

    2014-05-01

    Taipei city is the capital of Taiwan which located in Taipei basin and covered with hundreds meter of alluvial layer that might cause serious damage during huge earthquake. Prediction of possible strong motion levels occurred in the basin then became popular. Engineers most like to use Ground Motion Prediction Equation (GMPEs) as common tool for seismic hazard calculation but GMPEs were usually debated that it can only give one prediction value (PGA, PGV, Sa etc.) rather than time history or spectrum. Seismologists tried theoretical simulation (1D, 2D, 3D method) but could only give low frequency (usually less than 1 Hz) results restricted to that the shallow structures were not clear enough. Resent years, wide frequency simulation techniques such as empirical green's function added stochastic simulation method (hybrid method) were applied to several different purposes but site effect still plays an important role that need to be considered. Traditionally soil to rock spectral ratio of shear wave (denoted as S/R) was widely applied to check basin effect for decades but the technique needs lots of permanent stations and several years to get enough records. If some site located within strong motion network but not close enough to the strong motion stations, interpolate or extrapolate results needed to be used. Wen and Huang (2012) conducted a dense microtremor measurement network in whole Taiwan and applied microtremor H/V to discuss dominant frequency with traditional transfer functions from earthquake shear wave and found good agreement between them. Furthermore, in this study, the ability of soil to rock spectral ratio of microtremor (denoted as MS/R) measurement was tested in Taipei basin. The preliminary results showed MS/R had good agreement with S/R between 0.2 to 5 Hz. And distance from soil site to reference rock site should no greater than 8 to 10 km base on degree of spectrum difference (DSPD) calculation. If the MS/R works that site effect study from this technique could be applied for some region which distribution of strong motion stations were not dense enough after all.

  17. The 1999 Izmit, Turkey, earthquake: Non-planar fault structure, dynamic rupture process and strong ground motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aochi, H.; Madariaga, R.

    2001-12-01

    The fault trace of the 1999 Izmit, Turkey, earthquake is incomplete, because it is buried or covered by a lake and a gulf. We modeled dynamic rupture propagation along various non-planar fault models, which are inferred by geological observation and geodesic analyses, using 3D-BIEM (boundary integral equation method). Geological observation of surface fault traces implies complex non-planar fault structures, while InSAR and SPOT images give a smoother fault structure consisting of a few segments. We study three points which may show geological irregularities; 1) 25 km east of the hypocenter under Sapanca lake, between the Izmit-Sapanca lake (IS) and the Sapanca-Akyazl (SA) segments, 2) 60 km east at the Akyazl basin, between the SA and the Karadere (K) segments, and 3) 10 km west under the sea between the Karamursel-Golcuk (KG) and IS segments. In numerical simulation, we focus on rupture directivity, slip distribution and rupture velocity. As a preliminary situation, we assume a uniform regional stress favorable on the primary segment (IS) and a simple depth-dependent slip-weakening law. We discuss the relation between the irregularity of fault orientation and rupture process. From numerical simulations, each fault discontinuity is treated as 1) a small bend of a few degrees, 2) a bend of about 25o which causes differences in initial stress field along the SA and K segments enough for rupture to stop, and 3) a jog which may disturb westbound rupture propagation. We conclude that fault geometry and orientation constrain the rupture process in the 1999 Izmit earthquake, and that they may cause difference in ground motion eastward and westward of the hypocenter.

  18. Completely Bound Motion of Electrons with Positive Energy near Protons in a Cool White Dwarf Photosphere Plasma with Strong Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koryagin, S. A.; Arsenyev, S. A.

    2015-06-01

    We proved that, under the conditions of an isolated magnetic white dwarf photosphere with strong magnetic field, an electron can perform the completely bound classic motion near a proton not only for the negative energy (as in an atom) but also for the positive energy (which usually corresponds to the free particles). Near the proton, the completely bound trajectories can occupy the significantly larger sector of the velocity directions than the free trajectories with the same energy. The integrated by frequency emissivity from the positive-energy bound electrons can exceed the bremsstrahlung emissivity from the free particles in the infrared. Nevertheless, the electromagnetic emission (and absorption) from the bound electrons is concentrated in the non-overlapping spectral lines.

  19. Deformation and seismicity of Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2000-01-01

    14C-dated Holocene coastal uplift, conventional and satellite geodetic measurements, and coseismic and aseismic fault slip reveal the pattern of distributed deformation at Taiwan resulting from convergence between the Philippine Sea plate and Eurasia; as in other subduction orogenic settings, the locus of strain release and accumulation is strongly influenced by changes in fault geometry across strike. Uplift evidence from the islands of Lutao and Lanhsu is consistent with progressive oblique collision between the Luzon arc and the Chinese continental margin. In the Coastal Range, geodetic and seismic records show that shortening is taken up serially by discontinuous slip on imbricate faults. The geodetic data point to net extension across the Central Range, but deformed Holocene shorelines in the Hengchun Peninsula at its southern extremity suggest that the extension is a superficial effect partly caused by blind reverse faulting. The fastest shortening rates indicated by geodesy are recorded on the Longitudinal Valley fault and across the Chukou fault within the fold-and-thrust belt. In the former, the strain is dissipated mainly as aseismic reverse and strike-slip displacement. In contrast, the fold-and-thrust belt has witnessed five earthquakes with magnitudes of 6.5 or above in the 20th century, including the 1999.9.21 Chi-Chi earthquake (magnitude ? 7.6) on a branch of the Chukou fault. The neotectonic and geodetic data for Taiwan as a whole suggest that the fold-and-thrust belt will continue to host the majority of great earthquakes on the island. PMID:11016964

  20. Taiwan Nantou County earthquake 0327 Taiwan Nantou County earthquake

    E-print Network

    Taiwan Nantou County earthquake 20130327 1 #12;0327 Taiwan Nantou County earthquake Source, Intensity 5 #12;I II III IV V VI VII Intensity Shake map of the March 27 Earthquake The peak ground and Technology Center for Disaster Reduction (NCDR) #12;Earthquake Response and Evacuation are a Part of Students

  1. Three-dimensional crustal structure influences on wave propagation and generation of strong ground motion in the greater San Francisco Bay region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stidham, Christiane Wilson

    Recent development of three-dimensional finite-difference codes allows simulation of earthquakes using realistic three-dimensional earth models. These and other developments have shifted emphasis in seismology from earthquake prediction to estimation of location and magnitude of damage in future earthquakes. The accurate calculation of ground motions for future large earthquakes depends upon detailed knowledge of three-dimensional (3D) geologic structure and the earthquake source process, as well as sufficient computational resources. Knowledge of subsurface geologic structure in the San Francisco Bay Area is quite good relative to many areas, and this knowledge has been incorporated into a 3D velocity model of the Bay Area. With access to a 3D finite-difference code (E3D) developed by Shawn Larsen at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and use of super-computing resources at Livermore, we are able to complete calculations for simulations of a number of San Francisco Bay Area earthquakes. These include a small 1993 Rodgers Creek event recorded at Berkeley Seismological Laboratory, the 1989 Loma Prieta event recorded on the U.S. Geological Survey and Calif. Div. of Mines and Geology network of strong motion stations, and a number of small South Bay events (including the 8/12/98 San Juan Bautista EQ) recorded on a temporary USGS/UCB/PASSCAL Santa Clara array. In each of these cases, comparison of synthetic results (synthetic seismograms and plots of maximum horizontal ground velocity) from E3D to recorded data from the event gives an excellent opportunity to both judge the usefulness and the constraints necessary in using finite-difference modeling and the validity of the velocity model as it is now constructed. Results show that 3D finite-difference modeling produces waveforms that are often quite comparable to recorded data, and that fit the data considerably better than synthetics waveforms derived with a 1D velocity model. It is also possible to explore the sensitivity of the, synthetics to the major geologic structures in the velocity model, such as pronounced lateral velocity contrasts across the major strike-slip faults and extensive basins of alluvial velocities. Understanding the effects of such long wavelength structure is especially important when considering that most earthquakes locate on or close to faults' velocity contrasts, and often also near basins. For example, in simulations of the Loma Prieta earthquake, it is apparent that the refraction of energy by the San Andreas Fault serves to reduce ground motions at stations located along the San Francisco Peninsula, and the Quaternary and Tertiary alluvial basins of the San Francisco Bay Area are found to amplify and extend the duration of ground motions in the Santa Clara Valley, Livermore Valley and San Pablo Bay. In conclusion, it appears that the 3D model as it is currently defined accurately describes the spatial variation of peak ground velocity in the f < 0.5 Hz band, which suggests that this model may be used to estimate ground motions for future earthquake scenarios.

  2. Rupture process of the two main 2014 Pisagua earthquakes (Mw 8.1 and 7.6) from strong motion, geodetic and global seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallee, M.; Grandin, R.; Ruiz, S.; Delouis, B.; Vigny, C.; Rivera, E.; Aissaoui, E. M.; Allgeyer, S.; Satriano, C.; Poiata, N.; Bernard, P.; Vilotte, J. P.; Schurr, B.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 seismic sequence in Northern Chile culminated with the Mw8.1 Pisagua earthquake (2014/04/01), rapidly followed by a large aftershock close to Iquique (Mw=7.6, 2014/04/03). A detailed analysis of these two earthquakes is required to better relate these major events with their preparatory phase, and in particular with the intense activity of the area between March 16th and April 1st. This area has been densely instrumented by several international and Chilean projects, including strong motion and broadband sensors as well as high-rate GPS stations. In this study, we make an extensive use of the seismo-geodetic data collected by the IPOC/CSN (http://www.ipoc-network.org/) and ONEMI networks. In a first step, we model several of the foreshocks with magnitudes in the range [5.5 6.5] in order to determine a seismic velocity model able to reproduce the observations up to 0.1Hz. This velocity model is then used to analyze the rupture process of the two main shocks. Besides the use of the local displacement waveforms (coming from strong motion sensors and high-rate GPS), the inversion procedure also includes the static GPS displacements and the teleseismic P and SH waves. The source models are finally validated with other geophysical information not included in the inversion, such as InSAR or surface waves analysis through an empirical Green function approach. These data consistently show that most of the coseismic slip of the 1st April main shock is located in a 50km long zone (along strike), close and South from the hypocenter. In the time domain, this large slip patch has been activated 15-20s after origin time and lasted about 30s. Before this activation, seismic moment release was low and rupture remained in the hypocentral region. Differences and relations between the two shocks, as well as their interpretation in the 2014 seismic sequence, will be discussed.

  3. Erosion effects assessed by repeated gravity measurements in southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouyen, M.; Masson, F.; Hwang, C.; Cheng, C.-C.; Le Moigne, N.; Lee, C. W.-.; Kao, R.; Hsieh, W.-C.

    2013-01-01

    We analyse temporal variations of gravity measured in southern Taiwan since November 2006 at 10 sites using absolute gravimeters and, since November 2008, at 70 sites using a relative gravimeter. We describe and apply methods to interpret the gravity changes in terms of local hydrological processes and vertical ground motions. The effect of land water is computed from local rainfall data and a model of rain accumulation and discharge in the ground. The effect of the vertical motions of the ground is estimated using time-series of permanent Global Positioning System (GPS) stations and the theoretical gravity to height ratio of -2 ?Gal cm-1. Unexpectedly, Morakot typhoon (2009 August), the strongest typhoon in Taiwan in 50 yr, was responsible for the highest gravity changes. Morakot triggered numerous large landslides and debris flow deposits. Their thicknesses are estimated from the gravity changes (up to ˜280 ?Gal) along with field observations and satellite images.

  4. The Kinematic Model of the 2011 Mw7.1 Van Earthquake Using cGPS, Strong-Motion, Teleseismic and GPS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konca, A. O.; Ergintav, S.

    2014-12-01

    We have obtained a finite-fault kinematic model for the 2011 Mw7.1 Van Earthquake using near-source 1Hz GPS, strong-motion and teleseismic waveforms along with the static displacements from the GPS data. We performed resolution tests to analyze the effect of each data set on the solution. The resolution tests show that the dataset is sufficient to resolve the basic features of the slip distribution and rupture velocity. The near-source seismic data is sensitive to the shape and direction of the slip, while GPS is sensitive to location. Our joint model shows that the slip is primarily updip toward west and downdip toward east with 5 meters of peak slip updip from the hypocenter at 18.7 km. Rupture velocity is close to 1.5 km/s. The fits to the 1 Hz GPS waveforms depict the importance of high-rate GPS and their potential to be used in earthquake kinematic modeling.

  5. Rupture Process of the 23 October 2011 Mw7.1 Van Earthquake in Eastern Turkey by Joint Inversion of Teleseismic, GPS and Strong-Motion Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chengli; Zheng, Yong; Xiong, Xiong; Wang, Rongjiang

    2015-06-01

    On 23 October 2011, a strong earthquake (Mw = 7.1) struck the Van (Eastern Turkey) region and its surrounding areas at 10:41:22 UTC (hereafter referred to as the Van earthquake), causing severe damage to the source region. Several studies have been carried out on the focal mechanism, seismic moment, focal depth and rupture model of this earthquake. However, there are still significant differences in the moment release, focal depth and slip asperities among these models. Since most of these models only used a single data set to investigate the source parameters, the reliability of these results is still a concern. In order to make clear the uncertainties and provide a reliable detailed rupture model for the mainshock, we investigated the rupture process of the Van earthquake by a joint inversion of teleseismic broadband seismograms, near-field static GPS displacement records and strong-motion data. The inversion results indicate that the mainshock was dominated by a thrust slip with a small part of a left-lateral strike-slip component below the hypocenter. The rupture initiated at a focal depth of 16 km and propagated to the surface with a relatively low average rupture velocity of ~1.8 km/s, suggesting that the major energy of the earthquake was released in a long-period band, which is the main reason why the seismic moments inverted by a long period or static signals are higher than those obtained by short-period data. Most of the slip occurred around the hypocenter with a maximum slip of more than 3.3 m, and the associated static stress drop was ~3 MPa. The total seismic moment of the whole fault was 5.76 × 1019 N·m, and most energy was released in the first 20 s, which is in the variation range of the released rupture models. The major slip was concentrated at deeper depth and extended to a depth of around 25 km. Meanwhile, the surface rupture was quite small, which explains why only weak ruptures were observed at the surface although caused by such a strong earthquake.

  6. Tide-modulated gas emissions and tremors off SW Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Shu-Kun; Wang, Shiou-Ya; Liao, Yen-Che; Yang, Tsanyao F.; Jan, Sen; Lin, Jing-Yi; Chen, Song-Chuen

    2013-05-01

    The continental margin off SW Taiwan is in an incipient stage of orogeny and contains numerous active mud diapirs and mud volcanoes. Gas emissions out of the seabed off SW Taiwan are revealed by acoustic images from 38 kHz echo sounders or sub-bottom profilers. However, the mechanism for gas emissions is still poorly understood. In this study, we show that the gas emissions out of the seabed and the associated tremors off SW Taiwan are strongly correlated with the ocean tides, especially with the diurnal and semidiurnal constituents. Particularly, for each tidal day the strong gas emissions (expulsions) and long-duration tremors occur mainly during both the rising periods to the higher high tides and the falling periods to the lower low tides. Both the gas emissions and tremor activities are generally quiescent near the tidal datum. On average, the daily intensity of gas emissions and the magnitude of tremors are positively proportional to the daily tidal range; a larger slope site implies a greater concentration of gas in the shallow sediments. Most of the individual tremors and long-duration tremors observed off SW Taiwan occur as results of the strong gas expulsions out of the gas-bearing seabed. The high-frequency components of the induced tremors quickly decay and are followed by horizontal low-frequency (~7 Hz) harmonic oscillations of the seabed. Long-duration tremors may enhance seafloor instability and increase the potential for submarine landslides.

  7. ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 468, Vol. 43, No. 1-2, March-June 2006, pp. 11-29 ANALYSIS OF STRONG MOTION DATA OF THE UTTARKASHI

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Vinay Kumar

    ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 468, Vol. 43, No. 1-2, March-June 2006, pp. 11-29 ANALYSIS OF STRONG MOTION DATA OF THE UTTARKASHI EARTHQUAKE OF 20TH OCTOBER 1991 AND THE CHAMOLI EARTHQUAKE of two major earthquakes in the Garhwal Himalayas, namely the 1991 Uttarkashi Earthquake and the 1999

  8. Scrap car recycling in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.H.; Tai, H.S.; Fan, R.K.S.

    1997-12-31

    The official figure of registered automobiles released by the Ministry of Transportation of Taiwan, R.O.C. as of the end of April 1996, is approximately 4.8 millions. Among them, 18% of the cars are between seven and ten years old and 15% of the cars are old than ten years. The result of this large number of old cars is the problem of abandoned cars on the street of Taiwan. This phenomena not only hinders traffic flow but also undermines the living quality in the cities. To minimize these negative effects, EPA has promulgated a Scrap Motor Vehicles Management Regulation to enforce the scrap car recycling in Taiwan. Under this regulation, a buyer of a new vehicle has to pay the Scrap Motor Vehicle Disposal fee (NT$ 3000, or US$ 110 for a car; and NT$ 700, or US$ 25 for a motorcycle). This paper presents the current status of scrap car recycling in Taiwan.

  9. BROWNIAN MOTION MAXWELL STOLARSKI

    E-print Network

    May, J. Peter

    BROWNIAN MOTION MAXWELL STOLARSKI Abstract. This paper introduces Brownian motion and covers several in- variances of Brownian motion, some of which follow from the definition and another which follows from the strong Markov property of Brownian motion. We go on to show the nondifferentiability

  10. Source process and slip model of 2005 Dahuiyeh-Zarand earthquake (Iran) using inversion of near-field strong motion data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouhollahi, R.; Ghayamghamian, M. R.; Yaminifard, F.; Suhadolc, P.; Tatar, M.

    2012-04-01

    On 2005 February 22, the Dahuiyeh-Zarand earthquake, Mw 6.5, struck one of the most seismically active regions in south-central Iran, east of Zarand City in Kerman province, causing more than 500 fatalities. The causative fault of the 2005 Dahuiyeh-Zarand earthquake, a reverse fault, striking nearly EW and dipping to the north, was located within a mountainous region and therefore more difficult to identify compared to the range-bounded faults. Its identification, after the 2005 event, is very important for both the estimation of seismic hazard as well as for the damage and fatality functions. We have inverted six three-component near-field strong motion waveforms to obtain the complete earthquake rupture history and slip distribution. Accelerograms are bandpass filtered with 0.2-1.0 Hz, and a length of 15-17 s of the waveforms is inverted. The lack of absolute timing has been successfully overcome by estimating, from the velocity model of the region, the propagation of P and S waves from the epicentre to the stations. The final fault slip model and the estimated source parameters are able to explain the observed waveforms. The rupture is found to be bilateral with a maximum slip of 2.4 m concentrated on two asperities in the west and east sides of the nucleation point at depths of 6-12 km. The western asperity is located to the east of Zarand City and beneath the Dahuiyeh village, which might explain why the Dahuiyeh village was totally destroyed by this earthquake.

  11. Gravity features of the mud diapirs off southwest Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doo, W.; Hsu, S.; Huang, Y.; Chen, S.

    2013-12-01

    Both the overpressure and buoyancy phenomena are generally used to account for the formation of submarine mud diapirs. According to the distribution of the mud diapirs and structural features, the compressive stress should play an important role on the formation of the mud diapirs in the offshore area of southwest Taiwan. Onland Taiwan, the Tainan and Chungchou anticlinal structures (associated with mud diapirs) reveal positive gravity anomalies. The mud diapirs off SW Taiwan are considered to be more active than onshore diapirs. However, the gravity nature of the submarine mud diapirs is not clear. In 2012 and 2013, we have collected shipboard gravity data by using R/V Ocean Researcher I in the offshore area of southwest Taiwan. Several NW-SE trending gravity profiles show a sharp drop across the Kaoping Canyon. By removing the gravimetric effect from the water-sediment interface, we find that the density contrasts of the mud diapirs with respect to the surrounding strata are generally positive. The results seem conflict with the buoyant force that triggers the upward motion of the mud diapirs. In this study, we will show some possible mechanisms to explain the gravity nature of the submarine mud diapirs.

  12. Progress and Prospect of Physics Research and Education in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raynien Kwo, J.

    2010-03-01

    Started about two decades ago, the global trend of shifting industrial manufacture power from western developed countries toward developing countries in Asia has in turn become the impetus in building up physical science and research in these areas. A very good example is the remarkable progress of physical research and education in Taiwan, in terms of quantity and quality. The continuous elevation of Taiwan's high education into graduate level plus the government's strong commitment to research and development on a level of 2.62 % GDP have led to an impressive physics program with an annual budget ˜32 million USD from National Science Council in supporting 568 PIs. The investigation scope encompasses high energy and astrophysics, nano and condensed matter, and semiconductor, optoelectronic physics, etc. The former is vigorously conducted via international collaborative efforts of LHC, KEK, ALMA, Pan-STARRS, etc. The latter is driven by vital Taiwan high tech industry mostly semiconductor IC and optoelectronics flourished during this period. The early trend of outflows of BS physics majors to western world for advanced studies has reversed dramatically. Nearly 80% of the BS students continue their MS and PhD degrees in Taiwan, attracted by lucrative job markets of high tech industry. In addition, healthy inflow of high-quality science manpower of well trained PhDs and senior scholars returning to homeland has strengthened the competitiveness. Overall, the physics community in Taiwan is thriving. The annual Physical Society meeting is expanding at a rate of 6%, reaching ˜1800 attendants and 1200 papers, and dedicated to promotions of female physicists and students. The publication quantity of Taiwan in top journals of PRs and PRL is ranked among top 20^th for all fields of physics, and ranked the 6^th in APL. Clearly Taiwan has now emerged as a strong power in applied science, not limited by its population size. Concerted efforts on scientific exchanges are being taken to connect to international societies. The bright outlook of physical science and its vital power in Taiwan is anticipated to provide a stimulus to benefit South East Asia, and have far-reaching impacts on China and worldwide.

  13. Rock mass response to strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events and blasting observed at the surface of the excavations in deep level gold mines in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milev, Alexander; Durrheim, Ray; Ogasawara, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    The strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events was studied to characterize the rock mass response and to estimate the site effect on the surface of the underground excavations. A stand-alone instruments, especially designed for recording strong ground motions, were installed underground at a number of deep level gold mines in South Africa. The instruments were recording data at the surface of the stope hangingwalls. A maximum value of 3 m/s was measured. Therefore data were compared to the data recorded in the solid rock by the mine seismic networks to determine the site response. The site response was defined as the ratio of the peak ground velocity measured at the surface of the excavations to the peak ground velocity inferred from the mine seismic data measured in the solid rocks. The site response measured at all mines studied was found to be 9 ± 3 times larger on average. A number of simulated rockbursts were conducted underground in order to estimate the rock mass response when subjected to extreme ground motion and derive the attenuation factors in near field. The rockbursts were simulated by means of large blasts detonated in solid rock close to the sidewall of a tunnel. The numerical models used in the design of the simulated rockbursts were calibrated by small blasts taking place at each experimental site. A dense array of shock type accelerometers was installed along the blasting wall to monitor the attenuation of the strong ground motion as a function of the distance from the source. The attenuation of the ground motion was found to be proportional to the distance from the source following R^-1.1 & R^-1.7 for compact rock and R^-3.1 & R^-3.4 for more fractured rock close to the surface of the tunnel. In addition the ground motion was compared to the quasi-static deformations taking place around the underground excavations. The quasi-static deformations were measured by means of strain, tilt and closure. A good correspondence between the quasi-static deformations and seismic ground motion was found. During the blasting time and the subsequent seismic events the strain, tilt and closure show a rapid increase. Similar increase was observed during the strong seismic event. The deformations associated with a strong seismic event were described as 'fast' seismic events. Much of quasi-static deformations, however, occurred independently of the seismic events and was described as 'slow' or aseismic events.

  14. B values and ??-?? seismic source models: Implications for tectonic stress variations along active crustal fault zones and the estimation of high-frequency strong ground motion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanks, T.C.

    1979-01-01

    In this study the tectonic stress along active crustal fault zones is taken to be of the form ??(y) + ????p(x, y), where ??(y) is the average tectonic stress at depth y and ???? p(x, y) is a seismologically observable, essentially random function of both fault plane coordinates; the stress differences arising in the course of crustal faulting are derived from ????p(x, y). Empirically known frequency of occurrence statistics, moment-magnitude relationships, and the constancy of earthquake stress drops may be used to infer that the number of earthquakes N of dimension ???r is of the form N ?? 1/r2 and that the spectral composition of ????p(x, y) is of the form |????p(k)| ?? l/k2, where ????p(k) is the two-dimensional Fourier transform of ????p(x, y) expressed in radial wave number k. The y = 2 model of the far-field shear wave displacement spectrum is consistent with the spectral composition |????p(K)| ?? l/k2, provided that the number of contributions to the spectral representation of the radiated field at frequency f goes as (k/ko), consistent with the quasi-static frequency of occurrence relation N ?? 1/r2; K o is a reference wave number associated with the reciprocal source dimension. Separately, a variety of seismologic observations suggests that the ?? = 2 model is the one generally, although certainly not always, applicable to the high-frequency spectral decay of the far-field radiation of earthquakes. In this framework, then, b values near 1, the general validity of the y = 2 model, and the constancy of earthquake stress drops independent of size are all related to the average spectral composition of ???? p(x, y), |????p(k)| ?? l/k2. Should one of these change as a result of premonitory effects leading to failure, as has been specifically proposed for b values, it seems likely that one or all of the other characteristics will change as well from their normative values. Irrespective of these associations, the far-field, high-frequency shear radiation for the y = 2 model in the presence of anelastic attenuation may be interpreted as band-limited, finite duration white noise in acceleration. Its rms value, arms, is given by the expression arme = 0.85[21/2(2??)2/106] (????/pR)(f max/f0)1/2, where ???? is the earthquake stress drop, p is density, R is hypocentral distance, fo is the spectral corner frequency, and fmax is determined by R and specific attenuation 1/Q. For several reasons, one of which is that it may be estimated in the absence of empirically defined ground motion correlations, a rms holds considerable promise as a measure of high-frequency strong ground motion for engineering purposes. Copyright ?? 1979 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Seismic Site Characterizations At 25 ANSS/PNSN Stations and Compilation Of Site-Specific Data For The Entire Strong-Motion Network In Washington And Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakir, R.; Walsh, T. J.; Ypma, A.; Pileggi, D.

    2011-12-01

    Site specific velocity information generated using seismic methods can be used to improve the seismic hazard maps of urban areas. With United States Geological Survey (USGS)-External grant program awards, Washington State Department of Natural Resources- Division of Geology and Earth Resources has conducted shallow seismic surveys at 60 station sites operated by Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) and the USGS-National Strong Motion Program (NSMP) in Washington and Oregon to characterize these sites through estimation of S-wave (Vs) and P-wave (Vp) velocity profiles. We are currently conducting shallow seismic surveys at 25 ANSS/PNSN station sites in western Washington and Oregon. Active (Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves, MASW, P-wave and S-wave refractions) and passive (Microtremor Array Measurements, MAM, and Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio, HVSR) seismic methods were used to estimate the Vs and Vp profiles at the station sites. Subsequently, for each site Vp/Vs and Poisson's ratio profiles along with Vs30m values were calculated and geologic interpretations were made. Deep sediment layers (>30 meters up to~1km) were characterized using a joint inversion of the HVSR and MASW methods. Deep sediment Vs estimates were also constrained using available geology and borehole information. Available resistance tests (i.e., standard penetration test, SPT) and other borehole soil information (where available) were used to estimate and correlate shear-wave velocities. Various agencies in the region provide borehole, geology and other valuable subsurface data that can be directly or indirectly used in seismic site characterization processes. For this reason, we are generating an interactive mapping environment through the Washington State Geology Portal (http://www.dnr.wa.gov/ResearchScience/Topics/GeosciencesData/Pages/geology_portal.aspx) to link and/or provide these data online for the entire Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) stations in Washington and Oregon. This interactive site-specific information mapping may help better constrain Vs estimates, better interpret subsurface layers obtained from seismic surveys and provide background geologic and geotechnical data for seismologists and earthquake engineers. Results of the active and passive seismic site characterizations for shallow and deep Vs and shallow Vp estimates, and examples of interactive mapping of the site-specific information will be shown. Our Vs profiles in terms of NEHRP soil classifications based on average Vs values at top 30 meters (Vs30m) can be directly used for ShakeMap products, HAZUS-MH applications, seismic hazard mapping, and building code developments in the region.

  16. Perinatal mortality in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, P D; Lin, R S

    1999-01-01

    Information on perinatal deaths was obtained from 310 women by collecting detailed obstetric histories dating from marriage to the start of the survey. These histories were compared to those of 688 age matched controls. Potential risk factors, levels and time trends of perinatal mortality in Taiwan were examined and factors underlying stillbirths and early neonatal deaths were also compared using conditional logistic regression analyses. A nearly 56% decline of the perinatal mortality rate during the 35 y, approximately, prior to the survey was observed. Risk of stillbirths was increased among those who had abused illegal drugs during pregnancy, those who reported that the pregnancy was unwanted and those with Thalassemia trait. Body mass index was log-linearly related with stillbirths, with higher body mass associated with higher risk. For early neonatal deaths, those mothers aged 19 y or less, those giving birth to either their first children or to their fifth or later child, those who had their first prenatal care visit after the first three months of pregnancy were associated with increased risk in the logistic model. Those with a birth interval of less than two years and those with less education were associated with increased risk in both perinatal death groups. While some of these factors have already been associated with perinatal deaths, others have not; the new associations provide clues to mechanisms by which the risk of death increases before or after delivery. PMID:10823745

  17. Black monazite from Taiwan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matzko, J.J.; Overstreet, W.C.

    1977-01-01

    Two forms of detrital monazite are known in offshore bars in southwestern Taiwan: a yellow-green to colorless form and an unusual but abundant pelletlike form, generally black but also colored gray or brown. These black pellets, which are about 160 by 200 microns in size, are composed of fine-grained monazite crystals from 2 to 20 microns in size. The pellets are associated with highly variable amounts of discrete grains of detrital quartz, rutile, amphibole, tourmaline, and other minerals. Intergrown with the monazite are quartz, a cerium oxide mineral, chlorite, sulfides, and other minerals. Opaqueness of the pelletlike monazite is due principally to the cryptocrystalline nature of part of the monazite; only a small part of the opaqueness can be attributed to opaque inclusions. The black pelletlike monazite lacks thorium and has a high content of europium. In this respect, as in color, shape, size, and inclusions, the pelletlike monazite differs from the yellow-green detrital monazite. Despite the fact that they occur together in the littoral placers, they appear to have had different origins. The yellow-green monazite originated as an accessory mineral in plutonic rocks and has accumulated at the coast through erosion and transport. The origin of the pelletlike monazite is as yet unknown, but it is here inferred that it originated in unconsolidated coastal plain sediments through migration of cerium from the detrital monazite during weathering, and of the intermediate weight mobile rare earths from clay minerals during diagenesis. Possibly these pelletlike grains are detrital particles formed through erosion and transport from originally larger aggregates cemented by diagenetic monazite.

  18. Taiwan`s experience with municipal waste recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.H. [Da-Yeh Univ., Chang-Hwa (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1998-12-31

    Currently, each person on the average produces 1.15 kg of the municipal waste per day and a total of 9 million metric tons were generated annually in Taiwan. The disposal of such a huge amount of waste presents tremendous challenge for the island due to the scarcity of landfills and incineration facilities available locally. EPA of Taiwan, R.O.C. thus takes an active role in promoting waste recycling to reduce the garbage produced in municipalities. In order to efficiently utilize the government`s human and financial resources used in recycling, started from January 31, 1989, EPA has mandated the producer responsibility recycling program for several designated post-consumer products such as PET, PVC bottles, scrap tires, scrap motor vehicles, etc. Producer responsibility recycling program specifies that the manufacturers, importers and sellers of these designated products have the responsibility to retrieve their products and recycle them properly. Several negative effects have been encountered while the implementation of this producer responsibility recycling program in Taiwan which resulted in a modification of this recycling program recently. This paper presents the encountered experiences on the implementation of municipal waste recycling program in Taiwan.

  19. Risk management of Taiwan’s maritime supply chain security

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-Chih Yang

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to evaluate the impact of risk factors from the container security initiative (CSI) on the maritime supply chain in Taiwan, employs a loss exposure matrix to identify the severity and frequency of security risk, and uses a bowtie diagram to investigate appropriate risk management strategies to deal with maritime security risks.This paper’s findings consist of the following:

  20. Kindergartener's Technology Education in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Chun-Chin

    According to the American Association for Advancement of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the International Technology Education Association (ITEA) and its Technology for All Americans Project (TfAAP), technology education should begin in kindergarten. Educators in Taiwan have also advocated beginning technology education in…

  1. Herbal Medicine Research in Taiwan*

    PubMed Central

    Kaphle, Krishna; Wu, Leang-Shin; Yang, Nai-Yen Jack; Lin, Jen-Hsou

    2006-01-01

    Of all the countries in the world, why did you choose Taiwan to pursue your study? It is a question that I (comments of the first author) have answered a thousand times. My first visit to a laboratory at National Taiwan University opened my eyes to the possibilities of herbal medicine research, especially in the area of veterinary medicine. It became my ambition to link the knowledge of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda from the Indian subcontinent and their integration with other systems of medicine, including Western medicine (WM), to achieve the concept of Sustainable Medicine, firstly for animals and then for humans. The Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) has implemented a technology development program to quickly establish the key technologies, and this is a moment of opportunity for Taiwan's traditional herbal medicine industry to upgrade and transform itself. This paper, initially intended to be a student's narration, has evolved into a multi-author treatise on the present state and likely future scenario of herbal medicine research in Taiwan. PMID:16550238

  2. Principal Leadership in Taiwan Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shouse, Roger C.; Lin, Kuan-Pei

    2010-01-01

    During the past two decades, Taiwan's Ministry of Education has responded to globalization by restructuring school curricular, instructional, and decision making practices along western lines in an attempt to attain legitimacy on the world stage. As a result, Taiwanese principals, once kings within their schools, now must share power with other…

  3. Leptospirosis after Typhoon in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-Hsiang Chiu; Ying-Chuan Wang; Ya-Sung Yang; Feng-Yee Chang

    Background: Leptospirosis, an infectious disease that affects humans and animals, is a common zoonosis with a variety of clinical manifestations. Taiwan is one of the countries with a high incidence of leptospirosis. It is important to recognize the clinical features and risk factors of this disease. The aim of this study is to analyze the characteristics of patients with leptospirosis

  4. Numerical Earthquake Model of the 31 October 2013 Ruisui, Taiwan, Earthquake: Source Rupture Process and Seismic Wave Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. J.; Huang, H. H.; Shyu, J. B. H.; Lin, T. C.; Yeh, T. Y.

    2014-12-01

    We build a numerical earthquake model, including numerical source and wave propagation models, to understand the rupture process and the ground motion time history of the 2013 ML 6.4 Ruisui earthquake in Taiwan. This moderately large event was located in the Longitudinal Valley, a suture zone of the Philippine Sea Plate and the Eurasia Plate. A joint source inversion analysis by using teleseismic body wave, GPS coseismic displacement and near field ground motion data was performed first. The inversion results derived from a western dipping fault plane indicate that the slip occurred in depths between 10 and 20 km. The rupture propagated from south to north and caused two asperities. The largest one located approximately 15 km north of the epicenter with a maximum slip about 1 m. A 3D seismic wave propagation simulation based on the spectral-element method was then carried out by using the inverted source model. A strong rupture directivity effect in the northern area of the Longitudinal Valley was found, which was due to the northward rupture process. Forward synthetic waveforms could explain most of the near-field ground motion data for frequencies between 0.05 and 0.2 Hz. This numerical earthquake model not only helps us confirm the detailed rupture processes on the Central Range Fault but also gives contribution to regional seismic hazard mitigation for future large earthquakes.

  5. Optical stimulated Luminescence Signal on Modern Fluvial Deposit in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. G.; Wu, T. S.; Chen, Y. W.; Kuo, Y. T.

    2014-12-01

    The river terraces overlain by fluvial and debris-flow deposit are widely distributed in Taiwan due to its active tectonic situation. They are not only critical in reconstructing the river evolution, but also of importance in understanding neotectonics. However, the age estimation for the terraces has their own problems by C-14 as well as OSL (Optical Stimulated Luminescence) dating method. For C-14 method, the major problem is the difficulty in discovering the suitable samples, but for OSL method the zeroing effect of the sediments becomes the major barrier if quartz SAR (Single Aliquot Regenerative) procedure is applied. In order to test the residual dose from different drainage areas in Taiwan, modern deposits were collected from 13 main rivers and 3 samples for each from upper-stream to downstream. The apparent dose of modern fluvial deposit was defined as residual dose and believed to be able to give a hint for estimating the zeroing effect for river terraces. Quartz SAR OSL procedure on small aliquot was adopted for all samples in this study. Our results show the residual dose in western Taiwan strongly relies on the source from. If we further apply the mean value of smallest 5% on samples from modern debris flow deposits in upper-stream, the residual dose rise up as high as ~40Gy but lower down to ~15Gy for samples collected from river mouth estuary. It implies that there will be a large error when evaluating the age of debris deposit terrace by quartz SAR OSL procedure. However, if the modern river does not suffer from debris flow in upper-stream, the residual dose is ~5Gy in upper stream and only -0.7~2Gy to the lower steam estuary, which provide better chance to derive relatively reliable ages. We also find that the luminescence characteristics is different between the samples in western and eastern Taiwan respectively. The quartz grains from eastern Taiwan are much dimer than those of the western Taiwan. We may therefore face severe challenge to approach a reliable age for a river terrace located in eastern Taiwan.

  6. Three-dimensional crustal structure influences on wave propagation and generation of strong ground motion in the greater San Francisco Bay region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christiane Wilson Stidham

    1999-01-01

    Recent development of three-dimensional finite-difference codes allows simulation of earthquakes using realistic three-dimensional earth models. These and other developments have shifted emphasis in seismology from earthquake prediction to estimation of location and magnitude of damage in future earthquakes. The accurate calculation of ground motions for future large earthquakes depends upon detailed knowledge of three-dimensional (3D) geologic structure and the earthquake

  7. Prediction of Strong Earthquake Ground Motion for the M=7.4 and M=7.2 1999, Turkey Earthquakes based upon Geological Structure Modeling and Local Earthquake Recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gok, R.; Hutchings, L.

    2004-05-01

    We test a means to predict strong ground motion using the Mw=7.4 and Mw=7.2 1999 Izmit and Duzce, Turkey earthquakes. We generate 100 rupture scenarios for each earthquake, constrained by a prior knowledge, and use these to synthesize strong ground motion and make the prediction. Ground motion is synthesized with the representation relation using impulsive point source Green's functions and synthetic source models. We synthesize the earthquakes from DC to 25 Hz. We demonstrate how to incorporate this approach into standard probabilistic seismic hazard analyses (PSHA). The synthesis of earthquakes is based upon analysis of over 3,000 aftershocks recorded by several seismic networks. The analysis provides source parameters of the aftershocks; records available for use as empirical Green's functions; and a three-dimensional velocity structure from tomographic inversion. The velocity model is linked to a finite difference wave propagation code (E3D, Larsen 1998) to generate synthetic Green's functions (DC < f < 0.5 Hz). We performed the simultaneous inversion for hypocenter locations and three-dimensional P-wave velocity structure of the Marmara region using SIMULPS14 along with 2,500 events. We also obtained source moment and corner frequency and individual station attenuation parameter estimates for over 500 events by performing a simultaneous inversion to fit these parameters with a Brune source model. We used the results of the source inversion to deconvolve out a Brune model from small to moderate size earthquake (M<4.0) recordings to obtain empirical Green's functions for the higher frequency range of ground motion (0.5 < f < 25.0 Hz). Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract W-7405-ENG-48.

  8. The long-term forecast of Taiwan’s energy supply and demand: LEAP model application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yophy Huang; Yunchang Jeffrey Bor; Chieh-Yu Peng

    2011-01-01

    The long-term forecasting of energy supply and demand is an extremely important topic of fundamental research in Taiwan due to Taiwan’s lack of natural resources, dependence on energy imports, and the nation’s pursuit of sustainable development. In this article, we provide an overview of energy supply and demand in Taiwan, and a summary of the historical evolution and current status

  9. The Morphologization of Liaison Consonants in Taiwan Min and Taiwan Hakka

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Samuel Wang

    2010-01-01

    A liaison consonant is a consonant resulting from the spreading of the final consonant of a syllable to the initial position of an onsetless particle. This study investigated whether such derived consonants are recognized by native speakers of Taiwan Min and Taiwan Hakka. Results of a concept formation and a syllable inversion experiment with Taiwan Min subjects are taken from

  10. Occupational Neurotoxic Diseases in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chi-Hung; Huang, Chu-Yun

    2012-01-01

    Occupational neurotoxic diseases have become increasingly common in Taiwan due to industrialization. Over the past 40 years, Taiwan has transformed from an agricultural society to an industrial society. The most common neurotoxic diseases also changed from organophosphate poisoning to heavy metal intoxication, and then to organic solvent and semiconductor agent poisoning. The nervous system is particularly vulnerable to toxic agents because of its high metabolic rate. Neurological manifestations may be transient or permanent, and may range from cognitive dysfunction, cerebellar ataxia, Parkinsonism, sensorimotor neuropathy and autonomic dysfunction to neuromuscular junction disorders. This study attempts to provide a review of the major outbreaks of occupational neurotoxins from 1968 to 2012. A total of 16 occupational neurotoxins, including organophosphates, toxic gases, heavy metals, organic solvents, and other toxic chemicals, were reviewed. Peer-reviewed articles related to the electrophysiology, neuroimaging, treatment and long-term follow up of these neurotoxic diseases were also obtained. The heavy metals involved consisted of lead, manganese, organic tin, mercury, arsenic, and thallium. The organic solvents included n-hexane, toluene, mixed solvents and carbon disulfide. Toxic gases such as carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide were also included, along with toxic chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, tetramethylammonium hydroxide, organophosphates, and dimethylamine borane. In addition we attempted to correlate these events to the timeline of industrial development in Taiwan. By researching this topic, the hope is that it may help other developing countries to improve industrial hygiene and promote occupational safety and health care during the process of industrialization. PMID:23251841

  11. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program, Phase I. Project II: seismic input. Compilation, assessment and expansion of the strong earthquake ground motion data base

    SciTech Connect

    Crouse, C B; Hileman, J A; Turner, B E; Martin, G R

    1980-04-01

    A catalog has been prepared which contains information for: (1) world-wide, ground-motion accelerograms, (2) the accelerograph sites where these records were obtained, and (3) the seismological parameters of the causative earthquakes. The catalog is limited to data for those accelerograms which have been digitized and published. In addition, the quality and completeness of these data are assessed. This catalog is unique because it is the only publication which contains comprehensive information on the recording conditions of all known digitized accelerograms. However, information for many accelerograms is missing. Although some literature may have been overlooked, most of the missing data has not been published. Nevertheless, the catalog provides a convenient reference and useful tool for earthquake engineering research and applications.

  12. Noise in GPS position time series from Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, Ruey-Juin; Hung, Huang-Kai

    2014-05-01

    Position time series of 393 continuous GPS (CGPS) stations with durations of 5-10 years are generated and analyzed for the noise model and seasonal motions in Taiwan. The noise parameters obtained are also used to evaluate the reliability of GPS velocity uncertainties. GPS data are processed by GAMIT/GLOBK to obtain the position time series. To obtain the seasonal properties in the CGPS time series, we modeled each GPS position time series to derive the secular velocity, seasonal variations in annual and semi-annual periods, offsets due to the antenna changing and co-seismic deformations using the weighted least square method. Uncertainties of the residual position time series after removing the modeling motions for each CGPS station are evaluated by the weighted root mean square (WRMS). The average WRMS of position time series for all CGPS stations are 1.8-2.5 mm and 3.9-7.7 mm in the horizontal and vertical components, respectively. GPS daily position time series are considered to be the signal pattern of the white plus flicker noise. The overall seasonal amplitudes for all the GPS stations are 1.8-3.3 mm in horizontal and 3.2-8.8 mm in the vertical component. Areas of strongest annual amplitudes in both horizontal and vertical components are concentrated in the west and southwest coastal plain in Taiwan which suffers severe ground subsidence from water over-pumping. The motions shown here appear to be elastic and are most likely induced by the effective stress in the regional aquifer changing between expansion and contraction. Stations located just east of the Longitudinal Valley in eastern Taiwan show high correlation between the horizontal seasonal motions and rainfall and groundwater levels. This may be resulted from the periodic contraction and extension motions of the Longitudinal Valley fault due to variations in hydrological loadings. Uncertainty of CGPS velocities estimated by the noise patterns of the Power Law noise series indicated that the uncertainty are 5-12 times larger than those obtained by the noise setting of the white noise pattern.

  13. Taiwan Earthquake Damage Index Sin Mei Nga* and Masataka Andob a* Department of Geology, Chinese Culture University, No. 55, Hwa-Kang Road, Yang-Ming-Shan, Taipei 11114, Taiwan b Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, 128, Sec2, Academia Road, Nangang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan * Corresponding author. Tel.: +886 (02) 28 61 05 11 ext.26133 fax: +886 (02) 28 61 49 59 E-mail: wsw2@ulive.pccu.edu.tw or sin_mei_josephine_ng@hotmail.com

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, S.

    2012-12-01

    Taking advantage of a previous study and twelve-year, free-field strong motion data in Taiwan, a preliminary, five-level earthquake damage index is newly proposed: I-No (no damage), II-Very Light, III-Light, IV-Moderate, and V-Heavy. For index I, PGA and PGV are, respectively, <62.5 gal and <11 cm/s. Likewise, for index II, PGA is ?62.5 and ?187.5 gal; but, PGV is ?11 and ?35 cm/s. Similarly, PGA is ?187.5 and ?325 gal; but, PGV is ?35 and ?55 cm/s for index III. The corresponding PGA and PGV, for index IV, are ?325 and ?450 gal and ?55 and ?75 cm/s. Finally, for index V, PGA and PGV are respectively >450 gal and >75 cm/s. Ten damaging seismic events in the past twelve years are redefined using this new earthquake damage index, with the devastating Chi-Chi earthquake and one non-damaging event as reference earthquakes. This newly proposed index depicts seismic hazard of these earthquakes with higher accuracy when compared to the existing intensity scale in Taiwan region. For further analysis, Japan earthquakes are also plotted as references.

  14. On the Kuroshio branch in the Taiwan strait during wintertime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joe, Wang; Chern, Ching-Sheng

    Past investigations reported that warm and saline waters originating from the Kuroshio region occupied the northern South China Sea (NSCS) during wintertime. These waters were called a branch of the Kuroshio, and an offshoot of them was long believed to flow persistently along the west coast of Taiwan, contrary to the winter NE monsson. However, these descriptions are not completely consistent with recent evidence. Field measurements in the eastern Taiwan Strait now available display a quasi-stationary oceanic front, whose alignment is roughly normal to the transverse of the strait, which separates the warmer, more saline water to the south, from the colder, fresher China coastal water in the north during most of the winter. This feature implies the further northward movement of southeasterly Kuroshio water having been stagnated by cold waters to the north of the front. Therefore, the intruded Kuroshio water driven by the NE monsoon tends to accumulate in the NSCS, and eventually establishes an anti-cyclonic warm core eddy there. The first event of the intrusion of warm waters from the eddy into, or even through, the Taiwan Strait usually appears when the NE wind weakens from a strong cold-air outbreak in winter or early spring. We believe the inception of the Kuroshio branch in the strait starts from such an intrusion event.

  15. Ethnic Inequalities and Educational Attainment in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jao, Jui-Chang; McKeever, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine educational stratification in Taiwan against the background of an ethnically based political economy. They investigate how educational attainment is related to ethnicity and other background factors, such as parental class and education, and if these relationships changed over time as Taiwan became a more…

  16. Helmet use and motorcycle fatalities in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shao-Hsun Keng

    2005-01-01

    Motorcycle deaths accounted for more than half of total traffic fatalities in Taiwan in 2002. This study uses the police-reported crash data from Taiwan between 1999 and 2001 to estimate the effectiveness of helmets, simultaneously taking into account of sample selection bias. Sample selection arises because helmet usage will affect the probability of death or injury, which in turn influences

  17. Epidemiology of hospitalized burns patients in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wu-Chien Chien; Lu Pai; Chao-Cheng Lin; Heng-Chang Chen

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies based on either single hospital data or sampling of specific groups of hospitalized burns victims in Taiwan have provided only minimal epidemiological information. The study is designed to provide additional data on the epidemiology of hospitalized burns patients in Taiwan. Data were obtained from the Burn Injury Information System (BIIS), which brings together information supplied by 34 contracted

  18. The development of higher education in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Hsing Wu; Shun-Fen Chen; Chen-Tsou Wu

    1989-01-01

    Taiwan had been ruled by Japan for fifty-one years before the end of World War II. The island's higher education was established during that period, mainly to support Japan's policies of colonization and expansion. When Taiwan was restored to China in 1945, the Japanese system of education was replaced by that of modern China, which followed the American prototype after

  19. Notes on Four Alien Plants in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Jer Jung; Gwo-Ing Liao; Chang-Sheng Kuoh

    2006-01-01

    Arthraxon lancifolius (Trin.) Hochst., Lamium hybridum Vill., Matricaria matricarioides (Less.) Porter, and Thlaspi arvense L. were found recently in the mountains of central and southern Taiwan. Thlaspi is a new alien genus in the Taiwan flora. Descriptions, illustrations, and photos of these four alien plants are provided for identification.

  20. Management of scrap computer recycling in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ching-Hwa Lee; Ssu-Li Chang; King-Min Wang; Lih-Chyi Wen

    2000-01-01

    It is estimated that approximately 300,000 scrap personal computers are generated each year in Taiwan [S.-L. Chang, A Study on the Scrap Computer Treatment Cost, Environment Protection Administration of Taiwan, December 1998 (in Chinese)]. The disposal of such a huge number of scrap computers presents a difficult task for the island due to the scarcity of landfills and incineration facilities

  1. Estimation of foreign versus domestic contributions to Taiwan's air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jen-Ping; Yang, Cheng-En; Tsai, I.-Chun

    2015-07-01

    Based on the analysis of observational data obtained over a period of 17 years, this study developed a novel approach estimating long-term changes in the relative contributions of domestic and foreign sources to air pollution levels over the island of Taiwan. The contribution from foreign sources was calculated using data measured at selected coastal monitoring stations under specific meteorological conditions. The domestic contribution was derived by subtracting the foreign contribution from the overall concentration, which was calculated with island-wide monitoring station data averaged using Thiessen polygon area weighting. The trends of mean CO, NO, NO2 and SO2 concentrations in Taiwan were -2.1%, -3.3%, -1.4% and 0% yr-1; while the background concentrations varied by -1.0%, 5.7%, 3.8% and 6.6% yr-1, respectively. These figures suggest that the efforts of Taiwan in reducing air pollution are largely being negated by foreign contributions. Ozone showed a steady increase of 3.3% yr-1, and a portion of this was associated with a 1.0% yr-1 increase in background values. Local and background PM10 concentrations did not show significant long-term trends, but rather strong inter-annual variations associated with dust storm activity in East Asia. The domestic fractions of NO and NO2 respectively decreased from 90% and 85% in 1994 to less than 60% and 70% in 2010. In contrast, the domestic fraction of SO2 decreased from 82% in 1994 to 27% in 2010. The domestic fraction of CO exhibited no obvious trend due to concurrent decreases in local and background contributions. Background O3 values tended to drop across Taiwan due to the titration effect from domestic NO emissions, and the fraction of domestic O3 titration decreased from 50% in the mid-90s to 25% in 2010.

  2. Numerical prediction of storm surge around Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H. W.

    2003-04-01

    A numerical model of storm surge is developed to predict the sea level variations due to typhoons approaching Taiwan. The storm surge associating with a typhoon approaching to Taiwan is one of the main causes that floods frequently occur in the low land areas in certain exposed coastlines. Every year typhoons strike Taiwan, especially from June to October. Typhoon surges have caused a lot of catastrophes in the past. The model is based on the hydrodynamical-numerical method. Air pressure gradient and wind stress are considered as the driving forces. A circular storm is taken here as the typhoon model. In this model the bottom topography plays a great role. To verify this numerical model the storm surges due to typhoons approaching Taiwan in 2000 are selected for case studies. In general the computed results agree with the observed data in most tidal gauge stations around Taiwan.

  3. Tidesurge Interaction Intensified by the Taiwan Strait WenZhou Zhang,1,2,3

    E-print Network

    given by Yang et al. [1993], there were 69 typhoons inducing high storm surges over 1 m at the Fujian elevation over 2 m. Among them, Typhoon Elsie (1961) induced a fatal storm surge over 2 m and inundation strong typhoons affecting the Taiwan Strait and accompanying with them, devastating storm surges appeared

  4. Holographic Screening Length on Parallel Motion of Quark-Antiquark Pair in Four Dimensional Strongly Coupled = 4 super-Yang-Mills plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nata Atmaja, Ardian

    2014-10-01

    We study the screening length of a quark-antiquark pair moving in a strongly coupled hot plasma of = 4 super-Yang-Mills using AdS/CFT correspondence where the background metric is five dimensional AdS black hole. We take the string solution as such the separation length L of quark-antiquark pair is parallel to the string velocity v. The screening length and the bound energy are computed numerically using Mathematica. We find that the plots are bounded from below by some functions that are related to the momentum flow of the drag force configuration Pc. We compare the result by computing the screening length in the quark-antiquark reference frame by boosting the AdS black hole.

  5. Magnetotelluric Imaging of an Arc-Continent Collision Beneath Central Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, E. A.; Unsworth, M. J.; Chiang, C.; Chen, C.; Turkoglu, E.; Hsu, H.; Hill, G. J.

    2007-12-01

    Arc-continent collisions are a fundamental part of the plate tectonic cycle and play an important role in mountain building and the growth of continents. Studying this process in ancient orogens is often hindered by tectonic overprinting and poorly resolved synorogenic plate kinematics and tectonic settings. The Taiwan arc-continent collision between the Luzon arc and the Eurasian continental margin is one of the most active arc-continent collisions in the world. The current plate motions and surface geology are well understood, making Taiwan an ideal location for geophysical investigations of this important tectonic process. The Taiwan Integrated Geodynamical Research (TAIGER) project was initiated in 2004 to image the lithospheric structure beneath Taiwan. The project includes the acquisition of both active and passive seismic data plus detailed magnetotellurics (MT) surveys. MT is a passive geophysical technique which records time variations of natural electromagnetic fields at the surface of the Earth and can determine the subsurface resistivity. This parameter can be used to constrain lithospheric composition and strength. Over the fall of 2006 and spring of 2007, 82 long-period MT soundings were acquired in Taiwan. The fieldwork was accomplished by collaboration between the University of Alberta and National Central University of Taiwan. In fall 2007, collection of additional broadband MT will complement these data. The long-period data were processed using robust techniques and remotely referenced with a station on the PengHu islands (~100km from the nearest site) to reduce the influence of cultural noise. The conductive Taiwan strait separating PengHu from the mainland acts as an effective attenuator of cultural EM fields. Two closely spaced parallel transects across central Taiwan are formed by 46 of these stations with a nominal spacing of 5km. Dimensionality analysis of these transects using the McNeice-Jones tensor decomposition algorithm reveal local 3-D effects in some data. However, an overall regional 2-D strike direction is defined that is parallel to the coastline of Taiwan. Regularized 2-D inversions of these transects image conductive sedimentary rocks in the western foreland basin and an east dipping mid-crustal conductor beneath the fold-and-thrust belt. A sharp boundary is observed between the western sedimentary rocks and the more resistive slates and metamorphic rocks to the east in the Central Range. This boundary coincides with a conductor rising from the mid-crust that may be related to interconnected fluids.

  6. The observation of crustal deformation derived from Taiwan Continuous GPS Array (2007-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min-Chien, Tsai; Shui-Beih, Yu; Tzay-Chyn, Shin

    2015-04-01

    Data collected by 281 sites of Taiwan Continuous GPS Array from 2007 to 2013 are processed with GAMIT/GLOBK software. The acquired GPS position time series are described by model parameters such as linear rate, annual and semi-annual periodic motions, coseismic offsets, postseismic rate change, and exponential decay after earthquakes. Stacking of power spectral densities from 281 continuous GPS data in Taiwan, we found the slopes of spectra (spectral index) are -0.72, -0.77, and -0.57 for the E, N, U components, respectively. It indicates the errors of continuous GPS data can be described as a combination of white noise and flicker noise. The common-mode errors are removed by stacking data from 50 continuous GPS sites with data period more than 5 years. By removing common-mode errors, the precision of GPS data is further improved to 2.3 mm, 1.9 mm, and 6.9 mm in the E, N, U components, respectively. After strictly data quality control, time series analysis and noise analysis, we derive a new ITRF2008 velocity field and velocity field relative to Penghu using GPS data from 2007 to 2013 in the Taiwan area. The general pattern of the newly derived 2007-2013 velocity field is quite similar with that from previous studies, but the station density is much larger and spatial coverage is better, too. About 80 mm/yr plate convergence rate is observed, approximately half of plate convergence rate is accommodated on the fold and thrust belt of western Taiwan and another half is taken up in the Longitudinal Valley and the Coastal Range in eastern Taiwan. The velocities in western Taiwan generally show a fan-shaped pattern, consistent with the direction of maximum compression tectonic stress. In northern Taiwan, the velocity vectors reveal clockwise rotation, indicating the on-going extensional deformation related to the back-arc extension of the Okinawa Trough. In southern Taiwan, the horizontal velocity increases from about 40 mm/yr at Chiayi-Tainan to 55 mm/yr in the Kaohsiung-Pingtung area with a counterclockwise rotation in the directions. The 2007-2013 Taiwan velocity field and GPS position time series can be used in active tectonics and earthquake prediction studies. It also provides important information for seismic hazard analysis.

  7. Shear Wave Structure of Umbria and Marche, Italy, Strong Motion Seismometer Sites Affected by the 1997-98 Umbria-Marche, Italy, Earthquake Sequence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kayen, Robert; Scasserra, Giuseppe; Stewart, Jonathan P.; Lanzo, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    A long sequence of earthquakes, eight with magnitudes between 5 and 6, struck the Umbria and Marche regions of central Italy between September 26, 1997 and July 1998. The earthquake swarm caused severe structural damage, particularly to masonry buildings, and resulted in the loss of twelve lives and about 150 injuries. The source of the events was a single seismogenic structure that consists of several faults with a prevailing northwest-southeast strike and crosses the Umbria-Marche border. The focal mechanism of the largest shocks indicates that the events were the product of shallow extensional normal faulting along a NE-SW extension perpendicular to the trend of the Apennines. The network of analog seismometer stations in the Umbria and Marche regions recorded motions of the main September and October 1997 events and a dense array of mobile digital stations, installed since September 29, recorded most of the swarm. The permanent national network Rete Accelerometrica Nazionale (RAN) is administered and maintained by Dipartimento delle Protezione Civile (DPC: Civil Protection Department); the temporary array was managed by Servizio Sismico Nazionale (SSN) in cooperation with small agencies and Universities. ENEA, the operator of many seismometer stations in Umbria, is the public Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment. Many of the temporary and permanent stations in the Italian seismic network have little or no characterization of seismic velocities. In this study, we investigated 17 Italian sites using an active-source approach that employs low frequency harmonic waves to measure the dispersive nature of surface waves in the ground. We used the Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW) approach, coupled with an array of harmonic-wave electro-mechanical sources that are driven in-phase to excite the ground. An inversion algorithm using a non-linear least-squares best-fit method is used to compute shear wave velocities for up to 100 meters of the soil column. A draft report was published in the summer of 2008, followed by a comment period, lengthy discussions with Italian colleagues, and improved knowledge of the subsurface at the sites from soil logs. Four of the sites were reprocessed in order to correct issues with phase unwrapping of the field dispersion curves that complicated the velocity profile calculations at the lowest velocity sites. This report presents the final results from the reprocessing effort.

  8. Motion and evolution of the Chaochou Fault, Southern Taiwan 

    E-print Network

    Hassler, Lauren E.

    2005-11-01

    that indicate un-reset ages in the south, and reset ages in the northern segment. Geodetic and geomorphic data indicate that the northern segment of the CCF and Slate Belt are currently undergoing rapid uplift related to oblique arc-continent collision between...

  9. Rapid Assessment of Damage Potential of Earthquakes in Taiwan from the Beginning of P Waves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yih-Min Wu; Hiroo Kanamori

    2005-01-01

    To rapidly assess the potential for damage of an earthquake for purposes of earthquake early warning in Taiwan, we used the peak displacement and velocity amplitudes of the first 3 sec of the P wave. The vertical-component records, high- pass filtered at 0.075 Hz, are used. We found that the peak initial-displacement amplitude (Pd) correlates well with the peak ground-motion

  10. Feasibility study of a nation-wide Early Warning System: the application of the EEW software PRESTo on the Italian Strong Motion Network (RAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollo, Aldo; Picozzi, Matteo; Elia, Luca; Martino, Claudio; Brondi, Piero; Colombelli, Simona; Emolo, Antonio; Festa, Gaetano; Marcucci, Sandro

    2014-05-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a huge progress in the development, implementation and testing of Earthquakes Early Warning Systems (EEWS) worldwide, as the result of a joint effort of the seismological and earthquake engineering communities to set up robust and efficient methodologies for the real-time seismic risk mitigation. The leading experience of the operational early warning system implemented by the Japan Meteorological Agency showed the effectiveness of a combined onsite and network-based approach to rapidly broadcast the rapid warning after a potential damaging earthquake. At the nation-wide scale, the Japanese system makes use of real-time data streamed by the extremely dense accelerograph array (about 1000 seismic instruments) deployed across Japan. With more than 750 accelerometric stations installed over all the active seismic zones, target cities and strategic infrastructures, Italy has the potential for a nation-wide early warning system, although the communication network and data sharing must be expanded and improved. A significant number of these stations are nodes of the RAN (Italian Accelerometric Network) managed by the Italian national emergency management department (Dipartimento della Protezione Civile, DPC), whose data are used for emergency response services. In the framework of the REAKT-Strategies and tools for Real Time Earthquake RisK ReducTion FP7 European project, the AMRA-RISSCLab group is engaged in a feasibility study on the implementation of the EEW software PRESTo earthquake early warning platforms on the Italian accelerometric network (RAN) PRESTo (PRobabilistic and Evolutionary early warning SysTem) is a highly configurable and easily portable platform for Earthquake Early Warning. The system processes the live accelerometric streams from the stations of a seismic network to promptly provide probabilistic and evolutionary estimates of location and magnitude of detected earthquakes while they are occurring, as well as shaking prediction at the regional scale. Alarm messages containing those parameters can reach target sites before the destructive waves, enabling automatic safety procedures. The earthquake location is obtained by an evolutionary, probabilistic approach that uses information from both triggered and not-yet-triggered stations at each time step. Magnitude estimation is based on a Bayesian approach that uses the peak displacement measured on short 2-4 second windows of P- and S-waves signal. Peak ground motion is estimated at target sites by GMPEs using location and magnitude. The performance of the potential EW system at the national scale has been investigated through simulated earthquake scenarios using real-data from several M 5-6 earthquakes recorded by the network RAN. Furthermore, a statistical approach has been implemented considering a nation-wide grid of synthetic sources, the same grid which is used to derive the seismic hazard map in Italy. By considering a virtual testing period of 50 years, each grid's node is considered as a seismic source capable of generating a sequence of earthquakes with magnitude varying according the seismogenic zones properties to which it belongs. Then, the EW algorithm, PRESTo, is run on the sequences of synthetic data created for each of the grid's points considering the present-day RAN configuration, and network performance in terms of lead-time, errors in event location and magnitude determination is computed for the tested sources.

  11. Three-Dimensional Tectonic Model of Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Francis; Kuo-Chen, Hao; McIntosh, kirk

    2014-05-01

    We built a three-dimensional model of the interactions of the Eurasian plate (EUP) the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) and the collisional orogen, in and around Taiwan. The model is based on the results of comprehensive, milt-prong TAIGER experiments on land and at sea as well as other existing data. The clockwise rotating PSP moves NWW at ~8 cm/year relative to the Taiwan Strait. Under northern Taiwan the northward subducting PSP terminates near the edge of eastern Taiwan and collides with EUP at in increasing depth toward the north. Mountain building due to collision of EUP and PSP tapers off where the PSP goes below about 60 km. The PSP in the asthenosphere continues to advance NWW-ward. In central Taiwan PSP and EUP collide fully, lithosphere against lithosphere in the upper 60 km or so, leading to significant thickening of the crust to about 55 km on the Central Range side and about 35 km on the Coastal Range/Arc side. In between these "roots" a high velocity rise is found. Although a clear, steep dipping high velocity zone under Central Taiwan is detected, it is found not to be associated with seismicity. In southern Taiwan, mountains form over well-defined, seismically active subduction zone. The upper mantle high velocity anomaly appears to be continues with that under central Taiwan, but here an inclined seismic zone is found. In this area the Luzon Arc has not yet encountered the continental shelf - thus arc-continental collision has not yet occurred. The orogeny here may involve inversion of the subducted South China Sea lithosphere, rifted Eurasian continent, and/or escape of continental material from central Taiwan. GPS and Leveling data reflect well the 3-D plate collision model.

  12. HVAC Commissioning - A Status Report in Taiwan 

    E-print Network

    Yang, K. H.

    2006-01-01

    Yat--SenSenUniversityUniversityKaohsiungKaohsiung, Taiwan, Taiwankhkh--yang@mail.nsysu.edu.twyang@mail.nsysu.edu.tw 2006.11.2006.11. Introduction I n t ro d uc ti on ?Being located in subtropical area, the weather in Taiwan is constantly hot and humid, with ambient temperature around 35 o Cand relative... the TAB/CX procedure recommended by the Bureau of Energy of Taiwan to be issued in December 2006.?The procedure includes regulations under stages in design, installation, functional tests, and performance in conformity with the design intent...

  13. HVAC Commissioning - A Status Report in Taiwan

    E-print Network

    Yang, K. H.

    2006-01-01

    Yat--SenSenUniversityUniversityKaohsiungKaohsiung, Taiwan, Taiwankhkh--yang@mail.nsysu.edu.twyang@mail.nsysu.edu.tw 2006.11.2006.11. Introduction I n t ro d uc ti on ?Being located in subtropical area, the weather in Taiwan is constantly hot and humid, with ambient temperature around 35 o Cand relative... the TAB/CX procedure recommended by the Bureau of Energy of Taiwan to be issued in December 2006.?The procedure includes regulations under stages in design, installation, functional tests, and performance in conformity with the design intent...

  14. Notes on Newly Recorded Grasses in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Jer Jung; Tian-Shung Wu; Chang-Sheng Kuoh

    2006-01-01

    Agrostis avenacea J. F. Gmel., Agrostis stolonifera L., Alopecurus pratensis L., and Deschampsia atropurpurea (Wahl.) Scheele were recently found at middle elevations of southern and central Taiwan, respectively. We present their descriptions, distribution map, and line-drawings.

  15. Taiwan: Facing the future with nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1994-07-01

    The republic of China on Taiwan is located approximately 100 miles off the southeast coast of mainland China, between Japan and the Philippines, and has an area of 13,970 square miles. The island nation has a population exceeding twenty million people, with over five million living in the capital of Taipei, making Taiwan the second most densely populated country in the world. The country also has one of the world`s fastest growing economies, with major industries that include electronics, textiles, food processing, chemicals and plastics. Annual growth of Taiwan`s gross national product (GNP) has averaged more than 7 percent for the past several years, and the small island is now the twelfth largest trading nation in the world, with a GNP exceeding US$200 billion.

  16. Opportunity, Choice, and Burglary Victimization in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Shih-Ya

    2015-07-01

    This study examined burglary victimization in Taiwan with an application of the structure-choice model that included four theoretical dimensions: proximity to crime, exposure to crime, target attractiveness, and guardianship. Drawing on the 2000 Taiwan Areas Criminal Victimization Survey, the results of the current study showed a moderate effect of the opportunity model on Taiwan's burglary victimization. Also, this study found both consistent and conflicting findings in the current data. The null effect of motorcycles (including scooters) that represented the concept of target attractiveness in relation to burglary risk reflected a difference in population density and transportation needs between Taiwan and the West. Clearly, the role of social context needs to be understood when studies apply a Western model to a non-Western context. PMID:24459209

  17. Democratization and bureaucratic restructuring in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qingshan Tan

    2000-01-01

    Taiwan has been moving toward democracy, with a dramatic transition taking place in the past decade. Critical to this transition\\u000a is a restructuring of the relationship between the state bureaucracy and society. This study focuses on democratization's\\u000a effect on Taiwan's bureaucracy. In particular, it seeks to examine such aspects of bureaucratic transformation as bureaucratic\\u000a decisionmaking, legislative-bureaucratic politics, interest group-bureaucratic relations,

  18. Synchrotron radiation research center (SRRC) in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Edward

    1992-01-01

    Aiming to upgrade the local research environment and to promote local technology, the government of the Republic of China on Taiwan endeavors to construct and establish the first synchrotron radiation facility in Taiwan. The main facility is a 1.3-GeV storage ring with full energy injection from a booster synchrotron. Design and procurement of accelerator components are progressing well. The start of installation is scheduled for February 1992. Commissioning with beam is projected toward the end of 1992.

  19. Early Austronesians: into and out of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Chen, Chung-Yu; Fu, Qiaomei; Delfin, Frederick; Li, Mingkun; Chiu, Hung-Lin; Stoneking, Mark; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2014-03-01

    A Taiwan origin for the expansion of the Austronesian languages and their speakers is well supported by linguistic and archaeological evidence. However, human genetic evidence is more controversial. Until now, there had been no ancient skeletal evidence of a potential Austronesian-speaking ancestor prior to the Taiwan Neolithic ~6,000 years ago, and genetic studies have largely ignored the role of genetic diversity within Taiwan as well as the origins of Formosans. We address these issues via analysis of a complete mitochondrial DNA genome sequence of an ~8,000-year-old skeleton from Liang Island (located between China and Taiwan) and 550 mtDNA genome sequences from 8 aboriginal (highland) Formosan and 4 other Taiwanese groups. We show that the Liangdao Man mtDNA sequence is closest to Formosans, provides a link to southern China, and has the most ancestral haplogroup E sequence found among extant Austronesian speakers. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis allows us to reconstruct a history of early Austronesians arriving in Taiwan in the north ~6,000 years ago, spreading rapidly to the south, and leaving Taiwan ~4,000 years ago to spread throughout Island Southeast Asia, Madagascar, and Oceania. PMID:24607387

  20. Early Austronesians: Into and Out Of Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Chen, Chung-Yu; Fu, Qiaomei; Delfin, Frederick; Li, Mingkun; Chiu, Hung-Lin; Stoneking, Mark; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2014-01-01

    A Taiwan origin for the expansion of the Austronesian languages and their speakers is well supported by linguistic and archaeological evidence. However, human genetic evidence is more controversial. Until now, there had been no ancient skeletal evidence of a potential Austronesian-speaking ancestor prior to the Taiwan Neolithic ?6,000 years ago, and genetic studies have largely ignored the role of genetic diversity within Taiwan as well as the origins of Formosans. We address these issues via analysis of a complete mitochondrial DNA genome sequence of an ?8,000-year-old skeleton from Liang Island (located between China and Taiwan) and 550 mtDNA genome sequences from 8 aboriginal (highland) Formosan and 4 other Taiwanese groups. We show that the Liangdao Man mtDNA sequence is closest to Formosans, provides a link to southern China, and has the most ancestral haplogroup E sequence found among extant Austronesian speakers. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis allows us to reconstruct a history of early Austronesians arriving in Taiwan in the north ?6,000 years ago, spreading rapidly to the south, and leaving Taiwan ?4,000 years ago to spread throughout Island Southeast Asia, Madagascar, and Oceania. PMID:24607387

  1. H/V spectral ratios of the continental margin sediments offshore southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jing-Yi; Cheng, Win-Bin; Chin, Shao-Jinn; Hsu, Shu-Kun

    2015-04-01

    For decades, it has been mentioned that submarine slope failures are spatially linked to the presence of gas hydrates/gas-charged sediments. When triggered by earthquakes, over steepen and instable sediments may prompt breakouts of the slopes containing gas hydrates and cause submarine landslides and tsunamis. Widely distributed BSRs have been observed in the area offshore of southwestern Taiwan where the active accretionary complex meets with the passive China continental margin. In the region, large or small scale landslides were also reported based on seismic interpretations. In order to clarify the link between earthquake, landslide and the presence of gas hydrate, we evaluate the response of seafloor sediments in regard to passive dynamic loads. Horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) spectral ratios are used to characterize the local sediment response. Ambient noise as well as distant earthquake is used as generators of the passive dynamic loads. Based on this study, we aim to characterize the site in terms of its physical properties and the local site effect produced by shallow marine sediments. Estimating H/V spectral ratios of data recorded by the short period OBSs (Ocean Bottom Seismometer) deployed in the active and paqssive margin offshore southwestern Taiwan show similar spectral characteristics and provide a general understanding of the preferential vibration modes of sediment systems. The results show that the maximal H/V ratios appeared in the range of 5-10 Hz, where the horizontal amplitudes increased by an order of magnitude relative to the vertical amplitude. The stations located in the northwestern part of study area were characterized by another relatively small peak at proximately 2 Hz, which may indicates the presence of a discontinuity of sediments. For most stations, the H/V ratios estimated based on the earthquakes (i.e. strong input signal) and noise (background, micro-seismic noise) records were characterized by different pattern. No distinct peak is observed for the H/V pattern calculated during earthquakes. This phenomenon may suggest that no clear sedimentary boundary exist when a stronger motion applies. We found that the resonance frequency for the relative rigid material, such as mud diapir, is relatively higher, about 9 Hz. Moreover, their main resonance frequency is not affected by occurrence of earthquakes. On the general sedimentary layer and marine landslide, the resonance frequency shows relatively low value, about 7~8 Hz. When the site is affected by earthquakes, the main frequency becomes unclear. Finally, when a site is characterized by very thick sedimentary layer, the frequency of about 5 Hz is the lowest observed in the experiment.

  2. Motion Analysis Motion detection

    E-print Network

    Hamburg,.Universität

    of moving objects by - finding "interest points" in all frames of a sequence - determining to motion Moving object detection and tracking Detect individual moving objects, determine and predict object trajectories, track objects with a moving camera Derivation of 3D object properties Determine 3D

  3. Taiwan International Graduate Program --Molecular and Biological Agricultural Sciences Introduction

    E-print Network

    Taiwan International Graduate Program -- Molecular and Biological Agricultural Sciences and Microbial Biology, the Institute of Cellular and Organismic Biology, and the Institute of Molecular Biology in specialized areas of agricultural biology. The Taiwan International Graduate Program (TIGP) in Molecular

  4. Chinese Teenagers Perceptions of and Attitudes toward Taiwan Mandarin 

    E-print Network

    Juan, Yu-Tien

    2011-11-23

    This dissertation is a language attitude study which has Taiwan Mandarin as its main concern. The study is based on a pilot study, which suggests Chinese people’s attitudes toward Hong Kong and Taiwan Mandarin related ...

  5. New Dryinidae from Sulawesi and Taiwan (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Olmi

    1992-01-01

    The following new species of Dryinidae are described: Anteon heppneri and martiale from Taiwan; Anteon cerberum, flaccum and subdignum; Thaumatodryinus noyesi; Dryinus alboniger and mansus from Sulawesi. The male of Lonchodryinus sinensis Olmi is described from Taiwan.

  6. Calibration of PS09, PS10, and PS11 trans-Alaska pipeline system strong-motion instruments, with acceleration, velocity, and displacement records of the Denali fault earthquake, 03 November 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, John R.; Jensen, E. Gray; Sell, Russell; Stephens, Christopher D.; Nyman, Douglas J.; Hamilton, Robert C.; Hager, William C.

    2006-01-01

    In September, 2003, the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company (APSC) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) embarked on a joint effort to extract, test, and calibrate the accelerometers, amplifiers, and bandpass filters from the earthquake monitoring systems (EMS) at Pump Stations 09, 10, and 11 of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS). These were the three closest strong-motion seismographs to the Denali fault when it ruptured in the MW 7.9 earthquake of 03 November 2002 (22:12:41 UTC). The surface rupture is only 3.0 km from PS10 and 55.5 km from PS09 but PS11 is 124.2 km away from a small rupture splay and 126.9 km from the main trace. Here we briefly describe precision calibration results for all three instruments. Included with this report is a link to the seismograms reprocessed using these new calibrations: http://nsmp.wr.usgs.gov/data_sets/20021103_2212_taps.html Calibration information in this paper applies at the time of the Denali fault earthquake (03 November 2002), but not necessarily at other times because equipment at these stations is changed by APSC personnel at irregular intervals. In particular, the equipment at PS09, PS10, and PS11 was changed by our joint crew in September, 2003, so that we could perform these calibrations. The equipment stayed the same from at least the time of the earthquake until that retrieval, and these calibrations apply for that interval.

  7. Super Typhoon Halong off Taiwan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On July 14, 2002, Super Typhoon Halong was east of Taiwan (left edge) in the western Pacific Ocean. At the time this image was taken the storm was a Category 4 hurricane, with maximum sustained winds of 115 knots (132 miles per hour), but as recently as July 12, winds were at 135 knots (155 miles per hour). Halong has moved northwards and pounded Okinawa, Japan, with heavy rain and high winds, just days after tropical Storm Chataan hit the country, creating flooding and killing several people. The storm is expected to be a continuing threat on Monday and Tuesday. This image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite on July 14, 2002. Please note that the high-resolution scene provided here is 500 meters per pixel. For a copy of the scene at the sensor's fullest resolution, visit the MODIS Rapid Response Image Gallery. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  8. The Taiwan Telemetered Seismographic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jeen Hwa

    1989-11-01

    In 1972, the Taiwan Telemetered Seismographic Network (TTSN) was installed to monitor earthquakes occurring in an area from 21 to 26°N latitude and from 119 to 123°E longitude. The number of stations increased from six in 1972 to 24 in 1987. The stations are equipped with velocity-type seismometers with a natural frequency of 1 Hz. Since 1983, horizontal-component sensors have been added at several stations. Signals recorded by the field stations are transmitted to Taipei Recording Center through telephone lines or radio, and then recorded on FM magnetic tapes, paper, and nine-track magnetic tapes through A/D converters. Hypocenters of earthquakes are routinely determined by a HYPOC2 computer program. The size of an earthquake is estimated from the signal duration. Moreover, a simulated Wood-Anderson seismographic station is in operation at Taipei for the determination of local magnitude. A seismic work system (SWS) is being established for automatic data acquisition and data processing. To avoid clipping of signal amplitude, an Optimum Telemetry System is being linked to the TTSN.

  9. 77 FR 72884 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ...731-TA-1197 (Final)] Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan Determination On the...injured by reason of imports of steel wire garment hangers from Taiwan, provided for in...by Commerce that imports of steel wire garment hangers from Taiwan were dumped...

  10. The perspective of manager in developing foreign workers in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huang Han Chun

    2006-01-01

    Abstract From the ethic concept of Chinese ,people to view ,foreigner who ,works in Taiwan, people will agree to accept the strategy that employs foreign workers in Taiwan, if foreign workers will bring technology and try to assist industry to have better performance. Otherwise, the attitude of Taiwan people is that they are very severe and don’t expect to have

  11. A case study of the SMEs' organizational restructuring in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsin-pin Fu; Tien-hsiang Chang; Ming-ji Wu

    2001-01-01

    Business process reengineering (BPR) has been widely applied in many enterprises. However, most cases have targeted large enterprises. In Taiwan, small and medium enterprises (SMEs), which account for at least 95 per cent of all enterprises, have played an extremely important role in Taiwan’s economic growth. The question of whether those SMEs can successfully implement BPR in order to strengthen

  12. Language Shift and Language Accommodation across Family Generations in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandel, Todd L.; Chao, Wen-Yu; Liang, Chung-Hui

    2006-01-01

    This study explored language shift and accommodation among bilingual Mandarin and Tai-gi (also called Hokkien, Holo, Tai-gu, Taiwan Min, Taiwanese) families in Taiwan. From the 1940s until the 1980s the Chinese Nationalist Party (KMT) on Taiwan promoted Mandarin Chinese. Recent years have witnessed a shift in policy: since 2001 elementary schools…

  13. Recycling and reuse of industrial wastes in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meng-Shiun Wei; Kuo-Hei Huang

    2001-01-01

    Eighteen million metric tons of industrial wastes are produced every year in Taiwan. In order to properly handle the industrial wastes, the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (Taiwan EPA) has set up strategic programs that include establishment of storage, treatment, and final disposal systems, establishment of a management center for industrial wastes, and promotion of recycling and reuse of industrial wastes.

  14. Taiwan's Capacity-bulding Program on Space Research and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ip, W. H.; Chen, A. J.; Chu, Y. H.; Lee, L. C.; Liu, C. H.; Lyu, L. H.; Pan, C. J.; Su, S. Y.; Wang, J. T.; Yeh, H. C.

    The continuous buildup of the space program in Taiwan over the last decase has led to a series of scientific satellites with important applications in space study remotesensing and meteorology These include the plasma science instrument on the low-Earth orbiting satellite Formosat 1 the high-resoultion camera on Formosat 2 in sunsynchronous orbit and the GPS experiment for atmospheric study on the six microstatellites of the Formosat 3 COSMIC project Further new scientific projects are being planned The space science community in Taiwan therefore stands ready to work closely with COSPAR and its international partners in the promotion of the International Heliospheric Year IHY by providing advanced scientific observations of unique value At the same time the corresponding space research groups have established strong connections to the scientists in Southeast Asia over the last few years by organizing a series of capacity building workshops and international schools covering environmental monitoring land survey climate change atmospheric radar observations and space physics Some of these are sponsored by SARCS Southeast Asia Regional Committee of START and some by the SCOSTEP-CAWSES program In addition a vigorous IHY outreach program connecting high school students to the investigations of space weather and solar physics will be carried out by a consortium led by the Institute of Space Science of National Central University Such scientific infrastructure and experience will be of great value to future capacity-building activity in the serve of

  15. Clinical competency in child maltreatment for community nurses in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Wen; Huang, Joh-Jong; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Feng, Jui-Ying

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine aspects of competency in child abuse among community nurses in Taiwan. A sample of 650 community nurses were recruited from public health centres (PHC) and outpatient clinics in Southern Taiwan. A structured questionnaire with five subscales, knowledge, skills, empowerment, team collaboration and self-reflection was developed and used for data collection. A total of 588 questionnaires were returned and used for analysis. Nearly 20% of community nurses reported having an acquaintance with a maltreatment history. Only 4.6% had experience of reporting a case of child abuse. Most nurses reported strong skills and abilities (empowerment, team collaboration and self-reflection). Outpatient clinic nurses scored higher in four subscales than the PHC nurses. Nurses who had a history as a victim or had reporting experience claimed better clinical competency. Unfortunately, community nurses had limited knowledge in child abuse. The findings support the development of continuing education programmes on child abuse for community nurses. PMID:25759198

  16. Seeing Motion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Concord Consortium

    2011-12-11

    Explore your own straight-line motion using a motion sensor to generate distance versus time graphs of your own motion. Learn how changes in speed and direction affect the graph, and gain an understanding of how motion can be represented on a graph.

  17. Motion Commotion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students learn why and how motion occurs and what governs changes in motion, as described by Newton's three laws of motion. They gain hands-on experience with the concepts of forces, changes in motion, and action and reaction. In an associated literacy activity, students design a behavioral survey and learn basic protocol for primary research, survey design and report writing.

  18. Big country dependent economy development of Taiwan—Functions of Japan, the US, and China in Taiwan's economy development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung Hsiung-Shen; Ting-Sheng Weng

    2010-01-01

    Although with limited land and resources and a dense population, Taiwan, situated in eastern Asia, has developed to be a model in the eyes of international economists after World War II; its cause and process worth study. As well known, the island economy- based Taiwan has to rely on big country economy in order to develop smoothly; moreover, the Taiwan's

  19. Orientation-Independent Measures of Ground Motion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Boore; Jennie Watson-Lamprey; Norman A. Abrahamson

    2006-01-01

    The geometric mean of the response spectra for two orthogonal hori- zontal components of motion, commonly used as the response variable in predictions of strong ground motion, depends on the orientation of the sensors as installed in the field. This means that the measure of ground-motion intensity could differ for the same actual ground motion. This dependence on sensor orientation

  20. Mutational Screening of Breast Cancer Susceptibility Gene 1 from Early Onset, Bilateral, and Familial Breast Cancer Patients in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shou-Tung Chen; Ruei-A Chen; Shou-Jen Kuo; Yi-Chih Chien

    2003-01-01

    The BRCA1 gene has been shown to be strongly associated with the occurrence of familial breast cancer. The spectrum of BRCA1 gene mutations in breast cancer patients in various populations has been investigated. In this study, patients in Central Taiwan with breast cancer were screened for BRCA1 mutations by sequencing PCR products spanning the coding region and partial intronic regions

  1. Geomorphic Constraints on Patterns of Shortening and Erosion in the Puli Basin: Hinterland of the Central Taiwan Thrust Belt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Powell; K. Mueller; Y. Chen

    2002-01-01

    Field mapping and structural restorations of deformed late Quaternary strata deposited in the Puli Basin reveal a strong correlation between erosion and recent activation and growth of compressional structures in the hinterland of the central Taiwan thrust belt. Sediments in the Puli Basin are deposited between topographic highs above the Shuangtung and Shuichanglin thrusts to the west and a higher

  2. Antioxidant Properties of Extracts from Medicinal Plants Popularly Used in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lie-Fen Shyur; Jieh-Hen Tsung; Je-Hsin Chen; Chih-Yang Chiu; Chiu-Ping Lo

    We have examined antioxidant activities of twenty-six medicinal herbal extracts that have been popularly used as folk medicines in Taiwan. The results of scavenging DPPH radical activity show that, among the 26 tested medicinal plants, Ludwigia octovalvis, Vitis thunbergii, Rubus parvifolius, Lindernia anagallis, and Zanthoxylum nitidum exhibited strong activities and their IC50 values for DPPH radicals were 4.6, 24, 27,

  3. Strong Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Karsch, F.; Vogelsang, V.

    2009-09-29

    We will give here an overview of our theory of the strong interactions, Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) and its properties. We will also briefly review the history of the study of the strong interactions, and the discoveries that ultimately led to the formulation of QCD. The strong force is one of the four known fundamental forces in nature, the others being the electromagnetic, the weak and the gravitational force. The strong force, usually referred to by scientists as the 'strong interaction', is relevant at the subatomic level, where it is responsible for the binding of protons and neutrons to atomic nuclei. To do this, it must overcome the electric repulsion between the protons in an atomic nucleus and be the most powerful force over distances of a few fm (1fm=1 femtometer=1 fermi=10{sup -15}m), the typical size of a nucleus. This property gave the strong force its name.

  4. Meconium aspiration syndrome: experiences in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H C Lin; S Y Wu; J M Wu; T F Yeh

    2008-01-01

    Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is still one of the most challenged diseases for the neonatologists. We reviewed our earlier studies of MAS in an attempt to provide some idea for more understanding of MAS. This study is a retrospective review and summarization of our earlier studies in MAS at two tertiary neonatal centers in Taiwan. Incidence of MAS was decreased

  5. Measuring Automobile Insurance Fraud in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chu-Shiu Li; Chwen-Chi Liu; Sheng-Chang Peng

    Abstract Byconducting an extensive exploration on claim data, this paper attempts to investigate the fraud problem ,in Taiwan ,automobile ,physical damage ,insurance. Based on the different claim patterns between data in calendar year and policy year, excess claims are significantly identified in the last month ,of policy ,year. Censored regression provides robust estimation concerning the sources of the fraud payment.

  6. High Resolution Taiwan Moho Discontinuity Reference Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Chen; K. Syu; H. Wang; Y. Duan; L. Zhu

    2009-01-01

    Investigation on the azimuthal variation of receiver function (RF) waveforms affected by lateral velocity, depth and dip angle changes of Moho discontinuity is conducted through systematic analysis and simulation. Using 500 teleseismic events recorded by 104 broadband stations deployed during 2006-2008, we propose more detailed image of Taiwan Moho Discontinuity Reference Model. For RF dataset, identification of Ps phase through

  7. Industrial restructuring and international competition in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C-L Tsay

    1993-01-01

    In this paper trends and varying types of industrial restructuring in Taiwan are examined as the island continues to lose comparative advantage in international markets. Based on some official statistics, triggers of industrial restructuring are explored and the corporate strategies of industries are identified. There is evidence of specific triggers of industrial restructuring which include shortage of labor, rising domestic

  8. Restructuring Taiwan's port state control inspection authority

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shy-tzong Liou; Chung-Ping Liu; Chih-Ching Chang; David C. Yen

    2011-01-01

    To improve marine transportation safety, countries around the world have established authorities dedicated to implementing port state control (PSC). Appropriate measures have also been taken to ensure that these dedicated organizations are given enough power to carry out their duties independently and credibly as a safety mechanism. In contrast, Taiwan's existing PSC inspections are administrated by commercial port authorities, causing

  9. Women's Aspirations for Graduate Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Meng-Jie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates female undergraduates' aspirations for master's and doctoral degree programs in Taiwan's universalized and stratified higher education system. It considers the potential effects of economic prospects, parental attitudes, and gender values. First, graduate education is perceived as a means to enhance one's comparative…

  10. Brief Introduction to Technology Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lung-Sheng; Wang, Shin Ting; Wang, Buddy; Ko, Jerome; Wang, Ching Hsiang; He, Chi Chun; Wu, Hsiao Liang; Lu, Nancy; Shen, Yuoh Ching; Lin, Ran long; Ling, Yung Shun; Chang, Ming Chieh; Chen, Te Jen; Fong, Sha Zon; Huang, Chiung

    2004-01-01

    Technology Education at both elementary and secondary schools levels has become an important means to develop technological literacy for all. In Taiwan, Living Technology (LT) is offered at both elementary and secondary school levels in order to improve technological literacy of the public. This brief introduction presents the national status of…

  11. Notes on Alien Bromus Grasses in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Jer Jung; Chang-Sheng Kuoh

    2006-01-01

    Bromus carinatus Hook. & Arn., Bromus hordeaceus L., Bromus pubescens Muhl. ex Willd. and Bromus secalinus L. were recently found at middle elevations of southern and central Taiwan, respectively. We present taxonomic treatments, distribution map, and line-drawings of these introduced alien brome grasses.

  12. No Aboriginal Students left Behind in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Sue-Jen; Hartzler-Miller, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    The project is motivated by Taiwan's huge gap of educational levels between the aborigines and the Hans. The low achievement of aboriginal students lies in factors related to problems in finance, health, and cultural difference, which contribute to their sense of self-deprecation. The purpose of the project is to provide early intervention and…

  13. Characteristics of Medical Waste in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsien-Wen Kuo; Shu-Lung Shu; Chin-Chung Wu; Jim-SHoung Lai

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was threefold: to investigate the types and amounts of medical waste from various hospitals in Taiwan; to analyze residues from incinerated medical waste for heavy metal content; and to measure the amount of infectious and general medical waste per bed per day and determine the ratio of infectious to general medical waste. Information was first

  14. Thermochronometry and Exhumational Steady State in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D. Willett; D. Fisher; C. Fuller

    2002-01-01

    New apatite and zircon fission track results from the Taiwan arc-continent collision are consistent with southward propagation of a double-sided orogen that progressively grows in size until achieving topographic steady state (SS), then exhumational SS, a condition that reflects a long term balance between rock uplift and exhumation. Because the orientation of the Asian continental margin is oblique to the

  15. ACADEMIA SINICA Taiwan International Graduate Program

    E-print Network

    Nano Science and Technology Program Taiwan International Graduate Program (TIGP) Academia Sinica has universities are involved in various programs TIGP Program on"Nano Science and Technology" Within this context, the graduate program on"Nano Science and Technology"is designed to offer specific training and research

  16. Internet Addiction among High Schoolers in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Sunny S. J.; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid measurement for the identification of Internet addictive high school students. There were 615 subjects selected by a stratified sampling from the population of Taiwanese 10th to 12th graders. The final version of the Internet Addiction Scale for Taiwan High Schoolers (IAST) contained 20…

  17. Current Status of Antimicrobial Resistance in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Po-Ren Hsueh; Cheng-Yi Liu; Kwen-Tay Luh

    2002-01-01

    While some trends in antimicrobial resistance rates are universal, others appear to be unique for specific regions. In Taiwan, the strikingly high prevalence of resistance to macrolides and streptogramin in clinical isolates of gram-positive bacteria correlates with the widespread use of these agents in the medical and farming communities, respectively. The relatively low rate of enterococci that are resistant to

  18. Strong Decoherence

    E-print Network

    Murray Gell-Mann; James B. Hartle

    1995-11-23

    We introduce a condition for the strong decoherence of a set of alternative histories of a closed quantum-mechanical system such as the universe. The condition applies, for a pure initial state, to sets of homogeneous histories that are chains of projections, generally branch-dependent. Strong decoherence implies the consistency of probability sum rules but not every set of consistent or even medium decoherent histories is strongly decoherent. Two conditions characterize a strongly decoherent set of histories: (1) At any time the operators that effectively commute with generalized records of history up to that moment provide the pool from which -- with suitable adjustment for elapsed time -- the chains of projections extending history to the future may be drawn. (2) Under the adjustment process, generalized record operators acting on the initial state of the universe are approximately unchanged. This expresses the permanence of generalized records. The strong decoherence conditions (1) and (2) guarantee what we call ``permanence of the past'' -- in particular the continued decoherence of past alternatives as the chains of projections are extended into the future. Strong decoherence is an idealization capturing in a general way this and other aspects of realistic physical mechanisms that destroy interference, as we illustrate in a simple model. We discuss the connection between the reduced density matrices that have often been used to characterize mechanisms of decoherence and the more general notion of strong decoherence. The relation between strong decoherence and a measure of classicality is briefly described.

  19. Plate motion

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, R.G. (USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The motion of tectonic plates on the earth is characterized in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Topics addressed include the NUVEL-1 global model of current plate motions, diffuse plate boundaries and the oceanic lithosphere, the relation between plate motions and distributed deformations, accelerations and the steadiness of plate motions, the distribution of current Pacific-North America motion across western North America and its margin, plate reconstructions and their uncertainties, hotspots, and plate dynamics. A comprehensive bibliography is provided. 126 refs.

  20. Time-dependent probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for Taiwan: Development of a time-dependent approach and implementation of the Taiwan Earthquake Model parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, C. H.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. J.; Lee, Y. T.; Shyu, J. B. H.; Pagani, M.; Weatherill, G.

    2014-12-01

    To assess time-dependent probabilistic seismic hazard for Taiwan, we develop a new approach and implement the state-of-the-art parameters of seismogenic sources obtained by Taiwan Earthquake Model (TEM). Based on the information on tectonic setting, geology, geomorphology, and earthquake catalog, four categories of seismogenic source were identified. Those are: (a) regional source, (b) crustal fault source, (c) subduction interface source, and (d) subduction intraslab source. For the treatment of time-dependency, both long-term and short-term impacts are considered. In order to evaluate seismic probability evolution during a long-term period, several recurrence interval models for crustal fault sources were introduced. We examined their feasibility through comparison with observed return periods acquired from excavation data. By implementing occurrence time of last event obtained by instrumental and historical catalogs, long-term evolutions of the occurrence probabilities for crustal fault sources were obtained. The results show lower occurrence probabilities for the faults, which just ruptured at a recent time. For evaluation of short-term rate change, earthquake interaction between different sources in form of stress change was investigated. An increased stress state promoted occurrence of consequent events, while stress decrease inhibits future seismic activity. Through considering ground motion prediction equations for different types of sources and site conditions, time-dependent probabilistic seismic hazard was assessed. Obtained high hazards can mainly be attributed to the crustal active faults with short recurrence intervals or/and long elapsed time of the last events. Thus, higher hazards were evaluated near the active faults in the Coastal Plain in western Taiwan and along the Longitudinal Valley to the East. In northern Taiwan, by contrast, a low hazard level is obtained. It corresponds to inactive tectonics and faults in this region as well as its vicinity. Generally, since there is no significant large events took place recently in Taiwan, the short-term impact in current version is trivial. The time-dependent hazard map can be updated when a significant event take place in the future.

  1. 78 FR 39256 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2012-2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ...Administration [A-583-841] Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Rescission of Antidumping...the antidumping duty order on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) from Taiwan for the period March...CCPC to the Department, ``Polyvinyl Alcohol from Taiwan: Withdrawal of...

  2. 75 FR 22842 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ...Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam Determinations...material injury by reason of imports from Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam of PRCBs that...by Commerce that imports of PRCBs from Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam were being...

  3. Motion in radiotherapy: particle therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Bert; M. Durante

    2011-01-01

    Charged particle beam radiotherapy requires dedicated measures to compensate for the dosimetric influence of inter- and intra-fractional target motion. Independent of the delivery technique, these measures have to incorporate the strong influence of the radiological depth on the delivered dose. For scanned beam delivery, interference effects of target motion and scanned beam can further cause under-dosage of the clinical target

  4. Thrust-type focal mechanisms of tectonic tremors in Taiwan: Evidence of subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ide, Satoshi; Yabe, Suguru; Tai, Hsin-Ju; Chen, Kate Huihsuan

    2015-05-01

    Unlike tectonic tremors in subduction zones and along transform faults, the hosting structure for tremors in Taiwan remains debated. Tectonic tremors in Taiwan have been discovered at ~30 km depth beneath the southern Central Range, which is a young and active collisional mountain belt. Here we provide the first evidence for the focal mechanism of tremor using moment tensor inversion in the very low frequency band, employing broadband seismograms stacked relative to the hypocentral time of tremor. The best solution corresponds to low-angle thrust faulting, suggesting the subduction of the Eurasian plate. This mechanism is consistent with strong tidal modulation of tremor activity but differs from the normal-type faulting that dominates regional shallow earthquakes. This result suggests vertical variations in the tectonic stress regime. Thrust faulting may be facilitated by a decrease in normal stress due to the buoyant roots of the mountain belt and local high fluid pressure.

  5. Gastric Cancer Mortality and Drinking Water Qualities in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C.-Y. Yang; H.-F. Chiu; J.-F. Chiu; M.-F. Cheng; W.-Y. Kao

    1997-01-01

    .   The possible association between the risk of gastric cancer and nitrate and hardness in drinking water from municipal supplies\\u000a was investigated in a matched case-control study in Taiwan. Data on gastric cancer deaths among eligible residents in Taiwan\\u000a from 1987 through 1991 (6,766 cases) were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department\\u000a of Health.

  6. Tourism climate and thermal comfort in Sun Moon Lake, Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tzu-Ping Lin; Andreas Matzarakis

    2008-01-01

    Bioclimate conditions at Sun Moon Lake, one of Taiwan’s most popular tourist destinations, are presented. Existing tourism-related\\u000a climate is typically based on mean monthly conditions of air temperature and precipitation and excludes the thermal perception\\u000a of tourists. This study presents a relatively more detailed analysis of tourism climate by using a modified thermal comfort\\u000a range for both Taiwan and Western\\/Middle

  7. Open space values among Chinese students from Taiwan

    E-print Network

    Chang, Changyi David

    1973-01-01

    OPEN SPACE VALUES AMONG CHINESE STUDENTS FROM TAIWAN A Thesis by Changyi David Chang Approved as to style and content by: Head of Department Member Member December 1973 ABS TRACT Open Space Values Among Chinese Students Prom Taiwan... (December 1973) Changyi David Chang, B. S. , National Taiwan University Directed by: Dr. Joseph Sonnenfeld This study is concerned with establishing the values attributed to open space from a recreational point of view by Chinese students...

  8. Recent Advances on Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Lee; C. Cheng; P. Lin

    2002-01-01

    Before the occurrence of the September 21, 1999, Chi-Chi Taiwan earthquake (MW7.6), the results of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) from different agencies and different authors were totally underestimated earthquake hazard in Central Taiwan. The shortcoming of previous PSHA in Taiwan is due to lack of proper handling activity of fault sources. Other impacts on PSHA after the Chi-Chi earthquake

  9. Carbon dioxide sorption/ desorption characteristics of coals in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien-Hung, Hsiao; Loung-Yie, Tsai

    2013-04-01

    Geological sequestration of CO2 into depleted oil reservoir, saline aquifer or unmineable coal seam is now being actively investigated for the purpose of reducing greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. Understanding the physical, chemical, and thermodynamic phenomena occurred with CO2 injection is very important in marking a reliable prediction of sequestration. This study examined the feasibility of carbon dioxide sequestration into unmineable coal seams in Taiwan. A total of 20 Miocene-aged coal samples from Western Foothill Belt, NW Taiwan, were collected. The stratigraphy include Mushan, Shihti, and Nanchuang Formation from bottom up. Proximate and petrographic analyses include maceral composition, Vitrinite reflectance were also measured. Carbon dioxide adsorption isotherms were analyzed at 35 degrees Celsius and up to 800 psi, by using a gravimetric ad/desorption apparatus. Isotherms were then fitted with a modified Langmuir Isotherm model by using Langmuir Pressure and Langmuir Volume so the model can be applied to supercritical conditions. According to the result of adsorption experiment, the pressure and temperature were quite significant. The gas storage capacity of CO2 was about 400 600 scf/ton at pressure up to 800 psi. Comparing the results of adsorption capacity with Proximate analysis and vitrinite reflectance, the Langmuir Volume shows a strong positive correlation with fixed carbon and vitrinite content. Furthermore, Adsorption capacity is closely related to micropores which were also rank and maceral dependent. It is noticed that the observed coal pore structures were affected by rank, and then exhibit have different diffusion rate of CO2.Finally, images under SEM were evaluated to understand the pathways of gas sorption.

  10. Molluscan fauna of Gueishan Island, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Wei; Hsiung, Ta-Wei; Lin, Si-Min; Wu, Wen-Lung

    2013-01-01

    This dataset records the occurrence and inventory of molluscan fauna on Gueishan Island, the only active volcanic island in Taiwan, based on the literature survey and field investigation conducted between 2011 and 2012. The literature review involved seven studies published from 1934 to 2003, which collectively reported 112 species from 61 genera and 37 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. Through our field investigation, we identified 34 species from 28 genera and 23 families. Fourteen of these species were new records on Gueishan Island: Liolophura japonica, Lottia luchuana, Nerita costata, Nerita rumphii, Diplommatina suganikeiensis, Littoraria undulata, Solenomphala taiwanensis, Assiminea sp., Siphonaria laciniosa, Laevapex nipponica, Carychium hachijoensis, Succinea erythrophana, Zaptyx crassilamellata, and Allopeas pyrgula. In Total, there are 126 species from 71 genera and 45 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. These data have been published through GBIF [http://taibif.org.tw/ipt/resource.do?r=gueishan_island] and integrated into the Taiwan Malacofauna Database (http://shell.sinica.edu.tw/). PMID:23717182

  11. Design of Synchrotron Light Source in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, C. C.; Chang, H. P.; Chou, P. J.; Luo, G. H.; Tsai, H. J.; Wang, M. H.; Chen, C. T.

    2007-01-01

    An intermediate energy synchrotron light source has been proposed. The goal is to construct a high performance light source in complementary to the existing 1.5 GeV synchrotron ring in Taiwan to boost the research capabilities. A 3 GeV machine with 518.4 m and 24-cell DBA lattice structure is considered and other options are also investigated. We report the 24-cell design considerations and its performances.

  12. Reconstructing Taiwan from the Cretaceous to present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hagke, C.; Philippon, M. M.; Avouac, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    We present a revised analysis of the plate tectonic framework of Taiwan since the Late Cretaceous, a time when subduction polarity was still opposite to what is observed at present (westward subduction of the Pacific Plate, as opposed to eastward subduction of Eurasia at present). We place our reconstructions within a global plate tectonic frame, and discuss the consequences of subduction zone reversal for the evolving passive margin. Based on existing models (Seton et al. 2012, Zahirovic et al. 2014), we show that clockwise rotation of the Philippine Sea Plate results in complete subduction of the Proto South China Sea. This eastward-directed subduction results in a propagating subduction polarity flip along the Chinese passive margin, changing from westward-directed Pacific subduction, to present day eastward Eurasian subduction. This is independent of northward subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate underneath Eurasia in the Taiwan area. Our reconstructions yield a new model for the collisional history of Taiwan, which reconciles the pre-collisional architecture with the metamorphic conditions of the Cenozoic orogeny, and makes predictions about timing of peak-pressures, as well as the timing of collision and present subduction zone reversal. We argue that Taiwan is the result of a first collision between the Luzon Arc and a continental fragment, which rifted off the passive margin either during opening of the Proto South China Sea, or later, during opening of the South China Sea, and a second collision with the Chinese Passive margin proper. We constrain timing of collision to 6.5 and 3.5 Ma, respectively. An interesting implication of our model is that the first collision does not necessarily propagate along strike, which may explain facies distributions in the foreland, as well as uniform metamorphic conditions in the Tananao Complex. The orogeny potentially propagates from north to south only since its recent collision at 3.5 Ma.

  13. Preliminary Study on Rock Avalanche in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y.; Wen, Y.; Hsieh, M.

    2012-12-01

    Rock avalanche is a kind of rapid (average >100 km/h) granule flow caused by crushing and pulverization of rock materials during catastrophic rock slide. Literature researches show that rock avalanches typically occur on steep, high-relief slopes underlain by hard rocks, and have volumes >10,000,000 m3. Rock avalanches also are characterized by long runout distances, which are 5 to 10 times the total fall heights. Some cases can run up the opposing valley wall. Rock avalanches generally occurred in active mountains (e.g., New Zealand) and were triggered by earthquakes or rainfall (snowmelt), but with exceptions. There were few rock avalanches in historical time in Taiwan. This could reflect: (1) intrinsic instability of hillslopes due to weak rock, frequent earthquakes/heavy rains, which resulted in landslides of high frequency/low magnitude; (2) limited runout space along deeply incised river-valley systems, which increased the likelihood of rock-slope failures to transform to debris flows. However, there are ancient rock-avalanche records, found at Shou-shan coast (SW Taiwan) and Shin-she, Chang-pin, Tu-lan along Hua-tung coast (E Taiwan), which is likely to have undergone coseismic uplift. These places, with steep slopes, underlain by hard rock, and free for materials to run, are most prone to rock avalanches in the future.

  14. The Status of the Taiwan Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, C. C.; Wang, J. P.; Chen, J. R.; Hsu, K. T.; Wang, C.; Yang, Y. W.; Luo, G. H.; Chen, C. T.; Liang, K. S.

    2010-06-01

    NSRRC has been operating a 1.5 GeV synchrotron light source, the Taiwan Light Source (TLS), for over 15 years and has established a large user community. For the future development of synchrotron radiation research in Taiwan, a feasibility study report to construct a 3.0 GeV low-emittance storage ring, the Taiwan Photon Source (TPS), was issued in July 2005. The government approval of the TPS project was obtained in December 2007 and the machine will be built at current site of NSRRC. The project has progressed steadily since and reached several major milestones now: the architect firm has finished the site plan and civil design, the accelerator design has been fixed, and purchase of long-lead items begins its course. The TPS storage ring has a circumference of 518.4 meters with a concentric booster of 496.8 meters. The storage ring adopted a 24-cell double-bend structure with a 1.6 nm-rad natural emittance. There are six 12-m and eighteen 7-m ID straights. For user research, five new beamlines have been selected for the Phase I operations: the micro protein crystallography, the materials sub-micron diffraction, the inelastic soft x-ray scattering, the coherent x-ray scattering, and the nano probe beamlines. The civil construction is getting ready to start. The commissioning of the TPS storage ring is targeted for 2013.

  15. Predictors of Burnout Among Nurses in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Huan-Fang; Yen, Miaofen; Fetzer, Susan; Chien, Tsair Wei

    2015-08-01

    Nurse burnout is a crucial issue for health care professionals and impacts nurse turnover and nursing shortages. Individual and situational factors are related to nurse burnout with predictors of burnout differing among cultures and health care systems. The predictors of nurse burnout in Asia, particularly Taiwan, are unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictors of burnout among a national sample of nurses in Taiwan. A secondary data analysis of a nationwide database investigated the predictors of burnout among 1,846 nurses in Taiwan. Hierarchical regression analysis determined the relationship between predictors and burnout. Predictors of Taiwanese nurse burnout were age, physical/psychological symptoms, job satisfaction, work engagement, and work environment. The most significant predictors were physical/psychological symptoms and work engagement. The variables explained 35, 39, and 18 % of the emotional exhaustion, personal accomplishment, and depersonalization variance for 54 % of the total variance of burnout. Individual characteristics and nurse self-awareness, especially work, engagement can impact Taiwanese nurses' burnout. Nurse burnout predictors provide administrators with information to develop strategies including education programs and support services to reduce nurse burnout. PMID:25536942

  16. Integrated structural model for active arc-continental collision from southern Taiwan to central Taiwan inferred from seismogenic views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, S.; Wang, Y.; Ma, K.; Wu, Y.; Huang, H.

    2010-12-01

    The Taiwan Island is located in ongoing arc-continent collision zone between the Philippine Sea Plate and the Eurasian Plate. Numerous geophysical and geological studies have explained the tectonic processes and developed various models. There are two end-member models for Taiwan collision; Thin-skinned model [e.g. Suppe, 1987] and Lithospheric collision model [Wu et al., 1997]. One of most important issue is that collision in Taiwan involves and contributes deformation to what depth. We have presented on this point in central Taiwan through seismological views, including both observed facts and results of tomographic inversion [Nagai et al., 2010 in WPGM 2010]. We have concluded that orogenic process should involve and contribute to depth of 30 km at least in central Taiwan, and suggested ’Upper Crustal Stacking Model’. We have indicated that existence of low-velocity blocks under Central Mountain Range (CMR) is one of the most important factors to understand Taiwan arc-continental collision process. We extend this idea to southern and northern Taiwan and to connect with balanced cross-sections proposed in Ustaszewski et al. [2010]. In this talk, we focused on the structural variation from southern Taiwan to central Taiwan. We have been performing the local double-difference tomography [Zhang and Thurber, 2003] in southern and northern Taiwan using the Central Weather Bureau Seismic Network with temporary array observations. These results in seismic tomography show variation of seismic velocity under the CMR like in central Taiwan. Low-velocity anomalies are also detected. Although it should be checked carefully, velocity blocks segmented some parts and seismic activities seem to be located on their boundaries. The Jiaxian earthquake on 4th Mar, 2010 occurred on one of these segmentation boundaries. The tectonic process in Taiwan arc-continental collision consists of different-scale structures, which means finer resolution structures may be nested with the larger ones. The thin-skinned model is the first step and the finest structural model in collision process, dominated in south and western Taiwan. After thin-skinned process, processes in the UCS model deformed and pushed up these finest structures in thin-skinned model, and then eroded on the CMR. Although this idea for integrated model for Taiwan orogeny should be verified more through geological and geophysical views both, it is pretty simple and can explain many features among various models between two end-members. Previous presentation for central Taiwan Nagai et al., (2010), Integrated structural model for arc-continent collision in Taiwan inferred from seismic velocity, relocated seismicity, and attenuation inverted by seismic tomography, Eos Trans. AGU, 91(26), West. Pac. Geophys. Meet. Suppl., Abstract T22A-06.

  17. Seroepidemiology of Hantaan virus infection in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kao, C L; Chen, C J; Yen, T S; Lien, J C; Yang, C S

    1996-12-01

    In order to investigate the infection rate of Hantaan virus in Taiwan, a total of 6,536 human serum samples were collected from residents, selected by stratified random sampling, from 19 townships covering four different ethnic groups: Aborigines, Fukien Taiwanese, Hakka Taiwanese, and Mainland Chinese. Serum samples were screened for Hantaan virus antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence. The prototype Hantaan virus (76/118)-infected Vero E6 cells were used as the viral antigen for the antibody detection. Among 6,536 human serum samples, 403 (6.2%) samples had Hantaan virus antibodies. The seropositive rates for males and females were 6.1% and 6.2%, respectively. A higher seropositive rate was found among Aborigines on the Orchid Islets (11.5%) and Fukien Taiwanese on the Penghu Islets (11.6%), while the lowest rate was observed among Hakka Taiwanese in the south of Taiwan (2.5%). In comparing with different ethnic groups, the highest prevalence was found among Fukien Taiwanese (8.1%) and the lowest among Mainland Chinese (4.9%). Among the different geographical areas, the highest positive rate was found in western Taiwan (7.1%) and the lowest in southern Taiwan (5.4%). Hantaan virus antibodies were also detected in 22 of 548 (4.0%) rat serum samples. The highest seropositive rate was found in rat sera collected from the Orchid Islets (21.4%). None of the rat sera collected from Hsinchu, Miaoli, Changhua, Nantu, Yunlin, Chiayi, Tainan, and Penghu Counties were positive. Hantaan virus antibodies were found in rats: Rattus rattus (20%), Bandicota indica (9.0%), Rattus norvegicus (8.3%), Bandicota nemorivaga (6.3%), Rattus losea (4.2%), and Apodemus agrarius (1.6%). Hantaan virus antibodies were not detected in rat sera collected from species of Rattus coxinga, Rattus culturatus, Mus musculus, Mus caroli, Suncus murinus, and Apodemus semotus. The results show that the Hantaan or Hantaan-related virus exists and is distributed widely in both human and rats in Taiwan. PMID:8950687

  18. Characteristics of seabed tremors induced by gas emissions off Southwest Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Hsu, S.; Liang, C.; Doo, W.; Lin, J.

    2013-12-01

    Gas emissions out of the seabed have been observed in the offshore area of southwest Taiwan by 38 kHz echo sounders and sub-bottom profilers. The intensities of the gas emissions are closely modulated by the tidal variation. In this study, we use ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) to monitor the gas emissions and analyze the behavior of the seabed tremors. Among the recorded seismic signals, the long-duration tremors are very prounced. Those tremors are characterized by monochromatic signals and mainly horizontally oscillate for several hours. Becuse the particle motions are almost along horizontal directions, it suggests that the tremor source is from near-seafloor source link to gas emission out of the seabed. Gas-induced tremors mainly occur during both the rising periods and falling period of the tides, probably related to the higher stress variations induced by the tidal variation. However, although they may be recorded at different sites within a time interval, their amplitudes are not coherent, indicating the source is small and origin at the vicinity of each receiver. Because of the lack of temporal coherence, it's hard to identify the tremors' sources by traditional earthquake relocation methods. Here, we use the horizontal particle motions of the tremors to define the azimuths of the gas emission sources to each receiver. By summarizing multiple sources azimuths, we are able us to minimize the source spots. The results can also be used to characterize the seabed attributes in the offshore area of SW Taiwan.

  19. Gravity flows associated with flood events and carbon burial: Taiwan as instructional source area.

    PubMed

    Liu, James T; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Huh, Chih-An; Hung, Chin-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Taiwan's unique setting allows it to release disproportionately large quantities of fluvial sediment into diverse dispersal systems around the island. Earthquakes, lithology, topography, cyclone-induced rainfall, and human disturbance play major roles in the catchment dynamics. Deep landslides dominate the sediment-removal process on land, giving fluvial sediment distinct geochemical signals. Extreme conditions in river runoff, sediment load, nearshore waves and currents, and the formation of gravity flows during typhoon events can be observed within short distances. Segregation of fresh biomass and clastic sediment occurs during the marine transport process, yet turbidity currents in the Gaoping Submarine Canyon carry woody debris. Strong currents in the slope and back-arc basin of the Okinawa Trough disperse fine-grained sediments rapidly and widely. Temporal deposition and remobilization may occur when the shallow Taiwan Strait acts as a receptacle. Taiwan can therefore serve as a demonstration of the episodic aspect of the source-to-sink pathway to both the coastal and deep-ocean environments. PMID:22809183

  20. The operating efficiency of international tourist hotels in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluates the operating efficiency of international tourist hotels in Taiwan. The actual operating data of 53 international tourist hotels in Taiwan are collected from 1996 to 1998. There are 6 output variables and 7 input variables in this study. By using the DEA technique, the efficiency of international tourist hotels is analyzed, and we can distinguish between efficient

  1. Average Crust Model and Moho Geometry beneath Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Wang; H. Chen; L. Zhu

    2005-01-01

    We determine the lateral variation of Moho discontinuity, crust thickness, and Vp\\/Vs ratios in the vicinity of Taiwan by analyzing all the available broadband teleseismic data collected by BATS (Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology, 1998 to 2003) and CWB (Central Weather Bureau, 2002 to 2004). The depth variation of the Moho discontinuity beneath each station is mainly estimated from

  2. Landslide monitoring and assessment in taiwan using SPOT series satellites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Long-Shin Liang; Kun-Shan Chen; Chin-Lun Wang; A. J. Chen; Wolfgang-Martin Boerner

    2005-01-01

    Taiwan Island poses very rough and steep terrain along the Central Range to east coast with only about 30% of plain area along the west coast. It suffers from strikes from typhoon and flush storms almost every year. For example, the Mindulle typhoon in July 2004 carried heavy rainfalls and raged viciously to the several counties in Middle Taiwan. The

  3. Modeling Energy Demand and Socioeconomic Development Of Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gwo-Hshiung Tzeng

    1989-01-01

    Taiwan lacks a natural energy endowment. Its energy demands have dramatically increased with the growth of the economy and standard of living during the past two decades. Based on the new socioeconomic development policy for the next two decades, the government of Taiwan has devoted special attention and effort to improving various social and environmental problems affecting the country's overall

  4. Crustal Shear Wave Anisotropy in the Taiwan Orogen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Rau; C. Yang

    2002-01-01

    Crustal shear wave anisotropy is analyzed in seismograms from local earthquakes (1.5 < M < 4.5) recorded at 75 permanent network stations in Taiwan during the period between 1991 and 2000. We investigate the origin of Taiwan crustal anisotropy by analyzing splitting in recorded shear waves, which can be characterized by a fast polarization direction and a time delay between

  5. Higher Educational Institutions in Taiwan. Bulletin 1966, No. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barendsen, Robert D.

    The institutional structure of higher education in Taiwan today is outlined and an up-to-date picture of the status of higher educational institutions on the island is presented. As of 1964-65, Taiwan had 55 recognized institutions of higher education comprised of 42 civilian colleges and 13 additional institutions operating under the auspices of…

  6. Notes on Grasses (Poaceae) for the Flora of Taiwan (II)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Jer Jung; Robert J. Soreng; Chang-Sheng Kuoh

    2006-01-01

    Poa compressa L., P. pratensis L., and P. trivialis L. were recently naturalized in the central part of Taiwan. The existence of P. acroleuca Steud. in Taiwan was confirmed by examining the specimens deposited in HAST, NCKU, TNM, TNU, and TAI. We treated these four bluegrasses with corresponding descriptions, illustrations, and distribution maps.

  7. Small and Medium Enterprise for Women Entrepreneurs in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saikou E. Sanyang; Wen-Chi Huang

    2008-01-01

    Women represent about 40% of the total labor force in Taiwan. The majority of women employment is concentrated in manufacturing and service sector such as commerce and social or personal community work. Small and medium enterprises in Taiwan accounted for 97.8% of the total enterprises and employed about 78% of the total work force. Small and medium enterprises have played

  8. Taiwan's Yacht Industry: A Tale of Two Entrepreneurial Firms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ho-Don Yan

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the evolution of Taiwan's yacht industry in general, and in particular we focus on two entrepreneurial firms, the Horizon Yacht Company and the Jade Yacht Company. Our purposes are two-fold. First, most research studies on Taiwan's economic success are based on the neoclassical economic model, which uses a proportional input-output production function, and emphasizes aggregate data to

  9. Female Lung Cancer and Petrochemical Air Pollution in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-Yuh Yang; Ming-Fen Cheng; Jeng-Fen Chiu; Shang-Shyue Tsai

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between petrochemical air pollution and female lung cancer, we conducted a matched case-control study among women who had died in Taiwan from 1990 through 1994. Data about all eligible female lung cancer deaths were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. The control group included women who died from

  10. The Construction of Taiwan's Educational Indicator Systems: Experiences and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chien, Maw-Fa; Lee, Chi-Ming; Cheng, Yu-Ping

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to illuminate the state of education in Taiwan by constructing Educational Indicator Systems. The study, sponsored by the National Science Council between 1998 and 2000, was the first comprehensive indicator project to cover all educational levels in Taiwan. Various research methods were used, including panel discussion,…

  11. Cybercrime & Cybercriminals: An Overview of the Taiwan Experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chichao Lu; Wenyuan Jen; Weiping Chang; Shihchieh Chou

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the increasing number of cybercrime cases in Taiwan and examines the demographic characteristics of those responsible for this criminal activity. The report is based upon data taken from the Criminal Investigation Bureau of Taiwan's cybercrime database over the interval of 1999 through 2004. The paper defines cybercrime, analyses cybercrime case statistics and examines profiles of cybercrime suspects'

  12. A Re-Examination of the Suicide Rates in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, Hwei-Lin; Huang, Wei-Chiao

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the suicide rates of 23 cities and counties in Taiwan from 1983 to 2001. We found that a combination of economic and social variables can significantly account for the tremendous variations in suicide rates across Taiwan's cities and counties over the last two decades. The level of income per capita in a region appears as the…

  13. Characteristics and management of infectious industrial waste in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mei-Chuan Huang; Jim Juimin Lin

    2008-01-01

    Infectious industrial waste management in Taiwan is based on the specific waste production unit. In other countries, management is based simply on whether the producer may lead to infectious disease. Thus, Taiwan has a more detailed classification of infectious waste. The advantage of this classification is that it is easy to identify the sources, while the disadvantage lies in the

  14. Comparison of potential water supply and demand in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chien-Tsun Lin; Hsin-Hsiung Chen; Tomonori Kume; Chyi-Rong Chiou

    2010-01-01

    The authors estimated the potential water supply in Taiwan based on hydrologic and water resource data sets pertaining to 233 rainfall stations, 145 stage stations and 109 reservoirs. The comparison between potential water supply estimates and predicted water demand indicated a slight water shortage, even though Taiwan normally receives a large amount of rainfall. This predicted water shortage likely occurred

  15. Kinematics of Strong Discontinuities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, K.; Nguyen, G.; Sulsky, D.

    2006-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) provides a detailed view of the Arctic ice cover. When processed with the RADARSAT Geophysical Processor System (RGPS), it provides estimates of sea ice motion and deformation over large regions of the Arctic for extended periods of time. The deformation is dominated by the appearance of linear kinematic features that have been associated with the presence of leads. The RGPS deformation products are based on the assumption that the displacement and velocity are smooth functions of the spatial coordinates. However, if the dominant deformation of multiyear ice results from the opening, closing and shearing of leads, then the displacement and velocity can be discontinuous. This presentation discusses the kinematics associated with strong discontinuities that describe possible jumps in displacement or velocity. Ice motion from SAR data are analyzed using this framework. It is assumed that RGPS cells deform due to the presence of a lead. The lead orientation is calculated to optimally account for the observed deformation. It is shown that almost all observed deformation can be represented by lead opening and shearing. The procedure used to reprocess motion data to account for leads will be described and applied to regions of the Beaufort Sea. The procedure not only provides a new view of ice deformation, it can be used to obtain information about the presence of leads for initialization and/or validation of numerical simulations.

  16. Significant Seismic Anisotropy in the Shallow Unconsolidated Layer beneath the Southwestern Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Liang; B. Kuo

    2003-01-01

    Taiwan is located on the convergent boundary zones between the Eurasian and the Philippine sea plates. Due to the collision between Taiwan and Luzon arc, the central Taiwan is undergoing remarkable crustal deformation and consequently results in disastrous earthquakes like the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan Earthquake (Mw 7.6). In this study, we have analyzed the seismic shear wave splitting at a

  17. Performance assessment methodology and preliminary results for low-level radioactive waste disposal in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bill Walter Arnold; Fu-lin Chang; Patrick D. Mattie; Robert G. Knowlton; W-S Chuang; L-M Chi; Hong-Nian Jow; Norman C. Tien; Clifford Kuofei Ho

    2006-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Taiwan's Institute for Nuclear Energy Research (INER) have teamed together to evaluate several candidate sites for Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) disposal in Taiwan. Taiwan currently has three nuclear power plants, with another under construction. Taiwan also has a research reactor, as well as medical and industrial wastes to contend with. Eventually the reactors will be

  18. Will Taiwan's Economy be Marginalized by China? A Macroeconomic Policy Coordination Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuo-Chun Yeh

    2009-01-01

    In Taiwan, economic marginalization has become a major concern that has resulted from the fast growing Chinese economy, imbalanced cross-strait economic and political relations, and a failure to participate in important international trade and financial organizations. Is a China-Taiwan policy cooperative mechanism the best choice for Taiwan's economic welfare? This paper is to measure Taiwan's economic marginalization by an international

  19. Non-ergodic probabilistic seismic hazard analysis and spatial simulation of variation in ground motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walling, Melanie Anne

    Two problems in the spatial statistics of ground motions are addressed. For the first problem, a method is developed for probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) without the ergodic assumption accounting for the impacts on both the median and aleatory standard deviation of the ground-motion model. Impacts of the removal of the ergodic assumption on both the intra-event and inter-event residuals are addressed. A strong motion data set from Taiwan with multiple recordings at each site and multiple earthquakes within small regions are used to quantify the separation of the aleatory variability from the systematic source, path, and site effects. Systematic site effects are accommodated by scale factors at each site. Systematic source and path effects are more complicated because they are spatially correlated. Models of the spatial covariance functions of the systematic source and path effects of the Taiwan data set are developed to capture the spatial correlation of the systematic effects and are then used to generate stochastic spatial simulations of the spatial correlations of the path and source effects for applications to other regions. Example hazard calculations show that there can be up to a factor of four increase in epistemic uncertainty of the hazard when the ergodic assumption is removed if there is no site-specific data. The method developed here to remove the ergodic assumption provides a framework that shows the benefits of installing instrumentation to record site-specific data and using analytical models of the path-specific wave propagation and site-specific site response effects to estimate source-, path-, and site-specific ground motions models to reduce the epistemic uncertainty in the systematic effects. For the second problem, synthetic seismograms computed from simulated earthquakes using Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory 2D/3D elastic finite-difference wave propagation code, E3D, (Larsen and Shulz, 1994) were used to evaluate if the observed spatial variation of the very high frequency (> 10 Hz) ground motion over short distances (< 50 meters) can be explained by scattering and multi-pathing of elastic waves in two-dimensional and three-dimensional random media. The effects of the autocorrelation function and correlation length of the velocity media, media mean and standard deviation in velocity, source location, half-space velocity model versus layered velocity model, multiple sources, and two-dimensional versus three-dimensional random media are addressed. These simulated wave forms are used to compare the spatial variation of the simulated ground motions from stations with spacings of 10 meters to 50 meters and frequencies less than 30 Hz to the spatial variation from an empirical coherency function. For station spacings less than 50 meters, the simulated ground-motions, on average, significantly over-estimate the spatial coherence in the ground motion. These results suggest that spatial variation in ground motion at short separations, which are important for structures with large rigid foundations, such as nuclear power plants, cannot be adequately explained through the use of simulations computed in a scattering media using a 3D finite-difference wave propagation code. The approach of using numerical simulations in place of empirical coherency functions is not ready for engineering applications.

  20. Wave Motion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Carl R. (Rod) Nave

    This site from Carl Nave at Georgia State University presents a discussion of wave motion. The site explains the velocity of idealized ocean waves and details the measurement of large waves aboard the USS Ramapo.

  1. Fault Motion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This collection of animations provides elementary examples of fault motion intended for simple demonstrations. Examples include dip-slip faults (normal and reverse), strike-slip faults, and oblique-slip faults.

  2. Multiple sclerosis amongst Chinese in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hung, T P; Landsborough, D; Hsi, M S

    1976-04-01

    Twenty-five cases of multiple sclerosis (MS), including 2 autopsy cases, collected during the past 20 years from amongst the Chinese of Taiwan, are reported. These cases fulfilled all the clinical diagnostic criteria of MS. The following observations were made: (1) Multiple sclerosis does exist among Chinese in Taiwan. It is uncommon, but is by no means a very rare disease. The prevalence rate in northern Taiwan near Taipei is estimated as 0.8/100.000 population. (2) Female preponderence was conspicuous (F:M = 3.2.:1) in our MS cases as well as in other demyelinating diseases. (3) On the whole, the onset of the disease was earlier in female patients, and those who had their initial symptoms before the age of 20 years were all females. (4) The optic nerve was most frequently involved at the onset, and it was involved in the majority of patients during the whole clinical course. (5) Involvement of the optic nerve and spinal cord, with or without the brain stem, was the commonest form of our MS cases, especially among female patients. (6) More malignant forms of MS, with acute onset and rapid clinical course leading to severe incapacity or fatality, were more common among female patients. (7) Painful tonic spasms were relatively frequently encountered, and they were usually seen in patients with severe spinal cord involvement. (8) Marked elevation of the CSF total protein and of leukocytes was relatively frequent during severe relapses in patients with spinal cord lesions. (9) Severe and extensive demyelinating lesions, both old and recent, in the optic nerve and spinal cord were seen in 2 autopsy cases. The relationship between MS and NMO in Oriental patients is briefly discussed. (10) It seems likely that cases of MS which are atypical as compared with Western MS are more frequently seen in Oriental countries, and perhaps also in tropical regions where MS is known to be rare. PMID:1262905

  3. Kinematics of subduction and plate convergence under Taiwan and its geomorphic, geodetic and seismic expressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suppe, J.; Carena, S.; Kanda, R. V.; Wu, Y.; Huang, H.; Wu, J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Deciphering the kinematics of ongoing subduction and rapid plate convergence under Taiwan is neither trivial nor straightforward. A 3D synthesis of diverse constraints is required, for example tomography, geodesy, tectonic geomorphology, stress inversion, and Philippine Sea plate motions. Eurasian-Philippine Sea plate convergence is ~90mm/y in a mildly oblique 300° azimuth relative to the ~NS nearly vertically subducting Eurasian mantle lithosphere which extends to ~500km depth. If all the current plate convergence were consumed in subduction of Eurasian mantle, the subduction flexural hinge would migrate westward at ~80mm/y, which is fast relative to the ~30mm/y long-term slip rate on the Taiwan main detachment that represents the Eurasian subduction interface under the Taiwan Central Mountains. If this fast simple subduction were occurring, subduction would too quickly outrun the mountain belt in conflict with data. Instead we estimate that subduction of Eurasian lithosphere is proceeding at ~50mm/y with the remaining ~40mm/y convergence at a lithospheric level consumed by secondary subduction above and to the east of the main plate interface. This secondary subduction is largely transient deformation that is most obvious under the Coastal Range, which represents the deforming western margin of the Philippine Sea plate during the last ~1-1.5 Ma. The thrust faults of the Coastal Range function as subduction faults with the long-term net motion of their footwalls moving largely down relative to their only slowly uplifting hanging walls, with a net secondary subduction of ~40-50km in the last ~1-1.5Ma as estimated from seismic tomography and other data. In addition we find evidence for ongoing subduction of the eastern Central Mountains of Taiwan. The crest of the mountains coincides with the western edge of the migrating plate flexure, a band of extensional geodetic strain coincides with the flexure, and an extensional stress state in the upper 5-10km coincides with the zone of flexure. Kinematic modeling of leveling and gps data is consistent with a migration rate of the hinge of ~50mm/y, which would be the subduction rate of Eurasian mantle lithosphere. This rate is somewhat faster than the long-term rate of ~30mm/y since ~15Ma, but less than the current slab-normal plate rate of ~80mm/y, which is thought to represent a speed-up in the last ~1-2Ma. This kinematic modeling also suggests that the main subduction interface under the eastern Central Mountains could be widely locked; if so it has substantial seismic potential at its ~12-13km depth.

  4. Intrusion of the Pearl River plume into the main channel of the Taiwan Strait in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yan; Huang, Ting-Hsuan; He, Xianqiang; Wang, Shu-Lun; Hsin, Yi-Chia; Wu, Chau-Ron; Zhai, Weidong; Lui, Hon-Kit; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur

    2015-01-01

    The Penghu Channel is the main channel connecting the East and South China Seas, two of the largest marginal seas in the world. Located in the southeast of Taiwan Strait, the Penghu Channel is usually covered by the high salinity water from the South China Sea and the Kuroshio. However, we observed abnormal low-salinity water in the Penghu Channel during a cruise through the southern Taiwan Strait and northern South China Sea in August 2008. We argue that the normalized alkalinity is a good indicator for the identification of a river plume as it is not affected by rainwater. Using satellite-derived water transparency and chlorophyll images and field-measured alkalinity, the source of this low salinity water was found to be the intrusion of the Pearl River plume. A significant phytoplankton bloom across the entire Taiwan Strait occurred with the intrusion event. The intrusion was not a unique event, as we also found a strong jet-shaped Pearl River plume intruding into the Penghu Channel in the summer of 2009 from cloud-free satellite-derived images. Time series satellite data reveal that the Pearl River plume intrudes into the Penghu Channel in the summer of most years. Multiple data analysis and modeling simulation indicate that a large river discharge and strong southwesterly winds on the shelf may be responsible for the significant intrusion of the Pearl River plume into the Penghu Channel in summer. As the Pearl River plume has a high nutrient and dissolved inorganic carbon content, combined with the strong northward flows through the Penghu Channel, such intrusions may contribute to the nutrient dynamics and carbon budget of the East and northern South China Seas.

  5. Parental Values and Practices Relevant to Young Children’s Social Development in Taiwan and the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul E. Jose; Carol S. Huntsinger; Phillip R. Huntsinger; Fong-Ruey Liaw

    2000-01-01

    Self-reported parental values and child-rearing practices, and teacher-reported and observed children’s social skills, were compared among families of 40 preschool and kindergarten children in each of three cultural groups: Chinese in Taiwan, first-generation Chinese in the United States, and European Americans in the United States. As expected, both samples of Chinese parents more strongly endorsed traditional Chinese values and exerted

  6. Chapter 1 Brownian motion c # Brownian motion

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Li-Xin

    Chapter 1 Brownian motion c Üá# Brownian motion and stochastic calculus #12;Chapter 1 Brownian Brownian motion c Üá# Chapter 1. Brownian motion #12;Chapter 1 Brownian motion c Üá# 1.1 Basic concepts, xt = x(t), t 0. #12;Chapter 1 Brownian motion c Üá# 1.1 Basic concepts on stochastic processes

  7. Molluscan fauna of Gueishan Island, Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chih-Wei; Hsiung, Ta-Wei; Lin, Si-Min; Wu, Wen-Lung

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This dataset records the occurrence and inventory of molluscan fauna on Gueishan Island, the only active volcanic island in Taiwan, based on the literature survey and field investigation conducted between 2011 and 2012. The literature review involved seven studies published from 1934 to 2003, which collectively reported 112 species from 61 genera and 37 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. Through our field investigation, we identified 34 species from 28 genera and 23 families. Fourteen of these species were new records on Gueishan Island: Liolophura japonica, Lottia luchuana, Nerita costata, Nerita rumphii, Diplommatina suganikeiensis, Littoraria undulata, Solenomphala taiwanensis, Assiminea sp., Siphonaria laciniosa, Laevapex nipponica, Carychium hachijoensis, Succinea erythrophana, Zaptyx crassilamellata, and Allopeas pyrgula. In Total, there are 126 species from 71 genera and 45 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. These data have been published through GBIF [http://taibif.org.tw/ipt/resource.do?r=gueishan_island] and integrated into the Taiwan Malacofauna Database (http://shell.sinica.edu.tw/). PMID:23717182

  8. Flower drinking and masculinity in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Bedford, Olwen; Hwang, Shu-Ling

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the role of the hostess club culture in the creation and maintenance of masculinity in Taiwan. The article focuses on flower drinking (the consumption of alcohol in bars, often integrated with prostitution), which is a common practice in Taiwan. Data were obtained from 58 in-depth interviews with men from a variety of occupations and social backgrounds (mean age = 38.50, SD = 11.00) and 73 questionnaires administered to soldiers (mean age = 21.00, SD = 1.10). Findings indicated that demonstration of skill at flower drinking and facility with the related social etiquette are important channels for male bonding that were central to the mid- to upper-class participants' professional development. Flower drinking also provided a method of discriminating men from other men through their choices of why and where to go and how to behave while there. Specific ways that Taiwanese masculinity differs from Western and from Japanese masculinity, and support for the continuing relevance of the traditional Confucian ideal of masculinity, wen-wu, are discussed. PMID:19763998

  9. Fetal Exposure to Environmental Neurotoxins in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chuen-Bin; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Fan, Chun-Hua; Chien, Ling-Chu

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) are recognized neurotoxins in children that particularly affect neurodevelopment and intellectual performance. Based on the hypothesis that the fetal basis of adult disease is fetal toxic exposure that results in adverse outcomes in adulthood, we explored the concentrations of key neurotoxins (i.e., Hg, Pb, Cd, and As) in meconium to identify the risk factors associated with these concentrations. From January 2007 to December 2009, 545 mother-infant pairs were recruited. The geometric mean concentrations of Pb and As in the meconium of babies of foreign-born mothers (22.9 and 38.1 µg/kg dry weight, respectively) were significantly greater than those of babies of Taiwan-born mothers (17.5 and 33.0 µg/kg dry weight, respectively). Maternal age (?30 y), maternal education, use of traditional Chinese herbs during pregnancy, and fish cutlet consumption (?3 meals/wk) were risk factors associated with concentrations of key prenatal neurotoxins. The Taiwan government should focus more attention on providing intervention programs for immigrant mothers to help protect the health of unborn babies. Further investigation on how multiple neurotoxins influence prenatal neurodevelopment is warranted. PMID:25299345

  10. Stochastic integration with respect to multifractional Brownian motion via tangent fractional Brownian motions

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Stochastic integration with respect to multifractional Brownian motion via tangent fractional Brownian motions Erick Herbin Joachim Lebovits § Jacques Lévy Véhel November 18, 2012 Abstract Stochastic integration w.r.t. fractional Brownian motion (fBm) has raised strong interest in recent years, motivated

  11. Stochastic integration with respect to multifractional Brownian motion via tangent fractional Brownian motions

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Stochastic integration with respect to multifractional Brownian motion via tangent fractional Brownian motions Joachim Lebovits § Jacques Lévy Véhel Erick Herbin September 6, 2013 Abstract Stochastic integration w.r.t. fractional Brownian motion (fBm) has raised strong interest in recent years

  12. Stochastic integration with respect to multifractional Brownian motion via tangent fractional Brownian motions

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Stochastic integration with respect to multifractional Brownian motion via tangent fractional Brownian motions Erick Herbin Joachim Lebovits § Jacques L´evy-V´ehel December 20, 2011 Abstract Stochastic integration w.r.t. fractional Brownian motion (fBm) has raised strong interest in recent years

  13. Cool Season Paleotemperatures at Tree Line in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, W. E.; Chan, M.

    2011-12-01

    Taiwan has over 200 mountains whose peaks exceed 3,000 meters in elevation. Despite straddling the Tropic of Cancer, the higher peaks have snow and freezing temperatures every winter. Trees growing above 3,500 meters show clear temperature variation, even producing frost rings. Yet unlike temperate tree-line species, with their warm season temperature signal, trees growing at Taiwan's tree line show sensitivity to cool season temperatures. Juniperus squamata growing above 3,500 meters in central Taiwan have ring width time series that commonly exceed 600 years. Presented are the first dendroclimatological analyses from Taiwanese Juniperus squamata.

  14. Wen, K.-L., et al. Earthquake Early Warning Technology Progress in Taiwan

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yih-Min

    with a virtual subnetwork approach. An onsite EEW ap- proach using the first 3 sec of P waves has been de of the earthquake early warning (EEW) sys- tem [1­5]. With advances in seismic instrumentation and communication-motion stations constructed in the Tai- wan Strong-Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP), currently 109

  15. Spring Motion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Moore, Lang

    Created by Lang Moore and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purposes of this module are to investigate a mathematical model for spring motion and to study the effect of increased damping. This is one within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

  16. Aging scaled Brownian motion.

    PubMed

    Safdari, Hadiseh; Chechkin, Aleksei V; Jafari, Gholamreza R; Metzler, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Scaled Brownian motion (SBM) is widely used to model anomalous diffusion of passive tracers in complex and biological systems. It is a highly nonstationary process governed by the Langevin equation for Brownian motion, however, with a power-law time dependence of the noise strength. Here we study the aging properties of SBM for both unconfined and confined motion. Specifically, we derive the ensemble and time averaged mean squared displacements and analyze their behavior in the regimes of weak, intermediate, and strong aging. A very rich behavior is revealed for confined aging SBM depending on different aging times and whether the process is sub- or superdiffusive. We demonstrate that the information on the aging factorizes with respect to the lag time and exhibits a functional form that is identical to the aging behavior of scale-free continuous time random walk processes. While SBM exhibits a disparity between ensemble and time averaged observables and is thus weakly nonergodic, strong aging is shown to effect a convergence of the ensemble and time averaged mean squared displacement. Finally, we derive the density of first passage times in the semi-infinite domain that features a crossover defined by the aging time. PMID:25974439

  17. Motorcycle pollution control in Taiwan, Republic of China

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.W.; Hsiao, H.C.; Walsh, M.P.

    1998-12-31

    The Taiwan EPA has developed a comprehensive approach to motor vehicle pollution control. Building on its early adoption of US `83 standards for light duty vehicles (starting July 1, 1990) it recently moved to US `87 requirements, which include the 0.2 gram per mile particulate standard, as of July 1, 1995. Heavy duty diesel particulate standards almost as stringent as US `90, 6.0 grams per brake horsepower hour NO{sub x} and 0.7 particulate, using the US transient test procedure, went into effect on July 1, 1993. It is intended that US`94 standards, 5.0 NO{sub x} and 0.25 particulate, will be adopted soon. Clearly the most distinctive feature of the Taiwan program, however, is its motorcycle control effort, reflecting the fact that motorcycles dominate the vehicle fleet and are a substantial source of emissions. This paper will summarize Taiwan`s extensive efforts to address this problem.

  18. Paths toward hepatitis B immunization in South Korea and Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    South Korea and Taiwan have had similar experiences of economic development in the post-war era. The two societies have also successfully overcome the threat of liver cancer by using mass hepatitis B vaccinations. However, to reach their current states, they followed different directions, and experienced differing effects on their national health governance systems. In South Korea, vaccine production occurred prior to effectively introducing immunization programs. In contrast, Taiwan established an effective immunization program first. However, industrialization of vaccines against hepatitis B has failed. Taiwan has to import vaccines for domestic use. This article provides a contextual overview on the different methods South Korea and Taiwan have used to arrive at their modern status of hepatitis B immunization. PMID:23858397

  19. The Midwife in Taiwan: An Alternative Model for Maternity Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang-Wang, Janet F.

    1980-01-01

    The author compares and analyzes American and Taiwanese maternity care systems, discussing the history of midwifery in Taiwan; the process by which a midwife establishes her practice; and her role in childbirth, abortion, adoption, and other services. (Author/DS)

  20. NRAO Welcomes Taiwan as a New North American ALMA Partner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-12-01

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) has announced a formal agreement enabling Taiwanese astronomers to participate in the North American component of the international ALMA partnership, alongside American and Canadian astronomers. Taiwan's efforts will be led by the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA). ALMA, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, is the most ambitious ground-based astronomical observatory in history. Currently under construction in Chile’s Atacama Desert at an altitude of 16,500 feet, it promises to revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planets, stars, and galaxies when it begins full science operations early in the next decade. The agreement, signed by the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office and the American Institute in Taiwan, provides for approximately $20 million in ALMA construction funding through the National Science Council (NSC), Taiwan’s equivalent to the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and Canada's National Research Council (NRC), which have jointly funded North America's existing contribution to the international ALMA project. Activities under the agreement will include joint research projects, development projects, collaboration on construction, support of observatory operations and other forms of cooperation. Access to ALMA observing time will be shared, as will membership on advisory committees. “Taiwan is a world-class center for submillimeter-wavelength astronomical research, and we’re delighted that the ALMA project and all its future users will benefit from the resources and expertise that Taiwan’s deepening participation brings to this great, global endeavor,” said Dr. Fred Lo, NRAO's director. This new agreement increases and diversifies Taiwan’s Academia Sinica investment in ALMA beyond the levels achieved through its participation in the East Asian component of the ALMA partnership, which is led by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. The agreement mirrors previous ones affording Taiwan astronomers enhanced access to NRAO’s US-based research facilities. “ALMA will be one of the greatest ground-based observatories of the coming decade, and we look forward eagerly to working alongside our colleagues at the NRAO, and with the other ALMA partners, to make ALMA even more successful,” said Dr. Paul Ho, ASIAA’s director. The ALMA Project is a partnership between the scientific communities of East Asia, Europe and North America with Chile. ALMA is funded in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada and the National Science Council of Taiwan. ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, which is operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  1. The first archaic Homo from Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Hsiang; Kaifu, Yousuke; Takai, Masanaru; Kono, Reiko T; Grün, Rainer; Matsu'ura, Shuji; Kinsley, Les; Lin, Liang-Kong

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of an increasing number of hominin fossils highlight regional and chronological diversities of archaic Homo in the Pleistocene of eastern Asia. However, such a realization is still based on limited geographical occurrences mainly from Indonesia, China and Russian Altai. Here we describe a newly discovered archaic Homo mandible from Taiwan (Penghu 1), which further increases the diversity of Pleistocene Asian hominins. Penghu 1 revealed an unexpectedly late survival (younger than 450 but most likely 190-10 thousand years ago) of robust, apparently primitive dentognathic morphology in the periphery of the continent, which is unknown among the penecontemporaneous fossil records from other regions of Asia except for the mid-Middle Pleistocene Homo from Hexian, Eastern China. Such patterns of geographic trait distribution cannot be simply explained by clinal geographic variation of Homo erectus between northern China and Java, and suggests survival of multiple evolutionary lineages among archaic hominins before the arrival of modern humans in the region. PMID:25625212

  2. The first archaic Homo from Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chun-Hsiang; Kaifu, Yousuke; Takai, Masanaru; Kono, Reiko T.; Grün, Rainer; Matsu’ura, Shuji; Kinsley, Les; Lin, Liang-Kong

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of an increasing number of hominin fossils highlight regional and chronological diversities of archaic Homo in the Pleistocene of eastern Asia. However, such a realization is still based on limited geographical occurrences mainly from Indonesia, China and Russian Altai. Here we describe a newly discovered archaic Homo mandible from Taiwan (Penghu 1), which further increases the diversity of Pleistocene Asian hominins. Penghu 1 revealed an unexpectedly late survival (younger than 450 but most likely 190–10 thousand years ago) of robust, apparently primitive dentognathic morphology in the periphery of the continent, which is unknown among the penecontemporaneous fossil records from other regions of Asia except for the mid-Middle Pleistocene Homo from Hexian, Eastern China. Such patterns of geographic trait distribution cannot be simply explained by clinal geographic variation of Homo erectus between northern China and Java, and suggests survival of multiple evolutionary lineages among archaic hominins before the arrival of modern humans in the region. PMID:25625212

  3. Four anthropometric indices and cardiovascular risk factors in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K-C Huang; W-Y Lin; L-T Lee; C-Y Chen; H Lo; H-H Hsia; I-L Liu; W-Y Shau; R-S Lin; Kuo-Chin Huang

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationships between four anthropometric measurements and cardiovascular risk factors in Taiwan.DESIGN: The data was collected from four nationwide health screen centers in Taiwan from 1998 to 1999.SUBJECTS: A total of 38 556 subjects: 18 280 men and 20 276 women, mean age=37.0±11.1 y. None had any known major systemic diseases or were currently on medication.MEASUREMENTS: Individual

  4. Geneticizing Ethnicity: A study on the “Taiwan Bio-Bank”

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-yueh Tsai

    2010-01-01

    Taiwan as an island country is an immigrant society where interethnic marriages have been common. In the past centuries, it\\u000a has not been unusual that people in Taiwan change their ethnic identities for various reasons. Its “four great ethnic groups”\\u000a (sida zuqun)—the Hoklo, Hakka, Mainlanders, and aboriginal peoples—exist only as a social construction that arose in the 1990s in a

  5. Cybercrime in Taiwan - An Analysis of Suspect Records

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenyuan Jen; Weiping Chang; Shihchieh Chou

    2006-01-01

    \\u000a This paper explores the increasing number of cybercrime cases in Taiwan and examines the demographic characteristics of the\\u000a criminals responsible for the criminal activity. The report is based upon data taken from the Criminal Investigation Bureau\\u000a of Taiwan cybercrime database over the interval of 1999 through 2004. The paper defines cybercrime, addresses cybercrime case\\u000a statistics and examines profiles of the

  6. Epidemiology of hospitalized burns patients in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chien, Wu-Chien; Pai, Lu; Lin, Chao-Cheng; Chen, Heng-Chang

    2003-09-01

    Previous studies based on either single hospital data or sampling of specific groups of hospitalized burns victims in Taiwan have provided only minimal epidemiological information. The study is designed to provide additional data on the epidemiology of hospitalized burns patients in Taiwan. Data were obtained from the Burn Injury Information System (BIIS), which brings together information supplied by 34 contracted hospitals. The study time course spanned a 2-year period from July 1997 to June 1999. Patient characteristics (age, sex, education level, etc.), causes and severity of injuries, and medical care measures were explored. A total of 4741 patients were registered with BIIS over the study period. The majority of hospitalized patients (67%) were male. The age distribution of burns patients showed peaks occurring at the age groups of 0-5 and 35-44 years. Over the time course of a day, burn injuries occurred more frequently from 10:00 to 12:00 h and 16:00 to 18:00 h. Injuries suspected as the result of suicide, homicide or child abuse accounted for 4.8% of hospitalized cases. More than 48% of the burns occurred in the home. The leading type of burn injury was scalding, followed by naked flame, explosion, electrical burns, and chemical burns due to caustic or corrosive substances. The mean percent total body surface area (%TBSA) for adults was 19%, and for young children was 12%. The average length of hospital stay was 18 days. In conclusion, children under 5 years and adults between 35 and 44 years of age are two high-risk groups for burn injuries. Corresponding to meal preparation time, hot substances such as boiling water, hot soup, etc. are the most common agents responsible for scalds. Prevention programs for reducing the risk of burn injuries during cooking and eating are required, especially for parents with young children. PMID:12927984

  7. The establishment of experimental watershed in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-Chi; Tsung, Shun-Chung; Wang, Hau-Wei; Chen, Cheng-Hsin; Chang, Ya-Chi; Ho, Jui-Yi; Lee, Shih-Chiang; Hong, Jian-Hao

    2015-04-01

    The rainfall distribution in Taiwan is non-uniform in space and unsteady in time. The water level in the river usually rises rapidly due to the steep slope gradient in the upland area of the watershed. In addition, urbanization and high rainfall intensity result in an increase in surface runoff and decrease the time of concentration. All of these lead to flooding-related disasters and influence people's lives. Thus, the establishment of a more complete hydro-information will increase our understanding of the characteristics of watersheds, prevent disasters, and mitigate damages. To overcome these deficiencies, the Water Resources Agency (WRA), Ministry of Economic Affairs has identified Yilan and Dianbao River Basin to develop a long-term monitoring, then Taiwan Typhoon and Flood Research Institute is responsible for this project. The monitoring sites had been installed in 2012. The sensors for monitoring include rainfall gauge, water level sensor, water surface velocity sensor and pressure-type water depth sensor. Totally, there are 73 sites in the experimental watershed, including the sites installed by the Central Weather Bureau and the Water Resources Agency. Over 30 million data have been collected and validated. Most of data have been passed the processes and considered reliable data. Then, three types of models are applied including rainfall-runoff, river routing and two-dimensional flood models. The simulation results can properly fit the monitored data in these selected events and indicates these models are proper for the experimental watersheds and suitable used for real-time warning. Finally, for purpose of hydrological monitoring and disaster mitigation, a website has been created to show the monitoring data. The users can login and browse the real time monitoring data and figure of temporal data in the past 24 hours and get the information for flood mitigation and emergent evacuation.

  8. Submarine landslide hazard off Northeastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C. L.; Hsu, S. K.; Tsai, C. H.; Doo, W. B.; Lin, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    In the northern margin of the western end of the Okinawa Trough, three major submarine channels running across the continental margin are distinctive. From east to west, they are the North Mein-Hua Submarine Canyon, Mein-Hua Submarine Canyon and the Keelung Valley. To the east of the Mein-Hua Submarine Canyon, the slope of the continental margin is quite gentle, implying that the risk of slope instability is low. However, between the Keelung Valley and the Mei-Hua Submarine Canyon, the slope is rather steep. We have conducted multi-channel reflection seismics, sub-bottom profilers and multi-beam bathymetry in this area. The results show two general trends of fracture or faulting. The NE-SW trending faults generally follow the major orientation of the Taiwan mountain belt. Thus, these faults could be reverse faults from the former collisional thrust faults to currently post-collisional normal faults. Another almost E-W trending faults are consistent with the N-S extending of the Southern Okinawa Trough. Because the most significant faulting in the northwest end of the study is probably associated with the offshore extension of the Kenchiao Fault or the Sanchiao Fault, we consider either of these two faults as the northeast boundary (headwall) of the potential submarine landslide. Taking the stability slope angle of 0.5 degree as the stable landslide slope as shown in the area to the northeast of the study area, we estimate the total volume of the potential submarine landslide could be 300 cubic kilometers. Such a landslide volume may generate a local tsunami and affect especially the northeast coast of Taiwan.

  9. Strong-field photoionization revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. I. Blaga; F. Catoire; P. Colosimo; G. G. Paulus; H. G. Muller; P. Agostini; L. F. Dimauro

    2009-01-01

    Over the past thirty years, extensive studies of strong-field photoionization of atoms have revealed both quantum and classical aspects including above-threshold ionization, electron wave-packet drift, quiver and rescattering motions. Increasingly sophisticated spectroscopic techniques and sculpted laser pulses coupled with theoretical advances have led to a seemingly complete picture of this fundamental laser-atom interaction. Here, we describe an effect that seems

  10. sup 10 Be study of rapid erosion in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Chenfeng You; Juchin Chen (Institute of Earth Sciences, Taipei (Taiwan) National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan)); Typhoon Lee; Jason Jiunsan Shen (Institute of Earth Sciences, Taipei (Taiwan)); Brown, L. (Carnegie Institution of Washington, DC (USA))

    1988-11-01

    Cosmogenic {sup 10}Be was measured using accelerator mass spectrometry in soils and sediments to study the erosion of Taiwan, which has the highest denudation rate in the world. The river sediments in Taiwan have very low {sup 10}Be concentrations, around 5 million atoms per gram, about 1/45 the world wide average. This is the direct consequence of its high sediment yield of ore than 1,000 mg/cm{sup 2}/yr, 70 times the world average. Combining these values the authors found that, for Taiwan as a whole, the {sup 10}Be output to the sea only slightly exceeds the input from the rain, a situation typical of many areas around the world. Therefore, even in this example of extremely rapid erosion, {sup 10}Be seems to remain a useful indicator for erosion status. The total {sup 10}Be inventory found in a soil profile from a geologically stable area is at least 18% of the maximum possible inventory. The minimum age thus estimated for the soil is 0.11 Ma, in reasonable agreement with estimates from other means. The maximum erosion rate for this area thus estimated is at most 0.14 mg/cm{sup 2}/yr, four orders of magnitude slower than the average value observed for Taiwan. They also demonstrate that the shelf sediments around Taiwan have received the admixing of a {sup 10}be rich component from the ocean and would give a poor estimate for material eroded from Taiwan.

  11. Building collapse and human deaths resulting from the Chi-Chi Earthquake in Taiwan, September 1999.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yen-Hsiung; Hwang, Long-Chih; Chang, Chih-Ching; Hong, Yu-Jue; Lee, I-Nong; Huang, Jen-Hsuan; Lin, Shu-Fang; Shen, Maurice; Lin, Chia-Hong; Gau, Yung-Yen; Yang, Chin-Tzo

    2003-09-01

    In this study, the authors attempted to determine factors associated with earthquake deaths in the great Chi-Chi Earthquake that occurred on September 21, 1999, in Taiwan. An isoseismal map was used to identify life-threatening hazards. The vertical peak ground acceleration of ground motion intensity was deemed the most appropriate index for the evaluation of building collapse and mortality. Mortality increased with the increase in earthquake intensity, and building collapse, approaching the epicenter. The greatest number of collapsed buildings and human deaths occurred between the Chelungpu Fault and the Shuantun Fault. Individuals 65 yr of age and older were the most vulnerable to the impact. The authors' findings suggest that improvements in earthquake-resistant building design and construction, as well as improved medical rescue for the elderly, could reduce the level of exposure to earthquake hazards. PMID:15369275

  12. Projectile Motion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students are introduced to the concept of projectile motion, of which they are often familiar from life experiences,such as playing sports such as basketball or baseball, even though they may not understand the physics involved. Students use tabletop-sized robots to build projectile throwers and measure motion using sensors. They compute distances and velocities using simple kinematic equations and confirm their results through measurements by hand. To apply the concept, students calculate the necessary speed of an object to reach a certain distance in a hypothetical scenaro: A group of hikers stranded at the bottom of a cliff need food, but rescuers cannot deliver it themselves, so they must devise a way to get the food to the hikers.

  13. Kepler Motion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Fu-Kwun Hwang

    2004-10-27

    This java applet displays Kepler's three laws of planetary motion in action. Users can select which of the three laws they wish to be animated and alter the initial conditions, observing how orbital paths and velocities change. Kepler derived his three laws after years of study on data that he inherited from his mentor, Tycho Brahe. Instructions on how to use the animation are provided, and a list of links to other related sites is included.

  14. Dynamic models of a Taiwan-like orogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downey, N. J.; Lavier, L. L.

    2009-12-01

    Taiwan is the type example of orogeny resulting from arc-continent collision. Over approximately the last 10 m.yr., collision of the Luzon volcanic arc with the Chinese passive margin has caused the formation and uplift of Taiwan. While the large-scale dynamics of the plate tectonic and subduction systems involved in this collision are getting better constrained (TAIGER), the orogenic processes occurring in Taiwan result from smaller-scale dynamical processes evolving within this larger context. Few fully dynamic models of these orogenic processes have been proposed. We present high-resolution, two-dimensional dynamic models of mountain building in Taiwan created using FLAC (Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua). These models demonstrate the evolution of the crust and uppermost mantle during orogeny and are capable of quantifying dynamic processes down to the scale of individual crustal faults. We model the Taiwan orogeny as the impact of a relatively rigid indentor with a passive margin whose crustal and sediment thicknesses increase toward the continent. These models allow us to evaluate and quantify the role of crustal yielding and under-plating during orogenic processes. We also investigate the effect a diffusive erosion law has on orogeny. This erosion law is appropriate for modeling the landslide processes that dominate erosion in Taiwan. The strength of this erosion determines the amount of back thrusting and exhumation during orogeny. The obliquity of the collision between the Luzon arc and China has led, under an ergodic assumption, to the idea that the southern portions of Taiwan represent a less-mature orogenic belt than those farther north. We therefore use the preliminary interpretations of seismic data obtained offshore southern Taiwan during the TAIGER experiment, along with geologic and seismic transects across several locations within Taiwan to constrain the time evolution of our models. Our models also make direct predictions of temperature-pressure-time paths of material moving through the orogeny that can be directly compared with geochronological data. These data constraints allow us to determine the relative importance of crustal yielding, exhumation, under-plating and mantle deformation during the formation of Taiwan, which, in turn, provide important implications for seismic hazard evaluation.

  15. Spectral Amplification Factors of Long-Period (3 to 10 s) Strong Ground Motions in and around the Los Angeles Basin during the Mw7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake of April 4, 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatayama, K.; Kalkan, E.

    2012-12-01

    We evaluated spectral amplification factors of long-period ground motions (3 to 10 s) in the Los Angeles (LA) basin by computing Fourier spectral ratios of the basin sites with respect to the surrounding reference hard-rock sites from the Mw7.2 April 4, 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake records and presented period-specific (4, 6, 8 and 10 s) maps of amplification factors for the long periods. This earthquake was the first event providing many (236) high-quality recordings to study spatial variation of long-period amplification in the LA basin. We also tried numerical wave propagation simulations for two of the recent 3D seismic-velocity models for south California: SCEC (Southern California Earthquake Center) CVM (Community Velocity Model)-4.0 and CVM-H 6.2 to examine how these models account for the observed long-period amplification factors. Comparison of the period-specific maps of amplification factors between the observation and the simulation for the two velocity models shows that both CVM-4.0 and CVM-H 6.2 can roughly reproduce the observed amplification factors with the period range of 8 to 10 s in the LA basin. Concerning the shorter-period range (4 to 6 s), however, both of the two models leave more to be improved so that the observed amplification factors can be better simulated. We also find that CVM-4.0 has an advantage over CVM-H 6.2 in terms of the south-eastern part of the LA basin, because CVM-H 6.2 indicates non-observed large amplification there, while CVM-4.0 does not indicate the false amplification. For the period of 10 s, the largest amplification factor of about 5 was observed in the central part of the LA basin, which is well simulated in terms of good agreements between the observed and the simulated amplification factors. The simulation from the two velocity models also indicates the large amplification even in the San Gabriel (SG) valley, which disagrees with the observation. For 8 s, larger amplification factors of about 5 were observed not only in the central part of the LA basin but also in the SG valley, which are also well simulated by both of the two models. The CVM-H 6.2 simulation undershoots the observation in the western part of the LA basin, while CVM-4.0 can almost reproduce it. For 6 s, the largest amplification is observed in the western part of the basin (Manhattan Beach), although the amplification in the central part is also large. Around Manhattan Beach, the ground motions with this period are amplified by a factor of 10. There is significant discrepancy between the observation and the simulation for the two models in terms of the places where the largest amplification occurs. For the period of 4 s, the largest amplification factor of about 8 occurs in the central part of the LA basin. Again, the spatial pattern of amplification is basically failed to simulate by either of the two models.

  16. Research on Earthquake Precursor in E-TEC: A Study on Land Surface Thermal Anomalies Using MODIS LST Product in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, W. Y.; Wu, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    Taiwan has been known as an excellent natural laboratory characterized by rapid active tectonic rate and high dense seismicity. The Eastern Taiwan Earthquake Research Center (E-TEC) is established on 2013/09/24 in National Dong Hwa University and collaborates with Central Weather Bureau (CWB), National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering (NCREE), National Science and Technology Center for Disaster Reduction (NCDR), Institute of Earth Science of Academia Sinica (IES, AS) and other institutions (NCU, NTU, CCU) and aims to provide an integrated platform for researchers to conduct the new advances on earthquake precursors and early warning for seismic disaster prevention in the eastern Taiwan, as frequent temblors are most common in the East Taiwan rift valley. E-TEC intends to integrate the multi-disciplinary observations and is equipped with stations to monitor a wide array of factors of quake precursors, including seismicity, GPS, strain-meter, ground water, geochemistry, gravity, electromagnetic, ionospheric density, thermal infrared remote sensing, gamma radiation etc, and will maximize the value of the data for researches with the range of monitoring equipment that enable to predict where and when the next devastated earthquake will strike Taiwan and develop reliable earthquake prediction models. A preliminary study on earthquake precursor using monthly Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Land Surface Temperature (LST) data before 2013/03/27 Mw6.2 Nantou earthquake in Taiwan is presented. Using the statistical analysis, the result shows the peak of the anomalous LST that exceeds a standard deviation of LST appeared on 2013/03/09 and became less or none anomalies observed on 2013/03/16 before the main-shock, which is in consist with the phenomenon observed by other researchers. This preliminary experimental result shows that the thermal anomalies reveal the possibility to associate surface thermal phenomena before the strong earthquakes.

  17. The development and prospects of the end-of-life vehicle recycling system in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-chung; Huang, Shih-han; Lian, I-wei

    2010-01-01

    Automobiles usually contain toxic substances, such as lubricants, acid solutions and coolants. Therefore, inappropriate handling of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) will result in environmental pollution. ELV parts, which include metallic and non-metallic substances, are increasingly gaining recycling value due to the recent global shortage of raw materials. Hence, the establishment of a proper recycling system for ELVs will not only reduce the impact on the environment during the recycling process, but it will also facilitate the effective reuse of recycled resources. Prior to 1994, the recycling of ELVs in Taiwan was performed by related operators in the industry. Since the publishing of the "End-of-life vehicle recycling guidelines" under the authority of the Waste Disposal Act by the Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) in 1994, the recycling of ELVs in Taiwan has gradually become systematic. Subsequently, the Recycling Fund Management Board (RFMB) of the EPA was established in 1998 to collect a Collection-Disposal-Treatment Fee (recycling fee) from responsible enterprises for recycling and related tasks. Since then, the recycling channels, processing equipment, and techniques for ELVs in Taiwan have gradually become established. This paper reviews the establishment of the ELV recycling system, analyzes the current system and its performance, and provides some recommendations for future development. The reduction of auto shredder residue (ASR) is a key factor in maximizing the resource recovery rate and recycling efficiency. The RFMB needs to provide strong economic incentives to further increase the recycling rate and to encourage the automobile industry to design and market greener cars. PMID:20382516

  18. Fire Nature of a Subtropical Maritime Island in East Asia: Taiwan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Ming-Cheng; Chen, Tsing-Chang

    2004-04-01

    Twelve years (1985 96) of monthly house fire reports for 22 districts in Taiwan, a maritime subtropical island of east Asia, were analyzed to characterize its fire nature. The major effort focused on the identification of temporal variation signals and their possible links with meteorological variables. Two significant modes of house fires were identified: annual and diurnal. As revealed from the power spectral analyses of fire time series in every fire district, a pronounced annual cycle peak emerges, with a peak phase in December and a minimum phase in June. In contrast to the warm and dry summer fire season of three continental landmasses (i.e., the U.S. West, the Northwest Territories of Canada, and the large wildland of Australia), an active fire season appears during the cool, dry winter in Taiwan. The fires on this island are highly correlated with several hydrometeorological variables; a decrease (increase) in rainfall in the dry (wet) cool (warm) environment with strong (weak) winds facilitates (hinders) fire occurrence. Under the modulation of the annual variation, two distinct fire regimes are identified in the diurnal variation of fire occurrence over the entire year: midnight early morning and late morning night. A sharp increase in fire occurrence occurs in the midmorning after a phase of constant fire occurrence frequency in the first regime and a gradual reduction over the nighttime hours in the second regime. Although fire occurrence is significantly suppressed by rainfall during the warm wet summer, an inverse relationship between fire occurrence and relative humidity for both annual and diurnal variations in Taiwan suggests that relative humidity plays a crucial role in fire occurrence.


  19. Covering Problems for Brownian Motion on Spheres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Matthews

    1988-01-01

    Bounds are given on the mean time taken by a strong Markov process to visit all of a finite collection of subsets of its state space. These bounds are specialized to Brownian motion on the surface of the unit sphere $\\\\Sigma_p$ in $R^p$. This leads to bounds on the mean time taken by this Brownian motion to come within a

  20. Recent developments in human motion analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liang Wang; Weiming Hu; Tieniu Tan

    2003-01-01

    Visual analysis of human motion is currently one of the most active research topics in computer vision. This strong interest is driven by a wide spectrum of promising applications in many areas such as virtual reality, smart surveillance, perceptual interface, etc. Human motion analysis concerns the detection, tracking and recognition of people, and more generally, the understanding of human behaviors,

  1. Characteristics and management of infectious industrial waste in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, M.-C. [Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, No. 2, Jhuoyue Road, Nanzih District, Nanzih, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: u9315915@ccms.nkfust.edu.tw; Lin, Jim Juimin [Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, No. 2, Jhuoyue Road, Nanzih District, Nanzih, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China)

    2008-11-15

    Infectious industrial waste management in Taiwan is based on the specific waste production unit. In other countries, management is based simply on whether the producer may lead to infectious disease. Thus, Taiwan has a more detailed classification of infectious waste. The advantage of this classification is that it is easy to identify the sources, while the disadvantage lies in the fact that it is not flexible and hence increases cost. This study presents an overview of current management practices for handling infectious industrial waste in Taiwan, and addresses the current waste disposal methods. The number of small clinics in Taiwan increased from 18,183 to 18,877 between 2003 and 2005. Analysis of the data between 2003 and 2005 showed that the majority of medical waste was general industrial waste, which accounted for 76.9%-79.4% of total medical waste. Infectious industrial waste accounted for 19.3%-21.9% of total medical waste. After the SARS event in Taiwan, the amount of infectious waste reached 19,350 tons in 2004, an increase over the previous year of 4000 tons. Waste minimization was a common consideration for all types of waste treatment. In this study, we summarize the percentage of plastic waste in flammable infectious industrial waste generated by medical units, which, in Taiwan was about 30%. The EPA and Taiwan Department of Health have actively promoted different recycling and waste reduction measures. However, the wide adoption of disposable materials made recycling and waste reduction difficult for some hospitals. It has been suggested that enhancing the education of and promoting communication between medical units and recycling industries must be implemented to prevent recyclable waste from entering the incinerator.

  2. Characteristics of Rainfall Distributions over Taiwan during the Taiwan Area Mesoscale Experiment (TAMEX).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Hsi-Chyi; Chen, Yi-Leng

    1998-11-01

    Based on 808 daily rainfall stations, rainfall distributions over Taiwan during TAMEX (Taiwan Area Mesoscale Experiment) (10 May-27 June 1987) were analyzed. The total rainfall had a maximum on the windward slopes under the prevailing southwesterly monsoon flow, indicating that orographic lifting plays an important role in determining rainfall distribution. About 50% of the rainfall occurred as scattered orographic showers during nonfrontal periods. Along the northwestern coastal plain, about 80% of the rainfall was associated with the passage of surface fronts. Along the eastern coastal, mountainous region, which is on the lee side under the prevailing southwesterly monsoon flow, a large portion of the rainfall was produced by upper-level, cold-core lows and a midlevel vortex event. For these cases, low-level flow was southerly or southeasterly because Taiwan was on the western or southwestern periphery of the western Pacific subtropical high. In this situation, eastern Taiwan was on the windward side. Rainfall occurred on the western side of the mountainous slopes during the late season (1-27 June) twice as much as during the early season (10-31 May). This is consistent with a more persistent southwesterly monsoon flow with a higher moisture content in June than in May.On the windward slopes, the enhancement of orographic lifting by anabatic winds was important for the development of rain showers in the afternoon. The timing of maximum hourly rainfall incidences on the lower windward slopes occurred 1-2 h earlier than on the upper slopes and the mountain interior. Within the Taipei Basin, the hourly rainfall maximum occurred during 1500-1600 LST because of the convergence of surface winds from onshore flow. In the northern and northeastern coastal mountains, the hourly rainfall incidences had an afternoon maximum (1600 LST) due to anabatic winds. In the eastern coastal mountainous region, hourly rainfall also had a maximum during 1700-2000 LST. Along the western coastal regions with flat terrain the diurnal variations of hourly rainfall and hourly rainfall incidences were less important than in other regions.

  3. III JOINT SYMPOSIUM OF TAIWAN-RUSSIA RESEARCH COOPERATION ON ADVANCED PROBLEMS IN

    E-print Network

    Kaplan, Alexander

    .. III - « , » III JOINT SYMPOSIUM OF TAIWAN-RUSSIA RESEARCH: Institute of Mechanics, LMSU, Moscow, Russia Dates: November 0712, 2012 Sponsors: National Science Council, Taiwan Institute of Mechanics, LMSU, Moscow, Russia 2012 #12; 531/534 22.2 63

  4. 78 FR 45512 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film from India and Taiwan: Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ...A-533-824, A-583-837] Polyethylene Terephthalate Film from India and Taiwan: Extension of Time Limits for...antidumping duty (AD) orders on polyethylene terephthalate film (PET Film) from India and Taiwan, pursuant to section...

  5. 77 FR 14342 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Correction to Notice of Opportunity To Request Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ...A-583-841] Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Correction...Request Administrative Review AGENCY: Import Administration...request administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyvinyl alcohol from Taiwan. See Antidumping...Request Administrative Review, 77 FR 12559...

  6. Wintering activity range and population ecology of Black-faced spoonbills (Platalea minor) in Taiwan 

    E-print Network

    Liu, Liang-Li

    2007-09-17

    Black-faced Spoonbill (BFS), Platalea minor, numbers during the non-breeding season increased steadily from 1990 to 2004 in Taiwan. Numbers of the BFS in Taiwan accounted for more than 50% of the total population, with ...

  7. Human leukocyte antigens in inhabitants of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, C J; Lee, P C; Tai, J J; Lee, P H

    1990-07-01

    Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) were investigated in 200 healthy Taiwan inhabitants of Taiwanese (46 persons), Hakka (36), Tai-Ya Tribe (28) Pu-Long Tribe (30) Pai-Wan Tribe (30) and Lu-kai (30) descent. In those of Taiwanese and Hakka descent, HLA-A11 and A2 were the two most frequently seen human leukocyte antigens. HLA-A11 was seen in 69.6% in those of Taiwanese descent and 61.1% in those of Hakka descent. HLA-A2 was seen in 50.0% of the Taiwanese and 44.4% of the Hakka. For the B loci, B40 (Taiwanese, 43.5%; Hakka, 44.4%), Bw46 (Taiwanese, 28.3%; Hakka, 19.4%) and B13 (Taiwanese, 15.2%; Hakka, 30.6%) were the most common antigens. For the C loci, Cw3 (Taiwanese, 57.1%; Hakka 64.9%), Cw1 (Taiwanese, 28.6%; Hakka, 35.1%) and Cw7 (Taiwanese, 40.5%; Hakka, 29.9%) were commonly seen antigens. The most commonly detected antigens for the DR loci were: DR2 (Taiwanese, 45.1%; Hakka, 56.8%) and DR4 (Taiwanese, 37.3%; Hakka, 32.4%). These results disclose that no major human leukocyte antigenic differences exist between the two aforementioned groups in this study. In addition, there are no major differences in Taiwanese and Hakka descent, and those of south and north mainland Chinese descent. All bear some antigenic similarities. However, for aborigines, the original inhabitants of Taiwan, the HLA antigens are significantly different from the Han Chinese as a whole. Characteristic features are seen in A24, Bw60, DRw6 and DRw8. In the meantime, a high frequency of common antigens are shared among the tribes and consequently a large number of blank alleles are seen in the aborigines. This reflects the homozygosity effect which is often seen in an isolated society. PMID:1979593

  8. Rotating Motion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wolfgang Christian

    In these problems, two people ride on a merry-go-round (radius fixed at 10 m..it's big!). One rider tosses a ball toward the other. The period of motion can be varied as can the initial velocity of the ball, relative to rider. One of the problems is to select the initial velocity of the ball so that it passes through center of the merry-go-round. Another is for the rider who throws the ball to catch it him/herself after exactly half a rotation.

  9. Catastrophic landslide induced by Typhoon Morakot, Shiaolin, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsou, Ching-Ying; Feng, Zheng-Yi; Chigira, Masahiro

    2011-04-01

    Typhoon Morakot induced the catastrophic and deadly Shiaolin landslide in southern Taiwan on 9 August 2009, resulting in more than 400 casualties. We undertook a geological and geomorphological investigation with the aim of reconstructing the events leading up to this landslide and to clarify factors that contributed to its development. Cumulative rainfall reached up to 1676.5 mm in about three days under the influence of the typhoon, and the Shiaolin landslide, with a volume of 25 × 10 6 m 3, occurred one day after the peak in rainfall intensity. The landslide occurred on a dip slope overlying late Miocene to early Pliocene sedimentary rocks consisting of silty shale, massive mudstone, and sandstone. It started as a rockslide in the upper third of the landslide area and transformed into a rock avalanche that crossed a series of terraces and displaced or buried the village below. It buried the riverbed of the Chishan River and ran up the opposite slope, creating a landslide dam 60 m high, which was breached about 1 h and 24 min later, flooding the village. The velocity of the landslide is estimated to have been 20.4 to 33.7 m s - 1 and its apparent friction angle was 14°, which indicates its high mobility. The detachments in the source area consist of combinations of bedding planes and joints or faults. The landslide was preceded by gravitational deformation, which appeared as hummocky landforms before the landslide and as buckle folds exposed after the event. The landslide deposits consist of fragments of mudstone, shale, and sandstone, as well as clayey material at its base. This clayey material, consisting of illite, chlorite, quartz, feldspar, and calcite, is assumed to have strongly influenced the long, rapid runout.

  10. Ground motion input in seismic evaluation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Sewell, R.T.; Wu, S.C.

    1996-07-01

    This report documents research pertaining to conservatism and variability in seismic risk estimates. Specifically, it examines whether or not artificial motions produce unrealistic evaluation demands, i.e., demands significantly inconsistent with those expected from real earthquake motions. To study these issues, two types of artificial motions are considered: (a) motions with smooth response spectra, and (b) motions with realistic variations in spectral amplitude across vibration frequency. For both types of artificial motion, time histories are generated to match target spectral shapes. For comparison, empirical motions representative of those that might result from strong earthquakes in the Eastern U.S. are also considered. The study findings suggest that artificial motions resulting from typical simulation approaches (aimed at matching a given target spectrum) are generally adequate and appropriate in representing the peak-response demands that may be induced in linear structures and equipment responding to real earthquake motions. Also, given similar input Fourier energies at high-frequencies, levels of input Fourier energy at low frequencies observed for artificial motions are substantially similar to those levels noted in real earthquake motions. In addition, the study reveals specific problems resulting from the application of Western U.S. type motions for seismic evaluation of Eastern U.S. nuclear power plants.

  11. Taiwan's venomous snakebite: epidemiological, evolution and geographic differences.

    PubMed

    Hung, Dong-Zong

    2004-02-01

    Located at the juncture of tropical and subtropical regions, Taiwan has a warm and humid climate with abundant precipitation and food, which coupled with the island's diverse vegetation and landscape, makes it a suitable environment for many snake species. Among these, Naja atra, Bungarus multicinctus, Deinagkistrodon acutus, Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus, Trimeresurus stejnegeri, Daboia russelii siamensis are the 6 principal venomous species, and have caused significant injuries and death over the years. The natural environment of Taiwan has changed tremendously in the last 20-30 years, which is likely to have affected the number and distribution of venomous snakes, thus indirectly affecting incidence of snakebite. A retrospective analysis of 286 snakebite cases at a medical center in central Taiwan analyzed the snakebite-related epidemiological data in the past 30 years. The results showed that the bite rates of various venomous snakes vary geographically, which is related to the overlapping of the human living environment and snakes' habitat. In Taiwan, T. mucrosquamatus and T. stejnegeri bites are most common. Bites by Deinagkistrodon acutus and Daboia russelii siamensis generally occur in the south and east parts of the island and attacks by Naja atra are most common in central Taiwan. Aggressive antivenom treatment can reduce snakebite mortality rate, but for Bungarus multicinctus bites, maintaining the patient's airway and supporting their ventilation is vital to reducing mortality rate in addition to antivenom treatment. PMID:14964809

  12. Burden experienced by community health volunteers in Taiwan: a survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Volunteers in Taiwan complement the delivery of health services by paid health professionals. However, in doing so, community health volunteers experience burdens associated with their activities. The reasons for these burdens and degree to which they are experienced are explored in this paper. Our study adds to international research regarding the burden experienced by volunteers. This project is the first to assess how community health volunteers in Taiwan experience burden. Methods The 20 item Burden on Community Health Volunteer (BCHV) instrument, specifically designed for this project, was administered to 435 volunteers attached to Community Health Promotion Development Centres in northern Taiwan. Results The overall burden experienced by volunteers is relatively low. However, a multivariate adjusted regression analysis revealed significant differences in volunteer burden depending on the number of people each volunteer served on average per week, as well as the volunteer’s marital status and their perceptions about personal health. Volunteers who served many people and who perceived their own health as poor experienced a higher level of burden. Those who were a widow or a widower felt less burdened than others. Conclusions The results of the study identify areas where burden is high and where strategies can be developed to reduce the level of burden experienced by community health volunteers in Taiwan. Community health volunteers in Taiwan complement the role of nurses and other health care providers so their retention is important to ongoing service delivery. PMID:23687966

  13. The spiritual intelligence of nurses in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ke-Ping

    2006-03-01

    The purposes of the study included: (1) defining the profile of nurses' spiritual intelligence; (2) examining the relationship between nurses' demographic characteristics and spiritual intelligence; and (3) exploring the mode of nurses' spiritual intelligence and related factors, among nurses in Taiwan. A cross-sectional descriptive study was designed and administered to 299 hospital registered nurses, who were distributed throughout metropolitan Taipei. Wolman's (2001) PsychoMatrix Spirituality Inventory, a 4-point scaled, self-reported, 49-item questionnaire covering seven spiritual factors (divinity, mindfulness, extrasensory perception, community, intellectuality, trauma, and childhood spirituality) was used to measure nurses' spiritual intelligence. Results showed that nurses' spiritual intelligence was centralized in a moderate degree, while trauma and childhood spirituality were either moderate or high. Age and childhood spirituality were the most significant variables affecting nurses' spiritual intelligence, accounting for 61.4% of the variance in nurses' spiritual intelligence. This study may contribute to a better understanding of the spiritual intelligence profile of nurses and may also help facilitate a program for nurses' spiritual development as well as improve the quality of spiritual care. PMID:16547903

  14. Finasteride use and acute pancreatitis in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lai, Hsueh-Chou; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether there is an association between finasteride use and the risk of acute pancreatitis. This population-based case-control study used the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. There were 2,530 male subjects aged 40-84 years with a first-attack of acute pancreatitis during the period of 1998-2011 as the case group and 10,119 randomly selected subjects without acute pancreatitis as the control group. Both groups were matched by age and index year of diagnosing acute pancreatitis. Subjects who never had finasteride prescription were defined as "never use." Subjects who at least received 1 prescription for finasteride before the date of diagnosing acute pancreatitis were defined as "ever use." The association of acute pancreatitis with finasteride use was examined by the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using the multivariable unconditional logistic regression model. The crude OR of acute pancreatitis was 1.78 (95%CI 1.33, 2.39) for subjects with ever use of finasteride, when compared with subjects with never use of finasteride. After adjusting for potential confounders, the adjusted OR of acute pancreatitis decreased to 1.25 (95%CI 0.90, 1.73) for subjects with ever use of finasteride, but no statistical significance was seen. No association can be detected between finasteride use and the risk of acute pancreatitis. PMID:25573785

  15. The Taiwan Cavaliers: A Reference Game for Learning Game Development Ming-Hsin Tsai

    E-print Network

    Thawonmas, Ruck

    The Taiwan Cavaliers: A Reference Game for Learning Game Development Ming-Hsin Tsai Chih-Hsiung Lai Ying-Chia Su Dept. of Digital Content Design, Ling Tung University 1, Lingtung Road Taichung 40852, Taiwan Email: miguel@mail.ltu.edu.tw ABSTRACT The Taiwan Cavalier is a 3D action game made with Virtools

  16. Hospital Safety Culture in Taiwan: A Nationwide Survey Using Chinese Version Safety Attitude Questionnaire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wui-Chiang Lee; Hwei-Ying Wung; Hsun-Hsiang Liao; Chien-Ming Lo; Fei-Ling Chang; Pa-Chun Wang; Angela Fan; Hsin-Hsin Chen; Han-Chuan Yang; Sheng-Mou Hou

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Safety activities have been initiated at many hospitals in Taiwan, but little is known about the safety culture at these hospitals. The aims of this study were to verify a safety culture survey instrument in Chinese and to assess hospital safety culture in Taiwan. METHODS: The Taiwan Patient Safety Culture Survey was conducted in 2008, using the adapted Safety

  17. Three depositional states and sedimentary processes of the western Taiwan foreland basin system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-Jung Lin; Pei-Jen Wu; Ho-Shing Yu

    2010-01-01

    The western Taiwan foreland basin formed during the Early Pliocene as the flexural response to the loading of Taiwan orogen on the Eurasian plate. What makes Taiwan interesting is the oblique collision, which allows the foreland basin to be seen at different stages in its evolution at the present day. Due to oblique arc-continent collision from north to south, the

  18. 78 FR 49255 - Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ...Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Partial Rescission of Antidumping...circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Taiwan. The period of review (POR...circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Taiwan covering the period May...

  19. Crustal structure of the southern Taiwan comprehended from wide-angle reflection\\/refraction seismic data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Hsu; C. H. Chen

    2009-01-01

    Taiwan is located at the convergent boundary of the Eurasia Plate and the Philippine Sea Plate. Because of the arc-continent collision in the region, Taiwan is recognized as a complex and tectonically active area with thousands of earthquakes occurred annually. The most devastating earthquake occurred in Taiwan for the last decade is the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. This earthquake not merely

  20. Taiwan Mathematics Teachers Remodel Their Teaching Model via Doing and Conducting Modeling Activity in Classrooms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shih-Yi Yu; Ching-Kuch Chang; Lee-Meei Lin

    This article reports what really happen on their deep thoughts about teaching when a group of five Taiwan teachers conducting a Taiwan version Big Foot modeling activity in their mathematics classrooms. First, the five teachers modified the 'Big Foot' modeling activity into a Taiwan version as \\

  1. 9-12 March 2011, Taipei, Taiwan Asia Paci c Education

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yih-Min

    establishments, policy makers, experienced practitioners, international managers and business leaders, southern and central Taiwan universities (11 March) Largest international education fair in Taiwan ­ free delicacies and Taiwan folk culture (9 March) A splendid Farewell Party at the top oor of the historical

  2. HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT SOURCE EMISSIONS FOR A CHEMICAL FIBER MANUFACTURING FACILITY IN TAIWAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHI-WEN LIN

    2001-01-01

    The chemical and fiber industries in Taiwan are very important contributors to eco- nomic development of Taiwan over the past several decades, but it often associated with serious air pollution problems. The study was initiated in response to odor complaints from residents of neighborhoods located adjacent to the largest chemical fiber manufacturing plant in Taiwan. The purposes of this article

  3. Hazardous Air Pollutant Source Emissions for a Chemical Fiber Manufacturing Facility in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chi-Wen Lin

    2001-01-01

    The chemical and fiber industries in Taiwan are very importantcontributors to economic development of Taiwan over the past several decades, but it often associated with serious air pollution problems. The study was initiated in response to odorcomplaints from residents of neighborhoods located adjacent tothe largest chemical fiber manufacturing plant in Taiwan. The purposes of this article are: (1) to characterize

  4. Experience and inspiration of the development and management of high-level talents in Taiwan province

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Lei; Zhirong Yang

    2009-01-01

    Taiwan attaches great importance to the development and management of high-level talents. Through the active development of technical education, vocational training, the international exchange of personnel, the attraction of students abroad, the building of Science and Technology Zones, Taiwan greatly promotes its economic development. The experience of Taiwan may help us promote the development and management of high-level talents in

  5. Reproductive Contributions of Foreign Wives in Taiwan: Similarities and Differences among Major Source Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kao-Lee Liaw; Ji-Ping Lin; Chien-Chia Liu

    2009-01-01

    In light of the entrenchment of sub-replacement fertility and the sharp increase in the stock of foreign wives in Taiwan in recent years, this research studies the reproductive contributions of Taiwan’s foreign wives from the top five source countries (China, Vietnam, Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines), based mainly on an application of a multinomial logit model to the micro data

  6. 78 FR 42041 - Travel and Tourism Trade Mission to Taiwan, Japan, and Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ...International Trade Administration Travel and Tourism Trade Mission to Taiwan, Japan, and...is amending notice for the Travel and Tourism Trade Mission to Taiwan, Japan and Korea...a senior executive lead the Travel and Tourism Trade Mission to Taiwan, Japan and...

  7. New insights on 3-D plates interaction near Taiwan from tomography and tectonic implications

    E-print Network

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    New insights on 3-D plates interaction near Taiwan from tomography and tectonic implications Serge trenches, respectively. In particular, the 3-D plates interaction beneath Taiwan is discussed based of Hualien, (2) the Eurasian plate subducts beneath most part of the Taiwan island down to the 670 km

  8. Modeling the impacts of cetacean-focused tourism in Taiwan: observations from cetacean watching boats: 2002-2005.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yung-Ping; Huang, Yu-Chin; Kyle, Gerard T; Yang, Ming-Ching

    2011-01-01

    Cetacean-focused tourism in Taiwan has grown rapidly since 1997. This development, measured in terms of both number of tour boats and visitors, has resulted in many resource management challenges stemming from the absence of regulation and scientific data. To fill this void in empirical evidence, we used 464 sighting records from 2002 to 2005 to model the impact of cetacean-focused tourism. Cox proportional hazard analysis indicated cetacean avoidance responses to cetacean watching boats were strongly associated with pod size, mother-calf pairs, and cetacean-vessel distances. Mother-calf pairs abandoned their avoidance tactic by 55% compared to noncalf groups when tour boats approached. Second, the hazard ratio of abundance was 0.996, suggesting that the odds of encountering avoidance responses by the cetaceans decreased by 42% for every 100-member increase in the cetacean pod size. Last, distances maintained by boats from the cetaceans was positively related to avoidance responses (i.e., less avoidance behavior with closer interaction). Based on our findings, we have the following recommendations: (a) limit vessels from approaching mothers with calves, (b) limit vessels from approaching small groups of cetaceans, (c) reduced avoidance behavior to boat traffic may be a red flag for potential long-term disturbance, and (d) apply the "precautionary principle" based on the best scientific information available in cetacean-based tourism in Taiwan. These recommendations will help contribute to the sustainable development of cetacean-focused tourism in Taiwan. PMID:20936282

  9. Provenance analysis of the Miocene accretionary prism of the Hengchun Peninsula, southern Taiwan, and regional geological significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinchang; Yan, Yi; Huang, Chi-Yue; Chen, Duofu; Shan, Yehua; Lan, Qin; Chen, Wenhuang; Yu, Mengming

    2014-05-01

    Petrographic analysis, detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology and Neodymium isotope are applied to the Middle-Late Miocene turbidite sequences in the Hengchun accretionary prism, southern Taiwan, to constrain the provenance and nature of sedimentation in the Manila subduction system. Both petrographic study and detrital zircon U-Pb ages show that the Middle-Late Miocene turbidite sequences were primarily derived from Mesozoic granites and volcanic rocks of the Cathaysian Block in SE China, which were transported southeastward via rivers like Minjiang and Jiulongjiang to the Taiwan area. This conclusion is further supported by Nd isotope analyses of shales intercalated within sandstone sequences showing negative ?Nd values (-13.3 to -10.5) of a continental origin. During the Late Miocene when global sea-level fell significantly, the SE China coastline shifted seaward to the eastern part of the present Taiwan Strait, which would have facilitated these continent-derived sediments being transported southeastward to the shelf-upper slope of the Chinese continental margin. These turbidite sequences were then deformed and accreted into the accretionary prism of the Hengchun Peninsula when the South China Sea oceanic lithosphere subducted eastward beneath the Philippine Sea Plate in the Late Miocene. Our study suggests that sedimentary deposition of the turbidite sequences in the Hengchun Peninsula could be strongly controlled by different river system supply, submarine channeling transport and fluctuations of sea-level.

  10. Modeling the Impacts of Cetacean-Focused Tourism in Taiwan: Observations from Cetacean Watching Boats: 2002-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Yung-Ping; Huang, Yu-Chin; Kyle, Gerard T.; Yang, Ming-Ching

    2011-01-01

    Cetacean-focused tourism in Taiwan has grown rapidly since 1997. This development, measured in terms of both number of tour boats and visitors, has resulted in many resource management challenges stemming from the absence of regulation and scientific data. To fill this void in empirical evidence, we used 464 sighting records from 2002 to 2005 to model the impact of cetacean-focused tourism. Cox proportional hazard analysis indicated cetacean avoidance responses to cetacean watching boats were strongly associated with pod size, mother-calf pairs, and cetacean-vessel distances. Mother-calf pairs abandoned their avoidance tactic by 55% compared to noncalf groups when tour boats approached. Second, the hazard ratio of abundance was 0.996, suggesting that the odds of encountering avoidance responses by the cetaceans decreased by 42% for every 100-member increase in the cetacean pod size. Last, distances maintained by boats from the cetaceans was positively related to avoidance responses (i.e., less avoidance behavior with closer interaction). Based on our findings, we have the following recommendations: (a) limit vessels from approaching mothers with calves, (b) limit vessels from approaching small groups of cetaceans, (c) reduced avoidance behavior to boat traffic may be a red flag for potential long-term disturbance, and (d) apply the "precautionary principle" based on the best scientific information available in cetacean-based tourism in Taiwan. These recommendations will help contribute to the sustainable development of cetacean-focused tourism in Taiwan.

  11. Temporal changes of seismic velocity and anisotropy in the shallow crust induced by the 1999 October 22 M6.4 Chia-Yi, Taiwan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Kevin; Peng, Zhigang

    2009-12-01

    Observing temporal changes of material properties in the upper crust has been a long-sought goal within the geophysics community for many decades. A better quantification of temporal changes in the near-surface layers associated with nearby large earthquakes is crucial for improved understandings of rock rheology in the shallow crust, better characterization of site response, and accurate predictions of strong ground motions for future large earthquakes. We systematically analyse temporal changes of seismic velocity and anisotropy in the shallow crust in southwest Taiwan using local earthquakes recorded at a 200-m-deep borehole station CHY. This station is located directly above the hypocentre of the 1999 October 22, M6.4 Chia-Yi earthquake. Three-component seismograms recorded at this station show clear direct (upgoing) and surface-reflected (downgoing) P and S waves, and S-wave splitting signals. We use the time delays between the upgoing and downgoing waves in the autocorrelation functions as the proxies for the two-way traveltimes in the top 200 m. The S-wave traveltimes measured in two horizontal components increase by ~1-2 per cent at the time of Chia-Yi main shock, and followed by a logarithmic recovery, while the temporal changes of S-wave splitting and P-wave traveltimes are less than 1 per cent and are not statistically significant. We obtain similar results by grouping earthquakes into clusters according to their locations and waveform similarities. This suggests that the observed temporal changes are not very sensitive to the seismic ray paths below CHY, but are mostly controlled by the variation of material properties in the top 200 m of the crust. We propose that strong ground motions of the Chia-Yi main shock cause transient openings of fluid-filled microcracks and increases the porosity in the near-surface layers, followed by logarithemic recovery processes. No clear change in the delay times of the shear wave anisotropy is found following the main shock, suggesting that cracks opened during the earthquake do not have a preferred orientation. Our results also show a gradual increase of time delays for both the fast and slow S waves in the 7 yr prior to the Chia-Yi main shock. Such changes might be caused by variations of water table, sediment packing or other surficial processes.

  12. Boron Isotopic Compositions of Mud Volcano Fluids in Taiwan Accretionary Prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, C.; Li, M.; Chung, C.; Huang, K.

    2001-12-01

    Boron and B isotopes are sensitive diagnostic tracers of sediment de-watering in subduction zones. More than 20 mud volcano fluids collected along two major geological structures, the Chishan fault (CHF) and the Gutingkeng anticline (GTKA), in the southwestern Taiwan were analyzed for B and d11B, as well as other geochemical constituents. These fluids are characterized by high chloride contents, up to 420 mM, suggestive of seawater origin. The GTKA fluids show high Cl, Na, K, Ca, Mg and NH4, but low SO4 concentrations. In contrast, the CHF fluids are much less saline (~100 mM) with anomalous heavy oxygen isotopic compositions (up to 6.5 permils). The results can be understood in terms of mixing between original sedimentary pore waters and fluids affected by clay dehydration released at depth. The Taiwan mud volcano fluids contain high concentration of B, up to ~12x seawater value, and is strongly enriched in heavy isotope (d11B heavier than 40 permils), a possible result of smectite illitization at depth. Pore fluids with similar B and d11B characteristics have been recovered during DSDP/ODP drill holes in the Nankai Trough, Japan and the Barbados Ridge complex. The preliminary results indicate that the return flux of B by mud volcano de-watering fluids in convergent margins may have significant implication for B chemical budget in the ocean.

  13. Short-term, Seasonal, and Long-term Deformation in the Central Range of Taiwan Induced by Earthflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Y. J.; Chen, R. F.; Lin, C. W.; Chen, H. Y.; Yu, S. B.

    2014-12-01

    Seasonal GPS motions are often attributed to hydrological loading and other environmental factors. For the first time we observe GPS seasonal motions associated with slow-moving landslides (earthflows). The directions of GPS movements after heavy rains and in the wet season are consistent with the slope directions derived from a high-resolution elevation model constructed by airborne Light detection and Ranging (LiDAR). Seasonal and long-term interseismic motions are modulated by slow-moving landslides. GPS observations of seasonal motions at Lushan suggest continuous creeping of earthflows at a rate of ~15 mm/yr in the wet season. Six out of 26 cGPS sites in the Central Range of Taiwan affected by earthflows show 25%~40% differences in amplitudes of interseismic velocities compared with the adjacent stable cGPS sites. Estimates of interseismic crustal strain can be biased without taking account surface processes. Preliminary analyses indicate rainfall and topography play stronger roles on the occurrence of earthflows compared to seismic activity and lithology. Discrimination between surface processes and tectonic-origin motions is the key to natural hazard assessments.

  14. Constraints on current crustal deformation of the Taiwan plate boundary from CGPS strain rate field and focal mechanism stress inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, K.; Wu, Y.; Hsu, Y.; Chan, Y.

    2013-12-01

    There are many studies using the continuous GPS (CGPS) observations and forward modeling to represent the current crustal deformation around the global plate boundaries. However, the relation between surface geodetic data and crustal deformation is still a major debate since there are only few available data at depth for constraints. In this study, 3D spatial variations of interseismic surface strain rate and crustal stress state in Taiwan are evaluated by using both CGPS data and earthquake focal mechanisms from 1994 to 2010 and 1991 to 2010, respectively. We estimated strain rate with a simple approach that solves for surface velocity on a 0.1 x 0.1° grid while weighting the distance between observations and each grid node. The surface velocities used in this study are after the process of removing the coseismic and postseismic effects caused by local main shocks. We applied the genetic algorithm in a nonlinear global search for the focal mechanism solution determination with magnitude ranging from ML 1.6 to 7.3 by first motion polarities of P waves. Earthquakes were excluded the redundant aftershock sequences which perturbed the estimation of interseismic stress state. There are 7083 events determined around Taiwan for performing a stress tensor inversion. In the comparison of orientations between strain rate and stress axes, we found the regional variation of stress orientations from surface to the base of crust is significant and not homogenous in Taiwan. In general, the orientations of strain rate and stress axes are consistent from surface to 20 km depth in most of Taiwan regimes. We suggest that the common decoupling phenomenon between both axes starts from 20 km implying a rheological change. The consistency of orientations from strain rate and stress field extends from surface down to more than 30 km in Central Taiwan and southern Coastal Range (COR) could be associated with stress accumulation in the crust for the 1999 Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi and 2003 Mw 6.8 Chengkung earthquakes. Some of regions without consistency of strain rate and stress axes, it may cause by the worse data constraint or the complex of regional structures.

  15. Motion Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    MOOG, Inc. supplies hydraulic actuators for the Space Shuttle. When MOOG learned NASA was interested in electric actuators for possible future use, the company designed them with assistance from Marshall Space Flight Center. They also decided to pursue the system's commercial potential. This led to partnership with InterActive Simulation, Inc. for production of cabin flight simulators for museums, expositions, etc. The resulting products, the Magic Motion Simulator 30 Series, are the first electric powered simulators. Movements are computer-guided, including free fall to heighten the sense of moving through space. A projection system provides visual effects, and the 11 speakers of a digital laser based sound system add to the realism. The electric actuators are easier to install, have lower operating costs, noise, heat and staff requirements. The U.S. Space & Rocket Center and several other organizations have purchased the simulators.

  16. Olympic Motion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    The following resource is fromLessonopoly, which has created student activities and lesson plans to support the video series, Science of the Olympic Winter Games, created by NBC Learn and the National Science Foundation. Featuring exclusive footage from NBC Sports and contributions from Olympic athletes and NSF scientists, the series will help teach your students valuable scientific concepts. In this particular lesson, students will learn about motion and their body at two different levels: cellular and muscular. Students will examine human blood to identify its basic components and will conduct a test to determine their reflex reaction time. Students will also create a flow chart to show the role of cells in muscle contraction.

  17. Characteristic of riverine dissolved inorganic nitrogen export in subtropic high-standing island, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Li-Chin; Huang, -Chuan, Jr.; Lee, Tsung-Yu; Shih, Yu-Ting

    2015-04-01

    Extreme increase of anthropogenic nitrogen (e.g. fertilizer and excretion) has altered the nitrogen cycling and terrestrial ecosystems. Taiwan located between eastern Asia and Oceania is the hotspot of global riverine DIN (dissolved inorganic nitrogen, including NH4, NO3, and NO2) export, but rarely documented comprehensively. Totally 50 catchments, covering 2/3 of this island, with different anthropogenic activities are involved in this study. The monthly sampling for NH4 and seasonal sampling for NO3 and NO2 supplemented with daily discharge are used to estimate the riverine DIN export. Meanwhile, the landscape characteristics, land-use, and population density are also used to discriminate the characteristics of riverine DIN export. Results showed that the observed riverine DIN concentration and yield vary from 17.7-603.5 ?M and 575.0-15588.9 kg-N km-2 yr-1 corresponding to the increase of anthropogenic activities. The arithmetic mean of DIN concentration and yield are 126.7?M and 3594.7 kg-N km-2 yr-1, respectively. The unexpected high yields can attribute to abundant precipitation, heavy fertilizer application, and high population. For concentration variation, no significant variation can be found in the pristine and agriculture-dominated catchments, whereas the strong dilution effect in the wet season is characterized in the intensively-disturbed catchments. Although there are some seasonal variations in concentration, the yields in wet season are almost doubled than that in dry season indicating the strong control of streamflow. For speciation, NH4 is the dominant species in intensively-disturbed catchment, but NO3 dominates the DIN composition for the pristine and agriculture-dominated catchments. Our result can provide a strong basis for supplementary estimation for regional to global study and DIN export control which is the aim of the Kampala Declaration on global nitrogen management. Keywords: dissolved inorganic nitrogen, anthropogenic nitrogen, Taiwan.

  18. A dermatoglyphic study of the Kavalan aboriginal population of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao-Fong; Zhang, HaiGuo; Lai, Chun-Hung; Lu, ZhenYu; Wang, ZhuGang

    2007-02-01

    By the 1970s, a number of dermatoglyphic studies of Taiwan aborigines (Gaoshan nationality) had been published, however in each only a few dermatoglyphic variables were addressed. Since that time, little new research has been conducted. In this study, we collected and analyzed the dermatoglyphs of 100 individuals of Kavalan, a Taiwan aboriginal population, and we reported a wide range of dermatoglyphic variables including total finger ridge count (TFRC), a-b total ridge count (a-b RC), atd angle and axial triradius percent distance (tPD), and frequencies of fingerprint pattern, palmar thenar pattern, palmar interdigital pattern, palmar hypothenar pattern, and simian line. This study is the first comprehensive dermatoglyphic research of any Taiwan aboriginal population. PMID:17393094

  19. Tourism climate and thermal comfort in Sun Moon Lake, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tzu-Ping; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2008-03-01

    Bioclimate conditions at Sun Moon Lake, one of Taiwan’s most popular tourist destinations, are presented. Existing tourism-related climate is typically based on mean monthly conditions of air temperature and precipitation and excludes the thermal perception of tourists. This study presents a relatively more detailed analysis of tourism climate by using a modified thermal comfort range for both Taiwan and Western/Middle European conditions, presented by frequency analysis of 10-day intervals. Furthermore, an integrated approach (climate tourism information scheme) is applied to present the frequencies of each facet under particular criteria for each 10-day interval, generating a time-series of climate data with temporal resolution for tourists and tourism authorities.

  20. The impact of the cigarette market opening in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wen, C; Cheng, T; Eriksen, M; Tsai, S; Hsu, C

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of the opening of the Taiwanese cigarette market on cigarette consumption, changes in market share, and the effects on tobacco control efforts. Methods: With the use of key word "Taiwan", the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library of the University of California, San Francisco, was searched for internal documents related to smuggling activities, promotion of light cigarettes, and market share analyses in Taiwan. Age adjusted smoking rates and cigarette and betel quid consumption before and after market opening were compared. Results: By 2000, the market share of imported cigarettes increased from less than 2% in 1986 to nearly 50%, and per capita cigarette consumption increased 15% following market opening. Because of the sharp increase in smuggling, with contraband cigarettes being as popular as legal imports, and the rapid proliferation of retail outlets, such as betel quid stalls, the market penetration by foreign tobacco companies was greater in Taiwan than among the other Super 301 Asian countries. Aggressive cigarette marketing strategies were associated with a 6% increase in adult male smoking prevalence, and with a 13% increase in the youth rate, within three years after market opening. The market opening also had an incidental effect on increasing the popularity of betel quid. Betel quid chewing has since become a major public health problem in Taiwan. Conclusion: The opening of the cigarette market in 1987 had a long lasting impact on Taiwan. It increased smoking prevalence and the market has become dominated by foreign companies. The seriousness of smuggling and its associated loss of revenue by the government, the extent of increased youth smoking and its associated future health care costs, and the increased use of betel quid and the associated doubling of oral cancer mortality rates each pose significant problems to Taiwan. However, the market opening galvanised anti-smoking sentiment and forced the government to initiate and intensify a series of tobacco control efforts. PMID:15923448

  1. A visual odometry framework robust to motion blur

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto Pretto; Emanuele Menegatti; Maren Bennewitz; Wolfram Burgard; Enrico Pagello

    2009-01-01

    Motion blur is a severe problem in images grabbed by legged robots and, in particular, by small humanoid robots. Standard feature extraction and tracking approaches typically fail when applied to sequences of images strongly affected by motion blur. In this paper, we propose a new feature detection and tracking scheme that is robust even to non- uniform motion blur. Furthermore,

  2. Neural mechanisms of speed perception: transparent motion

    PubMed Central

    van Wezel, Richard J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Visual motion on the macaque retina is processed by direction- and speed-selective neurons in extrastriate middle temporal cortex (MT). There is strong evidence for a link between the activity of these neurons and direction perception. However, there is conflicting evidence for a link between speed selectivity of MT neurons and speed perception. Here we study this relationship by using a strong perceptual illusion in speed perception: when two transparently superimposed dot patterns move in opposite directions, their apparent speed is much larger than the perceived speed of a single pattern moving at that physical speed. Moreover, the sensitivity for speed discrimination is reduced for such bidirectional patterns. We first confirmed these behavioral findings in human subjects and extended them to a monkey subject. Second, we determined speed tuning curves of MT neurons to bidirectional motion and compared these to speed tuning curves for unidirectional motion. Consistent with previous reports, the response to bidirectional motion was often reduced compared with unidirectional motion at the preferred speed. In addition, we found that tuning curves for bidirectional motion were shifted to lower preferred speeds. As a consequence, bidirectional motion of some speeds typically evoked larger responses than unidirectional motion. Third, we showed that these changes in neural responses could explain changes in speed perception with a simple labeled line decoder. These data provide new insight into the encoding of transparent motion patterns and provide support for the hypothesis that MT activity can be decoded for speed perception with a labeled line model. PMID:23926031

  3. STRONG FERTILITY CENTER Strong Fertility Center

    E-print Network

    Goldman, Steven A.

    STRONG FERTILITY CENTER Strong Fertility Center Women's Lifestyle Center The Women's Lifestyle with the improved lifestyle. Also, we work together with the Strong Fertility Center to coordinate your fertility fertility treatments. · A complete nutritional consultation with our registered dietician, Tracy Cherry, RD

  4. Pharmaceutical penetration of new drug and pharmaceutical market structure in Taiwan: hospital-level prescription of thiazolidinediones for diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-Wen Tsai; Yu-Wen Wen; Weng-Foung Huang; Ken N. Kuo; Pei-Fen Chen; Hsin-Wei Shih; Yue-Chune Lee

    2010-01-01

    This study used Taiwan’s National Health Insurance claim database (years 2000–2005) to examine how thiazolidinediones (TZD),\\u000a a new class of drugs for diabetes, penetrated into Taiwan’s hospitals, and its association with the concentration of all diabetes\\u000a drugs at the hospital level. We collected 72 monthly summaries of diabetes prescriptions from all hospitals in Taiwan. Hospital-level\\u000a pharmaceutical concentration was measured by

  5. Hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women in Taiwan: Comparison between women born in Taiwan and other southeast countries

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-Chiang; Hsieh, Hsiu-Shu; Huang, Yu-Jie; Huang, Yeou-Lih; Ku, Ming-Kun; Hung, Hsin-Chia

    2008-01-01

    Background Taiwan's national vaccination program has successfully decreased the prevalence of hepatitis B infection after twenty years of implementation and might be indirectly beneficial to the second generation. In this study, we compared the hepatitis B infection status of two groups: pregnant Taiwanese women and other Southeast Asian women, who because they had immigrated later in life to Taiwan by marriage to a Taiwanese man, had not been exposed to that vaccination program to evaluate the effect of hepatitis vaccination program on women of child-bearing age and further explored the potential impact of immigration on the hepatitis B public health policy in Taiwan. Methods Data was collected from 10,327 women born in Taiwan and 1,418 women born in other Southeast Asian countries, both groups receiving prenatal examinations at Fooyin University Hospital between 1996 and 2005. The results of serum hepatitis B s-Antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B e-Antigen (HBeAg) tests and other demographic data were obtained by medical chart review. Results The pregnant women from Taiwan had a higher HBsAg positive rate (15.5%) but lower HBeAg(+)/HBsAg(+) ratio (32.1%) than the women from other countries (8.9% and 52.4%). For those born before July, 1984, the period of no national vaccination program, Taiwanese women had a higher HBsAg positive rate than other Southeast Asian women (15.7% vs. 8.4%), but for women born after that day and before June 1986, the period of vaccination for high risk newborns, the HBsAg positive rates found to be slightly lower for Taiwanese women than for other Southeast Asian women (11.4% vs. 12.3%) and the difference was more significant (3.1% vs. 28.6%) after June 1986, the period of vaccination for all newborns. While the HBeAg(+)/HBsAg(+) ratios decreased with age in both groups, they were consistently higher in women from other Southeast Asian countries than in women born in Taiwan after age 20. Conclusion In Taiwan, the neonatal vaccination program that was implemented in 1984 has successfully reduced hepatitis B infection among pregnant women in present day, and is likely to indirectly prevent hepatitis B infection in the next generation. However, the increasing number of pregnant women from other Southeast Asian countries without a national neonatal vaccination program or with a program that was introduced later than the one in Taiwan will likely lessen the positive impact of this program and should be further assessed. PMID:18254978

  6. Nonlinear Motions in Dusty Plasma Crystals, Liquids, and Clusters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin I; Wen-Tau Juan; Yuh-Chyi Wang

    2000-01-01

    The dusty plasma with dust particles charged and suspended in the plasma background is a complex open dissipative nonlinear system. Dust Coulomb crystals, liquids and clusters with finite particle numbers can be formed under the strong coupling. The competition between the caged motion from the strong coupling and the thermally induced hopping generates rich microscopic nonlinear motions associated with vortex

  7. Application of Radar Interferometry for Monitoring the Landslide Creeping of Jiufen Area, Northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, YuHeng; Chang, ChungPai

    2015-04-01

    Taiwan is one of the most active landslide areas in the world because of its high precipitation and active tectonic. Landslide, which destroys buildings and human lives, causes a lot of hazard and economical loss in the recent years. Jiufen, which have been determined as a creeping area with previous studies, is one of the famous tourist place in northern Taiwan. Therefore, detection and monitoring of landslide and creeping thus play an important role in risk management and help us decrease the damage from such mass movement. In this study, we apply Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) techniques at Jiufen area to monitor the creeping of slope. InSAR observations are obtained from ERS and ENVISAT, which were launched by European Space Agency, spaning from 1994 to 2008. Persistent Scatterer InSAR (PSInSAR) method is also applied to reduce the phase contributed from atmosphere and topography and help us get more precise measurement. We compare the result with previous studies carried out by fieldwork to confirm the possibility of InSAR techniques applying on landslide monitoring. Moreover, the time-series analysis helps us to understand the motion of the creeping along with time. After completion of some amelioration measures, time-series can illustrate the effect of these structures. Then, the result combining with fieldwork survey will give good suggestion of future remediation works. Furthermore, we estimate the measuring error and possible factors, such as slope direction, dip angle, etc., affecting InSAR result and. The result helps us to verify the reliability of this method and gives us more clear deformation pattern of the creeping area.

  8. Transport, Collective Motion, and Brownian Motion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hazime Mori

    1965-01-01

    A theory of many-particle systems is developed to formulate transport, collective motion, and Brownian motion from a unified, statistical-mechanical point of view. This is done by, first, rewriting the equation of motion in a generalized form of the Langevin equation in the stochastic theory of Brownian motion and then, either studying the average evolution of a non-equilibrium system or calculating

  9. Automatic Motion Segmentation for Human Motion Synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastian Schulz; Annika Woerner

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Motion segmentation is one of the key techniques in the context of motion analysis and generation. The basic idea is to split\\u000a motion capture data into continuous segments that can be used to generate new motion sequences. For most applications, this\\u000a segmentation is done manually leading to inaccurate and inconsistent results. This makes it difficult to conceive general\\u000a methods for

  10. Absolute plate motions and regional subduction evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertova, M. V.; Spakman, W.; van den Berg, A. P.; van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.

    2014-10-01

    investigate the influence of absolute plate motion on regional 3-D evolution of subduction using numerical thermomechanical modeling. Building on our previous work, we explore the potential impact of four different absolute plate motion frames on subduction evolution in the western Mediterranean region during the last 35 My. One frame is data-based and derived from the global moving hotspot reference frame (GMHRF) of Doubrovine et al. (2012) and three are invented frames: a motion frame in which the African plate motion is twice that in the GMHRF, and two frames in which either the African plate or the Iberian continent is assumed fixed to the mantle. The relative Africa-Iberia convergence is the same in all frames. All motion frames result in distinctly different 3-D subduction evolution showing a critical dependence of slab morphology evolution on absolute plate motion. We attribute this to slab dragging through the mantle forced by the absolute motion of the subducting plate, which causes additional viscous resistance affecting subduction evolution. We observed a strong correlation between increase in northward Africa motion and decrease in the speed of westward slab rollback along the African margin. We relate this to increased mantle resistance against slab dragging providing new insight into propagation and dynamics of subduction transform edge propagator (STEP) faults. Our results demonstrate a large sensitivity of 3-D slab evolution to the absolute motion of the subducting plate, which inversely suggests that detailed modeling of natural subduction may provide novel constraints on absolute plate motions.

  11. Balancing the life cycle impacts of notebook computers: Taiwan's experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-Teh Lu; Iddo K. Wernick; Teng-Yuan Hsiao; Yue-Hwa Yu; Ya-Mei Yang; Hwong-Wen Ma

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the economic incentive structure as well as the environmental implications of the current national policy for recycling notebook computers (NB's) in the nation of Taiwan. Using cost–benefit analysis and formal life cycle assessment (LCA) we critique the current program and recommend future improvements. The current policy requires manufacturers to pay a recycling fee for each unit sold domestically.

  12. Defense conversion and systems architecture: challenges to Taiwan's aircraft industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jong-Tsong Chiang

    1999-01-01

    How to establish a complex high-tech systems engineering industry is crucial for many newly industrializing countries to further their economic development beyond efficient manufacturing of relatively simple products. Because the aircraft industry is a user and driver of advanced product and process technologies, in 1990 Taiwan's government officially designated this industry as a national strategic area to receive policy support.

  13. Vocational Education at the Crossroads. The Case of Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Gerald C.; Shih, Mingfa

    Programs and curricula in vocational education in Taiwan have traditionally been linked to the nation's priority of economic development. The current vocational education system originated in the 1950s. In the 1970s, public free education was extended from 6 years of elementary school education to include an additional 3 years of junior high…

  14. Critical Pedagogy in Undergraduate English Writing Classes in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chi, Gen-Hua

    2011-01-01

    This one-year study explores the possibility of integrating critical pedagogy into undergraduate English writing classes in Taiwan. The participants were the students in 2 first-year writing classes taught by the researcher. For these classes, I reinvented Freire's (2000) pedagogy of the oppressed, which emphasizes problem-posing, dialogue, and…

  15. Science Curriculum Components Favoured by High School Students in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Reping; Chang, Wen-Hua; Lin, Chen-Yung

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the curriculum components in biology favoured by high school students in Taiwan. Our sample consisted of 155 senior high school students (51 boys and 104 girls) and 137 junior high school students (74 boys and 63 girls). The questionnaire was based on the idea of a repertory grid technique and was developed to investigate the…

  16. A Far Eastern Parallel: The Languages of Scotland and Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malzahn, Manfred

    A comparison of the linguistic contexts of Scotland and Taiwan focuses on three aspects: (1) existence of two linguistic codes belonging to the same language family; (2) the status of one of those languages as the standard set by a larger, more powerful neighbor from whose perspective any other variety is likely to look like a dialect; and (3) the…

  17. Power Languages: The Effects of Internationalization on Taiwan Language Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornberg, David

    This paper examines data from observations of language use in Taiwan (primarily Taipei) made over 12 years. The observations focused on the usage of several languages, including English, Taiwanese, Mandarin, Hakka, and Japanese. The paper introduces a distinction between the possessive power of language and the productive power of language. With…

  18. GEPT and English Language Teaching and Testing in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Jessica R. W.

    2012-01-01

    The General English Proficiency Test (GEPT) is a 5-level, criterion-referenced English as a Foreign Language (EFL) testing system implemented in Taiwan to assess the general English proficiency of EFL learners. In 1999, with the aim of encouraging the general study of English and to result in beneficial washback effects on the teaching and…

  19. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Prevention in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hsueh-Erh

    2004-01-01

    Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is a newly identified respiratory disease that threatened Taiwan between April 14 and July 5, 2003. Chang Gung University experienced various SARS-related episodes, such as the postponement of classes for 7 days, the reporting of probable SARS cases, and the isolation of students under Level A and B…

  20. Strategies for Preventing Drug Recidivism Cycle in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jih-Chiao Chu; Hsien-Chi Cheng; Chieh-Hsiung Chang; Jin-Yi Chiou; Chun-Sheng Chien

    Drug abuse is currently a worldwide problem and Taiwan is no exception. Drug abuse is a disease that must be treated on the basis of evidence (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime 2007; World Health Organisation 2004). In order to re d u c e t h e d a m a g e c a u s e

  1. Levofloxacin-Resistant Haemophilus influenzae, Taiwan, 2004–2010

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Shu-Chen; Chen, Pei-Chen; Shiau, Yih-Ru; Wang, Hui-Ying; Lai, Jui-Fen; Huang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Levofloxacin resistance in Haemophilus influenzae has increased significantly in Taiwan, from 2.0% in 2004 to 24.3% in 2010 (p<0.001). Clinical and molecular investigations of 182 levofloxacin-resistant isolates revealed that the increase was mainly the result of the spread of several clones in the elderly population in different regions. PMID:25061696

  2. Bacteremia caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shio-Shin Jean; Jen-Yu Wang; Po-Ren Hsueh

    2006-01-01

    Since 1995, there has been a steady increase in the number of reported cases of Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis) sepsis in Taiwan. Representative Taiwanese survey data from 1996 to 2004 revealed that these adult patients with S. Choleraesuis bacteremia presented with primary bacteremia (57%, especially immunocompromised hosts), mycotic aneurysm (16%), and fever (86%) predominantly. S. Choleraesuis septicemia demonstrated

  3. Delineation of typhoon-induced shoreline changes in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yun-Bin Lin; Jie-Lun Chiang

    2010-01-01

    Taiwan, an island country located at the southwestern Pacific Ocean, has a coast line of 1,355 km long. And only 55% proportion of the coast line remains natural. The maximum daily accumulated rainfall over 1000 mm brought by the typhoon Mindulle in 2004 generated huge disaster, including a broad flood-prone area and a sick sedimentation, in the littoral zones of

  4. Exploring sexual harassment in a police department in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lan-Ying Huang; Liqun Cao

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the conceptual and empirical issues related to sexual harassment (SH) in a police department in Taiwan. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Survey data were collected. Through the analysis, the paper proposes that SH can be better divided into two subcategories: quid pro quo and hostile work environment harassment. Multivariate analysis is used to

  5. Design Consideration of a Booster for Taiwan Photon Source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gwo-Huei Luo; H. P. Chang; C. C. Kuo; K. K. Lin; H. J. Tsai; M. H. Wang

    2005-01-01

    After more than 10 years' operation and expansion, the Taiwan Light Source (TLS) of National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC) reaches very stable operation condition. The storage ring has better than 96% of beam availability annually. There are 6 Insertion Devices (IDs) in a six-folds symmetric machine and three superconducting wigglers are going to be installed in achromatic sections. Two

  6. Improved treatment results for childhood acute myeloid leukemia in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D-C Liang; T-T Chang; K-H Lin; D-T Lin; M-Y Lu; S-H Chen; H-C Liu; M-T Lin; M-T Lee; S-G Shu; T-K Chang; J-S Chen; C-C Hsiao; I-J Hung; Y-L Hsieh; R-L Chen; S-N Cheng; W-H Chang; C-H Lee; K-S Lin

    2006-01-01

    To improve treatment results for children with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we introduced a novel protocol, Taiwan Pediatric Oncology Group-AML-97A, for AML other than acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), for which modified conventional protocols were used. From January 1, 1997, to December 31, 2002, 141 children younger than 17 years old with de novo AML were enrolled. In total,

  7. Conjoint Analysis: A Study of Canned Coffee in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meng-Long Shih; Chen-Yin Liu; Biing-Wen Huang; Shouhua Lin; Ke-Chung Peng

    2008-01-01

    Summary This paper intends to explore consumer preferences for canned coffee attributes, to determine the optimal combination for consumers, and to provide manufacturers a reference for their marketing strategies. In this study, consumers in Taiwan were divided into several demographic regions (Northern, Central, and Southern areas) and individual preferences for instant coffee attributes were compared. By adopting conjoint analysis we

  8. Couple Relationship Quality, Coparenting, and Fathering in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hui-Hua

    2013-01-01

    This study examined connections among couple relationship quality, coparenting, and mother and father involvement in 100 families from urban Central Taiwan. Fathers and mothers with at least one school-age child completed questionnaires regarding their couple satisfaction and consensus, coparenting techniques and consistency, and involvement in…

  9. The Prosecution of Taiwan Sexuality Researcher and Activist Josephine Ho

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Wang

    2004-01-01

    In April 2003, following a newspaper report of a hyperlink to a website on bestiality on the Sexuality Databank website of the Center for the Study of Sexualities, National Central University, Taipei, Taiwan, 14 conservative NGOs filed charges against the Center's founder, Josephine Ho, for “propagating obscenities that corrupt traditional values”. Ho has been researching sexuality and supporting freedom for

  10. Misconceptions about the Moon Held by Preservice Teachers in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dai, Meme F.; Capie, William

    The objective of this study was to assess the misconceptions held by preservice teachers about essential concepts of the moon related to information taught in elementary schools in Taiwan and to develop multiple-choice test items to identify the misconceptions about the moon. Additionally, this study considered relationships of gender, religion,…

  11. Behavioral Regulation and Early Academic Achievement in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shannon B. Wanless; Megan M. McClelland; Alan C. Acock; Fu-Mei Chen; Jo-Lin Chen

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: Behavioral regulation (the integration of attention, working memory, and inhibitory control) is critical for school readiness and early academic achievement. In Taiwan, however, where academic success is highly valued, there is a dearth of assessments available to measure young children's behavioral regulation. The present study examined the validity of a direct measure of behavioral regulation, the Head-to-Toes Task

  12. Field experiments on thermal comfort in campus classrooms in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruey-Lung Hwang; Tzu-Ping Lin; Nai-Jung Kuo

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the ASHRAE methodology for thermal comfort study applied in Taiwan. Field experiments conducted in 10 naturally ventilated and 26 air-conditioned campus classrooms used survey questionnaires and physical measurements to collect data. A total of 944 individuals in seven universities completed 1294 questionnaires. The chi-square tests were applied to find the significant aspects that affect

  13. Evaluating water conservation measures for Green Building in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng-Li Cheng

    2003-01-01

    Green Building evaluation is a new system in which water conservation is prioritized as one of its seven categories for saving water resources through building equipment design in Taiwan. This paper introduces the Green Building program and proposes a water conservation index with quantitative methodology and case study. This evaluation index involves standardized scientific quantification and can be used in

  14. ?????????????? Review of Post-Disaster Village Migration Policy in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renn Chang; Pei-Hui Tsai; Chun-Kai Wang

    This article aims to discuss the village migration policy and introduce the role of NGO participating in the process of migration following natural disasters in Taiwan. First, the historical development of governmental disaster-induced village migration policy was reviewed. In addition, The 921 Earthquake Relief Foundation responses to this issue were also introduced to illustrate the partnership works between government and

  15. Tropical cyclone triggering of sediment discharge in Taiwan

    E-print Network

    Sobel, Adam

    and was the first major tropical cyclone to affect Taiwan after the 1999 Chichi earthquake. The passage debris produced during the Chichi earthquake into the Choshui River. We show that a range of atmospheric on long time- scales (106 ­107 yr) has been understood in terms of relief and mean annual precipitation

  16. Fatal occupational falls in the Taiwan construction industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yen-Hui Lin; Chih-Yong Chen; Teng-Wei Wang

    2011-01-01

    This study examined fatal occupational falls in the Taiwan construction industry. Data extracted from 1062 work-related accident reports filed in the years 1996–2007 in annual reports by the Council of Labor Affairs (CLA) were analyzed in terms of gender, age, and work experience of the accident victim as well as activity at the time of the incident, personal protective equipment

  17. Fatal occupational falls in the Taiwan construction industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yen-Hui Lin; Chih-Yong Chen; Teng-Wei Wang

    2012-01-01

    This study examined fatal occupational falls in the Taiwan construction industry. Data extracted from 1062 work-related accident reports filed in the years 1996–2007 in annual reports by the Council of Labor Affairs (CLA) were analyzed in terms of gender, age, and work experience of the accident victim as well as activity at the time of the incident, personal protective equipment

  18. The Work-Study Experience of Indigenous Undergraduates in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shan-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Due to the large number of universities in Taiwan and the increased availability of scholarships for disadvantaged students, the number of college students from indigenous families has been on the rise in recent years. However, many indigenous students still find it necessary to work part-time. In this study, indigenous students were interviewed…

  19. Policy Analysis of the English Graduation Benchmark in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Chih-Min

    2012-01-01

    To nudge students to study English and to improve their English proficiency, many universities in Taiwan have imposed an English graduation benchmark on their students. This article reviews this policy, using the theoretic framework for education policy analysis proposed by Haddad and Demsky (1995). The author presents relevant research findings,…

  20. before leaving for Taiwan notarizing your highest degree

    E-print Network

    will assist you to complete the necessary forms for applying Academia Sinica ID card, ARC, Post Office account and tuition fee payment) For NTHU students, on September 10 (Thursay). #12;You will get your student ID card·before leaving for Taiwan notarizing your highest degree buying four-month insurance policy

  1. Examining the Scalability of Intimacy Permissiveness in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Pei-Shan; Tu, Su-Hao

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the scalability of intimacy permissiveness measures in Taiwan by using island-wide survey data. Among models for scaling analysis, the Guttman scaling model and two latent class models--the latent-distance model and Goodman's scale model--were employed to examine the scalability of the scale measures. The data were drawn from…

  2. Matching University Graduates' Competences with Employers' Needs in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Hsuan-Fu

    2015-01-01

    The dramatic expansion of the number of higher educational institutions in Taiwan has contributed a great deal to the growing unemployment rate of university graduates. Given the accumulated number of students who graduated in previous years and failed to find a job, the pressure of finding a job is growing each year. On the other hand, however,…

  3. Learning Vietnamese as a Heritage Language in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Yu-Ching; Ho, Hsiang-Ju; Chen, Ming-Chung

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, the Taiwanese Government began a campaign to encourage new immigrants to teach their native languages (heritage languages) to their children. However, these heritage languages are seldom used in cross-national families and the effectiveness of formal heritage language courses in Taiwan has yet to be explored. The present study examines…

  4. Does the Taiwan warm current exist in winter?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianrong Zhu; Changsheng Chen; Pingxing Ding; Chunyan Li; Huichan Lin

    2004-01-01

    It has been argued for many years whether the Taiwan Warm Current (TWC) exists in winter, though there is no question about its existence in summer. A regional CTD survey and anchored ADCP measurements were conducted off the mouth of the Changjiang on the western shelf of the East China Sea from 24 February to 10 March 2001. Both hydrographic

  5. Patterns of contraceptive use among urban women in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dona J. Lethbridge; Rosemary Wang

    1991-01-01

    Patterns of contraceptive use among married urban women in Taiwan were investigated. A convenience sample of 150 women attending health clinics for reasons other than contraceptive care were interviewed about their contraceptive use. The most prevalent contraceptive method used by these women was the intrauterine device, followed by the condom and birth?control pills. Participants had used only one or two

  6. The Politics of Preschool Education Vouchers in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Ming-Sho

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author offers a causal explanation for the preschool education voucher policy in Taiwan. A causal analysis of voucher politics focuses on the process rather than the result of the innovation. The political success of private kindergarten business interests derives from their capability to open a space for collective…

  7. Higher Education Learning Experiences among Vietnamese Immigrant Women in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ya-Ling; Wu, Hsing-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Based on a sociocultural approach to adult learning and poststructural feminist theories, this study draws on interviews with 11 married Vietnamese women to explore the higher education learning experiences of Vietnamese immigrant women in Taiwan. On the basis of their husbands' permission and support, Vietnamese immigrant women embraced the…

  8. Computer assisted spoken English learning for Chinese in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiang-Chun Chen; Jui-Lin Lo; Jyh-Shing Roger Jang

    2004-01-01

    The paper proposes an approach to computer assisted spoken English learning for Mandarin Chinese speaking people in Taiwan. Various studies have suggested the importance of acoustic models for pronunciation assessment. For English and Chinese people, their mother tongues are different; therefore, the corresponding spoken English, as well as the acoustic models, are also different due to subtle differences in pronunciation.

  9. Counseling Taiwan Chinese in America: Training Issues for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Geri; Yang, Julia; Chen, M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines cultural influences (such as Confucianism, family, and immigration) on Taiwan Chinese in America who seek counseling. Addresses typical counseling struggles, effective counseling strategies and theoretical approaches, and training implications. Uses a case study to elaborate on the above themes. (RJM)

  10. [The parenting practices of transnational marriage mothers in Taiwan].

    PubMed

    Chuang, Li-Yu; Shu, Bih-Ching; Huang, Chiung-Chen

    2013-02-01

    Childhood experience is a cornerstone of personality development. A child's cognitive function, self-concept, and behavioral development relate significantly to parental attitudes as well as to the way they were treated during childhood. The literature suggests a significant association between parenting practices and the mental health of the parents, temperament of the child, and socio-cultural factors. Raising children is typically central to the life of transnational marriage women living in Taiwan. They view parenting children as a life transforming experience. However, they must invest more effort than local mothers to survive in Taiwan. Thus, it is worth investigating the parenting practices of this significant subset of Taiwan's population. This paper applied parenting concepts to describe the condition and possible problems of immigrant women in parenting children. Based on study results, we summarize transnational marriage and its impact on parenting practices. The authors hope this paper provides information useful to identifying parenting difficulties faced by immigrant mothers so that healthcare professionals can provide relevant information and assistance to improve overall parenting practices and benefit the development of Taiwan's youngest generation. PMID:23386530

  11. Technological Literacy Education and Technological and Vocational Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lung-Sheng Steven

    2010-01-01

    Technology education in Taiwan is categorized into the following two types: (1) technological literacy education (TLE)--the education for all people to become technological literates; and (2) technological specialty education (TSE)--the education for specific people to become technicians and professionals for technology-related jobs. This paper…

  12. RCEC, Academia Sinica, Taiwan, ROC Recruiting a Postdoctoral Research Fellow

    E-print Network

    degree in statistics, bio-statistics, environmental science, public health, or other related disciplines and Salary It will be at Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan. The research team, Environmental Health Assessment Laboratory, is led by Dr. Shih-Chun Candice Lung. Salary

  13. Serological and PCR detection of feline leptospira in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kun-Wei; Hsu, Yun-Hsiu; Hu, Wei-Ling; Pan, Ming-Jeng; Lai, Jyh-Mirn; Huang, Kwo-Ching; Chou, Shih-Jen

    2014-02-01

    Taiwan is in the subtropical zone and has typhoons every year. Leptospirosis is an endemic disease in Taiwan, and feline leptospirosis in Taiwan remains unknown so far. From January, 2010, to September, 2011, 233 cats in south Taiwan (159 stray cats and 74 household cats) were sampled in this research. Leptospira antibody titer was detected by the serology gold standard, the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Both serum and urine were examined for Leptospira DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with two sets of primers. In this study, the serological survey showed 21 (9.3%) examined sera contained antibodies specific for pathogenic Leptospira serogroups. The results of PCR revealed that 25 (19.1%) serum and 80 (67.8%) urine samples were found positive for leptospiral DNA sequences. All products amplified from PCR reactions were sequenced by an automated method for further confirmation. This is the first study concerning the epidemiology of pathogenic Leptospira in stray and household cats' urine, and the results demonstrate that some of the cats are susceptible to pathogenic Leptospira and have the potential to shed pathogenic Leptospira into the environment. This could be an issue of public health. PMID:24359421

  14. Development of Technology Teacher Certification Examination in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lung-Sheng Steven

    A project was conducted to develop assessment instruments for the living technology (LT) teacher certification examination in Taiwan. Living technology is a secondary-level comprehensive experiential program that addresses technology, its evolution, applications, and impacts. During the project, LT teacher competencies were identified and…

  15. Five Trends of School Arts Education Reform in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Ren-Lai

    2006-01-01

    In the torrents of globalization and social transition in Taiwan, it is particularly important to reinforce a sense of cultural subjectivity and localization, and promote new trends of arts education that emphasize the development of self and spirit. The fundamental principles of these new trends are: (1) that the purpose of arts education is to…

  16. Suicide Experiences among Institutionalized Older Veterans in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, Yan-Chiou; Tsai, Yun-Fang; Lin, Yan-Chiou; Lin, Yea-Pyng

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Institutionalized veterans in Taiwan are a high-risk group for completing suicide due to their institutionalization and social minority status. The purpose of this study was to understand the suicide experiences, especially the triggers of suicide in this group. Design and Methods Data: about suicide experiences were collected from 19…

  17. Hello Kitty and the Identity Politics in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Fen Ko

    2000-01-01

    Abstract This paper analyzes the controversy surrounding Hello Kitty, a popular Japanese animation,cat figure in Taiwan. The analysis aims to understand the cultural meanings,of Hello Kitty, and how these meanings, along with the figure itself, are consumed. Situated in current Taiwanese cultural context, the Hello Kitty controversy consist s of at least three axes: 1. the cultural distinction of the

  18. Medical waste generation in selected clinical facilities in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. W. Cheng; K.-C. Li; F. C. Sung

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the type and amount of medical waste generated from small clinical facilities in Taiwan. We sampled 200 small medical establishments, with few or no patient beds, to survey the wastes generated and disposed. The surveyed medical facilities consisted of four groups including private clinics, medical laboratories, blood centers and public clinics. Private clinics providing surgical, dental, obstetrical,

  19. Late Cenozoic metamorphic evolution and exhumation of Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Beyssac; Martine Simoes; Jean Philippe Avouac; Kenneth A. Farley; Yue-Gau Chen; Yu-Chang Chan; Bruno Goffé

    2007-01-01

    The Taiwan mountain belt is composed of a Cenozoic slate belt (Hsuehshan Range units, HR, and Backbone Slates, BS) and of accreted polymetamorphic basement rocks (Tananao Complex, TC). Ongoing crustal shortening has resulted from the collision between the Chinese continental margin and the Luzon volcanic arc, which initiated ~6.5 Ma ago. The grade and age of metamorphism and exhumation are

  20. Late Cenozoic metamorphic evolution and exhumation of Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Beyssac; Martine Simoes; Jean Philippe Avouac; Kenneth A. Farley; Yue-Gau Chen; Yu-Chang Chan; Bruno Goffé

    2007-01-01

    The Taiwan mountain belt is composed of a Cenozoic slate belt (Hsuehshan Range units, HR, and Backbone Slates, BS) and of accreted polymetamorphic basement rocks (Tananao Complex, TC). Ongoing crustal shortening has resulted from the collision between the Chinese continental margin and the Luzon volcanic arc, which initiated ?6.5 Ma ago. The grade and age of metamorphism and exhumation are

  1. The price elasticity of opium in Taiwan, 1914–1942

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Long Liu; Jin-Tan Liu; James K. Hammitt; Shin-Yi Chou

    1999-01-01

    Between 1895 and 1945, the Japanese colonial government virtually eliminated opium use in Taiwan by licensing and treating existing users, prohibiting sales to others, and raising the price. We evaluate these policies using a two-part model to describe the fraction of the population using opium and consumption among users, and the rational addiction model by Becker et al. (1991). We

  2. Characteristics and determinants of ambient fungal spores in Hualien, Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsiao-Man Ho; Carol Y. Rao; Hsiao-Hsien Hsu; Yueh-Hsiu Chiu; Chi-Ming Liu; H. Jasmine Chao

    2005-01-01

    Characteristics and determinants of ambient aeroallergens are of much concern in recent years because of the apparent health impacts of allergens. Yet relatively little is known about the complex behaviors of ambient aeroallergens. To address this issue, we monitored ambient fungal spores in Hualien, Taiwan from 1993–1996 to examine the compositions and temporal variations of fungi, and to evaluate possible

  3. Who Benefits from the Massification of Higher Education in Taiwan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prudence, Chou Chuing; Li-Tien, Wang

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of expanding higher education are to foster advanced personnel and realize the concept of achieving equal access to education. The problems created by the expansion of higher education in many countries, including Taiwan, in fact indicate a divergence from originally anticipated objectives. Such problems include the uneven…

  4. Social Capital and Health Inequality: Evidence from Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Lijun; Lin, Nan

    2009-01-01

    Does social capital, resources embedded in social relationships, influence health? This research examines whether social capital impacts depressive symptoms and overall perceived health status over and above the effects of social support. Our analyses use unique data from the Taiwan Social Change Survey collected in 1997, and measures social…

  5. Recycling rates of waste home appliances in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Hsu; C.-M. Kuo

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a calculation of recycling rates of waste home appliances in Taiwan, for the EPA to amend these rates in order to increase the recycling efficiency. The recycling rate is calculated by a formula according to the statistical results obtained through: (1) an estimation of domestic use of home appliances using time series

  6. Adolescent Internet Usage in Taiwan: Exploring Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chien-Huang; Yu, Shu-Fen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences in adolescent Internet accessibility, motives for use, and online activities in Taiwan; 629 5th and 6th graders were surveyed. Findings revealed that the gap in gender differences with regard to Internet use has decreased in this generation. Even though the Internet is the most recent…

  7. Congenital Poisoning by Polychlorinated Biphenyls and their Contaminants in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter J. Rogan; Beth C. Gladen; Kun-Long Hung; Shin-Lan Koong; Ling-Yu Shih; James S. Taylor; Ying-Chin Wu; Dorothy Yang; N. Beth Ragan; Chen-Chin Hsu

    1988-01-01

    In 1979, a mass poisoning occurred in Taiwan from cooking oil contaminated by thermally degraded polychlorinated biphenyls. Because these chemicals persist in human tissue, children born to female patients after the outbreak were exposed in utero. In 1985, 117 children born to affected women and 108 unexposed controls were examined and evaluated. The exposed children were shorter and lighter than

  8. Modern sedimentation and sediment dispersal pattern off southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Sheng-Ting; Su, Chih-Chieh; Tsai, Po-Hsuan; Cheng, Yiya

    2015-04-01

    Taiwan is located at the collision zone between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea Plates and also on the Western North Pacific corridor of typhoons. Every year, three to four typhoons will invaded Taiwan and brought heavy rainfall. The active tectonic setting and climatic conditions create the extremely high sediment yield and export to the ocean. Our study area is located offshore southwestern Taiwan which is mainly composed of a narrow Gaoping Shelf and broad Gaoping Slope. Four major submarine canyons, the Shoshan Submarine Canyon, Kaohsiung Submarine Canyon, Gaoping Submarine Canyon, and Fangliao Submarine Canyon, extended into deep sea, through Penghu Submarine Canyon and subsequently merged into north terminus of Manila Trench. Over 50 box and gravity cores were collected by using R/V Ocean Research 1, 3 and 5 from 2005 to 2014. The cores were split and conducted core description and surface photographs at the Core Laboratory of the Taiwan Ocean Research Institute (TORI). The following analyses, including X-radiography, bulk density, particle size, Pb-210 chronology, were accomplished at the Marine Radioactivity and Sedimentology Lab at the Institute of Oceanography, National Taiwan University. The grain size analysis result shows a finer trend from coastal to deep water , except for the lower Fangliao basin which the grain size is larger than the expected value. According to the previous studies on the Pingtung Earthquake induced submarine geohazard, the Fangliao Submarine Canyon and the Lower Fangliao Basin is an important conduit for gravity flow which triggered large scale submarine cable breakages and left coarse sediments on the passage. By using the excess Pb-210 derived sediment accumulation rates, Huh et al. (2009) suggested the depocenter off the southwestern Taiwan is located at the flank of the Gaoping Canyon over the upper slope with the highest rate >1 cm/yr. In this study we integrate the Pb-210 inventory data which covered the area from the Fangliao Submarine Canyon to the Tsengwen River mouth and discovered besides the depocenter which proposed by Huh et al. (2009), the Lower Fangliao Basin is another main depocenter off southwestern Taiwan.

  9. Seismotetonics of the Eastern Taiwan offshore area from OBS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, S.; Lin, J.

    2013-12-01

    Located at the arc-continental collision region between the Eurasian (EU) and Philippine Sea Plate (PSP), Taiwan is characterized by a complex tectonic environment, especially the eastern part of the island. Based on geodetic, geological and geophysical data, the tectonic structures in the eastern Taiwan have been well studied by several former works. However, the seismotectonic structures in the offshore area of eastern Taiwan are still poorly understood, because most seismic stations are inland and the earthquakes occur offshore cannot be located accurately. To understand the seismic activities in the offshore area of the eastern Taiwan, we deployed 8 OBSs (Ocean Bottom Seismometer) from Jul. 9th to Aug. 3rd, 2012 to record the seismic signal. The continuous waveform data recorded by the CWB (Central Weather Bureau) land stations were also used to increase the precision of the hypocenter determination. Seismic events were detected manually and the Antelope software and the global velocity model iasp91 (Kennett and Engdahl, 1991) were used for the initial localization. As a result, a total of 714 events were located in the previous 17-day data. Because of the complexity of the crustal structures around Taiwan, a 1-D seismic velocity model is not accurate sufficiently for a reliable hypocenter determination. For improving the precision of the location, we relocated the earthquakes with the HypoDD relocation method (Waldhauser and Ellsworth, 2000) which could minimize errors result from the velocity structure without the use of station corrections. Finally, 306 events were relocated successfully. Compared with the earthquakes determined by the Taiwanese seismic network (CWB and BATS- Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology), our preliminary result has a similar seismic pattern with these two catalogs but contains much more offshore earthquakes in the same time period. The relocated earthquakes show an east-dipping seismic zone in the southern part of eastern Taiwan (about 22.8°N-23.4°N) which is consistent with the published tomographic and seismic distribution (Malavielle et al., 2002; Wu et al., 2007; Kuochen et al., 2012). Further north (near 23.5°N), a west-dipping seismic structure at a depth of 25-60 km corresponds to the northwestward collision or subduction of part of the PSP (Chemenda et al., 2001; Lallemand et al., 2001 and 2013). Moreover, it is obvious that the presence of a NW-SE trending seismic pattern at 30-40 km depth in the eastern offshore area of the Coastal Range (CR). Further investigation on the focal mechanism and the geological evidence is required to understand the origin and the role of this seismic feature.

  10. Plate Tectonics and Taiwan Orogeny based on TAIGER Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, F. T.; Kuochen, H.; McIntosh, K. D.

    2014-12-01

    Plate tectonics framework is usually complex in a collision zone, where continental lithosphere is involved. In the young Taiwan orogeny, with geologic understanding and large new geodetic and subsurface datasets now available an environment has been created for testing tectonic hypotheses regarding collision and orogeny. Against the background of the commonly accepted view of Taiwan as a southward propagating, self-similar 2-D orogen, a fully 3-D structure is envisaged. Along the whole length of the island the convergence of the Eurasian plate (EUP) the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) takes shape with different plate configurations. In northern Taiwan the convergence occurs with simultaneous collision of the oceanic PSP with continental EUP and the northward subduction of the PSP; in the south, EUP, in the guise of the South China Sea rifted Eurasian continent, subducts toward the east; in central Taiwan collision of oceanic PSP with continental EUP dominates. When relocated seismicity and focal mechanisms are superposed on subsurface P and Vp/Vs velocity images the configurations and the kinematics of the PSP and EUP collision and subduction become clear. While in northern Taiwan the subduction/collision explains well the high peaks and their dwindling (accompanied by crustal thinning) toward the north. In the south, mountains rise above the east-dipping EUP subduction zone as the Eurasian continental shelf veers toward the southwest, divergent from the trend of the Luzon Arc - calling into question the frequently cited arc-continent collision model of Taiwan orogeny. High velocity anomaly and Benioff seismicity coexist in the south. Going north toward Central Taiwan the high velocity anomaly persists for another 150 km or so, but it becomes seismically quiescent. Above the quiescent section the PSP and EUP collide to build the main part of the Central Range and its parallel neighbor the eastern Coastal Range. Key implications regarding orogeny include: 1) Significant petrological changes may accompany the crustal thickening, e.g., eclogitization, and delamination, 2) Rather than the detachment the exhumation of the metamorphic core of the Central Range is the main engine of the orogeny, and 3) The lithosphere has a complex rheological structure, indicated, in part, by the spatial distribution of seismicity.

  11. Carbapenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jann-Tay; Wu, Un-In; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling Yang; Chen, Mei-Chen; Li, Shu-Ying; Hsu, Le-Yin; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2015-01-01

    A total of 1135 carbapenem-resistant (nonsusceptible) Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) isolates were recovered between November 2010 and July 2012 (517 from 2010-2011 and 618 from 2012) from 4 hospitals in Taiwan. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) comprised 5.0% (57 isolates), including 17 KPC-2 (16 Klebsiella pneumoniae and 1 Escherichia coli), 1 NDM-1 (K. oxytoca), 37 IMP-8 (26 Enterobacter cloacae, 4 Citrobacter freundii, 4 Raoultella planticola, 1 K. pneumoniae, 1 E. coli and 1 K. oxytoca), and 2 VIM-1 (1 E. cloacae, 1 E. coli). The KPC-2-positive K. pneumoniae were highly clonal even in isolates from different hospitals, and all were ST11. IMP-8 positive E. cloacae from the same hospitals showed higher similarity in PFGE pattern than those from different hospitals. A total of 518 CRE isolates (45.6%) were positive for blaESBL, while 704 (62.0%) isolates were blaAmpC-positive, 382 (33.6% overall) of which carried both blaESBL and blaAmpC. CTX-M (414, 80.0%) was the most common blaESBL, while DHA (497, 70.6%) and CMY (157, 22.3%) were the most common blaAmpC. Co-carriage of blaESBL and blaAmpC was detected in 31 (54.4%) and 15 (26.3%) of the 57 CPE, respectively. KPC-2 was the most common carbapenemase detected in K. pneumoniae (2.8%), while IMP-8 was the most common in E. cloacae (9.7%). All KPC-2-positive CRE were resistant to all three tested carbapenems. However, fourteen of the 37 IMP-8-positive CRE were susceptible to both imipenem and meropenem in vitro. Intra- and inter-hospital spread of KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae and IMP-8-producing E. cloacae likely occurred. Although the prevalence of CPE is still low, careful monitoring is urgently needed. Non-susceptibility to ertapenem might need to be considered as one criterion of definition for CRE in areas where IMP type carbapenemase is prevalent. PMID:25794144

  12. 2015 guidelines of the Taiwan Society of Cardiology and the Taiwan Hypertension Society for the management of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chern-En; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Ueng, Kwo-Chang; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Yeh, Hung-I; Chen, Chung-Yin; Wu, Yih-Jer; Tsai, Wei-Chuan; Chao, Ting-Hsing; Chen, Chen-Huan; Chu, Pao-Hsien; Chao, Chia-Lun; Liu, Ping-Yen; Sung, Shih-Hsien; Cheng, Hao-Min; Wang, Kang-Ling; Li, Yi-Heng; Chiang, Fu-Tien; Chen, Jyh-Hong; Chen, Wen-Jone; Yeh, San-Jou; Lin, Shing-Jong

    2015-01-01

    It has been almost 5 years since the publication of the 2010 hypertension guidelines of the Taiwan Society of Cardiology (TSOC). There is new evidence regarding the management of hypertension, including randomized controlled trials, non-randomized trials, post-hoc analyses, subgroup analyses, retrospective studies, cohort studies, and registries. More recently, the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) published joint hypertension guidelines in 2013. The panel members who were appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC) also published the 2014 JNC report. Blood pressure (BP) targets have been changed; in particular, such targets have been loosened in high risk patients. The Executive Board members of TSOC and the Taiwan Hypertension Society (THS) aimed to review updated information about the management of hypertension to publish an updated hypertension guideline in Taiwan. We recognized that hypertension is the most important risk factor for global disease burden. Management of hypertension is especially important in Asia where the prevalence rate grows faster than other parts of the world. In most countries in East Asia, stroke surpassed coronary heart disease (CHD) in causing premature death. A diagnostic algorithm was proposed, emphasizing the importance of home BP monitoring and ambulatory BP monitoring for better detection of night time hypertension, early morning hypertension, white-coat hypertension, and masked hypertension. We disagreed with the ESH/ESH joint hypertension guidelines suggestion to loosen BP targets to <140/90 mmHg for all patients. We strongly disagree with the suggestion by the 2014 JNC report to raise the BP target to <150/90 mmHg for patients between 60-80 years of age. For patients with diabetes, CHD, chronic kidney disease who have proteinuria, and those who are receiving antithrombotic therapy for stroke prevention, we propose BP targets of <130/80 mmHg in our guidelines. BP targets are <140/90 mmHg for all other patient groups, except for patients ?80 years of age in whom a BP target of <150/90 mmHg would be optimal. For the management of hypertension, we proposed a treatment algorithm, starting with life style modification (LSM) including S-ABCDE (Sodium restriction, Alcohol limitation, Body weight reduction, Cigarette smoke cessation, Diet adaptation, and Exercise adoption). We emphasized a low-salt strategy instead of a no-salt strategy, and that excessively aggressive sodium restriction to <2.0 gram/day may be harmful. When drug therapy is considered, a strategy called "PROCEED" was suggested (Previous experience, Risk factors, Organ damage, Contraindications or unfavorable conditions, Expert's or doctor's judgment, Expenses or cost, and Delivery and compliance issue). To predict drug effects in lowering BP, we proposed the "Rule of 10" and "Rule of 5". With a standard dose of any one of the 5 major classes of anti-hypertensive agents, one can anticipate approximately a 10-mmHg decrease in systolic BP (SBP) (Rule of 10) and a 5-mmHg decrease in diastolic BP (DBP) (Rule of 5). When doses of the same drug are doubled, there is only a 2-mmHg incremental decrease in SBP and a 1-mmHg incremental decrease in DBP. Preferably, when 2 drugs with different mechanisms are to be taken together, the decrease in BP is the sum of the decrease of the individual agents (approximately 20 mmHg in SBP and 10 mmHg in DBP). Early combination therapy, especially single-pill combination (SPC), is recommended. When patient's initial treatment cannot get BP to targeted goals, we have proposed an adjustment algorithm, "AT GOALs" (Adherence, Timing of administration, Greater doses, Other classes of drugs, Alternative combination or SPC, and LSM + Laboratory tests). Treatment of hypertension in special conditions, including treatment of resistant hypertension, hypertension in women, and perioperative management of hypertension, were also mentioned. The TSOC/THS hypertension guidelines pro

  13. Nonstationary Stochastic Simulation of Strong Ground-Motion Time Histories

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -F. Bonilla IFSTTAR, Paris, France SUMMARY: For earthquake-resistant design, engineering seismologists For earthquake-resistant design, engineering seismologists employ time-history analysis for nonlinear simulations into account the stress drop variability. #12;2. JAPANESE DATASET After the destructive 1995 Kobe earthquake

  14. Effect of Fault Zone on Strong Ground Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchon, M.; Karabulut, H.; Dietrich, M.; Bouin, M.; Aktar, M.

    2004-12-01

    During the M=7.2 Duzce earthquake and its early aftershocks, we recorded the ground accelerations at a small array located within the fault zone of the Izmit earthquake. The array was about 25km away from the Duzce epicenter and consisted of 4 stations set a few hundred meters apart. The stations were all located within about 150m from the fault trace and one of them was installed on the fault trace itself. Peak horizontal acceleration during the main shock was 0.3g at the furthest station from the fault but drastically increased to about 1.0g on the fault itself. Likewise, during the many recorded aftershocks, peak acceleration shows a regular and drastic increase as the recording site is located closer and closer to the fault. During the strongest recorded aftershock, for instance, peak values continuously increase from 0.21g, to 0.34g, to 0.62g, and to about 1.0g, as the distance of the site to the fault trace decreases from about 150m to 0m. These observations show that the fault zone is a narrow structure which extends over a distance of about 100m from the fault trace and which considerably increases the ground shaking close to the fault. This result is in agreement with the study of fault-zone trapped waves made by Ben-Zion et al. (2003) along the same fault segment. The present results also show that the fault zone is not a homogeneous low-velocity wedge, but is a zone of continuously degrading elastic stiffness as one approaches the fault trace.

  15. Weak-Perspective Structure from Motion for Strongly Contaminated Data

    E-print Network

    Chetverikov, Dmitry

    results. The proposed methods and the Trajkovi´c procedure are quantitatively compared on synthetic data (OTKA) under grant T038355 and the EU Network of Excellence MUSCLE (FP6-507752). #12;1 Introduction% of the points tracked by a standard feature tracker (e.g., [8]) in synthetic sequences are usually outliers

  16. Infant Cancer in Taiwan: Incidence and Trends (1995-2009)

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Giun-Yi; Horng, Jiun-Lin; Yen, Hsiu-Ju; Lee, Chih-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Background Current information about cancer incidence patterns among infants in East Asia is rare. The objective of this study was to report the first population-based cancer surveillance of infants in Taiwan. Methods Cancer frequencies and incidence rates among subjects aged <1 year for the period 1995-2009 were obtained from the Taiwan Cancer Registry. Types of cancers were grouped according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer. Rates and trends were analyzed by sex and disease groups and further compared with that of other countries. Results A total of 900 infants were diagnosed with cancers, giving an incidence rate of 250.7 per million person-years from 1995 to 2009. The male-to-female incidence rate ratio was 1.22. Overall, leukemias (56.3 per million) were the most common cancer, followed by germ cell neoplasms (43.2) and neuroblastomas (41.8). The incidence increased by 2.5% annually during the 15-year study period and was predominantly contributed by male infants (3.5%). Compared with other countries, the rate of hepatoblastoma in Taiwan was second to that from Beijing (China) and 2 to 5 times greater compared with the US, France, the North of England and Osaka (Japan). The rates of germ cell neoplasms were 2 to 4 times greater in Taiwan. Conclusions The current data suggests that cancer incidence rate among male infants was rising in Taiwan. The factors associated with higher rates of hepatoblastoma and germ cell neoplasms warrant further investigation on similar ethnic groups of different areas to elucidate the potential environmental impacts while controlling for race. PMID:26110595

  17. Seismic Velocity Anomalies beneath Tatun Volcano Group, Northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tzu-yu; Lin, Cheng-Horng; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Chang, Li-Chin

    2015-04-01

    Volcanic eruption has been a natural disaster for human society. Taiwan is located in the Pacific Ring of Fire. Although there is no obvious phenomenon of volcanic activity in Taiwan, some volcanoes need to be monitored, especially the Tatun Volcano Group (TVG), which exhibits very active hydrothermal activity, is located on the tip of southwestern Ryukyu arc. TVG is about 15 km north to Taipei, capital of Taiwan, and is nearby two nuclear power plants along the northern coast of Taiwan. If TVG erupts, there must be a serious impact and damage to Taiwan. Since TVG is located within the Yangmingshan National Park, any artificial seismic source is not allowed to estimate possible eruption site and the degree of volcanic disaster. Instead, we use natural seismic waves generated by earthquakes to image the possible velocity anomaly of magma chamber and/or hydrothermal system beneath TVG. We systematically compare the differences of arrival times generated by some local earthquakes and recorded at 42 seismic stations in 2014 for finding any low-velocity zone within the crust. The results show that the arrival times always appeared significant delay at some particular seismic stations, such as Chi-Hsin-Shan (CHS), Siao-You-Keng (SYK) and some other stations at TVG, no matter where the earthquakes occurred. It implies that possible low-velocity zones, which could be the location of magma chamber and/or active hydrothermal system, exist beneath the CHS and SYK areas. This feature is generally consistent with the clustered micro-earthquakes in the shallow crust beneath the CHS area in the last decade.

  18. Architecture and Kinematics of the Taiwan Arc-Continent Collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carena, S.; Suppe, J.; Wu, Y. M.; Kanda, R. V. S.

    2014-12-01

    In Taiwan two subduction zones come together in quasi-orthogonal, kinematically stable configuration. Under Taiwan the upper crust of Eurasia is decoupled from the rest of the lithosphere by a detachment that forms the main subduction interface between Eurasia (EU) and Philippine Sea plate (PSP). This interface is visible in both seismicity and crustal tomography at shallow depths and can be followed into the mantle to depths of 450-500 km using global tomography. The plate interface between EU and PSP in the upper 100 km changes from about 60 degrees in the south to vertical (south-central Taiwan) to overturned (north-central Taiwan). The Eurasian Moho is similarly folded, but it does not overturn. Shortening across the plate boundary is accomplished by a combination of subduction of Eurasian lithosphere, folding and thrusting in the Eurasian upper crust, and a secondary subduction zone within the PSP. We hypothesize that: (1) once arc-continent collision occurs, subduction of Eurasian continental lower crust and upper mantle can continue by lithospheric delamination and by continuity with the much larger Eurasian slab to the south; (2) the upper crust of EU deforms by faulting and folding; (3) the present convergence rate of about 90 mm/yr is limited to the last 2 Ma, whereas the long-term rate is about 30 mm/yr and in Taiwan the difference is being taken up by secondary subduction within the PSP margin; (4) a margin-parallel STEP (Subduction-Transform-Edge-Propagator) fault forms the northern limit of Eurasian subduction, which allows the whole system to propagate self-similarly southwestward.

  19. Social Service and Aging Policies: Taiwan, Hong Kong, and the United States. Proceedings (Taipei, Taiwan, May 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Harold L., Ed.

    This document contains presentations on the state of social services and care for the aging in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and the United States given at the 1986 International Conference on Social Service and Aging Policies. Included are a conference statement by T. H. Li, remarks by Shui-teh Hsu, the major of Taipei, and these presentations: (1) "The…

  20. Motion in radiotherapy: particle therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bert, C.; Durante, M.

    2011-08-01

    Charged particle beam radiotherapy requires dedicated measures to compensate for the dosimetric influence of inter- and intra-fractional target motion. Independent of the delivery technique, these measures have to incorporate the strong influence of the radiological depth on the delivered dose. For scanned beam delivery, interference effects of target motion and scanned beam can further cause under-dosage of the clinical target volume despite using margins. Within the scope of this review, published data with respect to motion management in scattered as well as scanned beam treatment delivery will be summarized. Based on a section covering the dosimetric impact of organ motion, motion management during treatment planning, patient positioning, treatment delivery and treatment validation will be summarized. For scattered beam delivery, the concepts and data are often based on clinical usage since treatment of moving tumors has been performed for several years. In the field of scanned beam delivery, the report focuses on the results of research on countermeasures of the interference effect. Clinical application of these techniques can be expected in the near future.