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Sample records for taiwan strong motion

  1. Determine Earthquake Rupture Directivity Using Taiwan TSMIP Strong Motion Waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Kaiwen; Chi, Wu-Cheng; Lai, Ying-Ju; Gung, YuanCheng

    2013-04-01

    Inverting seismic waveforms for the finite fault source parameters is important for studying the physics of earthquake rupture processes. It is also significant to image seismogenic structures in urban areas. Here we analyze the finite-source process and test for the causative fault plane using the accelerograms recorded by the Taiwan Strong-Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) stations. The point source parameters for the mainshock and aftershocks were first obtained by complete waveform moment tensor inversions. We then use the seismograms generated by the aftershocks as empirical Green's functions (EGFs) to retrieve the apparent source time functions (ASTFs) of near-field stations using projected Landweber deconvolution approach. The method for identifying the fault plane relies on the spatial patterns of the apparent source time function durations which depend on the angle between rupture direction and the take-off angle and azimuth of the ray. These derived duration patterns then are compared with the theoretical patterns, which are functions of the following parameters, including focal depth, epicentral distance, average crustal 1D velocity, fault plane attitude, and rupture direction on the fault plane. As a result, the ASTFs derived from EGFs can be used to infer the ruptured fault plane and the rupture direction. Finally we used part of the catalogs to study important seismogenic structures in the area near Chiayi, Taiwan, where a damaging earthquake has occurred about a century ago. The preliminary results show a strike-slip earthquake on 22 October 1999 (Mw 5.6) has ruptured unilaterally toward SSW on a sub-vertical fault. The procedure developed from this study can be applied to other strong motion waveforms recorded from other earthquakes to better understand their kinematic source parameters.

  2. Moment Tensor Inversions using Strong Motion Waveforms of the Taiwan TSMIP Data, 1993-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, K.; Chi, W.; Gung, Y.; Dreger, D. S.; Lee, W. H.; Chiu, H.

    2011-12-01

    Earthquake source parameters are important for earthquake studies and seismic hazard assessment. Moment tensors are among the most important earthquake source parameters, and are now routinely derived using modern broadband seismic networks around the world. Similar waveform inversion techniques can also apply to other available data, including strong-motion seismograms. Strong-motion waveforms are also broadband, and recorded by very dense arrays, in Japan, Taiwan, and some parts of the US, for example. Thus, strong-motion data can be used to argument moment tensor catalogs with a much larger data set than that available from the high-gain, broadband seismic networks. We inverted source mechanisms of the Taiwan earthquakes between 1993 and 2009 by applying the regional moment tensor inversion method using digital data from several hundred stations of the Taiwan Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP). Through testing with different velocity models and filter passbands, we were able to successfully derive moment tensor solutions for 107 earthquakes of Mw>=4.8. The solutions for large events agree well with other available high-quality moment tensor catalogs derived from local and global broadband networks. However, for Mw=5.0 or smaller events, we consistently over estimate the moment magnitudes by 0.5 to 1.0. We have tested accelerograms, and velocity waveforms integrated from accelerograms, for the inversions, and found the results are similar. In addition, we use part of the catalogs to study important seismogenic structures of Meishan, Taiwan region which had a very damaging event a century ago, and found that it is dominated by events with complex right-lateral strike-slip faulting in recent decade. The procedure developed from this study may be applied to other strong-motion datasets to compliment or fill the gaps in catalogs from regional broadband networks and teleseismic networks.

  3. Moment tensor inversions using strong motion waveforms of Taiwan TSMIP data, 1993-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Kaiwen; Chi, Wu-Cheng; Gung, Yuancheng; Dreger, Douglas; Lee, William H. K.; Chiu, Hung-Chie

    2011-10-01

    Earthquake source parameters are important for earthquake studies and seismic hazard assessment. Moment tensors are among the most important earthquake source parameters, and are now routinely derived using modern broadband seismic networks around the world. Similar waveform inversion techniques can also apply to other available data, including strong-motion seismograms. Strong-motion waveforms are also broadband, and recorded in many regions since the 1980s. Thus, strong-motion data can be used to augment moment tensor catalogs with a much larger dataset than that available from the high-gain, broadband seismic networks. However, a systematic comparison between the moment tensors derived from strong motion waveforms and high-gain broadband waveforms has not been available. In this study, we inverted the source mechanisms of Taiwan earthquakes between 1993 and 2009 by using the regional moment tensor inversion method using digital data from several hundred stations in the Taiwan Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP). By testing different velocity models and filter passbands, we were able to successfully derive moment tensor solutions for 107 earthquakes of M w >= 4.8. The solutions for large events agree well with other available moment tensor catalogs derived from local and global broadband networks. However, for M w = 5.0 or smaller events, we consistently over estimated the moment magnitudes by 0.5 to 1.0. We have tested accelerograms, and velocity waveforms integrated from accelerograms for the inversions, and found the results are similar. In addition, we used part of the catalogs to study important seismogenic structures in the area near Meishan Taiwan which was the site of a very damaging earthquake a century ago, and found that the structures were dominated by events with complex right-lateral strike-slip faulting during the recent decade. The procedures developed from this study may be applied to other strong-motion datasets to compliment or fill gaps in catalogs from regional broadband networks and teleseismic networks.

  4. Strong-motion data from the two Pingtung, Taiwan, earthquakes of 26 December 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, C.-F.; Lee, W.H.K.; Boore, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    1016 strong-motion records at 527 free-field stations and 131 records at 42 strong-motion arrays at buildings and bridges were obtained for the Pingtung earthquake doublet from the Taiwan Central Weather Bureau's dense, digital strong-motion network. We carried out standard processing of these strong-motion records at free-field stations. A data set, including the originally recorded files, processed data files, and supporting software and information, is archived online http:// tecdc.earth.sinica.edu.tw/data/EQ2006Pingtung/. We have not yet completed the processing of the strong-motion array data at buildings and bridges. However, some preliminary results and the strong-motion array data recorded at the second nearest instrumented building to the Pingtung earthquake doublet are shown. This paper is intended to document our data processing procedures and the online archived data files, so that researchers can efficiently use the data. We also include two preliminary analyses: (1) a comparison of ground motions recorded by multiple accelerographs at a common site, the TAP 117 station in Taipei, and (2) attenuation of the horizontal ground motions (peak acceleration and response spectra at periods of 0.2, 1.0, and 3.0 s) with respect to distance. Our comparison study of multiple recordings at TAP 117 indicates that waveform coherence among 20- and 24-bit accelerograph records is much higher as compared to records from 16-bit or 12-bit accelerographs, suggesting that the former are of better quality. For the 20- and 24-bit accelerographs, waveform coherence is nearly 1 over the frequency range 1 to 8 Hz for all components, and is greater than about 0.9 from 8 to 20 Hz for the horizontal component, but only from 8 to 12 Hz for the vertical component. Plots of pseudo-acceleration response spectra (PSA) as a function of distance, however, show no clear indication for a difference related to the performance level of the accelerographs. The ground-motions of the first event (Mw = 7.0) are comparable, or even somewhat lower, than those from the smaller second event (Mw = 6.9), consistent with the relative difference of the local magnitudes (ML = 6.96 and 6.99 for the first and second events, respectively). The ground motions from the first event are generally lower than those predicted from equations based on other in-slab subduction earthquakes, whereas the ground motions from the second event are closer to the predictions. Ground-motions for soil sites are generally larger than those from rock sites.

  5. Stochastic Finite Fault Modeling of Strong Ground Motions From the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roumelioti, Z.; Beresnev, I.

    2002-12-01

    The stochastic method for simulating strong ground motion from finite faults is applied to the case of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake. The method involves discretization of the fault plane into smaller parts (subfaults), each of which is assigned an \\omega2 spectrum. The contributions from all subfaults are empirically attenuated to the observation sites and summed to produce the synthetic acceleration time history. The method is first applied to reproduce strong-motion data recorded at 36 rock sites, located within 7-142 km from the mainshock epicenter. At this stage, the parameters of the synthetic model are calibrated to obtain the best fit between synthetics and observations. The goodness of fit is evaluated through the model bias, which is calculated as the difference between the logarithms of the observed and simulated spectra, averaged over all stations. The calibrated model for the Chi-Chi event has a near-zero average bias in reproducing ground motions at rock sites in the frequency range from 0.1 to 20 Hz. An unusually low value is found for parameter sfact, which controls the high-frequency radiation, compared to the mean value found for Californian earthquakes. This result reflects the low-PGA character of the examined event, which physically probably means lower-than-usual slip velocities during the rupture. The calibrated model is subsequently combined with the generic transfer functions for soil sites to simulate the soft-site recordings under the linear-response assumption. This analysis reveals possible reduction in amplification that occurred during the main shock, relative to weak-motion amplification.

  6. Strong ground motion in the Taipei basin from the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, Joe B.; Wen, K.-L.

    2005-01-01

    The Taipei basin, located in northwest Taiwan about 160 km from the epicenter of the Chi-Chi earthquake, is a shallow, triangular-shaped basin filled with low-velocity fluvial deposits. There is a strong velocity contrast across the basement interface of about 600 m/sec at a depth of about 600-700 m in the deeper section of the basin, suggesting that ground motion should be amplified at sites in the basin. In this article, the ground-motion recordings are analyzed to determine the effect of the basin both in terms of amplifications expected from a 1D model of the sediments in the basin and in terms of the 3D structure of the basin. Residuals determined for peak acceleration from attenuation curves are more positive (amplified) in the basin (average of 5.3 cm/ sec2 compared to - 24.2 cm/sec2 for those stations outside the basin and between 75 and 110 km from the surface projection of the faulted area, a 40% increase in peak ground acceleration). Residuals for peak velocity are also significantly more positive at stations in the basin (31.8 cm/sec compared to 20.0 cm/sec out). The correlation of peak motion with depth to basement, while minor in peak acceleration, is stronger in the peak velocities. Record sections of ground motion from stations in and around the Taipei basin show that the largest long-period arrival, which is coherent across the region, is strongest on the vertical component and has a period of about 10-12 sec. This phase appears to be a Rayleigh wave, probably associated with rupture at the north end of the Chelungpu fault. Records of strong motion from stations in and near the basin have an additional, higher frequency signal: nearest the deepest point in the basin, the signal is characterized by frequencies of about 0.3 - 0.4 Hz. These frequencies are close to simple predictions using horizontal layers and the velocity structure of the basin. Polarizations of the S wave are mostly coherent across the array, although there are significant differences along the northwest edge that may indicate large strains across that edge of the basin. The length of each record after the main S wave are all longer at basin stations compared to those outside. This increase in duration of ground shaking is probably caused by amplification of ground motion at basin stations, although coda Q (0.67 - 1.30 Hz) is slightly larger inside the basin compared to those at local stations outside the basin. Durations correlate with depth to basement. These motions are in the range that can induce damage in buildings and may have contributed to the structural collapse of multistory buildings in the Taipei basin.

  7. Finite Source Parameters Using Strong Motion Waveforms of Taiwan TSMIP Data: A Case Study of 22 October 1999 Chiayi, Taiwan, Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, K.; Chi, W. C.; Dreger, D. S.; Gung, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Inverting seismic waveforms for the finite fault source parameters of earthquakes is important for reconstruction of faulting processes including both the properties of the fault and transient stress field. It is also significant to image seismogenic structures in urban areas. Here we analyze the finite-source process and test for the causative fault plane using the accelerograms recorded by the Taiwan Strong-Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) stations. The point source parameters for more than 100 Mw>4 earthquakes were first obtained by complete waveform moment tensor inversions. Then we use part of this catalog to study the 22 October 1999 (Mw 5.6) earthquake sequence near the city of Chiayi, Taiwan, where a damaging earthquake occurred a century ago. We have derived the change in the duration of the apparent source time functions (ASTFs) using a new Empirical Green Function Deconvolution method to estimate the mainshock rupture propagation processes. Preliminary results show the mainshock ruptured on the NNE-SSW trending right-lateral strike-slip fault and propagated toward SSW direction. To further characterize the faulting, we are using a finite fault inversion code developed by Dreger and Kaverina (2000) to derive a slip distribution model of this mainshock. The procedure developed from this study can be applied to other strong motion events to better understand their kinematic source parameters.

  8. Latest Development of Real-Time Strong-Motion Monitoring System in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, N.; Wu, Y.; Shin, T.; Teng, T.

    2003-12-01

    Based on the experience of the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake, the Central Weather Bureau (CWB) has made substantial improvements to the earthquake rapid report system. Besides the current use of digital lease phone line and internet transmission, the satellite link for station to center is setup for backup. The station is also equipped with UPS to prevent the failure of electricity power. This backup link system is designed as automatically switching in case of ground link interrupted. On the other hand, two real-time seismic sub-network are deployed stand alone at Hualein (East coast of Taiwan) and Tainan (south Taiwan) stations separately. The sub-network only manipulates real-time seismic data of nearby stations to shorten the procession time. The configuration and function of sub-network can be monitored and changed by Taipei center through computer link. Results from sub-network can be sent to Taipei center simultaneously. The collective use of these redundant systems significantly improves the capability and reliability of seismic emergency response. It will provide more robust foundation to develop earthquake early warning system. To safeguard train transportation from a disaster earthquake, the CWB assists Taiwan Railway Administration (TRA) to establish a seismic alert system including 44 3-component accelerographs along the track of the round-the-island Taiwan railway system. The configuration of the system is similar to the use of sub-network of CWB. It becomes the third backup of earthquake report system. In addition, ground vibration of a TRA instrument exceeds 180 gals, the power of the railway will be automatically cut-off to slow down the nearby train.

  9. Some observations on colocated and closely spaced strong ground-motion records of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, G.-Q.; Boore, D.M.; Igel, H.; Zhou, X.-Y.

    2003-01-01

    The digital accelerograph network installed in Taiwan produced a rich set of records from the 20 September 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake (Mw 7.6). Teledyne Geotech model A-800 and A-900A* digital accelerographs were colocated at 22 stations that recorded this event. Comparisons of the amplitudes, frequency content, and baseline offsets show that records from several of the A-800 accelerographs are considerably different than those from the colocated A-900A accelerographs. On this basis, and in view of the more thorough predeployment testing of the newer A-900A instruments, we recommend that the records from the A-800 instruments be used with caution in analyses of the mainshock and aftershocks. At the Hualien seismic station two A-900A and one A-800 instruments were colocated, along with a Global Positioning System instrument. Although the records from the two A-900A instruments are much more similar than those from a colocated A-800 instrument, both three-component records contain unpredictable baseline offsets, which produced completely unrealistic ground displacements derived from the accelerations by double integration, as do many of the strong-motion data from this event; the details of the baseline offsets differ considerably on the two three-component records. There are probably numerous sources of the baseline offsets, including sources external to the instruments, such as tilting or rotation of the ground, and sources internal to the instruments, such as electrical or mechanical hysteresis in the sensors. For the two colocated A-900A records at the Hualien seismic station, however, the differences in the baseline offsets suggest that the principal source is some transient disturbance within the instrument. The baseline offsets generally manifest themselves in the acceleration time series as pulses or steps, either singly or in combination. We find a 0.015-Hz low-cut filter can almost completely eliminate the effects of the baseline offsets, but then information regarding the permanent displacements is lost. The causative mechanisms of the baseline offsets are unknown presently. Hence, it is very difficult to recover the permanent displacements from the modern digital records, although for records close to large earthquakes, the signal-to-noise ratio should theoretically be adequate to obtain ground motions with periods of hundreds of seconds. This study reinforces our conclusion from previous studies that the sources of baseline offsets occurring in digital strong-motion records are very complex and often unpredictable, and that, therefore, it is difficult to remove the baseline effects to maximize the information content of the record. The baseline offsets only affect very long period motions (e.g., >20 sec), however, and therefore are of little or no engineering concern.

  10. Seismic switch for strong motion measurement

    DOEpatents

    Harben, P.E.; Rodgers, P.W.; Ewert, D.W.

    1995-05-30

    A seismic switching device is described that has an input signal from an existing microseismic station seismometer and a signal from a strong motion measuring instrument. The seismic switch monitors the signal level of the strong motion instrument and passes the seismometer signal to the station data telemetry and recording systems. When the strong motion instrument signal level exceeds a user set threshold level, the seismometer signal is switched out and the strong motion signal is passed to the telemetry system. The amount of time the strong motion signal is passed before switching back to the seismometer signal is user controlled between 1 and 15 seconds. If the threshold level is exceeded during a switch time period, the length of time is extended from that instant by one user set time period. 11 figs.

  11. Seismic switch for strong motion measurement

    DOEpatents

    Harben, Philip E.; Rodgers, Peter W.; Ewert, Daniel W.

    1995-01-01

    A seismic switching device that has an input signal from an existing microseismic station seismometer and a signal from a strong motion measuring instrument. The seismic switch monitors the signal level of the strong motion instrument and passes the seismometer signal to the station data telemetry and recording systems. When the strong motion instrument signal level exceeds a user set threshold level, the seismometer signal is switched out and the strong motion signal is passed to the telemetry system. The amount of time the strong motion signal is passed before switching back to the seismometer signal is user controlled between 1 and 15 seconds. If the threshold level is exceeded during a switch time period, the length of time is extended from that instant by one user set time period.

  12. Puerto Rico Strong Motion Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta-Lopez, C. I.; Martínez-Cruzado, J. A.; Martínez-Pagan, J.; Santana-Torres, E. X.; Torres-O, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Puerto Rico Strong Motion Seismic Network is currently in charge of the operation of: (i) free-field (ff) strong motion stations, (ii) instrumented structures (STR) (Dams, Bridges, Buildings), and (iii) the data acquisition/monitoring and analysis of earthquakes considered strong from the point of view of their intensity and magnitude. All these instruments are deployed in the Puerto Rico Island (PRI), US-, and British-Virgin Islands (BVI), and Dominican Republic (DR). The Puerto Rico Island and the Caribbean region have high potential to be affected by earthquakes that could be catastrophic for the area. The Puerto Rico Strong Motion Seismic Network (actually Puerto Rico Strong Motion Program, PRSMP) has grown since 1970's from 7 ff strong motion stations and one instrumented building with analog accelerographs to 111 ff strong motion stations and 16 instrumented buildings with digital accelerographs: PRI: 88 ff, 16 STR., DR: 13 ff, BVI: 5 ff, 2 STR collecting data via IP (internet), DU (telephone), and stand alone stations The current stage of the PRSMP seismic network, the analysis of moderate earthquakes that were recorded and/or occurred on the island, results of the intensity distribution of selected earthquakes, as well as results of dynamic parameter identification of some of the instrumented structures are here presented.

  13. Ground Motion Characteristic in the Kaohsiung Area, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, H.; Wen, K.; Chang, T.

    2003-12-01

    Kaohsiung city is the most important harbor in Taiwan. Recently, there are many high-rise buildings and public transportation system are under construction in this area. Therefore, it is very important to know the surface geological conditions for many practical reasons especially after the strikes of 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake. The Central Geological Survey had spent four years to bore more than 50 wells. And now, it is very clear to know the basement depth is changing from 120 to 40 meters for the western and eastern part of the Kaohsiung city. The harbor and commercial area locate at the western part of this area, and the eastern part is small hill area. To serve the purpose of earthquake hazard mitigation, it would be better to understand the soil amplification effect of the Kaohsiung city. We then conducted a research to study the site effects of the Kaohsiung city, which includes analyze the acceleration seismogram data of TSMIP (Taiwan Strong Motion Instrumentation Program) network and two newly installed borehole seismometer arrays, and perform very dense microtremor measurements in the study area. Most microtremor measurements were done during the midnight to reduce artifacts. After carefully selection, we pick 233 records and use the H/V ratio method to get information of soil amplification. From the result, we found it correlated to the basement depth very well. For the purpose of the earthquake resistant design, earthquake engineers must consider the site response at a specific period. For example, the structure period of a ten-flour building is at about 1 second. If the input ground motion is dominate at 1 Hz, then the building will has a resonant effect. Therefore, in this study, we select 10 frequencies (0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 Hz) to plot out the contour map for understanding the frequency responses in this area. For the 0.5 Hz, the contours show that main amplification effects occurred at the southern part of Kaohsiung area. With the frequency increasing to 2.0 Hz, the main amplification area move from the harbor and the southern part of Kaohsiung area to the hill area, which locates at the eastern part of Kaohsiung area. For the higher frequency (3.0 Hz), there are no obvious high contour areas. We pick the dominant frequency of each record and plot out the contour map. At the harbor and city area, the dominant frequency is about 0.5 ~ 0.9 Hz, and the northeastern part is about 1.3 ~ 1.7 Hz. We found that the basement structure can explain the contour very well. Yet, the H/V dominated frequency distribution map reveals more detail features.

  14. Strong Motion Recording in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archuleta, R. J.; Fletcher, J. B.; Shakal, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    The United States strong motion program began in 1932 when the Coast and Geodetic Survey (C&GS) installed eight strong motion accelerographs in California. During the March 1933 Long Beach earthquake, three of these produced the first strong motion records. With this success the C&GS expanded the number of accelerographs to 71 by 1964. With development of less expensive, mass-produced accelerographs the number of strong motion accelerographs expanded to ~575 by 1972. Responsibilities for operating the network and disseminating data were transferred to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in 1970 and then to the U.S. Geological Survey in 1973. In 1972 the California Legislature established the California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP). CSMIP operates accelerographs at 812 ground stations, with multi-channel accelerographs in 228 buildings, 125 lifelines and 37 geotechnical arrays, in California. The USGS and the ANSS effort operate accelerographs at 1584 ground stations, 96 buildings, 14 bridges, 70 dams, and 15 multi-channel geotechnical arrays. The USC Los Angeles array has 78 ground stations; UCSB operates 5 geotechnical arrays; other government and private institutions also operate accelerographs. Almost all accelerographs are now digital with a sampling rate of 200 Hz. Most of the strong motion data can be downloaded from the Center for Engineering Strong Motion Data (http://strongmotioncenter.org). As accelerographs have become more sophisticated, the concept of what constitutes strong motion has blurred because small earthquakes (M ~3) are well recorded on accelerometers as well as seismometers. However, when accelerations are over ~10%g and velocities over ~1 cm/s, the accelerometers remain on scale, providing the unclipped data necessary to analyze the ground motion and its consequences. Strong motion data are essential to the development of ground motion prediction equations, understanding structural response, performance based engineering, soil response, and inversions for earthquake rupture parameters. While an important number of stations have been installed, many areas of the US are significantly deficient, e.g., recordings were obtained from only 2 stations within 60 km of the Mineral earthquake that damaged the nation's capital and other areas.

  15. A Strong-motion catalog for Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudyanto, A.; Cummins, P. R.; Ghasemi, H.; Gunawan, I.; Sukanta, N.; Suhardjono, S.

    2012-12-01

    Since the Indonesian islands of Sumatra and Java lie adjacent to an active subduction zone and include some of the world's most densely populated areas, the reduction of potential earthquake fatalities through improved building codes and seismic hazard assessments is a high priority. One of the most critical parts of an earthquake hazard assessment is a quantitative description of the level of ground motion generated by an earthquake, also known as Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs). We have developed a strong ground motion database for of Sumatra and Java. This catalog includes: best-available earthquake catalogue parameters; a compilation of site response information using various techniques; and ground motion parameters commonly used in seismology and engineering applications, such as response spectra. We will show how the database can be used for investigating which published Ground Motion Prediction Equation (GMPE) are appropriate to use for Indonesian earthquake hazard assessment.

  16. The Italian Strong Motion Network (RAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Giovanni; Ammirati, Alfredo; de Nardis, Rita; Filippi, Luisa; Gallo, Antonella; Lavecchia, Giusy; Sirignano, Sebastiano; Zambonelli, Elisa; Nicoletti, Mario

    2014-05-01

    A network for the strong motion monitoring of the territory allows recording data that provide an excellent opportunity to study the source, path, and site effects on the ground motions, specifically in near source area, for updating seismic hazard map and consequently construction codes and earthquake resistant design. Strong motion data also help to increase the effective preparation and response to seismic emergencies and the ability of a community to quickly recover from the damages of an earthquake contributes to lower the seismic risk usually measured in term of casualties and economic losses. The Italian network for monitoring the strong movement of the national territory (RAN) is the result of a fruitful cooperation over the last 16 years between the Italian government, the regions and local authorities and now counts more than 500 stations. Over the years, as a priority the DPC has focused mainly on the expansion of the network in terms of the number of measurement points and technological improvement of instrumentation as well as the data transmission system. A data acquisition centre was implemented in which the Antelope software collects, processes and archives, automatically, the data of the RAN and of the external strong motion networks that contribute to the database of the RAN. Recently the DPC has dedicated specific resources to improve the response of the network, in particular, in case of emergency. The efficiency of the network on a daily basis is not less than 95% and temporary networks were installed in the epicentral area within 24 hours after the earthquake and connected to the data acquisition centre in Rome. A fast seismic data analysis is essential to provide useful information to Authorities which make decisions immediately after a strong earthquake occurrence. During a strong earthquake, the modern accelerometers are the only instruments which can provide near source high-quality data that are important both for scientific and for civil protection purposes. Automatic and fast techniques have been developed by the University of Trieste for the automatic real-time strong motion data analysis. These techniques have been installed and customized in the data acquisition centre of the Department of Civil Protection of Italy (DPC) to process the quasi real-time data of the Italian Strong Motion Network (RAN) and to exploit information from RAN stations during seismic emergences for Civil protection purposes. RAN counts more than 500 stations covering all the Italian territory. Two local networks, the Friuli Venezia Giulia Accelerometric Network (RAF), located in NE Italy, and the Irpinia Seismic Network (ISNet), contribute their data into the RAN data acquisition system. The performance of the network and of the fast automatic strong motion data analysis during the Emilia 2012 sequence is analyzed.

  17. Strong ground motion prediction using virtual earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Denolle, M A; Dunham, E M; Prieto, G A; Beroza, G C

    2014-01-24

    Sedimentary basins increase the damaging effects of earthquakes by trapping and amplifying seismic waves. Simulations of seismic wave propagation in sedimentary basins capture this effect; however, there exists no method to validate these results for earthquakes that have not yet occurred. We present a new approach for ground motion prediction that uses the ambient seismic field. We apply our method to a suite of magnitude 7 scenario earthquakes on the southern San Andreas fault and compare our ground motion predictions with simulations. Both methods find strong amplification and coupling of source and structure effects, but they predict substantially different shaking patterns across the Los Angeles Basin. The virtual earthquake approach provides a new approach for predicting long-period strong ground motion. PMID:24458636

  18. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A.; Kennedy, R.P.

    1992-06-01

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ``strong motion duration`` has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions.

  19. Stochastic Ground Motion Simulation with Site Correction in Ilan Area, Northeastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NFN, Megawati; Kuo-Liang, Wen

    2015-04-01

    Earthquake waveform is controlled by three factors - source properties, path characteristics, and local site effects. The local site effect is the important factor participate strong ground motion prediction. In this study, we used stochastic point-source method for simulating ground motion (Boore, 2005). This method has been widely used in the development of ground-motion prediction equation and in modeling the parameters that controls observed ground motion (Atkinson et al., 2009). The shallow earthquake events which recorded by Taiwan Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) from 1992 to 2012 are simulated with the stochastic point-source method (Boore, 1983; Boore, 2003). The earthquake records are selected with the depth from 0 to 30 km and the magnitude (Mw) from 4 to 6.5. The study area is situated in Ilan area which is located in the northeastern Taiwan. There are 70 TSMIP stations which based on the Vs30 consist of site class B, C, D, and E. Seismic parameters for stochastic method were selected based on previous studies (Sokolov et al., 2006; 2009). The crustal amplification parameter is set to the halfspace. The empirical transfer functions from 0.2 Hz to 10 Hz for each station in Ilan area will be calculated by H/H method between observed and simulated spectra (Borcheret, 1970). Ground motion prediction is calculated by selecting several target events for stochastic point-source simulating to the halfspace. The prediction of peak ground acceleration (PGA) is estimated after doing the site correction with the empirical transfer function. Finally, the simulated ground motion was compared in time domain (PGA) and frequency domain (Degree of spectrum difference, DSPD) to show the goodness of the simulation. Keywords : Stochastic point-source method, Site effect, Empirical transfer function

  20. Earthquake Scaling and Development of Ground Motion Prediction for Earthquake Hazard Mitigation in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, K.; Yen, Y.

    2011-12-01

    For earthquake hazard mitigation toward risk management, integration study from development of source model to ground motion prediction is crucial. The simulation for high frequency component ( > 1 Hz) of strong ground motions in the near field was not well resolved due to the insufficient resolution in velocity structure. Using the small events as Green's functions (i.e. empirical Green's function (EGF) method) can resolve the problem of lack of precise velocity structure to replace the path effect evaluation. If the EGF is not available, a stochastic Green's function (SGF) method can be employed. Through characterizing the slip models derived from the waveform inversion, we directly extract the parameters needed for the ground motion prediction in the EGF method or the SGF method. The slip models had been investigated from Taiwan dense strong motion and global teleseismic data. In addition, the low frequency ( < 1 Hz) can obtained numerically by the Frequency-Wavenumber (FK) method. Thus, broadband frequency strong ground motion can be calculated by a hybrid method that combining a deterministic FK method for the low frequency simulation and the EGF or SGF method for high frequency simulation. Characterizing the definitive source parameters from the empirical scaling study can provide directly to the ground motion simulation. To give the ground motion prediction for a scenario earthquake, we compiled the earthquake scaling relationship from the inverted finite-fault models of moderate to large earthquakes in Taiwan. The studies show the significant involvement of the seismogenic depth to the development of rupture width. In addition to that, several earthquakes from blind fault show distinct large stress drop, which yield regional high PGA. According to the developing scaling relationship and the possible high stress drops for earthquake from blind faults, we further deploy the hybrid method mentioned above to give the simulation of the strong motion in displacement, velocity and acceleration. We now give this exercise to the high stress drop event, and the events, which might have potential seismic hazard to a specific site to give further estimation on seismic hazard evaluation.

  1. The Athens Acropolis Strong Motion Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogeras, I. S.; Evangelidis, C. P.; Melis, N. S.; Boukouras, K.

    2012-04-01

    During the last decades, extensive restoration works through a dedicated "Acropolis Restoration Service" (YSMA) take place in the Acropolis, the greatest sanctuary of ancient Athens. Since 2008, a permanent strong motion array was deployed by the Institute of Geodynamics, National Observatory of Athens (NOA-IG) in collaboration with YSMA. Free field installations were decided at sites showing various characteristics, aiming to investigate differences in geotechnical properties as well as the structure response of Parthenon itself. The installation phase is presented, with the techniques used to overcome difficulties (i.e. extreme weather conditions, power and communication limitations, restoration works and visitors) and the special care taken for the specific archaeological site. Furthermore, indicative examples of seismic events recorded by the array are analyzed and the complexity of the hill and the monument is made apparent. Among them, the long distance events of Tohoku, Japan 2010 and Van, Turkey 2011, some regional moderate earthquakes in Greece and some weak earthquakes from the vicinity. Continuous ambient noise monitoring using PQLX software gives some first indicative results, showing a variety of characteristics at installation sites. Finally, further developments and future steps are presented such as: the extension of the array, the integration of seismic data within the GIS platform of YSMA at the site and the use of strong motion records, in conjunction with data from other monitoring systems operating in Acropolis for the study of specific monuments.

  2. Towards Integrated Marmara Strong Motion Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durukal, E.; Erdik, M.; Safak, E.; Ansal, A.; Ozel, O.; Alcik, H.; Mert, A.; Kafadar, N.; Korkmaz, A.; Kurtulus, A.

    2009-04-01

    Istanbul has a 65% chance of having a magnitude 7 or above earthquake within the next 30 years. As part of the preparations for the future earthquake, strong motion networks have been installed in and around Istanbul. The Marmara Strong Motion Network, operated by the Department of Earthquake Engineering of Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute, encompasses permanent systems outlined below. It is envisaged that the networks will be run by a single entity responsible for technical management and maintanence, as well as for data management, archiving and dissemination through dedicated web-based interfaces. • Istanbul Earthquake Rapid Response and Early Warning System - IERREWS (one hundred 18-bit accelerometers for rapid response; ten 24-bit accelerometers for early warning) • IGDAŞ Gas Shutoff Network (100 accelerometers to be installed in 2010 and integrated with IERREWS) • Structural Monitoring Arrays - Fatih Sultan Mehmet Suspension Bridge (1200m-long suspension bridge across the Bosphorus, five 3-component accelerometers + GPS sensors) - Hagia Sophia Array (1500-year-old historical edifice, 9 accelerometers) - Süleymaniye Mosque Array (450-year-old historical edifice,9 accelerometers) - Fatih Mosque Array (237-year-old historical edifice, 9 accelerometers) - Kanyon Building Array (high-rise office building, 5 accelerometers) - Isbank Tower Array (high-rise office building, 5 accelerometers) - ENRON Array (power generation facility, 4 acelerometers) - Mihrimah Sultan Mosque Array (450-year-old historical edifice,9 accelerometers + tiltmeters, to be installed in 2009) - Sultanahmet Mosque Array, (390-year-old historical edifice, 9 accelerometers + tiltmeters, to be installed in 2009) • Special Arrays - Atakoy Vertical Array (four 3-component accelerometers at 25, 50, 75, and 150 m depths) - Marmara Tube Tunnel (1400 m long submerged tunnel, 128 ch. accelerometric data, 24 ch. strain data, to be installed in 2010) - Air-Force Academy Array (72 ch. dense accelerometric array to be installed in 2010) - Gemlik Array (a dense basin array of 8 stations, to be installed in 2010) The objectives of these systems and networks are: (1) to produce rapid earthquake intensity, damage and loss assessment information after an earthquake (in the case of IERREWS), (2) to monitor conditions of structural systems, (3) to develop real-time data processing, analysis, and damage detection and location tools (in the case of structural networks) after an extreme event, (4) to assess spatial properties of strong ground motion and ground strain, and to characterise basin response (in the case of special arrays), (5) to investigate site response and wave propagation (in the case of vertical array). Ground motion data obtained from these strong motion networks have and are being used for investigations of attenuation, spatial variation (coherence), simulation benchmarking, source modeling, site response, seismic microzonation, system identification and structural model verification and structural health control. In addition to the systems and networks outlined above there are two temporary networks: KIMNET - a dense urban noise and microtremor network consisting of 50 broadband stations expected to be operational in mid 2009, and SOSEWIN - a 20-station, self-organizing structural integrated array at Ataköy in Istanbul.

  3. SCEC Broadband Platform Strong Ground Motion Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Callaghan, S.; Maechling, P. J.; Olsen, K. B.; Archuleta, R. J.; Somerville, P. G.; Graves, R. W.; Jordan, T. H.; Broadband Platform Working Group

    2011-12-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Broadband Platform is a collaborative software development project involving SCEC researchers, graduate students, and the SCEC Community Modeling Environment. The goal of the SCEC Broadband Simulation Platform is to generate broadband (0-10 Hz) ground motions for earthquakes using deterministic low-frequency and stochastic high-frequency simulations. SCEC developers have integrated complex scientific modules for rupture generation, low-frequency deterministic seismogram synthesis, high-frequency stochastic seismogram synthesis, and non-linear site effects calculation into a system that supports easy on-demand computation of broadband seismograms. The SCEC Broadband platform has two primary modes of operation, validation mode, and scenario mode. In validation mode, the earthquake modeling software calculates broadband seismograms for one of three earthquakes, Northridge, Loma Prieta, or Landers at sites with observed strong motion data. Then, the platform calculates goodness of fit measurements that quantify how well the model-based broadband seismograms match the observed seismograms for each event. In scenario mode, the user can specify a scenario earthquake and a list of sites and calculate ground motions at each site for the scenario event. In February 2011, SCEC released Broadband Platform 11.2 as an open-source scientific software distribution. Since that time, we have continued development of the platform by adding a new site response module and new goodness of fit measures by Mayhew and Olsen. Along with a source code distribution of the Broadband Platform, we now offer a virtual software image distribution of the platform to support its use on a variety of computing hardware and operating systems.

  4. Strong Motion Seismograph Based On MEMS Accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Y.; Hu, X.

    2013-12-01

    The MEMS strong motion seismograph we developed used the modularization method to design its software and hardware.It can fit various needs in different application situation.The hardware of the instrument is composed of a MEMS accelerometer,a control processor system,a data-storage system,a wired real-time data transmission system by IP network,a wireless data transmission module by 3G broadband,a GPS calibration module and power supply system with a large-volumn lithium battery in it. Among it,the seismograph's sensor adopted a three-axis with 14-bit high resolution and digital output MEMS accelerometer.Its noise level just reach about 99μg/√Hz and ×2g to ×8g dynamically selectable full-scale.Its output data rates from 1.56Hz to 800Hz. Its maximum current consumption is merely 165μA,and the device is so small that it is available in a 3mm×3mm×1mm QFN package. Furthermore,there is access to both low pass filtered data as well as high pass filtered data,which minimizes the data analysis required for earthquake signal detection. So,the data post-processing can be simplified. Controlling process system adopts a 32-bit low power consumption embedded ARM9 processor-S3C2440 and is based on the Linux operation system.The processor's operating clock at 400MHz.The controlling system's main memory is a 64MB SDRAM with a 256MB flash-memory.Besides,an external high-capacity SD card data memory can be easily added.So the system can meet the requirements for data acquisition,data processing,data transmission,data storage,and so on. Both wired and wireless network can satisfy remote real-time monitoring, data transmission,system maintenance,status monitoring or updating software.Linux was embedded and multi-layer designed conception was used.The code, including sensor hardware driver,the data acquisition,earthquake setting out and so on,was written on medium layer.The hardware driver consist of IIC-Bus interface driver, IO driver and asynchronous notification driver. The application program layer mainly concludes: earthquake parameter module, local database managing module, data transmission module, remote monitoring, FTP service and so on. The application layer adopted multi-thread process. The whole strong motion seismograph was encapsulated in a small aluminum box, which size is 80mm×120mm×55mm. The inner battery can work continuesly more than 24 hours. The MEMS accelerograph uses modular design for its software part and hardware part. It has remote software update function and can meet the following needs: a) Auto picking up the earthquake event; saving the data on wave-event files and hours files; It may be used for monitoring strong earthquake, explosion, bridge and house health. b) Auto calculate the earthquake parameters, and transferring those parameters by 3G wireless broadband network. This kind of seismograph has characteristics of low cost, easy installation. They can be concentrated in the urban region or areas need to specially care. We can set up a ground motion parameters quick report sensor network while large earthquake break out. Then high-resolution-fine shake-map can be easily produced for the need of emergency rescue. c) By loading P-wave detection program modules, it can be used for earthquake early warning for large earthquakes; d) Can easily construct a high-density layout seismic monitoring network owning remote control and modern intelligent earthquake sensor.

  5. Ground Motion Characteristic in the Kaohsiung & Pingtung Area, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, H.; Wen, K.; Chang, T.

    2004-12-01

    Kaohsiung city is the most important harbor in Taiwan. Recently, there are many high-rise buildings and public transportation system are under construction in this area. Therefore, it is very important to know the surface geological conditions for many practical reasons especially after the strikes of 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake. To serve the purpose of earthquake hazard mitigation, it would be better to understand the soil amplification effect of the Kaohsiung-Pingtung area. We then conducted a research to study the site effects of the area, which includes analyze three newly installed borehole seismometer arrays, and perform very dense microtremor measurements in the study area. Most microtremor measurements were done during the midnight to reduce artifacts. After carefully selection, we pick 590 records and use the H/V ratio method to get information of soil amplification. From the result, we found it correlated to the basement depth very well. For the purpose of the earthquake resistant design, earthquake engineers must consider the site response at a specific period. For example, the structure period of a ten-flour building is at about 1 second. If the input ground motion is dominate at 1 Hz, then the building will has a resonant effect. Therefore, in this study, we select several frequencies to plot out the contour map for understanding the frequency responses in this area. For the 0.5 Hz, the contours show that main amplification effects occurred at the southern part of Kaohsiung area. With the frequency increasing to 2.0 Hz, the main amplification area move from the harbor and the southern part of Kaohsiung area to the hill area, which locates at the eastern part of Kaohsiung area. For the higher frequency (3.0 Hz), there are no obvious high contour areas. We pick the dominant frequency of each record and plot out the contour map. At the harbor and city area, the dominant frequency is about 0.5 ~ 0.9 Hz, and the northeastern part is about 1.3 ~ 1.7 Hz. We found that the basement structure can explain the contour very well. Yet, the H/V dominated frequency distribution map reveals more detail features.

  6. Evaluation of Turkish National Strong Ground Motion Network Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulfikar, C.; Kamer, Y.; Erdik, M. O.

    2011-12-01

    The strong ground motion records archieved in the Turkish National Strong Ground Motion Network database and Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute Strong Ground Motion Network database have been analysed in order to extract some regional characterisitics of the records and to evaluate existing attenuation relationships. The strong ground motion data of (M2.2-M7.4) earthquakes recorded from 1976 to 2007 have been analysed and engineering parameters extracted. The engineering parameters obtained from the process include peak ground motion parameters such as PGA, PGV, PGD, spectral parameters such as Sa, Sd, ground motion duration and intensity estimations. In total 6762(2254 x 3) strong ground motion records with epicentral distance varying from 8.7km to 250km have been studied. The calculated parameters have been used in the evaluation and comparision of ground motion prediction equations which are used in the formation of real-time ground motion parameters and intensity maps.

  7. The Commercial TREMOR Strong-Motion Seismograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. R.; Hamstra, R. H.; Kuendig, C.; Camina, P.

    2001-12-01

    The emergence of major seismological and earthquake-engineering problems requiring large, dense instrument arrays led several of us to investigate alternate solutions. Evans and Rogers (USGS Open File Report 95-555, 1995) and Evans (USGS Open File Report 98-109, 1998) demonstrated the efficacy of low-cost robust silicon accelerometers in strong-motion seismology, making possible a vast increase in the spatial density of such arrays. The 1998 design displays true 16-bit performance and excellent robustness and linearity---13 of these prototype near-real-time instruments are deployed in Oakland, California, and have recorded data from seven small events (up to 5.7 %g). Since this technology is a radical departure from past efforts, it was necessary for the USGS to develop the sensor and demonstrate its efficacy thoroughly. Since it is neither practical nor appropriate for the USGS to produce instrumentation beyond a demonstration phase, the US Geological Survey and GeoSIG Ltd undertook a collaborative effort (a ``CRAD'') to commercialize the new technology. This effort has resulted in a fully temperature-compensated 16-bit system, the GeoSIG GT-316, announced in April, 2001, combining the ICS-3028 TM-based USGS sensor, temperature compensation technique, and peak ground velocity (PGV) computation with a highly customized 16-bit GeoSIG recorder. The price has not been set but is likely to be around \\2000 in large quantities. The result is a near-real-time instrument telemetering peak ground acceleration (PGA) and PGV about 90 s after onset of the P wave, then minutes later transmitting the waveform. The receiving software, ``HomeBase()'', also computes spectral acceleration, S_{a}. PGA, PGV, S_{a}, and waveforms are forwarded immediately by HomeBase() for ShakeMap generation and other uses. Shaking metrics from the prototypes in Oakland are consistently among the first to arrive for the northern California ShakeMap. For telemetry we use a low-cost always-connected cell-phone-based Internet technology (CDPD), but any RS-232 connected telemetry system is a viable candidate (spread spectrum, CDMA, GSM, POT). The instruments can be synchronized via CDPD to a few tenths of a second, or to full precision with an optional GPS receiver. Sensor RMS noise is 33 \\mathrm \\mu g over the band 0.1 to 35 Hz, 11 \\mathrm \\mu g$ over the band 0.1 to 1.0 Hz; the sensor is extremely linear (far better than 1% of full scale); temperature compensation is to better than 1% of full scale. TREMOR-class instruments are intended to fill the niche of high spatial resolution with an economical low-maintenance device, while conventional instruments continue to pursue maximum amplitude resolution. The TREMOR instrument also has applications in areas where budget or access limitations require lower purchase, installation, or maintenance cost (commercial ANSS partners, remote sites, on-call aftershock arrays, extremely dense arrays, and organizations with limited budgets). However, we primarily envision large, mixed arrays of conventional and TREMOR instruments in urban areas, the former providing better early information from small events and the TREMOR instruments guaranteeing better spatial resolution and more near-field recording of large events. Together, they would meet the ANSS goal of dense near-real-time urban monitoring and the collection of requisite data for risk mitigation.

  8. Strong motion instrumentation of an RC building structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, H.-J.; Celebi, M.

    2001-01-01

    The strong-motion instrumentation scheme of a reinforced concrete building observed by California Strong-Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP) is introduced in this paper. The instrumented building is also described and the recorded responses during 1994 Northridge earthquake are provided.

  9. Next Generation Attenuation of Ground Motions in Ilan, Taiwan: Establishment and Analysis of Attenuation Relations for Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and Peak Ground Velocity (PGV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.

    2009-12-01

    An evaluation of seismic hazards requires an estimate of the expected ground motion at the site of interest. The most common means of estimating this ground motion in engineering practice is the use of an attenuation relation. A number of developments have arisen recently to suggest that a new generation of attenuation relationships is warranted. The project named Next Generation Attenuation of Ground Motions (NGA) Project was developed by Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) in response to a core objective: reducing uncertainty in earthquake ground motion estimation. This objective reflects recognition from industry sponsors that improvements in earthquake ground motion estimation will result in significant cost savings and will result in improved system performance in the event of a large earthquake. The Central Weather Bureau has implemented the Taiwan Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) to collect high-quality instrumental recordings of strong earthquake shaking.It is necessary for us to study the strong ground motion characteristics at the Ilan area of northeastern Taiwan. Further analyses using a good quality data base that includes 486 events and 4172 recordings of magnitude greater than 4.0 are required to derive the next generation attenuation of ground motion in Ilan area. In addition, Liu and Tsai (2007) used a catalog of more than 1840 shallow earthquakes with homogenized Mw magnitude ranging from 5.0 to 8.2 in 1900-2007 to estimate the seismic hazard potential in Taiwan. As a result, the PGA and PGV contour patterns of maximum ground motion show that Ilan Plain has high values of 0.2g and 80cm/sec with respect to MMI intensity VII and IX, respectively. Furthermore, from the mean ground motion and the seismic intensity rate analyses, they show that a high annul probability of MMI > VI greater than 35 percents are located at the Chianan area of western Taiwan and Ilan Plain in northeastern Taiwan. However, these results was estimated by used attenuation relationship of Taiwan which conducted by Liu and Tsai (2005). Hence, Next Generation Attenuation of Ground Motions (NGA) of Ilan Plain must be developed as soon as possible, in order to provide more important information for the site evaluation of critical facilities in those relatively high earthquake hazard potential regions and will be helpful for the plan of land-using.

  10. Towards an integrated European strong motion data distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luzi, Lucia; Clinton, John; Cauzzi, Carlo; Puglia, Rodolfo; Michelini, Alberto; Van Eck, Torild; Sleeman, Reinhoud; Akkar, Sinan

    2013-04-01

    Recent decades have seen a significant increase in the quality and quantity of strong motion data collected in Europe, as dense and often real-time and continuously monitored broadband strong motion networks have been constructed in many nations. There has been a concurrent increase in demand for access to strong motion data not only from researchers for engineering and seismological studies, but also from civil authorities and seismic networks for the rapid assessment of ground motion and shaking intensity following significant earthquakes (e.g. ShakeMaps). Aside from a few notable exceptions on the national scale, databases providing access to strong motion data has not appeared to keep pace with these developments. In the framework of the EC infrastructure project NERA (2010 - 2014), that integrates key research infrastructures in Europe for monitoring earthquakes and assessing their hazard and risk, the network activity NA3 deals with the networking of acceleration networks and SM data. Within the NA3 activity two infrastructures are being constructed: i) a Rapid Response Strong Motion (RRSM) database, that following a strong event, automatically parameterises all available on-scale waveform data within the European Integrated waveform Data Archives (EIDA) and makes the waveforms easily available to the seismological community within minutes of an event; and ii) a European Strong Motion (ESM) database of accelerometric records, with associated metadata relevant to earthquake engineering and seismology research communities, using standard, manual processing that reflects the state of the art and research needs in these fields. These two separate repositories form the core infrastructures being built to distribute strong motion data in Europe in order to guarantee rapid and long-term availability of high quality waveform data to both the international scientific community and the hazard mitigation communities. These infrastructures will provide the access to strong motion data in an eventual EPOS seismological service. A working group on Strong Motion data is being created at ORFEUS in 2013. This body, consisting of experts in strong motion data collection, processing and research from across Europe, will provide the umbrella organisation that will 1) have the political clout to negotiate data sharing agreements with strong motion data providers and 2) manage the software during a transition from the end of NERA to the EPOS community. We expect the community providing data to the RRSM and ESM will gradually grow, under the supervision of ORFEUS, and eventually include strong motion data from networks from all European countries that can have an open data policy.

  11. Application of Dense Array Analysis to Strong Motion Data Recorded at The SMART-1 Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francois, C.

    2003-12-01

    This paper is part of a project to design an optimal strong motion dense array in New Zealand. The overall project looks at developing a dense network of strong motion seismometers in order to measure directly the rupture process of major seismogenic sources such as the Alpine Fault and strands of the Marlborough Fault System defining the South Island sector of the Australia-Pacific plate boundary zone. This work shows the application of dense array analysis to a set of seismic data recorded at the SMART-1 array in Taiwan (data kindly provided by the Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica Data Management Center for Strong Motion Seismology - Taiwan). The data have been processed and analysed applying modified MUSIC algorithm with higher computing capabilities giving higher resolution results. The SMART-1 array is an ideal dense array of 37 strong motion instruments set up in the following configuration: 3 concentric circles of radii 200m, 1 km and 2km, and one central station. The studied event called Event 5 was recorded on January 29th 1981 and had a magnitude 6. Event 5 is an ideal case study as its epicentral distance (about 30 km) is comparable to epicentral distances for expected events on the Alpine Fault or on the Hope Fault in New Zealand. Event 5 has been previously widely analysed using strong motion array studies and aftershocks studies but with disagreeing results; this new study hopes to bring new insights in the debate. Using simple fault and velocity models, this latest analysis of Event 5 has given the following rupture properties. It has confirmed one of the hypotheses that the fault ruptured from southeast to northwest. The higher resolution of the computation has improved the location of the hypocentre depth and the location of the propagating rupture front. This allowed resolving changes of velocities in the rupture process and locating asperities in the fault plane. Contrary to the previous array studies, the inferred size of the fault plane is in agreement with a magnitude 6 earthquake. Finally, this event 5 case study has shown significant improvement in imaging the fault rupture using strong motion dense array analysis. But are we truly imaging the real process of a fault rupturing? This question brings on the need to compare known synthetic rupture processes with their computed projection using synthetic strong motion accelerograms.

  12. Site classification of Turkish national strong-motion stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandıkkaya, M. Abdullah; Yılmaz, Mustafa Tolga; Bakır, B. Sadık; Yılmaz, Özdoğan

    2010-07-01

    Since 1973, the General Directorate of Disaster Affairs of Turkey has deployed several strong-motion accelerographs at selected sites. Within the framework of the project entitled Compilation of National Strong Ground Motion Database in Accordance with International Standards, site conditions were investigated within the upper 30-m depth by surface seismic and standard penetration tests. Preliminary characterization of the sites is made by making use of both geophysical and geotechnical criteria of NEHRP Provisions and Eurocode-8 site classification systems. The liquefaction susceptibility of those sites which comprise saturated cohesionless deposits is also determined. Mean shear-wave velocity, mean penetration resistance, site class, and liquefaction susceptibility of each site are tabulated. The Turkish strong-motion database supplemented by detailed information on site conditions is a valuable source of information particularly for those studies that put emphasis on the relationship between site conditions and strong-motion parameters.

  13. Integration of strong motion networks and accelerometric data in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luzi, L.; Clinton, J. F.; Akkar, S.; Sleeman, R.; Van Eck, T.

    2014-12-01

    Efforts for an organized collection of strong motion data in Europe started during the Fourth Framework Program granted by the European Union, with the first release of the European Strong Motion database. Subsequently other attempts were made, but the initiatives were carried out within a project by a single or few institutions, often isolated from data providers. During the Seventh Framework Program, in the context of the project NERA, parallel to the establishment of infrastructures, major efforts were devoted on the improvement of networking among strong-motion data providers in the broader European countries. Two major infrastructures for storing and disseminating accelerometric data and metadata were built: a. The Rapid-Raw Strong Motion (RRSM) database that automatically delivers strong motion products in near-real time. The system collects and uses all relevant, unrestricted waveform data from the European Integrated waveform Data Archive (EIDA) within minutes after an earthquake (M>=3.5) in the European- Mediterranean region. The RRSM web interface is available at http://orfeusdev.knmi.nl:8080/opencms/rrsm b. A prototype of strong-motion database (Engineering Strong Motion database, ESM) that contains an initial core formed by the accelerograms recorded by Italian and Turkish strong-motion data providers. ESM is structured to contain not only the data available in EIDA but also off-line data; earthquake and strong-motion metadata contain more detailed information than the corresponding metadata in RRSM. A Working Group (WG5 - acceleration and strong motion data), operating under ORFEUS, has been created to build the basis for the sustainable integrated pan-European accelerometric data distribution. The responsibilities and duties of the WG5 are envisaged as follows: 1. Setting rules for data dissemination; 2. Establishing MoU's with data providers; 3. Collaborating with the European project EPOS for the preparation of projects; 4. Contacting similar establishments in the other parts of the world; 5. Ensure quality of metadata and waveforms; 6. Ensure IT development improvements. The steps made in two years towards the Integration of strong motion networks in Europe are illustrated and the major results of this initiative discussed.

  14. Taiwan.

    PubMed

    1988-03-01

    Attention in this discussion of Taiwan is directed to the following: geography; the people -- education, languages, religions, and cultural background; history; administration; political conditions; the economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Taiwan. In 1987 the population was estimated to be 19.7 million with an annual growth rate of 1.07%. The infant mortality rate in 1986 was 0.7% with a life expectancy of 70.8 for men and 75.8 for women. Taipei, which continues its claim of sovereignty over all of China in the name of the "Republic of China," exercises control only over the island of Taiwan, the Penghu Islands, and about 20 offshore islands, most near the China mainland. Most native Taiwanese speak a variant of the Amoy (Hokkien) dialect of Southern Fujian. The predominant religion is a combination of Buddhism and Taoism. Chinese sources show migration to Taiwan began as early as A.D. 500. Dutch traders 1st claimed the island in 1624 as a base for Dutch commerce with Japan and the China coast. The 1st major influx of migrants from the Chinese mainland came during the Dutch period. In 1664, a Chinese fleet led by the Ming loyalist Zheng Chenggong retreated from the mainland and occupied Taiwan. Zheng expelled the Dutch and established Taiwan as a base in his attempt to restore the Ming Dynasty. After his death in 1683, his successors submitted to Manchu control. Manchu China ruled Taiwan as a frontier district until it was declared a separate Chinese province in 1886. The authorities in Taipei claim to be the government of all China, including Taiwan. When President Chiang Ching-kuo died in 1988, he was succeeded by Vice President Lee Teng-hui, who had been elected along with Chiang by the National Assembly to a 6-year term. Until 1986, Taiwan's political system was effectively 1 party. Before elections in 1986, many "nonpartisans" grouped together to form Taiwan's 1st new political party in over 4 decades -- the Democratic Progressive Party. Friction between mainlanders and native Taiwanese continues to be a problem, but it has abated with time and the gradual melding of the 2 Chinese communities. Taiwan has changed from an agricultural to an industrialized economy over the past 30 years. During 1973-82, the gross domestic product rose at an annual average of 9.5% in real terms. President Carter signed into law on April 10, 1979, the Taiwan Relations Act, which created domestic legal authority for the conduct of unofficial relations with Taiwan. PMID:12177975

  15. Seismic Response of a Sedimentary Basin: Preliminary Results from Strong Motion Downhole Array in Taipei Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, B.; Chen, K.; Chiu, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Strong Motion Downhole Array (SMDA) is an array of 32 triggered strong motion broadband seismometers located at eight sites in Taipei Basin. Each site features three to five co-located three-component accelerometers--one at the surface and an additional two to four each down independent boreholes. Located in the center of Taipei Basin is Taipei City and the Taipei metropolitan area, the capital of Taiwan and home to more than 7 million residents. Taipei Basin is in a major seismic hazard area and is prone to frequent large earthquakes producing strong ground motion. This unique three-dimension seismic array presents new frontiers for seismic research in Taiwan and, along with it, new challenges. Frequency-dependent and site-specific amplification of seismic waves from depth to surface has been observed: preliminary results indicate that the top few tens of meters of sediment--not the entire thickness--are responsible for significant frequency-dependent amplification; amplitudes of seismic waves at the surface may be as much as seven times that at depth. Dominant amplification frequencies are interpreted as quarter-wavelength constructive interference between the surface and major interfaces in the sediments. Using surface stations with known orientation as a reference, borehole seismometer orientations in these data--which are unknown, and some of which vary considerably from event to event--have been determined using several methods. After low-pass filtering the strong motion data, iteratively rotating the two horizontal components from an individual borehole station and cross-correlating them with that from a co-located surface station has proven to be very effective. In cases where the iterative cross-correlation method does not provide a good fit, rotating both surface and borehole stations to a common axis of maximum seismic energy provides an alternative approach. The orientation-offset of a borehole station relative to the surface station may be estimated by iteratively rotating the horizontal components of both and calculating the time-integral of the amplitude squared of each component; the difference in orientation between the maximum at the surface and at depth indicates the difference in orientation of the seismometers. After the horizontal orientations of borehole seismometers are correctly resolved, these data can be used in various scientific studies. Up-going and reflected down-going shear waves can be clearly identified, providing an excellent dataset for the study of interval velocity and seismic Q, localized shear wave splitting, and anisotropy. Further refinement of the geophysical structure of Taipei Basin and Northern Taiwan is also possible by combining data from the SMDA with that from the large array of surface stations maintained by the Central Weather Bureau.

  16. An Improved Approach for Nonstationary Strong Ground Motion Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanan; Wang, Guoxin

    2015-10-01

    A new stochastic ground motion model for generating a suite of ground motion time history with both temporal and frequency nonstationarities for specified earthquake and site characteristics is proposed based on the wavelet method. This new model is defined in terms of 6 key parameters that characterize the duration, evolving intensity, predominant frequency, bandwidth and frequency variation of the ground acceleration process. All parameters, except for peak ground acceleration (PGA), are identified manually from a database of 2444 recorded horizontal accelerations. The two-stage regression analysis method is used to investigate the inter- and intra-event residuals. For any given earthquake and site characteristics in terms of the fault mechanism, moment magnitude, Joyner and Boore distance and site shear-wave velocity, sets of the model parameters are generated and used, in turn, by the stochastic model to generate strong ground motion accelerograms, which can capture and properly embody the primary features of real strong ground motions, including the duration, evolving intensity, spectral content, frequency variation and peak values. In addition, it is shown that the characteristics of the simulated and observed response spectra are similar, and the amplitude of the simulated response spectra are in line with the predicted values from the published seismic ground motion prediction equations (SGMPE) after a systematic comparison. The proposed method can be used to estimate the strong ground motions as inputs for structural seismic dynamic analysis in engineering practice in conjunction with or instead of recorded ground motions.

  17. An Improved Approach for Nonstationary Strong Ground Motion Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanan; Wang, Guoxin

    2016-05-01

    A new stochastic ground motion model for generating a suite of ground motion time history with both temporal and frequency nonstationarities for specified earthquake and site characteristics is proposed based on the wavelet method. This new model is defined in terms of 6 key parameters that characterize the duration, evolving intensity, predominant frequency, bandwidth and frequency variation of the ground acceleration process. All parameters, except for peak ground acceleration (PGA), are identified manually from a database of 2444 recorded horizontal accelerations. The two-stage regression analysis method is used to investigate the inter- and intra-event residuals. For any given earthquake and site characteristics in terms of the fault mechanism, moment magnitude, Joyner and Boore distance and site shear-wave velocity, sets of the model parameters are generated and used, in turn, by the stochastic model to generate strong ground motion accelerograms, which can capture and properly embody the primary features of real strong ground motions, including the duration, evolving intensity, spectral content, frequency variation and peak values. In addition, it is shown that the characteristics of the simulated and observed response spectra are similar, and the amplitude of the simulated response spectra are in line with the predicted values from the published seismic ground motion prediction equations (SGMPE) after a systematic comparison. The proposed method can be used to estimate the strong ground motions as inputs for structural seismic dynamic analysis in engineering practice in conjunction with or instead of recorded ground motions.

  18. Phase derivatives and simulation of strong ground motions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    Phase derivatives can be used to compute instantaneous frequency and envelope delay (also known as group delay). Envelope delay, in the guise of phase differences, has been used by engineers in the simulation of strong ground motion, particularly as a way of controlling the duration of motion. Simulations using the stochastic method, in which duration is a simple function of source duration and a path-dependent duration, possess envelope delay properties similar to those from simulations based on phase differences. Envelope delay provides a way of extending the standard stochastic method to produce nonstationary frequency content, as produced by ground motions containing surface waves.

  19. Update on the Center for Engineering Strong Motion Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddadi, H. R.; Shakal, A. F.; Stephens, C. D.; Oppenheimer, D. H.; Huang, M.; Leith, W. S.; Parrish, J. G.; Savage, W. U.

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the California Geological Survey (CGS) established the Center for Engineering Strong-Motion Data (CESMD, Center) to provide a single access point for earthquake strong-motion records and station metadata from the U.S. and international strong-motion programs. The Center has operational facilities in Sacramento and Menlo Park, California, to receive, process, and disseminate records through the CESMD web site at www.strongmotioncenter.org. The Center currently is in the process of transitioning the COSMOS Virtual Data Center (VDC) to integrate its functions with those of the CESMD for improved efficiency of operations, and to provide all users with a more convenient one-stop portal to both U.S. and important international strong-motion records. The Center is working with COSMOS and international and U.S. data providers to improve the completeness of site and station information, which are needed to most effectively employ the recorded data. The goal of all these and other new developments is to continually improve access by the earthquake engineering community to strong-motion data and metadata world-wide. The CESMD and its Virtual Data Center (VDC) provide tools to map earthquakes and recording stations, to search raw and processed data, to view time histories and spectral plots, to convert data files formats, and to download data and a variety of information. The VDC is now being upgraded to convert the strong-motion data files from different seismic networks into a common standard tagged format in order to facilitate importing earthquake records and station metadata to the CESMD database. An important new feature being developed is the automatic posting of Internet Quick Reports at the CESMD web site. This feature will allow users, and emergency responders in particular, to view strong-motion waveforms and download records within a few minutes after an earthquake occurs. Currently the CESMD and its Virtual Data Center provide selected strong-motion records from 17 countries. The Center has proved to be significantly useful for providing data to scientists, engineers, policy makers, and emergency response teams around the world.

  20. Optimum strong-motion array geometry for source inversion - II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iida, M.

    1990-01-01

    Optimum strong-motion array geometry for source inversions is determined for each of three types of earthquake faults: strike-slip, dip-slip and offshore subduction thrust. It is found that the complete Green's function is capable of stabilizing the accuracy of an inversion solution obtained using theoretical seismograms, regardless of the differences in array configuration. The optimum strong-motion array for a strike-slip fault is characterized by stations well distributed in azimuth, while the optimum array for a dip-slip event has stations arranged in a grid-shaped form. -from Author

  1. Blind Prediction of Near-Fault Strong Ground Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J.; Graves, R.; Zeng, Y.; Somerville, P.

    2002-12-01

    The Mw 7.9 Alaska earthquake provides an unprecedented opportunity to analyze strong ground motion recordings obtained very close to a large magnitude crustal earthquake. Several strong motion sites are located along the route of the Alaska Pipeline which crosses roughly perpendicular to the fault rupture about 85 km east of the epicenter. The closest site is located about 3 km from the fault. Prior to the release of these data, we conducted a blind prediction experiment to estimate the ground motion waveforms at this closest recording site. Ground motions are computed using the both one realization of the stochastic composite source simulation methodology of Zeng (1994) and the deterministic simulation of Somerville et al. (1994). Both techniques utilize full waveform Greens functions calculated for plane layered velocity structures. Due to uncertainty in the distribution of slip during the event, the deterministic simulation used both uniform and heterogeneous models of the slip distribution. Predictions were made without accurate knowledge of site conditions or fault-station geometry. In all cases, the simulated motions are characterized by pulse-like motions that exhibit strong rupture directivity effects. Peak fault-normal ground velocities and displacements are about twice as large as corresponding peak fault-parallel motions. For the heterogeneous slip models, peak velocities for the two simulation methodologies are 50-95 cm/s, and peak dynamic displacements are 60-150 cm. In addition, these simulations predict static horizontal offsets of 50-170 cm, depending on the component. Plots of the simulated motions and more detailed descriptions of the parameterizations can be found at http://www.seismo.unr.edu/blind.

  2. Processing of strong-motion accelerograms: Needs, options and consequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.; Bommer, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    Recordings from strong-motion accelerographs are of fundamental importance in earthquake engineering, forming the basis for all characterizations of ground shaking employed for seismic design. The recordings, particularly those from analog instruments, invariably contain noise that can mask and distort the ground-motion signal at both high and low frequencies. For any application of recorded accelerograms in engineering seismology or earthquake engineering, it is important to identify the presence of this noise in the digitized time-history and its influence on the parameters that are to be derived from the records. If the parameters of interest are affected by noise then appropriate processing needs to be applied to the records, although it must be accepted from the outset that it is generally not possible to recover the actual ground motion over a wide range of frequencies. There are many schemes available for processing strong-motion data and it is important to be aware of the merits and pitfalls associated with each option. Equally important is to appreciate the effects of the procedures on the records in order to avoid errors in the interpretation and use of the results. Options for processing strong-motion accelerograms are presented, discussed and evaluated from the perspective of engineering application. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A simple model for strong ground motions and response spectra

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, Erdal; Mueller, Charles; Boatwright, John

    1988-01-01

    A simple model for the description of strong ground motions is introduced. The model shows that response spectra can be estimated by using only four parameters of the ground motion, the RMS acceleration, effective duration and two corner frequencies that characterize the effective frequency band of the motion. The model is windowed band-limited white noise, and is developed by studying the properties of two functions, cumulative squared acceleration in the time domain, and cumulative squared amplitude spectrum in the frequency domain. Applying the methods of random vibration theory, the model leads to a simple analytical expression for the response spectra. The accuracy of the model is checked by using the ground motion recordings from the aftershock sequences of two different earthquakes and simulated accelerograms. The results show that the model gives a satisfactory estimate of the response spectra.

  4. Length of a day and the strong Taiwan region earthquake of 26th December 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrihansky, Lubor

    2010-05-01

    Coincidence of earthquakes with maximum amplitudes of the length of a day record since beginning of the year 2006 during the extreme Earth's rotation deceleration has proved that variations of the Earth's rotation triggered earthquakes in Taiwan-Luzon collision area of Eurasian and Philippine Sea plates. This area is characteristic by obduction of oceanic lithosphere over continent in Taiwan and the retreat of Manila subduction zone owing to gravity subsidence. The last but one of the coincidence series had been the strong Taiwan region earthquake of 26th December 2006. To verify the coincidence relationship for larger period, 59 samples of detailed seismic investigation of Kao et al. (2000) from 1964 to 1996 were used, further 11 samples of USGS Catalogue over 5.8 magnitude and schematically 900 earthquakes over 3 magnitude for period 1996-2006 covering the period from minimum to maximum Moon's declination. Final investigation has shown that westward collision events coincide with length of a day maxima, however the events along northward directed faults coincide with length of a day minima, i.e. the maximum Earth's rotation. This coincidence of westward and northward collision events is statistically significant and it supports that the driving mechanism of the Philippine Sea plate as a buffer plate is controlled by forces following from the Earth's rotation as tidal drag and Eötvös force. The Philippine Sea plate is a product of tidal force which had broken the oceanic lithosphere on equator 35-60 Ma ago, today witnessed as fossil mid-ocean ridge in the middle of the plate. The young oceanic lithosphere 35 Ma ago could not subduct beneath the Eurasian continent and following obduction created the folded area of Taiwan.

  5. Sea Level Change and Crustal Vertical Motion around Taiwan Derived by Altimetry and Tide Gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C.; Kuo, C.; Shum, C.; Yang, M.

    2009-12-01

    Taiwan is an island, where 60%-70% are mountains located at the center area, and most developed cities are located within 20-30 miles of the coast. Compared with other countries, sea level rise could cause a more significant impact on economic and human societal well being in Taiwan, for example, erosion of beaches and increased flooding and storm surge damage. Recently the most common instrument used to determine global sea level changes are tide gauges and satellite altimetry; however, tide gauge records contain sea level and crustal vertical motion, and altimetry data span is too short to avoid low-frequency effect on trend determination. In order to determine sea level accurately, in this study we develop a novel technique to calculate accurate sea level change around Taiwan by combining tide gauge and altimeter data. First of all, Hilbert-Huang Transformation (HHT) method is used to decompose tide gauge records completely into few independent monotones cycles, which called Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF). Afterwards, residual time series computed by subtracting sea level time series reconstructed using specific IMFs, which represent low frequencies and cannot be clearly detected in altimeter data, from the corresponding altimetry data is fitted to determine the sea level trend. In addition, we also calculate crustal vertical motions using tide gauge and altimeter data at gauge stations.

  6. Validation and modeling of earthquake strong ground motion using a composite source model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Y.

    2001-12-01

    Zeng et al. (1994) have proposed a composite source model for synthetic strong ground motion prediction. In that model, the source is taken as a superposition of circular subevents with a constant stress drop. The number of subevents and their radius follows a power law distribution equivalent to the Gutenberg and Richter's magnitude-frequency relation for seismicity. The heterogeneous nature of the composite source model is characterized by its maximum subevent size and subevent stress drop. As rupture propagates through each subevent, it radiates a Brune's pulse or a Sato and Hirasawa's circular crack pulse. The method has been proved to be successful in generating realistic strong motion seismograms in comparison with observations from earthquakes in California, eastern US, Guerrero of Mexico, Turkey and India. The model has since been improved by including scattering waves from small scale heterogeneity structure of the earth, site specific ground motion prediction using weak motion site amplification, and nonlinear soil response using geotechnical engineering models. Last year, I have introduced an asymmetric circular rupture to improve the subevent source radiation and to provide a consistent rupture model between overall fault rupture process and its subevents. In this study, I revisit the Landers, Loma Prieta, Northridge, Imperial Valley and Kobe earthquakes using the improved source model. The results show that the improved subevent ruptures provide an improved effect of rupture directivity compared to our previous studies. Additional validation includes comparison of synthetic strong ground motions to the observed ground accelerations from the Chi-Chi, Taiwan and Izmit, Turkey earthquakes. Since the method has evolved considerably when it was first proposed, I will also compare results between each major modification of the model and demonstrate its backward compatibility to any of its early simulation procedures.

  7. Strong Ground Motion Database System for the Mexican Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Yanez, C.; Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Ruiz, A. L.; Delgado, R.; Macías, M. A.; Sandoval, H.; Alcántara, L.; Quiroz, A.

    2014-12-01

    A web-based system for strong Mexican ground motion records dissemination and archival is presented. More than 50 years of continuous strong ground motion instrumentation and monitoring in Mexico have provided a fundamental resource -several thousands of accelerograms- for better understanding earthquakes and their effects in the region. Lead by the Institute of Engineering (IE) of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), the engineering strong ground motion monitoring program at IE relies on a continuously growing network, that at present includes more than 100 free-field stations and provides coverage to the seismic zones in the country. Among the stations, approximately 25% send the observed acceleration to a processing center in Mexico City in real-time, and the rest require manual access, remote or in situ, for later processing and cataloguing. As part of a collaboration agreement between UNAM and the National Center for Disaster Prevention, regarding the construction and operation of a unified seismic network, a web system was developed to allow access to UNAM's engineering strong motion archive and host data from other institutions. The system allows data searches under a relational database schema, following a general structure relying on four databases containing the: 1) free-field stations, 2) epicentral location associated with the strong motion records available, 3) strong motion catalogue, and 4) acceleration files -the core of the system. In order to locate and easily access one or several records of the data bank, the web system presents a variety of parameters that can be involved in a query (seismic event, region boundary, station name or ID, radial distance to source or peak acceleration). This homogeneous platform has been designed to facilitate dissemination and processing of the information worldwide. Each file, in a standard format, contains information regarding the recording instrument, the station, the corresponding earthquake, the record itself, and the numerical data. The standard format used was designed and preserved by many institutions in Mexico. At this stage, only cataloged accelerograms (M>=5) from IE are integrated. Institutions expected to become part of the unified network of Mexico, will make available data through the platform described in this paper.

  8. Strong motion observations and recordings from the great Wenchuan Earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, X.; Zhou, Z.; Yu, H.; Wen, R.; Lu, D.; Huang, M.; Zhou, Y.; Cu, J.

    2008-01-01

    The National Strong Motion Observation Network System (NSMONS) of China is briefly introduced in this paper. The NSMONS consists of permanent free-field stations, special observation arrays, mobile observatories and a network management system. During the Wenchuan Earthquake, over 1,400 components of acceleration records were obtained from 460 permanent free-field stations and three arrays for topographical effect and structural response observation in the network system from the main shock, and over 20,000 components of acceleration records from strong aftershocks occurred before August 1, 2008 were also obtained by permanent free-field stations of the NSMONS and 59 mobile instruments quickly deployed after the main shock. The strong motion recordings from the main shock and strong aftershocks are summarized in this paper. In the ground motion recordings, there are over 560 components with peak ground acceleration (PGA) over 10 Gal, the largest being 957.7 Gal. The largest PGA recorded during the aftershock exceeds 300 Gal. ?? 2008 Institute of Engineering Mechanics, China Earthquake Administration and Springer-Verlag GmbH.

  9. Enhancement of the national strong-motion network in Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gulkan, Polat; Ceken, U.; Colakoglu, Z.; Ugras, T.; Kuru, T.; Apak, A.; Anderson, J.G.; Sucuoglu, H.; Celebi, M.; Akkar, D.S.; Yazgan, U.; Denizlioglu, A.Z.

    2007-01-01

    Two arrays comprising 20 strong-motion sensors were established in western Turkey. The 14 stations of BYTNet follow a N-S trending line about 65 km in length, normal to strands of the North Anatolian fault that runs between the cities of Bursa and Yalova. Here the dominant character of the potential fault movement is a right-lateral transform slip. The DATNet array, comprising a total of eight stations, is arranged along a 110-km-long E-W trending direction along the Menderes River valley between Denizli and Aydin. (Two stations in this array were incorporated from the existing Turkish national strong-motion network.) This is an extensional tectonic environment, and the network mornitors potential large normal-faulting earthquakes on the faults in the valley. The installation of the arrays was supported by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) under its Science for Peace Program. Maintenance and calibration is performed by the General Directorate of Disaster Affairs (GDDA) according to a protocol between Middle East Technical University (METU) and GDDA. Many young engineers and scientists have been trained in network operation and evaluation during the course of the project, and an international workshop dealing with strong-motion instrumentation has been organized as part of the project activities.

  10. Establishment of Antakya Basin Strong Ground Motion Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durukal, E.; Özel, O.; Bikce, M.; Geneş, M. C.; Kacın, S.; Erdik, M.; Safak, E.; Över, S.

    2009-04-01

    Turkey is located in one of the most active earthquake zones of the world. The cities located along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and the East Anatolian Fault (EAF) are exposed to significant earthquake hazard. The Hatay province near the southern terminus of the EAF has always experienced a significant seismic activity, since it is on the intersection of the northernmost segment of Dead Sea Fault Zone coming from the south, with the Cyprean Arc approaching from south-west. Historical records extending over the last 2000 years indicate that Antakya, founded in the 3rd century B.C., is effected by intensity IX-X earthquakes every 150 years. In the region, the last destructive earthquake occurred in 1872. Destructive earthquakes should be expected in the region in the near future similar to the ones that occurred in the past. The strong response of sedimentary basins to seismic waves was largely responsible for the damage produced by the devastating earthquakes of 1985 Michoacan Earthquake which severely damaged parts of Mexico City, and the 1988 Spitak Earthquake which destroyed most of Leninakan, Armenia. Much of this devastating response was explained by the conversion of seismic body waves to surface waves at the sediment/rock contacts of sedimentary basins. "Antakya Basin Strong Ground Motion Monitoring System" is set up with the aim of monitoring the earthquake response of the Antakya Basin, contributing to our understanding of basin response, contributing to earthquake risk assessment of Antakya, monitoring of regional earthquakes and determining the effects of local and regional earthquakes on the urban environment of Antakya. The soil properties beneath the strong motion stations (S-Wave velocity structure and dominant soil frequency) are determined by array measurements that involve broad-band seismometers. The strong motion monitoring system consists of six instruments installed in small buildings. The stations form a straight line along the short axis of Antakya basin passing through the city center. They are equipped with acceleration sensors, GPS and communication units and operate in continuous recording mode. For on-line data transmission the EDGE mode of available GSM systems are employed. In the array measurements for the determination of soil properties beneath the stations two 4-seismometer sets have been utilized. The system is the first monitoring installment in Turkey dedicated to understanding basin effects. The records obtained will allow for the visualization of the propagation of long-period ground motion in the basin and show the refraction of surface waves at the basin edge. The records will also serve to enhance our capacity to realistically synthesize the strong ground motion in basin-type environments.

  11. Towards more realistic source modelling for strong ground motion simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieling, Katrin; Wang, Rongjiang; Hainzl, Sebastian

    2010-05-01

    The modelling of ground motions related to earthquakes is of major importance for seismic hazard analyses. Especially the variability of ground motion close to the source influences the uncertainties of seismic hazard estimates. Because realistic full-dynamic rupture simulations are computational expensive and hence inefficient, we aim at implementing more realistic sources in kinematic ground-motion modelling. For the modelling of extended earthquake sources, there are different approaches. Their common aim is to give approximately correct values of interest for engineering seismologists such as peak ground acceleration (PGA) or duration. We choose a composite approach where the source process is represented by a high number of small subevents which are distributed randomly on the fault. Each subevent is characterised by its own source time function. Those are superposed for each fault patch and convolved with the patches Green's function. We test the influence of different model parameters on the resulting ground motion close to the source. For example, random variation of focal parameters such as strike, dip and rake are introduced to smear out the radiation pattern. The influence of rupture velocity and the discretisation step of the fault are tested. Furthermore different random slip distributions are used to show the variability of ground motion due to the used slip model. Finally we compare the the modelled waveforms to the observed waveforms of the Tokachi-Oki earthquake (M=8.3), which occurred on September 25, 2003 offshore Hokkaido, Japan. For this earthquake a great number of strong motion records allows the comparison of high-frequency acceleration waveforms. Additionally, 1-Hz GPS displacement waveforms are available and may be compared to our modelling results.

  12. Explosion source strong ground motions in the Mississippi embayment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langston, C.A.; Bodin, P.; Powell, C.; Withers, M.; Horton, S.; Mooney, W.

    2006-01-01

    Two strong-motion arrays were deployed for the October 2002 Embayment Seismic Excitation Experiment to study the spatial variation of strong ground motions in the deep, unconsolidated sediments of the Mississippi embayment because there are no comparable strong-motion data from natural earthquakes in the area. Each linear array consisted of eight three-component K2 accelerographs spaced 15 m apart situated 1.2 and 2.5 kin from 2268-kg and 1134-kg borehole explosion sources, respectively. The array data show distinct body-wave and surface-wave arrivals that propagate within the thick, unconsolidated sedimentary column, the high-velocity basement rocks, and small-scale structure near the surface. Time-domain coherence of body-wave and surface-wave arrivals is computed for acceleration, velocity, and displacement time windows. Coherence is high for relatively low-frequency verticalcomponent Rayleigh waves and high-frequency P waves propagating across the array. Prominent high-frequency PS conversions seen on radial components, a proxy for the direct S wave from earthquake sources, lose coherence quickly over the 105-m length of the array. Transverse component signals are least coherent for any ground motion and appear to be highly scattered. Horizontal phase velocity is computed by using the ratio of particle velocity to estimates of the strain based on a plane-wave-propagation model. The resulting time-dependent phase-velocity map is a useful way to infer the propagation mechanisms of individual seismic phases and time windows of three-component waveforms. Displacement gradient analysis is a complementary technique for processing general spatial-array data to obtain horizontal slowness information.

  13. Can mobile phones used in strong motion seismology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessandro, Antonino; D'Anna, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) accelerometers are electromechanical devices able to measure static or dynamic accelerations. In the 1990s MEMS accelerometers revolutionized the automotive-airbag system industry and are currently widely used in laptops, game controllers and mobile phones. Nowadays MEMS accelerometers seems provide adequate sensitivity, noise level and dynamic range to be applicable to earthquake strong motion acquisition. The current use of 3 axes MEMS accelerometers in mobile phone maybe provide a new means to easy increase the number of observations when a strong earthquake occurs. However, before utilize the signals recorded by a mobile phone equipped with a 3 axes MEMS accelerometer for any scientific porpoise, it is fundamental to verify that the signal collected provide reliable records of ground motion. For this reason we have investigated the suitability of the iPhone 5 mobile phone (one of the most popular mobile phone in the world) for strong motion acquisition. It is provided by several MEMS devise like a three-axis gyroscope, a three-axis electronic compass and a the LIS331DLH three-axis accelerometer. The LIS331DLH sensor is a low-cost high performance three axes linear accelerometer, with 16 bit digital output, produced by STMicroelectronics Inc. We have tested the LIS331DLH MEMS accelerometer using a vibrating table and the EpiSensor FBA ES-T as reference sensor. In our experiments the reference sensor was rigidly co-mounted with the LIS331DHL MEMS sensor on the vibrating table. We assessment the MEMS accelerometer in the frequency range 0.2-20 Hz, typical range of interesting in strong motion seismology and earthquake engineering. We generate both constant and damped sine waves with central frequency starting from 0.2 Hz until 20 Hz with step of 0.2 Hz. For each frequency analyzed we generate sine waves with mean amplitude 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1600 mg0. For damped sine waves we generate waveforms with initial amplitude of 2 g0. Our tests show as, in the frequency and amplitude range analyzed (0.2-20 Hz, 10-2000 mg0), the LIS331DLH MEMS accelerometer have excellent frequency and phase response, comparable with that of some standard FBA accelerometer used in strong motion seismology. However, we found that the signal recorded by the LIS331DLH MEMS accelerometer slightly underestimates the real acceleration (of about 2.5%). This suggests that may be important to calibrate a MEMS sensor before using it in scientific applications. A drawback of the LIS331DLH MEMS accelerometer is its low sensitivity. This is an important limitation of all the low cost MEMS accelerometers; therefore nowadays they are desirable to use only in strong motion seismology. However, the rapid development of this technology will lead in the coming years to the development of high sensitivity and low noise digital MEMS sensors that may be replace the current seismic accelerometer used in seismology. Actually, the real main advantage of these sensors is their common use in the mobile phones.

  14. Weather-related Ground Motions Recorded by Taiwan Broadband Seismic Network Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. F.; Chi, W. C.

    2014-12-01

    Broadband seismometers record ground motions, which can be induced by weather-related processes. Analyzing such signals might help to better understand those natural processes. Previously, abnormal seismic signals have been detected during rainfall and snowmelt events. The amplitudes of those seismic signals correlated with the variations of the discharge in a nearby river and scientists have proposed that such signals were generated by bed load transport. Here, we used the continuous seismic data from the Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology (BATS) to analyze the weather-related ground motions during rainfall events. The sampling rate for seismic data is 100 samples per second. We compared the seismic data with the precipitation data from the rain gauge stations in Taiwan in three select rainfall periods, Typhoon Kalmaegi in 2008, Typhoon Morakot in 2009 and the East Asian rainy season in 2012. During raining, the Power Spectral Density (PSD) of high frequency (> 1 Hz) seismic noises is apparently high, and the amplitude of the seismic noise also correlates with the local precipitation, especially at the stations in the drainage basins, and the PSD decreased gradually after peaks of precipitation. At some seismic stations, we observed vertical ground motions at several bands of frequencies: 0-1 Hz, 1-5 Hz, and 5-45 Hz. However, on horizontal components we found the 5-45 Hz energy splits into two bands: 5-25 Hz and 30-45 Hz. For stations near the ridge tops or on the coastal plain, the 30-45 Hz band energy is weaker or missing. Preliminary results show that the amplitudes of the seismic waves correlate with the stream flow discharge. Next, we plan to study the sources of the different bands of energy to examine if we can monitor and quantify natural processes, like precipitation and river discharge, using seismic signals.

  15. Database for earthquake strong motion studies in Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scasserra, G.; Stewart, J.P.; Kayen, R.E.; Lanzo, G.

    2009-01-01

    We describe an Italian database of strong ground motion recordings and databanks delineating conditions at the instrument sites and characteristics of the seismic sources. The strong motion database consists of 247 corrected recordings from 89 earthquakes and 101 recording stations. Uncorrected recordings were drawn from public web sites and processed on a record-by-record basis using a procedure utilized in the Next-Generation Attenuation (NGA) project to remove instrument resonances, minimize noise effects through low- and high-pass filtering, and baseline correction. The number of available uncorrected recordings was reduced by 52% (mostly because of s-triggers) to arrive at the 247 recordings in the database. The site databank includes for every recording site the surface geology, a measurement or estimate of average shear wave velocity in the upper 30 m (Vs30), and information on instrument housing. Of the 89 sites, 39 have on-site velocity measurements (17 of which were performed as part of this study using SASW techniques). For remaining sites, we estimate Vs30 based on measurements on similar geologic conditions where available. Where no local velocity measurements are available, correlations with surface geology are used. Source parameters are drawn from databanks maintained (and recently updated) by Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and include hypocenter location and magnitude for small events (M< ??? 5.5) and finite source parameters for larger events. ?? 2009 A.S. Elnashai & N.N. Ambraseys.

  16. Probabilistic Motion Planning of Balloons in Strong, Uncertain Wind Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Michael T.; Blackmore, Lars; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Fathpour, Nanaz; Elfes, Alberto; Newman, Claire

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a new algorithm for probabilistic motion planning in arbitrary, uncertain vector fields, with emphasis on high-level planning for Montgolfiere balloons in the atmosphere of Titan. The goal of the algorithm is to determine what altitude--and what horizontal actuation, if any is available on the vehicle--to use to reach a goal location in the fastest expected time. The winds can vary greatly at different altitudes and are strong relative to any feasible horizontal actuation, so the incorporation of the winds is critical for guidance plans. This paper focuses on how to integrate the uncertainty of the wind field into the wind model and how to reach a goal location through the uncertain wind field, using a Markov decision process (MDP). The resulting probabilistic solutions enable more robust guidance plans and more thorough analysis of potential paths than existing methods.

  17. Present-day crustal motion along the Longitudinal Valley Fault, eastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shui-Beih; Kuo, Long-Chen

    2001-04-01

    The NNE-striking Longitudinal Valley Fault (LVF) in eastern Taiwan is an extremely active high-angle thrust fault. It bounds the Coastal Range and the Longitudinal Valley, which is considered a collision boundary between the Philippine Sea and the Eurasian plates. Repeated GPS data in the Longitudinal Valley area from 1992 to 1999 are utilized to study the spatial variation of crustal motion along the LVF. With respect to Penghu in the Chinese continental margin, velocities for stations on the western side of the LVF (Longitudinal Valley and eastern Central Range) are 18-35 mm/yr in directions 283-311°, whereas those on the eastern side of the LVF, the Coastal Range, are 28-68 mm/yr in directions 303-324°. A major discontinuity of about 30 mm/yr on the rate of crustal motion across the Longitudinal Valley is attributed to the aseismic slip along the LVF as revealed by trilateration data previously. To the south of Fengping, the block motions of the Coastal Range are 31-40 mm/yr in 317-330° relative to the Central Range, while the near-fault motions are 13-33 mm/yr in 309-336°. Various partitions on the left-lateral strike-slip and convergent components along the LVF are found. In the southern Longitudinal Valley crustal motion is mainly accommodated on the LVF and the Luyeh Fault. In contrast, those in the central and northern Longitudinal Valley are partly taken up on the faults to the east of the LVF or result in the elastic deformation of the Coastal Range. The crustal motion in the northern Longitudinal Valley area is likely to be distributed in the several NE-striking thrusts in a horsetail pattern and obliquely cut the northern Coastal Range, with a small portion of fault-slips along the LVF. Data from dense-deployed GPS networks across the LVF can be employed to give better estimates of near-fault motions and delineate the surface traces of the LVF. Repeated GPS and leveling data from two stations on both ends of the Yuli Bridge that are 575 m apart clearly indicate that the surface trace of the LVF passes beneath the bridge with oblique horizontal motion of 23 mm/yr in 306° and uplift rate of 24 mm/yr.

  18. Another Look at Strong Ground Motion Accelerations and Stress Drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltay, A.; Prieto, G.; Ide, S.; Hanks, T. C.; Beroza, G. C.

    2010-12-01

    The relationship between earthquake stress drop and ground motion acceleration is central to seismic hazard analysis. We revisit measurements of root-mean-square (RMS) acceleration, arms, using KikNet accelerometer data from Japan. We directly measure RMS and peak acceleration, and estimate both apparent stress and corner frequencies using the empirical Green’s function (eGf) coda method of Baltay et al. [2010]. We predict armsfrom corner frequency and stress drop following McGuire and Hanks [1980] to compare with measurements. The theoretical relationship does a good job of predicting observed arms. We use four earthquake sequences in Japan to investigate the source parameters and accelerations: the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi earthquake; the off-Kamaishi repeating sequence; and the 2004 and 2007 Niigata events. In each data set, we choose events that are nearly co-located so that the path term to any station is constant. Small events are used as empirical Green’s functions to correct for propagation effects. For all sequences, we find that the apparent stress averages ~1 MPa for most events. Corner frequencies are consistent with Mo-1/3 scaling. We find the ratio of stress drop and apparent stress to be 5, consistent with the theoretical derivation of Singh and Ordaz [1994], using a Brune [1970] spectra. armsis theoretically proportional to stress drop and the inverse square root of the corner frequency. We show that this calculation can be used as a proxy for armsobservations from strong motion records, using recent data from the four earthquake sequences mentioned above. Even for the Iwate-Miyagi mainshock, which experienced over 4 g’s of acceleration, we find that apparent stress, stress drop and corner frequency follow expected scaling laws and support self-similarity.

  19. High-frequency filtering of strong-motion records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Douglas, J.; Boore, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of noise in strong-motion records is most problematic at low and high frequencies where the signal to noise ratio is commonly low compared to that in the mid-spectrum. The impact of low-frequency noise (5 Hz) on computed pseudo-absolute response spectral accelerations (PSAs). In contrast to the case of low-frequency noise our analysis shows that filtering to remove high-frequency noise is only necessary in certain situations and that PSAs can often be used up to 100 Hz even if much lower high-cut corner frequencies are required to remove the noise. This apparent contradiction can be explained by the fact that PSAs are often controlled by ground accelerations associated with much lower frequencies than the natural frequency of the oscillator because path and site attenuation (often modelled by Q and κ, respectively) have removed the highest frequencies. We demonstrate that if high-cut filters are to be used, then their corner frequencies should be selected on an individual basis, as has been done in a few recent studies.

  20. Perceptual Training Strongly Improves Visual Motion Perception in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Daniel J.; McBain, Ryan K.; Ongur, Dost; Chen, Yue

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients exhibit perceptual and cognitive deficits, including in visual motion processing. Given that cognitive systems depend upon perceptual inputs, improving patients' perceptual abilities may be an effective means of cognitive intervention. In healthy people, motion perception can be enhanced through perceptual learning, but it

  1. Perceptual Training Strongly Improves Visual Motion Perception in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Daniel J.; McBain, Ryan K.; Ongur, Dost; Chen, Yue

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients exhibit perceptual and cognitive deficits, including in visual motion processing. Given that cognitive systems depend upon perceptual inputs, improving patients' perceptual abilities may be an effective means of cognitive intervention. In healthy people, motion perception can be enhanced through perceptual learning, but it…

  2. Effect of tilt on strong motion data processing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graizer, V.M.

    2005-01-01

    In the near-field of an earthquake the effects of the rotational components of ground motion may not be negligible compared to the effects of translational motions. Analyses of the equations of motion of horizontal and vertical pendulums show that horizontal sensors are sensitive not only to translational motion but also to tilts. Ignoring this tilt sensitivity may produce unreliable results, especially in calculations of permanent displacements and long-period calculations. In contrast to horizontal sensors, vertical sensors do not have these limitations, since they are less sensitive to tilts. In general, only six-component systems measuring rotations and accelerations, or three-component systems similar to systems used in inertial navigation assuring purely translational motion of accelerometers can be used to calculate residual displacements. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Strong ground motions generated by earthquakes on creeping faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Ruth A.; Abrahamson, Norman A.

    2014-01-01

    A tenet of earthquake science is that faults are locked in position until they abruptly slip during the sudden strain-relieving events that are earthquakes. Whereas it is expected that locked faults when they finally do slip will produce noticeable ground shaking, what is uncertain is how the ground shakes during earthquakes on creeping faults. Creeping faults are rare throughout much of the Earth's continental crust, but there is a group of them in the San Andreas fault system. Here we evaluate the strongest ground motions from the largest well-recorded earthquakes on creeping faults. We find that the peak ground motions generated by the creeping fault earthquakes are similar to the peak ground motions generated by earthquakes on locked faults. Our findings imply that buildings near creeping faults need to be designed to withstand the same level of shaking as those constructed near locked faults.

  4. Motion of the strong disturbances in the interplanetary medium.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodkova, N. L.; Yermolaev, Yu. I.; Zastenker, G. N.

    Features of the strong disturbances, mainly shock waves, moving through the interplanetary medium are reviewed on the basis of the solar wind measurements onboard the Soviet highapogee satellites Prognoz-7,8 in 1978-81.

  5. Strong ground motion prediction for southwestern China from small earthquake records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Z. R.; Tao, X. X.; Cui, A. P.

    2015-09-01

    For regions lack of strong ground motion records, a method is developed to predict strong ground motion by small earthquake records from local broadband digital earthquake networks. Sichuan and Yunnan regions, located in southwestern China, are selected as the targets. Five regional source and crustal medium parameters are inversed by micro-Genetic Algorithm. These parameters are adopted to predict strong ground motion for moment magnitude (Mw) 5.0, 6.0 and 7.0. Strong ground motion data are compared with the results, most of the result pass through ideally the data point plexus, except the case of Mw 7.0 in Sichuan region, which shows an obvious slow attenuation. For further application, this result is adopted in probability seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) and near-field strong ground motion synthesis of the Wenchuan Earthquake.

  6. Site Characterization of Italian Strong Motion Recording Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Scasserra, Giuseppe; Lanzo, Giuseppe; Stewart, Jonathan P.; Kayen, Robert E.

    2008-07-08

    A dataset of site conditions at 101 Italian ground motion stations with recorded motions has been compiled that includes geologic characteristics and seismic velocities. Geologic characterization is derived principally from local geologic investigations by ENEL that include detailed mapping and cross sections. For sites lacking such detailed geologic characterization, the geology maps of the by Servizio Geologico d'Italia are used. Seismic velocities are extracted from the literature and the files of consulting engineers, geologists and public agencies for 33 sites. Data sources utilized include post earthquake site investigations (Friuli and Irpinia events), microzonation studies, and miscellaneous investigations performed by researchers or consulting engineers/geologists. Additional seismic velocities are measured by the authors using the controlled source spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) method for 18 sites that recorded the 1997-1998 Umbria Marche earthquake sequence. The compiled velocity measurements provide data for 51 of the 101 sites. For the remaining sites, the average seismic velocity in the upper 30 m (V{sub s30}) is estimated using a hybrid approach. For young Quaternary alluvium, V{sub s30} an existing empirical relationship for California sites by Wills and Clahan (2006) is used, which we justify by validating this relationship against Italian data. For Tertiary Limestone and Italian Mesozoic rocks, empirical estimates of V{sub s30} are developed using the available data. This work is also presented in Scasserra et al. (2008: JEE, in review)

  7. SISMA (Site of Italian Strong Motion Accelerograms): a Web-Database of Ground Motion Recordings for Engineering Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Scasserra, Giuseppe; Lanzo, Giuseppe; D'Elia, Beniamino; Stewart, Jonathan P.

    2008-07-08

    The paper describes a new website called SISMA, i.e. Site of Italian Strong Motion Accelerograms, which is an Internet portal intended to provide natural records for use in engineering applications for dynamic analyses of structural and geotechnical systems. SISMA contains 247 three-component corrected motions recorded at 101 stations from 89 earthquakes that occurred in Italy in the period 1972-2002. The database of strong motion accelerograms was developed in the framework of a joint project between Sapienza University of Rome and University of California at Los Angeles (USA) and is described elsewhere. Acceleration histories and pseudo-acceleration response spectra (5% damping) are available for download from the website. Recordings can be located using simple search parameters related to seismic source and the recording station (e.g., magnitude, V{sub s30}, etc) as well as ground motion characteristics (e.g. peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, peak ground displacement, Arias intensity, etc.)

  8. The Internet Quick Report of the CISN Engineering Strong Motion Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, K.; Shakal, T.; Huang, M.; Stephens, C.; Savage, W.

    2002-12-01

    The CISN Engineering Strong Motion Data Center (CEDC) provides data for engineering applications, ranging from the ShakeMap to distribution of the data and calculated parameters. The California Department of Conservation's Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP) in cooperation with the USGS/National Strong Motion Program (NSMP) operates the CEDC. The CEDC is currently at http://www.conservation.ca.gov/cisn-edc/, but reflecting the dual-agency nature of the EDC, it will be operating in parallel at a USGS address later in 2002. The Internet Quick Report (IQR) is the tool used by the CEDC to rapidly disseminate strong-motion data over the Internet after major earthquakes. The IQR and the ShakeMap interact with each other with the time series plots of the IQR directly linked from the ShakeMap. Currently the CEDC is under development and is serving strong motion data for both CGS and NSMP. With the completion of the CISN Intranet and the standard protocols for exchange of strong motion data, the CEDC will assemble strong-motion data sets for the earthquake engineering community incorporating data from all CISN stations.

  9. Predicting Strong Motions for Seismic Hazard Assessments in Seattle, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delorey, Andrew A.

    Much of Seattle, Washington lies atop a deep sedimentary basin. The Seattle Basin amplifies and distorts seismic waves in ways that modulate the hazard from earthquakes. Seismic hazard assessments heavily depend upon upper crustal and near-surface S-wave velocity models, which have traditionally been constructed from P-wave models using an empirical relationship between P-wave and S-wave velocity or by interpolating and extrapolating widely spaced observations of shallow geologic structures. Improving the accuracy and resolution of basin S-wave models is key to predictions for ground shaking. Tomography, with short-period Rayleigh waves extracted using noise interferometry, can refine S-wave velocity models in urban areas with dense arrays of short-period and broadband instruments. I apply this technique to the Seattle area to develop a new shallow S-wave model for use in hazard assessment. Continuous data from the Seismic Hazards in Puget Sound (SHIPS) array and local broadband stations have inter-station distances as short as a few kilometers. This spacing allows me to extract Rayleigh waves between 2-10s period that are sensitive to shallow basin structure. My results reveal greater detail in the upper 4 km than previous models. I use the new model to make predictions on the levels of ground motions for a variety of representative crustal and Benioff Zone earthquakes. My simulations reveal additional risk from earthquake shaking in some neighborhoods in north Seattle from crustal events relative to predictions made in the current seismic hazard map. The predicted amplitudes in the Seattle neighborhoods of Capital Hill and Queen Anne are twice as high as previous predictions for some events. The combined risk for all possible events will increase somewhat due to these predictions. My simulations of Benioff Zone events show similar results to the previous model used to make predictions for the seismic hazard map.

  10. Strong motion and broadband teleseismic analysis of the 1991 Sierra Madre, California, earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wald, David J.

    1992-07-01

    The source parameters of the 1991 earthquake in the Sierra Madre, California, are studied by means of records of three-component strong motions and teleseismic waveforms. The rupture process is constrained by treating the data with a finite fault-source inversion using a fault-plane orientation based on the aftershock distribution, first motion mechanism, and the teleseismic bodywave point-source inversion. The teleseismic and strong-motion datasets are found to be consistent with a compact rupture area up-dip from the hypocenter. The seismic moment, potency, and resulting stress drop are determined, and the ground motions predicted in the rupture model are shown to be consistent with the damage patterns and peak ground accelerations. The paper shows that damaging ground motion radiation can be attributed to the compact fault region and that thrust faults of limited dimensions can produce potentially hazardous gound motions.

  11. Synthetic strong ground motions for engineering design utilizing empirical Green`s functions

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchings, L.J.; Jarpe, S.P.; Kasameyer, P.W.; Foxall, W.

    1996-04-11

    We present a methodology for developing realistic synthetic strong ground motions for specific sites from specific earthquakes. We analyzed the possible ground motion resulting from a M = 7.25 earthquake that ruptures 82 km of the Hayward fault for a site 1.4 km from the fault in the eastern San Francisco Bay area. We developed a suite of 100 rupture scenarios for the Hayward fault earthquake and computed the corresponding strong ground motion time histories. We synthesized strong ground motion with physics-based solutions of earthquake rupture and applied physical bounds on rupture parameters. By having a suite of rupture scenarios of hazardous earthquakes for a fixed magnitude and identifying the hazard to the site from the statistical distribution of engineering parameters, we introduce a probabilistic component into the deterministic hazard calculation. Engineering parameters of synthesized ground motions agree with those recorded from the 1995 Kobe, Japan and the 1992 Landers, California earthquakes at similar distances and site geologies.

  12. Report on progress at the Center for Engineering Strong Motion Data (CESMD)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haddadi, H.; Shakal, A.; Huang, M.; Parrish, J.; Stephens, C.; Savage, William U.; Leith, William S.

    2012-01-01

    The CESMD now provides strong-motion records from lower magnitude (motion prediction equations in areas with less frequent earthquakes, such as the Central and Eastern US.

  13. Disaster Mitigation by Quick Response Against Strong Earthquake Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Y.

    2007-12-01

    The concept of EEW, earthquake early warning, was reported on San Francisco Daily Evening Bulletin on 3rd November 1868 by Dr. Cooper first for San Francisco area. According to him this idea was triggered by a failure of earthquake prediction. It is impressive that the thinking way is same as present. In 1982 more than 100 years later, the warning system for Tohoku Shinkansen realized the Cooper's idea for the first time on the world. After that, SAS for Mexico City started operating in 1991, and UrEDAS for Tokaido Shinkansen, an evolutional P-wave detection/warning system, began to operate in 1992. The UrEDAS technology is based on new concepts and methods to realize a real time system for estimating the earthquake parameters as magnitude, location and depth. In Japan at 1992, a new information service using UrEDAS technology had been prepared, but it was not born due to objection of JMA, Japan Meteorological Agency. By the same JMA, an information service, so called "Kinkyu Jishin Sokuho", will be broadcasted in nation wide from the first of October 2007. This implies that our UrEDAS Information Service plan has been correct, and it is my pleasure. However, it shall be rare case in Japan that JMA's information will reach faster than arriving of M7 class or less earthquake at the possible damaged areas, because it takes a time relatively long for processing and transmitting. Only for M8 class earthquakes of which the occurrence probability is about once in ten years in Japan, it is possible to receive the information before arriving of strong shaking in a possible damaged area far from the epicenter. JMA should popularize "Kinkyu Jishin Sokuho" after understandable explanation of these facts. I'm afraid that it will mislead people to broadcast a film on an evacuation training in unbelievable condition which is assuming an earthquake of seismic intensity 7 (corresponding to MMI scale XII) arriving 20 seconds later. Anyway, we can rely only on the onsite alarm in focal area. Accurate and quick earthquake information just after shaking is more useful than the late early warning. And I hope public organizations to make best effort that they can announce the earthquake information not only for main shock but also aftershocks, because these information is quite important for the quick response.

  14. The recently compiled Turkish strong motion database: preliminary investigation for seismological parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkar, Sinan; Çağnan, Zehra; Yenier, Emrah; Erdoğan, Özgür; Sandıkkaya, M. Abdullah; Gülkan, Polat

    2010-07-01

    Strong motion data recorded by the Turkish national strong motion network has been compiled and processed systematically for the first time, together with detailed geophysical and geotechnical site measurements for all of its stations. The catalog information of 18 seismological agencies and other sources were examined to obtain reliable source, geometry, and distance parameters for each event. The high quality digital and analog strong motion data was processed by a uniform methodology to remove the high- and low-frequency noise. Currently, the seismological and spectral information of 4,607 strong motion records are available for use by earth scientists and earthquake engineers. In this article, we present the fundamental features of this database and explain our methodology in their calculation. We present several comparisons of our database with other related studies to verify our approach during the computational stage of the seismological parameters. The results confirm the reliability of our calculations. The database has also enabled us to derive empirical magnitude conversion relationships to estimate moment magnitude in terms of different magnitude scales. The article ends with a discussion of the likely improvements in the European accelerometric data through contributions from this strong motion database applicable for seismically active shallow-crust regions. The findings of this article emphasize the necessity of global strong motion databases in Europe for better estimation of seismic hazard in regions of similar seismotectonic environment.

  15. Strong motion deficits in dyslexia associated with DCDC2 gene alteration.

    PubMed

    Cicchini, Guido Marco; Marino, Cecilia; Mascheretti, Sara; Perani, Daniela; Morrone, Maria Concetta

    2015-05-27

    Dyslexia is a specific impairment in reading that affects 1 in 10 people. Previous studies have failed to isolate a single cause of the disorder, but several candidate genes have been reported. We measured motion perception in two groups of dyslexics, with and without a deletion within the DCDC2 gene, a risk gene for dyslexia. We found impairment for motion particularly strong at high spatial frequencies in the population carrying the deletion. The data suggest that deficits in motion processing occur in a specific genotype, rather than the entire dyslexia population, contributing to the large variability in impairment of motion thresholds in dyslexia reported in the literature. PMID:26019324

  16. Estimation of strong ground motions from hypothetical earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone, Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heaton, T.H.; Hartzell, S.H.

    1989-01-01

    Strong ground motions are estimated for the Pacific Northwest assuming that large shallow earthquakes, similar to those experienced in southern Chile, southwestern Japan, and Colombia, may also occur on the Cascadia subduction zone. Fifty-six strong motion recordings for twenty-five subduction earthquakes of Ms???7.0 are used to estimate the response spectra that may result from earthquakes Mw<81/4. Large variations in observed ground motion levels are noted for a given site distance and earthquake magnitude. When compared with motions that have been observed in the western United States, large subduction zone earthquakes produce relatively large ground motions at surprisingly large distances. An earthquake similar to the 22 May 1960 Chilean earthquake (Mw 9.5) is the largest event that is considered to be plausible for the Cascadia subduction zone. This event has a moment which is two orders of magnitude larger than the largest earthquake for which we have strong motion records. The empirical Green's function technique is used to synthesize strong ground motions for such giant earthquakes. Observed teleseismic P-waveforms from giant earthquakes are also modeled using the empirical Green's function technique in order to constrain model parameters. The teleseismic modeling in the period range of 1.0 to 50 sec strongly suggests that fewer Green's functions should be randomly summed than is required to match the long-period moments of giant earthquakes. It appears that a large portion of the moment associated with giant earthquakes occurs at very long periods that are outside the frequency band of interest for strong ground motions. Nevertheless, the occurrence of a giant earthquake in the Pacific Northwest may produce quite strong shaking over a very large region. ?? 1989 Birkha??user Verlag.

  17. Damage assessment of RC buildings subjected to the different strong motion duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortezaei, Alireza; mohajer Tabrizi, Mohsen

    2015-07-01

    An earthquake has three important characteristics; namely, amplitude, frequency content and duration. Amplitude and frequency content have a direct impact but not necessarily the sole cause of structural damage. Regarding the duration, some researchers show a high correlation between strong motion duration and structural damage whereas some others find no relation. This paper focuses on the ground motion durations characterized by Arias Intensity (AI). High duration may increase the damage state of structure for the damage accumulation. This paper investigates the response time histories (acceleration, velocity and displacement) of RC buildings under the different strong motion durations. Generally, eight earthquake records were selected from different soil type, and these records were grouped according to their PGA and frequency ranges. Maximum plastic rotation and drift response was chosen as damage indicator. In general, there was a positive correlation between strong motion duration and damage; however, in some PGA and frequency ranges input motions with shorter durations might cause more damage than the input motions with longer durations. In soft soils, input motions with longer durations caused more damage than the input motions with shorter durations.

  18. Comparison Studies on the Observation of Raindrop Size Distribution in Strong Precipitation Frontal Case in Northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Pay-Liam; Chen, Ying-Jhen

    2015-04-01

    In the nighttime of 11th June 2012, a mature Mai-Yu front passed through northern Taiwan. The leading edge of front associated with southwesterly flow produced strong precipitation in a short time. The extreme rainfall event caused multiple areas flooding. In order to investigate the characteristic of drop size distribution (DSD) accompanied with this heavy rainfall event, we used an impact type Joss-Waldgovel disdrometer (JWD), a laser-optical OTT Parsivel disdrometer (Parsivel) and a two dimensional video disdrometer (2DVD) collocated at NCU, and we also used three JWDs in FeiCui, NanGang and XiaYung to investigate the frontal precipitation. In the weak precipitation period, we found the concentration of small raindrops would be underestimated because the velocity detected by Parsivel is faster than the real situation. But we also made sure that before the strong precipitation happens, the three type disdrometers (JWD, 2DVD and Parsivel) operate consistently.During strong precipitation period, we found a significant DSD variation characteristic. As a convective cell passes, the concentration of medium to large drops increases in Parsivel, while decreases in JWD. Due to the limitation of instrument, Parsivel tended to overestimate the concentration of medium to large drops in the strong rainfall intensity. Comparing the rain drops concentration with the rain rate varies with time, Parsivel showed a good agreement but JWD even did not get the most significant characteristic as the strongest rainfall occurred. The rain rates of JWD and Parsivel varied in the same trend, but compared the rain rates with the rain gauge observation in the 10 m tower at NCU, both of them showed obvious underestimation. We suspected the limitation of instrument made the rain rate underestimated.

  19. Strong-motion observations of the M 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake sequence and development of the N-shake strong-motion network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixit, Amod; Ringler, Adam; Sumy, Danielle F.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Hough, Susan E.; Martin, Stacey; Gibbons, Steven; Luetgert, James H.; Galetzka, John; Shrestha, Surya; Rajaure, Sudhir; McNamara, Daniel E.

    2015-01-01

    We present and describe strong-motion data observations from the 2015 M 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake sequence collected using existing and new Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) and U.S. Geological Survey NetQuakes sensors located in the Kathmandu Valley. A comparison of QCN data with waveforms recorded by a conventional strong-motion (NetQuakes) instrument validates the QCN data. We present preliminary analysis of spectral accelerations, and peak ground acceleration and velocity for earthquakes up to M 7.3 from the QCN stations, as well as preliminary analysis of the mainshock recording from the NetQuakes station. We show that mainshock peak accelerations were lower than expected and conclude the Kathmandu Valley experienced a pervasively nonlinear response during the mainshock. Phase picks from the QCN and NetQuakes data are also used to improve aftershock locations. This study confirms the utility of QCN instruments to contribute to ground-motion investigations and aftershock response in regions where conventional instrumentation and open-access seismic data are limited. Initial pilot installations of QCN instruments in 2014 are now being expanded to create the Nepal–Shaking Hazard Assessment for Kathmandu and its Environment (N-SHAKE) network.

  20. ANALYSIS OF STRONG-MOTION EARTHQUAKE RECORDS FROM A WELL-INSTRUMENTED EARTH DAM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fedock, Joseph J.

    1986-01-01

    Strong-motion records from Long Valley Dam during the Mammoth Lakes earthquake sequence of May 1980 are analyzed to determine the main features of the dam's motions. The dam was instrumented with 22 accelerometers on its embankment and in the immediate vicinity, and more than 60 high-quality, long-duration accelerograms were recorded for the three largest earthquakes of the sequence. Free-field responses are compared with embankment responses to help establish the amplification of the structural motions and to identify modes of vibration of the structure.

  1. Characteristics of the Strong Ground Motions from the 23 October 2011 Van earthquake, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinci, A.; Antonioli, A.

    2012-12-01

    The recent 23 October 2011 Mw 7.1 Van Earthquake occurred at 13:41 local time in Eastern Turkey with an epicenter at 43.36oE, 38.76oN (KOERI) caused severe damage in the epicenter area. Intenseve aftershocks followed, activating the several previously unknown small scale faults around the main fault rupture. Twenty-two accelerometric stations belonging to the National Strong Ground Motion Network (operated by the Earthquake Department of the Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency, AFAD) and eleven accelerometric stations of the Iranian Strong Motion Network (ISMN) recorded the main shock. In this study a great effort has been directed towards understanding the characteristics of ground motion associated with the Van Lake seismic sequences. In this respect we study the features of the strong ground motion recordings obtained during the main shock by means of the spatial variations of the peak ground accelerations and peak ground velocities, and the spectral accelerations (5% of critical damping) together with the site amplifications. High frequency ground motion stochastic simulations are performed in the near-fault area and compared with the empirical Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs). Finally, regarding the October-November Van earthquake sequence, a static analysis of the Coulomb Failure Function variation is carried out adopting the slip distributions retrieved by USGS (Hayes, 2011).

  2. An evaluation of the strong ground motion recorded during the May 1, 2003 Bingol Turkey, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akkar, Sinan; Boore, David M.; Gulkan, Polat

    2005-01-01

    An important record of ground motion from a M6.4 earthquake occurring on May 1, 2003, at epicentral and fault distances of about 12 and 9 km, respectively, was obtained at a station near the city of Bingöl, Turkey. The maximum peak ground values of 0.55g and 36 cm/s are among the largest ground-motion amplitudes recorded in Turkey. From simulations and comparisons with ground motions from other earthquakes of comparable magnitude, we conclude that the ground motion over a range of frequencies is unusually high. Site response may be responsible for the elevated ground motion, as suggested from analysis of numerous aftershock recordings from the same station. The mainshock motions have some interesting seismological features, including ramps between the P- and S-wave that are probably due to near- and intermediate-field elastic motions and strong polarisation oriented at about 39 degrees to the fault (and therefore not in the fault-normal direction). Simulations of motions from an extended rupture explain these features. The N10E component shows a high-amplitude spectral acceleration at a period of 0.15 seconds resulting in a site specific design spectrum that significantly overestimates the actual strength and displacement demands of the record. The pulse signal in the N10E component affects the inelastic spectral displacement and increases the inelastic displacement demand with respect to elastic demand for very long periods.

  3. Proceedings of Workshop XVI; The dynamic characteristics of faulting inferred from recordings of strong ground motion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1982-01-01

    The strong ground motions radiated by earthquake faulting are controlled by the dynamic characteristics of the faulting process. Although this assertion seems self-evident, seismologists have only recently begun to derive and test quantitative relations between common measures of strong ground motion and the dynamic characteristics of faulting. Interest in this problem has increased dramatically in past several years, however, resulting in a number of important advances. The research presented in this workshop is a significant part of this scientific development. Watching this development occur through the work of many scientists is exciting; to be able to gather a number of these scientists together in one workshop is a remarkable opportunity.

  4. The motion of charged particles in strong plane waves including radiation reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinemann, R.; Herold, H.; Ruder, H.; Kegel, W. H.

    The Lorentz-Dirac equation in the Landau approximation is used to study the motion of charged particles in strong plane vacuum waves. It is shown that integration for circularly polarized waves can be used to determine analytically the curves of the particle trajectories. The solution is used to investigate the particle trajectories and energy evolution for various strong waves. The initial conditions for the motion are chosen so that the particles start from a radiation-free path and the growing effect of the radiation reaction on the particle trajectory is highlighted.

  5. Strong Motion Instrumentation of Seismically-Strengthened Port Structures in California by CSMIP

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huang, M.J.; Shakal, A.F.

    2009-01-01

    The California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP) has instrumented five port structures. Instrumentation of two more port structures is underway and another one is in planning. Two of the port structures have been seismically strengthened. The primary goals of the strong motion instrumentation are to obtain strong earthquake shaking data for verifying seismic analysis procedures and strengthening schemes, and for post-earthquake evaluations of port structures. The wharves instrumented by CSMIP were recommended by the Strong Motion Instrumentation Advisory Committee, a committee of the California Seismic Safety Commission. Extensive instrumentation of a wharf is difficult and would be impossible without the cooperation of the owners and the involvement of the design engineers. The instrumentation plan for a wharf is developed through study of the retrofit plans of the wharf, and the strong-motion sensors are installed at locations where specific instrumentation objectives can be achieved and access is possible. Some sensor locations have to be planned during design; otherwise they are not possible to install after construction. This paper summarizes the two seismically-strengthened wharves and discusses the instrumentation schemes and objectives. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  6. Strong Earthquake Motion Estimates for the UCSB Campus, and Related Response of the Engineering 1 Building

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, R.; Bonilla, F.; Doroudian, M.; Elgamal, A.; Hueze, F.

    2000-06-06

    This is the second report on the UC/CLC Campus Earthquake Program (CEP), concerning the estimation of exposure of the U.C. Santa Barbara campus to strong earthquake motions (Phase 2 study). The main results of Phase 1 are summarized in the current report. This document describes the studies which resulted in site-specific strong motion estimates for the Engineering I site, and discusses the potential impact of these motions on the building. The main elements of Phase 2 are: (1) determining that a M 6.8 earthquake on the North Channel-Pitas Point (NCPP) fault is the largest threat to the campus. Its recurrence interval is estimated at 350 to 525 years; (2) recording earthquakes from that fault on March 23, 1998 (M 3.2) and May 14, 1999 (M 3.2) at the new UCSB seismic station; (3) using these recordings as empirical Green's functions (EGF) in scenario earthquake simulations which provided strong motion estimates (seismic syntheses) at a depth of 74 m under the Engineering I site; 240 such simulations were performed, each with the same seismic moment, but giving a broad range of motions that were analyzed for their mean and standard deviation; (4) laboratory testing, at U.C. Berkeley and U.C. Los Angeles, of soil samples obtained from drilling at the UCSB station site, to determine their response to earthquake-type loading; (5) performing nonlinear soil dynamic calculations, using the soil properties determined in-situ and in the laboratory, to calculate the surface strong motions resulting from the seismic syntheses at depth; (6) comparing these CEP-generated strong motion estimates to acceleration spectra based on the application of state-of-practice methods - the IBC 2000 code, UBC 97 code and Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA), this comparison will be used to formulate design-basis spectra for future buildings and retrofits at UCSB; and (7) comparing the response of the Engineering I building to the CEP ground motion estimates and to the design-basis earthquake (DBE) motions used for its retrofit. Because of the new, site-specific approach which the CEP studies represent, an extensive effort of validation is documented on several fronts: (1) validation of the EGF methodology used in the seismic syntheses of strong motion at depth; (2) validation of the soil profile used for the Engineering I site; (3) validation of the 1-D vertical seismic wave propagation assumption at the UCSB site; and (4) validation of the nonlinear soil models used to obtain strong motions at the surface. The ever-growing database of strong earthquake records clearly demonstrates the potential for great variability of ground motions from site to site in a given earthquake. These variations are only reflected in a coarse way in the state-of-the-practice Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analyses, which are rather generic. They are not either described by the simplified design spectra of the Building codes (UBC 97, IBC 2000). These shortcomings provide a strong justification for augmenting the state-of-the-practice estimates with site- specific studies such as done by the Campus Earthquake Program.

  7. Strong Ground Motion and Liquefaction During the Chi-Chi Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, A.; Wang, C.; Chi, W.; Dreger, D.

    2003-12-01

    Traditional methods of liquefaction risk assessment have focused largely on the evaluation of localized soil characteristics. While this method of risk assessment has proven to be fairly successful, it requires penetration tests or other means of determining the soil properties at a particular site. It would therefore be useful to develop a method to evaluate liquefaction risk in a region without requiring site-by-site measurements of soil properties. One approach to this problem is to examine the correlation between various properties of the ground motion at a site and the likelihood of liquefaction. The 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan offers a unique opportunity to study this relationship because the earthquake caused widespread liquefaction, and data from extensive networks of both seismographs and hydrological wells is available. Using a series of 1-D and 3-D models of the Chi-Chi earthquake, we simulate the ground motion at sites where liquefaction or pore pressure increases were observed. The resulting synthetic seismograms allow us to study which types of ground motion are most likely to cause liquefaction or pore pressure buildup. For the Chi-Chi earthquake, we have found that the correlation between pore pressure changes and the spectral ground acceleration at certain frequencies is stronger than the correlation between pore pressure changes and the peak ground acceleration. Preliminary results show significant differences between the synthetic seismograms and empirical seismograms at seismic stations near liquefaction sites. These differences may in part be caused by the inelastic behaviors of the nearby soils due to liquefaction. If true, this could be used as a method to detect liquefaction that does not have surface effects.

  8. Strong ground-motion prediction from Stochastic-dynamic source models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guatteri, Mariagiovanna; Mai, P.M.; Beroza, G.C.; Boatwright, J.

    2003-01-01

    In the absence of sufficient data in the very near source, predictions of the intensity and variability of ground motions from future large earthquakes depend strongly on our ability to develop realistic models of the earthquake source. In this article we simulate near-fault strong ground motion using dynamic source models. We use a boundary integral method to simulate dynamic rupture of earthquakes by specifying dynamic source parameters (fracture energy and stress drop) as spatial random fields. We choose these quantities such that they are consistent with the statistical properties of slip heterogeneity found in finite-source models of past earthquakes. From these rupture models we compute theoretical strong-motion seismograms up to a frequency of 2 Hz for several realizations of a scenario strike-slip Mw 7.0 earthquake and compare empirical response spectra, spectra obtained from our dynamic models, and spectra determined from corresponding kinematic simulations. We find that spatial and temporal variations in slip, slip rise time, and rupture propagation consistent with dynamic rupture models exert a strong influence on near-source ground motion. Our results lead to a feasible approach to specify the variability in the rupture time distribution in kinematic models through a generalization of Andrews' (1976) result relating rupture speed to apparent fracture energy, stress drop, and crack length to 3D dynamic models. This suggests that a simplified representation of dynamic rupture may be obtained to approximate the effects of dynamic rupture without having to do full dynamic simulations.

  9. Strong Earthquake Motion Estimates for Three Sites on the U.C. Riverside Campus

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, R.; Elgamal, A.; Heuze, F.; Lai, T.; Lavalle, D.; Lawrence, B.; Liu, P.C.; Matesic, L.; Park, S.; Riemar, M.; Steidl, J.; Vucetic, M.; Wagoner, J.; Yang, Z.

    2000-11-01

    The approach of the Campus Earthquake Program (CEP) is to combine the substantial expertise that exists within the UC system in geology, seismology, and geotechnical engineering, to estimate the earthquake strong motion exposure of UC facilities. These estimates draw upon recent advances in hazard assessment, seismic wave propagation modeling in rocks and soils, and dynamic soil testing. The UC campuses currently chosen for application of our integrated methodology are Riverside, San Diego, and Santa Barbara. The procedure starts with the identification of possible earthquake sources in the region and the determination of the most critical fault(s) related to earthquake exposure of the campus. Combined geological, geophysical, and geotechnical studies are then conducted to characterize each campus with specific focus on the location of particular target buildings of special interest to the campus administrators. We drill and geophysically log deep boreholes next to the target structure, to provide direct in-situ measurements of subsurface material properties, and to install uphole and downhole 3-component seismic sensors capable of recording both weak and strong motions. The boreholes provide access below the soil layers, to deeper materials that have relatively high seismic shear-wave velocities. Analyses of conjugate downhole and uphole records provide a basis for optimizing the representation of the low-strain response of the sites. Earthquake rupture scenarios of identified causative faults are combined with the earthquake records and with nonlinear soil models to provide site-specific estimates of strong motions at the selected target locations. The predicted ground motions are shared with the UC consultants, so that they can be used as input to the dynamic analysis of the buildings. Thus, for each campus targeted by the CEP project, the strong motion studies consist of two phases, Phase 1--initial source and site characterization, drilling, geophysical logging, installation of the seismic station, and initial seismic monitoring, and Phase 2--extended seismic monitoring, dynamic soil testing, calculation of estimated site-specific earthquake strong motions at depth and at the surface, and, where applicable, estimation of the response of selected buildings to the CEP-estimated strong motions.

  10. Strong earthquake motion estimates for three sites on the U.C. San Diego campus

    SciTech Connect

    Day, S; Doroudian, M; Elgamal, A; Gonzales, S; Heuze, F; Lai, T; Minster, B; Oglesby, D; Riemer, M; Vernon, F; Vucetic, M; Wagoner, J; Yang, Z

    2002-05-07

    The approach of the Campus Earthquake Program (CEP) is to combine the substantial expertise that exists within the UC system in geology, seismology, and geotechnical engineering, to estimate the earthquake strong motion exposure of UC facilities. These estimates draw upon recent advances in hazard assessment, seismic wave propagation modeling in rocks and soils, and dynamic soil testing. The UC campuses currently chosen for application of our integrated methodology are Riverside, San Diego, and Santa Barbara. The procedure starts with the identification of possible earthquake sources in the region and the determination of the most critical fault(s) related to earthquake exposure of the campus. Combined geological, geophysical, and geotechnical studies are then conducted to characterize each campus with specific focus on the location of particular target buildings of special interest to the campus administrators. We drill, sample, and geophysically log deep boreholes next to the target structure, to provide direct in-situ measurements of subsurface material properties, and to install uphole and downhole 3-component seismic sensors capable of recording both weak and strong motions. The boreholes provide access below the soil layers, to deeper materials that have relatively high seismic shear-wave velocities. Analyses of conjugate downhole and uphole records provide a basis for optimizing the representation of the low-strain response of the sites. Earthquake rupture scenarios of identified causative faults are combined with the earthquake records and with nonlinear soil models to provide site-specific estimates of strong motions at the selected target locations. The predicted ground motions are shared with the UC consultants, so that they can be used as input to the dynamic analysis of the buildings. Thus, for each campus targeted by the CEP project, the strong motion studies consist of two phases, Phase 1--initial source and site characterization, drilling, geophysical logging, installation of the seismic station, and initial seismic monitoring, and Phase 2--extended seismic monitoring, dynamic soil testing, calculation of estimated site-specific earthquake strong motions at depth and at the surface, and , where applicable, estimation of the response of selected buildings to the CEP-estimated strong motions.

  11. Strong motion simulations using coupled numerical-empirical Green's functions: the 2009 L'Aquila-earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Gaudio, S.; Lucca, T.; Festa, G.

    2012-04-01

    On April 6, 2009 a Mw 6.3 earthquake occurred near L'Aquila city, in central Italy. Strong motion data recorded in the near fault region exhibit large amplitudes, localized peaks and a strong space variability, this latter being also observed in pattern of the damage distribution. This earthquake hence represents an interesting case test to investigate near fault effects and to understand the role played by the source and the large scale wave propagation on the observed ground motion and ground motion variability. Moreover, beyond the main event, records of aftershocks and foreshocks form a database of Empirical Green's functions (EGFs) that can be used as the impulse response of the medium in the ground motion simulation. Specifically, records at the accelerometric network allow for calibration of source parameters by comparison with real observations, whilst records at the temporary network allow an estimation of the ground motion in sites where no data from the main event are available. We use a kinematic approach to simulate broadband data. For the low-frequency part, we numerically describe the wave field accounting for the 3D structure of the target area (morphology of the basin and topography).The high-frequency part is completed by a selection of EGFs. Small events are selected as a function of the signal to noise ratio in frequency range of interest (0.4-10 Hz), when they are localized almost on the same plane as the one of the main event and share the same focal mechanism. We show a comparison between synthetic estimations and real data and we discuss the variability of the ground motion for L'Aquila region. Tests were performed for different source models in order to verify the influence of the source parameters (slip, rupture velocity, etc.) on the ground motion.

  12. Hanford strong motion accelerometer network: A summary of the first year of operation

    SciTech Connect

    Conrads, T.J.

    1997-09-22

    The Hanford Seismic Monitoring Network consists of two designs of equipment and sites: seismometer sites and strong motion accelerometer (SMA) sites. Seismometer sites are designed to locate earthquakes on and near the Hanford Site and determine their magnitude and hypocenter location. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards (DOE 1993) requires that facilities or sites that have structures or components in Performance Category 2 with hazardous material, and all Performance Category 3 and 4 facilities shall have instrumentation or other means to detect and record the occurrence and severity of seismic events. In order to comply with DOE Order 5480.28, the Hanford Seismic Monitoring Network seismometer sites needed to be complemented with strong motion accelerometers to record the ground motion at specific sites. The combined seismometer sites and strong motion accelerometer sites provide the Hanford Site with earthquake information to comply with DOE Order 5480.28. The data from these instruments will be used by the PHMC staff to assess the damage to facilities following a significant earthquake.

  13. Coupled cavities for motional ground-state cooling and strong optomechanical coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong-Chun; Xiao, Yun-Feng; Luan, Xingsheng; Gong, Qihuang; Wong, Chee Wei

    2015-03-01

    Motional ground-state cooling and quantum-coherent manipulation of mesoscopic mechanical systems are crucial goals in both fundamental physics and applied science. We demonstrate that the motional ground state can be achieved in the highly unresolved sideband regime, through coherent auxiliary cavity interferences. We further illustrate coherent strong Rabi coupling between indirectly coupled and individually optimized mechanical resonators and optical cavities through effective dark-mode interaction. The proposed approach provides a platform for quantum manipulation of mesoscopic mechanical devices beyond the resolved sideband limit.

  14. Designed microtremor array based actual measurement and analysis of strong ground motion at Palu city, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thein, Pyi Soe; Pramumijoyo, Subagyo; Brotopuspito, Kirbani Sri; Wilopo, Wahyu; Kiyono, Junji; Setianto, Agung; Putra, Rusnardi Rahmat

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the strong ground motion characteristics under Palu City, Indonesia. The shear wave velocity structures evaluated by eight microtremors measurement are the most applicable to determine the thickness of sediments and average shear wave velocity with Vs ≤ 300 m/s. Based on subsurface underground structure models identified, earthquake ground motion was estimated in the future Palu-Koro earthquake by using statistical green's function method. The seismic microzonation parameters were carried out by considering several significant controlling factors on ground response at January 23, 2005 earthquake.

  15. Designed microtremor array based actual measurement and analysis of strong ground motion at Palu city, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Thein, Pyi Soe; Pramumijoyo, Subagyo; Wilopo, Wahyu; Setianto, Agung; Brotopuspito, Kirbani Sri; Kiyono, Junji; Putra, Rusnardi Rahmat

    2015-04-24

    In this study, we investigated the strong ground motion characteristics under Palu City, Indonesia. The shear wave velocity structures evaluated by eight microtremors measurement are the most applicable to determine the thickness of sediments and average shear wave velocity with Vs ≤ 300 m/s. Based on subsurface underground structure models identified, earthquake ground motion was estimated in the future Palu-Koro earthquake by using statistical green’s function method. The seismic microzonation parameters were carried out by considering several significant controlling factors on ground response at January 23, 2005 earthquake.

  16. New Hybridized Surface Wave Approach for Geotechnical Modeling of Shear Wave Velocity at Strong Motion Recording Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayen, R.; Carkin, B.; Minasian, D.

    2006-12-01

    Strong motion recording (SMR) networks often have little or no shear wave velocity measurements at stations where characterization of site amplification and site period effects is needed. Using the active Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW) method, and passive H/V microtremor method we have investigated nearly two hundred SMR sites in California, Alaska, Japan, Australia, China and Taiwan. We are conducting these studies, in part, to develop a new hybridized method of site characterization that utilizes a parallel array of harmonic-wave sources for active-source SASW, and a single long period seismometer for passive-source microtremor measurement. Surface wave methods excel in their ability to non-invasively and rapidly characterize the variation of ground stiffness properties with depth below the surface. These methods are lightweight, inexpensive to deploy, and time-efficient. They have been shown to produce accurate and deep soil stiffness profiles. By placing and wiring shakers in a large parallel circuit, either side-by-side on the ground or in a trailer-mounted array, a strong in-phase harmonic wave can be produced. The effect of arraying many sources in parallel is to increase the amplitude of waves received at far-away spaced seismometers at low frequencies so as to extend the longest wavelengths of the captured dispersion curve. The USGS system for profiling uses this concept by arraying between two and eight electro-mechanical harmonic-wave shakers. With large parallel arrays of vibrators, a dynamic force in excess of 1000 lb can be produced to vibrate the ground and produce surface waves. We adjust the harmonic wave through a swept-sine procedure to profile surface wave dispersion down to a frequency of 1 Hz and out to surface wave-wavelengths of 200-1000 meters, depending on the site stiffness. The parallel-array SASW procedure is augmented using H/V microtremor data collected with the active source turned off. Passive array microtremor data reveal the natural and resonance characteristics of the ground by capturing persistent natural vibrations. These microtremors are the result of the interaction of surface waves arriving from distant sources and the stiffness structure of the site under investigation. As such, these resonance effects are effective in constraining the layer thicknesses of the SASW shear wave velocity structure and aid in determining the depth of the deepest layer. Together, the hybridized SASW and H/V procedure provides a complete data set for modeling the geotechnical aspects of ground amplification of earthquake motions. Data from these investigations are available at http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/geotech.

  17. Comparison of damping in buildings under low-amplitude and strong motions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of damping values and other dynamic characteristics of five buildings using strong-motion and low-amplitude (ambient vibration) data. The strong-motion dynamic characteristics of five buildings within the San Francisco Bay area are extracted from recordings of the 17 October 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (LPE). Ambient vibration response characteristics for the same five buildings were inferred using data collected in 1990 following LPE. Additional earthquake data other than LPE for one building and ambient vibration data collected before LPE for two other buildings provide additional confirmation of the results obtained. For each building, the percentages of critical damping and the corresponding fundamental periods determined from low-amplitude test data are appreciably lower than those determined from strong-motion recordings. These differences are attributed mainly to soil-structure interaction and other non-linear behavior affecting the structures during strong shaking. Significant contribution of radiation damping to the effective damping of a specific building is discussed in detail.

  18. Comparisons of ground motions from five aftershocks of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake with empirical predictions largely based on data from California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, G.-Q.; Boore, D.M.; Igel, H.; Zhou, X.-Y.

    2004-01-01

    The observed ground motions from five large aftershocks of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake are compared with predictions from four equations based primarily on data from California. The four equations for active tectonic regions are those developed by Abrahamson and Silva (1997), Boore et al. (1997), Campbell (1997, 2001), and Sadigh et al. (1997). Comparisons are made for horizontal-component peak ground accelerations and 5%-damped pseudoacceleration response spectra at periods between 0.02 sec and 5 sec. The observed motions are in reasonable agreement with the predictions, particularly for distances from 10 to 30 km. This is in marked contrast to the motions from the Chi-Chi mainshock, which are much lower than the predicted motions for periods less than about 1 sec. The results indicate that the low motions in the mainshock are not due to unusual, localized absorption of seismic energy, because waves from the mainshock and the aftershocks generally traverse the same section of the crust and are recorded at the same stations. The aftershock motions at distances of 30-60 km are somewhat lower than the predictions (but not nearly by as small a factor as those for the mainshock), suggesting that the ground motion attenuates more rapidly in this region of Taiwan than it does in the areas we compare with it. We provide equations for the regional attenuation of response spectra, which show increasing decay of motion with distance for decreasing oscillator periods. This observational study also demonstrates that ground motions have large earthquake-location-dependent variability for a specific site. This variability reduces the accuracy with which an earthquake-specific prediction of site response can be predicted. Online Material: PGAs and PSAs from the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake and five aftershocks.

  19. Dense Strong Motion Seismograph Networks in Canada: Opportunities and Applications. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, J. F.; Rosenberger, A.; Rogers, G. C.; Huffman, S.

    2010-12-01

    Strong motion monitoring has undergone a revolution in Canada in recent years. Most analogue, non-communicating instruments have been replaced with modern, smart digital instruments that provide information in real-time. These new instruments have on-board computing capabilities and can serve multiple purposes when connected in networks with fast Internet based telemetry. As of 2010, the Geological Survey of Canada operates 110 strong motion instruments (Internet Acclerometers or IA=s) across Canada, most of which are deployed in or near the urban centres of high seismic hazard in southwest British Columbia. Partner organisations operate an additional 70 strong motion instruments monitoring critical infrastructure in western Canada. These instruments and data serve multiple purposes: 1. They help to fill the still sparse data-base of strong ground motions required for seismic engineering and hazard and risk assessment in general. 2. Recordings of small, moderate (and large) earthquakes can be utilised for earthquake site response studies - mapping the variation in shaking across urban areas and the effects of surface geology, sedimentary basins, and topography. 3. They contribute to the development of real-time warning systems. 4. They contribute to situational awareness after a major earthquake (e.g., shaking maps). 5. Their data can be integrated with structural monitoring systems to aide in the rapid assessment of critical infrastructure and life lines in the aftermath of a large earthquake. These applications require a sufficiently high density of stations in a high earthquake risk area and as well a new type of smart instrument which can provide a tailored parameter set describing the nature and severity of earthquake ground motion in real time and in a form suitable as input for engineering models. The real time transmittal of data into easily accessible displays can facilitate post earthquake response and inspection, and can enable emergency funding agencies to focus recovery efforts. Here, we provide an overview of how the strong motion network in the high-risk region of southwest British Columbia operates and present some examples of new opportunities and applications.

  20. Chapter A. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Strong Ground Motion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    1994-01-01

    Strong ground motion generated by the Loma Prieta, Calif., earthquake (MS~7.1) of October 17, 1989, resulted in at least 63 deaths, more than 3,757 injuries, and damage estimated to exceed $5.9 billion. Strong ground motion severely damaged critical lifelines (freeway overpasses, bridges, and pipelines), caused severe damage to poorly constructed buildings, and induced a significant number of ground failures associated with liquefaction and landsliding. It also caused a significant proportion of the damage and loss of life at distances as far as 100 km from the epicenter. Consequently, understanding the characteristics of the strong ground motion associated with the earthquake is fundamental to understanding the earthquake's devastating impact on society. The papers assembled in this chapter address this problem. Damage to vulnerable structures from the earthquake varied substantially with the distance from the causative fault and the type of underlying geologic deposits. Most of the damage and loss of life occurred in areas underlain by 'soft soil'. Quantifying these effects is important for understanding the tragic concentrations of damage in such areas as Santa Cruz and the Marina and Embarcadero Districts of San Francisco, and the failures of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge and the Interstate Highway 880 overpass. Most importantly, understanding these effects is a necessary prerequisite for improving mitigation measures for larger earthquakes likely to occur much closer to densely urbanized areas in the San Francisco Bay region. The earthquake generated an especially important data set for understanding variations in the severity of strong ground motion. Instrumental strong-motion recordings were obtained at 131 sites located from about 6 to 175 km from the rupture zone. This set of recordings, the largest yet collected for an event of this size, was obtained from sites on various geologic deposits, including a unique set on 'soft soil' deposits (artificial fill and bay mud). These exceptional ground-motion data are used by the authors of the papers in this chapter to infer radiation characteristics of the earthquake source, identify dominant propagation characteristics of the Earth?s crust, quantify amplification characteristics of near-surface geologic deposits, develop general amplification factors for site-dependent building-code provisions, and revise earthquake-hazard assessments for the San Francisco Bay region. Interpretations of additional data recorded in well-instrumented buildings, dams, and freeway overpasses are provided in other chapters of this report.

  1. Before and after retrofit - response of a building during ambient and strong motions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.; Liu, Huaibao P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents results obtained from ambient vibration and strong-motion responses of a thirteen-story, moment-resisting steel framed Santa Clara County Office Building (SCCOB) before being retrofitted by visco-elastic dampers and from ambient vibration response following the retrofit. Understanding the cumulative structural and site characteristics that affect the response of SCCOB before and after the retrofit is important in assessing earthquake hazards to other similar buildings and decision making in retrofitting them. The results emphasize the need to better evaluate structural and site characteristics in developing earthquake resisting designs that avoid resonating effects. Various studies of the strong-motion response records from the SCCOB during the 24 April 1984 (MHE) Morgan Hill (MS = 6.1), the 31 March 1986 (MLE) Mt. Lewis (MS = 6.1) and the 17 October 1989 (LPE) Loma Prieta (MS = 7.1) earthquakes show that the dynamic characteristics of the building are such that it (a) resonated (b) responded with a beating effect due to close-coupling of its translational and torsional frequencies, and (c) had a long-duration response due to low-damping. During each of these earthquakes, there was considerable contents damage and the occupants felt the rigorous vibration of the building. Ambient tests of SCCOB performed following LPE showed that both translational and torsional periods of the building are smaller than those derived from strong motions. Ambient tests performed following the retrofit of the building with visco-elastic dampers show that the structural fundamental mode frequency of the building has increased. The increased frequency implies a stiffer structure. Strong-motion response of the building during future earthquakes will ultimately validate the effectiveness of the retrofit method.This paper presents results obtained from ambient vibration and strong-motion responses of a thirteen-story, moment-resisting steel framed Santa Clara County Office Building (SCCOB) before being retrofitted by visco-elastic dampers and from ambient vibration response following the retrofit. Understanding the cumulative structural and site characteristics that affect the response of SCCOB before and after the retrofit is important in assessing earthquake hazards to other similar buildings and decision making in retrofitting them. The results emphasize the need to better evaluate structural and site characteristics in developing earthquake resisting designs that avoid resonating effects. Various studies of the strong-motion response records from the SCCOB during the 24 April 1984 (MHE) Morgan Hill (Ms = 6.1), the 31 March 1986 (MLE) Mt. Lewis (Ms = 6.1) and the 17 October 1989(LPE) Loma Prieta (Ms = 7.1) earthquakes show that the dynamic characteristics of the building are such that it (a) resonated (b) responded with a beating effect due to close-coupling of its translational and torsional frequencies, and (c) had a long-duration response due to low-damping. During each of these earthquakes, there was considerable contents damage and the occupants felt the rigorous vibration of the building. Ambient tests of SCCOB performed following LPE showed that both translational and torsional periods of the building are smaller than those derived from strong motions. Ambient tests performed following the retrofit of the building with visco-elastic dampers show that the structural fundamental mode frequency of the building has increased. The increased frequency implies a stiffer structure. Strong-motion response of the building during future earthquakes will ultimately validate the effectiveness of the retrofit method.

  2. Vision for the Future of the US National Strong-Motion Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Committee for the Future of the US National Strong-Motion Program

    1997-01-01

    This document provides the requested vision for the future of the National Strong-Motion Program operated by the US Geological Survey. Options for operation of the program are presented in a companion document. Each of the three major charges of the EHRP, program council pertaining to the vision document is addressed here. The 'Vision Summary' through a series of answers to specific questions is intended to provide a complete synopsis of the committees response to program council charges. The Vision for the Future of the NSMP is presented as section III of the Summary. Analysis and detailed discussion supporting the answers in the summary are presented as sections organized according to the charges of the program council. The mission for the program is adopted from that developed at the national workshop entitled 'Research Needs for Strong Motion Data to Support Earthquake Engineering' sponsored by the National Science Foundation.

  3. Relativistic electron motion in cylindrical waveguide with strong guiding magnetic field and high power microwave

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ping; Sun, Jun; Cao, Yibing

    2015-06-15

    In O-type high power microwave (HPM) devices, the annular relativistic electron beam is constrained by a strong guiding magnetic field and propagates through an interaction region to generate HPM. Some papers believe that the E × B drift of electrons may lead to beam breakup. This paper simplifies the interaction region with a smooth cylindrical waveguide to research the radial motion of electrons under conditions of strong guiding magnetic field and TM{sub 01} mode HPM. The single-particle trajectory shows that the radial electron motion presents the characteristic of radial guiding-center drift carrying cyclotron motion. The radial guiding-center drift is spatially periodic and is dominated by the polarization drift, not the E × B drift. Furthermore, the self fields of the beam space charge can provide a radial force which may pull electrons outward to some extent but will not affect the radial polarization drift. Despite the radial drift, the strong guiding magnetic field limits the drift amplitude to a small value and prevents beam breakup from happening due to this cause.

  4. Strong Ground Motion Simulation of the 2008 MS 8.0 Wenchuan, China, Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Yao, X.; Yu, X.

    2014-12-01

    The near source strong ground motions of the 2008 MS 8.0 Wenchuan, China, earthquake are simulated using empirical Green's function (EFG) method. At first, we estimate the locations of strong motion generation areas (SMGA) based on the teleseismic data inversion results by some other researchers. Then, preliminarily determine the total areas of SMGA referring to the scaling law introduced by Somerville et al. (1999). Finally, we implement the genetic algorithm searching for the optimized source parameters. Based on the source models, we synthetize the waveforms for the 18 stations located near the source region. Our results show that the comparison between the synthetic waveforms and the observed records agree each other very well. We find that there are five obvious SMGAs on the fault. The locations of the two of them are similar with the asperities from the teleseismic data inversion. However, the combined strong motion generation areas and the rise time we obtained are smaller than those values predicted by the extension value of the scaling law by Somerville et al. (1999).

  5. Strong Ground Motion Characteristics from the 6 April 2009 L’Aquila earthquake, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinci, A.; Malagnini, L.; Sabetta, F.

    2009-12-01

    The April 6, 2009 earthquake occurred at 03:33 a.m. local time, magnitude Mw=6.3, in the Abruzzo region (Central Italy), close to the city of L’Aquila (67000 inhabitants), located at about 5 km northeast to the epicenter. The earthquake occurred on a NW-SE oriented normal fault dipping toward the SW, with the city of L’Aquila lying on the hanging wall. The main shock has been recorded by fifty-eight accelerometric stations the highest number of digital recordings ever obtained in Italy for a single earthquake; this makes the Abruzzo event one of the best recorded earthquakes caused by a normal fault mechanism. Very high values of peak ground acceleration were recorded near L’Aquila town centre (6 stations at zero distance from the fault) with a station reaching its full scale value of 1 g. The earthquake caused severe losses (299 victims and1500 injured) and damages (about 18000 unusable buildings) in the epicentral area. In this study, we aim discussing the issues related to the earthquake engineering applications and implications of the recorded ground motion. Therefore, we analyze the ground motion characteristics of both the main shock and one of the largest aftershocks (Mw 5.4) in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV), spectral acceleration (SA). In particular, we compare the 5% damped acceleration response with the EC8 design spectrum and the new Italian building code (NTC08). In order to understand the ground motion characteristics of the L’Aquila earthquake better, we also study the site response of the strong motion stations that recorded the Aquila seismic sequence. The spectral ratio and H/V procedures were applied to all the events for which the strong-motion recordings are available.

  6. The Engineering Strong Ground Motion Network of the National Autonomous University of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco Miranda, J. M.; Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Aguilar Calderon, L. A.; Almora Mata, D.; Ayala Hernandez, M.; Castro Parra, G.; Molina Avila, I.; Mora, A.; Torres Noguez, M.; Vazquez Larquet, R.

    2014-12-01

    The coverage, design, operation and monitoring capabilities of the strong ground motion program at the Institute of Engineering (IE) of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) is presented. Started in 1952, the seismic instrumentation intended initially to bolster earthquake engineering projects in Mexico City has evolved into the largest strong ground motion monitoring system in the region. Today, it provides information not only to engineering projects, but also to the near real-time risk mitigation systems of the country, and enhances the general understanding of the effects and causes of earthquakes in Mexico. The IE network includes more than 100 free-field stations and several buildings, covering the largest urban centers and zones of significant seismicity in Central Mexico. Of those stations, approximately one-fourth send the observed acceleration to a processing center in Mexico City continuously, and the rest require either periodic visits for the manual recovery of the data or remote interrogation, for later processing and cataloging. In this research, we document the procedures and telecommunications systems used systematically to recover information. Additionally, we analyze the spatial distribution of the free-field accelerographs, the quality of the instrumentation, and the recorded ground motions. The evaluation criteria are based on the: 1) uncertainty in the generation of ground motion parameter maps due to the spatial distribution of the stations, 2) potential of the array to provide localization and magnitude estimates for earthquakes with magnitudes greater than Mw 5, and 3) adequacy of the network for the development of Ground Motion Prediction Equations due to intra-plate and intra-slab earthquakes. We conclude that the monitoring system requires a new redistribution, additional stations, and a substantial improvement in the instrumentation and telecommunications. Finally, we present an integral plan to improve the current network's monitoring capabilities.

  7. A strong-motion network in Northern Italy (RAIS): data acquisition and processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augliera, Paolo; Ezio, D'alema; Simone, Marzorati; Marco, Massa

    2010-05-01

    The necessity of a dense network in Northern Italy started from the lack of available data after the occurrence of the 24th November 2004, Ml 5.2, Salò earthquake. Since 2006 many efforts have been made by the INGV (Italian National Institute for Geophysics and Volcanology), department of Milano-Pavia (hereinafter INGV MI-PV), to improve the strong-motion monitoring of the Northern Italy regions. At the end of 2007, the RAIS (Strong-Motion Network in Northern Italy) included 19 stations equipped with Kinemetrics Episensor FBA ES-T coupled with 5 20-bits Lennartz Mars88/MC and 14 24-bits Reftek 130-01 seismic recorders. In this step, we achieved the goal to reduce the average inter-distances between strong-motion stations, installed in the area under study, from about 40 km to 15 km. In this period the GSM-modem connection between the INGV MI-PV acquisition center and the remote stations was used. Starting to 2008, in order to assure real-time recordings, with the aim to integrate RAIS data in the calculation of the Italian ground-shaking maps, the main activity was devoted to update the data acquisition of the RAIS strong-motion network. Moreover a phase that will lead to replace the original recorders with 24-bits GAIA2 systems (directly produced by INGV-CNT laboratory, Rome) has been starting. Today 11 out of the 22 stations are already equipped by GAIA2 and their original GSM-modem acquisition system were already replaced with real-time connections, based on TCP/IP or Wi-Fi links. All real time stations storage data using the MiniSEED format. The management and data exchange are assured by the SEED-Link and Earthworm packages. The metadata dissemination is achieved through the website, where the computed strong motion parameters, together the amplification functions, for each recording station are available for each recorded events. The waveforms, for earthquake with local magnitude higher than 3.0 are now collected in the ITalian ACcelerometric Archive (http://itaca.mi.ingv.it).

  8. A Diffusion Approximation Based on Renewal Processes with Applications to Strongly Biased Run-Tumble Motion.

    PubMed

    Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro

    2016-03-01

    We consider organisms which use a renewal strategy such as run-tumble when moving in space, for example to perform chemotaxis in chemical gradients. We derive a diffusion approximation for the motion, applying a central limit theorem due to Anscombe for renewal-reward processes; this theorem has not previously been applied in this context. Our results extend previous work, which has established the mean drift but not the diffusivity. For a classical model of tumble rates applied to chemotaxis, we find that the resulting chemotactic drift saturates to the swimming velocity of the organism when the chemical gradients grow increasingly steep. The dispersal becomes anisotropic in steep gradients, with larger dispersal across the gradient than along the gradient. In contrast to one-dimensional settings, strong bias increases dispersal. We next include Brownian rotation in the model and find that, in limit of high chemotactic sensitivity, the chemotactic drift is 64 % of the swimming velocity, independent of the magnitude of the Brownian rotation. We finally derive characteristic timescales of the motion that can be used to assess whether the diffusion limit is justified in a given situation. The proposed technique for obtaining diffusion approximations is conceptually and computationally simple, and applicable also when statistics of the motion is obtained empirically or through Monte Carlo simulation of the motion. PMID:27012850

  9. Addressing earthquake strong ground motion issues at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, I.G. ); Silva, W.J.; Stark, C.L. ); Jackson, S.; Smith, R.P. )

    1991-01-01

    In the course of reassessing seismic hazards at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), several key issues have been raised concerning the effects of the earthquake source and site geology on potential strong ground motions that might be generated by a large earthquake. The design earthquake for the INEL is an approximate moment magnitude (M{sub w}) 7 event that may occur on the southern portion of the Lemhi fault, a Basin and Range normal fault that is located on the northwestern boundary of the eastern Snake River Plain and the INEL, within 10 to 27km of several major facilities. Because the locations of these facilities place them at close distances to a large earthquake and generally along strike of the causative fault, the effects of source rupture dynamics (e.g., directivity) could be critical in enhancing potential ground shaking at the INEL. An additional source issue that has been addressed is the value of stress drop to use in ground motions predictions. In terms of site geology, it has been questioned whether the interbedded volcanic stratigraphy beneath the ESRP and the INEL attenuates ground motions to a greater degree than a typical rock site in the western US. These three issues have been investigated employing a stochastic ground motion methodology which incorporates the Band-Limited-White-Noise source model for both a point source and finite fault, random vibration theory and an equivalent linear approach to model soil response.

  10. Addressing earthquake strong ground motion issues at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, I.G.; Silva, W.J.; Stark, C.L.; Jackson, S.; Smith, R.P.

    1991-12-31

    In the course of reassessing seismic hazards at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), several key issues have been raised concerning the effects of the earthquake source and site geology on potential strong ground motions that might be generated by a large earthquake. The design earthquake for the INEL is an approximate moment magnitude (M{sub w}) 7 event that may occur on the southern portion of the Lemhi fault, a Basin and Range normal fault that is located on the northwestern boundary of the eastern Snake River Plain and the INEL, within 10 to 27km of several major facilities. Because the locations of these facilities place them at close distances to a large earthquake and generally along strike of the causative fault, the effects of source rupture dynamics (e.g., directivity) could be critical in enhancing potential ground shaking at the INEL. An additional source issue that has been addressed is the value of stress drop to use in ground motions predictions. In terms of site geology, it has been questioned whether the interbedded volcanic stratigraphy beneath the ESRP and the INEL attenuates ground motions to a greater degree than a typical rock site in the western US. These three issues have been investigated employing a stochastic ground motion methodology which incorporates the Band-Limited-White-Noise source model for both a point source and finite fault, random vibration theory and an equivalent linear approach to model soil response.

  11. Dynamic geometrical effects on strong ground motion in a normal fault model

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, J.N.; Anooshehpoor, A.

    1999-01-01

    We report results of measurement of particle motion in a foam-rubber model of normal faulting and compare the results with similar results for a strike-slip geometry. Standard computer modeling of strong ground motion from normal fault earthquakes has used dislocation theory, in which slip along the shallow part of the fault is prescribed by assuming particular time functions for fault slip. Unfortunately, in the case of normal faults, there are essentially no near-fault data from large earthquakes to constrain the modeling. In an extensional faulting regime the static normal and shear stresses along the fault must approach zero at the surface, and thus the upper few kilometers of the fault have inherently less stored strain energy than the maximum possible for strike-slip faults. In addition there are dynamic effects from geometry and drop in fault-normal stress which affect the fault motion. Physical models of faulting, such as foam-rubber modeling, are guaranteed to obey static and dynamic mechanical laws and thus can be used to gain insight into the physical processes involved. In this study we compare surface accelerations from normal fault and strike-slip geometries. The data show surface accelerations near the normal fault trace that are systematically lower, by an average factor of about 0.1, compared to the accelerations at the side sensors, which represent strike-slip motion. These results suggest that kinematic modeling of ground motion using classical dislocation techniques is inappropriate on the shallow part of the fault. The results of this study are qualitatively similar to those obtained for numerical models, such as a dynamic lattice model [{ital Shi} {ital et al.}, 1997] and a finite element model [{ital Oglesby} {ital et al.}, 1998], lending support to the probability that similar effects take place in the real Earth. {copyright} 1999 American Geophysical Union

  12. Rapid magnitude estimation for moderate to large earthquakes using strong motion records in the Iranian plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaei, P.; Sadeghi, H.; Rahimi, B.; Sadeghi Bagherabadi, A.

    2010-12-01

    Rapid estimation of earthquake magnitude has an effective role in emergency response operation. A fast determination of the earthquake magnitude is important to produce ground shaking and damage distribution maps in a short time after an event occurring. Iran Strong Motion Network (ISMN) has more than 1100 stations distributed in the Iranian plateau. The availability of a relatively large number of strong-motion records motivated us to do a study on rapid magnitude estimation. Three-component accelerograms of earthquakes with moment magnitude of 5 and greater are used. We calculated the parameter of total effective shaking by time integration of the absolute amplitude values of the three components over the strong shaking duration. There is an attenuation relation of total effective shaking with magnitude and hypocentral distance. We estimated coefficients of this attenuation relation through a least square regression analysis, and obtained a series of attenuation curves of total effective shaking in the moment magnitude range of 5 to 7. The estimated moment magnitudes match closely with reported values. This magnitude determination could be done, just after the waveforms have completed.

  13. Attenuation Characteristics of Strong Ground Motions during the Mw 6.1 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, H.; Koketsu, K.; Miyake, H.; Ibrahim, R.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 South Napa earthquake (Mw 6.1, GCMT) occurred near the American Canyon, California, at 3:20 on 24 August 2014. The earthquake is the largest damaging earthquakes in the area since the 1989 Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake. A large number of strong ground motions were recorded during this earthquake. We discuss the attenuation characteristics of the strong ground motions of the earthquake.The data used in this study are PGAs compiled by the Center for Engineering Strong Motion Data (CESMD), while the records derived at the stations located in a building were excluded. PGA is defined as the larger one among the PGAs of two horizontal components. We use a source model derived based on the waveform inversion by Dreger (2014). Based on the source model, we calculated the fault distance (FD) and the median distance (MED) which defined as the closest distance from a station to the middle line of the fault plane. We compared the observed PGAs with the GMPEs developed both in US (Boore et al., 2014) and Japan (Si and Midorikawa, 1999; Koketsu et al., 2013), as shown in Figure 1 (left, and center). The predictions by the GMPEs are generally consistent with the observations in near-field area, but overestimated at stations farther than about 10 km in fault distance. The reasons of the overestimates are assumed as follows: (1) the backward propagation effects since many far stations are located in bay area, (2) the energy loss when the seismic waves pass through the sharp discontinuities in the shear wave velocity structure. The second reason are taken into account for the case using MED based on the methods used in Si et al. (2012, 15WCEE). The corrected predictions are significantly improved (Figure 1, right).

  14. The Quake-Catcher Network: Improving Earthquake Strong Motion Observations Through Community Engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, E. S.; Lawrence, J. F.; Christensen, C. M.; Chung, A. I.; Neighbors, C.; Saltzman, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) involves the community in strong motion data collection by utilizing volunteer computing techniques and low-cost MEMS accelerometers. Volunteer computing provides a mechanism to expand strong-motion seismology with minimal infrastructure costs, while promoting community participation in science. Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) triaxial accelerometers can be attached to a desktop computer via USB and are internal to many laptops. Preliminary shake table tests show the MEMS accelerometers can record high-quality seismic data with instrument response similar to research-grade strong-motion sensors. QCN began distributing sensors and software to K-12 schools and the general public in April 2008 and has grown to roughly 1500 stations worldwide. We also recently tested whether sensors could be quickly deployed as part of a Rapid Aftershock Mobilization Program (RAMP) following the 2010 M8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake. Volunteers are recruited through media reports, web-based sensor request forms, as well as social networking sites. Using data collected to date, we examine whether a distributed sensing network can provide valuable seismic data for earthquake detection and characterization while promoting community participation in earthquake science. We utilize client-side triggering algorithms to determine when significant ground shaking occurs and this metadata is sent to the main QCN server. On average, trigger metadata are received within 1-10 seconds from the observation of a trigger; the larger data latencies are correlated with greater server-station distances. When triggers are detected, we determine if the triggers correlate to others in the network using spatial and temporal clustering of incoming trigger information. If a minimum number of triggers are detected then a QCN-event is declared and an initial earthquake location and magnitude is estimated. Initial analysis suggests that the estimated locations and magnitudes are similar to those reported in regional and global catalogs. As the network expands, it will become increasingly important to provide volunteers access to the data they collect, both to encourage continued participation in the network and to improve community engagement in scientific discourse related to seismic hazard. In the future, we hope to provide access to both images and raw data from seismograms in formats accessible to the general public through existing seismic data archives (e.g. IRIS, SCSN) and/or through the QCN project website. While encouraging community participation in seismic data collection, we can extend the capabilities of existing seismic networks to rapidly detect and characterize strong motion events. In addition, the dense waveform observations may provide high-resolution ground shaking information to improve source imaging and seismic risk assessment.

  15. Liquefaction and strong motion during the 2010-2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, M.; Wang, C. Y.; Dreger, D. S.; Cox, S.

    2014-12-01

    Liquefaction is a major seismic hazard for engineered structures; thus improved ability to predict the potential for liquefaction in seismically active regions is badly needed. The 2010 Mw 7.1 Darfield event and its associated aftershock sequence caused numerous occurrences of liquefaction in the Canterbury region of New Zealand, providing an excellent opportunity to study the occurrence of liquefaction in coastal plains near an active mountain belt. In this study we utilize strong motion data from over 100 stations in the New Zealand region and examine a number of major liquefaction events associated with the Canterbury earthquake sequence. These data are used to construct empirical attenuation relationships of ground motion as functions of hypocentral distance. The attenuation relationships so derived for the Canterbury region are similar to those developed for Southern California. This similarity suggests some generality of ground motion attenuation in sedimentary basins, even between geographically disparate regions. These relationships are used to estimate the seismic energy density at each liquefaction site in the Canterbury region, which is compared with a global database of liquefaction occurrences. Some liquefaction sites in the Canterbury region experienced seismic energy densities near the lower threshold for liquefaction established for the global dataset, suggesting high sensitivity to liquefaction.

  16. WHITTIER NARROWS, CALIFORNIA EARTHQUAKE OF OCTOBER 1, 1987-PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF STRONG GROUND MOTION RECORDS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, A.G.; Etheredge, E.C.; Porcella, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    More than 250 strong-motion accelerograph stations were triggered by the Whittier Narrows, California earthquake of 1 October 1987. Considering the number of multichannel structural stations in the area of strong shaking, this set of records is one of the more significant in history. Three networks, operated by the U. S. Geological Survey, the California Division of Mines and Geology, and the University of Southern California produced the majority of the records. The excellent performance of the instruments in these and the smaller arrays is attributable to the quality of the maintenance programs. Readiness for a magnitude 8 event is directly related to these maintenance programs. Prior to computer analysis of the analog film records, a number of important structural resonant modes can be identified, and frequencies and simple mode shapes have been scaled.

  17. Nonlinear Site Response Validation Studies Using KIK-net Strong Motion Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asimaki, D.; Shi, J.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquake simulations are nowadays producing realistic ground motion time-series in the range of engineering design applications. Of particular significance to engineers are simulations of near-field motions and large magnitude events, for which observations are scarce. With the engineering community slowly adopting the use of simulated ground motions, site response models need to be re-evaluated in terms of their capabilities and limitations to 'translate' the simulated time-series from rock surface output to structural analyses input. In this talk, we evaluate three one-dimensional site response models: linear viscoelastic, equivalent linear and nonlinear. We evaluate the performance of the models by comparing predictions to observations at 30 downhole stations of the Japanese network KIK-Net that have recorded several strong events, including the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. Velocity profiles are used as the only input to all models, while additional parameters such as quality factor, density and nonlinear dynamic soil properties are estimated from empirical correlations. We quantify the differences of ground surface predictions and observations in terms of both seismological and engineering intensity measures, including bias ratios of peak ground response and visual comparisons of elastic spectra, and inelastic to elastic deformation ratio for multiple ductility ratios. We observe that PGV/Vs,30 as measure of strain is a better predictor of site nonlinearity than PGA, and that incremental nonlinear analyses are necessary to produce reliable estimates of high-frequency ground motion components at soft sites. We finally discuss the implications of our findings on the parameterization of nonlinear amplification factors in GMPEs, and on the extensive use of equivalent linear analyses in probabilistic seismic hazard procedures.

  18. Site effects by generalized inversion technique using strong motion recordings of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yefei; Wen, Ruizhi; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Kashima, Toshihide

    2013-06-01

    The generalized inversion of S-wave amplitude spectra from the free-field strong motion recordings of the China National Strong Motion Observation Network System (NSMONS) are used to evaluate the site effects in the Wenchuan area. In this regard, a total of 602 recordings from 96 aftershocks of the Wenchuan earthquake with magnitudes of M3.7- M6.5 were selected as a dataset. These recordings were obtained from 28 stations at a hypocenter distance ranging from 30 km to 150 km. The inversion results have been verified as reliable by comparing the site response at station 62WUD using the Generalized Inversion Technique (GIT) and the Standard Spectral Ratio method (SSR). For all 28 stations, the site predominant frequency F p and the average site amplification in different frequency bands of 1.0-5.0 Hz, 5.0-10.0 Hz and 1.0-10.0 Hz have been calculated based on the inversion results. Compared with the results from the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) method, it shows that the HVSR method can reasonably estimate the site predominant frequency but underestimates the site amplification. The linear fitting between the average site amplification for each frequency band and the V s20 (the average uppermost-20 m shear wave velocity) shows good correlation. A distance measurement called the asperity distance D Aspt is proposed to reasonably characterize the source-to-site distance for large earthquakes. Finally, the inversed site response is used to identify the soil nonlinearity in the main shock and aftershocks of Wenchuan earthquake. In ten of the 28 stations analyzed in the main shock, the soil behaved nonlinearly, where the ground motion level is apparently beyond a threshold of PGA > 300 cm/s2 or PGV > 20 cm/s, and only one station coded 51SFB has evidence of soil nonlinear behavior in the aftershocks.

  19. The SCEC Broadband Platform: A Collaborative Open-Source Software Package for Strong Ground Motion Simulation and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, F.; Maechling, P. J.; Goulet, C.; Somerville, P.; Jordan, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Broadband Platform is a collaborative software development project involving SCEC researchers, graduate students, and the SCEC Community Modeling Environment. The SCEC Broadband Platform is open-source scientific software that can generate broadband (0-100Hz) ground motions for earthquakes, integrating complex scientific modules that implement rupture generation, low and high-frequency seismogram synthesis, non-linear site effects calculation, and visualization into a software system that supports easy on-demand computation of seismograms. The Broadband Platform operates in two primary modes: validation simulations and scenario simulations. In validation mode, the Broadband Platform runs earthquake rupture and wave propagation modeling software to calculate seismograms of a historical earthquake for which observed strong ground motion data is available. Also in validation mode, the Broadband Platform calculates a number of goodness of fit measurements that quantify how well the model-based broadband seismograms match the observed seismograms for a certain event. Based on these results, the Platform can be used to tune and validate different numerical modeling techniques. During the past year, we have modified the software to enable the addition of a large number of historical events, and we are now adding validation simulation inputs and observational data for 23 historical events covering the Eastern and Western United States, Japan, Taiwan, Turkey, and Italy. In scenario mode, the Broadband Platform can run simulations for hypothetical (scenario) earthquakes. In this mode, users input an earthquake description, a list of station names and locations, and a 1D velocity model for their region of interest, and the Broadband Platform software then calculates ground motions for the specified stations. By establishing an interface between scientific modules with a common set of input and output files, the Broadband Platform facilitates the addition of new scientific methods, which are written by earth scientists in a number of languages such as C, C++, Fortran, and Python. The Broadband Platform's modular design also supports the reuse of existing software modules as building blocks to create new scientific methods. Additionally, the Platform implements a wrapper around each scientific module, converting input and output files to and from the specific formats required (or produced) by individual scientific codes. Working in close collaboration with scientists and research engineers, the SCEC software development group continues to add new capabilities to the Broadband Platform and to release new versions as open-source scientific software distributions that can be compiled and run on many Linux computer systems. Our latest release includes the addition of 3 new simulation methods and several new data products, such as map and distance-based goodness of fit plots. Finally, as the number and complexity of scenarios simulated using the Broadband Platform increase, we have added batching utilities to substantially improve support for running large-scale simulations on computing clusters.

  20. Regional Characterization of the Crust in Metropolitan Areas for Prediction of Strong Ground Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, N.; Sato, H.; Koketsu, K.; Umeda, Y.; Iwata, T.; Kasahara, K.

    2003-12-01

    Introduction: After the 1995 Kobe earthquake, the Japanese government increased its focus and funding of earthquake hazards evaluation, studies of man-made structures integrity, and emergency response planning in the major urban centers. A new agency, the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture (MEXT) has started a five-year program titled as Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Urban Areas (abbreviated to Dai-dai-toku in Japanese) since 2002. The project includes four programs: I. Regional characterization of the crust in metropolitan areas for prediction of strong ground motion. II. Significant improvement of seismic performance of structure. III. Advanced disaster management system. IV. Investigation of earthquake disaster mitigation research results. We will present the results from the first program conducted in 2002 and 2003. Regional Characterization of the Crust in Metropolitan Areas for Prediction of Strong Ground Motion: A long-term goal is to produce map of reliable estimations of strong ground motion. This requires accurate determination of ground motion response, which includes a source process, an effect of propagation path, and near surface response. The new five-year project was aimed to characterize the "source" and "propagation path" in the Kanto (Tokyo) region and Kinki (Osaka) region. The 1923 Kanto Earthquake is one of the important targets to be addressed in the project. The proximity of the Pacific and Philippine Sea subducting plates requires study of the relationship between earthquakes and regional tectonics. This project focuses on identification and geometry of: 1) Source faults, 2) Subducting plates and mega-thrust faults, 3) Crustal structure, 4) Seismogenic zone, 5) Sedimentary basins, 6) 3D velocity properties We have conducted a series of seismic reflection and refraction experiment in the Kanto region. In 2002 we have completed to deploy seismic profiling lines in the Boso peninsula (112 km) and the Sagami bay area (75 km) to image the subducting Philippine Sea plate. On the Boso line we drilled a hole at a depth of 2000 m with core sampling and logging including VSP. A high sensitivity down hole seismometer will bee installed at the hole. In 2003, a 71-km-long reflection/refraction line covered the Tokyo bay area to characterize the source area of the 1923 Kanto quake. The southern part of the line ran through the Miura peninsula, which was covered by a 20 x 15 km array consisting of 51 3-component continuously recording seismographs to identify the asperities suggested by strong motion studies. We also cover the eastern boundary of the Kanto Mountains in this fall. Reconstruction of source fault and velocity models allow for more realistic 3D seimic wave simulations. All of this information will be synthesized and provided to communities involved in probabilistic hazards analysis, risk assessment and societal response.

  1. Site effects in Avcilar, West of Istanbul, Turkey, from strong- and weak-motion data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ozel, O.; Cranswick, E.; Meremonte, M.; Erdik, M.; Safak, E.

    2002-01-01

    Approximately 1000 people were killed in the collapse of buildings in Istanbul, Turkey, during the 17 August 1999 I??zmit earthquake, whose epicenter was roughly 90 km east of the city. Most of the fatalities and damage occurred in the suburb of Avcilar that is 20 km further west of the epicenter than the city proper. To investigate this pattern of damage, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI), deployed portable digital seismographs at seven free-field sites in western Istanbul, to record aftershocks during the period from 24 August to 2 September. The primary objective of this deployment was to study the site effects by comparing the aftershock ground motions recorded at sites inside and outside the damaged area, and to correlate site effects with the distribution of the damaged buildings. In addition to using weak-motion data, mainshock and aftershock acceleration records from the KOERI permanent strong-motion array were also used in estimating the site effects. Site effects were estimated using S waves from both types of records. For the weak-motion data set, 22 events were selected according to the criteria of signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ratio) and the number of stations recording the same event. The magnitudes of these events ranged from 3.0 to 5.2. The acceleration data set consisted of 12 events with magnitudes ranging from 4.3 to 5.8 and included two mainshock events. Results show that the amplifying frequency band is, in general, less than 4 Hz, and the physical properties of the geologic materials are capable of amplifying the motions by a factor of 5-10. In this frequency band, there is a good agreement among the spectral ratios obtained from the two mainshocks and their aftershocks. The damage pattern for the 17 August I??zmit earthquake is determined by several factors. However, our study suggests that the site effects in Avcilar played an important role in contributing to the damage.

  2. NetQuakes - A new approach to urban strong-motion seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luetgert, J. H.; Evans, J. R.; Hamilton, J.; Hutt, C. R.; Jensen, E. G.; Oppenheimer, D. H.

    2009-12-01

    There is a recognized need for more densely sampled strong ground motion recordings in urban areas to provide more accurate ShakeMaps for post-earthquake disaster assessment and to provide data for structural engineers to improve design standards. Ideally, the San Francisco Bay area would have a strong ground motion recorder every 1-2 km to adequately sample the region’s varied geology and built environment. This would require the addition of thousands of instruments to the existing network. There are several fiscal and logistical constraints that prevent us from doing this with traditional strong motion instrumentation and telemetry. In addition to the initial expense of instruments and their installation, there are the continuing costs of telemetry and maintenance. To address these issues, the USGS implemented the NetQuakes project to deploy small, relatively inexpensive seismographs for installation in 1-2 story homes and businesses that utilize the host’s existing Internet connection. The recorder has 18 bit resolution with ±3g internal tri-axial MEMS accelerometers. Data is continuously recorded at 200 sps into a 1-2 week ringbuffer. When triggered, a miniSEED file is sent to USGS servers via the Internet. Data can also be recovered from the ringbuffer by a remote request through the servers. Following a power failure, the instrument can run for 36 hours using its internal battery. All client-server interactions are initiated by the instrument, so it safely resides behind a host’s firewall. Instrument and battery replacement can be performed by hosts to reduce maintenance costs. A connection to the host’s LAN, and thence to the public Internet, can be made using WiFi to minimize cabling. Although timing via a cable to an external GPS antenna is possible, it is simpler to use the Network Time Protocol (NTP) to synchronize the internal clock. NTP achieves timing accuracy generally better than a sample interval. Since February, 2009, we have installed more than 60 NetQuakes instruments in the San Francisco Bay Area and have successfully integrated their data into the near real time data stream of the Northern California Seismic System.

  3. Calibration of strong motion models for Central America region and its use in seismic hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Climent, A.; Benito, M. B.; Piedra, R.; Lindholm, C.; Gaspar-Escribano, J.

    2013-05-01

    We present the results of a study aimed at choosing the more suitable strong-motion models for seismic hazard analysis in the Central America (CA) Region. After a careful revision of the state of the art, different models developed for subduction and volcanic crustal zones, in tectonic environment similar to those of CA, were selected. These models were calibrated with accelerograms recorded in Costa Rica, Nicaragua and El Salvador. The peak ground acceleration PGA and Spectral Acceleration SA (T) derived from the records were compared with the ones predicted by the models in similar conditions of magnitude, distance and soil. The type of magnitude (Ms, Mb, MW), distance (Rhyp, Rrup, etc) and ground motion parameter (maximum horizontal component, geometrical mean, etc ) was taken into account in the comparison with the real data. As results of the analysis, the models which present a best fit with the local data were identified. These models have been applied for carrying out seismic hazard analysis in the region, in the frame of the RESIS II project financed by the Norwegian Foreign Department and also by the Spanish project SISMOCAES. The methodology followed is based on the direct comparison between PGA and SA 5 % damped response values extracted from actual records with the corresponding acceleration values predicted by the selected ground-motion models for similar magnitude, distance and soil conditions. Residuals between observed and predicted values for PGA, and SA (1sec) are calculated and plotted as a function of distance and magnitude, analyzing their deviation from the mean value. Besides and most important, a statistical analysis of the normalized residuals was carry out using the criteria proposed by Scherbaum et al. (2004), which consists in categorizing ground motion models based in a likelihood parameter that reflects the goodness-of-fit of the median values as well as the shape of the underlying distribution of ground motion residuals. Considering the results of the both analysis the conclusions can be drawn in the following paragraphs. Analyses of residuals show that in some cases the best adjustments of PGA and SA values do not always favor the same equation. Consequently, the following equations that present reasonable adjustments for both parameters are finally selected: Schmidt (2010) and Zhao et al (2006) for shallow crustal sources; Schmidt (2010), Zhao et al (2006), Youngs et al. (1997) and Lin & Lee (2008) for subduction interface and Schmidt (2010), Youngs et al (1997), Zhao et al (2006) and Garcia et al (2005) for inslab subduction sources. Finally, to improve the development of proper models of attenuation of the region, it is recommended to the governmental and private institutions, to support the implementation of permanent strong ground motion networks in all Central America countries, especially in Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama, including free field stations. In case of Costa Rica and El Salvador to strengthen the networks that already they operate.

  4. Strong ground motion in the Kathmandu Valley during the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takai, Nobuo; Shigefuji, Michiko; Rajaure, Sudhir; Bijukchhen, Subeg; Ichiyanagi, Masayoshi; Dhital, Megh Raj; Sasatani, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    On 25 April 2015, a large earthquake of Mw 7.8 occurred along the Main Himalayan Thrust fault in central Nepal. It was caused by a collision of the Indian Plate beneath the Eurasian Plate. The epicenter was near the Gorkha region, 80 km northwest of Kathmandu, and the rupture propagated toward east from the epicentral region passing through the sediment-filled Kathmandu Valley. This event resulted in over 8000 fatalities, mostly in Kathmandu and the adjacent districts. We succeeded in observing strong ground motions at our four observation sites (one rock site and three sedimentary sites) in the Kathmandu Valley during this devastating earthquake. While the observed peak ground acceleration values were smaller than the predicted ones that were derived from the use of a ground motion prediction equation, the observed peak ground velocity values were slightly larger than the predicted ones. The ground velocities observed at the rock site (KTP) showed a simple velocity pulse, resulting in monotonic-step displacements associated with the permanent tectonic offset. The vertical ground velocities observed at the sedimentary sites had the same pulse motions that were observed at the rock site. In contrast, the horizontal ground velocities as well as accelerations observed at three sedimentary sites showed long duration with conspicuous long-period oscillations, due to the valley response. The horizontal valley response was characterized by large amplification (about 10) and prolonged oscillations. However, the predominant period and envelope shape of their oscillations differed from site to site, indicating a complicated basin structure. Finally, on the basis of the velocity response spectra, we show that the horizontal long-period oscillations on the sedimentary sites had enough destructive power to damage high-rise buildings with natural periods of 3 to 5 s.

  5. An improved method for tight integration of GPS and strong-motion records: Complementary advantages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Rui; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Li; Liu, Zhanke; Huang, Guanwen

    2015-12-01

    The complementary nature of GPS and seismic sensors for station ground motion estimation is well recognized and many studies have proposed the integrated processing of the two datasets for obtaining more accurate and reliable seismic waves (displacement, velocity and acceleration). There are two critical issues in the integrated processing; one is the precise correction of the strong-motion's baseline shifts which are caused by tilting and/or rotation of the seismic sensors, the other is the suitable constraint of the high resolution accelerations to get more reliable seismic waves. In this contribution, we present an improved approach for the integration estimation in two steps. First, proper introduction of the baseline-corrected acceleration into the Precise Point Positioning (PPP)'s state equation and treatment of the baseline shifts as unknown parameters to be estimated for each epoch. Second, after correction of these baseline shifts, use of the high resolution acceleration for constraint of the GPS solution and ambiguity resolution. The efficiency of the improved approach was validated using an experimental dataset which was recorded by a pair of collocated GPS antenna and an accelerometer, and it shows that the advantages of each sensor are complementary.

  6. Update of Earthquake Strong-Motion Instrumentation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Robert C.

    2013-09-01

    Following the January 1980 earthquake that was felt at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a network of strong-motion accelerographs was installed at LLNL. Prior to the 1980 earthquake, there were no accelerographs installed. The ground motion from the 1980 earthquake was estimated from USGS instruments around the Laboratory to be between 0.2 – 0.3 g horizontal peak ground acceleration. These instruments were located at the Veterans Hospital, 5 miles southwest of LLNL, and in San Ramon, about 12 miles west of LLNL. In 2011, the Department of Energy (DOE) requested to know the status of our seismic instruments. We conducted a survey of our instrumentation systems and responded to DOE in a letter. During this survey, it was found that the recorders in Buildings 111 and 332 were not operational. The instruments on Nova had been removed, and only three of the 10 NIF instruments installed in 2005 were operational (two were damaged and five had been removed from operation at the request of the program). After the survey, it was clear that the site seismic instrumentation had degraded substantially and would benefit from an overhaul and more attention to ongoing maintenance. LLNL management decided to update the LLNL seismic instrumentation system. The updated system is documented in this report.

  7. Strong Motion Networks - Rapid Response and Early Warning Applications in Istanbul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulfikar, C.; Alcik, H.; Ozel, O.; Erdik, M.

    2009-04-01

    In recent years several strong motion networks have been established in Istanbul with a preparation purpose for future probable earthquake. This study addresses the introduction of current seismic networks and presentation of some recent results recorded in these networks. Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning System Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning System has ten strong motion stations which were installed as close as possible to Marmara Sea main fault zone. Continuous on-line data from these stations via digital radio modem provide early warning for potentially disastrous earthquakes. Considering the complexity of fault rupture and the short fault distances involved, a simple and robust Early Warning algorithm, based on the exceedance of specified threshold time domain amplitude levels is implemented. The current algorithm compares the band-pass filtered accelerations and the cumulative absolute velocity (CAV) with specified threshold levels. Istanbul Earthquake Rapid Response System Istanbul Earthquake Rapid Response System has one hundred 18 bit-resolution strong motion accelerometers which were placed in quasi-free field locations (basement of small buildings) in the populated areas of the city, within an area of approximately 50x30km, to constitute a network that will enable early damage assessment and rapid response information after a damaging earthquake. Early response information is achieved through fast acquisition and analysis of processed data obtained from the network. The stations are routinely interrogated on regular basis by the main data center. After triggered by an earthquake, each station processes the streaming strong motion data to yield the spectral accelerations at specific periods and sends these parameters in the form of SMS messages at every 20s directly to the main data center through a designated GSM network and through a microwave system. A shake map and damage distribution map (using aggregate building inventories and fragility curves) will then be automatically generated using the algorithm developed for this purpose. Loss assessment studies are complemented by a large citywide digital database on the topography, geology, soil conditions, building, infrastructure and lifeline inventory. The shake and damage maps will be conveyed to the governor's and mayor's offices, fire, police and army headquarters within 3 minutes using radio modem and GPRS communication. Self Organizing Seismic Early Warning Information Network (SOSEWIN) in Atakoy District SOSEWIN sensors were developed by GFZ and Humbold University as part of SAFER project and EDIM project, and with cooperation of KOERI, the sensors were installed in Atakoy district of Istanbul city with Early Warning purpose. The main features of the SOSEWIN system are each sensing unit is comprised of low-cost components, undertakes its own seismological data processing, analysis and archiving, and its self-organizing capability with wireless mesh network communication. Seismic Network in Important Structures Some of the critical structures located in Istanbul city such as Fatih Sultan Mehmet Suspension Bridge which is connecting Asian and European sides of the city, Hagia Sophia Museum and Suleymaniye Mosque which are historical structures with an age of over 1000 years and 450 years respectively, and Isbank Tower which is one of the tallest structures in the city with a height of 181.2m are monitorized to observe their seismic behavior.

  8. Aftershock activity of the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake determined using the Kathmandu strong motion seismographic array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichiyanagi, Masayoshi; Takai, Nobuo; Shigefuji, Michiko; Bijukchhen, Subeg; Sasatani, Tsutomu; Rajaure, Sudhir; Dhital, Megh Raj; Takahashi, Hiroaki

    2016-02-01

    The characteristics of aftershock activity of the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake (Mw 7.8) were evaluated. The mainshock and aftershocks were recorded continuously by the international Kathmandu strong motion seismographic array operated by Hokkaido University and Tribhuvan University. Full waveform data without saturation for all events enabled us to clarify aftershock locations and decay characteristics. The aftershock distribution was determined using the estimated local velocity structure. The hypocenter distribution in the Kathmandu metropolitan region was well determined and indicated earthquakes located shallower than 12 km depth, suggesting that aftershocks occurred at depths shallower than the Himalayan main thrust fault. Although numerical investigation suggested less resolution for the depth component, the regional aftershock epicentral distribution of the entire focal region clearly indicated earthquakes concentrated in the eastern margin of the major slip region of the mainshock. The calculated modified Omori law's p value of 1.35 suggests rapid aftershock decay and a possible high temperature structure in the aftershock region.

  9. Real-Time Baseline Error Estimation and Correction for GNSS/Strong Motion Seismometer Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C. Y. N.; Groves, P. D.; Ziebart, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate and rapid estimation of permanent surface displacement is required immediately after a slip event for earthquake monitoring or tsunami early warning. It is difficult to achieve the necessary accuracy and precision at high- and low-frequencies using GNSS or seismometry alone. GNSS and seismic sensors can be integrated to overcome the limitations of each. Kalman filter algorithms with displacement and velocity states have been developed to combine GNSS and accelerometer observations to obtain the optimal displacement solutions. However, the sawtooth-like phenomena caused by the bias or tilting of the sensor decrease the accuracy of the displacement estimates. A three-dimensional Kalman filter algorithm with an additional baseline error state has been developed. An experiment with both a GNSS receiver and a strong motion seismometer mounted on a movable platform and subjected to known displacements was carried out. The results clearly show that the additional baseline error state enables the Kalman filter to estimate the instrument's sensor bias and tilt effects and correct the state estimates in real time. Furthermore, the proposed Kalman filter algorithm has been validated with data sets from the 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake. The results indicate that the additional baseline error state can not only eliminate the linear and quadratic drifts but also reduce the sawtooth-like effects from the displacement solutions. The conventional zero-mean baseline-corrected results cannot show the permanent displacements after an earthquake; the two-state Kalman filter can only provide stable and optimal solutions if the strong motion seismometer had not been moved or tilted by the earthquake. Yet the proposed Kalman filter can achieve the precise and accurate displacements by estimating and correcting for the baseline error at each epoch. The integration filters out noise-like distortions and thus improves the real-time detection and measurement capability. The system will return precise and accurate displacements at a high rate for real-time earthquake monitoring.

  10. Attenuation Tomography Based on Strong Motion Data: Case Study of Central Honshu Region, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Parveen; Joshi, A.; Verma, O. P.

    2013-12-01

    Three-dimensional frequency dependent S-wave quality factor (Qβ(f)) value for the central Honshu region of Japan has been determined in this paper using an algorithm based on inversion of strong motion data. The method of inversion for determination of three-dimensional attenuation coefficients is proposed by H ashida and S himazaki (J Phys Earth. 32, 299-316, 1984) and has been used and modified by J oshi (Curr Sci. 90, 581-585, 2006; Nat Hazards. 43, 129-146, 2007) and J oshi et al. (J. Seismol. 14, 247-272, 2010). Twenty-one earthquakes digitally recorded on strong motion stations of Kik-net network have been used in this work. The magnitude of these earthquake ranges from 3.1 to 4.2 and depth ranging from 5 to 20 km, respectively. The borehole data having high signal to noise ratio and minimum site effect is used in the present work. The attenuation structure is determined by dividing the entire area into twenty-five three-dimensional blocks of uniform thickness having different frequency-dependent shear wave quality factor. Shear wave quality factor values have been determined at frequencies of 2.5, 7.0 and 10 Hz from record in a rectangular grid defined by 35.4°N to 36.4°N and 137.2°E to 138.2°E. The obtained attenuation structure is compared with the available geological features in the region and comparison shows that the obtained structure is capable of resolving important tectonic features present in the area. The proposed attenuation structure is compared with the probabilistic seismic hazard map of the region and shows that it bears some remarkable similarity in the patterns seen in seismic hazard map.

  11. Simulation of strong ground motion for moderate earthquakes: comparison between two high frequency approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emolo, A.; Pacor, F.; Cultrera, G.; Franceschina, G.; Zollo, A.; Cocco, M.

    2003-04-01

    We used two different strong ground motion simulation techniques to generate shaking scenarios for the 1997 Colfiorito earthquake (Mw=6.0). This earthquake has been studied in the framework of a Italian research project (supported by Gruppo Nazionale per la Difesa dai Terremoti - INGV, 2002-2003). The project concerns the design of ground shaking scenarios based on the identification of the position, geometry and rupture mechanism of seismogenetic faults and on the characterization of the crustal structure. Both techniques use the high frequency solution (ray theory) to compute the Green functions in a flat-layered velocity model. While one method (ASymptotic Method, ASM) solves numerically the representation integral, the other one (Deterministic-Stochastic Method, DSM) generalizes the point-source stochastic method using a deterministic acceleration envelope for an extended fault. Only the direct S wave field is computed because, in the near source range, it can be considered dominant in amplitude with respect to the P wave field and secondary phases. We computed synthetic time histories at 64 nodes of a grid area (60km x 60km) up to fmax=5 Hz. First of all, we compared the methods for two source models obtained, for the Colfioririto earthquake, by the inversion of geodetic and accelerometric data. Both techniques give similar distribution of PGA and integral ground motion parameters. In particular, peak values are not symmetrically distributed around the fault, but show the largest amplitude values north to the Colfiorito fault, in the directive direction. The reliability of the proposed rupture scenario has been checked for 6 accelerometric stations located at epicentral distances ranging from 5 to 30 Km that recorded the mainshock. We then generated shaking scenarios varying several parameters, such as the nucleation position, the slip distribution and the rupture velocity. Fault geometry, source mechanism and propagation medium are fixed. The results of the simulations have been grouped in three families, on the base of the position of the nucleation point (on the left side, in the middle and on the right side of the fault) to emphasise directivity effects associated to the rupture propagation along an extended fault. For each family of rupture scenarios, a statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the variability of strong ground motion parameters.

  12. Hybrid k-squared source model for strong ground motion simulations: Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallovi?, Frantiek; Brokeov, Johana

    2007-01-01

    Common kinematic strong motion modeling techniques can be divided into integral and composite according to the source representation. In the integral approach, we usually consider the rupture propagating in the form of a slip pulse, creating the k-squared final slip distribution. Such a model is acceptable on large scales where the faulting process is assumed to be deterministic, which is also supported by low-frequency slip inversions. Nevertheless, on small scales the real rupture is rather disorganized (chaotic) and requires a stochastic description. This is involved in the composite approach, in which the source acts as a discrete sequence of individually rupturing subevents. However, this model usually leads to incorrect spectral amplitudes in the low-frequency band (as compared to the integral model). The purpose of this study is to propose a hybrid kinematic k-squared source model based on a set of subsources, scaled to provide the k-squared slip distribution. The modeling combines: (1) the integral approach at low frequencies, based on the representation theorem and the k-squared slip distribution (obtained by composing subsources slip contributions), and (2) the composite approach at high frequencies, based on the summation of ground motion contributions from the subsources, treated as individual point sources. The same set of subsources is used in both the approaches, i.e. for both the frequency ranges. The hybrid method is numerically efficient, while minimizing the above-mentioned problems of both the techniques. The source model is applied to two events: 1999 Athens ( Mw=5.9) and 1997 Kagoshima ( Mw=6.1) earthquake examples. In the first example, the simulated PGAs are examined with respect to the attenuation relation for Greece. In the second example, synthetic velocigrams are compared with observed data showing that, despite the neglected site-effects, the complexities of measured waveforms are relatively well reproduced.

  13. Effects of 2D small-scale sedimentary basins on strong ground motion characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Movahedasl, R.; Ghayamghamian, M. R.

    2015-08-01

    A lot of research on the 2D or 3D effects of large-scale basins (within several kilometers depth) have been conducted in the past. However, different 2D aspects of small-scale sedimentary basins (within tens of meters depth) remain in the developing stage. Here, an attempt is made to analyze different aspects of small-scale basins using both numerical and empirical investigations. In the first step, the 2D effects of small-scale basins on strong motion characteristics are numerically examined both in the time and frequency domains. In addition, the effects of input motion are also explained by the results of model excitation in different orthogonal directions. Then, the numerical outcomes are verified by the analysis of actual earthquake data recorded at a downhole array in the Fujisawa small basin, Japan. In the second step, since available recorded earthquake data in small basins with a clear understanding of subsurface geology are very limited, different 2D aspects of the small basin are parametrically investigated. For this purpose, extensive parametrical studies are carried out on the main features of a small basin such as slope angle, shape, infill soil properties, and basin thickness by using the finite difference numerical method. The horizontal and vertical peak ground accelerations of 2D with respect to 1D ones are defined as the horizontal and vertical aggravation factors (AGH and AGV). The AGH and AGV factors show large sensitivity to infill soil properties, shape and thickness, and small sensitivity to slope angle. The values of AGH and AGV factors vary in the range of 0.5-2 with large variations around small basin edges due to wave coupling, conversion, scattering and focusing in the vicinity of small basin edges. These cause a complicated pattern of 2D de-amplification and amplification, which mostly affect the motion in the high frequency range (>1 Hz). Finally, the outcomes provide numerical and field evidence on the 2D effects of small basins, and give some recommendations for design codes.

  14. Influence of strong monsoon winds on the water quality around a marine cage-culture zone in a shallow and semi-enclosed bay in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuan-Chao Angelo; Huang, Shou-Chung; Meng, Pei-Jie; Hsieh, Hernyi Justin; Chen, Chaolun Allen

    2012-04-01

    Influences of marine cage culture and monsoonal disturbances, northeasterly (NE) and southwesterly (SW) monsoons on the proximal marine environment were investigated across a gradient of sites in a semi-enclosed bay, Magong Bay (Penghu Islands, Taiwan). Elevated levels of ammonia produced by the cages were the main pollutant and distinguished the cage-culture and intermediary zones (1000 m away from the cages) from the reference zone in the NE monsoon, indicating currents produced by the strong monsoon may have extended the spread of nutrient-enriched waters without necessarily flushing such effluents outside Magong Bay. Moreover, the levels of chlorophyll-a, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity were distinguishable between two seasons, suggesting that resuspension caused by the NE monsoon winds may also influence the water quality across this bay. It indicated that the impacts of marine cage culture vary as a function of distance, and also in response to seasonal movements of water driven by local climatic occurrences. PMID:22306313

  15. Emission and its back-reaction accompanying electron motion in relativistically strong and QED-strong pulsed laser fields

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolov, Igor V.; Nees, John A.; Yanovsky, Victor P.; Naumova, Natalia M.; Mourou, Gerard A.

    2010-03-15

    The emission from an electron in the field of a relativistically strong laser pulse is analyzed. At pulse intensities of J>=2x10{sup 22} W/cm{sup 2} the emission from counterpropagating electrons is modified by the effects of quantum electrodynamics (QED), as long as the electron energy is sufficiently high: E>=1 GeV. The radiation force experienced by an electron is for the first time derived from the QED principles and its applicability range is extended toward the QED-strong fields.

  16. Emission and its back-reaction accompanying electron motion in relativistically strong and QED-strong pulsed laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Igor V.; Nees, John A.; Yanovsky, Victor P.; Naumova, Natalia M.; Mourou, Gérard A.

    2010-03-01

    The emission from an electron in the field of a relativistically strong laser pulse is analyzed. At pulse intensities of J≥2×1022W/cm2 the emission from counterpropagating electrons is modified by the effects of quantum electrodynamics (QED), as long as the electron energy is sufficiently high: E≥1GeV . The radiation force experienced by an electron is for the first time derived from the QED principles and its applicability range is extended toward the QED-strong fields.

  17. City of Bingöl in May 2003: Assessment of strong ground motion records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çeken, U.; Beyhan, G.; Selim, H. H.

    2014-03-01

    The main shock of Bingöl earthquake ( M W = 6.4) recorded by six accelerometers in the area occurred at 03:27 local time on May 1, 2003. The largest acceleration value of north-south component was recorded as 545.5 cm/s2 at the nearest station which it is 12 km away from the epicenter of earthquake. Especially, 0.15 s short period was observed when high spectral acceleration value occurred. An acceleration value greater than 50 gal was recorded at the BNG (Bingöl) station and structural damage occurred within 6.5 s was very important for the near source and strong ground motion seismology. The recorded peak acceleration values were greater than the estimated empirical acceleration values. However, the structural damage was not as high and widespread as expected. This occurrence was explained by considering the factors of earthquake source, frequency content, effective duration, effective acceleration value, local soil conditions, rupture direction and attenuation.

  18. Characteristics of strong ground motions in the 2014 M s 6.5 Ludian earthquake, Yunnan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, J. J.; Zhang, Q.; Jiang, Z. J.; Xie, L. L.; Zhou, B. F.

    2016-01-01

    The 2014 M s 6.5 ( M w6.1) Ludian earthquake occurred in the eastern Sichuan-Yunnan border region of western China. This earthquake caused much more severe engineering damage than the usual earthquakes with the same magnitude in China. The National Strong Motion Network obtained large set of ground motion recordings during the earthquake. To investigate the engineering interested characteristics of ground motion from Ludian earthquake and compare it with the M w 7.9 Wenchuan and the M w 6.6 Lushan earthquakes in western China, studies on the ground motion field, attenuation relationship, distance dependence of significant duration, and site amplification were carried out. Some conclusion is drawn. Specifically, the ground motion field reveals a directional feature, and the distribution characteristics of the two horizontal components are similar. The attenuation relationship for Ludian earthquake is basically consistent with the ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) for western China, except the slight smaller than the GMPE predicted at short periods. The distance dependences of ground motion duration are different in Sichuan and Yunnan regions due to the local physical dispersion and Q value. The site amplification factors are dominated by linear site response for lower reference ground motion, but the nonlinearity becomes notable for higher reference ground motion. This feature is basically consistent with the empirical model for western China. All the results indicate that the spatial distribution of ground motion, the attenuation characteristics, and the site amplification effect should be considered in characterization of near-field ground motion.

  19. Survey of strong motion earthquake effects on thermal power plants in California with emphasis on piping systems. Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1995-11-01

    Volume 2 of the ``Survey of Strong Motion Earthquake Effects on Thermal Power Plants in California with Emphasis on Piping Systems`` contains Appendices which detail the detail design and seismic response of several power plants subjected to strong motion earthquakes. The particular plants considered include the Ormond Beach, Long Beach and Seal Beach, Burbank, El Centro, Glendale, Humboldt Bay, Kem Valley, Pasadena and Valley power plants. Included is a typical power plant piping specification and photographs of typical power plant piping specification and photographs of typical piping and support installations for the plants surveyed. Detailed piping support spacing data are also included.

  20. Scaling Relation of Mega-fault Systems for Strong Ground Motion Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irikura, K.; Awata, Y.; Miyake, H.; Kagawa, T.; Miyakoshi, K.; Sato, T.; Dan, K.; Matsushima, S.

    2006-12-01

    We are studying scaling relations between fault length (L) and seismic moment (Mo) for mega-fault systems such as the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and the 2002 Denali earthquake. Scholz (2002) proposed an idea that the scaling relation changes from L-model to W-model for extra large earthquakes. According to the idea, Ikikura et al. (2004) proposed three-stage scaling relations between fault rupture area (S) and seismic moment; i.e., Mo is in proportion with S^{2/3} for Mo<7.5x1018Nm, S^{1/2} for Mo <7.5x1020, S for extra large earthquakes. Meanwhile, Somerville et al. (1999) proposed an uniform scaling, Mo is in proportion with S^{2/3}, even for larger earthquakes. We consider that the difference of the two scaling relations causes from their treatments of fault width (W). Irikura et al. (2004) introduces saturation of fault width considering thickness of seismogenic zone. However, fault widths are not observed values but estimated from aftershock distributions. We have to carefully evaluate S-Mo relationship considering uncertainty of fault widths. We try to estimate fault width from two empirical relationships, fault length vs. fault displacement (D) and seismic moment Mo vs fault length (L). The relationship L vs D is from certain data based on geological and geomorphological investigations. As for fault displacement, Awata (2006) proposes liner relationship between behavioral fault segment length and its maximum displacement. He also proposed saturation of fault displacement in case of mega-fault system. We here propose and demonstrate new scaling relations between fault length and seismic moment for mega-fault systems compiling past earthquake data (introducing field data about behavioral fault segments). We compare the derived fault width with carefully validated fault width from waveform and geodetic inversions to develop scaling relation for strong ground motion estimation. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: A portion of this study was supported by the JNES research topic 'Ground Motion Prediction for Mega-fault Systems Based on Dynamic Source Modeling' (P.I.: Kojiro Irikura). REFERENCES: Somerville et al. (1999), SRL. Irikura et al. (2004), 13WCEE. Scholz(2002),Cambridge University Press. Awata (2006), AGU 2006 Fall Meeting.

  1. Three Dimensional Simulations of Strong Motions for Great Earthquakes on the Cascadia Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delorey, A. A.; Frankel, A. D.; Stephenson, W. J.; Liu, P.

    2011-12-01

    Using a finite-fault rupture model, we ran a finite difference code to simulate a variety of Mw 8 and larger events on the Cascadia subduction zone using a 3D regional velocity model and two different 3D velocity models for the Seattle basin. Our results reveal the magnitude and duration of shaking that should be expected in the built environment for a megathrust event with a rupture length less than the entire length of the subduction zone. In the next step we will consider events that rupture the entire length of the subduction zone, similar in scope to the 1700 event, and compare our results to those considered for the national seismic hazard maps. In order to make predictions on the strength and duration of shaking in Cascadia due to a large megathrust event, we developed a kinematic fault rupture model based on a k-2 decay in final slip spectrum that has a scale-dependent rise time. This produces a ω-2 decay in the radiated displacement spectrum above the corner frequency, which is then modified by rupture directivity. In order to produce a k-2 decay in the final slip spectrum, we modeled the final slip as the sum of asperities with various wave numbers produced by calculating normal modes for a membrane, then shifting the phase of the standing waves to randomize the pattern. In this way, slip naturally decays towards the edges of the rupture without having to use a taper, we can produce a final slip model with any spectrum we choose, and each wave number can be assigned a unique rise time. The slip on each individual asperity initiates in time according to its closest distance to the hypocenter and the rupture velocity. The Cascadia subduction zone off the coast of northwestern United States and southwestern Canada is capable of producing megathrust earthquakes with magnitudes up to Mw 9.0 for margin-wide events and magnitudes greater than Mw 8.0 if only part of the subduction zone ruptures. The average recurrence interval for margin-wide megathrust earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone is about 500 years and the last margin-wide event occurred in 1700. The estimate of the recurrence interval for events that rupture only part of the subduction zone is more controversial, but the recurrence time is thought to be somewhere around 300 years. If a large event were to occur today, the cities of Portland, Oregon, Seattle, Washington, and Vancouver, British Columbia and other inhabited areas in the forearc basin and on the coast would be subjected to strong and long duration shaking and coastal areas would likely be subjected to a tsunami. Observations from the Maule, Chile and Tohoku-Oki, Japan earthquakes will be used to guide the specification of rupture time histories for the Cascadia 3D simulations. We are particularly interested in producing realistic ground motions at periods of 2 to 6 s that affect high-rise buildings. The amplitude and duration of these motions are strongly affected by the rise time of slip on the fault, the coherence of rupture propagation, and the presence of deep sedimentary basins such as the Seattle and Tacoma basins.

  2. Seismic Intensity Maps for North Anatolian Fault Zone (Turkey) using Local Felt Intensity and Strong Motion Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askan, A.

    2014-12-01

    Seismic intensity maps indicate the spatial distribution of ground shaking levels in the meizoseismal area affected from an earthquake. Intensity maps provide guidance for the rapid assessment of shaking intensity and consequently the physical damage involved with an earthquake. Local correlations between the instrumental ground motion parameters and shaking intensity values are used to prepare these maps. There are several correlations derived using data from different regions in the world. However, since local damage characteristics of the built environment affect the felt-intensity values directly, different felt-intensity values may be reported in two different regions subjected to ground motions with similar amplitude and frequency contents. Thus such relationships should be derived based on regional strong motion and intensity datasets. Despite the intense seismic activity, as of now there are no such local correlations for the North Anatolian Fault Zone. In this study, we use the recently-compiled Turkish strong motion dataset along with the corresponding felt intensity data from past earthquakes to derive local relationships between MMI and a selected ground motion parameter (PGA, PGV, and SA at selected periods). We provide two sets of predictive equations: first group expresses the intensity values as a function of a selected ground motion parameter while the second set is more refined involving the event magnitude, distance and site class terms as independent variables. We present intensity maps of selected past events against the observed maps. We conclude that regional data from seismic networks is crucial for preparing realistic maps for use disaster management purposes.

  3. Simulations of Strong Ground Motion in the Los Angeles Basin Using the Spectral-Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatitsch, D.; Liu, Q.; Tromp, J.; Suess, P.; Shaw, J.

    2003-04-01

    We use the spectral-element method (SEM) to simulate strong ground motion in the Los Angeles basin. Our basin velocity model was constructed using sonic log and stacking velocity information provided by oil industry sources. The method includes effects due to attenuation, topography and bathymetry. The basin model is embedded into the regional model of Hauksson (2000). Our mesh honors the bottom part of the 8.5 km deep sedimentary pocket underneath downtown Los Angeles, as well as topography and bathymetry, and the Moho map of Zhu and Kanamori (2000). We double the mesh twice in the vertical direction based upon a conforming doubling `brick'. This allows us to increase the resolution of the SEM calculations near the surface, in low-velocity sediments. We obtain a high-quality mesh based upon a heuristic rule to prevent elements in the doubling regions from becoming too flat. The SEM is implemented on a parallel computer based upon a message-passing algorithm (MPI), and run on a large PC cluster, a so-called Beowulf machine. This allows us to model wave propagation in a large region that includes most of the TriNet stations. Results are shown for two small events (M = 4.2) that can be treated as point sources, the September 2001 Hollywood earthquake, and the September 2002 Yorba Linda event. We use a three-dimensional centroid-moment tensor inversion based upon the SEM and the basin model to determine the mechanisms and locations of these events. Excellent agreement is obtained for the three components of the data down to a period of 2 seconds.

  4. Strong ground motion synthesis along the Sanyi-Tungshih-Puli seismic zone using empirical Green`s functions

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchings, L.; Foxall, W.; Kasameyer, P.; Wu, F.T.; Rau, R.-J.; Jarpe, S.

    1997-01-01

    We synthesize strong ground motion from a M=7.25 earthquake along the NW-trending Sanyi-Tungshih-Puli seismic zone. This trend extends from Houlong to Taichung and forms a nearly continuous 78 km long seismic zone identified by the occurrence of M<5 events. It extends from a shallow depth all the way down to about 40 km. The entire length of the fault, if activated at one time, can lead to an event comparable to that the 1995 Kobe earthquake. With the improved digital CWBSN data now provided routinely by CWBSN, it becomes possible to use these data as empirical Green`s functions to synthesize potential ground motion for future large earthquakes. We developed a suite of 100 rupture scenarios for the earthquake and computed the commensurate strong ground motion time histories. We synthesized strong ground motion with physics-based solutions of earthquake rupture and applied physical bounds on rupture parameters. the synthesized ground motions obtained for a fixed magnitude and identifying the hazard to a site from the statistical distribution of engineering parameters, we have introduced a probabilistic component to the deterministic hazard calculation, The time histories suggested for engineering design are the ones that most closely match either the average or one standard deviation absolute acceleration response values.

  5. Observing Structure and Motion in Molecules with Ultrafast Strong Field and Short Wavelength Laser Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bucksbaum, Philip H

    2011-04-13

    The term "molecular movie" has come to describe efforts to track and record Angstrom-scale coherent atomic and electronic motion in a molecule. The relevant time scales for this range cover several orders of magnitude, from sub-femtosecond motion associated with electron-electron correlations, to 100-fs internal vibrations, to multi-picosecond motion associated with the dispersion and quantum revivals of molecular reorientation. Conventional methods of cinematography do not work well in this ultrafast and ultrasmall regime, but stroboscopic "pump and probe" techniques can reveal this motion with high fidelity. This talk will describe some of the methods and recent progress in exciting and controlling this motion, using both laboratory lasers and the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source x-ray free electron laser, and will further try to relate the date to the goal of molecular movies.

  6. Acupuncture research in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Liang; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2012-06-01

    Taiwan has a unique cultural milieu and integrated medical education so that is a bellwether for acupuncture research. Pioneer researches here on electrophysiology and neuroendocrine illustrate a crucial role of the central nervous system (CNS) plays in acupuncture treatment. With different frequency of stimulation, acupuncture can elicit different physiologic responses in the CNS and neuroendocrine systems. Researches in Taiwan on the autonomic nervous system (ANS), cardiovascular system, meridian theory, and acupoint specificity further shed light on the mechanism of acupuncture treatment. The strong research background in Taiwan enables clinicians here to conduct integrated trials on different disorders. Pain syndromes and neurologic disorders are the leading issues on acupuncture clinical trials. Novel concepts and studies hailed from Taiwan have great impact worldwide. In addition to pain syndromes, Taiwanese clinicians pay much attention to diverse kinds of diseases. This broadens the spectrum of acupuncture trials and clinical application of acupuncture treatment. The exploration conducted in Taiwan leads acupuncture research worldwide. PMID:22795091

  7. Strong Ground-Motion Prediction in Seismic Hazard Analysis: PEGASOS and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherbaum, F.; Bommer, J. J.; Cotton, F.; Bungum, H.; Sabetta, F.

    2005-12-01

    The SSHAC Level 4 approach to probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), which could be considered to define the state-of-the-art in PSHA using multiple expert opinions, has been fully applied only twice, firstly in the multi-year Yucca Mountain study and subsequently (2002-2004) in the PEGASOS project. The authors of this paper participated as ground-motion experts in this latter project, the objective of which was comprehensive seismic hazard analysis for four nuclear power plant sites in Switzerland, considering annual exceedance frequencies down to 1/10000000. Following SSHAC procedure, particular emphasis was put on capturing both the aleatory and epistemic uncertainties. As a consequence, ground motion prediction was performed by combining several empirical ground motion models within a logic tree framework with the weights on each logic tree branch expressing the personal degree-of-belief of each ground-motion expert. In the present paper, we critically review the current state of ground motion prediction methodology in PSHA in particular for regions of low seismicity. One of the toughest lessons from PEGASOS was that in systematically and rigorously applying the laws of uncertainty propagation to all of the required conversions and adjustments of ground motion models, a huge price has to be paid in an ever-growing aleatory variability. Once this path has been followed, these large sigma values will drive the hazard, particularly for low annual frequencies of exceedance. Therefore, from a post-PEGASOS perspective, the key issues in the context of ground-motion prediction for PSHA for the near future are to better understand the aleatory variability of ground motion and to develop suites of ground-motion prediction equations that employ the same parameter definitions. The latter is a global rather than a regional challenge which might be a desirable long-term goal for projects similar to the PEER NGA (Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, Next Generation of Attenuation of Ground Motions) project.

  8. Observations and stochastic modelling of strong ground motions for the 2011 October 23 Mw 7.1 Van, Turkey, earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinci, Aybige; Antonioli, Andrea

    2013-03-01

    The 2011 October 23 Van earthquake occurred at 13:41 local time in Eastern Turkey with an epicentre at 43.36oE, 38.76oN (Kandilli Observatory Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI)), 16 km north-northeast of the city of Van, killing around 604 people and leaving thousands homeless. This work presents an overview of the main features of the seismic ground shaking during the Van earthquake. We analyse the ground motion characteristics of the mainshock in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV) and spectral accelerations (SA, 5 per cent of critical damping). In order to understand the characteristics of the ground motions induced by the mainshock, we also study the site response of the strong motion stations that recorded the seismic sequence. The lack of seismic recordings in this area imposes major constraints on the computation of reliable seismic hazard estimates for sites in this part of the country. Towards this aim, we have used a stochastic method to generate high frequency ground motion synthetics for the Mw 7.1 Van 2011 earthquake. The source mechanism of the Van event and regional wave propagation parameters are constrained from the available and previous studies. The selected model parameters are then validated against recordings. We also computed the residuals for the ground motion parameters in terms of PGA and PGV at each station and the model parameter bias by averaging the residuals over all the stations. The attenuation of the simulated ground motion parameters is compared with recent global and regional ground motion prediction equations. Finally, since it has been debated whether the earthquake of November 9 was an aftershock of the October 23 earthquake, we examine whether static variation of Coulomb stress could contribute to the observed aftershock triggering during the 2011 Van Lake sequence. Comparison with empirical ground motion prediction illustrated that the observed PGA data decay faster than the global empirical ground motion equations, both at moderate and larger distance; this feature is captured by the AC10 model that is derived from Turkish earthquake database. Faster attenuation of ground motion due to the high attenuation of seismic waves in the Eastern Anatolian plateau is in agreement with our stochastic simulations of strong ground motions of the 2011 October 23 Van earthquake. This highlights the importance of retrieving specific regional seismic parameters for the ground motion predictive equations. The stress redistribution computation indicates that the October sequence had an active role in promoting the November aftershocks, being the Coulomb stress variation positive in the entire region of interest. Furthermore, the Van events enhanced the stress level on the Caldiran fault.

  9. Cooling to the ground state of axial motion for one atom strongly coupled to an optical cavity.

    PubMed

    Boozer, A D; Boca, A; Miller, R; Northup, T E; Kimble, H J

    2006-08-25

    Localization to the ground state of axial motion is demonstrated for a single, trapped atom strongly coupled to the field of a high finesse optical resonator. The axial atomic motion is cooled by way of coherent Raman transitions on the red vibrational sideband. An efficient state detection scheme enabled by strong coupling in cavity QED is used to record the Raman spectrum, from which the state of atomic motion is inferred. We find that the lowest vibrational level of the axial potential with zero-point energy variant Planck's over 2 h omega a/2kB = 13 microK is occupied with probability P0 approximately 0.95. PMID:17026303

  10. Cooling to the Ground State of Axial Motion for One Atom Strongly Coupled to an Optical Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, A. D.; Boca, A.; Miller, R.; Northup, T. E.; Kimble, H. J.

    2006-08-25

    Localization to the ground state of axial motion is demonstrated for a single, trapped atom strongly coupled to the field of a high finesse optical resonator. The axial atomic motion is cooled by way of coherent Raman transitions on the red vibrational sideband. An efficient state detection scheme enabled by strong coupling in cavity QED is used to record the Raman spectrum, from which the state of atomic motion is inferred. We find that the lowest vibrational level of the axial potential with zero-point energy ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){omega}{sub a}/2k{sub B}=13 {mu}K is occupied with probability P{sub 0}{approx_equal}0.95.

  11. Extension of Characterized Source Model for Broadband Strong Ground Motion Simulations (0.1-50s) of M9 Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, K.; Iwata, T.

    2014-12-01

    After the 2011 Tohoku earthquake in Japan (Mw9.0), many papers on the source model of this mega subduction earthquake have been published. From our study on the modeling of strong motion waveforms in the period 0.1-10s, four isolated strong motion generation areas (SMGAs) were identified in the area deeper than 25 km (Asano and Iwata, 2012). The locations of these SMGAs were found to correspond to the asperities of M7-class events in 1930's. However, many studies on kinematic rupture modeling using seismic, geodetic and tsunami data revealed that the existence of the large slip area from the trench to the hypocenter (e.g., Fujii et al., 2011; Koketsu et al., 2011; Shao et al., 2011; Suzuki et al., 2011). That is, the excitation of seismic wave is spatially different in long and short period ranges as is already discussed by Lay et al.(2012) and related studies. The Tohoku earthquake raised a new issue we have to solve on the relationship between the strong motion generation and the fault rupture process, and it is an important issue to advance the source modeling for future strong motion prediction. The previous our source model consists of four SMGAs, and observed ground motions in the period range 0.1-10s are explained well by this source model. We tried to extend our source model to explain the observed ground motions in wider period range with a simple assumption referring to the previous our study and the concept of the characterized source model (Irikura and Miyake, 2001, 2011). We obtained a characterized source model, which have four SMGAs in the deep part, one large slip area in the shallow part and background area with low slip. The seismic moment of this source model is equivalent to Mw9.0. The strong ground motions are simulated by the empirical Green's function method (Irikura, 1986). Though the longest period limit is restricted by the SN ratio of the EGF event (Mw~6.0) records, this new source model succeeded to reproduce the observed waveforms and Fourier amplitude spectra in the period range 0.1-50s. The location of this large slip area seems to overlap the source regions of historical events in 1793 and 1897 off Sanriku area. We think the source model for strong motion prediction of Mw9 event could be constructed by the combination of hierarchical multiple asperities or source patches related to histrorical events in this region.

  12. North Anna Nuclear Power Plant Strong Motion Records of the Mineral, Virginia Earthquake of August 23, 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graizer, V.

    2012-12-01

    The MW 5.8 Mineral, Virginia earthquake was recorded at a relatively short epicentral distance of about 18 km at the North Anna Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) by the SMA-3 magnetic tape digital accelerographs installed inside the plant's containment at the foundation and deck levels. The North Anna NPP is operated by the Virginia Electric and Power Company (VEPCO) and has two pressurized water reactors (PWR) units that began operation in 1978 and 1980, respectively. Following the earthquake, both units were safely shutdown. The strong-motion records were processed to get velocity, displacement, Fourier and 5% damped response spectra. The basemat record demonstrated relatively high amplitudes of acceleration of 0.26 g and velocity of 13.8 cm/sec with a relatively short duration of strong motion of 2-3 sec. Recorded 5% damped Response Spectra exceed Design Basis Earthquake for the existing Units 1 and 2, while comprehensive plant inspections performed by VEPCO and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission have concluded that the damage to the plant was minimal not affecting any structures and equipment significant to plant operation. This can be explained in part by short duration of the earthquake ground motion at the plant. The North Anna NPP did not have free-field strong motion instrumentation at the time of the earthquake. Since the containment is founded on rock there is a tendency to consider basemat record as an approximation of the free-field recording. However, comparisons of deck and basemat records demonstrate that the basemat recording is also affected by structural resonance frequencies higher than 3 Hz. Structural resonances in the frequency range of 3-4 Hz can at least partially explain significant exceedance of observed motions relative to ground motion calculated using ground motion prediction equations.cceleration, velocity and displacement at the North Anna NPP basemat level. Amplitudes of acceleration, velocity and displacement at basemat and deck levels

  13. Slip history of the 1995 Kobe, Japan, earthquake determined from strong motion, teleseismic, and geodetic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Near-source ground motions, teleseismic body waveforms, and geodetic displacements produced by the 1995 Kobe, Japan, earthquake have been used to determine the spatial and temporal dislocation pattern on the faulting surfaces. Analysis of the slip model indicates that the ground motions recorded within the severely damaged region of Kobe originated from the region of relatively low slip (about 1 m) deep beneath Kobe and not from the shallow, higher slip regions (about 3 m) beneath Aqaji Island. Although the slip was relatively low beneath Kobe, the combined effects of source rupture directivity, a short slip duration, and site amplification conspired to generate very damaging ground motions within the city.

  14. Long-Period Strong Ground Motions Having Fired Large Oil Storage Tanks During the 2003 Tokachi-Oki, Japan, Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatayama, K.

    2005-12-01

    The 2003 Tokachi-oki, Japan, earthquake (Mw8.0; Japan Meteorological Agency, 2003) generated large-amplitude long-period (5 to 8 sec) strong ground motions in the Yufutsu plain, Hokkaido, Japan that is about 200 km away from the epicenter. Those motions excited big sloshing in many large oil storage tanks located on the plain and the sloshing caused two tank fires and several floating roofs to sink. Japanese nation-wide strong-motion observation networks have provided us with the first data set consisting of densely sampled strong ground motions that are rich in long-period components. This data set clearly showed that the large long-period motions were not observed before the waves entering the plain, i.e. the Yufutsu plain grew the long-period ground motions (Koketsu et al., 2005). The high density of spatial sampling can also show the spatial distribution of strength of long-period motions in the plain and their propagation there. We show by some contour maps of velocity responses that the strongest long-period shaking in the Yufutsu plain was observed around the downtown area of the Tomakomai city where the damage to oil tanks was more severe than any other areas. The isochrone of peaks of envelopes suggests a possibility that the long-period wave trains were focusing into the downtown from different directions. In order to study the excitation and the propagation process of long-period motions in the Yufutsu plain, an attempt was made to explore its deep sediment-bedrock structure by means of long-period microtremor array observations (Kanno et al., 2005). Relying on their resultant S-wave velocity profiles, we try to reproduce the features of the long-period motions observed there during the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake by making numerical simulations of 2-D seismic wave-fields by means of the finite difference method. To date we have succeeded in reproducing qualitatively the observed phenomena that the amplitude of long-period motions in the downtown area of the Tomakomai city was larger than any other areas in the Yufutsu plain.

  15. Strong Motion Simulation of the Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake (2007), Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Y.; Matsushima, S.; Kawase, H.

    2010-12-01

    On July 16th, 2007, the Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake (M6.8) occurred off Niigata Prefecture in Japan, claiming 68 casualties and more than 4,000 injured. The heavily damaged areas were Kariwa Village and Kashiwazaki City of Niigata Prefecture, and a fire broke out in an electrical transformer at the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant (KKNPP). Regarding this earthquake, the several source models have been proposed. Based on the dimensions of the proposed source models, we simulate strong motion in the epicentral area including the KKNPP site by using the fourth order 3-D finite-difference method with staggered-discontinuous-grids, that is, GMS code (Aoi.S and H. Fujiwara, 1999). First, we try to modify the 3-D subsurface structure model of Niigata Prefecture, developed and provided by JNES (Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization). To calibrate this model, we simulate three aftershocks recordings at KKNPP, assuming point sources with the source mechanisms provided by F-net. The shapes of the main portion of the velocity waveform are well reproduced in general. However, regarding the time differences between P-wave and S-wave (i.e., S-P time), the results do not show good match between observed data and calculations. In order to correct the difference in S-P time, we set a horizontal boundary at the depth of 12.5km in the bedrock and assigned different velocity structures for the shallow and deep part of the bedrock. As a result, we can match S-P time of the shallow aftershock. Next, we simulate the main shock recordings using the modified subsurface structure described above. Since the observed data of the main shock shows three distinctive velocity pulses, the initial model that we adopt consists of a three asperities source model from the previous study of Kawabe and Kamae (2008). The following is our calculation procedure. First, the shapes of slip velocity time functions are assumed to be a simple triangle. Then, simulated time histories are convolved with the shapes of the assumed slip velocity time function for each asperity. Finally, time histories of each asperity are overlapped considering the time delay between ruptures. As a result, by multiplying the seismic moment of two asperities (Asperity 1 and 3) by 1.5 and searching appropriate shapes of the slip velocity functions for three asperities, we can reproduce the observation recordings at KKNPP. However, large amplitude of the third velocity pulse in EW component cannot be reproduced. By plotting the particle motions of velocity time histories, we confirm that the third pulse with large amplitude at station KK1 appears in a different direction from the predominant direction seen in the calculated velocities. We will include the other observed sites to our targets and modify the shape of slip velocity time functions. We will also investigate the cause of conspicuous velocity pulse dominantly in the EW component, scrutinizing either from the local subsurface structure or the source process complexity.

  16. Simulation of Ground Motion from Strong Earthquakes of Kamchatka Region (1992-1993) at Rock and Soil Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlenko, O. V.

    2013-04-01

    To estimate the parameters of ground motion in future strong earthquakes, characteristics of radiation and propagation of seismic waves in the Kamchatka region were studied. Regional parameters of radiation and propagation of seismic waves were estimated by comparing simulations of earthquake records with data recorded by stations of the Kamchatka Strong Motion Network. Acceleration time histories of strong earthquakes ( M w = 6.8-7.5, depths 45-55 km) that occurred near the eastern coast of Kamchatka in 1992-1993 were simulated at rock and soil stations located at epicentral distances of 67-195 km. In these calculations, the source spectra and the estimates of frequency-dependent attenuation and geometrical spreading obtained earlier for Kamchatka were used. The local seismic-wave amplification was estimated based on shallow geophysical site investigations and deep crustal seismic explorations, and parameters defining the shapes of the waveforms, the duration, etc. were selected, showing the best-fit to the observations. The estimated parameters of radiation and propagation of seismic waves describe all the studied earthquakes well. Based on the waveforms of the acceleration time histories, models of slip distribution over the fault planes were constructed for the studied earthquakes. Station PET can be considered as a reference rock station having the minimum site effects. The intensity of ground motion at the other studied stations was higher than at PET due to the soil response or other effects, primarily topographic ones. At soil stations INS, AER, and DCH the parameters of soil profiles (homogeneous pyroclastic deposits) were estimated, and nonlinear models of their behavior in the strong motion were constructed. The obtained parameters of radiation and propagation of seismic waves and models of soil behavior can be used for forecasting ground motion in future strong earthquakes in Kamchatka.

  17. Acceleration and volumetric strain generated by the Parkfield 2004 earthquake on the GEOS strong-motion array near Parkfield, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borcherdt, Rodger D.; Johnston, Malcolm J.S.; Dietel, Christopher; Glassmoyer, Gary; Myren, Doug; Stephens, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    An integrated array of 11 General Earthquake Observation System (GEOS) stations installed near Parkfield, CA provided on scale broad-band, wide-dynamic measurements of acceleration and volumetric strain of the Parkfield earthquake (M 6.0) of September 28, 2004. Three component measurements of acceleration were obtained at each of the stations. Measurements of collocated acceleration and volumetric strain were obtained at four of the stations. Measurements of velocity at most sites were on scale only for the initial P-wave arrival. When considered in the context of the extensive set of strong-motion recordings obtained on more than 40 analog stations by the California Strong-Motion Instrumentation Program (Shakal, et al., 2004 http://www.quake.ca.gov/cisn-edc) and those on the dense array of Spudich, et al, (1988), these recordings provide an unprecedented document of the nature of the near source strong motion generated by a M 6.0 earthquake. The data set reported herein provides the most extensive set of near field broad band wide dynamic range measurements of acceleration and volumetric strain for an earthquake as large as M 6 of which the authors are aware. As a result considerable interest has been expressed in these data. This report is intended to describe the data and facilitate its use to resolve a number of scientific and engineering questions concerning earthquake rupture processes and resultant near field motions and strains. This report provides a description of the array, its scientific objectives and the strong-motion recordings obtained of the main shock. The report provides copies of the uncorrected and corrected data. Copies of the inferred velocities, displacements, and Psuedo velocity response spectra are provided. Digital versions of these recordings are accessible with information available through the internet at several locations: the National Strong-Motion Program web site (http://agram.wr.usgs.gov/), the COSMOS Virtual Data Center Web site (http://www.cosmos-eq.org), and the CISN Engineering and Berkeley data centers (http://www.quake.ca.gov/cisn-edc). They are also accessible together with recordings on the GEOS Strong-motion Array near Parkfield, CA since its installation in 1987 through the USGS GEOS web site ( http://nsmp.wr.usgs.gov/GEOS).

  18. Clastic Pipes: Proxies of High Water Tables and Strong Ground Motion, Jurassic Carmel Formation, Southern Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheatley, David; Chan, Marjorie

    2015-04-01

    Multiple soft sediment deformation features from bed-scale to basin-scale are well preserved within the Jurassic Carmel Formation of Southern Utah. Field mapping reveals thousands of small-scale clastic injectite pipes (10 cm to 10 m diameter, up to 20 m tall) in extremely high densities (up to 500+ pipes per 0.075 square kilometers). The pipes weather out in positive relief from the surrounding host strata of massive sandstone (sabkha) and crossbedded sands with minor conglomerate and shale (fluvial) deposits. The host rock shows both brittle and ductile deformation. Reverse, normal, and antithetical faulting is common with increased frequency, including ring faults, surrounding the pipes. The pipes formed from liquefaction and subsequent fluidization induced by strong ground motion. Down-dropped, graben blocks and ring faults surrounding pipes indicate initial sediment volume increase during pipe emplacement followed by sediment volume decrease during dewatering. Complex crosscutting relationships indicate several injection events where some pipe events reached the surface as sand blows. Multiple ash layers provide excellent stratigraphic and temporal constraints for the pipe system with the host strata deposited between 166 and 164 Ma. Common volcanic fragments and rounded volcanic cobbles occur within sandstone and conglomerate beds, and pipes. Isolated volcanic clasts in massive sandstone indicate explosive volcanic events that could have been the exogenic trigger for earthquakes. The distribution of pipes are roughly parallel to the Middle Jurassic paleoshoreline located in marginal environments between the shallow epicontinental Sundance Sea and continental dryland. At the vertical stratigraphic facies change from dominantly fluvial sediments to dominantly massive sabkha sediments, there is a 1-2 m-thick floodplain mudstone that was a likely seal for underlying, overpressurized sediments. The combination of loose porous sediment at a critical depth of water saturation made the system extremely susceptible to liquefaction. Fluid inclusions of carbonate nodules present on the pipe margins indicate salinity, temperature, and character of possible early diagenetic fluids before significant burial. These inclusions can reveal information about brines from point sources or fed via groundwater. Overall, the combination of clastic pipes and their related soft deformation structures in the host rock provide proxies for the existence of high water table conditions within arid climate regimes and transitional paleoenvironments previously assumed to be devoid of significant amounts of water. The pipe distribution and evidence of multiple injectite events paralleling an ancient paleoshoreline provides basin-scale insights on repeated paleoseismicity and volcanism along the convergent boundary of the Cordilleran.

  19. Characteristics of strong motions and damage implications of M S6.5 Ludian earthquake on August 3, 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Peibin; Wen, Ruizhi; Wang, Hongwei; Ji, Kun; Ren, Yefei

    2015-02-01

    The Ludian County of Yunnan Province in southwestern China was struck by an M S6.5 earthquake on August 3, 2014, which was another destructive event following the M S8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, M S7.1 Yushu earthquake in 2010, and M S7.0 Lushan earthquake in 2013. National Strong-Motion Observation Network System of China collected 74 strong motion recordings, which the maximum peak ground acceleration recorded by the 053LLT station in Longtoushan Town was 949 cm/s2 in E-W component. The observed PGAs and spectral ordinates were compared with ground-motion prediction equation in China and the NGA-West2 developed by Pacific Earthquake Engineering Researcher Center. This earthquake is considered as the first case for testing applicability of NGA-West2 in China. Results indicate that the observed PGAs and the 5 % damped pseudo-response spectral accelerations are significantly lower than the predicted ones. The field survey around some typical strong motion stations verified that the earthquake damage was consistent with the official isoseismal by China Earthquake Administration.

  20. Synchrotron radiation with radiation reaction. [relativistic electron motion in strong astrophysical magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Robert W.; Wasserman, Ira

    1991-01-01

    A rigorous discussion is presented of the classical motion of a relativistic electron in a magnetic field and the resulting electromagnetic radiation when radiation reaction is important. In particular, for an electron injected with initial energy gamma(0), a systematic perturbative solution to the Lorentz-Dirac equation of motion is developed for field strengths satisfying gamma(0) B much less than 6 x 10 to the 15th G. A particularly accurate solution to the electron orbital motion in this regime is found and it is demonstrated how lowest-order corrections can be calculated. It is shown that the total energy-loss rate corresponds to what would be found using the exact Larmor power formula without including radiation reaction. Provided that the particle energy and field strength satisfy the same contraint, it is explicitly demonstrated that the intuitive prescription for calculating the time-integrated radiation spectrum described above is correct.

  1. Simulation of Strong Ground Motion During the 1950 Great Assam Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghukanth, S. T. G.

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, ground motion during the Independence Day earthquake of August 15, 1950 (Mw 8.6, B en-M enahem et al., 1974) in the northeastern part of India is estimated by seismological approaches. A hybrid simulation technique which combines the low frequency ground motion simulated from an analytical source mechanism model with the stochastically simulated high-frequency components is used for obtaining the acceleration time histories. A series of ground motion simulations are carried out to estimate the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral accelerations at important cities and towns in the epicentral region. One sample PGA distribution in the epicentral region encompassing the epicenter is also obtained. It is found that PGA in the epicentral region has exceeded 1 g during this earthquake. The estimated PGA’s are validated to the extent possible using the MMI values. The simulated acceleration time histories can be used for the assessment of important engineering structures in northeastern India.

  2. Estimation of slip scenarios of mega-thrust earthquakes and strong motion simulations for Central Andes, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido, N.; Tavera, H.; Aguilar, Z.; Chlieh, M.; Calderon, D.; Sekiguchi, T.; Nakai, S.; Yamazaki, F.

    2012-12-01

    We have developed a methodology for the estimation of slip scenarios for megathrust earthquakes based on a model of interseismic coupling (ISC) distribution in subduction margins obtained from geodetic data, as well as information of recurrence of historical earthquakes. This geodetic slip model (GSM) delineates the long wavelength asperities within the megathrust. For the simulation of strong ground motion it becomes necessary to introduce short wavelength heterogeneities to the source slip to be able to efficiently simulate high frequency ground motions. To achieve this purpose we elaborate "broadband" source models constructed by combining the GSM with several short wavelength slip distributions obtained from a Von Karman PSD function with random phases. Our application of the method to Central Andes in Peru, show that this region has presently the potential of generating an earthquake with moment magnitude of 8.9, with a peak slip of 17 m and a source area of approximately 500 km along strike and 165 km along dip. For the strong motion simulations we constructed 12 broadband slip models, and consider 9 possible hypocenter locations for each model. We performed strong motion simulations for the whole central Andes region (Peru), spanning an area from the Nazca ridge (16^o S) to the Mendana fracture (9^o S). For this purpose we use the hybrid strong motion simulation method of Pulido et al. (2004), improved to handle a general slip distribution. Our simulated PGA and PGV distributions indicate that a region of at least 500 km along the coast of central Andes is subjected to a MMI intensity of approximately 8, for the slip model that yielded the largest ground motions among the 12 slip models considered, averaged for all assumed hypocenter locations. This result is in agreement with the macroseismic intensity distribution estimated for the great 1746 earthquake (M~9) in central Andes (Dorbath et al. 1990). Our results indicate that the simulated PGA and PGV for all scenario slips for central Andes, and for an average soil condition, exhibit similar amplitudes and attenuation characteristics with distance as the PGA and PGV values observed during the 2010 Maule (Mw 8.8), and 2011 Tohoku-oki (Mw 9.0) earthquakes. Our results clearly indicate that the simulated ground motions for scenarios with deep rupture nucleations (~40 km) are consistently smaller than the ground motions obtained for shallower rupture nucleations. We also performed strong ground motion simulations in metropolitan Lima by using the aforementioned slip scenarios, and incorporating site amplifications obtained from several microtremors array surveys conducted at representative geotechnical zones in this city. Our simulated PGA and PGV in Lima reach values of 1000 cm/s^2 and 80 cm/s. Our results show that the largest values of PGA (at Puente Piedra district, Northern Lima) are related with short period site effects, whereas the largest values of PGV are related with large site amplifications for periods from 1s to 1.5s (at Callao, Villa el Salvador and La Molina districts). Our results also indicate that the simulated PGA and PGV in central Lima (Parque de la Reserva) are in average 2~3 times larger than the values recorded by a strong motion instrument installed at this location, during the 1974 (Mw8.0) and 1966 (Mw8.0) earthquakes off-shore Lima.

  3. Modeling of strong ground motion during the 1992 Cairo earthquake in the urban area northern Greater of Cairo, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Khaled; Attia, Mohsen; Fergany, El Sayed; Hassoup, Awad; Elkhashab, Hussein

    2013-06-01

    The 1992 Cairo earthquake originated from Dahshour seismic zone at an epicentral distance of about 25 km southwest of Cairo. Regardless of its relatively moderate magnitude (Mb = 5.8), it caused extensive property damage besides injuries and loss of lives. The significant damage of this earthquake was probably associated with amplification of seismic waves due to local site effects. Liquefaction was observed at many sites near the epicenter. There are no records of strong ground motion at the damaged area during this earthquake. The main shock was recorded only by the local Kattamya station (KEG) constructed in limestone rock site at about 46-48 km east of Cairo. In the present work, the strong ground motion during 1992 Cairo earthquake was analyzed and the possible causes of damage and structural failure were discussed. The study area is located at the southern part of Cairo city, holding heavy population and many public structures and strategic buildings. The ground motion parameters in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV), and pseudo-spectral acceleration (PSA) were estimated for each site in the study area and in the KEG site. The site-dependent spectral models together with the stochastic technique were applied for this purpose, using the Fourier amplitude spectrum (FAS) source scaling, attenuation model, and the site amplification functions. The peak ground acceleration of the studied area, comprising 89 sites in northern great of Cairo (Qalyoub city) was calculated. The calculated peak ground acceleration values indicate the sites of high values of peak ground acceleration which are also characterized by high ground motion amplification factors. The ground motion, which is presented in this study, is highly amplified by the soil layer covering the area. Otherwise, the surface layer must be totally removed before construction of the buildings to avoid its large amplification to the ground motion.

  4. Self-noise models of five commercial strong-motion accelerometers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringler, Adam; Evans, John R.; Hutt, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    To better characterize the noise of a number of commonly deployed accelerometers in a standardized way, we conducted noise measurements on five different models of strong‐motion accelerometers. Our study was limited to traditional accelerometers (Fig. 1) and is in no way exhaustive.

  5. Slip history of the 2003 San Simeon earthquake constrained by combining 1-Hz GPS, strong motion, and teleseismic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ji, C.; Larson, K.M.; Tan, Y.; Hudnut, K.W.; Choi, K.

    2004-01-01

    The slip history of the 2003 San Simeon earthquake is constrained by combining strong motion and teleseismic data, along with GPS static offsets and 1-Hz GPS observations. Comparisons of a 1-Hz GPS time series and a co-located strong motion data are in very good agreement, demonstrating a new application of GPS. The inversion results for this event indicate that the rupture initiated at a depth of 8.5 km and propagated southeastwards with a speed ???3.0 km/sec, with rake vectors forming a fan structure around the hypocenter. We obtained a peak slip of 2.8 m and total seismic moment of 6.2 ?? 1018 Nm. We interpret the slip distribution as indicating that the hanging wall rotates relative to the footwall around the hypocenter, in a sense that appears consistent with the shape of the mapped fault trace. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Revelations from a single strong-motion record retreived during the 27 June 1998 Adana (Turkey) earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.

    2000-01-01

    During the 27 June 1998 Adana (Turkey) earthquake, only one strong-motion record was retrieved in the region where the most damage occurred. This single record from the station in Ceyhan, approximately 15 km from the epicenter of that earthquake, exhibits characteristics that are related to the dominant frequencies of the ground and structures. The purpose of this paper is to explain the causes of the damage as inferred from both field observations and the characteristics of a single strong-motion record retrieved from the immediate epicentral area. In the town of Ceyhan there was considerable but selective damage to a significant number of mid-rise (7-12 stories high) buildings. The strong-motion record exhibits dominant frequencies that are typically similar for the mid-rise building structures. This is further supported by spectral ratios derived using Nakamura's method [QR of RTRI, 30 (1989) 25] that facilitates computation of a spectral ratio from a single tri-axial record as the ratio of amplitude spectrum of horizontal component to that of the vertical component [R = H(f)/V(f)]. The correlation between the damage and the characteristics exhibited from the single strong-motion record is remarkable. Although deficient construction practices played a significant role in the extent of damage to the mid-rise buildings, it is clear that site resonance also contributed to the detrimental fate of most of the mid-rise buildings. Therefore, even a single record can be useful to explain the effect of site resonance on building response and performance. Such information can be very useful for developing zonation criteria in similar alluvial valleys. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  7. Peak horizontal acceleration and velocity from strong-motion records including records from the 1979 imperial valley, California, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joyner, William B.; Boore, David M.

    1981-01-01

    We have taken advantage of the recent increase in strong-motion data at close distances to derive new attenuation relations for peak horizontal acceleration and velocity. This new analysis uses a magnitude-independent shape, based on geometrical spreading and anelastic attenuation, for the attenuation curve. An innovation in technique is introduced that decouples the determination of the distance dependence of the data from the magnitude dependence.

  8. Spin-orbit interaction in bremsstrahlung and its effect on the electron motion in a strong Coulomb field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovtun, Oleksiy; Tioukine, Valeri; Surzhykov, Andrey; Yerokhin, Vladimir A.; Cederwall, Bo; Tashenov, Stanislav

    2015-12-01

    Linear polarization of bremsstrahlung x rays produced in collisions of longitudinally polarized 2.1-MeV electrons with gold atoms was studied using the Compton scattering technique. We observed that the angle of x-ray polarization is strongly correlated with the incoming electron polarization. This correlation reveals the dominance of the spin-orbit interaction in bremsstrahlung and indicates a striking effect of the electron spin on the electron motion in a strong Coulomb field. The results confirm the validity of the theoretical predictions in a computationally challenging energy regime.

  9. Strong ground motion simulation during the November 1759 Earthquake along Serghaya Fault in the metropolitan of Damascus, Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaineh, Hussam Eldein; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Dhakal, Yadab Prasad; Dakkak, Rawaa; Daoud, Mohamad

    2013-10-01

    The seismic hazard potential for metropolitan of Damascus, Syria is mainly controlled by earthquakes along Serghaya Fault which is a branch of Dead Sea Fault System. In this study, strong ground motion due to the November 1759 Earthquake along the fault of Serghaya was estimated with a numerical simulation technique. In the simulation, the Kostrov-like slip-velocity function was used as an input to the discrete wave number method to simulate the strong ground motions in a broadband frequency range. In order to model the incoherent rupture propagation which can excite large high-frequency waves, random numbers are added to arrival time of circular rupture front. MMI intensities calculated from the synthetic ground motions are compared with the observed values by Ambraseys and Barazangi (J Geophys Res 94:4007-4013, 1989). The calculated intensities are in good agreement with the observed ones at the most sites that validate appropriateness of the proposed source model. The PGA and PGV in the eastern region of Damascus city are higher than those in the western region due to the effects of local site amplification. The simulated high-frequency (1.0-6.0 Hz) ground motions for the sites in the Damascus city are higher than the design requirements defined by the Syrian building code. Furthermore, the simulated high-frequency ground motions for sites in the focal region are bigger than the design requirements in the case of the near-fault factors and are not considered. That demonstrates the appropriateness of considering the near-fault factors for a site near the focal region as introduced by the new building code.

  10. A source model of the 2014 South Napa Earthquake by the EGF broad-band strong ground motion simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, T.; Asano, K.; Kubo, H.

    2014-12-01

    The source model of the 2014 South Napa earthquake (Mw6.0) is estimated using broad band strong ground motion simulation by the empirical Green's function method (Irikura, 1986, Irikura et al., 1997). We used the CESMD strong motion data. Aftershock ground motion records of Mw3.6 which occurred at 05:33 on 24th August (PDT), are used as an empirical Green's function. We refer to the finite source model by Dreger et al. (2014) for setting the geometry of the source fault plane and the rupture velocity. We assume a single rectangular strong motion generation area (e.g. Miyake et al., 2003; Asano and Iwata, 2012). The seismic moment ratio between the target and EGF events is fixed from the moment magnitudes. As only five station data are available for the aftershock records, the size of SMGA area, rupture starting point, and the rise time on the SMGA are determined by the trial and error. Preliminary SMGA model is 6x6km2 and the rupture mainly propagates WNW and shallower directions. The SMGA size we obtained follows the empirical relationship of Mw and SMGA size for the inland crustal events (Irikura and Miyake, 2011). Waveform fittings are fairly well at the near source station NHC (Huichica creek) and 68150 (Napa Collage), where as the fitting is not good at the south-side stations, 68206 (Crockett - Carquinez Br. Geotech Array) and 68310 (Vallejo - Hwy 37/Napa River E Geo. Array). Particularly, we did not succeed in explaining the high PGA at the 68206 surface station. We will try to improve our SMGA model and will discuss the origin of the high PGA observed at that station.

  11. Calculation of broadband time histories of ground motion: Comparison of methods and validation using strong-ground motion from the 1994 Northridge earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, S.; Harmsen, S.; Frankel, A.; Larsen, S.

    1999-01-01

    This article compares techniques for calculating broadband time histories of ground motion in the near field of a finite fault by comparing synthetics with the strong-motion data set for the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Based on this comparison, a preferred methodology is presented. Ground-motion-simulation techniques are divided into two general methods: kinematic- and composite-fault models. Green's functions of three types are evaluated: stochastic, empirical, and theoretical. A hybrid scheme is found to give the best fit to the Northridge data. Low frequencies ( 1 Hz) are calculated using a composite-fault model with a fractal subevent size distribution and stochastic, bandlimited, white-noise Green's functions. At frequencies below 1 Hz, theoretical elastic-wave-propagation synthetics introduce proper seismic-phase arrivals of body waves and surface waves. The 3D velocity structure more accurately reproduces record durations for the deep sedimentary basin structures found in the Los Angeles region. At frequencies above 1 Hz, scattering effects become important and wave propagation is more accurately represented by stochastic Green's functions. A fractal subevent size distribution for the composite fault model ensures an ??-2 spectral shape over the entire frequency band considered (0.1-20 Hz).

  12. Strong Ground Motion Simulation of December 26th, 2006 Ping-Tung Earthquake Based on Empirical Green's Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C.; Huang, H.

    2007-12-01

    Ping-Tung earthquake sequence (ML=7.0) occurred at the southwestern offshore of Taiwan on December 26, 2006. This strong earthquake sequence caused many devastating effects at the Heng-Chun area. In the study, we examine the source models of this event using the observed seismograms by CWBSN and Microbs arrays at some stations surrounding the source area. An objective estimation method was used to obtain the parameters N and C which are needed for the empirical Green¡¦s function method by Irikura (1986). This method was called ¡§source spectral ratio fitting method¡¨ which gives estimate of seismic moment ratio between a large and a small event and their corner frequencies by fitting the observed source spectral ratio with the estimated one which obeys the ω-2 model (Miyake et al., 1999). It has an advantage of removing site effects in evaluating those parameters. The best source model of the Ping-Tung mainshock was estimated by comparing the observed waveforms with the synthetics using the empirical Green¡¦s function method.

  13. Particle acceleration by a wave in a strong magnetic field - Regular and stochastic motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karimabadi, H.; Akimoto, K.; Omidi, N.; Menyuk, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    A general theory for the acceleration of a charged particle by a coherent wave of arbitrary polarization, propagation angle, and phase velocity in the presence of a uniform and strong magnetic field is presented. It is shown that the Hamiltonian surfaces are topologically open for waves with parallel phase velocity, equal to or larger than the speed of light. The trapping width is found to be a strong function of the index of refraction (N), and for N = 1 the trapping width increases as a function of the harmonic number. A novel mechanism for coherently accelerating particles to unlimited energies is presented.

  14. Generation of non-classical states of mirror motion in the single-photon strong-coupling regime.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wen-ju; Li, Gao-xiang; Wu, Shao-ping; Yang, Ya-ping

    2014-07-28

    When a trichromatic laser field is applied to a cavity optomechanical system within the single-photon strong-coupling regime, we find that the motion of mirror can evolve into a dark state such that the cavity field mode cannot absorb energy from the external field. Via tuning three components of the pumping field to be resonant to the carrier, red-sideband and blue-sideband transitions in the displaced representation respectively, the state of mirror motion can exhibit non-classical properties, such as that in the Lamb-Dicke limit, the state evolves into a squeezed coherent state, and beyond the limit, the state can become a squeezed non-Gaussian state. PMID:25089445

  15. Displaced rocks, strong motion, and the mechanics of shallow faulting associated with the 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michael, A.J.; Ross, S.L.; Stenner, H.D.

    2002-01-01

    The paucity of strong-motion stations near the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake makes it impossible to make instrumental studies of key questions about near-fault strong-motion patterns associated with this event. However, observations of displaced rocks allow a qualitative investigation of these problems. By observing the slope of the desert surface and the frictional coefficient between these rocks and the desert surface, we estimate the minimum horizontal acceleration needed to displace the rocks. Combining this information with observations of how many rocks were displaced in different areas near the fault, we infer the level of shaking. Given current empirical shaking attenuation relationships, the number of rocks that moved is slightly lower than expected; this implies that slightly lower than expected shaking occurred during the Hector Mine earthquake. Perhaps more importantly, stretches of the fault with 4 m of total displacement at the surface displaced few nearby rocks on 15?? slopes, suggesting that the horizontal accelerations were below 0.2g within meters of the fault scarp. This low level of shaking suggests that the shallow parts of this rupture did not produce strong accelerations. Finally, we did not observe an increased incidence of displaced rocks along the fault zone itself. This suggests that, despite observations of fault-zone-trapped waves generated by aftershocks of the Hector Mine earthquake, such waves were not an important factor in controlling peak ground acceleration during the mainshock.

  16. Resolution analysis of finite fault source inversion using one- and three-dimensional Green's functions 1. Strong motions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graves, R.W.; Wald, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    We develop a methodology to perform finite fault source inversions from strong motion data using Green's functions (GFs) calculated for a three-dimensional (3-D) velocity structure. The 3-D GFs are calculated numerically by inserting body forces at each of the strong motion sites and then recording the resulting strains along the target fault surface. Using reciprocity, these GFs can be recombined to represent the ground motion at each site for any (heterogeneous) slip distribution on the fault. The reciprocal formulation significantly reduces the required number of 3-D finite difference computations to at most 3NS, where NS is the number of strong motion sites used in the inversion. Using controlled numerical resolution tests, we have examined the relative importance of accurate GFs for finite fault source inversions which rely on near-source ground motions. These experiments use both 1-D and 3-D GFs in inversions for hypothetical rupture models in order (1) to analyze the ability of the 3-D methodology to resolve trade-offs between complex source phenomena and 3-D path effects, (2) to address the sensitivity of the inversion results to uncertainties in the 3-D velocity structure, and (3) to test the adequacy of the 1-D GF method when propagation effects are known to be three-dimensional. We find that given "data" from a prescribed 3-D Earth structure, the use of well-calibrated 3-D GFs in the inversion provides very good resolution of the assumed slip distribution, thus adequately separating source and 3-D propagation effects. In contrast, using a set of inexact 3-D GFs or a set of hybrid 1-D GFs allows only partial recovery of the slip distribution. These findings suggest that in regions of complex geology the use of well-calibrated 3-D GFs has the potential for increased resolution of the rupture process relative to 1-D GFs. However, realizing this full potential requires that the 3-D velocity model and associated GFs should be carefully validated against the true 3-D Earth structure before performing the inverse problem with actual data. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Quick Finite-Fault Inversion and Strong Motion Prediction: Feasibility, Process, and Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wald, D. J.; Ji, C.; Helmberger, D. V.

    2003-12-01

    As part of a larger, concerted effort to rapidly assess the impact of major earthquakes globally and to provide input into other post-earthquake analyses (e.g., ground motions, stress changes, tectonic implications, etc.), we are developing and testing a new system to automatically determine finite-fault characteristics by inversion of teleseismic body waveforms. Although initially constrained from teleseismic data alone, which currently are the only rapid and reliable available data after major events worldwide, additional data will be used (either directly or as constraints) as they become available, including aftershock locations, geodetic displacements, and regional waveforms. Our ultimate goal is to provide well-constrained, estimated peak ground motions for input into a global ShakeMap, which in turn will allow automatic, reliable estimates of losses and overall impact. To evaluate the feasibility of such a system, we inverted for slip variations on a single plane for the 1999 ChiChi (M7.6) earthquake using only teleseismic data and then compared the 2-sec peak ground velocity map predicted by this model with the observations (constrained by over 400 stations). Even though the fault geometry of this earthquake was more complex than our simple approximation, as would be the case for our initial, automated solution, the predicted map matches the overall observed amplitude variations. While successful in that case, a fully automated system requires overcoming additional, significant hurdles, many of which we are discovering and addressing as we develop the processing system. One such hurdle addressed was the choice of the causative rupture plane from the two nodal planes of a moment tensor solution. We simply conduct finite fault inversions on the two planes simultaneously, and select the solution with a smaller error function. This approach worked well for recent the 2003 Carlsberg Ridge earthquake (M7.6), for which the inverted result matches the trend and extent of its aftershock sequence. Among the more challenging hurdles is compensating for travel time anomalies within an automated system. Using the 2002 Denali earthquake as an example, we show the importance of this correction and how we calibrated the teleseismic path effects with proximal fore- or aftershocks. We also show how an improved fault geometry based on a high-resolution DEM map enhanced the solution. Finally, we discuss ongoing developments, further results, and plans for this system.

  18. Running On-Demand Strong Ground Motion Simulations with the Second-Generation Broadband Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callaghan, S.; Maechling, P. J.; Graves, R. W.; Somerville, P. G.; Collins, N.; Olsen, K. B.; Imperatori, W.; Jones, M.; Archuleta, R. J.; Schmedes, J.; Jordan, T. H.; Broadband Platform Working Group

    2010-12-01

    We have developed the second-generation Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Broadband Platform by integrating scientific modeling codes into a system capable of computing broadband seismograms (0-10 Hz) for historical and scenario earthquakes in California. The SCEC Broadband Platform is a collaborative software development project involving SCEC researchers, graduate students, and the SCEC Community Modeling Environment (SCEC/CME) software development group. SCEC scientific groups have contributed software modules to the Broadband Platform including rupture generation, low-frequency deterministic seismogram synthesis, high-frequency stochastic seismogram synthesis, and non-linear site effects. These complex scientific codes have been integrated into a system that supports easy on-demand computation of broadband seismograms. The SCEC Broadband Platform is designed to be used by both scientific and engineering researchers familiar with ground motion simulations. Users may calculate broadband seismograms for both historical earthquakes (validation events including Northridge, Loma Prieta, and Landers) and user-defined earthquakes. Users may select among various codebases for rupture generation, low-frequency synthesis, high-frequency synthesis, and incorporation of site effects, with the option of running a goodness-of-fit comparison against observed or simulated seismograms. The platform produces a variety of data products, including broadband seismograms, rupture visualizations, and goodness-of-fit plots. The Broadband Platform was implemented using software development best practices that support software accuracy, reliability, and ease of use, including version control, user documentation, acceptance tests, and formal software releases. Users can install the platform on their own machine, verify that it is installed correctly, and run their own simulations on demand. The Broadband Platform enables users to run complex ground motion modeling codes without detailed knowledge about how the codes are implemented. Users may run a validation event, supply their own simple source description, or provide a rupture description in Standard Rupture Format (SRF). Users may specify their own list of stations or use a provided list. Currently the platform supports stations and events in Southern California, the Bay Area, and the Mojave. In our poster, we will discuss the scientific capabilities of the Broadband Platform. We will describe the software engineering behind the platform development and the rigorous release procedure involved. Additionally, we will present simulations performed using the platform, including goodness-of-fit results, and discuss potential applications of on-demand broadband seismogram computation.

  19. The effects of source and path heterogeneity on simulated strong ground motions from great earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delorey, A. A.; Frankel, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    We present the results of a series of 3D simulations of M8-9 earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone for the purposes of understanding strong motions likely to be produced by such events. The simulations use a 3D velocity model including sedimentary basins such as the Seattle and Tacoma basins. A slip rise time dependent on asperity size is applied over the rupture surface and rupture velocity is proportional to the local shear wave velocity. The rupture surface is modeled as a 3D surface. The simulations are accurate for frequencies up to about 0.5 Hz. We examined spectral accelerations (S.A.) at 4 second period. First, we examine how the down dip limit of the seismogenic zone affects strong motions felt along the coast of western Washington and in the inland urban areas. Then we investigate how source complexity and path effects influence strong motions throughout the region. Our simulations predict that if there is significant moment release in the transition zone, coastal areas will experience dramatically higher spectral accelerations with only modest increases for the inland urban areas when compared to the case where moment release is confined to the locked zone. In addition, rupture directivity and the location of large asperities play a significant role in predicted ground motions with some regions being spared from high amplitude shaking capable of damaging engineered structures and others receiving greater doses than what is predicted with traditional empirical attenuation relationships, depending on the locations of the asperities and hypocenter. Excluding shallow site effects, the three biggest factors determining the amplitude of expected ground motions are: proximity to areas of large seismic moment release, geologic setting, and rupture directivity. In the simulation of a Mw 8.0 event off the coast of western Washington, 4 s spectral acceleration along the coast increases from a few percent of the acceleration due to gravity (g) to a few tens of percent when the closest region of moment release is moved from the locked zone down dip into the transition zone. Along-strike variations in 4 sec S.A. due to the distribution of large asperities can be as much as 50%. Sedimentary basins beneath Seattle and nearby cities strongly amplify the long-period ground motions. Rupture directivity is a bigger factor along strike than along dip and its effects are more difficult to quantify because it depends substantially on how rupture propagation is modeled. However, our results suggest that directivity can substantially increase the 4 s S.A. in localized areas. Our initial comparison of the simulation results with the Zhao et al. (2006) ground-motion prediction equations (GMPE's) indicate that directivity, asperity location, and 3D basin effects can produce substantially higher ground shaking at 4 s period than predicted from the median of the GMPE's.

  20. Engineering Analysis of Strong-motion Data Recorded During German Task Force Missions To Turkey (1998-2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, J.; Ende, C.; Habenberger, J.; Lang, D. H.; Raschke, M.

    Obviously, structural damage caused by strong earthquakes can not only be attributed to defects in design or construction, but rather the widely discussed phenomenon of local site effects has to be considered as well. In the last decade extensive strong-motion measurements were carried out by the reconnaissance team of the German TaskForce for Earthquakes. Missions to Turkey in 1998 (Adana, Ceyhan) and in 1999 (Izmit/Kocaeli and Duezce) provided a unique database of recorded aftershocks at sites where building damage occurred. To gain more insight into the effect of local site conditions post-earthquake investigations were initiated in Adana and Kocaeli (October 2000). Microtremors were recorded at sites of the previously installed strong-motion accelerographs and locations of evident concentration or variation of building damage spreaded over the area of main shaking effects. The predominant frequencies and amplification potential at recording sites were identified by H/V spectral ratio method. On the basis of H/V-spectra the sites were classified (into soft soil, stiff soil, rock-type conditions) enabling more detailed studies of recorded strong motion data which were obtained by previous TaskForce missions. Attenuation laws for spectral and peak ground acceleration were statistically determined similar to the approach by Ambraseys et al. (1996). As it can be concluded, the differences between ground motion on soft and stiff soil are less pronounced and of a similar level of amplitudes. It has to be emphasized that the studies are supported by different data types referring to an unique and consistent data-set. Thus, conclusions concerning the reliability of recently applied site response estimation techniques will be derived in dependence on soil conditions. Finally, it will be discussed to which extent subsoil conditions are responsible for the enforcement of building damage. For this purpose and in relation to geological features, a macroseismic map of shaking effects (intensity) was prepared taking into consideration the results of a damage survey undertaken immediately after the 1999 Izmit/Kocaeli earthquake as well as meanwhile presented intensity assignments of other research groups. As a result, instrumentally investigated (micro)sites are correlated with macroseismic shaking effects.

  1. Real-time coseismic wave retrieving by integrated Kalman filter with observations of GPS, Glonass and strong-motion sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Rui; Wang, Li

    2014-01-01

    A method of real-time coseismic wave retrieving was proposed based on the tight integration of GPS, Glonass and strong-motion sensor observations, the validation and precision analysis have been made by an experimental data. The series of results have been shown that: by the integrated Kalman filter and multi-sensors, the coseismic waves can be optimally recovered by complement the advantages of each other, especially when the observation conditions are very bad. In additional, the results are not significantly effected by different receiver clock error processes for the integration solution.

  2. Strong correlation of atomic thermal motion in the first coordination shell of a Cu-Zr metallic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Mattern, N.; Eckert, J.; Institut fuer Werkstoffwissenschaft, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden

    2013-02-25

    We demonstrate a strong correlation of atomic thermal motions in the first coordination shell of Cu{sub 50}Zr{sub 50} metallic glass using molecular dynamics simulations, which explains directly the small thermal expansion coefficient calculated by the first maxima of pair correlation functions. The vibrational anisotropy in the glass is found to be even higher than in crystalline copper. The parallel-perpendicular anisotropy gradually decreases upon heating. The anisotropy in Zr-Zr is the strongest bonds among all the interatomic bonds, which is also very stable near the glass transition at 700 K. Structurally, the anisotropy can be correlated to Cu-centered (0 2 8 1) clusters.

  3. Stochastic Strong Ground Motion Simulations on Eastern North Anatolian Fault Zone: A Sensitivity Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugurhan, B.; Askan, A.

    2010-12-01

    The Eastern segments of the North Anatolian Fault Zone of Turkey are less investigated and have less dense seismic networks than the Western ones. Thus, regional seismic parameters related to source, path and site effects are not well-established. In this study, we aim to study the ability of stochastic finite-fault simulations in verifying the regional seismic parameters of an area with a sparse seismic network. For this purpose, initially the ground motions of 13 March 1992 Erzincan (Turkey) earthquake are simulated using the few available seismic model parameters from previous studies. To quantify the error, misfit functions in terms of observed and synthetic Fourier Amplitude Spectra (FAS), PGA and PGV values are defined. The misfits are computed for a large set of simulations generated with all possible combinations of input parameters. The parameters that minimize the error in the frequency domain are validated to be the optimum model parameters of Erzincan region. Next, we investigate how sensitive the simulations are with respect to the input models. With the objective of observing the variation of the simulated waveforms regarding small perturbations in the input parameters, a local sensitivity study is conducted around the optimum parameters.

  4. Site-dependent spectra from the 1999 Turkey earthquakes considering different sets of strong-motion data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, J.; Ende, C.; Habenberger, J.; Lang, D. H.

    2003-04-01

    In the last decade extensive strong-motion measurements were carried out by the reconnaissance team of the German TaskForce for Earthquakes. Aftershocks were recorded by a mesh of temporarily installed strong-motion recorders during the field surveys to Turkey in 1998 (Adana/Ceyhan), 1999 (Izmit/Kocaeli and Duezce/Bolu) and 2002 (Sultandagi/Afyon). Particularly the two missions in 1999 provided a unique and comprehensive database of recorded aftershocks at sites where building damage occurred. In addition, post-earthquake investigations were initiated around the provinces Adana and Kocaeli in October 2000 to gain more insight into the effect of local site conditions. Therefore, microtremors were recorded at sites of the previously installed strong-motion accelerographs and locations of evident concentration or remarkable scatter of building damage. By applying H/V-spectral ratio method on microtremor data, a classification of the recording sites (into soft soil, stiff soil, rock-type conditions) was performed. For the derivation of attenuation laws different databases were applied. In addition to the aftershock records of the strong-motion stations of German TaskForce for Earthquakes (Schwarz et al., 2002), a small dataset of main- and aftershocks from the 1999 Turkey earthquakes provided by the Kandilli Observatory (KOERI, 2002) and the General Directorate of Disaster Affairs (AFET) could be implied. The magnitude-distance composition of both datasets are quite different in terms of the covered magnitude and distance range. While the dataset of the German TaskForce mainly consists of small magnitude aftershocks (at the present state of elaboration: Ml <= 4.9) being recorded in epicentral distances Re < 70 km, the KOERI dataset is featured by larger magnitudes (Ml = 4.8-7.2) and by a distance range of about 10--250 km. The aftershock database of German TaskForce consists of 538 triaxial acceleration records (rock 53, stiff 52, soft 433), while that of KOERI comprises 145 triaxial acceleration records (rock 6, stiff 36, soft 103). On this basis, three sets of strong motion records were investigated by an one-step as well as a two-step regression analysis (similar to the approach by Ambraseys et al., 1996). Furthermore, parametric studies with respect to the lower bounds of magnitude and source depth were performed. Results indicate that the composition of the dataset and in particular the decision on the lower bound magnitude significantly determine the qualitative spectrum shape. In comparison to the spectra determined by Ambraseys et al. (1996) attenuation functions, the recorded data lead to significant lower accelerations for the borizontal as well as for the vertical components. Furthermore, no significant differences between data from soft and stiff soil recording sites can be observed, supporting the authors opinion that the severity of ground motion during earthquakes is less responsible for the high extent of building damage than the vulnerability of the building stock (which seem to be quite different for one particular building type in dependence on the date of construction). Therefore more attention should be attributed to the investigation of the building inventory.

  5. Strong ground motion inferred from liquefaction caused by the 1811-1812 New Madrid, Missouri, earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Noce, Thomas E.; Bennett, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Peak ground accelerations (PGAs) in the epicentral region of the 1811–1812 New Madrid, Missouri, earthquakes are inferred from liquefaction to have been no greater than ∼0.35g. PGA is inferred in an 11,380  km2 area in the Lower Mississippi Valley in Arkansas and Missouri where liquefaction was extensive in 1811–1812. PGA was inferred by applying liquefaction probability curves, which were originally developed for liquefaction hazard mapping, to detailed maps of liquefaction by Obermeier (1989). The low PGA is inferred because both a shallow (1.5 m deep) water table and a large moment magnitude (M 7.7) earthquake were assumed in the analysis. If a deep (5.0 m) water table and a small magnitude (M 6.8) earthquake are assumed, the maximum inferred PGA is 1.10g. Both inferred PGA values are based on an assumed and poorly constrained correction for sand aging. If an aging correction is not assumed, then the inferred PGA is no greater than 0.22g. A low PGA value may be explained by nonlinear site response. Soils in the study area have an averageVS30 of 220±15  m/s. A low inferred PGA is consistent with PGA values estimated from ground‐motion prediction equations that have been proposed for the New Madrid seismic zone when these estimates are corrected for nonlinear soil site effects. This application of liquefaction probability curves demonstrates their potential usefulness in paleoseismology.

  6. A Web-Based Borehole Strong-motion Data Dissemination Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steidl, J. H.; Seale, S.; Ratzesberger, H.; Civilini, F.; Vaughan, N.

    2009-12-01

    Accelerometric and pore pressure data from instrumented boreholes in southern California are producing very interesting observations from a large data set that includes 100’s of earthquake observations each month. While the majority of these are very small events, they provide the control data that represents the linear behavior of the site. In addition, the largest motions recorded to date, ~10%g, are getting to the regime where nonlinear soil behavior effects become important. In order to make these data more accessible to the seismology and earthquake engineering research community, software development of a web-based data dissemination portal has taken place under the George E. Brown Jr., Network for Earthquake Engineering (NEES) program. This development includes processing and analysis tools, and web-based data dissemination available through the NEES@UCSB website [http://nees.ucsb.edu]. Of interest to the research community are the tools developed to provide search, waveform viewing, and download capabilities for access to data acquired through the various borehole-monitoring programs at UC Santa Barbara. Researchers interested in obtaining data recorded at the various field sites can use the map-based search tool to select a particular station and instrument(s). The user is then provided another map-based interface that allows the user to select events with choice of magnitude, distance, and time period. Once the user has selected an event of interest, the ability to view the data is provided, along with some waveform parameters like peak velocity and acceleration. The records can then be downloaded in a number of common formats, including MSEED, SAC, and an ASCII text-based real-time data viewer (RDV) format. The last format allows the data to be viewed in the NEES RDV tool, a platform independent JAVA program developed to display both real-time streaming data, or playback data that has been downloaded through the web-based event search tool.

  7. Extracting the Building Response with QCN-Taiwan Sensor Data: Application to the building of Science Education Center, National Taiwan Normal University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, W.; Lee, W.; Chen, K. H.; Yen, E. H.; Lawrence, J. F.; Lin, C.; Chang, C.

    2013-12-01

    We have taken advantage of strong motion sensor data collected from the Taiwan Quake Catcher Network (QCN-Taiwan) in 2012 to extract the building response of the Science Education Center, National Taiwan Normal University. The QCN-Taiwan project is mainly aimed to construct a school seismic network with low-cost sensors for the purpose of earthquake science education in Taiwan. So far there are more than 60 volunteer QCN sites deployed island-wide in the campus of Taiwan. There were 10 MEMS sensors deployed in the basement and every story from 1 to 8 in the building. We analyze the acceleration data generated from 3 moderate to strong earthquakes (6.4≧ML≧5.2) to study the characteristic frequencies and responses of the building. Both deconvolution and H/V spectral ratio methods are used to characterize the building response. The dominant frequency in the NS direction is 1.7-1.9 Hz, which is slightly higher than recorded in the EW direction of 1.65-1.8 Hz. In addition, the amplification is much significant in levels higher than the 3rd floor in the frequency range of 1-3 Hz as shown in the H/V spectral ratio diagrams. We deconvolve all waveforms with both the motions in the ground and top floors to derive the building responses, respectively. Results show that the 1.6 Hz resonance is dominant in levels higher than the 4th floor for waveforms deconvolved with the basement data. On the other hand, both the up-going and down-going shear waves are clearly seen in the waveforms deconvoled with top floor data, which tells a shear velocity of ~190 m/s. We have proven that the strong motion data collected by the low-cost QCN MEMS sensors during large earthquakes is useful for extracting the building response.

  8. Executive Summary of Vision and Options for the Future of the US National Strong-Motion Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Committee for the Future of the US National Strong-Motion Program

    1997-01-01

    These reports are presented in response to a charge of the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (EHRP) Program Council of the U.S. Geological Survey to 'define the future of the USGS National Strong-Motion Program (NSMP)' (Appendix A). The council requested that a 'Vision Paper' and an 'Options Document' be prepared. Each of these reports is a separate document. The 'Executive Summary' of both reports is presented here under separate cover. The content of the reports and the executive summary is organized to the extent possible according to the main charges of the EHRP Program Council. Detailed evaluation of charges and questions posed by the Council with the benefit of modern GIS tools and the recent deliberations of three national workshops have yielded substantial new insight regarding the status of strong-motion measurement in the US. These reports are intended as an objective evaluation of the nation's need and capability to record the next major earthquake at locations of most significance for public safety.

  9. The Geophysical Database Management System in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, H.; Shin, T.; Chang, C.; Leu, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Geophysical Database Management System (GDMS) is an integrated and web-based open data service which has been developed by the Central Weather Bureau (CWB), Taiwan, R.O.C. since 2005. This service went online on Aug. 1, 2008. The GDMS provides six types of geophysical data acquired from the Short-period Seismographic System, Broadband Seismographic System, Free-field Strong-motion Station, Strong-motion Building Array, Global Positioning System, and Groundwater Observation System. When utilizing the GDMS website, users can download seismic event data and continuous geophysical data. At present, many researchers have accessed this public platform to obtain geophysical data. Clearly, the establishment of GDMS is a significant improvement in data sorting for interested researchers. The geophysical monitoring network in CWB. (a) The Short-period Seismographic System. (b) The Broadband Seismographic System. (c) The Free-field Strong-motion Seismographic System. (d) The Strong-motion Building Array. (e) The Global Positioning System. (f) The Groundwater Observation System.

  10. A PHYSICAL MODEL OF THE EFFECT OF A SHALLOW WEAK LAYER ON STRONG GROUND MOTION FOR STRIKE-SLIP RUPTURES

    SciTech Connect

    JAMES N. BRUNE AND ABDOLRASOOL ANOOSHEHPOOR

    1998-02-23

    We report results of foam-rubber modeling of the effect of a shallow weak layer on ground motion from strike-slip ruptures. Computer modeling of strong ground motion from strike-slip earthquakes has involved somewhat arbitrary assumptions about the nature of slip along the shallow part of the fault (e.g., fixing the slip to be zero along the upper 2 kilometers of the fault plane) in order to match certain strong motion accelerograms. Most modeling studies of earthquake strong ground motion have used what is termed kinematic dislocation modeling. In kinematic modeling the time function for slip on the fault is prescribed, and the response of the layered medium is calculated. Unfortunately, there is no guarantee that the model and the prescribed slip are physically reasonable unless the true nature of the medium and its motions are known ahead of time. There is good reason to believe that in many cases faults are weak along the upper few kilometers of the fault zone and may not be able to maintain high levels of shear strain required for high dynamic energy release during earthquakes. Physical models of faulting, as distinct from numerical or mathematical models, are guaranteed to obey static and dynamic mechanical laws. Foam-rubber modeling studies have been reported in a number of publications. The object of this paper is to present results of physical modeling using a shallow weak layer, in order to verify the physical basis for assuming a long rise time and a reduced high frequency pulse for the slip on the shallow part of faults. It appears a 2-kilometer deep, weak zone along strike-slip faults could indeed reduce the high frequency energy radiated from shallow slip, and that this effect can best be represented by superimposing a small amplitude, short rise-time pulse at the onset of a much longer rise-time slip. A weak zone was modeled by inserting weak plastic layers of a few inches in thickness into the foam rubber model. For the 15 cm weak zone the average pulse is reduced by a factor of 0.46. The factor for the 20 cm case reduction is 0.11. For the 30 cm case it is 0.045. From these results we can see that, the thicker the weak layer, the more difficult it is for a short rise-time acceleration pulse to push its way through the weak layer to the surface. This is thus an approximate justification for reducing the high frequency radiation from shallower parts of strike-slip faults if it is known that the shallow part of the fault is weak or has not stored up shear stress.

  11. Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic of motion. Contents include: (1) "First Word" (Zach Tobias); (2) "Cosmic Collisions" (Robert Irion); (3) "The Mobile Cell" (Karen E. Kalumuck); (4) "The Paths of Paths" (Steven Vogel); (5) "Fragments" (Pearl Tesler); (6) "Moving Pictures" (Amy Snyder); (7) "Plants on the Go" (Katharine

  12. Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic of motion. Contents include: (1) "First Word" (Zach Tobias); (2) "Cosmic Collisions" (Robert Irion); (3) "The Mobile Cell" (Karen E. Kalumuck); (4) "The Paths of Paths" (Steven Vogel); (5) "Fragments" (Pearl Tesler); (6) "Moving Pictures" (Amy Snyder); (7) "Plants on the Go" (Katharine…

  13. Comments on baseline correction of digital strong-motion data: Examples from the 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.; Stephens, C.D.; Joyner, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    Residual displacements for large earthquakes can sometimes be determined from recordings on modern digital instruments, but baseline offsets of unknown origin make it difficult in many cases to do so. To recover the residual displacement, we suggest tailoring a correction scheme by studying the character of the velocity obtained by integration of zeroth-order-corrected acceleration and then seeing if the residual displacements are stable when the various parameters in the particular correction scheme are varied. For many seismological and engineering purposes, however, the residual displacement are of lesser importance than ground motions at periods less than about 20 sec. These ground motions are often recoverable with simple baseline correction and low-cut filtering. In this largely empirical study, we illustrate the consequences of various correction schemes, drawing primarily from digital recordings of the 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquake. We show that with simple processing the displacement waveforms for this event are very similar for stations separated by as much as 20 km. We also show that a strong pulse on the transverse component was radiated from the Hector Mine earthquake and propagated with little distortion to distances exceeding 170 km; this pulse leads to large response spectral amplitudes around 10 sec.

  14. Seismically induced rock slope failures resulting from topographic amplification of strong ground motions: The case of Pacoima Canyon, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, S.A.; Murphy, W.; Jibson, R.W.; Petley, D.N.

    2005-01-01

    The 1994 Northridge earthquake (Mw = 6.7) triggered extensive rock slope failures in Pacoima Canyon, immediately north of Los Angeles, California. Pacoima Canyon is a narrow and steep canyon incised in gneissic and granitic rocks. Peak accelerations of nearly 1.6 g were recorded at a ridge that forms the left abutment of Pacoima Dam; peak accelerations at the bottom of the canyon were less than 0.5 g, suggesting the occurrence of topographic amplification. Topographic effects have been previously suggested to explain similarly high ground motions at the site during the 1971 (Mw = 6.7) San Fernando earthquake. Furthermore, high landslide concentrations observed in the area have been attributed to unusually strong ground motions rather than higher susceptibility to sliding compared with nearby zones. We conducted field investigations and slope stability back-analyses to confirm the impact of topographic amplification on the triggering of landslides during the 1994 earthquake. Our results suggest that the observed extensive rock sliding and falling would have not been possible under unamplified seismic conditions, which would have generated a significantly lower number of areas affected by landslides. In contrast, modelling slope stability using amplified ground shaking predicts slope failure distributions matching what occurred in 1994. This observation confirms a significant role for topographic amplification on the triggering of landslides at the site, and emphasises the need to select carefully the inputs for seismic slope stability analyses. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 3D Finite-Difference Modeling of Strong Ground Motion in the Upper Rhine Graben - 1356 Basel Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oprsal, I.; Faeh, D.; Giardini, D.

    2002-12-01

    The disastrous Basel earthquake of October 18, 1356 (I0=X, M ≈ 6.9), appeared in, today seismically modest, Basel region (Upper Rhine Graben). The lack of strong ground motion seismic data can be effectively supplied by numerical modeling. We applied the 3D finite differences (FD) to predict ground motions which can be used for microzonation and hazard assessment studies. The FD method is formulated for topography models on irregular rectangular grids. It is a 3D explicit FD formulation of the hyperbolic partial differential equation (PDE). Elastodynamic PDE is solved in the time domain. The Hooke's isotropic inhomogeneous medium contains discontinuities and a topographic free surface. The 3D elastic FD modeling is applied on a newly established P and S-wave velocities structure model. This complex structure contains main interfaces and gradients inside some layers. It is adjacent to the earth surface and includes topography (Kind, Faeh and Giardini, 2002, A 3D Reference Model for the Area of Basel, in prep.). The first attempt was done for a double-couple point source and relatively simple source function. Numerical tests are planned for several finite-extent source histories because the 1356 Basel earthquake source features have not been well determined, yet. The presumed finite-extent source is adjacent to the free surface. The results are compared to the macroseismic information of the Basel area.

  16. Installation of a digital, wireless, strong-motion network for monitoring seismic activity in a western Colorado coal mining region

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Swanson; Collin Stewart; Wendell Koontz

    2007-01-15

    A seismic monitoring network has recently been installed in the North Fork Valley coal mining region of western Colorado as part of a NIOSH mine safety technology transfer project with two longwall coal mine operators. Data recorded with this network will be used to characterize mining related and natural seismic activity in the vicinity of the mines and examine potential hazards due to ground shaking near critical structures such as impoundment dams, reservoirs, and steep slopes. Ten triaxial strong-motion accelerometers have been installed on the surface to form the core of a network that covers approximately 250 square kilometers (100 sq. miles) of rugged canyon-mesa terrain. Spread-spectrum radio networks are used to telemeter continuous streams of seismic waveform data to a central location where they are converted to IP data streams and ported to the Internet for processing, archiving, and analysis. 4 refs.

  17. Three-Dimensional Attenuation Structure of the Kumaon Himalayas, India, Based on Inversion of Strong Motion Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Parveen; Joshi, A.; Sandeep; Kumar, Ashvini

    2015-02-01

    Three-dimensional attenuation structure based on frequency-dependent shear wave quality factor, Q β ( f), has been determined for the Kumaon region of the Himalayas. An algorithm based on inversion of strong motion data developed by J oshi (Curr Sci 90:581-585, 2006a) and later modified by K umar et al. (Pure Appl Geophys, doi: 10.1007/s00024-013-0658-x, 2013) was used for determination of three-dimensional attenuation coefficients. The input of this algorithm is the spectral acceleration of the S phase of the accelerogram and the outcome is the attenuation coefficient and the source acceleration spectra. A dense network monitoring strong ground motion in the Kumaon region of the Uttarakhand Himalayas has been operating since 2006. This network recorded 287 earthquakes up to July, 2013, of which 18 were used for this work. Shear-wave quality-factors were estimated for frequencies of 1.0, 5.0, and 10.0 Hz for two rectangular blocks of surface of dimensions 85 × 55 and 90 × 30 km2 in the Kumaon region of the Himalayas. Both blocks were divided into 25 three-dimensional blocks of uniform thickness with different Q β ( f) values. The spatial distribution of frequency-dependent shear-wave quality factors in two different blocks reveal the attenuation properties of the region. The profiles of the contours of shear-wave quality factors observed were comparable with those of major tectonic units present in the region.

  18. Shaking Maps for Scenario Earthquakes by Applying the Upgraded Version of the Strong Ground Motion Prediction Method ``Recipe''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morikawa, Nobuyuki; Senna, Shigeki; Hayakawa, Yuzuru; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki

    2011-03-01

    The strong ground motion prediction method "Recipe" was published by the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion (HERP) of Japan. HERP has applied this method to prepare shaking maps for scenario earthquakes in specific active faults. Recently, Recipe was updated following its verification by simulations of strong ground motions associated with the Mw = 6.6 off-shore earthquake west of Fukuoka prefecture in 2005, which occurred in the northwest part of the Kego fault zone located in northern Kyushu, Japan. One of the prominent changes in the upgraded version of Recipe is the inclusion of a procedure to evaluate seismic intensities on the ground surface from waveforms of S-wave velocity of 400 m/s on the engineering bedrock. By applying the upgraded version of Recipe, we have made shaking-maps for earthquakes in the southeast part of the Kego fault zone, which is located directly below the mega-city of Fukuoka. We assume four source models for scenario earthquakes; the locations of the asperities and the hypocenters vary between the models. The results show that in all cases, disastrous seismic intensities can strike a wide area of Fukuoka city. Differences in the distributions of seismic intensities among the four cases can be clearly observed in the area located on the extension of the source fault. Furthermore, we construct a velocity-layer structure model on the engineering bedrock for the central area of Fukuoka city. We assess not only the distribution of seismic intensities but also waveforms on the ground by using an equivalent linear method for the central area of Fukuoka city.

  19. The design and performance of a low-cost strong-motion sensor using the ICS-3028 micromachined accelerometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    The severity of earthquake ground shaking varies tremendously over very short distances (Figures 1a-c). Within a distance of as little as 1 km from the nearest station, one knows little more than what can be obtained from an attenuation relation, given only distance from the fault rupture and the geology of the site. For example, if some station measures 0.5 g peak ground acceleration (PGA), then at a distance of 1 km from that site, under otherwise identical conditions, the shaking has one chance in three of being under 0.36 g or over 0.70 g, based on the curve shown in Figures la, c. Similarly, pseudovelocity (PSV) response spectra have a 5% chance of differing by 2? at 1 km distance (Figure 1 b). This variance can be the difference between moderate and severe damage. Hence, there are critical needs, both in emergency response and in mitigation (prediction of shaking strength, building codes, structural engineering), to sample ground shaking densely enough to identify individual neighborhoods suffering localized, strong shaking. These needs imply a spatially dense network of strong-motion seismographs, probably numbering thousands of sites in an urban region the size of the San Francisco Bay Area, California (Figure 1 c). It has not been economically feasible to field that many instruments, since existing ones cost many thousands of dollars apiece. For example, there are currently just a few dozen digital free-field instruments in the Bay Area. This paper is one step toward a solution to this conundrum. I demonstrate that a recently developed class of accelerometers, those constructed from silicon by 'micromachining' (a process similar to integrated circuit fabrication), is now capable of resolving ground motion with the necessary accuracy while greatly lowering both acquisition and maintenance costs.

  20. Effects of fault dip and slip rake angles on near-source ground motions: Why rupture directivity was minimal in the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aagaard, B.T.; Hall, J.F.; Heaton, T.H.

    2004-01-01

    We study how the fault dip and slip rake angles affect near-source ground velocities and displacements as faulting transitions from strike-slip motion on a vertical fault to thrust motion on a shallow-dipping fault. Ground motions are computed for five fault geometries with different combinations of fault dip and rake angles and common values for the fault area and the average slip. The nature of the shear-wave directivity is the key factor in determining the size and distribution of the peak velocities and displacements. Strong shear-wave directivity requires that (1) the observer is located in the direction of rupture propagation and (2) the rupture propagates parallel to the direction of the fault slip vector. We show that predominantly along-strike rupture of a thrust fault (geometry similar in the Chi-Chi earthquake) minimizes the area subjected to large-amplitude velocity pulses associated with rupture directivity, because the rupture propagates perpendicular to the slip vector; that is, the rupture propagates in the direction of a node in the shear-wave radiation pattern. In our simulations with a shallow hypocenter, the maximum peak-to-peak horizontal velocities exceed 1.5 m/sec over an area of only 200 km2 for the 30??-dipping fault (geometry similar to the Chi-Chi earthquake), whereas for the 60??- and 75??-dipping faults this velocity is exceeded over an area of 2700 km2 . These simulations indicate that the area subjected to large-amplitude long-period ground motions would be larger for events of the same size as Chi-Chi that have different styles of faulting or a deeper hypocenter.

  1. Joint inversion of teleseismic and strong motion data for the rupture process of the 2008 Wenchuan, China, earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koketsu, Kazuki; Hikima, Kazuhito; Yokota, Yusuke; Wang, Zifa

    2010-05-01

    The 2008 Wenchuan, China, earthquake, that is the largest and deadliest earthquake of the world for 2008, occurred on May 12, 2008 (local time). We first obtained teleseismic data observed at stations of FDSN from IRIS DMC, and carried out preliminary point sources analyses of them using the algorithm of Kikuchi and Kanamori (1991). The results of these analyses and aftershock distribution by USGS indicate low-angle dip slips in the southern half and high-angle strike slips in the northern half. Some surface fault investigations (e.g., Hao et al., 2009) suggest two parallel fault traces in the southern half, but only the one closer to the Sichuan basin should be related to the source fault of the earthquake, because the other cannot be of low angle. Accordingly, we defined a fault system consisting of two single-trace segments. The strike and dip angles for the southern and northern segments are respectively given to be (228, 35) and (232, 65) based on the results of the point source analyses. We next used strong motion data observed by the Institute of Engineering Mechanics of the China Earthquake Administration, and then carried out a joint finite source inversion of them and the teleseismic data mentioned above. We adopted the Green's functions of Kohketsu (1985) and Kikuchi and Kanamori (1991). We also used the inverse algorithm of Yoshida et al. (1996) with the revisions of Hikima and Koketsu (2005), and the location of the hypocenter determined by USGS (103.33E, 30.99N, depth 12 km) as a rupture initiation point. The resultant slip distribution indicates the first asperity with the largest reverse-faulting slip of about 7 m and the second asperity with a strike slip of about 3 m to be located in the southern and northern segments, respectively. The total seismic moment is 1.0 x 10**21 Nm, which corresponds to a moment magnitude (Mw) of 7.9. Significant slips appear in a 250 km long region (10,000 km**2) of the source fault, and these length and area are close to averages for an Mw 7.9 low-angle reverse-faulting earthquake. The strong motion records closest to the source fault mainly consist of the ground motions from the southern asperity and the slips around the hypocenter. They overlap each other because of the rupture velocity (Vr) nearly equal to the S-wave velocity (Vs). Heavily damaged towns such as Yingxiu and Beichuan and the zones of seismic intensity XI determined by IEM were located just above the southern asperity or at the end of the southern segment. The Vr nearly equal to Vs resulted in strong directivity effects and these caused the damaging ground motion at the end of the southern segment.

  2. Kinematic inversion of Maule 2010, Chile and Tohoku 2011, Japan earthquakes using cGPS and Strong Motion data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, S.; Madariaga, R.

    2012-04-01

    The Maule 2010 Mw 8.8 Chile and Tohoku 2011 Mw 9.0 earthquakes were recorded by continuous GPS (cGPS) and Strong Motion (SM) instruments, with good resolution at low and high frequencies, respectively. The dual behavior of low and high frequencies during large earthquakes is an important issue in seismic hazard because the highest seismic intensities are associated mainly with high frequency waves, while low frequency waves are associated with tsunami generation and the largest coseismic displacements. Previous works proposed that most of the low frequency waves were generated in the shallow part of the contact, while that high frequency waves were released in the deeper zone of the plate interface. We made kinematic inversions in different frequency bands using cGPS and SM to study the seismic ruptures and their frequency behavior. The AXITRA spectral code was used to simulate wave propagation in a flat layered medium. We used two approaches to model the source: elliptical patches and fixed rectangular mesh. Both models fit more than 90% of the variance. Our inversions for Tohoku earthquake show low frequency energy released in the shallow part of the interface and high frequency release in its deeper part, similar to findings in previous works. For Maule, on the other hand, we propose that the main high frequency source was located in the northern part of the rupture, not necessarily in the deeper contact zone that could not be broken during this earthquake. We think that high frequency is concentrated in the boundaries of the rupture caused by the arrest of the rupture propagation. The Maule rupture had a direction of propagation mainly from south to north generating a concentration of high frequency waves in small zones of the northern edge of the rupture. The Tohoku earthquake had a direction of propagation mainly from shallow depth to the deeper part of the plate interface generating more high frequency waves in small zones of the deeper edges. The Maule 2010 earthquake was recorded by several SM that previously recorded the Valparaiso 1985 Mw 8.0 earthquake. The Japanese strong motion networks have recorded several Mw ~ 8.0 earthquakes, like the Tokachi-oki 2003 earthquake. The comparison of SM of both mega-earthquakes with Mw ~ 8.0 earthquakes shows remarkable similarities: similar peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, duration of strong motion and high frequency spectrum. These similarities confirm our previous conclusions that high frequency are released by small zones where rupture is stopped by seismic barriers. Finally, the dual frequency behavior of seismic ruptures explains why at high frequencies the seismic intensities for mega-earthquakes are similar to those of Mw ~ 8.0 earthquakes and why for low frequency the seismic hazard of mega-earthquakes is higher generating larger tsunami propagation and coseismic displacements.

  3. Determination of site amplification in the Los Angeles urban area from inversion of strong-motion records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harmsen, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    The amplification of strong ground motion at sites in the greater Los Angeles, California, region is determined using the generalized-inverse method of Andrews (1986). Site-amplification estimates are determined at 281 strong-motion sites that provided horizontal-component accelerograms from the 1971 San Fernando, 1987 Whittier Narrows, 1991 Sierra Madre, or 1994 Northridge mainshocks. The estimates are determined relative to the spectral level recorded at a single reference site. In a second inversion, a source-site interaction term is added to Andrews's (1986) model to quantify the effect selected mainshock records have on site-amplification estimates. The source-site interaction term is applied to the San Fernando Valley sites' records of the Northridge earthquake and to three Los Angeles basin sites' records of the Whittier Narrows mainshock. Site-amplification spectra are averaged within two frequency bands: the intermediate-frequency band (IFB) from 0.5 to 1.5 Hz and the high-frequency band (HFB) from 2 to 6 Hz. Results are displayed on maps of surficial geology. Average spectral levels are correlated with average shear-wave velocity in the uppermost 30 m, a geotechnical parameter used by the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) to characterize site amplification. Statistically significant correlation is found in both frequency bands. Average spectral amplification levels for NEHRP class B, C, and D sites in the LA urban area are determined. These averages display an expected increase in spectral amplification with category, with a more pronounced variation in the IFB than in the HFB. Considerable overlap in the one-standard-deviation range of the C and D site levels is found in both IFB and HFB, suggesting that site-specific spectral amplification is influenced by more than just near-surface shear-wave velocity. Average site-amplification levels are compared with those obtained from Northridge aftershock records at 28 collocated sites and are found to be in reasonably good agreement in both frequency bands. Some interesting outliers, that is, sites for which the mainshock- and aftershock-determined amplifications differ significantly, are identified as sites that experienced ground failure during the Northridge mainshock.

  4. Stochastic Finite-Fault Simulations Of Strong Ground Motion For The 2005 Fukuoka Earthquake (Mw6.6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohshima, M.; Moustafa, S.; Takenaka, H.; Kawase, H.

    2006-12-01

    The Fukuoka earthquake (Mw6.6) occurred on March 20, 2005 under the sea off Fukuoka city at 10:53 a.m.(JST). The rupture propageted toward Fukuoka city from NW direction and strong ground motion with JMA seismic intensity 6 lower was observed in Fukuoka city. We apply stochastic finite-fault simulation to simulate the acceleration records of the earthquake recorded at 27 strong motion stations of K-NET and KiK-net (NIED), whose epicentral distances range from 21km to 92km. We simulate with concentrating on the frequency range between 1 to 20Hz. We use the code by Motazedian and Atkinson(2005) after a little modification. To incorporate accurate site amplification effects, we employ site amplification data extracted from other event records by Kawase and Matsuo(2004) where they got site amplification by using the spectral separation technique. The fault geometry is set based on the aftershock distribution. Simulations are done for two different source models: One is characterized by its constant stress parameter on the whole fault plane with slip weight randomly distributed, the other is characterized by an asperity where stress parameter and slip wight have higher values than the surrounding background region. We determine unknown parameters such as rupture velocity, stress parameter, and pulsing area by a grid search. Rupture velocity is kept constant on the fault plane for both models. The obtained synthetic Fourier amplitude spectra and time series show overall agreement with the observed. In particular, the fitting of the Fourier amplitude spectra are pretty well, mainly owing to Kawase and Matsuo's work, except 9 stations. In those exceptional stations where rather large discrepancy between observed and synthetic spectra is found, the observed site amplifications differ from those we used in the simulation. These facts show the importance of accurate evaluation of site amplification. We could not find out any significant difference between the time series and Fourier amplitude spectra of two models. It may support the conclusion by Beresnev and Atkinson (1998) that the results of stochastic simulation are not so severly influenced by whether we use randomly distributed slip or use that obtained by source inversion.

  5. Simulation of Strong Ground Motion Based on Conventional Empirical Green s Functions In the Michoacn State, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez Rosas, R.; Aguirre Gonzalez, J. J.; Mijares Arellano, H. H.

    2012-12-01

    In the present work, we study the state of Michoacn, one of the most important seimogenic zones in Mexico. Three kinds of sources exist in the state, producing tectonic earthquakes, volcanic earthquakes, and events due to local faults in the region. For this reason, it is of vital importance the study of source parameters in the Michoacn state. In this work in particular we applied the simulation of strong ground motions by the conventional empirical Green s functions proposed by Irikura (1986). We installed a temporary network consisting of 6 accelerograph stations across the state, at the following locations: Faro de Bruceras, Aguililla, Apatzingn, Ptzcuaro, Morelia, and Maravato. The stations form a line that is perpendicular to the coastline and has a total length of 366 km, while the distance between neighboring stations varies from 60 to 80 km. Among all the seismic events recorded at this temporary network, we select 2 events originated along the coastline of Michoacn (May the 2007), with moment magnitudes of 4.3 and 5.1 Mw. In order to calibrate the model, the earthquake of May 31, 2007 (M 5.1) was simulated using the aftershock of May 27 of that year (M 4.3) with satisfactory results, following the same method and considering the ?2 spectral model with constant stress drop. Later, we calculated six scenarios for a postulate earthquake of M 7.4. From the six scenarios the largest peak ground accelerations for each station were, 83 cm/s2 in Faro de Bruceras , 15.4 cm/s2 in Apatzingn, 23 cm/s2 in Ptzcuaro, 3.7 cm/s2 in Morelia and Maravatio con 3.0 cm/s2 . One limitation of this study is that we used relatively small-magnitude earthquakes. This was a consequence of the relatively short operation period of the temporary network, which had to be limited to 3 months. To improve these simulations it is necessary to have more information about rupture processes of the recorded earthquakes. And likewise, information of future earthquakes in the region is needed in order to improve prediction models as the one presented in this work. That information will be useful to minimize uncertainty and to better understand the parameters involved in the strong-motion simulations.

  6. Strong motion characteristics of the M w 6.6 Lushan earthquake, Sichuan, China — an insight into the spatial difference of a typical thrust fault earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinjun; Zhang, Wenbo; Xie, Lili; Zhang, Qi; Jiang, Zhijun

    2015-06-01

    Near-field strong ground motions are useful for engineering seismology studies and seismic design, but dense observation networks of damaging earthquakes are still rare. In this study, based on the strong-motion data from the M w 6.6 Lushan earthquake, the ground motion parameters in different spatial regions are systematically analyzed, and the contributions from different effects, like the hanging-wall effect, directivity effect, and attenuation effect are separated to the extent possible. Different engineering parameters from the observed ground motions are compared with the local design response spectra and a new attenuation relation of Western China. General results indicate that the high frequency ground motion, like the peak ground acceleration, on two sides of the fault plane is sensitive to the hanging-wall effect, whereas the low frequency ground motion, like the long period spectral acceleration, in the rupture propagation direction is affected by the directivity effect. Moreover, although the M w 6.6 Lushan earthquake is not a large magnitude event, the spatial difference of ground motion is still obvious; thus, for a thrust faulting earthquake, in addition to the hanging effect, the directivity effect should also be considered.

  7. A teleseismic study of the 2002 Denali fault, Alaska, earthquake and implications for rapid strong-motion estimation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ji, C.; Helmberger, D.V.; Wald, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Slip histories for the 2002 M7.9 Denali fault, Alaska, earthquake are derived rapidly from global teleseismic waveform data. In phases, three models improve matching waveform data and recovery of rupture details. In the first model (Phase I), analogous to an automated solution, a simple fault plane is fixed based on the preliminary Harvard Centroid Moment Tensor mechanism and the epicenter provided by the Preliminary Determination of Epicenters. This model is then updated (Phase II) by implementing a more realistic fault geometry inferred from Digital Elevation Model topography and further (Phase III) by using the calibrated P-wave and SH-wave arrival times derived from modeling of the nearby 2002 M6.7 Nenana Mountain earthquake. These models are used to predict the peak ground velocity and the shaking intensity field in the fault vicinity. The procedure to estimate local strong motion could be automated and used for global real-time earthquake shaking and damage assessment. ?? 2004, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  8. Stochastic strong ground motion simulations for the intermediate-depth earthquakes of the south Aegean subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kkallas, Harris; Papazachos, Konstantinos; Boore, David; Margaris, Vasilis

    2015-04-01

    We have employed the stochastic finite-fault modelling approach of Motazedian and Atkinson (2005), as described by Boore (2009), for the simulation of Fourier spectra of the Intermediate-depth earthquakes of the south Aegean subduction zone. The stochastic finite-fault method is a practical tool for simulating ground motions of future earthquakes which requires region-specific source, path and site characterizations as input model parameters. For this reason we have used data from both acceleration-sensor and broadband velocity-sensor instruments from intermediate-depth earthquakes with magnitude of M 4.5-6.7 that occurred in the south Aegean subduction zone. Source mechanisms for intermediate-depth events of north Aegean subduction zone are either collected from published information or are constrained using the main faulting types from Kkallas et al. (2013). The attenuation parameters for simulations were adopted from Skarladoudis et al. (2013) and are based on regression analysis of a response spectra database. The site amplification functions for each soil class were adopted from Klimis et al., (1999), while the kappa values were constrained from the analysis of the EGELADOS network data from Ventouzi et al., (2013). The investigation of stress-drop values was based on simulations performed with the EXSIM code for several ranges of stress drop values and by comparing the results with the available Fourier spectra of intermediate-depth earthquakes. Significant differences regarding the strong-motion duration, which is determined from Husid plots (Husid, 1969), have been identified between the for-arc and along-arc stations due to the effect of the low-velocity/low-Q mantle wedge on the seismic wave propagation. In order to estimate appropriate values for the duration of P-waves, we have automatically picked P-S durations on the available seismograms. For the S-wave durations we have used the part of the seismograms starting from the S-arrivals and ending at the 95%-energy limit of the Husid plots. After appropriate calibration of all parameters involved in the simulations we generated separate stochastic waveforms for both P- and S-waves, and produce the final synthetics by appropriate merging of the two stochastic waveforms. This work has been partly supported by the 3D-SEGMENTS project #1337 funded by EC European Social Fund and the Operational Programme "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the ARISTEIA-I call of the Greek Secretariat of Research and Technology.

  9. An estimation of sediment thickness using Sp converted phases in Kaoping, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, M.; Wu, Y.; Wei, J.; Chang, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Kaoping area is a triangle alluvial plain, located in the southwestern Taiwan. Accelerograms recorded from 1991 to 2010 by the Taiwan Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) stations are used to study the thickness variations of the Quaternary alluviums beneath Kaoping area by examining the Sp converted phase. Travel-time difference of S and Sp phases is used to estimate the sediment thickness. With highly seismicity activities and dense strong motion array, this technique has been used in Lan-Yang Plain and Chia-Nan Plain. In this study we focus on Kaoping region in order to discuss the underground structures in the study region. The major targets are to determine the location of Chaochou fault and Sp phase is converted from which formation boundary. Results show that the thickness become thicker toward the west in Kaohsiung area, and the thickness become thinner toward east. Details will be presented in this study.

  10. 3D Modeling of Strong Ground Motion in the Pacific Northwest From Large Earthquakes in the Cascadia Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, K. B.; Geisselmeyer, A.; Stephenson, W. J.; Mai, P. M.

    2007-12-01

    The Cascadia subduction zone in the Pacific Northwest, USA, generates Great (megathrust) earthquakes with a recurrence period of about 500 years, most recently the M~9 event on January 26, 1700. Since no earthquake of such magnitude has occurred in the Pacific Northwest since the deployment of strong ground motion instruments, a large uncertainty is associated with the ground motions expected from such event. To decrease this uncertainty, we have carried out the first 3D simulations of megathrust earthquakes (Mw8.5 and Mw9.0) rupturing along the Cascadia subduction zone. The simulations were carried out in a recently developed 3D velocity model of the region of dimensions 1050 km by 550 km, discretized into 2 billion 250 m3 cubes with a minimum S-wave velocity of 625 m/s. The model includes the subduction slab, accretionary sediments, local sedimentary basins, and the ocean layer. About 6 minutes of wave propagation for each scenario consumed about 24 Wall-clock hours using a parallel fourth-order finite-difference method with 1600 processors on the San Diego Supercomputer Center Datastar supercomputer. The source descriptions for the Mw9.0 scenarios were designed by mapping the inversion results for the December 26, 2004 M9+ Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake (Ji, 2006) onto a 950 km by 150 km large rupture for the Pacific Northwest model. Simulations were carried out for hypocenters located toward the northern and southern ends of the subduction zone. In addition, we simulated two M8.5 events with a source area of 275 km by 150 km located in the northern and central parts of the model area. The sources for the M8.5 events were generated using the pseudo-dynamic model by Guatteri et al. (2004). All sources used spatially-variable slip, rise time and rupture velocity. Three major metropolitan areas are located in the model region, namely Seattle (3 million+ people), Vancouver (2 million+ people), and Portland (2 million+ people), all located above sedimentary basins amplifying the waves incident from the subduction zone. The estimated peak ground velocities (PGVs) for frequencies less than 0.5 Hz vary significantly with the assumed rise time. Using a mean rise of 32 s, as estimated from source inversion of the 2004 M9+ Sumatra-Andeman event (Ji, 2006), PGVs reached 40 cm/s in Seattle and 10 cm/s in Vancouver and Portland. However, if the mean rise time is decreased to about 14 s, as suggested by the empirical regression by Somerville et al. (1999), PGVs are increased by 2-3 times at these locations. For the Mw8.5 events, PGVs would reach about 10 cm/s in Seattle, and about 5 cm/s in Vancouver and Portland. Combined with extended duration of the shaking exceeding 1 minute for the Mw8.5 events and 2 minutes for the Mw9 events, these long-period ground motions may inflict significant damage on the built environment, in particular on the highrises in downtown Seattle. However, the strongest shaking arrives 1-2 minutes after the earthquake nucleates, indicating that an early warning system in place may help mitigate loss of life in case of a megathrust earthquake in the Pacific Northwest. Additional efforts should analyse the simulated displacements on the ocean bottom for tsunami generation potential.

  11. The July 12, 1993, Hokkaido-Nansei-Oki, Japan, earthquake: Coseismic slip pattern from strong-motion and teleseismic recordings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendoza, C.; Fukuyama, E.

    1996-01-01

    We employ a finite fault inversion scheme to infer the distribution of coseismic slip for the July 12, 1993, Hokkaido-Nansei-Oki earthquake using strong ground motions recorded by the Japan Meteorological Agency within 400 km of the epicenter and vertical P waveforms recorded by the Global Digital Seismograph Network at teleseismic distances. The assumed fault geometry is based on the location of the aftershock zone and comprises two fault segments with different orientations: a northern segment striking at N20??E with a 30?? dip to the west and a southern segment with a N20??W strike. For the southern segment we use both westerly and easterly dip directions to test thrust orientations previously proposed for this portion of the fault. The variance reduction is greater using a shallow west dipping segment, suggesting that the direction of dip did not change as the rupture propagated south from the hypocenter. This indicates that the earthquake resulted from the shallow underthrusting of Hokkaido beneath the Sea of Japan. Static vertical movements predicted by the corresponding distribution of fault slip are consistent with the general pattern of surface deformation observed following the earthquake. Fault rupture in the northern segment accounts for about 60% of the total P wave seismic moment of 3.4 ?? 1020 N m and includes a large circular slip zone (4-m peak) near the earthquake hypocenter at depths between 10 and 25 km. Slip in the southern segment is also predominantly shallower than 25 km, but the maximum coseismic displacements (2.0-2.5 m) are observed at a depth of about 5 km. This significant shallow slip in the southern portion of the rupture zone may have been responsible for the large tsunami that devastated the small offshore island of Okushiri. Localized shallow faulting near the island, however, may require a steep westerly dip to reconcile the measured values of ground subsidence.

  12. Strong ground motion synthesis for a M=7.2 earthquake in the Gulf of Corinth, Greece using Empirical Green`s functions

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchings, L.; Stavrakakis, G.N.; Ioannidou, E.; Wu, F.T.; Jarpe, S.; Kasameyer, P.

    1998-01-01

    We synthesize strong ground motion at three sites from a M=7.2 earthquake along the MW-trending Gulf of Cornith seismic zone. We model rupture along an 80 segment of the zone. The entire length of the fault, if activated at one time, can lead to an event comparable to that of the 1995 Kobe earthquake. With the improved digital data now routinely available, it becomes possible to use recordings of small earthquakes as empirical Green`s functions to synthesize potential ground motion for future large earthquakes. We developed a suite of 100 rupture scenarios for the earthquake and computed the commensurate strong ground motion time histories. We synthesized strong ground motion with physics-based solutions of earthquake rupture and applied physical bounds on rupture parameters. The synthesized ground motions obtained are source and site specific. By having a suite of rupture scenarios of hazardous earthquakes for a fixed magnitude and identifying the hazard to a site from the statistical distribution of engineering parameters, we have introduced a probabilistic component to the deterministic hazard calculation. The time histories suggested for engineering design are the ones that most closely match either the average or one standard deviation absolute accelerations response values.

  13. Survey of strong motion earthquake effects on thermal power plants in California with emphasis on piping systems. Volume 1, Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1995-11-01

    Since 1982, there has been a major effort expended to evaluate the susceptibility of nuclear Power plant equipment to failure and significant damage during seismic events. This was done by making use of data on the performance of electrical and mechanical equipment in conventional power plants and other similar industrial facilities during strong motion earthquakes. This report is intended as an extension of the seismic experience data collection effort and a compilation of experience data specific to power plant piping and supports designed and constructed US power piping code requirements which have experienced strong motion earthquakes. Eight damaging (Richter Magnitude 7.7 to 5.5) California earthquakes and their effects on 8 power generating facilities in use natural gas and California were reviewed. All of these facilities were visited and evaluated. Seven fossel-fueled (dual use natural gas and oil) and one nuclear fueled plants consisting of a total of 36 individual boiler or reactor units were investigated. Peak horizontal ground accelerations that either had been recorded on site at these facilities or were considered applicable to these power plants on the basis of nearby recordings ranged between 0.20g and 0.5lg with strong motion durations which varied from 3.5 to 15 seconds. Most US nuclear power plants are designed for a safe shutdown earthquake peak ground acceleration equal to 0.20g or less with strong motion durations which vary from 10 to 15 seconds.

  14. Developing a generalized pseudo-dynamic source model of Mw 6.5-7.0 to simulate strong ground motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Seok Goo

    2016-02-01

    Accurate prediction of ground motion intensity and its variability is an important element in seismic hazard assessment. Simulation-based ground motion prediction has become popular in light of earthquake rupture and wave-propagation modelling methods and the rapid growth in computing power. Earthquake rupture modelling needs to be physics-based and also computationally efficient. It also requires the ability to quantify the variability of finite source models for future scenario events. A generalized pseudo-dynamic source model (e.g. earthquake source statistics model) for Mw 6.5-7.0 has been constructed by analysing a number of dynamic rupture models based on 1-point and 2-point statistics of kinematic source parameters. Synthetic broad-band ground motions derived from the pseudo-dynamic source model are validated against empirical ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs). The pseudo-dynamic source model produces ground motion intensities mostly compatible with the empirical GMPEs in the broad frequency range. The perturbation analysis of 1-point and 2-point statistics helps to elucidate the effect of source statistics on ground motions in a systematic way. The constructed pseudo-dynamic source model may be used to generate a feasible range of rupture scenarios for future events and to simulate expected ground motions for seismic hazard assessment.

  15. Microtremor Array Measurement Survey and Strong Ground Motion Observation Activities of The MarDiM (SATREPS) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozgur Citak, Seckin; Karagoz, Ozlem; Chimoto, Kosuke; Ozel, Oguz; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Aksahin, Bengi; Arslan, Safa; Hatayama, Ken; Ohori, Michihiro; Hori, Muneo

    2015-04-01

    Since 1939, devastating earthquakes with magnitude greater than seven ruptured North Anatolian Fault (NAF) westward, starting from 1939 Erzincan (Ms=7.9) at the eastern Turkey and including the latest 1999 Izmit-Golcuk (Ms=7.4) and the Duzce (Ms=7.2) earthquakes in the eastern Marmara region, Turkey. On the other hand, the west of the Sea of Marmara an Mw7.4 earthquake ruptured the NAF' s Ganos segment in 1912. The only un-ruptured segments of the NAF in the last century are within the Sea of Marmara, and are identified as a "seismic gap" zone that its rupture may cause a devastating earthquake. In order to unravel the seismic risks of the Marmara region a comprehensive multidisciplinary research project The MarDiM project "Earthquake And Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey", has already been started since 2003. The project is conducted in the framework of "Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS)" sponsored by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). One of the main research field of the project is "Seismic characterization and damage prediction" which aims to improve the prediction accuracy of the estimation of the damages induced by strong ground motions and tsunamis based on reliable source parameters, detailed deep and shallow velocity structure and building data. As for detailed deep and shallow velocity structure microtremor array measurement surveys were conducted in Zeytinburnu district of Istanbul and Tekirdag province at about 81 sites on October 2013 and September 2014. Also in September 2014, 11 accelerometer units were installed mainly in public buildings in both Zeytinburnu and Tekirdag area and are currently in operation. Each accelerometer unit compose of a Network Sensor (CV-374A2) by Tokyo Sokushin, post processing PC for data storage and power supply unit. The Network Sensor (CV-374A2) consist of three servo type accelerometers for two horizontal and one vertical component combined with 24 bit AD converter. In the presentation current achievements and activities of research group, preliminary results of microtremor array measurement surveys and recorded data by the newly installed stations will be introduced.

  16. Rigorous noise test and calibration check of strong-motion instrumentation at the Conrad Observatory in Austria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, R.; Costa, G.; Lenhardt, W.; Horn, N.; Suhadolc, P.

    2012-04-01

    In the framework of the European InterregIV Italy/Austria project: "HAREIA - Historical and Recent Earthquakes in Italy and Austria" the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) and Mathematic and Geosciences Department of University of Trieste (DMG) are upgrading the transfrontier seismic network of South-Eastern Alps with new 12 accelerometric stations to enhance the strong motion instrument density near the Austria/Italy border. Various public institutions of the provinces Alto Adige (Bolzano Province), Veneto (ARPAV) and Friuli Venezia Giulia (Regional Civil Defense) in Italy and in the Austrian province of Tyrol are involved in the project. The site selection was carried out to improve the present local network geometry thus meeting the needs of public Institutions in the involved regions. In Tyrol and Alto Adige some strategic buildings (hospitals and public buildings) have been selected, whereas in Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia the sites are in the free field, mainly located near villages. The instruments will be installed in an innovative box, designed by ZAMG, that provides electric and water isolation. The common choice regarding the instrument selection has been the new Kinemetrics Basalt ® accelerograph to guarantee homogeneity with the already installed instrumentation and compatibility with the software already in use at the different seismic institutions in the area. Prior to deployment the equipment was tested at the Conrad Observatory and a common set-up has been devised. The Conrad Observatory, seismically particularly quiet, permits to analyze both the sensor and the acquisition system noise. The instruments were connected to the network and the data sent in real-time to the ZAMG data center in Vienna and the DMG data center in Trieste. The data have been collected in the database and analyzed using signal processing modules PQLX and Matlab. The data analysis of the recordings at the ultra-quiet Conrad Observatory pointed out some differences in the seismic response of the 12 instruments, mainly within the tolerance stated by the factory, and an optimization of a few sensors can be carried out in order to guarantee compatible high quality measurements.

  17. Rupture process and strong ground motions of the 2007 Niigataken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake -Directivity pulses striking the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irikura, K.; Kagawa, T.; Miyakoshi, K.; Kurahashi, S.

    2007-12-01

    The Niigataken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake occurred on July 16, 2007, northwest-off Kashiwazaki in Niigata Prefecture, Japan, causing severe damages of ten people dead, about 1300 injured, about 1000 collapsed houses and major lifelines suspended. In particular, strong ground motions from the earthquake struck the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant (hereafter KKNPP), triggering a fire at an electric transformer and other problems such as leakage of water containing radioactive materials into air and the sea, although the radioactivity levels of the releases are as low as those of the radiation which normal citizens would receive from the natural environment in a year. The source mechanism of this earthquake is a reverse fault, but whether it is the NE-SW strike and NW dip or the SW-NE strike and SE dip are still controversial from the aftershock distribution and geological surveys near the source. Results of the rupture processes inverted by using the GPS and SAR data, tsunami data and teleseismic data so far did not succeed in determining which fault planes moved. Strong ground motions were recorded at about 390 stations by the K-NET of NIED including the stations very close to the source area. There was the KKNPP which is probably one of buildings and facilities closest to the source area. They have their own strong motion network with 22 three-components' accelerographs locating at ground-surface, underground, buildings and basements of reactors. The PGA attenuation-distance relationships made setting the fault plane estimated from the GPS data generally follow the empirical relations in Japan, for example, Fukushima and Tanaka (1990) and Si and Midorikawa (1999), even if either fault plane, SE dip or NW dip, is assumed. However, the strong ground motions in the site of the KKNPP had very large accelerations and velocities more than those expected from the empirical relations. The surface motions there had the PGA of more than 1200 gals and even underground motions at the basements of the reactors locating five stories below the ground had the PGA of 680 gals. We simulated ground motions using the characterized source model (Kamae and Irikura, 1998) with three asperities and the empirical Green's function method (Irikura, 1986). Then, we found that the source model should be a reverse fault with the NE-SW strike and NW dip to explain the strong motion records obtained near the source area. In particular, strong ground motions in the site of the KKNPP had three significant pulses which are generated as directivity pulses in forward direction of rupture propagation. This is the reason why the strong ground motions in the site of the KKNPP had very large accelerations and velocities. The source model is also verified comparing the observed records at the KKNPP with the numerical simulations by the discrete wavenumber method (Bouchon, 1981).

  18. Characters of Vertical Variability with Geodetic Satellites and Ground-based Continuous GPS in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C.-C.; Wu, Y.-H.; Chao, B. F.; Yu, S.-B.

    2009-04-01

    Present-day GPS network have been extensively used to monitor crustal deformation due to various geodynamic mechanisms. Situated among the Pacific Ring of Fire on the suture zone of Eurasian and Philippine Sea Plates, the island of Taiwan with a dense continuous GPS network since ~1996 and now over 300 stations sees plenty of geophysical phenomena including particularly prominent crustal motions. We assessed daily solution of each station's coordinate time series, and made the routine corrections, such as orbital, EOP, atmospheric and tidal corrections, using GAMIT/GLOBK software (with ITRF05). We then employ the Quasi-Observation Combination Analysis (QOCA) package to obtain the variability and trend after removing occasional earthquake "disruptions". Preliminary results show strong seasonal variations. We then utilize the numerical method of Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) to analysis the geophysical signals from the continuous and dense GPS vertical crustal motion observations. We wish to be able to characterize both the seasonal and non-seasonal variability in the vertical crustal motion, in terms of the EOF modes in the spatial domain over Taiwan (plus a few offshore islets) with time evolution spanning the entire period of time. Corraborating with time-variable gravity data from the geodetic satellite mission GRACE, we can further obtain vertical components of both mass-induced loading with respect to the precipitation minus evaporation and the crustal motion caused by the active tectonic processes on Taiwan.

  19. Application of bounding spectra to seismic design of piping based on the performance of above ground piping in power plants subjected to strong motion earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1995-02-01

    This report extends the potential application of Bounding Spectra evaluation procedures, developed as part of the A-46 Unresolved Safety Issue applicable to seismic verification of in-situ electrical and mechanical equipment, to in-situ safety related piping in nuclear power plants. The report presents a summary of earthquake experience data which define the behavior of typical U.S. power plant piping subject to strong motion earthquakes. The report defines those piping system caveats which would assure the seismic adequacy of the piping systems which meet those caveats and whose seismic demand are within the bounding spectra input. Based on the observed behavior of piping in strong motion earthquakes, the report describes the capabilities of the piping system to carry seismic loads as a function of the type of connection (i.e. threaded versus welded). This report also discusses in some detail the basic causes and mechanisms for earthquake damages and failures to power plant piping systems.

  20. Analysis of strong ground motions and site effects at Kantipath, Kathmandu, from 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake and its aftershocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakal, Yadab P.; Kubo, Hisahiko; Suzuki, Wataru; Kunugi, Takashi; Aoi, Shin; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-01

    Strong ground motions from the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake and its eight aftershocks recorded by a strong-motion seismograph at Kantipath (KATNP), Kathmandu, were analyzed to assess the ground-motion characteristics and site effects at this location. Remarkably large elastic pseudo-velocity responses exceeding 300 cm/s at 5 % critical damping were calculated for the horizontal components of the mainshock recordings at peak periods of 4-5 s. Conversely, the short-period ground motions of the mainshock were relatively weak despite the proximity of the site to the source fault. The horizontal components of all large-magnitude (Mw ≥ 6.3) aftershock recordings showed peak pseudo-velocity responses at periods of 3-4 s. Ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) describing the Nepal Himalaya region have not yet been developed. A comparison of the observational data with GMPEs for Japan showed that with the exception of the peak ground acceleration (PGA) of the mainshock, the observed PGAs and peak ground velocities at the KATNP site are generally well described by the GMPEs for crustal and plate interface events. A comparison of the horizontal-to-vertical ( H/ V) spectral ratios for the S-waves of the mainshock and aftershock recordings suggested that the KATNP site experienced a considerable nonlinear site response, which resulted in the reduced amplitudes of short-period ground motions. The GMPEs were found to underestimate the response values at the peak periods (approximately 4-5 s) of the large-magnitude events. The deep subsurface velocity model of the Kathmandu basin has not been well investigated. Therefore, a one-dimensional velocity model was constructed for the deep sediments beneath the recording station based on an analysis of the H/ V spectral ratios for S-wave coda from aftershock recordings, and it was revealed that the basin sediments strongly amplified the long-period components of the ground motions of the mainshock and large-magnitude aftershocks.

  1. Investigation of the Local Soil Effects at the New Strong-Motion Array (MATNet) in Hatay-K.Maras Region, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polat, O.; Çeken, U.

    2014-12-01

    The national strong-motion network in Turkey (TR-KYH) is owned and operated by the Prime Ministry, Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency Earthquake Department (AFAD). All TR-KYH stations generates real-time continuous data. A new dense strong-motion array (MATNet) has been installed near Hatay-K.Maras areas. It is at the SW corner of the East Anatolia Fault Zone (EAFZ). Primary target of MATNet is to investigate local site effects. Other important goal is to evaluate them as a part of early warning and preliminary damage estimate system. We also aim to develop a new attenuation relationship in the future from records including this new array. Most recorders are deployed as free-field and mounted in the container which is designed and produced for specific purposes. Hatay, Iskenderun and K.Maras cities have residential, industrial and dense populated areas. New stations are installed on different geological units in 1-3 km or 5-15 km intervals in city centers. Distances increase up to 30 km at the outside of settlements. The MATNet contains 55 triaxial force-balance accelerometers and capable to record explosions. A recent earthquake (Mw=4.5) occurred in the Gulf of Iskenderun on 14 February 2014, and triggered the MATNet and other regional accelerographs (80 triaxial strong-motion stations in total). Location of MATNet strong-motion stations in Hatay-K.Maras Region, Turkey, and distribution of triggered accelerometers during the recent earthquake (Mw=4.5), have been shown in the figure as a- and b-. In the present study, we analyzed to estimate the site response in the frequency range 0.5-10.0 Hz using the reference site (SSR) and HVSR techniques. The site response values thus obtained at each strong-motion sites were observed to be associated with the Quaternary formations. The maximum site amplifications at 0.5-1.8 Hz are detected as 10 around Hatay city, 6-8 (for 0.8-2.3 Hz) near K.Maras and Iskenderun areas. It is apparent that in both 0.5-1.8 and 0.8-2.3 Hz frequency bands, presence of geological contacts and sediment thicknesses controls the site responses in the study areas. It is also inferred that larger site response (~10) value in the 0.5 Hz frequency band could be indicating the probable presence of soil class C (360

  2. Distributed system for strong motion data retrieval and archiving : metadata, databases and data exchange within the NA5 framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pequegnat, C.; Gueguen, P.; Jacquot, R.

    2009-04-01

    The goal of the NERIES NA5 activity (http://www.neries-eu.org, Improving Accelerometric Data Access) is the development of common access to equally formatted event based accelerometric data and to the corresponding sheet of strong motion parameters. The core of the NA5 is made of 5 European institutes and the final protocol should permit other European institutes to integrate the NA5 portal. More precisely, the aim of the NA5 distributed data system is (1) to make available the data in a in specific format for the engineering community (i.e., ASCII) and in standard format for the seismological community (i.e. full SEED, SAC) and (2) to retrieve data at an unique portal on seismological and - accelerometric criteria, using relations between seismic sources and recordings and using specific parameters for the engineering community, i.e. site conditions and parameter thresholds (e.g., PGA, Ia, Duration, Sa(T), Sv(T)…). Parametric data as well as the procedures to compute them have been defined, implemented and make avalaible for all the NA5 partners. The final product will be a system based on a distributed '3 tiers' architecture, the three main nodes of which are : (1) the primary data servers of NA5 data providers, who make available waveforms (in ascii format) and the associated parameters and events-records tables, via ftp or http protocols (2) the NA5 portal, which supports metadata databases (events and stations metadata) and the associated user interfaces and webservices (3) the NA5 dataserver, the main function of which is the evaluation of the end-users requests, involving data retrieval, data conversion (sac, ascii and miniseed) and metadata formatting (sac, ascii and seed headers). Both NA5 portal and NA5 dataserver are presently under development, the former at EMSC, the latter at LGIT. Our presentation will point out the main features and resources of the NA5 dataserver : - a database of the instrument response files for the accelerometric channels (coefficient, poles and zeros) called PZ database has been set up, as well as some database maintenance tools. The PZ database is hierarchically structured into three directories : sensor, ana_filter and digitizer. - user requests are materialized by a specific xml structure generated at the portal and pushed to the dataserver via QWID/EIDS (Earthquake Information Distribution System). A NA5 xml request contains all the information (metadata) needed for its evaluation : requested data files matching the user search criteria are described by their URL, their network, site of installation and acquisition channel, the events and hypocentral informations they are linked to, as well as values of the parametric data. - the NA5 server notifies a xml parser, which checks and compiles the structure and store the information into an internal permanent relational metadata database. This database and the PZ directory are linked together by the way of a dedicated table, which contains directories and files names. Thus, the NA5 dataserver database will progressively be filled up by values carried on by NA5 requests. - once a request has been loaded into the database, the NA5 archiver process will then fork into four different sub-processes, each of them calling the internal database to get value(s) for its parameters : (a) get the ascii native waveforms files by downloading their URL if needed, i-e if the data are not already stored in the local cache, convert them into sac binary and miniseed (if needed, ie if miniseed files have not already been generated for this native waveforms files). (b) build the linked seed dataless, if the PZ files for these channels are available. (c) build the headers files (such headers will contain some more specific information about event, site condition and soil classification, max accelaration, aso. ) (d) pack the parametric data before archiving and compressing the result. The archiver process will end by filling up and re-writing the xml request file with updated information (archive URL for download, waveforms found and packed, size, etc.), before pushing it to the NA5 portal, for user notification.

  3. Finite Source Parameters of 22 October 1999 Chiayi, Taiwan, Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, K.; Chi, W.; Lai, Y.; Gung, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Inversion of seismic waveforms for the finite fault slip distribution is important for reconstruction of faulting processes include both the properties of the fault and transient stress field. It is also significant to image seismogenic structures in urban areas. Here we analyse the finite-source process and test for the causative fault plane of 22 October 1999 Mw 5.6 earthquake using the accelerograms recorded by the Taiwan Strong-Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) stations. The point source parameters for the mainshock and aftershocks were first obtained by complete waveform moment tensor inversions, and the solutions depict a complex strike-slip fault system. Then we use the seismograms generated by the aftershocks as empirical Green's functions (EGFs) and retrieve the apparent source time functions (ASTFs) of near-field stations using projected Landweber deconvolution method. We also derive the durations of the ASTF as a function of azimuth through the particular wave type to estimate rupture propagation. The preliminary results show that the mainshock ruptured on a NE-SW trending plane. To further characterize the faulting, we will use a finite fault inversion code developed by Dreger and Kaverina (2000) for the kinematic history of the rupture. The procedure developed from this study may be applied to other strong motion events to better understand their kinematic source parameters in Taiwan.

  4. Shear-wave velocity characterization of the USGS Hawaiian strong-motion network on the Island of Hawaii and development of an NEHRP site-class map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, I.G.; Stokoe, K.H., II; Cox, B.R.; Yuan, J.; Knudsen, K.-L.; Terra, F.; Okubo, P.; Lin, Y.-C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the level and nature of ground shaking in Hawaii for the purposes of earthquake hazard mitigation and seismic design, empirical groundmotion prediction models are desired. To develop such empirical relationships, knowledge of the subsurface site conditions beneath strong-motion stations is critical. Thus, as a first step to develop ground-motion prediction models for Hawaii, spectralanalysis-of-surface-waves (SASW) profiling was performed at the 22 free-field U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) strong-motion sites on the Big Island to obtain shear-wave velocity (VS) data. Nineteen of these stations recorded the 2006 Kiholo Bay moment magnitude (M) 6.7 earthquake, and 17 stations recorded the triggered M 6.0 Mahukona earthquake. VS profiling was performed to reach depths of more than 100 ft. Most of the USGS stations are situated on sites underlain by basalt, based on surficial geologic maps. However, the sites have varying degrees of weathering and soil development. The remaining strong-motion stations are located on alluvium or volcanic ash. VS30 (average VS in the top 30 m) values for the stations on basalt ranged from 906 to 1908 ft/s [National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site classes C and D], because most sites were covered with soil of variable thickness. Based on these data, an NEHRP site-class map was developed for the Big Island. These new VS data will be a significant input into an update of the USGS statewide hazard maps and to the operation of ShakeMap on the island of Hawaii.

  5. English speakers attend more strongly than Spanish speakers to manner of motion when classifying novel objects and events.

    PubMed

    Kersten, Alan W; Meissner, Christian A; Lechuga, Julia; Schwartz, Bennett L; Albrechtsen, Justin S; Iglesias, Adam

    2010-11-01

    Three experiments provide evidence that the conceptualization of moving objects and events is influenced by one's native language, consistent with linguistic relativity theory. Monolingual English speakers and bilingual Spanish/English speakers tested in an English-speaking context performed better than monolingual Spanish speakers and bilingual Spanish/English speakers tested in a Spanish-speaking context at sorting novel, animated objects and events into categories on the basis of manner of motion, an attribute that is prominently marked in English but not in Spanish. In contrast, English and Spanish speakers performed similarly at classifying on the basis of path, an attribute that is prominently marked in both languages. Similar results were obtained regardless of whether categories were labeled by novel words or numbered, suggesting that an English-speaking tendency to focus on manner of motion is a general phenomenon and not limited to word learning. Effects of age of acquisition of English were also observed on the performance of bilinguals, with early bilinguals performing similarly in the 2 language contexts and later bilinguals showing greater contextual variation. PMID:20853990

  6. A Study of the Seismotomography in Tatun Volcano Region, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.; Wu, Y.; Chang, C.; Lin, C.; Huang, B.

    2008-12-01

    Tatun volcano region is close to Taipei city, so it is very important to realize the volcanic activity and seismotectonic structures of this region. P arrivals, S-P times and polarities of the first motions from two local temporary seismic networks located in Taipei and Tatun region, Central Weather Bureau Seismic Network (CWBSN) and Taiwan Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) are used to determine Vp and Vp/Vs structures as well as focal mechanisms. By the combination of data from those networks, the coverage of ray paths is improved. According to our results, we found most of micro-earthquakes were relocated above the region with high Vp and high Vp/Vs beneath Tatun volcano region and focal mechanisms of those earthquakes are strike-slip type. Based on the relocated hypocenters distribution, we suggest that those micro-earthquakes might correlate to the Chinshan fault.

  7. Comparing Action Gestures and Classifier Verbs of Motion: Evidence from Australian Sign Language, Taiwan Sign Language, and Nonsigners' Gestures without Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schembri, Adam; Jones, Caroline; Burnham, Denis

    2005-01-01

    Recent research into signed languages indicates that signs may share some properties with gesture, especially in the use of space in classifier constructions. A prediction of this proposal is that there will be similarities in the representation of motion events by sign-naive gesturers and by native signers of unrelated signed languages. This…

  8. Comparing Action Gestures and Classifier Verbs of Motion: Evidence from Australian Sign Language, Taiwan Sign Language, and Nonsigners' Gestures without Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schembri, Adam; Jones, Caroline; Burnham, Denis

    2005-01-01

    Recent research into signed languages indicates that signs may share some properties with gesture, especially in the use of space in classifier constructions. A prediction of this proposal is that there will be similarities in the representation of motion events by sign-naive gesturers and by native signers of unrelated signed languages. This

  9. Calculating the Probability of Strong Ground Motions Using 3D Seismic Waveform Modeling - SCEC CyberShake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, N.; Callaghan, S.; Graves, R.; Mehta, G.; Zhao, L.; Deelman, E.; Jordan, T. H.; Kesselman, C.; Okaya, D.; Cui, Y.; Field, E.; Gupta, V.; Vahi, K.; Maechling, P. J.

    2006-12-01

    Researchers from the SCEC Community Modeling Environment (SCEC/CME) project are utilizing the CyberShake computational platform and a distributed high performance computing environment that includes USC High Performance Computer Center and the NSF TeraGrid facilities to calculate physics-based probabilistic seismic hazard curves for several sites in the Southern California area. Traditionally, probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is conducted using intensity measure relationships based on empirical attenuation relationships. However, a more physics-based approach using waveform modeling could lead to significant improvements in seismic hazard analysis. Members of the SCEC/CME Project have integrated leading-edge PSHA software tools, SCEC-developed geophysical models, validated anelastic wave modeling software, and state-of-the-art computational technologies on the TeraGrid to calculate probabilistic seismic hazard curves using 3D waveform-based modeling. The CyberShake calculations for a single probablistic seismic hazard curve require tens of thousands of CPU hours and multiple terabytes of disk storage. The CyberShake workflows are run on high performance computing systems including multiple TeraGrid sites (currently SDSC and NCSA), and the USC Center for High Performance Computing and Communications. To manage the extensive job scheduling and data requirements, CyberShake utilizes a grid-based scientific workflow system based on the Virtual Data System (VDS), the Pegasus meta-scheduler system, and the Globus toolkit. Probabilistic seismic hazard curves for spectral acceleration at 3.0 seconds have been produced for eleven sites in the Southern California region, including rock and basin sites. At low ground motion levels, there is little difference between the CyberShake and attenuation relationship curves. At higher ground motion (lower probability) levels, the curves are similar for some sites (downtown LA, I-5/SR-14 interchange) but different for others (Whittier Narrows, Santa Ana). We suggest this is due to rupture directivity and basin effects leading to increased ground motion in the CyberShake simulations.

  10. Strong-motion, site-effects and hazard issues in rebuilding Turkey: In light of the 17 August, 1999 earthquake and its aftershocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.; Toprak, S.; Holzer, T.

    2000-01-01

    The August 17, 1999 Izmit (Turkey) earthquake (Mw=7.4) will be remembered as one of the largest earthquakes of recent times that affected a large urban environment (U.S. Geological Survey, 1999). The shaking that caused the widespread damage and destruction was recorded only by a handful of accelerographs in the earthquake area operated by different networks. The characteristics of these records show that the recorded peak accelerations, even those from near field stations, are smaller than expected. On the other hand, smaller magnitude aftershocks yielded larger peak accelerations. This is attributed to the sparse networks, which possibly missed recording of larger motions during the main shock. As rebuilding of Turkey starts, strong-motion networks that yield essential data must be enlarged. In addition, attention must be paid to new developments elsewhere, such as earthquake zoning maps, earthquake hazard maps, liquefaction potentials and susceptibility. This paper aims to discuss these issues. Copyright??2000 IAHS.

  11. Kinematic Source Rupture Process of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake, a MW6.9 thrust earthquake in northeast Japan, using Strong Motion Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, K.; Iwata, T.

    2008-12-01

    The 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake (MJMA7.2) on June 14, 2008, is a thrust type inland crustal earthquake, which occurred in northeastern Honshu, Japan. In order to see strong motion generation process of this event, the source rupture process is estimated by the kinematic waveform inversion using strong motion data. Strong motion data of the K-NET and KiK-net stations and Aratozawa Dam are used. These stations are located 3-94 km from the epicenter. Original acceleration time histories are integrated into velocity and band- pass filtered between 0.05 and 1 Hz. For obtaining the detailed source rupture process, appropriate velocity structure model for Green's functions should be used. We estimated one dimensional velocity structure model for each strong motion station by waveform modeling of aftershock records. The elastic wave velocity, density, and Q-values for four sedimentary layers are assumed following previous studies. The thickness of each sedimentary layer depends on the station, which is estimated to fit the observed aftershock's waveforms by the optimization using the genetic algorithm. A uniform layered structure model is assumed for crust and upper mantle below the seismic bedrock. We succeeded to get a reasonable velocity structure model for each station to give a good fit of the main S-wave part in the observation of aftershocks. The source rupture process of the mainshock is estimated by the linear kinematic waveform inversion using multiple time windows (Hartzell and Heaton, 1983). A fault plane model is assumed following the moment tensor solution by F-net, NIED. The strike and dip angle is 209° and 51°, respectively. The rupture starting point is fixed at the hypocenter located by the JMA. The obtained source model shows a large slip area in the shallow portion of the fault plane approximately 6 km southwest of the hypocenter. The rupture of the asperity finishes within about 9 s. This large slip area corresponds to the area with surface break reported by the field survey group (e.g., AIST/GSJ, 2008), which supports the existence of the large slip close to the ground surface. But, most of surface offset found by the field survey are less than 0.5 m whereas the slip amount of the shallow asperity of the source inversion result is 3-4 m. In north of the hypocenter, the estimated slip amount is small. Slip direction is almost pure dip-slip for the entire fault (Northwest side goes up against southeast side). Total seismic moment is 2.6× 1019 Nm (MW 6.9). Acknowledgments: Strong motion data of K-NET and KiK-net operated by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention are used. Strong motion data of Aratozawa Dam obtained by Miyagi prefecture government is also used in the study.

  12. Rupture history of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan, China, earthquake: Evaluation of separate and joint inversions of geodetic, teleseismic, and strong-motion data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, Stephen; Mendoza, Carlos; Ramírez-Guzmán, Leonardo; Zeng, Yuesha; Mooney, Walter

    2013-01-01

    An extensive data set of teleseismic and strong-motion waveforms and geodetic offsets is used to study the rupture history of the 2008 Wenchuan, China, earthquake. A linear multiple-time-window approach is used to parameterize the rupture. Because of the complexity of the Wenchuan faulting, three separate planes are used to represent the rupturing surfaces. This earthquake clearly demonstrates the strengths and limitations of geodetic, teleseismic, and strong-motion data sets. Geodetic data (static offsets) are valuable for determining the distribution of shallower slip but are insensitive to deeper faulting and reveal nothing about the timing of slip. Teleseismic data in the distance range 30°–90° generally involve no modeling difficulties because of simple ray paths and can distinguish shallow from deep slip. Teleseismic data, however, cannot distinguish between different slip scenarios when multiple fault planes are involved because steep takeoff angles lead to ambiguity in timing. Local strong-motion data, on the other hand, are ideal for determining the direction of rupture from directivity but can easily be over modeled with inaccurate Green’s functions, leading to misinterpretation of the slip distribution. We show that all three data sets are required to give an accurate description of the Wenchuan rupture. The moment is estimated to be approximately 1.0 × 1021 N · m with the slip characterized by multiple large patches with slips up to 10 m. Rupture initiates on the southern end of the Pengguan fault and proceeds unilaterally to the northeast. Upon reaching the cross-cutting Xiaoyudong fault, rupture of the adjacent Beichuan fault starts at this juncture and proceeds bilaterally to the northeast and southwest.

  13. The SCEC Broadband Platform: A Collaborative Open-Source Software Package for Strong Ground Motion Simulation and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, F.; Maechling, P. J.; Goulet, C. A.; Somerville, P.; Jordan, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Broadband Platform is a collaborative software development project involving geoscientists, earthquake engineers, graduate students, and the SCEC Community Modeling Environment. The SCEC Broadband Platform (BBP) is open-source scientific software that can generate broadband (0-100Hz) ground motions for earthquakes, integrating complex scientific modules that implement rupture generation, low and high-frequency seismogram synthesis, non-linear site effects calculation, and visualization into a software system that supports easy on-demand computation of seismograms. The Broadband Platform operates in two primary modes: validation simulations and scenario simulations. In validation mode, the Platform runs earthquake rupture and wave propagation modeling software to calculate seismograms for a well-observed historical earthquake. Then, the BBP calculates a number of goodness of fit measurements that quantify how well the model-based broadband seismograms match the observed seismograms for a certain event. Based on these results, the Platform can be used to tune and validate different numerical modeling techniques. In scenario mode, the Broadband Platform can run simulations for hypothetical (scenario) earthquakes. In this mode, users input an earthquake description, a list of station names and locations, and a 1D velocity model for their region of interest, and the Broadband Platform software then calculates ground motions for the specified stations. Working in close collaboration with scientists and research engineers, the SCEC software development group continues to add new capabilities to the Broadband Platform and to release new versions as open-source scientific software distributions that can be compiled and run on many Linux computer systems. Our latest release includes 5 simulation methods, 7 simulation regions covering California, Japan, and Eastern North America, the ability to compare simulation results against GMPEs, and several new data products, such as map and distance-based goodness of fit plots. As the number and complexity of scenarios simulated using the Broadband Platform increases, we have added batching utilities to substantially improve support for running large-scale simulations on computing clusters.

  14. Characterized Fault Model of Scenario Earthquake Caused by the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line Fault Zone in Central Japan and Strong Ground Motion Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Dan, K.; Irikura, K.; Furumura, M.

    2001-12-01

    Based on the existing ideas on characterizing complex fault rupture process, we constructed four different characterized fault models for predicting strong motions from the most likely scenario earthquake along the active fault zone of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line in central Japan. The Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion in Japanese government (2001) estimated that the earthquake (8 +/- 0.5) has the total fault length of 112 km with four segments. We assumed that the characterized fault model consisted of two regions: asperity and background (Somerville et al., 1999; Irikura, 2000; Dan et al., 2000). The main differences in the four fault models were 1) how to determine a seismic moment Mo from a fault rupture area S, 2) number of asperities N, 3) how to determine a stress parameter ? , and 4) fmax. We calculated broadband strong motions at three stations near the fault by a hybrid method of the semi-empirical and theoretical approaches. A comparison between the results from the hybrid method and those from empirical attenuation relations showed that the hybrid method using the characterized fault model could evaluate near-fault rupture directivity effects more reliably than the empirical attenuation relations. We also discussed the characterized fault models and the strong motion characteristics. The Mo extrapolated from the empirical Mo-S relation by Somerville et al. (1999) was a half of that determined from the mean value of the Wells and Coppersmith (1994) data. The latter Mo was consistent with that for the 1891 Nobi, Japan, earthquake whose fault length was almost the same as the length of the target earthquake. In addition, the fault model using the latter Mo produced a slip amount of about 6 m on the largest asperity, which was consistent with the displacement of 6 m to 9 m per event obtained from a trench survey. High-frequency strong motions were greatly influenced by the ? for the asperities (188 bars, 246 bars, 108 bars, and 134 bars) and fmax (13.5 Hz and 6 Hz). Irikura (2000) determined the ? based on a circular crack theory on the condition that the combined area of asperities was constant. So, in estimating ? , the evaluation of N became important. Dan et al. (2000) determined the ? based on the empirical relation between Mo and high-frequency level A of acceleration source spectrum. In order to interpret A physically, a further investigation of the relationship between A and N is needed. A more investigation of fmax, especially for M8 inland earthquakes, is also needed. Acknowledgment : During the course of this study, we were indebted to Drs. Mori, Hirata, and Komaru, Earthquake Research Division, Research and Development Bureau, the Ministry of Education, Scince and Technology, Japan.

  15. Strong ground motion generated by controlled blasting experiments and mining induced seismic events recorded underground at deep level mines in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milev, A.; Selllers, E.; Skorpen, L.; Scheepers, L.; Murphy, S.; Spottiswoode, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    A number of simulated rockbursts were conducted underground at deep level gold mines in South Africa in order to estimate the rock mass response when subjected to strong ground motion. The rockbursts were simulated by means of large blasts detonated in solid rock close to the sidewall of a tunnel. The simulated rockbursts involved the design of the seismic source, seismic observations in the near and far field, high-speed video filming, a study of rock mass conditions such as fractures, joints, rock strength etc. Knowledge of the site conditions before and after the simulated rockbursts was also gained. The numerical models used in the design of the simulated rockbursts were calibrated by small blasts taking place at each experimental site. A dense array of shock type accelerometers was installed along the blasting wall to monitor the attenuation of the strong ground motion as a function of the distance from the source. The attenuation of peak particle velocities, was found to be proportional to R^-1.7. Special investigations were carried out to evaluate the mechanism and the magnitude of damage, as well as the support behaviour under excessive dynamic loading. The strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events was studied, as part of this work, not only to characterize the rock mass response, but also to estimate the site effect on the surface of the underground excavations. A stand-alone instrument especially designed for recording strong ground motions was used to create a large database of peak particle velocities measured on stope hangingwalls. A total number of 58 sites located in stopes where the Carbon Leader Reef, Ventersdorp Contact Reef, Vaal Reef and Basal Reef are mined, were monitored. The peak particle velocities were measured at the surface of the excavations to identify the effect of the free surface and the fractures surrounding the underground mining. Based on these measurements the generally accepted velocity criterion of 3 m/s was found to be an adequate value to meet the requirements of support systems during a rockburst. The data recorded on the skin of the excavations were compared to the data recorded by the mine seismic networks to determine the site response, defined as the ratio of the measured peak ground velocity to the peak ground velocity inferred from the mine seismic data. The site response measured at all mines studied was found to be 9 ± 3 times larger on average.

  16. Application of an iterative least-squares waveform inversion of strong-motion and teleseismic records to the 1978 Tabas, Iran, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, S.; Mendoza, C.

    1991-01-01

    An iterative least-squares technique is used to simultaneously invert the strong-motion records and teleseismic P waveforms for the 1978 Tabas, Iran, earthquake to deduce the rupture history. The effects of using different data sets and different parametrizations of the problem (linear versus nonlinear) are considered. A consensus of all the inversion runs indicates a complex, multiple source for the Tabas earthquake, with four main source regions over a fault length of 90 km and an average rupture velocity of 2.5 km/sec. -from Authors

  17. Estimation of Strong Ground Motion from a Great Earthquake Mw 8.5 in Central Seismic Gap Region, Himalaya (India) Using Empirical Green's Function Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Babita; Chopra, Sumer; Sutar, Anup Kumar; Bansal, B. K.

    2013-12-01

    In the present study ground motions for a Mw 8.5 scenario earthquake are estimated at 13 sites in Kumaun-Garhwal region using the empirical Green's function technique. The recordings of 1991 Uttarkashi earthquake of Mw 6.8 at these sites are used as an element earthquake. A heterogeneous source model consisting of two asperities is considered for simulating the ground motions. The entire central seismic gap (CSG) can expect acceleration in excess of 100 cm/s2 with NW portion in excess of 400 cm/s2 and SE between 100 and 200 cm/s2. The central portion can expect peak ground acceleration (PGA) between 200 and 400 cm/s2. It has been observed from simulation of strong ground motion that sites located near the rupture initiation point can expect accelerations in excess of 1 g. In the present analysis, Bhatwari and Uttarkashi can expect ground accelerations in excess of 1 g. The estimates of the PGA are compared with earlier studies in the same region using different methodologies and it was found that the results are comparable. This has put constrains on the expected PGAs in this region. The obtained PGA values can be used in identifying the vulnerable areas in the central Himalaya, thereby facilitating the planning, design and construction of new structures and strengthening of the existing structures in the region.

  18. The 1999 Izmit, Turkey, earthquake: Non-planar fault structure, dynamic rupture process and strong ground motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aochi, H.; Madariaga, R.

    2001-12-01

    The fault trace of the 1999 Izmit, Turkey, earthquake is incomplete, because it is buried or covered by a lake and a gulf. We modeled dynamic rupture propagation along various non-planar fault models, which are inferred by geological observation and geodesic analyses, using 3D-BIEM (boundary integral equation method). Geological observation of surface fault traces implies complex non-planar fault structures, while InSAR and SPOT images give a smoother fault structure consisting of a few segments. We study three points which may show geological irregularities; 1) 25 km east of the hypocenter under Sapanca lake, between the Izmit-Sapanca lake (IS) and the Sapanca-Akyazl (SA) segments, 2) 60 km east at the Akyazl basin, between the SA and the Karadere (K) segments, and 3) 10 km west under the sea between the Karamursel-Golcuk (KG) and IS segments. In numerical simulation, we focus on rupture directivity, slip distribution and rupture velocity. As a preliminary situation, we assume a uniform regional stress favorable on the primary segment (IS) and a simple depth-dependent slip-weakening law. We discuss the relation between the irregularity of fault orientation and rupture process. From numerical simulations, each fault discontinuity is treated as 1) a small bend of a few degrees, 2) a bend of about 25o which causes differences in initial stress field along the SA and K segments enough for rupture to stop, and 3) a jog which may disturb westbound rupture propagation. We conclude that fault geometry and orientation constrain the rupture process in the 1999 Izmit earthquake, and that they may cause difference in ground motion eastward and westward of the hypocenter.

  19. Respiratory motion compensation for simultaneous PET/MR based on a 3D-2D registration of strongly undersampled radial MR data: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rank, Christopher M.; Heußer, Thorsten; Flach, Barbara; Brehm, Marcus; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2015-03-01

    We propose a new method for PET/MR respiratory motion compensation, which is based on a 3D-2D registration of strongly undersampled MR data and a) runs in parallel with the PET acquisition, b) can be interlaced with clinical MR sequences, and c) requires less than one minute of the total MR acquisition time per bed position. In our simulation study, we applied a 3D encoded radial stack-of-stars sampling scheme with 160 radial spokes per slice and an acquisition time of 38 s. Gated 4D MR images were reconstructed using a 4D iterative reconstruction algorithm. Based on these images, motion vector fields were estimated using our newly-developed 3D-2D registration framework. A 4D PET volume of a patient with eight hot lesions in the lungs and upper abdomen was simulated and MoCo 4D PET images were reconstructed based on the motion vector fields derived from MR. For evaluation, average SUVmean values of the artificial lesions were determined for a 3D, a gated 4D, a MoCo 4D and a reference (with ten-fold measurement time) gated 4D reconstruction. Compared to the reference, 3D reconstructions yielded an underestimation of SUVmean values due to motion blurring. In contrast, gated 4D reconstructions showed the highest variation of SUVmean due to low statistics. MoCo 4D reconstructions were only slightly affected by these two sources of uncertainty resulting in a significant visual and quantitative improvement in terms of SUVmean values. Whereas temporal resolution was comparable to the gated 4D images, signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio were close to the 3D reconstructions.

  20. An initial model of seismic microzonation of Sikkim Himalaya through thematic mapping and GIS integration of geological and strong motion features^*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Sankar Kumar

    2005-05-01

    Seismic microzonation and hazard mapping was undertaken in the Sikkim Himalaya with local site conditions and strong ground motion attributes incorporated into a geographic information system. A strong motion network in Sikkim consisting of 9 digital accelerographs recorded more than 100 events during 1998-2002, of which 72 events are selected with signal-to-noise ratios ?3 for the estimation of site response (SR), peak ground acceleration (PGA) and resonance frequency (RF) at all stations. With these data and inputs from IRS-1C LISS III digital data, topo-sheets, geographical boundary of the State of Sikkim, surface geological maps, soil taxonomy map at 1:50,000 scale and seismic refraction profiles, the seismological and geological thematic maps, namely, SR, PGA, RF, lithology, soil class, slope, drainage, and landslide layers were generated. The geological and seismological layers are assigned normalized weights and feature ranks following a pair-wise comparison hierarchical approach and later integrated through GIS to create the microzonation map of the region. The overall SR, PGA and resonance frequency show an increasing trend in a NW-SE direction, peaking at Singtam in the lesser Himalaya. Six major hazard zones are demarcated with different percentages of probability index values in the geological, seismological hazard and microzonation maps. The maximum risk is attached to a probability greater than 78% in the Singtam and adjoining area. These maps offer generally better spatial representation of seismic hazards including site-specific analysis as a first level microzonation attempt.

  1. Taiwan: Background Notes Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reams, Joanne Reppert

    Concise background information on Taiwan is provided. The publication begins with a profile of Taiwan, discussing the people, geography, political establishment, and economy. A map of the country is provided. The bulk of the publication then provides more detailed information on Taiwan's people, geography, history, administration, political…

  2. English Teaching in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katchen, Johanna

    2002-01-01

    Examines English teaching in Taiwan in primary and secondary schools, cram schools, and higher education. Discusses English teachers in Taiwan and teacher training, teacher organizations, teaching opportunities for foreigners, and future challenges for English language teaching in Taiwan. (Author/VWL)

  3. Basement Imaging Using Sp Converted Phases in Chia-Nan, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, J.; Wu, Y.; Chuang, M.; Chang, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Chia-Nan Plain is a long and narrow alluvial plain, located in the west of Central Mountain Range and the east of Taiwan Strait. We used accelerograms recorded from 1992 to 2010 March by the Taiwan Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) stations to study the thickness variations of the Quaternary alluviums beneath the Chia-Nan Plain, the biggest alluvial plain in Taiwan, by examining a Sp converted phase. The thicknesses are estimated by the travel-time difference of S and Sp waves. This technique of using P-S converted phases had a quite success in the previous study of Lan-Yang Plain. By the high seismic activity and dense of TSMIP stations in this study area, we used this technique to depict the variations of Quaternary sediments thicknesses in Chia-Nan Plain. In general, the thicknesses become thicker toward west. Finally, this approach helps us to discuss the shape of Peikang Basement High in the north of Chia-Nan Plain, which plays an important role in the tectonic changing of Taiwan western foothills.

  4. Rupture process of the Ms 6.6 Superstition Hills, California, earthquake determined from strong-motion recordings: application of tomographic source inversion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, A.; Wennerberg, L.

    1989-01-01

    We analyze strong-motion recordings of the Ms6.6 Superstition Hills earthquake to determine the timing, location, spatial extent, and rupture velocity of the subevents that produced the bulk of the high-frequency (0.5 to 4Hz) seismic energy radiated by this shock. The earthquake can be characterized by three principal subevents, the largest ones occurring about 3 and 10sec after initiation of rupture. Timing relationships between pulses on the seismograms indicate that the three subevents are located within 8km of each other along the northern portion of the Superstition Hills fault. The two largest subevents display different directivity effects. We apply a tomographic source inversion to the integrated accelerograms to determine the slip acceleration on the fault as a function of time and distance, based on a one-dimensional fault model. -from Authors

  5. Surface-wave site characterization at 53 strong-motion recording stations affected by the Parkfield, California, M6.0 earthquake of 28 September 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Eric M.; Kayen, Robert E.; Carkin, Brad; Tanaka, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    We present one-dimensional shear-wave velocity (VS) profiles at 52 strong-motion sites that recorded the 28 September 2004 Magnitude 6.0 Parkfield, Calif., earthquake. We estimate the VS profiles with the Spectral Analysis of Surface-Waves (SASW) method. The SASW method is a noninvasive method that indirectly estimates the VS at depth from variations in the Rayleigh wave phase velocity at the surface. To address the uncertainty associated with these measurements, we compare the SASW profiles to surface-source downhole-receiver (SSDR) profiles at four sites. Three of the four SSDR sites are in close agreement with the adjacent SASW site, while the SASW profile is considerably slower than the SSDR profile at one site.

  6. K-NET and KiK-net strong-motion data of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (M9.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunugi, T.; Suzuki, W.; Aoi, S.; Nakamura, H.; Pulido Hernandez, N. E.; Morikawa, N.; Fujiwara, H.

    2011-12-01

    The 11 March 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake is the largest instrumentally recorded earthquake in Japan to date (M9.0, JMA). The vibration from this devastating earthquake was felt almost all over Japan and severe shaking of JMA seismic intensity of "6 lower" or higher was recorded from Kanto to Tohoku districts, in East Japan. The earthquake generated a huge tsunami, which caused catastrophic damages to the Pacific coast of the Honshu Island, particularly to Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures. The National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) operates two nation-wide strong-motion observation networks K-NET and KiK-net, which succeeded in recording the strong-motion accelerograms at more than one thousand stations almost all over Japan. The earthquake and the associated tsunami directly affected facilities and operation of K-NET and KiK-net. The tsunami damaged 5 stations in Iwate and Miyagi prefectures. The data center of K-NET and KiK-net in Tsukuba, Ibaraki prefecture was also damaged by the strong motion of main shock and major aftershocks, and a blackout lasted for almost 1 day. Tens of communication lines of stations were not available immediately after the earthquake. Some of them had not been available during several weeks or months. In the noon of March 12, electric power of the data center was restored. After a stable electric power supply was secured, we restarted the data center system operations, and subsequently started to retrieve records from the stations. On March 15 we released the first version of K-NET and KiK-net data set of the main shock on our web sites. The data set consisted of accelerograms from 388 stations. We updated the data set three times as retrieval of the records progressed. The latest version was published on July 13. That release consisted of accelerograms from 1212 stations including 19 stations where peak ground accelerations above 1000 gals were recorded. Although we tried to retrieve records by on-site operations at the stations where wiring was unavailable, records of the 2 stations in Fukushima prefecture have not been yet retrieved because the stations are located in an exclusion zone around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Moreover, we lost records of 2 stations close to the coast in Iwate prefecture, since the stations were completely swept away by the tsunami. In this presentation, we will introduce our response to the emergency situation of data retrieval, publishing data, and system operation of K-NET and KiK-net after the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Strong-motion data of K-NET and KiK-net are available on the following web sites (http://www.k-net.bosai.go.jp/, http://www.kik.bosai.go.jp/ )

  7. Kinematic rupture process of the 2014 Chile Mw 8.1 earthquake constrained by strong-motion, GPS static offsets and teleseismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chengli; Zheng, Yong; Wang, Rongjiang; Xiong, Xiong

    2015-08-01

    On 2014 April 1, a magnitude Mw 8.1 interplate thrust earthquake ruptured a densely instrumented region of Iquique seismic gap in northern Chile. The abundant data sets near and around the rupture zone provide a unique opportunity to study the detailed source process of this megathrust earthquake. We retrieved the spatial and temporal distributions of slip during the main shock and one strong aftershock through a joint inversion of teleseismic records, GPS offsets and strong motion data. The main shock rupture initiated at a focal depth of about 25 km and propagated around the hypocentre. The peak slip amplitude in the model is ˜6.5 m, located in the southeast of the hypocentre. The major slip patch is located around the hypocentre, spanning ˜150 km along dip and ˜160 km along strike. The associated static stress drop is ˜3 MPa. Most of the seismic moment was released within 150 s. The total seismic moment of our preferred model is 1.72 × 1021 N m, equivalent to Mw 8.1. For the strong aftershock on 2014 April 3, the slip mainly occurred in a relatively compact area, and the major slip area surrounded the hypocentre with the peak amplitude of ˜2.5 m. There is a secondary slip patch located downdip from the hypocentre with the peak slip of ˜2.1 m. The total seismic moment is about 3.9 × 1020 N m, equivalent to Mw 7.7. Between the rupture areas of the main shock and the 2007 November 14 Mw 7.7 Antofagasta, Chile earthquake, there is an earthquake vacant zone with a total length of about 150 km. Historically, if there is no big earthquake or obvious aseismic creep occurring in this area, it has a great potential of generating strong earthquakes with magnitude larger than Mw 7.0 in the future.

  8. Comparison of shear-wave slowness profiles at 10 strong-motion sites from noninvasive SASW measurements and measurements made in boreholes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, L.T.; Boore, D.M.; Stokoe, K.H., II

    2002-01-01

    The spectral-analysis-of-surface-waves (SASW) method is a relatively new in situ method for determining shear-wave slownesses. All measurements are made on the ground surface, making it much less costly than methods that require boreholes. The SASW method uses a number of active sources (ranging from a commercial Vibroseis truck to a small handheld hammer for the study conducted here) and different receiver spacings to map a curve of apparent phase velocity versus frequency. With the simplifying assumption that the phase velocities correspond to fundamental mode surface waves, forward modeling yields an estimate of the sub-surface shear-wave slownesses. To establish the reliability of this indirect technique, we conducted a blind evaluation of the SASW method. SASW testing was performed at 10 strong-motion stations at which borehole seismic measurements were previously or subsequently made; if previously made, the borehole results were not used for the interpretation of the SASW data, and vice-versa. Comparisons of the shear-wave slownesses from the SASW and borehole measurements are generally very good. The differences in predicted ground-motion amplifications are less than about 15% for most frequencies. In addition, both methods gave the same NEHRP site classification for seven of the sites. For the other three sites the average velocities from the downhole measurements were only 5-13 m/sec larger than the velocity defining the class C/D boundary. This study demonstrates that in many situations the SASW method can provide subsurface information suitable for site response predictions.

  9. Strong Ground Motion Simulation in Fukuoka Region (Japan) Using Finite-fault Stochastic Simulation Method of the March 20, 2005 Earthquake.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustafa, S. S.; Ohshima, M.; Takenaka, H.; Kawase, H.

    2005-12-01

    Stochastic finite-fault simulation (Beresnev and Atkinson, 1998) is used to simulate the acceleration records of West off Fukuoka earthquake which took place on March 20, 2005, at 10:53 (JST) with Mw 6.6 at a depth of 10 km off-shore west of Fukuoka prefecture, Japan. Stochastic simulations are generated for finite-fault ruptures, in order to define the shape and amplitude level of the Fourier spectrum. The orientation of the fault model used in the present study is assumed to be strike of N 304 E with the dip angle of 87 degree (Takenaka et. al., 2005). The dimensions of the fault are chosen based on the spatial distribution of the aftershocks and the fault plane modeled with an array of subfaults. A slip distribution model, derived from previous studies of this earthquake, is used to specifically account for the source effect. The radiation from each subfault is modeled as Brune`s point source using the Omega square stochastic model approach. The earthquake rupture initiates at the hypocenter, and propagates in all directions along the fault plane. Simulations are generated for an observation point by summing the subfault time series, appropriately lagged in time. This approach is expedient and therefore cost-effective, and has been extensively used in the past by engineers (using empirical spectra) and recently by seismologists (using spectra derived from physical models of the source). The method is calibrated against its ability of reproducing the main shock recordings at 27 stations from K- and Kik-nets, NIED strong-motion stations, at epicentral distances ranging from 23 to 92 km. The intent of this presentation is to capture the essential characteristics of high-frequency motion at each site. The results show a satisfactory match between simulated and observed peak ground accelerations and Fourier spectra except some stations which suffered strong effects of the forward rupture directivity. Large differences between the synthetics and recordings are basically limited to the low-frequency part of the spectrum (less than 2 Hz) which imply that the discrepancies patterns between observed and recorded time histories of the 2005 West off Fukuoka earthquake may be explained by the destructive combination of the source directivity and the site effects.

  10. A Study Of The Tomography And Seismicity In Taipei Basin And Tatun Volcano Regions, Taiwan And Their Structural Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.; Wu, Y.; Lin, C.; Zhao, L.; Chang, C.

    2007-12-01

    The Taipei Basin with soft deposit in the north of Taiwan has been produced by the motion of the Sanchiao fault. Taipei, the capital of Taiwan, is located at the Taipei Basin and the Tatun volcano group which have volcanism is located adjacent to it. The local seismicity is very low, however, it is a very important topic to understand the seismotectonics of the Taipei Basin and Tatun volcano regions. We combined the seismic data from the records of the Central Weather Bureau Seismic Network (CWBSN) and Taiwan Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) to establish the tomography of Taiwan and then relocated those earthquakes in the study region. Totally, 17,548 events from 1974 to 2006 in the North Taiwan were used for Vp and Vp/Vs tomography. We focus our study on Taipei region that is bounded in latitude 24.91° to 25.31°N and longitude 121.3° to 121.8°E. A total of 339 seismic events with depth less than 100 km from 1977 to 2006 were relocated to study the seismotectonic structures. The pattern of high Vp/Vs ratio coincides with the Sanchiao fault which has made the Taipei Basin, and reveals that the effects of basin amplification affects about several kilometers. There is a zone with high Vp/Vs ratio beneath the Tatun volcano group at the depth of 5~10 kilometer and the strata with low Vp/Vs ratio above this zone appears like an arch. Besides, there are some earthquakes occurred surrounding the high Vp/Vs ratio zone. It may imply that there is a potential region for being full of fluid. It is worth to further analysis about the formation of these earthquakes.

  11. Taiwan: country profile.

    PubMed

    Spain, D

    1984-03-01

    This discussion of Taiwan focuses on population growth, regions and cities, ethnicity and religion, households and families, housing, education, labor force, income, communication, and sources of information. Taiwan, founded in 1949, took a census in 1980. Its household registration system is efficient and provides population data on a yearly basis. In 1981 the population totaled 18.1 million, an increase of about 20% from the 1971 total of 15 million. Taiwan's population grew 1.9% in 1981, a decline from the 2.2% growth rate of 1971. The birthrate is 23 births/1000 population and the death rate is 5/1000. Taiwan's birthrate is similar to that of China's and both are higher than those of Japan or Hong Kong. Almost 1/3 of Taiwan's population is under 15. Only 4% of the population is aged 65 or over. The entire country is divided into 48 commuting rings associated with specific central cities. The capital city of Taipei and Kaohsiung are special municipalities, and certain offshore islands of Fukien Province are included in population totals. The country is further divided into 5 administrative districts for the household registration system. The Han Chinese constitute 98% of Taiwan's population. Approximately 250,000 aborigines (less than 2% of the population) live in the mountainous central and eastern parts of the island. They are believed to be of Malayan stock. Taiwan's predominant religion is a mixture of Buddhism and Taoism, introduced centuries ago by the original settlers. The family household is composed mainly of family members, including lodgers and hired workers living in the same place under the same household head. Between 1971 and 1980, the number of households in Taiwan increased from 2.6 million to 3.7 million. In 1980, 99% of all households were family households. Average was 4.8 persons for family households and 26.5 persons for nonfamily households. There were 3.7 million housing units in Taiwan in 1980. Taiwan's literacy rate was 86% in 1980, up from 78% in 1970. Men's literacy rates are higher than women's. In June 1982, 6.9 million persons were in Taiwan's labor force, or 58% of all persons aged 15 and over. The largest category of workers in Taiwan are salaried employees and wage earners (47% of all workers in 1980). Taiwan's per capita grossnational product in 1981 was US$2360. Wages are highest in petroleum and coal manufacturing. Taiwan produces a large number of books, newspapers, and magazines for a country of its size. There is no shortage of demographic information in Taiwan. PMID:12279790

  12. High-frequency source radiation during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, Japan, inferred from KiK-net strong-motion seismograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Hiroyuki; Pulido, Nelson; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Aoi, Shin

    2013-01-01

    AbstractTo investigate source processes of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, we utilized a source location method using high-frequency (5-10 Hz) seismic amplitudes. In this method, we assumed far-field isotropic radiation of S waves, and conducted a spatial grid search to find the best fitting source locations along the subducted slab in each successive time window. Our application of the method to the Tohoku-Oki earthquake resulted in artifact source locations at shallow depths near the trench caused by limited station coverage and noise effects. We then assumed various source node distributions along the plate, and found that the observed seismograms were most reasonably explained when assuming deep source nodes. This result suggests that the high-frequency seismic waves were radiated at deeper depths during the earthquake, a feature which is consistent with results obtained from teleseismic back-projection and <span class="hlt">strong-motion</span> source model studies. We identified three high-frequency subevents, and compared them with the moment-rate function estimated from low-frequency seismograms. Our comparison indicated that no significant moment release occurred during the first high-frequency subevent and the largest moment-release pulse occurred almost simultaneously with the second high-frequency subevent. We speculated that the initial slow rupture propagated bilaterally from the hypocenter toward the land and trench. The landward subshear rupture propagation consisted of three successive high-frequency subevents. The trenchward propagation ruptured the <span class="hlt">strong</span> asperity and released the largest moment near the trench.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40.5371H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40.5371H"><span id="translatedtitle">Rupture history of the 2013 Mw 6.6 Lushan earthquake constrained with local <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">motion</span> and teleseismic body and surface waves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hao, Jinlai; Ji, Chen; Wang, Weimin; Yao, Zhenxing</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>rupture history of the 20 April 2013 Mw 6.6 Lushan (China) earthquake is constrained by inverting waveforms of local <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">motion</span>, teleseismic broadband body waves, and long-period surface waves. This earthquake ruptured a blind thrust fault oriented N210°E (along the Longmenshan fault zone) and dipping 40° to the NW. The inverted slip distribution is heterogeneous, dominated by a slip patch with a roughly right triangular shape, which spans a depth range of 5-20 km and accounts for two thirds of the total seismic moment (8.9 × 1018 N m). The rupture initiated roughly at the middle of the triangle's hypotenuse and, during the first 4 s, propagated mainly in along-strike and downdip directions, toward a peak slip of 1.2 m. Despite a large number of fatalities and economic loss, the estimated static and apparent stress drops of the Lushan earthquake are 1.5 MPa and 0.35 MPa, considerably low with respect to other similar intraplate earthquakes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JSeis..18..151T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JSeis..18..151T"><span id="translatedtitle">A new algorithm for tight integration of real-time GPS and <span class="hlt">strong-motion</span> records, demonstrated on simulated, experimental, and real seismic data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tu, Rui; Ge, Maorong; Wang, Rongjiang; Walter, Thomas R.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The complementary advantages of GPS and seismic measurements are well recognized in seismotectonic monitoring studies. Therefore, integrated processing of the two data streams has been proposed recently in an attempt to obtain accurate and reliable information of surface displacements associated with earthquakes. A hitherto still critical issue in the integrated processing is real-time detection and precise estimation of the transient baseline error in the seismic records. Here, we report on a new approach by introducing the seismic acceleration corrected by baseline errors into the state equation system. The correction is performed and regularly updated in short epochs (with increments which may be as short as seconds), so that station position, velocity, and acceleration can be constrained very tightly and baseline error can be estimated as a random-walk process. With the adapted state equation system, our study highlights the use of a new approach developed for integrated processing of GPS and seismic data by means of sequential least-squares adjustment. The efficiency of our approach is demonstrated and validated using simulated, experimental, and real datasets. The latter were collected at collocated GPS and seismic stations around the 4 April 2010, E1 Mayor-Cucapah earthquake (Mw, 7.2). The results have shown that baseline errors of the <span class="hlt">strong-motion</span> sensors are corrected precisely and high-precision seismic displacements are real-timely obtained by the new approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=milk+AND+children&pg=4&id=EJ889767','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=milk+AND+children&pg=4&id=EJ889767"><span id="translatedtitle">Maternity Leave in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JApSc...8.1138C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JApSc...8.1138C"><span id="translatedtitle">A Study of the Influence of Organizational Knowledge Ability and Knowledge Absorptive Capacity on Organization Performance in <span class="hlt">Taiwan`s</span> Hi-Tech Enterprises</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Ching-Piao; Liu, Pang-Lo; Tsai, Chih-Hung</p> <p></p> <p>In recent years, business operation tends to be internationalized and the production cost increases day by day, the technology promotion of <span class="hlt">Taiwan`s</span> hi-tech enterprises met its bottleneck; lots of industries have introduced Knowledge Management (KM) and emphasized the knowledge absorptive capacity of the employees to promote the organizational business performance under this competition environment. This research studied the influence of organizational knowledge ability and knowledge absorptive capacity on organization performance in <span class="hlt">Taiwan`s</span> hi-tech enterprises. The research found that: the industry with <span class="hlt">strong</span> organizational knowledge ability has positive influence on organization performance; the industry with <span class="hlt">strong</span> organizational knowledge ability has positive influence on knowledge absorptive capacity and the industry with <span class="hlt">strong</span> knowledge absorptive capacity has positive influence on organization performance. Therefore, the organizational knowledge ability and knowledge absorption capacity of <span class="hlt">Taiwan`s</span> high-tech enterprises have positive influence on the promotion of their organization performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PApGe.172.1383L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PApGe.172.1383L"><span id="translatedtitle">Rupture Process of the 23 October 2011 Mw7.1 Van Earthquake in Eastern Turkey by Joint Inversion of Teleseismic, GPS and <span class="hlt">Strong-Motion</span> Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Chengli; Zheng, Yong; Xiong, Xiong; Wang, Rongjiang</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>On 23 October 2011, a <span class="hlt">strong</span> earthquake (Mw = 7.1) struck the Van (Eastern Turkey) region and its surrounding areas at 10:41:22 UTC (hereafter referred to as the Van earthquake), causing severe damage to the source region. Several studies have been carried out on the focal mechanism, seismic moment, focal depth and rupture model of this earthquake. However, there are still significant differences in the moment release, focal depth and slip asperities among these models. Since most of these models only used a single data set to investigate the source parameters, the reliability of these results is still a concern. In order to make clear the uncertainties and provide a reliable detailed rupture model for the mainshock, we investigated the rupture process of the Van earthquake by a joint inversion of teleseismic broadband seismograms, near-field static GPS displacement records and <span class="hlt">strong-motion</span> data. The inversion results indicate that the mainshock was dominated by a thrust slip with a small part of a left-lateral strike-slip component below the hypocenter. The rupture initiated at a focal depth of 16 km and propagated to the surface with a relatively low average rupture velocity of ~1.8 km/s, suggesting that the major energy of the earthquake was released in a long-period band, which is the main reason why the seismic moments inverted by a long period or static signals are higher than those obtained by short-period data. Most of the slip occurred around the hypocenter with a maximum slip of more than 3.3 m, and the associated static stress drop was ~3 MPa. The total seismic moment of the whole fault was 5.76 × 1019 N·m, and most energy was released in the first 20 s, which is in the variation range of the released rupture models. The major slip was concentrated at deeper depth and extended to a depth of around 25 km. Meanwhile, the surface rupture was quite small, which explains why only weak ruptures were observed at the surface although caused by such a <span class="hlt">strong</span> earthquake.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T33B2417C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T33B2417C"><span id="translatedtitle">Taper Angle Evolution in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Accretionary Wedge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, L.; Chi, W.; Liu, C.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Liwen Chena,b, Wu-Cheng Chia, Char-Shine Liuc aInstitute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> bInstitute of Geosciences, National <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> University, Taipei, <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> cInstitute of Oceanography, National <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> University, Taipei, <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> The critical taper model, originally developed using onland <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> as an example, is governed by force balance of a horizontal compressional wedge. This model has been successfully applied to many mountainous regions around the world. Among them, <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> is located in an oblique collision between the Luzon Arc and the Chinese Passive margin. Previous critical taper angle studies of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> are mainly focusing on utilizing land data. In this study we want to extend these studies to offshore region from the subduction zone to collision zone. Here we study the varying taper angles of the double-vergent wedge derived from 1,000 km of reflection seismic profiles in both the pro-wedge and retro-wedge locations. These profiles were collected in the last two decades. For the retro-wedge, the topography slope angle changes from 2 to 8.8 degrees; some of the steep slope suggests that some part of the retrowedge is currently in a super-critical angle state. Such dramatic changes in taper angle probably <span class="hlt">strongly</span> affect regional sedimentary processes, including slumping, in addition to structural deformation. These complex processes might even help develop a mélange or re-open a closed basin. We are currently working on studying the taper angle evolution of the pro-wedge from subduction to arc-continent collision zone in the offshore region. Though further works are needed, our preliminary results show that the evolution of wedge angles and the geometry of the wedge are closely linked and inseparable. The structures of the subducting plate might have <span class="hlt">strong</span> influence on the deformation style of the over-riding plate. It would be interesting to combine the angle variation with the structure interpretation of the accretionary wedge, both in the pro- and retro-wedge regions. And the results might help us to better understand the evolution of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Accretionary Prism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.S33A2498K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.S33A2498K"><span id="translatedtitle">High-frequency source radiation during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, Japan, inferred from KiK-net <span class="hlt">strong-motion</span> seismograms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kumagai, H.; Pulido, N.; Fukuyama, E.; Aoi, S.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>To investigate source processes of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake, we analyzed high-frequency waveform data from a Japanese nationwide <span class="hlt">strong-motion</span> network of the KiK-net, which have not been systematically used in previous studies. We applied a source location method using high-frequency (5-10 Hz) seismic amplitudes to KiK-net waveform data in the Tohoku region to estimate the spatio-temporal rupture processes of the earthquake. In our amplitude source location (ASL) method, we assumed far-field isotropic radiation of S waves, and conducted a spatial grid search to find the best fitting source locations along the subducted slab in individual successive time windows starting from the earthquake origin time. The isotropic S-wave radiation assumption may become valid in a high-frequency range because of the path effect caused by the scattering of seismic waves. We performed a series of synthetic tests, which showed that the ASL method has the resolution to estimate source locations on the assumed fault along the plate. However, our tests also indicated that ASL results contain artifacts caused by the limited station coverage and noise effects. Our application of the ASL method to the Tohoku-Oki earthquake resulted in repetitive sources near the trench. However, the estimated source location in the first time window was inconsistent with the hypocenter determined from onset arrival times, and the seismograms reconstructed from source amplitudes at the best fitting source locations in the individual time windows showed discrepancies with the observed seismograms. We therefore concluded that the source locations near the trench may reflect artifacts. We then assumed various source node distributions along the plate, and found that the observed seismograms were most reasonably explained when assuming deep source nodes. This result suggests that the high-frequency seismic waves were radiated at deeper depths during the earthquake, a feature which is consistent with the results previously obtained from teleseismic back-projection and <span class="hlt">strong-motion</span> source model studies. We identified three high-frequency sub-events, and compared them with the moment-rate function estimated from low-frequency seismograms. Our comparison indicated that no significant moment release occurred during the first high-frequency sub-event and the largest moment-release pulse occurred almost simultaneously with the second high-frequency sub-event. Since various slip models indicated that the large slip occurred near the trench, it would be difficult to directly relate the large moment release with the second high-frequency sub-event near the coast. We estimated rupture speeds among the three sub-events to be 1.1-2.2 km/s, suggesting sub-shear ruptures. We speculated that the initial rupture started slowly from the hypocenter and propagated bilaterally toward the land and trench. The landward rupture propagation triggered the first sub-event and then the closely located second sub-event. After the second sub-event, the rupture propagated toward the south and triggered the third sub-event. These high-frequency sub-events correspond to three distinct asperities along the plate interface. The trenchward propagation ruptured the strongest asperity and released the largest moment near the trench.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoJI.203..720D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoJI.203..720D"><span id="translatedtitle">Broad-band <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">motion</span> simulations coupling k-square kinematic source models with empirical Green's functions: the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Del Gaudio, Sergio; Causse, Mathieu; Festa, Gaetano</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The use of simulated accelerograms may improve the evaluation of the seismic hazard when an accurate modelling of both source and propagation is performed. In this paper, we performed broad-band simulations of the 2009, M 6.3 L'Aquila earthquake, coupling a k-2 kinematic model for the seismic source with empirical Green's functions (EGFs) as propagators. We extracted 10 EGFs candidates from a database of aftershocks satisfying quality criteria based on signal-to-noise ratio, fault proximity, small magnitude, similar focal mechanism and stress drop. For comparison with real observations, we also derived a low-frequency kinematic model, based on inversion of ground displacement as integrated from <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">motion</span> data. Kinematic properties of the inverted model (rupture velocity, position of the rupture nucleation, low-frequency slip and roughness degree of slip heterogeneity) were used as constraints in the k-2 model, to test the use of a single specific EGF against the use of the whole set of EGFs. Comparison to real observations based on spectral and peak ground acceleration shows that the use of all available EGFs improves the fit of simulations to real data. Moreover the epistemic variability related to the selection of a specific EGF is significantly larger (two to three times) than recent observations of between event variability, that is the variability associated with the randomness of the rupture process. We finally performed `blind' simulations releasing all the information on source kinematics and only considering the fault geometry and the magnitude of the target event as known features. We computed peak ground acceleration, acceleration Fourier and response spectra. Simulations follow the same trend with distance as real observations. In most cases these latter fall within one sigma from predictions. Predictions with source parameters constrained at low frequency do not perform better than `blind' simulations, showing that extrapolation of the low-frequency description of the rupture front as inferred by the kinematic inversion may introduce some bias in the final simulations.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JSeis..19..969K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JSeis..19..969K"><span id="translatedtitle">Rupture process of 2011 Mw7.1 Van, Eastern Turkey earthquake from joint inversion of <span class="hlt">strong-motion</span>, high-rate GPS, teleseismic, and GPS data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Konca, A. Ozgun</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>We analyzed the rupture process of the 2011 Mw7.1 Van, Eastern Turkey earthquake using teleseismic, <span class="hlt">strong-motion</span>, 1-Hz GPS waveforms and static GPS displacement measurements. We performed data sensitivity analyses using four different rupture scenarios. Overall, when geodetic and seismic datasets are modeled jointly, slip distribution is well-constrained and rupture velocity can be obtained. The 2011 Van earthquake is a case where none of the available datasets are sufficient to constrain the slip distribution and the rupture kinematics on their own. This study confirms that rather than fitting one dataset perfectly, using multiple datasets jointly leads to a better-constrained slip distribution. The kinematic model obtained from the joint inversion of all the available data shows a 45-km-long bilateral rupture with two sub-events; one larger slip patch propagating up-dip and toward west of the hypocenter and a smaller second slip patch toward the east. The highest slip is to the west of the hypocenter with a peak value of 4.5 m. The slip is confined to the depths of 7.5 to 20 km and the shallower part of the fault remains unbroken. The average rupture velocity is around 3 km/s, close the Rayleigh wave velocity. The rupture is faster with shorter rise times for the larger sub-event toward the west, while the rise times are longer for the smaller sub-event to the east. This difference in seismic behavior might be related to the segmentation of the fault.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.S32D..04K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.S32D..04K"><span id="translatedtitle">Joint-inversion of Seismic and Gravity Survey Data in Sedimentary Basins for 3-D Underground Structures in <span class="hlt">Strong</span> <span class="hlt">Motion</span> Simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koketsu, K.; Afnimar, A.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>Modeling of underground structures is one of important tasks for <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">motion</span> predition. Seismic surveys such as refraction and reflection explorations can give precise estimates of seismic velocities, but they are too expensive to cover the whole area of a sedimentary basin with a fine spacing of survey points. On the other hand, gravity surveys can be carried out densely and homogeneously with reasonable cost, but they cannot measure seismic velocities directly. In order to compromise this inconsistency, we combine data from the seismic and gravity surveys, and jointly invert them assuming a relation between densities and seismic velocities. An interface separating sediments and basement rocks is parameterized by the Lagrange interpolation with knot points distributed for representing a steep part related to a fault zone. The linear and absolute constraints are imposed to avoid oscillatory artifacts in the solution and to minimize the non-uniqueness of the solution. The joint inversion also overcome the ray coverage problem of a refraction survey in a complex underground structure. The validity of the formulation is verified using synthetic data for a valley-like basin with pseudo-random noises. The proposed method is successfully applied to the actual data obtained in and around the Osaka basin, Japan. The result shows a good agreement with the geological setting in this region. The instability due to the lack of data beneath the Osaka bay is improved by the introduction of the absolute constraints. We then apply the method to the Kanto basin around Tokyo assuming two layers in the sediments. This layering increases the number of variables introducing some instabilities into the inversion, and so measurements at boreholes and reflection survey lines are used as fixed points in the model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20131102','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20131102"><span id="translatedtitle">ARRA-funded VS30 measurements using multi-technique approach at <span class="hlt">strong-motion</span> stations in California and central-eastern United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Yong, Alan; Martin, Antony; Stokoe, Kenneth; Diehl, John</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Funded by the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), we conducted geophysical site characterizations at 191 <span class="hlt">strong-motion</span> stations: 187 in California and 4 in the Central-Eastern United States (CEUS). The geophysical methods used at each site included passive and active surface-wave and body-wave techniques. Multiple techniques were used at most sites, with the goal of robustly determining VS (shear-wave velocity) profiles and VS30 (the time-averaged shear-wave velocity in the upper 30 meters depth). These techniques included: horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR), two-dimensional (2-D) array microtremor (AM), refraction microtremor (ReMi™), spectral analysis of surface wave (SASW), multi-channel analysis of surface waves (Rayleigh wave: MASRW; and Love wave: MASLW), and compressional- and shear-wave refraction. Of the selected sites, 47 percent have crystalline, volcanic, or sedimentary rock at the surface or at relatively shallow depth, and 53 percent are of Quaternary sediments located in either rural or urban environments. Calculated values of VS30 span almost the full range of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) Site Classes, from D (stiff soils) to B (rock). The NEHRP Site Classes based on VS30 range from being consistent with the Class expected from analysis of surficial geology, to being one or two Site Classes below expected. In a few cases where differences between the observed and expected Site Class occurred, it was the consequence of inaccurate or coarse geologic mapping, as well as considerable degradation of the near-surface rock. Additionally, several sites mapped as rock have Site Class D (stiff soil) velocities, which is due to the extensive weathering of the surficial rock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26711420','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26711420"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Regulation of Biobanks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fan, Chien-Te; Hung, Tzu-Hsun; Yeh, Chan-Kun</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper introduces legal framework and governance structure in relation to the management and development of biobanks in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. At first, we briefly describe <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>'s population, political system and health care system. Secondly, this research introduces biobanking framework of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> including 25 biobanks established with the approval of the Ministry of Health and Welfare. In those biobanks, "<span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Biobank" is the first and the largest government-supported biobank which comprises population-based cohort study and disease- oriented study. Since the collection of information, data, and biological specimen of biobanks often involve highly sensitive personal information, in the legal framework of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, there is a specific regulation, "Human Biobank Management Act" (HBMA), which plays an important role in regulating biobanks in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. HBMA, the Personal Information Act and other regulations constitute a comprehensive legal and regulatory privacy framework of biobanks. Through the introduction and analysis of the current legal framework applicable to biobanks, we found that there are several challenges that need to be solved appropriately that involve duplicate review systems, the obstacles in the international collaboration, and data sharing between biobanks in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. PMID:26711420</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.G31B..06L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.G31B..06L"><span id="translatedtitle">Near Source Rupture Modeling of the February 27, 2010 Mw 8,8 Maule Earthquake using cGPS and <span class="hlt">Strong</span> <span class="hlt">Motion</span> Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lancieri, M.; Vigny, C.; Ruiz, S.; Madariaga, R. I.; Buforn, E.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The Maule earthquake of February 27, 2010 occurred in Central Chile along a gap well identified since the early 90’s. The 2010 event not only broke, as expected, the area of the 1835 event (Mw 8.5), but it propagated further South, breaking the rupture area of the May 21, 1960 earthquake (Mw 7.9), and further North overlapping the December 1, 1928 event rupture zone (Mw 7.8). The rupture models obtained immediately after the earthquake using teleseismic data, clearly show two main patches of slip: a larger one to the North and a smaller one to the South. However several details of the rupture process are still unclear, and deserve investigation using near source data. The Maule earthquake was recorded by a number of cGPS stations as well as by a few 24 bit accelerometers situated in the Northern part of the rupture. In this work, we model the rupture process using 1 Hz cGPS and near-source <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">motion</span> data, both recorded in Chile and Argentina. In the El Roble site, where an accelerometer and a cGPS are co-located, we observe a good fit between the 1 Hz cGPS and the integrated accelerograms for traces filtered below 0.1 Hz. Because of a <span class="hlt">strong</span> directivity effect, the records located in the North direction have a duration of only 60 s. Whereas for the Argentina and central valley GPS stations, the duration is much longer and the two pulses coming from the different slip patches are clearly visible. The observed delay of 23 s between the cGPS signals recorded at the sites of Constitution and Conception led us to hypothesize that the low-frequency hypocenter is located about 30 km south with respect to the teleseismic hypocenter determined by USGS. In particular it is close to the area where the foreshocks were recorded between 2009 and January 2010. Once the hypocenter is relocated we fit the observed cGPS records using a simple slip model characterized by two slip patches. The good station coverage in the north makes easy to model the northern part of the fracture; at this preliminary stage we model the static displacement using a patch of 160x90 km with an average slip of 12 m located between Constitution and Conviento Viejo. Unfortunately, the lack of observation in the southern part, where the only available record is the cGPS signal in Conception, makes difficult to model the second patch.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12278253','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12278253"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>: growing, growing, gone.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hanson, R</p> <p>1979-10-01</p> <p>Accommodation between <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> and the People's Republic of China may not be inconceivable as trade contacts (though officially disallowed) grow. Because of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>'s well-established success and the pressing need in China to industrialize, it appears, however, that such an accommodation will occur only after China becomes more like <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> owes its success, first, to land reform and then, in the 1960s, to steady industrialization. Besides broad controls over money supply and capital designed to ward off inflationary pressures when needed, and the grand outlines for development, another factor in the island's economic success is that the government has interfered little with private enterprise. The economy has an underpinning of small to medium size businesses. There are more than 10,000 trading companies. This diverse foundation has given the economy as a whole a flexible buffer on which more sophisticated industires can be formed. PMID:12278253</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S53B2420L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S53B2420L"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of Seismic Hazard Potential in Southwestern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, K.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>As we know southwestern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> is located in the areas where seismic activity is high, and with a densely populated distribution, has at least 9 active faults in this area. Accordingly, it has a very high potential seismic disaster, in the event of large magnitude earthquakes most likely to cause serious damage. Hence, we will have to put in more effort on earthquake disaster prevention in southwestern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> to reduce the probably earthquake disaster. In addition, Liu (2012) analyzed <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> high potential seismic disaster areas, also showed that has a higher maximum ground acceleration and velocity values in the southwestern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. We need to go further to analyze, understand and respond to that. In this study, we estimate the seismic hazard potential in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> based on the form of ShakeMaps. Particularly, the site response factor is incorporated in the present ground <span class="hlt">motion</span> prediction models. Such prediction models will result in more realistic peak ground <span class="hlt">motion</span> estimates for assessment of seismic hazard potential. On the other hand, we will also be further combined with fault activity data to analyze the seismic hazard earthquake potential in the southwestern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. We will use a formula established by Tasi et al, (2001) that relative to the age dependence of human-fatality rates and according to the age distribution of the population in rural area of the Chianan, in order to estimate the number of death when larger earthquakes occurred in the future. Results of this study can be used to understand high earthquake disaster potential regional distribution in the southwestern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, provide an important database for the site evaluation of critical facilities, help mitigate <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> earthquake disaster loss in the future, as well as the critical information for emergency response plan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNS42A..07C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNS42A..07C"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismic Site Characterizations At 25 ANSS/PNSN Stations and Compilation Of Site-Specific Data For The Entire <span class="hlt">Strong-Motion</span> Network In Washington And Oregon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cakir, R.; Walsh, T. J.; Ypma, A.; Pileggi, D.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Site specific velocity information generated using seismic methods can be used to improve the seismic hazard maps of urban areas. With United States Geological Survey (USGS)-External grant program awards, Washington State Department of Natural Resources- Division of Geology and Earth Resources has conducted shallow seismic surveys at 60 station sites operated by Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) and the USGS-National <span class="hlt">Strong</span> <span class="hlt">Motion</span> Program (NSMP) in Washington and Oregon to characterize these sites through estimation of S-wave (Vs) and P-wave (Vp) velocity profiles. We are currently conducting shallow seismic surveys at 25 ANSS/PNSN station sites in western Washington and Oregon. Active (Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves, MASW, P-wave and S-wave refractions) and passive (Microtremor Array Measurements, MAM, and Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio, HVSR) seismic methods were used to estimate the Vs and Vp profiles at the station sites. Subsequently, for each site Vp/Vs and Poisson's ratio profiles along with Vs30m values were calculated and geologic interpretations were made. Deep sediment layers (>30 meters up to~1km) were characterized using a joint inversion of the HVSR and MASW methods. Deep sediment Vs estimates were also constrained using available geology and borehole information. Available resistance tests (i.e., standard penetration test, SPT) and other borehole soil information (where available) were used to estimate and correlate shear-wave velocities. Various agencies in the region provide borehole, geology and other valuable subsurface data that can be directly or indirectly used in seismic site characterization processes. For this reason, we are generating an interactive mapping environment through the Washington State Geology Portal (http://www.dnr.wa.gov/ResearchScience/Topics/GeosciencesData/Pages/geology_portal.aspx) to link and/or provide these data online for the entire Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) stations in Washington and Oregon. This interactive site-specific information mapping may help better constrain Vs estimates, better interpret subsurface layers obtained from seismic surveys and provide background geologic and geotechnical data for seismologists and earthquake engineers. Results of the active and passive seismic site characterizations for shallow and deep Vs and shallow Vp estimates, and examples of interactive mapping of the site-specific information will be shown. Our Vs profiles in terms of NEHRP soil classifications based on average Vs values at top 30 meters (Vs30m) can be directly used for ShakeMap products, HAZUS-MH applications, seismic hazard mapping, and building code developments in the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.3817M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.3817M"><span id="translatedtitle">Rock mass response to <span class="hlt">strong</span> ground <span class="hlt">motion</span> generated by mining induced seismic events and blasting observed at the surface of the excavations in deep level gold mines in South Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Milev, Alexander; Durrheim, Ray; Ogasawara, Hiroshi</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">strong</span> ground <span class="hlt">motion</span> generated by mining induced seismic events was studied to characterize the rock mass response and to estimate the site effect on the surface of the underground excavations. A stand-alone instruments, especially designed for recording <span class="hlt">strong</span> ground <span class="hlt">motions</span>, were installed underground at a number of deep level gold mines in South Africa. The instruments were recording data at the surface of the stope hangingwalls. A maximum value of 3 m/s was measured. Therefore data were compared to the data recorded in the solid rock by the mine seismic networks to determine the site response. The site response was defined as the ratio of the peak ground velocity measured at the surface of the excavations to the peak ground velocity inferred from the mine seismic data measured in the solid rocks. The site response measured at all mines studied was found to be 9 ± 3 times larger on average. A number of simulated rockbursts were conducted underground in order to estimate the rock mass response when subjected to extreme ground <span class="hlt">motion</span> and derive the attenuation factors in near field. The rockbursts were simulated by means of large blasts detonated in solid rock close to the sidewall of a tunnel. The numerical models used in the design of the simulated rockbursts were calibrated by small blasts taking place at each experimental site. A dense array of shock type accelerometers was installed along the blasting wall to monitor the attenuation of the <span class="hlt">strong</span> ground <span class="hlt">motion</span> as a function of the distance from the source. The attenuation of the ground <span class="hlt">motion</span> was found to be proportional to the distance from the source following R^-1.1 & R^-1.7 for compact rock and R^-3.1 & R^-3.4 for more fractured rock close to the surface of the tunnel. In addition the ground <span class="hlt">motion</span> was compared to the quasi-static deformations taking place around the underground excavations. The quasi-static deformations were measured by means of strain, tilt and closure. A good correspondence between the quasi-static deformations and seismic ground <span class="hlt">motion</span> was found. During the blasting time and the subsequent seismic events the strain, tilt and closure show a rapid increase. Similar increase was observed during the <span class="hlt">strong</span> seismic event. The deformations associated with a <span class="hlt">strong</span> seismic event were described as 'fast' seismic events. Much of quasi-static deformations, however, occurred independently of the seismic events and was described as 'slow' or aseismic events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMOS53A1358C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMOS53A1358C"><span id="translatedtitle">Time Dependent Fluid Occurrence Offshore <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, L.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Time Dependent Fluid Occurrence Offshore <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Liwen Chenab, Wu-Cheng Chia, Char-Shine Liuc (mma@earth.sinica.edu.tw)(wchi@gate.sinica.edu.tw) ; aInstitute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> bInstitute of Geosciences, National <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> University, Taipei, <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> ; cInstitute of Oceanography, National <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> University, Taipei, <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Earthquake-induced groundwater flows have been observed recently. Such fluid flow might temporarily change the temperature field in the crust. Here we used seismically detected gas hydrate under seafloor to study the temperature fields at a few hundred meters subbottom depth before, and after the 2006 Henchuan earthquake (Mw7.0). We used the hydrate-related bottom-simulating-reflector (BSR) in seismic profiles to study the effects of gas/fluid migration on the BSR attributes. We have conducted two seismic experiments before and after the earthquake across the same transects near the hypocenter of the earthquake using similar air gun arrays and streamers. By analyzing this unique dataset, we found enhanced BSR reflectivity in average after the earthquake (~0.03), but the Sea-floor reflectivity is very similar (~0.5). We also found changed amplitudes versus offset (AVO) in the dataset (the gradient of reflection coefficient versus the angles was ~-0.34). We interpret these results as a consequence of earthquake-induced gas and fluid migration, bringing the gases underneath the BSR, thus the enhanced reflection coefficients. Next we will explore new methods to use the BSR as a flow meter. Using time-dependent seismic attribute analyses across transects before and after a large earthquake, we found <span class="hlt">strong</span> evidences of earthquake-related fluid migrations and possibly associated temperature perturbations. This is among the first studies to document such feature in the offshore region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T43J..08L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T43J..08L"><span id="translatedtitle">Philippine Sea Slab and South-Ryukyu Arc Sliver Accommodation of Arc-Continent Collision East of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lallemand, S.; Theunissen, T.; Font, Y.; Schnurle, P.; Lee, C.; Liu, C.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The southern termination of the Ryukyu arc-trench system underwent a complex polyphased and extremely rapid tectonic evolution during the last 5 to 8 My. At first, the relative <span class="hlt">motion</span> of the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) has changed about 5 My ago from a northward to a northwestward <span class="hlt">motion</span> relative to Eurasia. Secondly, the Ryukyu trench has propagated from east to west during the same time period resulting in a tectonic inversion along the former passive margin of the South China Sea into the active margin of the S-Ryukyu trench. Thirdly, the convergence rate along the neo-formed S-Ryukyu trench dramatically increased from 8 to 13 cm/yr since at least 2 My when the Southern Okinawa Trough (SOT) started to rift. At the same time, the oceanic subduction of the South China Sea beneath the northern Manila arc progressively evolved into a continental subduction of the Chinese platform at the origin of the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> orogen. The timing of these various kinematic and tectonic events should have been recorded in the deformed sedimentary basins and fold-and-thrust belts in the region. Unfortunately, a large part is now below the sea-level and no or a few age constraints are available. The recent joint project between <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>-USA & France (TAIGER & ACTS) gave us the opportunity to considerably increase the resolution of the seismic imagery around the island and especially in the most highly deformed area east of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> along the S-Ryukyu forearc. We already knew that the seismic activity focussed in this region but we ignored how the converging plates deformed. We can now argue that the PSP <span class="hlt">strongly</span> deforms in the vicinity of its deep interaction with the root of the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> orogen. The north-dipping PSP slab buckles and tears along two diverging directions with a down-faulted part subducting beneath the SOT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JSCSE..68..242H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JSCSE..68..242H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">STRONG</span> <span class="hlt">MOTION</span> ESTIMATION AT THE GENKAI FISHING PORT DAMAGED BY THE 2005 WEST OFF FUKUOKA PREFECTURE EARTHQUAKE (MJ7.0) BASED ON EMPIRICAL SITE AMPLIFICATION AND PHASE EFFECTS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hata, Yoshiya; Ichii, Koji; Sakai, Hisakazu</p> <p></p> <p>Enormous damage occurred to the fishing port facilities and natural slopes behind the port in Genkai Island during the 2005 west off Fukuoka prefecture earthquake (MJ7.0). The evaluation of the <span class="hlt">strong</span> seismic <span class="hlt">motion</span> is very important to clarify the failure mechanism. In this study, seismic waveform at this site was estimated based on empirical site amplification and phase effects. The estimated seismic waveform is useful in the detailed study of seismic performance evaluation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1905H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1905H"><span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary study on soil to rock spectral ratio method of microtremor measurement in Taipei Basin, <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Jyun Yan; Wen, Kuo Liang; Te Chen, Chun; Chang, Shun Chiang</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Taipei city is the capital of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> which located in Taipei basin and covered with hundreds meter of alluvial layer that might cause serious damage during huge earthquake. Prediction of possible <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">motion</span> levels occurred in the basin then became popular. Engineers most like to use Ground <span class="hlt">Motion</span> Prediction Equation (GMPEs) as common tool for seismic hazard calculation but GMPEs were usually debated that it can only give one prediction value (PGA, PGV, Sa etc.) rather than time history or spectrum. Seismologists tried theoretical simulation (1D, 2D, 3D method) but could only give low frequency (usually less than 1 Hz) results restricted to that the shallow structures were not clear enough. Resent years, wide frequency simulation techniques such as empirical green's function added stochastic simulation method (hybrid method) were applied to several different purposes but site effect still plays an important role that need to be considered. Traditionally soil to rock spectral ratio of shear wave (denoted as S/R) was widely applied to check basin effect for decades but the technique needs lots of permanent stations and several years to get enough records. If some site located within <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">motion</span> network but not close enough to the <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">motion</span> stations, interpolate or extrapolate results needed to be used. Wen and Huang (2012) conducted a dense microtremor measurement network in whole <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> and applied microtremor H/V to discuss dominant frequency with traditional transfer functions from earthquake shear wave and found good agreement between them. Furthermore, in this study, the ability of soil to rock spectral ratio of microtremor (denoted as MS/R) measurement was tested in Taipei basin. The preliminary results showed MS/R had good agreement with S/R between 0.2 to 5 Hz. And distance from soil site to reference rock site should no greater than 8 to 10 km base on degree of spectrum difference (DSPD) calculation. If the MS/R works that site effect study from this technique could be applied for some region which distribution of <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">motion</span> stations were not dense enough after all.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED088657.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED088657.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Country Profiles, <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Keeny, S. M.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>A profile of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=flow+AND+music&pg=6&id=EJ342334','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=flow+AND+music&pg=6&id=EJ342334"><span id="translatedtitle">Popular Music in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wang, Georgette</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Discusses the recent concern over the imbalanced international flow of cultural products into <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>--such as films, television programs, and news from developed to developing nations--as it has fed the apprehension that imported popular music may have socialized Taiwanese audiences with alien values and ethics. (JD)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMAE41A..02T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMAE41A..02T"><span id="translatedtitle">2006 <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> TLE campaign</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsai, L.; Kuo, C.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y.; Lee, Y.; Chou, R.; Lai, W.; Hsu, R.; Chen, A.; Su, H.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Ground campaigns of transit luminous events (TLEs) in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> started from 2001 and were repeated yearly ever since. In 2002, a new type of TLEs called gigantic jet was discovered above a convective system. During 2001-2005, there were six additional gigantic jets and more than six hundreds sprites were documented. In this paper, some interested results and progress of the 2006 <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> TLE campaign will be reported: 1. Two gigantic jets, which occurred above a frontal system over <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, were recorded inside the NCKU campus which is located at the center of Tainan metropolitan area with more than one million residents. 2. A few sprites were recorded by a low-light-level CCD equipped with a blue filter which has a cutoff at 500nm. These sprites were very bright and occurred about 150-250km away from the observation site. Therefore, the attenuation of blue emission is less severe. In these blue band images the ionization channels in sprites can be discerned clearly. 3. A low-light level spectrograph was built and has captured two sprite spectra. However, the goal of capturing the spectrum of gigantic jets is yet to be fulfilled. 4. ISUAL images indicated that blue jets and gigantic jets may occur preferably above convective systems near typhoon. A compact imaging system was set up and deployed on an airplane operated by the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> DOTSTAR projects. Only one nightly run was carried out this year and no event is recorded.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T53B2704S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T53B2704S"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismotectonic characteristics of the northernmost part of the Longitudinal Valley suture, eastern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shyu, J. H.; Chen, C.; Wu, Y.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The island of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> is located at the collisional boundary between the Philippine Sea and the Eurasian plates. In eastern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, the Longitudinal Valley between the Central Range and the Coastal Range is generally considered as the suture zone. The Ryukyu subduction system, on the other hand, extends southwestward from offshore eastern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, and intersects with the northernmost Longitudinal Valley suture. As a result, this area is characterized by frequent earthquakes and complex geological structures. Although there have been several tectonic investigations in this area, detailed knowledge of seismotectonic characteristics of this complicated region is still very limited. Recently, we have obtained high resolution earthquake data by combining records from seismic stations of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and data from <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Central Weather Bureau Seismic Network (CWBSN) and <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> <span class="hlt">Strong</span> <span class="hlt">Motion</span> Instrumentation Program (TSMIP). Therefore, we attempted to analyze this area in detail using these high resolution seismic data, together with tectonic geomorphic investigations. The distribution of background seismicity shows that many earthquakes occurred at about 10 km deep in this area, and a linear seismicity band extends to the surface west of the Hualien City. We infer that this band of seismicity represents a structure that crops out within the eastern flank of the Central Range. This structure would be different from the Milun fault, which is a known structure in the Hualien area and ruptured during an M7.3 earthquake in October 1951. Another major feature in this area is a listric band of seismicity that appears to extend to the surface near the Liwu River mouth, north of the Hualien City. This seismicity band likely represents an E-W striking structure that dips to the south. Based on the focal mechanisms of several recent moderate earthquakes that occurred within these seismic bands, we suggest that these two structures are reverse faults. These two structures may connect with each other to form a major boundary structure system in this area. In the northernmost part of the Longitudinal Valley suture, we propose that as the Coastal Range subducts northward beneath the Eurasian plate with the Philippine Sea plate, the shallow sediments of the Longitudinal Valley, being a buoyant block, do not subduct, but overthrust northward and westward instead.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.5459C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.5459C"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismotectonic characteristics of the northernmost part of the Longitudinal Valley suture, eastern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, C.-F.; Shyu, J. B. H.; Wu, Y.-M.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The island of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> is located at the collisional boundary between the Philippine Sea and the Eurasian plates. In eastern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, the Longitudinal Valley between the Central Range and the Coastal Range is generally considered as the suture zone. The Ryukyu subduction system, on the other hand, extends southwestward from offshore eastern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, and intersects with the northernmost Longitudinal Valley suture. As a result, this area is characterized by frequent earthquakes and complex geological structures. Although there have been several tectonic investigations in this area, detailed knowledge of seismotectonic characteristics of this complicated region is still very limited. Recently, we have obtained high resolution earthquake data by combining records from seismic stations of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and data from <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Central Weather Bureau Seismic Network (CWBSN) and <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> <span class="hlt">Strong</span> <span class="hlt">Motion</span> Instrumentation Program (TSMIP). Therefore, we attempted to analyze this area in detail using these high resolution seismic data, together with tectonic geomorphic investigations. The distribution of background seismicity shows that many earthquakes occurred at about 10 km deep in this area, and a linear seismicity cluster extends to the surface west of the Hualien City. We infer that this seismicity cluster represents a structure that crops out within the eastern flank of the Central Range. This structure would be different from the Milun fault, which is a known structure in the Hualien area and ruptured during an M7.3 earthquake in October 1951. Another major feature in this area is a listric cluster of seismicity that appears to extend to the surface near the Liwu River mouth, north of the Hualien City. This cluster likely represents an E-W striking structure that dips to the south. Based on the focal mechanisms of several recent moderate earthquakes that occurred within these seismic clusters, we suggest that these two structures are reverse faults. We are currently collecting more data, such as the crustal deformation patterns from GPS networks, 3-D velocity structure, and the bedrock structural features from field investigations, to further understand these two unknown structures and the general seismotectonic characteristics of this area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.5741D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.5741D"><span id="translatedtitle">Can landslide-prone slope response to <span class="hlt">strong</span> shaking be inferred from weak <span class="hlt">motion</span> data? First answer from 2009 L'Aquila earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Del Gaudio, Vincenzo; Wasowski, Janusz</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The complexity of factors controlling the dynamic response of marginally stable slopes and the scarcity of direct ground <span class="hlt">motion</span> recordings acquired on landslide-prone areas make it difficult to evaluate the role of site response in seismic landslide triggering. A long term accelerometric monitoring, conducted at a tectonically and geomorphologically active site of Abruzzo in Central Italy (Caramanico Terme) has provided interesting evidence of amplification with a pronounced directional character parallel to the local slope direction on a landslide consisting of colluvial deposits overlying mudstone substratum. However, until 2008, these observations were based only on recordings of events of low to moderate magnitude. The 6.3 Mw earthquake that on 6 April 2009 hit L'Aquila, 60 km from Caramanico, allowed to test whether these previous findings hold true also for the landslide site response at higher shaking levels. The comparison of the 2009 mainshock recordings of the accelerometric station located on the landslide (CAR2) to those from two nearby stations, one sited on soft soils similar to landslide substratum (CAR1) and the other on colluvial material (CAR5), showed relative amplifications (in terms of peak horizontal acceleration PHA) very close to the average values estimated from smaller events (about 1.5 and 1.0 relatively to CAR1 and CAR5, respectively). The similarity of PHA observed on colluvium, regardless of its involvement in landsliding, confirmed that, in terms of total shaking energy, the main factor controlling amplification is the impedance contrast between colluvium and mudstone substratum. The comparison between the station on landslide and a reference station on rock (CAR4) showed a relative amplification increasing with magnitude, probably because of the stronger response of the rock site to the higher frequencies prevailing in wavetrains coming from nearby small sources. This suggests that in such cases amplification assessments based on weak <span class="hlt">motion</span> data can lead to considerable underestimates. On the other hand, the landslide site response directivity showed similar properties for the entire range of the observed magnitudes (1.4 - 6.3). It is possible that in the near field source effects modify the ratio between directional maximum and minimum of shaking energy, without, however, significantly altering the orientation of shaking maxima. In terms of spectral properties, directivity of major peaks in horizontal to spectral ratios (HVSR) was the same at any magnitude, even though at higher magnitudes spectral ratio amplitudes tend to decrease at higher frequencies and increase at lower ones. However the comparison of HVSR with standard spectral ratios (SSR) between the station on landslide and the reference site on rock indicated that the inferences on resonance frequencies derived from single station seismic weak <span class="hlt">motion</span> measurements (like HVSR) could be unreliable under the complex conditions of a landslide-prone slope. It appears that more reliable indications can be derived from ambient noise measurement acquired with velocimetric instruments. Thus, overall, weak <span class="hlt">motion</span> recordings proved to provide useful information on landslide site response characteristics, especially having a dataset sufficiently differentiated in terms of azimuth location, distance, energy and source characteristics. However, the extrapolation of inferences based on recordings of small magnitude events to stronger earthquake scenarios requires some caution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5642575','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5642575"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismic Safety Margins Research Program, Phase I. Project II: seismic input. Compilation, assessment and expansion of the <span class="hlt">strong</span> earthquake ground <span class="hlt">motion</span> data base</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Crouse, C B; Hileman, J A; Turner, B E; Martin, G R</p> <p>1980-04-01</p> <p>A catalog has been prepared which contains information for: (1) world-wide, ground-<span class="hlt">motion</span> accelerograms, (2) the accelerograph sites where these records were obtained, and (3) the seismological parameters of the causative earthquakes. The catalog is limited to data for those accelerograms which have been digitized and published. In addition, the quality and completeness of these data are assessed. This catalog is unique because it is the only publication which contains comprehensive information on the recording conditions of all known digitized accelerograms. However, information for many accelerograms is missing. Although some literature may have been overlooked, most of the missing data has not been published. Nevertheless, the catalog provides a convenient reference and useful tool for earthquake engineering research and applications.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3905C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3905C"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of Active Crustal Deformation in Chiayi Area, Southwestern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> by Continues GPS network and numerical modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chung, W. C.; Hu, J. C.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Locating in the boundary between the Eurasia Plate and the Philippine Sea Plate, the island of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> lies in a complex tectonic area. The fold-and-thrust belt in the southwestern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> provides distinctive morphotectonic features reflecting the initial mountain building stage in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> orogeny. Several devastating earthquakes have occurred in this region since 1900, the famous one is M7.1 Meishan earthquake in 1906. In addition, a seismic concentration zone is observed in Coastal plain in Chiayi counties, which no active faults have been reported in this region. The active deformation in SW <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> has been suggested to be related to active growing folding initiated by the blind thrust fault system. How surface deformation related to the subsurface active structures is a crucial topic for seismic hazard assessment in study area. The newly initiated blind fault system increases potential earthquake hazard in the southwestern alluvial plain where is densely populated. Thus we try to characterize the existence of blind fault-folding system beneath the coastal plain area by geodetic method. We derive a velocity field based on data at 55 continuous GPS (CGPS) stations from 2006 to 2010, and data at 97 campaign mode GPS over a time period between 2002 to 2010. The CGPS data used in this study were processed with the GAMIT/GLOBK software version 10.4. The crustal <span class="hlt">motion</span> in this area shows the horizontal displacement about 30 mm/yr with the directions of 297° in the easternmost part of the Western Foothills, and crossing the main active structures, Chiushiunkeng-Chukou Fault and blind fault systems, the velocities significantly decrease to 3 mm/yr with the directions of 288° in the westernmost part in the coastal plan, with respect to Paisha station, S01R. The compressional strain rate dominates and the larger compressional strain rate is observed at the Foothill region, the east side of Chiushiunkeng- Chukou Fault. In some coordinate time-series of our CGPS sites, the <span class="hlt">strong</span> periodic signals whether in horizontal component or vertical component is observed. These signals might include the effect of variation of ground water level or tectonic <span class="hlt">motion</span>. In this study, we try to use the available geological structural profiles from CPC to characterize complex <span class="hlt">motions</span> in Chiayi region and to assess the fault activity based on 2-D dislocation model. Further, we try to use Poly3D to inverse the fault <span class="hlt">motion</span> during interseismic period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.S12B0605C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.S12B0605C"><span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary Finite Fault Source Inversions of Aftershocks of 1999 Chi-Chi, <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>CHI, W.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>More than 6 Mw > 6 aftershocks of the 1999 Chi-Chi, <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> earthquake have been well-recorded by the Central Weather Bureau of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. <span class="hlt">Strong</span> <span class="hlt">motion</span> data from 3 of the aftershocks were made available recently and provide an opportunity to examine source parameters and relate them to the mainshock and the deep crustal fault geometry of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. Previously we have inverted the mainshock to study its rupture process on the east-dipping thrust fault. The results show that the major slip occurs within a topographically low, triangular region surrounded by mainshock surface rupture and large aftershocks. However, no surface ruptures have been mapped for the aftershocks, thus the caustive fault planes for those events are unknown. The first event (Mw:6.2; UT time: 1999/09/22/00:14:40.8; location: 23.83N, 121.05E; depth:29 km) has CMT (strike/dip/rake) of 327/12/55 and 183/80/97. For an equivalent epicentral distance, the horizontal velocity particle <span class="hlt">motion</span> on the west coast is usually 2-3 times larger than that on the east coast, suggesting basin effects, and possibly directivity effects for the western stations. Preliminary finite fault inversion using 1 time window (0.75 sec) and fixed rake on either east-dipping or west-dipping fault can somehow fit the eastern stations but could not reproduce the complex waveforms observed on the west coast. The finite fault inversion of the second aftershock event ( Mw:6.4; UT time: 1999/09/25/23:52:49.5; location: 23.86N, 121.01E; depth:15 km) show similar results. More complicated models are needed for both events because the overall variance reduction is still small (20%) for the rupture velocity ranges we tested (1.0-3.2 km/s). Currently we are testing multiple time window and varying rake inversion for those events. Moment tensors derived from other studies will also be used in our inversions. Recently a double-vergent geodynamic model is proposed to explain the mountain building processes of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. We hope in the future we can determine whether some of those aftershocks occurred on the shallow east-dipping thrusts or on the hypothetical steep west-dipping backthrusts. The slip patterns derived from our study may also shed some light on how stress evolves during an earthquake sequence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.T53D1974L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.T53D1974L"><span id="translatedtitle">The 2005 Ilan Plain (northeastern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>) seismic crisis: a dike intrusion event associated with onland propagation of the Okinawa Trough</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lai, K.; Chen, Y.; Wu, Y.; Avouac, J.; Kuo, Y.; Wang, Y.; Chang, C.; Lin, K.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> underwent mountain building in the early stage of the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> orogeny but is now subjected to post-collisional crustal extension. Extension could be related to gravitational collapse or to the interaction with the Okinawa trough which lies offshore northeastern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. The Ilan Plain, northeastern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, which is bounded by the normal fault systems and filled up with thick Pliocene-Pleistocene sedimentary sequences, is one major zone where extension is taking place. On March 5, 2005 two earthquakes with about the same magnitude (ML=5.9) occurred there within 68 seconds and produced intense aftershocks activity recorded by Central Weather Bureau Seismic Network. We relocated the earthquake sequence by the three-dimension earthquake location algorithm with the newly published three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity model, and determined the first-polarity focal mechanisms of the earthquake doublet. One major cluster of aftershocks which trends E-W and dips steeply to the south can be identified and picked up as a potential fault plane. The focal mechanisms of the two mainshocks are both pure normal and consistent with N-S strike. Static co- seismic deformation was additionally determined form GPS daily solutions at a set of continuous GPS stations and from <span class="hlt">strong-motion</span> seismographs. These data show EW-SE extension at high angle to the fault plane, but the vertical displacements cannot be explained from a simple normal event double-couple mechanism. We present from elastic dislocation modeling that the geodetic data are best explained by tensile source with 28 mm of opening on a 13 km long fault extending from 1 to 13 km depth. We therefore interpret the crisis as the result of dike intrusion at the very tip of the Okinawa Trough, which is reasonably driven by back-arc spreading.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=17173','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=17173"><span id="translatedtitle">Deformation and seismicity of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vita-Finzi, Claudio</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>14C-dated Holocene coastal uplift, conventional and satellite geodetic measurements, and coseismic and aseismic fault slip reveal the pattern of distributed deformation at <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> resulting from convergence between the Philippine Sea plate and Eurasia; as in other subduction orogenic settings, the locus of strain release and accumulation is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> influenced by changes in fault geometry across strike. Uplift evidence from the islands of Lutao and Lanhsu is consistent with progressive oblique collision between the Luzon arc and the Chinese continental margin. In the Coastal Range, geodetic and seismic records show that shortening is taken up serially by discontinuous slip on imbricate faults. The geodetic data point to net extension across the Central Range, but deformed Holocene shorelines in the Hengchun Peninsula at its southern extremity suggest that the extension is a superficial effect partly caused by blind reverse faulting. The fastest shortening rates indicated by geodesy are recorded on the Longitudinal Valley fault and across the Chukou fault within the fold-and-thrust belt. In the former, the strain is dissipated mainly as aseismic reverse and strike-slip displacement. In contrast, the fold-and-thrust belt has witnessed five earthquakes with magnitudes of 6.5 or above in the 20th century, including the 1999.9.21 Chi-Chi earthquake (magnitude ≈ 7.6) on a branch of the Chukou fault. The neotectonic and geodetic data for <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> as a whole suggest that the fold-and-thrust belt will continue to host the majority of great earthquakes on the island. PMID:11016964</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7738988','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7738988"><span id="translatedtitle">Induced abortion in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, P D; Lin, R S</p> <p>1995-04-01</p> <p>Induced abortion is widely practised in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>; however, it had been illegal until 1985. It was of interest to investigate induced abortion practices in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> after its legalization in 1985 in order to calculate the prevalence rate and ratio of induced abortion to live births and to pregnancies in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. A study using questionnaires through personal interviews was conducted on more than seventeen thousand women who attended a family planning service in Taipei metropolitan areas between 1991 and 1992. The reproductive history and sexual behaviour of the subjects were especially focused on during the interviews. Preliminary findings showed that 46% of the women had a history of having had an induced abortion. Among them, 54.8% had had one abortion, 29.7% had had two, and 15.5% had had three or more. The abortion ratio was 379 induced abortions per 1,000 live births and 255 per 1,000 pregnancies. The abortion ratio was highest for women younger than 20 years of age, for aboriginal women and for nulliparous women. When logistic regression was used to control for confounding variables, we found that the number of previous live births is the strongest predictor relating to women seeking induced abortion. In addition, a significant positive association exists between increasing number of induced abortions and cervical dysplasia. PMID:7738988</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMIN33B1464C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMIN33B1464C"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of the low-cost MEMS accelerometers used by the Quake-Catcher Network and traditional <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">motion</span> seismic sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cochran, E. S.; Lawrence, J.; Kaiser, A. E.; Fry, B.; Chung, A. I.; Evans, J. R.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Accelerometers based on low-cost micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) have improved swiftly, making the rapid deployment of dense seismic arrays possible. For example, the Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) makes use of MEMS-based tri-axial sensors installed in homes and businesses to record earthquakes, with almost 2000 participants worldwide. QCN utilizes an open-source distributed-computing system, called the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC), to retrieve waveforms from continuous or triggered recordings back to the QCN server. Furthermore, the QCN approach can also be used to augment existing seismic networks for rapid-earthquake detection purposes, as well as studies on seismic source- and site-related phenomena. Following the 3 September 2010 Mw7.1 Darfield earthquake, 192 QCN stations were installed in a dense array to record the on-going aftershock sequence in and around the city of Christchurch. We examine the peak ground <span class="hlt">motions</span> recorded during a M5.1 aftershock and find that peak ground acceleration (PGA) is spatially variable, but with a clear decay in amplitude with distance. In general, closely located GeoNet and QCN stations report similar PGA. Several QCN stations were located within 1 km of existing GeoNet stations, providing an opportunity to compare time series and amplitude spectra. For these closely spaced pairs of stations, the amplitude spectra observed from the horizontal components are highly correlated with average cross-correlation coefficients of 0.9 or higher. In addition, we find the correlation coefficient decreases with increasing distance between station pairs. In future work we will compare the instrumental sensitivity between traditional and MEMS-based sensors by conducting shake table tests of five different types of MEMS sensors at the Albuquerque Seismic Lab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.3178W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.3178W"><span id="translatedtitle">Practical Applications of Low Cost Seismic Network for Producing Quick Shaking Map in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Yih-Min</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Two major earthquakes of ML greater than 6.0 occurred in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> in the first half of 2013. The vibrantly shakings brought landslides, falling rocks and casualties. This paper presents a seismic network developed by National <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> University (NTU) with 401 Micro-ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) accelerators. The network recorded high quality <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">motion</span> signals of the two events and produced delicate shaking maps within one minute after the earthquake occurrence. The high shaking regions of the intensity map produced by the NTU system precisely indicate the locations of damages and casualties. Equipping with the dense array of MEMS accelerometers, the NTU system is able to accommodate 10% signals loss from part of the seismic stations and maintains its normal functions for producing shaking maps. The system also has the potential to identify the direction of rupture which is one of the key indices to estimate possible damages. The low cost MEMS accelerator array shows its potential in real-time earthquake shaking map generation and damage avoidance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.S53B2492M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.S53B2492M"><span id="translatedtitle">Rapid Source Characterization of the 2011 Tohoku-oki Earthquake with Real-Time GPS and <span class="hlt">Strong</span> <span class="hlt">Motion</span> Data: Implications for Tsunami Warning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Melgar, D.; Crowell, B. W.; Bock, Y.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Saturation of seismometers in the near field and problems with the double integration of accelerometer data into displacements degrades rapid magnitude estimation and source characterization for large earthquakes. Although Japan possesses the most advanced earthquake and tsunami early warning system in the world, it took about 20 minutes using teleseismic waves from distant seismic networks to determine that the 11 March 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake was an Mw 9.0 event - earlier estimates based on local seismic networks ranged from M7.2 to M8.0. We present a seismogeodetic network model that can estimate on-the-fly the full dynamic range and spectrum of seismic <span class="hlt">motions</span> for large earthquakes using observations starting in the near field. Replaying local Japanese data in a simulated real-time mode from 785 GPS stations and 190 accelerometers during the Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that an accurate centroid moment tensor solution to ascertain the type of earthquake, immediately followed by a finite fault slip model could have been obtained in about 3 minutes, providing more accurate and timely warnings of the severity of the impending tsunami and assisting first responders with evacuation and recovery efforts. The seismogeodetic network model is sufficiently accurate to detect P wave arrivals in the near field for large events, leading to improved earthquake early warning (EEW) methodologies that predict the arrival and intensity of S waves. Using a maximum P wave amplitude scaling relationship from displacements estimated for 175 stations during three historical large earthquakes including Tohoku-oki, we demonstrate that an accurate first estimate of magnitude may be able to be obtained within a few seconds of P wave arrival at a handful of stations closest to the epicentre. Furthermore we use the rapid slip inversion to model the ensuing tsunami, we will show comparisons between the predicted waveforms and those measured by DART buoys, near shore tide gauges and other geophysical instruments to demonstrate that the model is robust enough to produce reasonable predictions of tsunami intensity,</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1010/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1010/"><span id="translatedtitle">Shear Wave Structure of Umbria and Marche, Italy, <span class="hlt">Strong</span> <span class="hlt">Motion</span> Seismometer Sites Affected by the 1997-98 Umbria-Marche, Italy, Earthquake Sequence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kayen, Robert; Scasserra, Giuseppe; Stewart, Jonathan P.; Lanzo, Giuseppe</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>A long sequence of earthquakes, eight with magnitudes between 5 and 6, struck the Umbria and Marche regions of central Italy between September 26, 1997 and July 1998. The earthquake swarm caused severe structural damage, particularly to masonry buildings, and resulted in the loss of twelve lives and about 150 injuries. The source of the events was a single seismogenic structure that consists of several faults with a prevailing northwest-southeast strike and crosses the Umbria-Marche border. The focal mechanism of the largest shocks indicates that the events were the product of shallow extensional normal faulting along a NE-SW extension perpendicular to the trend of the Apennines. The network of analog seismometer stations in the Umbria and Marche regions recorded <span class="hlt">motions</span> of the main September and October 1997 events and a dense array of mobile digital stations, installed since September 29, recorded most of the swarm. The permanent national network Rete Accelerometrica Nazionale (RAN) is administered and maintained by Dipartimento delle Protezione Civile (DPC: Civil Protection Department); the temporary array was managed by Servizio Sismico Nazionale (SSN) in cooperation with small agencies and Universities. ENEA, the operator of many seismometer stations in Umbria, is the public Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment. Many of the temporary and permanent stations in the Italian seismic network have little or no characterization of seismic velocities. In this study, we investigated 17 Italian sites using an active-source approach that employs low frequency harmonic waves to measure the dispersive nature of surface waves in the ground. We used the Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW) approach, coupled with an array of harmonic-wave electro-mechanical sources that are driven in-phase to excite the ground. An inversion algorithm using a non-linear least-squares best-fit method is used to compute shear wave velocities for up to 100 meters of the soil column. A draft report was published in the summer of 2008, followed by a comment period, lengthy discussions with Italian colleagues, and improved knowledge of the subsurface at the sites from soil logs. Four of the sites were reprocessed in order to correct issues with phase unwrapping of the field dispersion curves that complicated the velocity profile calculations at the lowest velocity sites. This report presents the final results from the reprocessing effort.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=role+AND+government+AND+taiwan&pg=3&id=EJ608905','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=role+AND+government+AND+taiwan&pg=3&id=EJ608905"><span id="translatedtitle">Democratic Citizenship Education in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lu, Mei-Hui; Hung, Jo-Lieh</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Examines the forces enhancing democratic citizenship education in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> focusing on the social, political, and cultural context of the country. Highlights the progress that has been made, reviews the factors that hinder the development of a democratic citizenship education, and considers its future in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> (Republic of China). (CMK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1612866Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1612866Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Feasibility study of a nation-wide Early Warning System: the application of the EEW software PRESTo on the Italian <span class="hlt">Strong</span> <span class="hlt">Motion</span> Network (RAN)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zollo, Aldo; Picozzi, Matteo; Elia, Luca; Martino, Claudio; Brondi, Piero; Colombelli, Simona; Emolo, Antonio; Festa, Gaetano; Marcucci, Sandro</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The past two decades have witnessed a huge progress in the development, implementation and testing of Earthquakes Early Warning Systems (EEWS) worldwide, as the result of a joint effort of the seismological and earthquake engineering communities to set up robust and efficient methodologies for the real-time seismic risk mitigation. The leading experience of the operational early warning system implemented by the Japan Meteorological Agency showed the effectiveness of a combined onsite and network-based approach to rapidly broadcast the rapid warning after a potential damaging earthquake. At the nation-wide scale, the Japanese system makes use of real-time data streamed by the extremely dense accelerograph array (about 1000 seismic instruments) deployed across Japan. With more than 750 accelerometric stations installed over all the active seismic zones, target cities and strategic infrastructures, Italy has the potential for a nation-wide early warning system, although the communication network and data sharing must be expanded and improved. A significant number of these stations are nodes of the RAN (Italian Accelerometric Network) managed by the Italian national emergency management department (Dipartimento della Protezione Civile, DPC), whose data are used for emergency response services. In the framework of the REAKT-Strategies and tools for Real Time Earthquake RisK ReducTion FP7 European project, the AMRA-RISSCLab group is engaged in a feasibility study on the implementation of the EEW software PRESTo earthquake early warning platforms on the Italian accelerometric network (RAN) PRESTo (PRobabilistic and Evolutionary early warning SysTem) is a highly configurable and easily portable platform for Earthquake Early Warning. The system processes the live accelerometric streams from the stations of a seismic network to promptly provide probabilistic and evolutionary estimates of location and magnitude of detected earthquakes while they are occurring, as well as shaking prediction at the regional scale. Alarm messages containing those parameters can reach target sites before the destructive waves, enabling automatic safety procedures. The earthquake location is obtained by an evolutionary, probabilistic approach that uses information from both triggered and not-yet-triggered stations at each time step. Magnitude estimation is based on a Bayesian approach that uses the peak displacement measured on short 2-4 second windows of P- and S-waves signal. Peak ground <span class="hlt">motion</span> is estimated at target sites by GMPEs using location and magnitude. The performance of the potential EW system at the national scale has been investigated through simulated earthquake scenarios using real-data from several M 5-6 earthquakes recorded by the network RAN. Furthermore, a statistical approach has been implemented considering a nation-wide grid of synthetic sources, the same grid which is used to derive the seismic hazard map in Italy. By considering a virtual testing period of 50 years, each grid's node is considered as a seismic source capable of generating a sequence of earthquakes with magnitude varying according the seismogenic zones properties to which it belongs. Then, the EW algorithm, PRESTo, is run on the sequences of synthetic data created for each of the grid's points considering the present-day RAN configuration, and network performance in terms of lead-time, errors in event location and magnitude determination is computed for the tested sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoJI.192..113M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoJI.192..113M"><span id="translatedtitle">Erosion effects assessed by repeated gravity measurements in southern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mouyen, M.; Masson, F.; Hwang, C.; Cheng, C.-C.; Le Moigne, N.; Lee, C. W.-.; Kao, R.; Hsieh, W.-C.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We analyse temporal variations of gravity measured in southern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> since November 2006 at 10 sites using absolute gravimeters and, since November 2008, at 70 sites using a relative gravimeter. We describe and apply methods to interpret the gravity changes in terms of local hydrological processes and vertical ground <span class="hlt">motions</span>. The effect of land water is computed from local rainfall data and a model of rain accumulation and discharge in the ground. The effect of the vertical <span class="hlt">motions</span> of the ground is estimated using time-series of permanent Global Positioning System (GPS) stations and the theoretical gravity to height ratio of -2 μGal cm-1. Unexpectedly, Morakot typhoon (2009 August), the strongest typhoon in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> in 50 yr, was responsible for the highest gravity changes. Morakot triggered numerous large landslides and debris flow deposits. Their thicknesses are estimated from the gravity changes (up to ˜280 μGal) along with field observations and satellite images.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27173598','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27173598"><span id="translatedtitle">A closer examination of the coupling between ionic hydrogen bond (IHB) stretching and flanking group <span class="hlt">motions</span> in (CH3OH)2H(+): the <span class="hlt">strong</span> isotope effects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tan, Jake A; Kuo, Jer-Lai</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The intermode coupling between shared proton (O-H(+)-O) fundamental stretching and flanking modes in (CH3OH)2H(+) was revisited in the following contexts: (1) evaluation of Hamiltonian matrix elements represented in a "pure state" (PS) basis and (2) tuning of coupling strengths using H/D isotopic substitution. We considered four experimentally accessible isotopologues for this study. These are: (CH3OH)2H(+), (CD3OH)2H(+), (CH3OD)2D(+), and (CD3OD)2D(+). Potential energy surfaces (PESs), as well as dipole moment surfaces (DMSs), were constructed at the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ level. Multidimensional vibrational calculations were conducted by solving a reduced dimensional Schrödinger equation using a discrete variable representation (DVR). We found that vibrational states in (CH3OH)2H(+) and (CD3OH)2H(+) are much more heavily mixed than those in (CH3OD)2D(+) and (CD3OD)2D(+). Furthermore, each isotopologue chooses to <span class="hlt">strongly</span> couple between out-of-phase in-plane CH3 rocking and its out-of-plane counterpart. Lastly, the interaction between O-O stretching and O-H(+)-O stretching was explored. We found that between the first overtone of O-O stretching and its combination tone with O-H(+)-O fundamental stretching, only the second couples with O-H(+)-O fundamental stretching. We hope that our isotopologue calculations would motivate experimentalists to measure them in the future. PMID:27173598</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27108748','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27108748"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Report on Quitline Activities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hsu, Pei-Ting; Chang, Chia-Wen; Chang, Te-Chung</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Aiming at reducing the smoking population, the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> government adopted a successful smoking cessation quitline model from California Smokers' Helpline, commissioned a private non-profit organization-Teacher Chang Foundation, which was well-known for its quality telephone counseling service-to set up Asia's first quitline, <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Smokers' Helpline (TSH) in 2003. The establishment of the quitline constituted significant progress for tobacco control in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, as it built up a cooperative model with smoking cessation clinics to increase the quit rate through assisting smokers to overcome their psychological obstacles encountered while attempting to quit smoking. PMID:27108748</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tectp.672...24Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tectp.672...24Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Triggered slip on a back reverse fault in the Mw6.8 2013 Lushan, China earthquake revealed by joint inversion of local <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">motion</span> accelerograms and geodetic measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Guohong; Hetland, Eric A.; Shan, Xinjian; Vallée, Martin; Liu, Yunhua; Zhang, Yingfeng; Qu, Chunyan</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The 2013 Mw6.8 Lushan, China earthquake occurred in the southwestern end of the Longmenshan fault zone. We jointly invert local <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">motion</span> data and geodetic measurements of coseismic surface deformation, including GPS and InSAR, to obtain a robust model of the rupture process of the 2013 Lushan earthquake. Our joint inversion best model involves the rupture of two opposing faults during the Lushan earthquake, a main fault and a secondary fault. It is only when the secondary fault is included that both the GPS and InSAR measurements are fit along with the near-field <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">motion</span>. Over 75% of the computed moment was released in slip on the main fault segment, a northwest dipping, listric thrust fault, with buried thrust and dextral strike-slip at hypocenter depths, and with only minor slip closer to the surface. The secondary fault mainly involved oblique thrust slip or pure dextral strike-slip at shallower depths, and accounts for just under 24% of the moment released in the Lushan earthquake. Coulomb stress changes of about 0.5 MPa on the secondary fault segment at the time coseismic slip initiated on that fault indicate that slip was likely triggered by the coseismic slip on the main blind thrust fault. Our coseismic slip model is consistent with a sub-horizontal and east-west to southeast-northwest trending most compressive stress. Our inferred coseismic slip model is also consistent with previous GPS derived models of strain accumulation on the Longmenshan fault system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Tectp.661..210K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Tectp.661..210K"><span id="translatedtitle">Is the Lishan fault of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> active?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuo-Chen, Hao; Wu, Francis; Chang, Wu-Lung; Chang, Chih-Yu; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Hirata, Naoshi</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The Lishan fault has been characterized alternately as a major discontinuity in stratigraphy, structures and metamorphism, a ductile shear zone, a tectonic suture or non-existent. In addition to being a geological boundary, it also marks transitions in subsurface structures. Thus, the seismicity to the west of the fault permeates through the upper and mid-crust while beneath the Central Range it is noticeably less and largely concentrated in the upper 12 km. A prominent west-dipping conductive zone extends upward to meet the Lishan fault. Also, the eastward increase of crust thickness from ~ 30 km in the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Strait quickens under the Lishan fault to form a root of over 50 km under the Central Range. In the past, the small magnitude seismicity along the Lishan fault has been noticed but is too diffuse for definitive association with the fault. Recent processing of aftershock records of the 1999 Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake using Central Weather Bureau data and, especially, data from three post-Chi-Chi deployments of seismic stations across central <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> yielded hypocenters that appear to link directly to the Lishan structure. The presence of a near 4-km-long vertical seismic zone directly under the surface trace of the Lishan fault indicates that it is an active structure from the surface down to about 35 km, and the variety of focal mechanisms indicates that the fault <span class="hlt">motion</span> can be complex and depth-dependent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AtmEn..41.3684L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AtmEn..41.3684L"><span id="translatedtitle">A numerical study of an autumn high ozone episode over southwestern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lin, Chuan-Yao; Wang, Zifa; Chou, Charles C.-K.; Chang, Chih-Chung; Liu, Shaw C.</p> <p></p> <p>Elevated ozone concentration is one of the current major environmental concerns in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. The spatial distribution and seasonal variations of ground level ozone over <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> are investigated by using air quality network stations of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Environmental Protection Administration (TEPA). Data shows that high ozone episodes frequently occur over southwest <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> during autumn. In this season, shallow northeasterly winds prevail after frontal passage and are diverted by the Central Mountain Range (CMR) because of its mean altitude of about 2.5 km. The windward side in northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> is usually associated with cloudy days, whereas sunny days with weak wind speeds usually occur on the lee side of the CMR over southwest <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> due to topographical blocking. Numerical results indicate that anthropogenic emissions from the north of Kaohsiung could contribute as much as 41% of ozone for the Kaohsiung metropolitan area and 24% for the inland rural Pingtung area during the northerly flow. It is concluded that the contribution of the emissions from the north of Kaohsiung is significant and cannot be ignored. The northerly air masses, which flows over the western plain during daytime, picks up ozone and its precursors which are transported to southwestern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. After a sea breeze develops, <span class="hlt">strong</span> onshore flow transports significant amounts of ozone and precursors to the inland rural areas resulting in the high ozone episodes that frequently occur over southwestern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> during the autumn season.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoJI.203.2001P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoJI.203.2001P"><span id="translatedtitle">Anatomy of <span class="hlt">strong</span> ground <span class="hlt">motion</span>: near-source records and three-dimensional physics-based numerical simulations of the Mw 6.0 2012 May 29 Po Plain earthquake, Italy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paolucci, R.; Mazzieri, I.; Smerzini, C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Stimulated by the recent advances in computational tools for the simulation of seismic wave propagation problems in realistic geological configurations, this paper presents a 3D physics-based numerical analysis of near-source ground <span class="hlt">motion</span> during the MW 6.0 2012 May 29 earthquake in the Po Plain, Northern Italy. To reproduce with sufficient accuracy some of the most peculiar features of the near-source <span class="hlt">strong-motion</span> records and of the spatial variability of damage distribution, this study required a sequence of investigations, starting from the analysis of a wide set of near-source records, to the calibration of an improved kinematic seismic source model, up to the development of a 3D numerical model of the portion of the Po Plain interested by the earthquake. The latter includes the basin geometry, characterized by sediment thickness sharply varying from few tens of metres to some kilometres. The spatial resolution of the numerical model is suitable to propagate frequencies up to about 1.5 Hz. Numerical simulations were performed using the open-source high-performance code SPEED, based on the Discontinuous Galerkin Spectral Elements method. The 3D numerical model, coupled with the updated slip distribution along the rupturing fault, proved successful to reproduce with good agreement, measured through quantitative goodness-of-fit criteria, the most relevant features of the observed ground <span class="hlt">motion</span>. These include: (i) the large fault normal velocity peaks at the near-source stations driven by updip directivity effects; (ii) the small-scale variability at short distance from the source, resulting in the out-of-phase <span class="hlt">motion</span> at stations separated by only 3 km distance; (iii) the propagation of prominent trains of surface waves, especially in the Northern direction; (iv) the map of earthquake-induced ground uplift with maximum values of about 10 cm, in substantial agreement with geodetic measurements and (v) the two-lobed pattern of the peak ground velocity map, well correlated with the distribution of macroseismic intensity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614663L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614663L"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical studies on Heavy Rainfall Events over Northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> in Mei-Yu Season</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lin, Pay-Liam</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Two unusual heavy rainfall events occurred in northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> from late evening of 11 June to the early morning of 12 June 2012 and late evening of 2 June to the early morning of 3 June 1984. In a few hours, more than 400 mm rainfall were recorded over northwestern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> in these two events. The mechanisms for the commencement and maintenance of this localized heavy rainfall events over northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> are investigated using the NCEP global grid data, satellite imageries, radar reflectivities, and simulations from the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. These events occurred under favorable large-scale environment that included: upper-level divergence; low-level high equivalent potential temperature; low level of free convection (LFC); and subsynoptic-scale ascending <span class="hlt">motion</span> over the northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Strait and northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. In the late night of 2 June, the main heavy rainfall area is simulated to the southeast of the low-level windshift line associated with a trough axis, which is located in the southeastern China coast. The simulated heavy rainfall area moves eastward toward northeastern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Strait and the northwestern coast of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> as the windshift line continues to propagate eastward. The heavy convective rainfall is enhanced in the eastern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Strait by orographic blocking where the prevailing southwesterly wind within the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Strait converges with the orographically deflected flow with a southerly wind component off the western/northwestern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> coast. As the simulated convective area continues to move toward northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, it intensifies in a localized low-level convergence area over the northeastern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Strait and northwestern coast of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> where a barrier jet along the coast converges with the northwesterly winds behind the surface front. Furthermore, in the early morning of 3 June, the simulated rainfall is heavier where the barrier jet encounters the leading edge of the cold pool caused by rain evaporative cooling. As the convective systems drift inland, the orographic lifting of the pre-frontal southwesterly flow helps to produce higher simulated rainfall intensity in the southern slopes of the Taipei Basin. The simulated daily accumulated rainfall over the Taipei Basin and northwestern coast of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> is about 200 and 400 mm, respectively, about 50 mm less than observed. In an experiment without <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>'s topography (the NT run), the simulated rainfall intensity over the northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Strait and the northwestern coast of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> is much less. In contrast to the control run, despite the presence of favorable large-scale settings, no convective systems move to the northern part of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> from the northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Strait in the NT run without heavy rainfall simulated over northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. Two events will be comparatively investigated by WRF on the formation and maintainence of heavy rainfall in Mai-Yu season.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A11F0119L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A11F0119L"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical studies on Heavy Rainfall Events over Northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> in Mei-Yu Season</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lin, P.; Chen, C.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Two unusual heavy rainfall events occurred in northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> from late evening of 11 June to the early morning of 12 June 2012 and late evening of 2 June to the early morning of 3 June 1984. In a few hours, more than 400 mm rainfall were recorded over northwestern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> in these two events. The mechanisms for the commencement and maintenance of this localized heavy rainfall events over northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> are investigated using the NCEP global grid data, satellite imageries, radar reflectivities, and simulations from the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. These events occurred under favorable large-scale environment that included: upper-level divergence; low-level high equivalent potential temperature; low level of free convection (LFC); and subsynoptic-scale ascending <span class="hlt">motion</span> over the northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Strait and northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. In the late night of 2 June, the main heavy rainfall area is simulated to the southeast of the low-level windshift line associated with a trough axis, which is located in the southeastern China coast. The simulated heavy rainfall area moves eastward toward northeastern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Strait and the northwestern coast of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> as the windshift line continues to propagate eastward. The heavy convective rainfall is enhanced in the eastern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Strait by orographic blocking where the prevailing southwesterly wind within the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Strait converges with the orographically deflected flow with a southerly wind component off the western/northwestern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> coast. As the simulated convective area continues to move toward northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, it intensifies in a localized low-level convergence area over the northeastern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Strait and northwestern coast of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> where a barrier jet along the coast converges with the northwesterly winds behind the surface front. Furthermore, in the early morning of 3 June, the simulated rainfall is heavier where the barrier jet encounters the leading edge of the cold pool caused by rain evaporative cooling. As the convective systems drift inland, the orographic lifting of the pre-frontal southwesterly flow helps to produce higher simulated rainfall intensity in the southern slopes of the Taipei Basin. The simulated daily accumulated rainfall over the Taipei Basin and northwestern coast of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> is about 200 and 400 mm, respectively, about 50 mm less than observed. In an experiment without <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>'s topography (the NT run), the simulated rainfall intensity over the northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Strait and the northwestern coast of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> is much less. In contrast to the control run, despite the presence of favorable large-scale settings, no convective systems move to the northern part of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> from the northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Strait in the NT run without heavy rainfall simulated over northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. Two events will be comparatively investigated by WRF on the formation and maintainence of heavy rainfall in Mai-Yu season.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3320410','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3320410"><span id="translatedtitle">Vibrio vulnificus in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lin, Ching-Yih; Tang, Hung-Jen; Lee, Hsin-Chun; Liu, Jien-Wei; Liu, Yung-Ching</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Residents in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> are often exposed to marine microorganisms through seafood and occupational exposure. The number of reported cases of infection attributable to this organism has increased since the first case was reported in 1985. The increasing number of cases may be caused by greater disease activity or improved recognition by clinicians or laboratory workers. We analyze a clinical-case series of 84 patients with Vibrio vulnificus infection from 1995 to 2000 and describe the molecular epidemiologic features of pathogens isolated from these patients. The spectrum of clinical manifestations and outcomes, options of antimicrobial therapy, and virulence mechanisms were investigated. Results of molecular typing of isolates from humans and marine environment in this country had a high genetic divergence among these isolates. Education and measures are needed to prevent this emerging disease. PMID:15496235</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JAESc..90..173W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JAESc..90..173W"><span id="translatedtitle">Subsurface imaging, TAIGER experiments and tectonic models of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Francis T.; Kuo-Chen, H.; McIntosh, K. D.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The seismicity, deformation rates and associated erosion in the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> region clearly demonstrate that plate tectonic and orogenic activities are at a high level. Major geologic units can be neatly placed in the plate tectonic context, albeit critical mapping in specific areas is still needed, but the key processes involved in the building of the island remain under discussion. Of the two plates in the vicinity of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) is oceanic in its origin while the Eurasian Plate (EUP) is comprised partly of the Asian continental lithosphere and partly of the transitional lithosphere of the South China Sea basin. It is unanimously agreed that the collision of PSP and EU is the cause of the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> orogeny, but several models of the underlying geological processes have been proposed, each with its own evolutionary history and implied subsurface tectonics. TAIGER (<span class="hlt">TAiwan</span> Integrated GEodynamics Research) crustal- and mantle-imaging experiments recently made possible a new round of testing and elucidation. The new seismic tomography resolved structures under and offshore of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> to a depth of about 200 km. In the upper mantle, the steeply east-dipping high velocity anomalies from southern to central <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> are clear, but only the extreme southern part is associated with seismicity; toward the north the seismicity disappears. The crustal root under the Central Range is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> asymmetrical; using 7.5 km/s as a guide, the steep west-dipping face on the east stands in sharp contrast to a gradual east-dipping face on the west. A smaller root exists under the Coastal Range or slightly to the east of it. Between these two roots lies a well delineated high velocity rise spanning the length from Hualien to Taitung. The 3-D variations in crustal and mantle structures parallel to the trend of the island are closely correlated with the plate tectonic framework of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. The crust is thickest in the central <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> collision zone, and although it thins toward the south, the crust is over 30 km thick over the subduction in the south; in northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, the northward subducting PSP collides with <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> and the crust thins under northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> where the subducting indenter reaches 50 km in depth. The low Vp/Vs ratio of around 1.6 at a mid-crustal depth of 25 km in the Central Range indicates that current temperatures could exceed 700 °C. The remarkable thickening of the crust under the Central Range, its rapid uplift without significant seismicity, its deep exhumation and its thermal state contribute to make it the core of orogenic activities on <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Island. The expanded network during the TAIGER deployment captured broadband seismic data yielding enhanced S-splitting results with mainly SKS/SKKS data. The polarization directions of the fast S-waves follow very closely the structural trends of the island, supporting the concept of a vertically coherent <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> orogeny in the outer few hundred kilometers of the Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..MAR.T8001R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..MAR.T8001R"><span id="translatedtitle">Progress and Prospect of Physics Research and Education in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Raynien Kwo, J.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Started about two decades ago, the global trend of shifting industrial manufacture power from western developed countries toward developing countries in Asia has in turn become the impetus in building up physical science and research in these areas. A very good example is the remarkable progress of physical research and education in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, in terms of quantity and quality. The continuous elevation of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>'s high education into graduate level plus the government's <span class="hlt">strong</span> commitment to research and development on a level of 2.62 % GDP have led to an impressive physics program with an annual budget ˜32 million USD from National Science Council in supporting 568 PIs. The investigation scope encompasses high energy and astrophysics, nano and condensed matter, and semiconductor, optoelectronic physics, etc. The former is vigorously conducted via international collaborative efforts of LHC, KEK, ALMA, Pan-STARRS, etc. The latter is driven by vital <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> high tech industry mostly semiconductor IC and optoelectronics flourished during this period. The early trend of outflows of BS physics majors to western world for advanced studies has reversed dramatically. Nearly 80% of the BS students continue their MS and PhD degrees in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, attracted by lucrative job markets of high tech industry. In addition, healthy inflow of high-quality science manpower of well trained PhDs and senior scholars returning to homeland has strengthened the competitiveness. Overall, the physics community in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> is thriving. The annual Physical Society meeting is expanding at a rate of 6%, reaching ˜1800 attendants and 1200 papers, and dedicated to promotions of female physicists and students. The publication quantity of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> in top journals of PRs and PRL is ranked among top 20^th for all fields of physics, and ranked the 6^th in APL. Clearly <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> has now emerged as a <span class="hlt">strong</span> power in applied science, not limited by its population size. Concerted efforts on scientific exchanges are being taken to connect to international societies. The bright outlook of physical science and its vital power in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> is anticipated to provide a stimulus to benefit South East Asia, and have far-reaching impacts on China and worldwide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.S53D..02H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.S53D..02H"><span id="translatedtitle">Characteristics of Long-Period (3 to 10 s) <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Ground <span class="hlt">Motions</span> Observed in and around the Los Angeles Basin during the Mw7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake of April 4, 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hatayama, K.; Kalkan, E.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>We examined the characteristics of long-period <span class="hlt">strong</span> ground <span class="hlt">motions</span> within a period range of 3 to 10 s in and around the Los Angeles (LA) basin during the Mw7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake. The contour map of the observed peak ground velocity (PGV) values clearly shows that the LA basin significantly amplifies the long-period <span class="hlt">motions</span>. The largest PGV values observed within the LA basin range from 0.1 to 0.12 m/s, though the basin is around 350 km away from the epicenter. These largest PGV values were recorded at seven stations in the central part, and one station in the western part of the basin. The Fourier acceleration spectra of records from these eight stations are predominant at the periods of 6 to 8 s with the corresponding peak values of 1 to 1.4 m/s. The ratio of Fourier amplitudes with respect to a reference site (STG station of the Southern California Seismic Network, located on hard rock in the southeast edge of the LA basin) show that the spectral amplitudes at these eight stations are 5 to 13 times larger than those at the reference site within a wide period range, 5.5 to 9 s. To understand how the spatial variation of amplification for the long-period <span class="hlt">motions</span> is related to the basin underground structure, we plotted contours of the amplification factors at 3, 5, 7 and 10 s spectral periods with respect to the reference site (i.e. STG station) onto several different maps, where depths to different S-wave velocities (Vs) are also depicted using the latest SCEC Community Velocity Model (CVM-H 6.2). Comparison of amplification contours with the basin model indicates that for the 10 s spectral period, the largest amplification occurs in the central part of the LA basin where the depth to the Vs of 3.2 km/s reaches to the maximum, 9.5 km. For the 3, 5 and 7 s spectral periods, the amplification becomes larger in almost the same area as the 10 s case (the central part of the LA basin) and also in the San Gabriel valley, where the depth to the Vs of 1.5 km/s reaches to the maximum, 3.7 km. Although the depth to bedrock (Vs > 3.2 km/s) is shallower (3.6 to 4 km) in the San Gabriel valley than the LA basin, the large amplification is due to the thick soft sediments (Vs < 1.5 km/s). This suggests importance of precise seismic velocity profiles at both shallow- and deep-part of sedimentary basins for a more accurate prediction of long-period <span class="hlt">strong</span> ground <span class="hlt">motions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH51A1603L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH51A1603L"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) to <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lin, P.; Cheng, C.; Hsieh, P.; Yen, Y.; Chan, C.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>In this study we assess the probabilistic seismic hazard for the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> region. For this propose, the information on tectonic setting, geology, geomorphology, earthquake catalog, and ground <span class="hlt">motion</span> attenuation is integrated. The treatment of seismogenic sources is based on several categories, which are from shallow crust regions, deep crust regions, crustal active faults, subduction intraslabs, and subduction interfaces. By further considering ground <span class="hlt">motion</span> prediction equations for different types of sources and site conditions, probabilistic seismic hazard can be assessed. The obtained high hazards can mainly be contributed by the crustal active faults with short recurrence intervals. Thus, higher hazards are evaluated along the active faults in the Coastal Plain and the Longitudinal Valley. In northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, by contrast, a low hazard level is obtained. It corresponds to relative inactive tectonics and faults in this region and its vicinity. Since this assessment is widely applied for each administrative region in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, when the information of vulnerability and exposure is further considered, probabilistic seismic risk map could be assessed. The result would be a benefit to decision-makers and public officials for seismic hazard mitigation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoJI.193.1608H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoJI.193.1608H"><span id="translatedtitle">Joint inversion of seismic and geodetic data for the source of the 2010 March 4, Mw 6.3 Jia-Shian, SW <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Mong-Han; Dreger, Douglas; Bürgmann, Roland; Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Hashimoto, Manabu</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>The 2010 March 4, Jia-Shian (Mw 6.3) earthquake in SW <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> caused moderate damage and no surface rupture was observed, reflecting a deep source that is relatively rare in western <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. We develop finite-source models using a combination of seismic waveform (<span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">motion</span> and broadband), Global Positioning System (GPS) and synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) data to understand the rupture process and slip distribution of this event. The rupture centroid source depth is 19 km based on a series of moment tensor solution tests with improved 1-D Green's functions. The preferred fault model strikes 322° and dips 27° to the NE and the mainshock is a thrust event with a small left-lateral component. The finite-source model shows a primary slip asperity that is about 20 km in diameter at a depth range from 22 to 13 km, with peak slip of 42.5 cm, a total scalar seismic moment of 3.25 × 1018 N m (Mw 6.34) and with an average static stress drop of 0.24 MPa. The rupture velocity of this event is faster than the mid-crustal shear wave velocity in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, which suggests the possibility of a supershear event which has not been previously observed in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. Systematic resolution and sensitivity tests are performed to confirm the slip distribution, rupture velocity, the choice of weighting and smoothing for the joint inversions, and the consistency of the slip distribution. The first 24 hours of aftershocks appeared along the upper periphery of the main coseismic slip asperity. Both the mainshock and aftershocks are located in a transition zone where the depth of seismicity and an inferred regional basal décollement increases from central to southern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. The difference between the current orientation of plate convergence in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> (120º) and the P axis of this event (052º) and nearby measurements of recent crustal strain directions (050° to 080°), as well as the relatively low static stress drop, suggest that the Jia-Shian event involves the reactivation of a deep and weak pre-existing NW-SE geological structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030388','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030388"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface waves in the western <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> coastal plain from an aftershock of the 1999 Chi-Chi, <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wang, G.-Q.; Tang, G.-Q.; Boore, D.M.; Van Ness, Burbach, G.; Jackson, C.R.; Zhou, X.-Y.; Lin, Q.-L.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Significant surface waves were recorded in the western coastal plain (WCP) of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> during the 1999 Chi-Chi, <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, earthquake and its series of aftershocks. We study in detail the surface waves produced by one aftershock (20 September 1999, 18hr 03m 41.16sec, M 6.2) in this paper. We take the Chelungpu-Chukou fault to be the eastern edge of the WCP because it marks a distinct lateral contrast in seismic wave velocities in the upper few kilometers of the surface. For many records from stations within the WCP, body waves and surface waves separate well in both the time domain and the period domain. Long-period (e.g., >2 sec) ground <span class="hlt">motions</span> in the plain are dominated by surface waves. Significant prograde Rayleigh wave particle <span class="hlt">motions</span> were observed in the WCP. The observed peak ground velocities are about 3-5 times larger than standard predictions in the central and western part of the plain. Observed response spectra at 3 sec, 4 sec, and 5 sec at the center of the plain can be 15 times larger than standard predictions and 10 times larger than the predictions of Joyner (2000) based on surface wave data from the Los Angeles basin. The <span class="hlt">strong</span> surface waves were probably generated at the boundary of the WCP and then propagated toward the west, largely along radial directions relative to the epicenter. The geometry of the boundary may have had a slight effect on propagation directions of surface waves. Group velocities of fundamental mode Rayleigh and Love waves are estimated using the multiple filter analysis (MFA) technique and are refined with phase matched filtering (PMF). Group velocities of fundamental mode surface waves range from about 0.7 km/sec to 1.5 km/sec for the phases at periods from 3 sec to 10 sec. One important observation from this study is that the strongest surface waves were recorded in the center of the plain. The specific location of the strongest <span class="hlt">motions</span> depends largely on the period of surface waves rather than on specific site conditions or plain structures. Accordingly, we conjecture that surface waves could be generated in a wide area close to boundaries of low-velocity sedimentary wave guides. In the case studied in this article the area can be as wide as 30 km (from the Chelungpu fault to the center of the plain). Surface waves converted by P and S waves at different locations would overlap each other and add constructively along their propagation paths. As a result, the surface waves would get stronger and stronger. Beyond a certain distance to the boundary, no more surface waves would be generated. Consequently, no more local surface waves would be superimposed into the invasive surface waves, and the surface waves would tend to decay in amplitude with distance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoJI.194..465W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoJI.194..465W"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying the seismicity on <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Yi-Hsuan; Chen, Chien-Chih; Turcotte, Donald L.; Rundle, John B.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>We quantify the seismicity on the island of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> using the frequency-magnitude statistics of earthquakes since 1900. A break in Gutenberg-Richter scaling for large earthquakes in global seismicity has been observed, this break is also observed in our <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> study. The seismic data from the Central Weather Bureau Seismic Network are in good agreement with the Gutenberg-Richter relation taking b ≈ 1 when M < 7. For large earthquakes, M ≥ 7, the seismic data fit Gutenberg-Richter scaling with b ≈ 1.5. If the Gutenberg-Richter scaling for M < 7 earthquakes is extrapolated to larger earthquakes, we would expect a M > 8 earthquake in the study region about every 25 yr. However, our analysis shows a lower frequency of occurrence of large earthquakes so that the expected frequency of M > 8 earthquakes is about 200 yr. The level of seismicity for smaller earthquakes on <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> is about 12 times greater than in Southern California and the possibility of a M ≈ 9 earthquake north or south of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> cannot be ruled out. In light of the Fukushima, Japan nuclear disaster, we also discuss the implications of our study for the three operating nuclear power plants on the coast of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AcAau..63.1305C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AcAau..63.1305C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>'s second remote sensing satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chern, Jeng-Shing; Ling, Jer; Weng, Shui-Lin</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>FORMOSAT-2 is <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>'s first remote sensing satellite (RSS). It was launched on 20 May 2004 with five-year mission life and a very unique mission orbit at 891 km altitude. This orbit gives FORMOSAT-2 the daily revisit feature and the capability of imaging the Arctic and Antarctic regions due to the high enough altitude. For more than three years, FORMOSAT-2 has performed outstanding jobs and its global effectiveness is evidenced in many fields such as public education in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, Earth science and ecological niche research, preservation of the world heritages, contribution to the International Charter: space and major disasters, observation of suspected North Korea and Iranian nuclear facilities, and scientific observation of the atmospheric transient luminous events (TLEs). In order to continue the provision of earth observation images from space, the National Space Organization (NSPO) of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> started to work on the second RSS from 2005. This second RSS will also be <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>'s first indigenous satellite. Both the bus platform and remote sensing instrument (RSI) shall be designed and manufactured by NSPO and the Instrument Technology Research Center (ITRC) under the supervision of the National Applied Research Laboratories (NARL). Its onboard computer (OBC) shall use <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>'s indigenous LEON-3 central processing unit (CPU). In order to achieve cost effective design, the commercial off the shelf (COTS) components shall be widely used. NSPO shall impose the up-screening/qualification and validation/verification processes to ensure their normal functions for proper operations in the severe space environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=taiwan&id=EJ1013129','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=taiwan&id=EJ1013129"><span id="translatedtitle">Professional Counseling in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>: Past to Future</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Guo, Yuh-Jen; Wang, Shu-Ching; Combs, Don C.; Lin, Yi-Chun; Johnson, Veronica</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Because of the recent introduction of a licensure law, professional counseling has grown rapidly in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> after decades of slow development. The authors provide a historical review of the development of professional counseling in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> and discuss the current status and future trajectory of professional counseling in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=physics+AND+classification+AND+system&pg=2&id=EJ460263','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=physics+AND+classification+AND+system&pg=2&id=EJ460263"><span id="translatedtitle">Classifying <span class="hlt">Motion</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Duzen, Carl; And Others</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Presents a series of activities that utilizes a leveling device to classify constant and accelerated <span class="hlt">motion</span>. Applies this classification system to uniform circular <span class="hlt">motion</span> and <span class="hlt">motion</span> produced by gravitational force. (MDH)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1028/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1028/"><span id="translatedtitle">Calibration of PS09, PS10, and PS11 trans-Alaska pipeline system <span class="hlt">strong-motion</span> instruments, with acceleration, velocity, and displacement records of the Denali fault earthquake, 03 November 2002</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Evans, John R.; Jensen, E. Gray; Sell, Russell; Stephens, Christopher D.; Nyman, Douglas J.; Hamilton, Robert C.; Hager, William C.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>In September, 2003, the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company (APSC) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) embarked on a joint effort to extract, test, and calibrate the accelerometers, amplifiers, and bandpass filters from the earthquake monitoring systems (EMS) at Pump Stations 09, 10, and 11 of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS). These were the three closest <span class="hlt">strong-motion</span> seismographs to the Denali fault when it ruptured in the MW 7.9 earthquake of 03 November 2002 (22:12:41 UTC). The surface rupture is only 3.0 km from PS10 and 55.5 km from PS09 but PS11 is 124.2 km away from a small rupture splay and 126.9 km from the main trace. Here we briefly describe precision calibration results for all three instruments. Included with this report is a link to the seismograms reprocessed using these new calibrations: http://nsmp.wr.usgs.gov/data_sets/20021103_2212_taps.html Calibration information in this paper applies at the time of the Denali fault earthquake (03 November 2002), but not necessarily at other times because equipment at these stations is changed by APSC personnel at irregular intervals. In particular, the equipment at PS09, PS10, and PS11 was changed by our joint crew in September, 2003, so that we could perform these calibrations. The equipment stayed the same from at least the time of the earthquake until that retrieval, and these calibrations apply for that interval.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27199013','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27199013"><span id="translatedtitle">The development and achievement of a healthy cities network in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>: sharing leadership and partnership building.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hu, Susan C; Kuo, Hsien-Wen</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The World Health Organization (WHO) Healthy Cities (HC) projects are the best known of the settings-based approaches to health promotion. They engage local governments in health development through a process of political commitment, institutional change, capacity-building, partnership-based planning and innovative projects. Many cities have promoted HC projects in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> since 2002. In 2008, the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Alliance for Healthy Cities (TAHC) was launched to assist local governments in effectively establishing, operating and promoting HC projects. In this article, we share our experiences of establishing a platform and network to promote the HC program in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. Based on individual city profiles and governance in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, the TAHC developed a well-organized framework and model to encourage <span class="hlt">strong</span> leadership in local governments and to promote participation and engagement in their communities. In the last 6 years, leaders from <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>'s local governments in HC networks have integrated the HC concepts into their governance models, actively engaging and combining various resources with practical expertise and private sectors. The network of health in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> allows each city to develop its unique perspective on the HC projects. Using this method, not only local government meets its needs, but also increases governance efficiency and effectiveness, resulting in the promotion of its citizens' overall sustainable urban health development. This HC network in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> has partnerships with government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), with academic support and citizen involvement, a dynamic data collection system and demonstrated leadership in the sharing of information in the Asian region. PMID:27199013</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.T11B2079H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.T11B2079H"><span id="translatedtitle">Joint Inversion of Seismic and Geodetic Data for the Source of the 4th March 2010 MW 6.3 Jia-Shian, SW <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, Earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, M.; Dreger, D. S.; Burgmann, R.; Suppe, J.; Hashimoto, M.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The 4th March 2010 Jia-Shian (MW 6.3) earthquake occurred in SW <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> and caused moderate damage. According to the Central Weather Bureau (CWB) report, this event is located at a depth of ~23 km under the Central Range. No fault related surface rupture was observed, reflecting an unusually deep source that is relatively rare in west <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. The coseismic GPS measurements show a fan shape pattern with azimuths from SW to NW. The highest observed horizontal displacement is 3.67 cm in the direction of N80°W and is about 20 km far away from the epicenter. We develop finite-source models using a combination of Global Positioning System (GPS), synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR), and seismic <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">motion</span> waveform data to understand the rupture process of this event. The preferred model shows a primary slip patch that is about 20 km in diameter with a peak slip of 25.1 cm and total scalar seismic moment of 1.96 × 1018 N m (MW 6.13). This fault geometry is N38°W in strike and 27° dipping to NE. The majority of slip is between 8 and 14 cm located to the NW of the hypocenter, which is very close to the northern end of the active Chi-Shan Fault (CSF) and the high angle reverse Chao-Chou Fault (CCF). Our moment tensor solution using data from the Broadband Array in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> for Seismology (BATS) shows a NW-striking and east dipping thrust with a left-lateral strike-slip component to the focal mechanism, which is close to the current direction of plate <span class="hlt">motion</span> in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. The main shock mechanism and the aftershock distribution have different orientations, neither of which is similar to NS or NE-SW trending Chi-Shan and Chao-Chou surface faults. The aftershock sequence extends nearly 25 km into western Foothills striking EW when close to the epicenter but in a NW direction farther west from the epicenter. The different directions from the main shock to the aftershock distribution may imply different fault planes being ruptured during coseismic and postseismic periods. In addition, the focal mechanisms of aftershocks show two strikes and two senses of <span class="hlt">motions</span>: one is close to the main shock and another is in a more E-W direction with a larger left-lateral strike-slip component. Both agree well with the orientations of the aftershock sequence. The primary east-dipping detachment of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> is generally at the depths of 10-15 km in the north-central <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> but becomes deeper in the south, which is very close to the Jia-Shian earthquake hypocenter. As the result, the main shock might locate right above the detachment and then transferred the stress westward. This stress change might induce a series of aftershocks, and then illuminated a pre-existing fault. Hence, the stress changes from this event could enhance or decrease the regional Coulomb stress level to the nearby faults, which could be an important indicator of potential earthquake hazards in SW <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70102567','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70102567"><span id="translatedtitle">Stochastic ground <span class="hlt">motion</span> simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Strong</span> earthquake ground <span class="hlt">motion</span> records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground <span class="hlt">motion</span> time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground <span class="hlt">motion</span> records are also used to develop ground <span class="hlt">motion</span> prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available <span class="hlt">strong</span> ground <span class="hlt">motion</span> records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003CSR....23...63T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003CSR....23...63T"><span id="translatedtitle">Connectivity of the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, Cheju, and Korea straits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Teague, W. J.; Jacobs, G. A.; Ko, D. S.; Tang, T. Y.; Chang, K.-I.; Suk, M.-S.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Insight into the circulation of the East China Sea and origin of the Tsushima Current are investigated through direct, concurrent measurements of velocities through the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, Cheju, and Korea Straits. Current data are obtained from six bottom-mounted acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) arrayed along a section spanning the Korea Strait, a single bottom-moored ADCP in the Cheju Strait, and four bottom-moored ADCPs along a section spanning the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Strait. Mass transports are computed for the October-December, 1999 time period. In addition, temperature and salt transports are examined in conjunction with climatological values of temperature and salinity. Average volume transport is 0.14 Sverdrups (Sv) through the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Strait, 0.59 Sv for the Cheju Strait, and 3.17 Sv for the Korea Strait. Salt and temperature transport through the Korea Strait and into the Japan/East Sea are 110.48×10 6 kg/s and 0.24×10 15 watts (W), respectively. Heat loss in the East China Sea is approximately 200 W/ m2. Winds affect the transports in each of the straits. Most noticeable wind effects are observed in the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Strait where <span class="hlt">strong</span> north wind events force flow into the South China Sea. The main source for the Tsushima Current and its flow into the Japan/East Sea is clearly the Kuroshio for fall, 1999.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70042821','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70042821"><span id="translatedtitle">Black monazite from <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Matzko, J.J.; Overstreet, W.C.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Two forms of detrital monazite are known in offshore bars in southwestern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>: a yellow-green to colorless form and an unusual but abundant pelletlike form, generally black but also colored gray or brown. These black pellets, which are about 160 by 200 microns in size, are composed of fine-grained monazite crystals from 2 to 20 microns in size. The pellets are associated with highly variable amounts of discrete grains of detrital quartz, rutile, amphibole, tourmaline, and other minerals. Intergrown with the monazite are quartz, a cerium oxide mineral, chlorite, sulfides, and other minerals. Opaqueness of the pelletlike monazite is due principally to the cryptocrystalline nature of part of the monazite; only a small part of the opaqueness can be attributed to opaque inclusions. The black pelletlike monazite lacks thorium and has a high content of europium. In this respect, as in color, shape, size, and inclusions, the pelletlike monazite differs from the yellow-green detrital monazite. Despite the fact that they occur together in the littoral placers, they appear to have had different origins. The yellow-green monazite originated as an accessory mineral in plutonic rocks and has accumulated at the coast through erosion and transport. The origin of the pelletlike monazite is as yet unknown, but it is here inferred that it originated in unconsolidated coastal plain sediments through migration of cerium from the detrital monazite during weathering, and of the intermediate weight mobile rare earths from clay minerals during diagenesis. Possibly these pelletlike grains are detrital particles formed through erosion and transport from originally larger aggregates cemented by diagenetic monazite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004cosp...35.4453L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004cosp...35.4453L"><span id="translatedtitle">Space program in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, L.-C.</p> <p></p> <p>The National Space Program Office (NSPO) was established in 1991 to execute the space program in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. The first fifteen-year space program (1991-2006) consists of setting up infrastructure and carrying out three satellite programs (ROCSAT-1, ROCSAT-2 and ROCSAT-3). For the second fifteen-year program (2004-2018), NSPO will execute five major missions that include remote sensing satellites, broadband communication satellite, micro-satellites, international scientific cooperation programs, and sub-orbital science program. The ROCSAT-1 satellite is a low-earth orbit scientific experiment satellite launched on January 27, 1999. It carried three scientific payloads: Ocean Color Imager (OCI), Ionospheric Plasma and Electrodynamics Instrument (IPEI), and Experimental Communication Payload (ECP). The ROCSAT-2 satellite is a high-resolution remote sensing satellite to be launched in April 2004. ROCSAT-2 carries a Remote Sensing Instrument (RSI). At nadir, RSI ground resolution is 2 meter for panchromatic and 8 meter for multispectrum images with 24 km swath. In addition, it carries a science payload ISUAL (Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightnings). ISUAL experiment will observe the upper atmospheric transient luminous events (TLEs), such as red sprite, blue jets, and gigantic jets. The ROCSAT-3 program, also known as COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate), is an international cooperation program between NSPO and UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research) of USA. The mission goal is to launch six micro-satellites to collect atmospherically bent signals for weather prediction, global climate-change analysis, and ionosphere and gravity research. Three payloads will be carried on each satellite, including GPS Occultation Experiment (GOX), Tiny Ionospheric Photometer (TIP), and Tri-Band Beacon (TBB). ROCSAT-3 is planned for launch in late 2005.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1004134','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1004134"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> Interaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Karsch, F.; Vogelsang, V.</p> <p>2009-09-29</p> <p>We will give here an overview of our theory of the <span class="hlt">strong</span> interactions, Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) and its properties. We will also briefly review the history of the study of the <span class="hlt">strong</span> interactions, and the discoveries that ultimately led to the formulation of QCD. The <span class="hlt">strong</span> force is one of the four known fundamental forces in nature, the others being the electromagnetic, the weak and the gravitational force. The <span class="hlt">strong</span> force, usually referred to by scientists as the '<span class="hlt">strong</span> interaction', is relevant at the subatomic level, where it is responsible for the binding of protons and neutrons to atomic nuclei. To do this, it must overcome the electric repulsion between the protons in an atomic nucleus and be the most powerful force over distances of a few fm (1fm=1 femtometer=1 fermi=10{sup -15}m), the typical size of a nucleus. This property gave the <span class="hlt">strong</span> force its name.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/679415','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/679415"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Taiwan`s</span> experience with municipal waste recycling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lee, C.H.</p> <p>1998-12-31</p> <p>Currently, each person on the average produces 1.15 kg of the municipal waste per day and a total of 9 million metric tons were generated annually in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. The disposal of such a huge amount of waste presents tremendous challenge for the island due to the scarcity of landfills and incineration facilities available locally. EPA of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, R.O.C. thus takes an active role in promoting waste recycling to reduce the garbage produced in municipalities. In order to efficiently utilize the government`s human and financial resources used in recycling, started from January 31, 1989, EPA has mandated the producer responsibility recycling program for several designated post-consumer products such as PET, PVC bottles, scrap tires, scrap motor vehicles, etc. Producer responsibility recycling program specifies that the manufacturers, importers and sellers of these designated products have the responsibility to retrieve their products and recycle them properly. Several negative effects have been encountered while the implementation of this producer responsibility recycling program in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> which resulted in a modification of this recycling program recently. This paper presents the encountered experiences on the implementation of municipal waste recycling program in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24898627','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24898627"><span id="translatedtitle">Ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hsu, Chi-Hsin; Lin, I-Chan; Shen, Yun-Dun; Hsu, Wen-Ming</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>We describe in this paper the current status of ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. Data were collected from the Bureau of National Health Insurance of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, the Bulletin of the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Society, and the Statistics Yearbook of Practicing Physicians and Health Care Organizations in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> by the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Medical Association. We ascertained that 94 ophthalmologists were oculoplastic surgeons and accounted for 5.8% of 1621 ophthalmologists in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. They had their fellowship training abroad (most ophthalmologists trained in the United States of America) or in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. All ophthalmologists were well trained and capable of performing major oculoplastic surgeries. The payment rates by our National Health Insurance for oculoplastic and orbital surgeries are relatively low, compared to Medicare payments in the United States. Ophthalmologists should promote the concept that oculoplastic surgeons specialize in periorbital plastic and aesthetic surgeries. However, general ophthalmologists should receive more educational courses on oculoplastic and cosmetic surgery. PMID:24898627</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JPhCS..13..394F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JPhCS..13..394F"><span id="translatedtitle">Strategic planning of developing automatic optical inspection (AOI) technologies in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fan, K. C.; Hsu, C.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>In most domestic hi-tech industries in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, the automatic optical inspection (AOI) equipment is mostly imported. In view of the required specifications, AOI consists of the integration of mechanical-electrical-optical-information technologies. In the past two decades, traditional industries have lost their competitiveness due to the low profit rate. It is possible to promote a new AOI industry in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> through the integration of its <span class="hlt">strong</span> background in mechatronic technology in positioning stages with the optical image processing techniques. The market requirements are huge not only in domestic need but also in global need. This is the main reason to promote the AOI research for the coming years in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. Focused industrial applications will be in IC, PCB, LCD, communication, and MEMS parts. This paper will analyze the domestic and global AOI equipment market, summarize the necessary fish bone technology diagrams, survey the actual industrial needs, and propose the strategic plan to be promoted in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED467525.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED467525.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Kindergartener's Technology Education in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lai, Chun-Chin</p> <p></p> <p>According to the American Association for Advancement of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the International Technology Education Association (ITEA) and its Technology for All Americans Project (TfAAP), technology education should begin in kindergarten. Educators in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> have also advocated beginning technology education in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ979717.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ979717.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Reconstructing Transition Knowledge in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cheng, Chen-chen</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Taking a post-colonial stand and using school to work transition as an example, the author re-examines the special education discourses in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> and attempts to construct alternate understandings of transition from sociological and cultural perspectives. A review of past transition literature and a survey of the educational background of the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=taiwan&pg=4&id=ED528540','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=taiwan&pg=4&id=ED528540"><span id="translatedtitle">Principal Leadership in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Schools</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shouse, Roger C.; Lin, Kuan-Pei</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>During the past two decades, <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>'s Ministry of Education has responded to globalization by restructuring school curricular, instructional, and decision making practices along western lines in an attempt to attain legitimacy on the world stage. As a result, Taiwanese principals, once kings within their schools, now must share power with other…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1375239','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1375239"><span id="translatedtitle">Herbal Medicine Research in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kaphle, Krishna; Wu, Leang-Shin; Yang, Nai-Yen Jack; Lin, Jen-Hsou</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Of all the countries in the world, why did you choose <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> to pursue your study? It is a question that I (comments of the first author) have answered a thousand times. My first visit to a laboratory at National <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> University opened my eyes to the possibilities of herbal medicine research, especially in the area of veterinary medicine. It became my ambition to link the knowledge of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda from the Indian subcontinent and their integration with other systems of medicine, including Western medicine (WM), to achieve the concept of Sustainable Medicine, firstly for animals and then for humans. The Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) has implemented a technology development program to quickly establish the key technologies, and this is a moment of opportunity for <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>'s traditional herbal medicine industry to upgrade and transform itself. This paper, initially intended to be a student's narration, has evolved into a multi-author treatise on the present state and likely future scenario of herbal medicine research in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. PMID:16550238</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16550238','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16550238"><span id="translatedtitle">Herbal medicine research in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kaphle, Krishna; Wu, Leang-Shin; Yang, Nai-Yen Jack; Lin, Jen-Hsou</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>Of all the countries in the world, why did you choose <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> to pursue your study? It is a question that I (comments of the first author) have answered a thousand times. My first visit to a laboratory at National <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> University opened my eyes to the possibilities of herbal medicine research, especially in the area of veterinary medicine. It became my ambition to link the knowledge of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda from the Indian subcontinent and their integration with other systems of medicine, including Western medicine (WM), to achieve the concept of Sustainable Medicine, firstly for animals and then for humans. The Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) has implemented a technology development program to quickly establish the key technologies, and this is a moment of opportunity for <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>'s traditional herbal medicine industry to upgrade and transform itself. This paper, initially intended to be a student's narration, has evolved into a multi-author treatise on the present state and likely future scenario of herbal medicine research in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. PMID:16550238</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=New+AND+world+AND+order&pg=7&id=EJ822319','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=New+AND+world+AND+order&pg=7&id=EJ822319"><span id="translatedtitle">International Benchmarking with the Best Universities: Policy and Practice in Mainland China and <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mok, Ka Ho; Chan, Ying</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>With a <span class="hlt">strong</span> conviction to enhance their global competitiveness, governments across different parts of the world have tried various means to promote the ranking of their universities in the global university leagues. With a <span class="hlt">strong</span> determination to do better in such global ranking exercises, universities in mainland China and <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> have attempted…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoJI.203.2089D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoJI.203.2089D"><span id="translatedtitle">Gravity anomalies of the active mud diapirs off southwest <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Doo, Wen-Bin; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Lo, Chung-Liang; Chen, Song-Chuen; Tsai, Ching-Hui; Lin, Jing-Yi; Huang, Yuan-Ping; Huang, Yin-Sheng; Chiu, Shye-Donq; Ma, Yu-Fang</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Overpressure and buoyant effect of underlying sediments are generally used to account for the upward <span class="hlt">motion</span> or formation of submarine mud volcanoes and mud diapirs. In this study, we process and interpret the gravity anomalies associated with the active mud diapirs off SW <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. Geologically, the mud diapirs are just formed and are still very active, thus we can better understand the initial process of the mud diapirs formation through the gravity analysis. Our results show that the density contrasts of the submarine mud diapirs with respect to the surroundings are generally positive. Because the study area is in a tectonically compressive regime and the gas plume venting from the submarine mud volcanoes is very active, we thus infer that mechanically the mud diapirs off SW <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> have been formed mainly due to the tectonic compression on the underlying sediments of high pore-fluid pressure, instead of the buoyancy of the buried sediments. The overpressured sediments and fluid are compressed and pushed upwards to pierce the overlying sediments and form the more compacted mud diapirs. The relatively denser material of the mud diapirs probably constrains the flowing courses of the submarine canyons off SW <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, especially for the upper reaches of the Kaoping and Fangliao submarine canyons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.T33D0541C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.T33D0541C"><span id="translatedtitle">Active Extensional Structures Discovered by the Airborne LiDAR Mapping in the Tatun Volcanic Region, <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chan, Y.; Chang, K.; Chen, R.; Lee, J.; Hsieh, Y.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Complex tectonic deformation is present in northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> where the Philippine Sea plate is subducting under the Eurasian plate and the Okinawa trough is opening to the east. The Tatun volcanic region and the Taipei metropolitan basin are considered the products resulted from such complex tectonic environment. Furthermore, contractional deformation was prevailed in the earlier stage, as evidenced by several major thrust faults truncating the Tertiary strata. However, the expected nowadays extensional deformation is not fully characterized, for example, the Shanchiao fault bounding the western Taipei basin and its northern extension into the Tatun volcanic region. Based on industrial seismic profiles, it appeared that several well developed normal faults reactivated pre-existing thrust faults offshore northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. These normal faults likely extend into the land where the Tatun volcanics erupted through and covered on the Tertiary strata. It is our intentions to better inspect the deformational pattern existing within the Tatun volcanic region where forests dominate on the surface making field investigation difficult. In this study we apply high-resolution airborne LiDAR-derived digital terrain model to characterize possible joints, fractures, and faults in the Tatun volcanic region. The LiDAR-derived DTM was processed so that bare ground is revealed using virtual removal of forests. The derived 2-m DTM was then examined to map out topographic features possibly resulted from the linear geologic structures. We discovered clear distribution and pattern of the joints and fractures in the Tatun volcanic region for the first time. The mapped structural patterns reveal <span class="hlt">strong</span> evidence for regional extensional deformation in northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, especially within the Tatun volcanic region. We also uncovered branches of normal faults extending possibly from the Shanchiao fault into the Tatun volcanic region. The discovered normal fault, perhaps active, cut across flat regions with averaging 3.3 meters in displacement. A field outcrop was found which contains fault gouge and striations indicating normal and strike-slip in <span class="hlt">motion</span>. This further supports that the extensional deformation is young and an ongoing process in northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, and that the region may produce significant earthquakes through such mechanism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GeoJI.179..678L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GeoJI.179..678L"><span id="translatedtitle">The 2005 Ilan earthquake doublet and seismic crisis in northeastern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>: evidence for dyke intrusion associated with on-land propagation of the Okinawa Trough</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lai, Kuang-Yin; Chen, Yue-Gau; Wu, Yih-Min; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Kuo, Yu-Ting; Wang, Yu; Chang, Chien-Hsin; Lin, Kuan-Chuan</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>Northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> underwent mountain building in the early stage of the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> orogeny but is currently subjected to post-collisional crustal extension. It may be related to gravitational collapse or to the rifting of the Okinawa Trough, which lies offshore northeastern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. The Ilan Plain, northeastern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, which is bounded by the normal fault systems and filled up with thick Pliocene-Pleistocene sedimentary sequences, formed under such an extension environment. Over there on 2005 March 5 two earthquakes with about the same magnitude (ML = 5.9) occurred within 68 s and produced intense aftershocks activity according to the records of Central Weather Bureau Seismic Network of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. We relocated the earthquake sequence by the three-dimension earthquake location algorithm with the newly published 3-D Vp and Vp/Vs velocity model, and determined the first-polarity focal mechanisms of the earthquake doublet. One major cluster of aftershocks which trends E-W and dips steeply to the south can be identified and picked up as a potential fault plane. The focal mechanisms of the two main shocks are both classified as normal type by first-polarity but strike-slip by centroid moment tensor inversion; however two methods both yield consistent E-W strike. Static coseismic deformation was additionally determined from Global Positioning System (GPS) daily solutions at a set of continuous GPS stations and from <span class="hlt">strong-motion</span> seismographs. These data show NW-SE extension at high angle to the fault plane, which cannot be explained from a simple strike-slip double-couple mechanism. On the other hand, the small vertical displacements and steep fault plane cannot be explained from a simple normal event as well. We present from elastic dislocation modelling that the geodetic data are best explained by significant component of tensile source with centimetre-scale of opening on a 15-km-long fault extending from 1 to 13 km depth. We therefore interpret the crisis as the result of dyke intrusion at the very tip of the Okinawa Trough, which is reasonably driven by backarc spreading.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.G31B0716Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.G31B0716Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Plate Boundary Observatory in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yu, S.; Tsai, C.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>The island of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> is situated in the plate boundary zone between the Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plates. The Philippine Sea plate is subducting northwestward underneath the Eurasian plate along the Ryukyu Trench in the north, while the Eurasian plate underthrusts the Philippine Sea plate along the Manila Trench in the south. Taking advantage of the extremely high strain rate in the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> area, an integrated National Science Council project, Plate Boundary Observatory in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> (PBOT), was initiated following the idea of US PBO. The scientific goal of PBOT is to observe the crustal deformation on various temporal and spatial scales in the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> plate boundary zone employing available state of the art techniques for measuring crustal strain. The techniques include seismology, Global Positioning System (GPS), Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), borehole strainmeter, and earthquake geology. They are complementary to each other and form a complete spectrum of measuring various periods of crustal strain. The process of crustal deformation is generally quite slow. To obtain a reliable result, we usually need to persist in the observations for several years or even decades. Thus the PBOT should be a long-term project. In the first phase of 3 years period from 2003 to 2006, we will focus on the two areas, i.e. the plate suture zone in the Longitudinal Valley area and the western <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> where the higher seismic hazard is expected. A five-year national program, entitled ­Program for Earthquake and Active-fault Research (PEAR)­" was initiated after the disastrous 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw 7.6). As part of the PEAR, a dense continuous GPS array consisting of 150 new and about 50 pre-existing stations will be completed in the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> area by the end of 2005 through a joint effort by the Central Weather Bureau and the Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica. The 50 new stations are going to be evenly distributed around the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Island. The other 100 stations will be densely deployed near the major active faults and potential earthquake source areas. The enormous continuous GPS data collected by the array will give us the unprecedented opportunity to study the crustal deformation in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. The near real time spatial and temporal variations of crustal strain can be realized and their correlation with seismic activity will be studied. Using GPS data from the dense array, the slow slip events related to fault-creep and subduction may be detected. In the event of a major earthquake, the continuous GPS array provides the precise measurements of preseismic, coseismic, and postseismic deformations. It may shed light on the process of strain accumulation and energy release through an earthquake cycle. The present-day fault-slip rates of major active faults in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> will be estimated. These results provide the important information for seismic risk analysis and lead to the effective reduction of earthquake disaster</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26572871','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26572871"><span id="translatedtitle">Severe Dengue Fever Outbreak in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Sheng-Fan; Wang, Wen-Hung; Chang, Ko; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Tseng, Sung-Pin; Yen, Chia-Hung; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Dengue fever (DF) is a vector-borne disease caused by dengue viruses (DENVs). Epidemic dengue occurs intermittently in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. In 2014, <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> experienced its largest DF outbreak. There were 15,732 DF cases reported. There were a total of 136 dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) cases, of which 20 resulted in death. Most DF cases were reported in southern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. A total of 15,043 (96%) cases were from Kaohsiung, a modern city in southern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. This report reviews DF epidemics in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> during 2005-2014. The correlation between DF and DHF along with temperature and precipitation were conjointly examined. We conclude that most dengue epidemics in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> resulted from imported DF cases. Results indicate three main factors that may have been associated with this DF outbreak in Kaohsiung: an underground pipeline explosion combined with subsequent rainfall and higher temperature. These factors may have enhanced mosquito breeding activity, facilitating DENV transmission. PMID:26572871</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16414161','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16414161"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>'s industrial heavy metal pollution threatens terrestrial biota.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hsu, M J; Selvaraj, K; Agoramoorthy, G</p> <p>2006-09-01</p> <p>The bioconcentration levels of essential (Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Zn) and non-essential (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Sn) elements have been investigated in different terrestrial biota such as fungi, plant, earthworm, snail, crab, insect, amphibian, lizard, snake, and bat including the associated soil, to investigate the ecosystem health status in Kenting National Park, <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. High bioconcentrations of Cd, Hg, and Sn in snail, earthworm, crab, lizard, snake, and bat indicated a contaminated terrestrial ecosystem. High concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Sn in plant species, effective bioaccumulation of Cd by earthworm, snail, crab and bat, as well as very high levels of Hg found in invertebrates, amphibians, and reptiles revealed a <span class="hlt">strong</span> influence from industrial pollution on the biotic community. This study for the first time presents data on the impact of heavy metal pollution on various terrestrial organisms in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. PMID:16414161</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18364300','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18364300"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>'s population and family planning efforts: an historical perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cernada, G; Sun, T H; Chang, M C; Tsai, J F</p> <p></p> <p>The unprecedented decline of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>'s natural population increase rate from 3% in 1963 to 1.9% in 1973, attributed primarily to an increasing use of contraception, brought universal attention to one of the first and most successful national family planning programs, at a time when successes were few. <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> met its goal of decreasing its natural increase rate despite its young population, increasing numbers of women of childbearing ages, a <span class="hlt">strong</span> preference for sons and a per capita income at the outset in 1963 of less than U.S.$200. Recognition of this achievement brought thousands of professionals, particularly from developing countries, to study the program firsthand: more than 3,000 during 1970--73 alone. This was matched by an avalanche of publications about the program that appeared around the world, written by practitioners, academics and others. This article tells the story of this success. PMID:18364300</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.V11B1429L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.V11B1429L"><span id="translatedtitle">Tornillos and Other Volcanic Tremors in Tatun Volcanoes, Northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lin, C.; Konstantinou, K.; Pu, S.; Huang, Y.; Lin, Y.; You, S.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>This is the first time to report several types of volcanic signals such as Tornillos (screws), harmonic signals (drops) and continuously short-period volcanic tremors at the Tatun volcanic group (<span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>), which was usually considered as extinct because there was no any historical eruption. These volcanic signals are often reported in the active volcanoes in the earth. In particular, the tornillos have been considered as the potential precursor for volcanic eruption at Galeras volcano, Colombia. Combining all of these volcanic signals with the presviously geochemical analyses from the Helium isotop ratio, we <span class="hlt">strongly</span> suggest that volcanic activities in the Tatun volcanic area might not be totally extinct yet and further investigations have to been done for evaluation of potential volcanic activities because the Tatun volcano group is not only just nearby two nuclear power plants but also about 15 km north to Taipei, the capital of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, in which more than seven million people live on.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=taiwan+AND+economy&pg=4&id=ED429175','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=taiwan+AND+economy&pg=4&id=ED429175"><span id="translatedtitle">Tech Prep <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>-Style. Fastback 449.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Smith, Douglas C.</p> <p></p> <p>Junior colleges, which began to expand in size and importance in the 1960s, have had a profound impact on the economy and social structure of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. The junior colleges of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> resemble tech prep programs in the United States. Today, 74 junior colleges in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> enroll 200,000 students in grades 10-14 and almost another 200,000 in 2-year…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.H13L..01R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.H13L..01R"><span id="translatedtitle">Arsenic and Humic Substances in Alluvial Aquifers of Bangladesh and <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>: A Comparative Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reza, A.; Jean, J.; Lee, M.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Humic substances in groundwater samples from the arsenicosis area in Bangladesh, northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> and the Blackfoot disease (BFD) area in southwestern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> were characterized by Fluorescence Spectroscopy (FS), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses. As, Mn, Fe, Sr, Se levels in these groundwaters were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Major ions and selected water parameters including pH, electrical conductivity (EC), oxidation reduction potential (ORP), and dissolved oxygen (DO) were also determined. Groundwater As concentration ranges from 1.4 to 140 μg/L in the alluvial aquifers located in the Chapai-Nawabganj district of Bangladesh. As levels in groundwater ranges from 0.5 to 560 μg/L in the Ilan Plain of northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. Geothermal waters in the Beitou hot springs contain high concentrations of inorganic As (up to 3,975 μg/L); geothermal activity is likely responsible for the significant discharge of arsenic to the downstream Kwandu Plain. As levels in the BFD area of southwestern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> ranges from 25 μg/L to 967 μg/L. Interestingly, groundwater arsenic in the BFD area of southwestern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> correlates positively with <span class="hlt">strong</span> fluorescence (maximum relative fluorescence intensity upto 495) and the content of humic substances. In contrast, As-rich groundwaters from Chapai-Nawabganj district of Bangladesh and northern part of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> generally have relatively low content of humic substances with weak fluorescence (maximum relative fluorescence intensity upto 65 and 121, respectively). Moreover, results of FTIR analysis show that humic substances extracted from water samples of the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> BFD area contain phenolic and amines groups of humic substances, which tend to form organo-metal complexes with As and other trace elements. High levels of As and humic substances probably play a critical role in causing the Black foot disease in Chia-Nan plain of southwestern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26510770','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26510770"><span id="translatedtitle">Childhood Atopic Dermatitis in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, I-Jen; Wang, Jiu-Yao; Yeh, Kuo-Wei</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) appears to have increased dramatically over the past decades. It is generally believed that such rapid increase in prevalence cannot be explained fully by genetic factors. Environmental factors might play a role in such an increment. Children with AD are most likely to suffer considerable school absences, family stress, and health care expenditures. Because the onset of AD occurs relatively early in life, identification of early life risk factors and early management for AD to prevent the development of atopic march are of critical importance. However, there is still no consensus on coordinated prevention and management for AD in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. In this review, we discuss the specific risk factors of AD and important results of recent articles on AD from <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. The management and prevention strategies of AD for Asian skin are also discussed. PMID:26510770</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5105325','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5105325"><span id="translatedtitle">Plate <span class="hlt">motion</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gordon, R.G. )</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">motion</span> of tectonic plates on the earth is characterized in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Topics addressed include the NUVEL-1 global model of current plate <span class="hlt">motions</span>, diffuse plate boundaries and the oceanic lithosphere, the relation between plate <span class="hlt">motions</span> and distributed deformations, accelerations and the steadiness of plate <span class="hlt">motions</span>, the distribution of current Pacific-North America <span class="hlt">motion</span> across western North America and its margin, plate reconstructions and their uncertainties, hotspots, and plate dynamics. A comprehensive bibliography is provided. 126 refs.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3521924','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3521924"><span id="translatedtitle">Occupational Neurotoxic Diseases in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Chi-Hung; Huang, Chu-Yun</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Occupational neurotoxic diseases have become increasingly common in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> due to industrialization. Over the past 40 years, <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> has transformed from an agricultural society to an industrial society. The most common neurotoxic diseases also changed from organophosphate poisoning to heavy metal intoxication, and then to organic solvent and semiconductor agent poisoning. The nervous system is particularly vulnerable to toxic agents because of its high metabolic rate. Neurological manifestations may be transient or permanent, and may range from cognitive dysfunction, cerebellar ataxia, Parkinsonism, sensorimotor neuropathy and autonomic dysfunction to neuromuscular junction disorders. This study attempts to provide a review of the major outbreaks of occupational neurotoxins from 1968 to 2012. A total of 16 occupational neurotoxins, including organophosphates, toxic gases, heavy metals, organic solvents, and other toxic chemicals, were reviewed. Peer-reviewed articles related to the electrophysiology, neuroimaging, treatment and long-term follow up of these neurotoxic diseases were also obtained. The heavy metals involved consisted of lead, manganese, organic tin, mercury, arsenic, and thallium. The organic solvents included n-hexane, toluene, mixed solvents and carbon disulfide. Toxic gases such as carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide were also included, along with toxic chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, tetramethylammonium hydroxide, organophosphates, and dimethylamine borane. In addition we attempted to correlate these events to the timeline of industrial development in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. By researching this topic, the hope is that it may help other developing countries to improve industrial hygiene and promote occupational safety and health care during the process of industrialization. PMID:23251841</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20006501','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20006501"><span id="translatedtitle">Scrap computer recycling in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lee, C.H.; Chang, S.L.; Wang, K.M.; Wen, L.C.</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p>It is estimated that approximately 700,000 scrap personal computers will be generated each year in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. The disposal of such a huge amount of scrap computers presents a difficult task for the island due to the scarcity of landfills and incineration facilities available locally. Also, the hazardous materials contained in the scrap computers may cause serious pollution to the environment, if they are not properly disposed. Thus, EPA of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> has declared scrap personal computers as a producer responsibility recycling product on July 1997 to mandate that the manufacturers, importers and sellers of personal computers have to recover and recycle their scrap computers properly. Beginning on June 1, 1998, a scrap computer recycling plan is officially implemented on the island. Under this plan, consumers can deliver their unwanted personal computers to the designated collection points to receive reward money. Currently, only six items are mandated to be recycled in this recycling plan. They are notebooks, monitor and the hard disk, power supply, printed circuit board and shell of the main frame of the personal computer. This paper presents the current scrap computer recycling system in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18579930','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18579930"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Motion</span>-based <span class="hlt">motion</span> deblurring.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ben-Ezra, Moshe; Nayar, Shree K</p> <p>2004-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Motion</span> blur due to camera <span class="hlt">motion</span> can significantly degrade the quality of an image. Since the path of the camera <span class="hlt">motion</span> can be arbitrary, deblurring of <span class="hlt">motion</span> blurred images is a hard problem. Previous methods to deal with this problem have included blind restoration of <span class="hlt">motion</span> blurred images, optical correction using stabilized lenses, and special cmos sensors that limit the exposure time in the presence of <span class="hlt">motion</span>. In this paper, we exploit the fundamental trade off between spatial resolution and temporal resolution to construct a hybrid camera that can measure its own <span class="hlt">motion</span> during image integration. The acquired <span class="hlt">motion</span> information is used to compute a point spread function (psf) that represents the path of the camera during integration. This psf is then used to deblur the image. To verify the feasibility of hybrid imaging for <span class="hlt">motion</span> deblurring, we have implemented a prototype hybrid camera. This prototype system was evaluated in different indoor and outdoor scenes using long exposures and complex camera <span class="hlt">motion</span> paths. The results show that, with minimal resources, hybrid imaging outperforms previous approaches to the <span class="hlt">motion</span> blur problem. We conclude with a brief discussion on how our ideas can be extended beyond the case of global camera <span class="hlt">motion</span> to the case where individual objects in the scene move with different velocities. PMID:18579930</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH11A1542N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH11A1542N"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Earthquake Damage Index Sin Mei Nga* and Masataka Andob a* Department of Geology, Chinese Culture University, No. 55, Hwa-Kang Road, Yang-Ming-Shan, Taipei 11114, <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> b Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, 128, Sec2, Academia Road, Nangang, Taipei 11529, <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> * Corresponding author. Tel.: +886 (02) 28 61 05 11 ext.26133 fax: +886 (02) 28 61 49 59 E-mail: wsw2@ulive.pccu.edu.tw or sin_mei_josephine_ng@hotmail.com</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ng, S.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Taking advantage of a previous study and twelve-year, free-field <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">motion</span> data in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, a preliminary, five-level earthquake damage index is newly proposed: I-No (no damage), II-Very Light, III-Light, IV-Moderate, and V-Heavy. For index I, PGA and PGV are, respectively, <62.5 gal and <11 cm/s. Likewise, for index II, PGA is ≧62.5 and ≦187.5 gal; but, PGV is ≧11 and ≦35 cm/s. Similarly, PGA is ≧187.5 and ≦325 gal; but, PGV is ≧35 and ≦55 cm/s for index III. The corresponding PGA and PGV, for index IV, are ≧325 and ≦450 gal and ≧55 and ≦75 cm/s. Finally, for index V, PGA and PGV are respectively >450 gal and >75 cm/s. Ten damaging seismic events in the past twelve years are redefined using this new earthquake damage index, with the devastating Chi-Chi earthquake and one non-damaging event as reference earthquakes. This newly proposed index depicts seismic hazard of these earthquakes with higher accuracy when compared to the existing intensity scale in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> region. For further analysis, Japan earthquakes are also plotted as references.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.2131H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.2131H"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimate of source, attenuation, and site effects from the subduction-zone earthquakes in northeastern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Ming-Wey; Wen, Kuo-Liang; Chang, Chi-Ling</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Based on the inversion technique for different seismogenic sources in a single scheme, the estimation of source, attenuation and site effects are derived using a dense installation of 72 free-field <span class="hlt">strong-motion</span> stations in and around the Taipei basin, which covers an area of about 30 square kilometers at northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. The Taipei Basin is specified with sedimentary layers. In the basin, Quaternary sediments lie on a Tertiary basement. The Quaternary sediments are composed of three formations, i.e., the Sungshan, Chingmei, and Hsinchuang formations from top to bottom. The topmost part of the Sungshan formation is a soft layer, which is composed of unconsolidated sand, silt, and clay with a thickness varying from 50 m in the southeast to 120 m in northwest. Seismograms for the 73 subduction-zone events with ML magnitude in range of 5.0 to 7.1 are catalogued into two groups depending on the focal depth, i.e. the shallow focal depth and the deep one, to characterize different seismogenic zones regarding the dissipation of wave propagation away from the seismic source. Results show that: (1) the estimated source spectra follow the w-squared point model; (2) the slight different attenuation patterns are characterizing the geological layers of shallow depth and those of deep one; and (3) site amplification ratios are in agreement of those derived from the spectral ratio technique. The predominant frequencies of site amplification function are associated with the thickness of the sediment over the Taipei basin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14..385X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14..385X"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial distribution of non volcanic tremors offshore eastern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xie, X. S.; Lin, J. Y.; Hsu, S. K.; Lee, C. H.; Liang, C. W.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Non-volcanic tremor (NVT), originally identified in the subduction zone of the southwest Japan, have been well studied in the circum-Pacific subduction zones and the transform plate boundary in California. Most studies related NVT to the release of fluids, while some others associated them with slow-slip events, and can be triggered instantaneously by the surface waves of teleseismic events. <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> is located at a complex intersection of the Philippines Sea Plate and the Eurasian Plate. East of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, the Philippine Sea plate subducts northward beneath the Ryukyu arc. The major part of the island results from the <span class="hlt">strong</span> convergence between the two plates and the convergent boundary is along the Longitudinal Valley. Moreover, an active strike-slip fault along the Taitung Canyon was reported in the offshore eastern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. In such complicate tectonic environments, NVT behavior could probably bring us more information about the interaction of all the geological components in the area. In this study, we analyze the seismic signals recorded by the Ocean bottom Seismometer (OBS) deployed offshore eastern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> in September 2009. TAMS (Tremor Active Monitor System) software was used to detect the presence of NVT. 200 tremor-like signals were obtained from the 3 weeks recording period. We use the SSA (Source-Scanning Algorithm) to map the possible distribution of the tremor. In total, 180 tremors were located around the eastern offshore <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. The tremors are mainly distributed in two source areas: one is along the Taitung Canyon, and the other is sub-parallel to the Ryukyu Trench, probably along the plate interface. Many tremors are located at depth shallower than 5 km, which suggests a possible existence of a weak basal detachment along the sea bottom. Other tremors with larger depth may be related to the dehydration of the subducting sea plate as suggested by the former studies. Limited by the short recording period of the OBS experiment, we could not obtain any possible repeating interval and the spatial migration about the tremor occurrence. However, the presence of NVT offshore eastern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> shown in our study still brings us valuable understanding about the undergoing tectonic processes in the marine area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7243238','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7243238"><span id="translatedtitle">Applying environmental externalities to US Clean Coal Technologies for <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>During the period 1971 to 1980, electricity consumption in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> increased remarkably at an average rate of 12.2% per year. Despite experiencing a record low in 1982 and 1983, electricity demand returned to double digit growth, reaching 11.6% and 10.2% in 1987 and 1988, respectively, due to a <span class="hlt">strong</span> economic recovery. In 1988, 71.6 TWh of electricity was produced, 21.1 TWh of which was from coal-fired units (29%). The electricity demand for <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> is expected to continue to grow at a very rapid rate during the 1990--2006 time frame. The average load is expected to grow at an annual rate of 5.6% while the peak load is projected to increase at an annual rate of 6.0%. All new coal-fired power plants are expected to comply with government regulations on S0{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particulate emissions. Taper reports that all of its proposed coal-fired units will be equipped with modern flue gas emission reduction devices, such as electrostatic precipitators or baghouse filters, flue gas desulfurization and deco{sub x} devices, to reduce the pollutants to their minimum practical levels. New coal-based generation requirements in the sizes needed in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> create an opportunity for several of the Cats currently under demonstration in the United States. Options to be considered are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10182047','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10182047"><span id="translatedtitle">Applying environmental externalities to US Clean Coal Technologies for <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.</p> <p>1992-09-01</p> <p>During the period 1971 to 1980, electricity consumption in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> increased remarkably at an average rate of 12.2% per year. Despite experiencing a record low in 1982 and 1983, electricity demand returned to double digit growth, reaching 11.6% and 10.2% in 1987 and 1988, respectively, due to a <span class="hlt">strong</span> economic recovery. In 1988, 71.6 TWh of electricity was produced, 21.1 TWh of which was from coal-fired units (29%). The electricity demand for <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> is expected to continue to grow at a very rapid rate during the 1990--2006 time frame. The average load is expected to grow at an annual rate of 5.6% while the peak load is projected to increase at an annual rate of 6.0%. All new coal-fired power plants are expected to comply with government regulations on S0{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particulate emissions. Taper reports that all of its proposed coal-fired units will be equipped with modern flue gas emission reduction devices, such as electrostatic precipitators or baghouse filters, flue gas desulfurization and deco{sub x} devices, to reduce the pollutants to their minimum practical levels. New coal-based generation requirements in the sizes needed in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> create an opportunity for several of the Cats currently under demonstration in the United States. Options to be considered are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ethnic+AND+Ethnic+AND+Economy&pg=5&id=EJ773866','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ethnic+AND+Ethnic+AND+Economy&pg=5&id=EJ773866"><span id="translatedtitle">Ethnic Inequalities and Educational Attainment in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jao, Jui-Chang; McKeever, Matthew</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>In this article, the authors examine educational stratification in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> against the background of an ethnically based political economy. They investigate how educational attainment is related to ethnicity and other background factors, such as parental class and education, and if these relationships changed over time as <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> became a more</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-03-14/pdf/2011-5840.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-03-14/pdf/2011-5840.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 13660 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-03-14</p> <p>... 4, 2010 (75 FR 61175). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on January 25, 2011, and all persons... COMMISSION Polyvinyl Alcohol From <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... United States is materially injured by reason of imports from <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> of polyvinyl alcohol, provided...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=taiwan&pg=4&id=EJ934790','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=taiwan&pg=4&id=EJ934790"><span id="translatedtitle">Educating Students with Learning Disabilities in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hsiao, Yun-Ju</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In East Asia, <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> is one of only a few countries that has a clear definition of learning disabilities (LD) as well as operational criteria for the identification of LD. In <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, special education services for students with LD are mandated in the Special Education Act of 1984. According to the official statistics from the Taiwanese Special…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=taiwan+AND+economy&pg=2&id=EJ773866','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=taiwan+AND+economy&pg=2&id=EJ773866"><span id="translatedtitle">Ethnic Inequalities and Educational Attainment in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jao, Jui-Chang; McKeever, Matthew</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>In this article, the authors examine educational stratification in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> against the background of an ethnically based political economy. They investigate how educational attainment is related to ethnicity and other background factors, such as parental class and education, and if these relationships changed over time as <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> became a more…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T33E2709V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T33E2709V"><span id="translatedtitle">Analyzing Strain to Create a Regional Deformation Model of Northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>VanderLeest, R. A.; Byrne, T. B.; Rau, R.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>A Global Positioning System (GPS) network is used to calculate the strain and rotations at the intersection of an arc-continent collision and retreating trench in northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. The island of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> forms as Eurasia collides obliquely with the Philippine Sea plate (PSP), resulting in substantial along-strike extension throughout the island. In northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, the PSP is also subducting towards the northwest beneath Eurasia and the associated Ryukyu trench is rolling back, forming the Okinawa Trough. GPS velocities were collected over a ten-year period (1995-2005) from 125 stations (Rau et al., 2008) and were inverted to calculate the 2D velocity gradient tensors (Allmendinger, Cardozo and Fisher, 2012). In northwest <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, although the GPS velocities relative to the Penghu Island are low, volumetric strains are negative and generally show N-S shortening. Areas of E-W shortening and extension also occur, however. The GPS data suggests a heterogeneous deformation field consistent with the occurrence of thrust (e.g., Hukou fault), strike slip, and oblique slip normal faults (e.g., Nankan and Schanciao) in northwest <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. In northeast <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, GPS velocities show an increase in magnitude from north to south as well as a change from NE trending velocities to SE trending velocities. Volumetric strains are generally positive, indicating extension, which is consistent with spreading in the Okinawa Trough as it propagates into the Ilan Plain. Spreading in the Okinawa Trough and rotation from NE to SE velocities reflect rollback of the Ryukyu Trench. Therefore, northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> exhibits N-S shortening in the west and rotation and extrusion in the east. This complex deformation pattern is similar to larger continental collision areas such as the extrusion and rotation of China associated with the northward <span class="hlt">motion</span> of India and the Mediterranean-Middle Eastern extrusion and rotation associated with the northward <span class="hlt">motion</span> of Arabia. Allmendinger, R.W., Cardozo, N., Fisher, D.M. (2012), Structural Geology Algorithms: Vectors and Tensors, Cambridge University Press, New York, N.Y. Cardozo, N., and Allmendinger, R. W. (2009), SSPX: A program to compute strain from displacement/velocity data, Computers & Geosciences, 35,1343-1357. Rau, R.-J., Ching, K.-E., Hu, J.-C., and Lee, J.-C. (2008), Crustal deformation and block kinematics in transition from collision to subduction: Global positioning system measurements in northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, 1995-2005, J. Geophys. Res., 113, B09404, doi: 10.1029/2007JB005414.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025191','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025191"><span id="translatedtitle">Slip history and dynamic implications of the 1999 Chi-Chi, <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ji, C.; Helmberger, D.V.; Wald, D.J.; Ma, K.-F.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>We investigate the rupture process of the 1999 Chi-Chi, <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, earthquake using extensive near-source observations, including three-component velocity waveforms at 36 <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">motion</span> stations and 119 GPS measurements. A three-plane fault geometry derived from our previous inversion using only static data [Ji et al., 2001] is applied. The slip amplitude, rake angle, rupture initiation time, and risetime function are inverted simultaneously with a recently developed finite fault inverse method that combines a wavelet transform approach with a simulated annealing algorithm [Ji et al., 2002b]. The inversion results are validated by the forward prediction of an independent data set, the teleseismic P and SH ground velocities, with notable agreement. The results show that the total seismic moment release of this earthquake is 2.7 ?? 1020 N m and that most of the slip occured in a triangular-shaped asperity involving two fault segments, which is consistent with our previous static inversion. The rupture front propagates with an average rupture velocity of ???2.0 km s-1, and the average slip duration (risetime) is 7.2 s. Several interesting observations related to the temporal evolution of the Chi-Chi earthquake are also investigated, including (1) the <span class="hlt">strong</span> effect of the sinuous fault plane of the Chelungpu fault on spatial and temporal variations in slip history, (2) the intersection of fault 1 and fault 2 not being a <span class="hlt">strong</span> impediment to the rupture propagation, and (3 the observation that the peak slip velocity near the surface is, in general, higher than on the deeper portion of the fault plane, as predicted by dynamic modeling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.112....9C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.112....9C"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of foreign versus domestic contributions to <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>'s air pollution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Jen-Ping; Yang, Cheng-En; Tsai, I.-Chun</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Based on the analysis of observational data obtained over a period of 17 years, this study developed a novel approach estimating long-term changes in the relative contributions of domestic and foreign sources to air pollution levels over the island of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. The contribution from foreign sources was calculated using data measured at selected coastal monitoring stations under specific meteorological conditions. The domestic contribution was derived by subtracting the foreign contribution from the overall concentration, which was calculated with island-wide monitoring station data averaged using Thiessen polygon area weighting. The trends of mean CO, NO, NO2 and SO2 concentrations in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> were -2.1%, -3.3%, -1.4% and 0% yr-1; while the background concentrations varied by -1.0%, 5.7%, 3.8% and 6.6% yr-1, respectively. These figures suggest that the efforts of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> in reducing air pollution are largely being negated by foreign contributions. Ozone showed a steady increase of 3.3% yr-1, and a portion of this was associated with a 1.0% yr-1 increase in background values. Local and background PM10 concentrations did not show significant long-term trends, but rather <span class="hlt">strong</span> inter-annual variations associated with dust storm activity in East Asia. The domestic fractions of NO and NO2 respectively decreased from 90% and 85% in 1994 to less than 60% and 70% in 2010. In contrast, the domestic fraction of SO2 decreased from 82% in 1994 to 27% in 2010. The domestic fraction of CO exhibited no obvious trend due to concurrent decreases in local and background contributions. Background O3 values tended to drop across <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> due to the titration effect from domestic NO emissions, and the fraction of domestic O3 titration decreased from 50% in the mid-90s to 25% in 2010.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.T41D..08B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.T41D..08B"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetotelluric Imaging of an Arc-Continent Collision Beneath Central <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bertrand, E. A.; Unsworth, M. J.; Chiang, C.; Chen, C.; Turkoglu, E.; Hsu, H.; Hill, G. J.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Arc-continent collisions are a fundamental part of the plate tectonic cycle and play an important role in mountain building and the growth of continents. Studying this process in ancient orogens is often hindered by tectonic overprinting and poorly resolved synorogenic plate kinematics and tectonic settings. The <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> arc-continent collision between the Luzon arc and the Eurasian continental margin is one of the most active arc-continent collisions in the world. The current plate <span class="hlt">motions</span> and surface geology are well understood, making <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> an ideal location for geophysical investigations of this important tectonic process. The <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Integrated Geodynamical Research (TAIGER) project was initiated in 2004 to image the lithospheric structure beneath <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. The project includes the acquisition of both active and passive seismic data plus detailed magnetotellurics (MT) surveys. MT is a passive geophysical technique which records time variations of natural electromagnetic fields at the surface of the Earth and can determine the subsurface resistivity. This parameter can be used to constrain lithospheric composition and strength. Over the fall of 2006 and spring of 2007, 82 long-period MT soundings were acquired in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. The fieldwork was accomplished by collaboration between the University of Alberta and National Central University of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. In fall 2007, collection of additional broadband MT will complement these data. The long-period data were processed using robust techniques and remotely referenced with a station on the PengHu islands (~100km from the nearest site) to reduce the influence of cultural noise. The conductive <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> strait separating PengHu from the mainland acts as an effective attenuator of cultural EM fields. Two closely spaced parallel transects across central <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> are formed by 46 of these stations with a nominal spacing of 5km. Dimensionality analysis of these transects using the McNeice-Jones tensor decomposition algorithm reveal local 3-D effects in some data. However, an overall regional 2-D strike direction is defined that is parallel to the coastline of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. Regularized 2-D inversions of these transects image conductive sedimentary rocks in the western foreland basin and an east dipping mid-crustal conductor beneath the fold-and-thrust belt. A sharp boundary is observed between the western sedimentary rocks and the more resistive slates and metamorphic rocks to the east in the Central Range. This boundary coincides with a conductor rising from the mid-crust that may be related to interconnected fluids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710504M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710504M"><span id="translatedtitle">The observation of crustal deformation derived from <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Continuous GPS Array (2007-2013)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Min-Chien, Tsai; Shui-Beih, Yu; Tzay-Chyn, Shin</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Data collected by 281 sites of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Continuous GPS Array from 2007 to 2013 are processed with GAMIT/GLOBK software. The acquired GPS position time series are described by model parameters such as linear rate, annual and semi-annual periodic <span class="hlt">motions</span>, coseismic offsets, postseismic rate change, and exponential decay after earthquakes. Stacking of power spectral densities from 281 continuous GPS data in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, we found the slopes of spectra (spectral index) are -0.72, -0.77, and -0.57 for the E, N, U components, respectively. It indicates the errors of continuous GPS data can be described as a combination of white noise and flicker noise. The common-mode errors are removed by stacking data from 50 continuous GPS sites with data period more than 5 years. By removing common-mode errors, the precision of GPS data is further improved to 2.3 mm, 1.9 mm, and 6.9 mm in the E, N, U components, respectively. After strictly data quality control, time series analysis and noise analysis, we derive a new ITRF2008 velocity field and velocity field relative to Penghu using GPS data from 2007 to 2013 in the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> area. The general pattern of the newly derived 2007-2013 velocity field is quite similar with that from previous studies, but the station density is much larger and spatial coverage is better, too. About 80 mm/yr plate convergence rate is observed, approximately half of plate convergence rate is accommodated on the fold and thrust belt of western <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> and another half is taken up in the Longitudinal Valley and the Coastal Range in eastern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. The velocities in western <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> generally show a fan-shaped pattern, consistent with the direction of maximum compression tectonic stress. In northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, the velocity vectors reveal clockwise rotation, indicating the on-going extensional deformation related to the back-arc extension of the Okinawa Trough. In southern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, the horizontal velocity increases from about 40 mm/yr at Chiayi-Tainan to 55 mm/yr in the Kaohsiung-Pingtung area with a counterclockwise rotation in the directions. The 2007-2013 <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> velocity field and GPS position time series can be used in active tectonics and earthquake prediction studies. It also provides important information for seismic hazard analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003DSRII..50.1085L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003DSRII..50.1085L"><span id="translatedtitle">Upper-ocean currents around <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liang, W.-D.; Tang, T. Y.; Yang, Y. J.; Ko, M. T.; Chuang, W.-S.</p> <p>2003-03-01</p> <p>Current velocity, measured by Shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (Sb-ADCP) during 1991-2000, was used to study the upper-ocean (<300 m) currents around <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. The collected data were debugged, calibrated, grid, and averaged to compose a three-dimensional current-velocity distribution. The validity of the composite current velocity was supported by 12 sets of moored current-velocity time series. Qualitative agreement was obtained. The moored time series also indicated that the seasonal variation of current around <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> was generally weak except for the shallow-water regimes. The composite and moored currents revealed a branch of the Kuroshio that intruded steadily and persistently into the South China Sea. Part of the intruded Kuroshio flowed out of the South China Sea through the northern Luzon Strait and re-united with the main stream Kuroshio. The Kuroshio had two velocity maximum cores southeast of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, but gradually combined into one as the Kuroshio flowed north. The Kuroshio was deflected by the I-Lan Ridge east of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> and the zonal-running shelf break northeast of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. At the shelf break, the Kuroshio split, with one branch intruding onto the shelf. West of the Luzon Strait, the Kuroshio intruded into the South China Sea. Some water flowed northward into the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Strait and re-joined the Kuroshio. Currents in the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Strait flowed primarily in a northward direction, except for the southward current near the coast of Mainland China. North of the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Strait, a branch of the northward flow followed the northern coast of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> to join the Kuroshio. The composite current varied consistently from season to season. There was generally poor correlation between currents and local winds, especially in the deep-water regime. Remote forces were important in the currents around <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070010010&hterms=strong+motion+simulation&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dstrong%2Bmotion%2Bsimulation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070010010&hterms=strong+motion+simulation&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dstrong%2Bmotion%2Bsimulation"><span id="translatedtitle">Kinematics of <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Discontinuities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Peterson, K.; Nguyen, G.; Sulsky, D.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) provides a detailed view of the Arctic ice cover. When processed with the RADARSAT Geophysical Processor System (RGPS), it provides estimates of sea ice <span class="hlt">motion</span> and deformation over large regions of the Arctic for extended periods of time. The deformation is dominated by the appearance of linear kinematic features that have been associated with the presence of leads. The RGPS deformation products are based on the assumption that the displacement and velocity are smooth functions of the spatial coordinates. However, if the dominant deformation of multiyear ice results from the opening, closing and shearing of leads, then the displacement and velocity can be discontinuous. This presentation discusses the kinematics associated with <span class="hlt">strong</span> discontinuities that describe possible jumps in displacement or velocity. Ice <span class="hlt">motion</span> from SAR data are analyzed using this framework. It is assumed that RGPS cells deform due to the presence of a lead. The lead orientation is calculated to optimally account for the observed deformation. It is shown that almost all observed deformation can be represented by lead opening and shearing. The procedure used to reprocess <span class="hlt">motion</span> data to account for leads will be described and applied to regions of the Beaufort Sea. The procedure not only provides a new view of ice deformation, it can be used to obtain information about the presence of leads for initialization and/or validation of numerical simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=taiwan&pg=3&id=EJ997845','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=taiwan&pg=3&id=EJ997845"><span id="translatedtitle">Internationalization or Commodification? A Case Study of Internationalization Practices in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>'s Higher Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chen, Dorothy I-ru; Lo, William Yat Wai</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This article examines how commodification and consumerism have sharpened the discourse of internationalization in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>'s higher education. Given the <span class="hlt">strong</span> sense of crisis in the less prestigious universities, this article argues that internationalization is only a means to survive instead of a pursuit of excellence to these universities. This…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Foreign+AND+Trade&pg=2&id=EJ827889','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Foreign+AND+Trade&pg=2&id=EJ827889"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>'s Responses to Globalisation: Internationalisation and Questing for World Class Universities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Song, Mei-Mei; Tai, Hsiou-Hsia</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>In recent years, <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> has demonstrated <span class="hlt">strong</span> policy change to counteract the potential threats brought upon by globalisation such as the opening of the higher education market to a foreign trade partner and increasing competition from neighbouring countries. In light of these challenges, the Taiwanese government launched a series of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3398123','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3398123"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Motion</span> Aftereffects Transfer between Touch and Vision</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Konkle, Talia; Wang, Qi; Hayward, Vincent; Moore, Christopher I.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Summary Current views on multisensory <span class="hlt">motion</span> integration assume separate substrates where visual <span class="hlt">motion</span> perceptually dominates tactile <span class="hlt">motion</span> [1, 2]. However, recent neuroimaging findings demonstrate <span class="hlt">strong</span> activation of visual <span class="hlt">motion</span> processing areas by tactile stimuli [3–6], implying a potentially bidirectional relationship. To test the relationship between visual and tactile <span class="hlt">motion</span> processing, we examined the transfer of <span class="hlt">motion</span> aftereffects. In the well-known visual <span class="hlt">motion</span> aftereffect, adapting to visual <span class="hlt">motion</span> in one direction causes a subsequently presented stationary stimulus to be perceived as moving in the opposite direction [7, 8]. The existence of <span class="hlt">motion</span> aftereffects in the tactile domain was debated [9–11], though robust tactile <span class="hlt">motion</span> aftereffects have recently been demonstrated [12, 13]. By using a <span class="hlt">motion</span> adaptation paradigm, we found that repeated exposure to visual <span class="hlt">motion</span> in a given direction produced a tactile <span class="hlt">motion</span> aftereffect, the illusion of <span class="hlt">motion</span> in the opponent direction across the finger pad. We also observed that repeated exposure to tactile <span class="hlt">motion</span> induces a visual <span class="hlt">motion</span> aftereffect, biasing the perceived direction of counterphase gratings. These crossmodal aftereffects, operating both from vision to touch and from touch to vision, present <span class="hlt">strong</span> behavioral evidence that the processing of visual and tactile <span class="hlt">motion</span> rely on shared representations that dynamically impact modality-specific perception. PMID:19361996</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12285774','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12285774"><span id="translatedtitle">Clandestine labor migration to <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tsay, C</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>"Illegal migration to <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> is a recent phenomenon but with a rapid rate of increase. Most illegal foreign workers enter on visitor's visas and overstay. This paper's detailed analysis of official data reveals that Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia and Thailand are the major sources, providing a stock of mostly male workers numbering around 40,000. Sociodemographic and attitudinal changes among Taiwanese workers coupled with labor shortages in low-skilled jobs are pressuring the Taiwanese government to formulate plans for a systematic importation of foreign labor." PMID:12285774</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC13B1062T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC13B1062T"><span id="translatedtitle">Dust Activity during Winter Time in East Asia and Snowfall Obervations and Simulations in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsai, L.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> has relatively frequent snowfall in mountain during winter among regions of the same latitude. The phenomenon is contributed by <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>'s unique topography - high and steep mountains, and geographical location - sitting on the route the continental polar air mass travels from its birthplace to the ocean, contribute to this phenomenon. Snow occurence, in addition to the freezing-point temperature, when two requirements are met: sufficient vapor and the condensation nuclei in the air. This study pursues the causes of the snowfall activity in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, the relations between the East Asian dust aerosol and the snowfall activity in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, and the impacts the climate changes have on the snowfall activity in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. In this study, Yushan snowfall activity from 1995~2011 and related atmosphere circulations were examined using SYNOP data, NCEP/DOE reanalysis atmospheric data, the observations of the Central Weather Bureau's Yushan Weather Station and the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Air Quality Monitoring Network of the Environment Protect Administration, Executive Yuan. To provide a quantitative measure of snowfall events and dust activity, a snowfall activity index (SAI) and the DAI Index by Yu et al. (2010) were defined. The time series of yearly SAI and DAI show that East Asian dust storm activity and <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> snowfall marked interannual variations during 1995 ~ 2011. For active years such as 2008, 2010, and 2011, SAI was hundreds of times larger than that for inactive years such as 1996, 1999 and 2003; and DAI in active years such as 2001 and 2002 was several tens of times larger than that in inactive years such as 1997 and 2003. In active years when the EAT (East Asian Trough) was shifted eastward, the strength of WPH (West Pacific High) increased in the south and an anticyclone thus occurred. This anticyclone introduced anomalous southwesterly flows along the southeastern coast of mainland China and over <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, resulting in a wetter-than-normal atmosphere in support of snowfall. Oppositely, for inactive years, drier-than-normal atmosphere appeared and consequently sluggish snowfall seasons followed. A SVD (singular value decomposition) analysis of the Asian synoptic circulation indicated that the connection between the pressure dipoles and the position of EAT is <span class="hlt">strong</span> in 1998, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2010, and 2011. It significantly affects both of the snowfall and dust activities. In summary, snowfall active years usually occurred when the East Asian dust storm was inactive. Nevertheless, the snowfall activity increased in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> if there was dust event and the dust aerosol successfully transported to <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. This finding is also demonstrated in the model simulation of this study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T21B1808C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T21B1808C"><span id="translatedtitle">Present-day Crustal Deformation of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ching, K.; Rau, R.; Hu, J.; Lee, J.; Johnson, K. M.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, seated at the junction of the Manila and the Ryukyu subduction systems, is a classical case of the ongoing arc-continent collision due to convergence between the Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plates. We analyzed 601 GPS observations in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> to understand the kinematics of present-day crustal deformation of the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> mountain belt. Horizontal GPS velocities, relative to the Chinese continental margin station, S01R, represent a fan-shaped pattern and gradually decrease northwestward from ~82 mm/yr in SE <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> to nearly no deformation in NW coastal area. Directions of the horizontal velocities are dominantly toward NW in central <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> and the clockwise rotation and counterclockwise rotation are occurring in northern and southern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, respectively. For stations between the Chishan fault and the western flank of the southern Central Range in southern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, most station velocities are consistent (51.9 ± 6.6 mm/yr) and, from east to west, the azimuths change gradually from 277° to 247°. In northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, magnitudes of northwestward velocities are 0.3-7.8 mm/yr in NW part of this area and vectors of 9.3-41.2 mm/yr from 53° to 146° occur in the Ilan area. Three significant features are characterized based on the analyses of velocities and 3-D block modeling results. First, tectonic block rotations are mostly concentrated on the northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, which correspond to the transition from the Ryukyu subduction to the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> collision zone. The roll-back of Ryukyu trench and the opening of Okinawa trough are probably superposed on the arc-continent collision-induced rotation in northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> mountain belt. Second, block translations are mainly occurred in southern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. The interaction between the Peikang basement high and the westward propagation of the accretionary wedge results in the material across southern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> to move toward WSW, sub-parallel to the southern edge of the continental margin, via the strain partitioning along several major structures. Third, high slip rate deficits are mainly derived along the active faults in the Ilan area and along the northern Longitudinal Valley fault, which may correspond to the areas with high earthquake potential.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036951','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036951"><span id="translatedtitle">A model for the termination of the Ryukyu subduction zone against <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>: A junction of collision, subduction/separation, and subduction boundaries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wu, F.T.; Liang, W.-T.; Lee, J.-C.; Benz, H.; Villasenor, A.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The NW moving Philippine Sea plate (PSP) collides with the Eurasian plate (EUP) in the vicinity of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, and at the same time, it subducts toward the north along SW Ryukyu. The Ryukyu subduction zone terminates against eastern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. While the Ryukyu Trench is a linear bathym??trie low about 100 km east of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, closer to <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, it cannot be clearly identified bathymetrically owing to the deformation related to the collision, making the location of the intersection of the Ryukyu with <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> difficult to decipher. We propose a model for this complex of boundaries on the basis of seismicity and 3-D velocity structures. In this model the intersection is placed at the latitude of about 23.7??N, placing the northern part of the Coastal Range on EUP. As PSP gets deeper along the subduction zone it collides with EUP on the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> side only where they are in direct contact. Thus, the Eurasian plate on the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> side is being pushed and compressed by the NW moving Philippine Sea plate, at increasing depth toward the north. Offshore of northeastern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> the wedge-shaped EUP on top of the Ryukyu subducting plate is connected to the EUP on the Ryukyu side and coupled to the NW moving PSP by friction at the plate interface. The two sides of the EUP above the western end of the subduction zone are not subjected to the same forces, and a difference in <span class="hlt">motions</span> can be expected. The deformation of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> as revealed by continuous GPS measurements, geodetic movement along the east coast of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, and the formation of the Hoping Basin can be understood in terms of the proposed model. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3847341','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3847341"><span id="translatedtitle">The possible impact of an alcohol welfare surcharge on consumption of alcoholic beverages in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background The abuse of alcoholic beverages leads to numerous negative consequences in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, as around the world. Alcohol abuse not only contributes to cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes and cancer, but it is also an underlying cause of many other serious problems, such as traffic accidents, lost productivity, and domestic violence. International leaders in health policy are increasingly using taxation as an effective tool with which to lower alcohol consumption. In this study, we assessed how consumption patterns in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> would be affected by levying a welfare surcharge on alcoholic beverages of 20%, 40% or 60% in accordance with the current excise tax. We also assessed the medical savings <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> would experience if consumption of alcoholic beverages were to decrease and how much additional revenue a welfare surcharge would generate. Methods We estimated the elasticity of four types of alcoholic beverages (beer, wine, whisky and brandy) using the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) Demand Model. Specifically, we estimated alcohol’s price elasticity by analyzing the sales prices and time statistics of these products from 1974 to 2009. Results Alcoholic beverages in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> have the following price elasticities: beer (−0.820), wine (−0.955), whisky (−0.587), brandy (−0.958). A welfare surcharge tax of 40% in accordance with the excise tax would decrease overall consumption of beer, wine, whisky and brandy between 16.24% and 16.42%. It would also generate New <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Dollar (NT$) revenues of 5.782 billion to 5.993 billion. Savings in medical costs would range from NT$871.07 million to NT$897.46 million annually. Conclusions A social and welfare surcharge of 40% on alcoholic beverages in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> would successfully lower consumption rates, decrease medical costs, and generate revenue that could be used to educate consumers and further decrease consumption rates. Consequently, we <span class="hlt">strongly</span> recommend that such a tax be imposed in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. PMID:24010885</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.T33E..08W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.T33E..08W"><span id="translatedtitle">Southern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> - an Evolving "Coastal Range"?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, F. T.; McIntosh, K.; Lavier, L. L.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>As a part of the TAIGER research, existing tectonic concepts are continuously being reviewed in light of new data and for experimental design. One of the critical areas for understanding the tectonics of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> is southern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. Seismicity and recent tomographic imaging confirm that the tectonics of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> is controlled by the subduction and collision of two plates: the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) and the Eurasian plate (EUR). In northern and central <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> the PSP is in collision with EUR, and at the same time subducts northward under northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> [Wu et al., 2008]. Before the PSP subducts to sufficient depth, the collision of PSP and EUR produced the Foothills and the Central Range on the EUR and the Coastal Range on the PSP side. For southern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, with 22.7°N as a rough demarcation, the tectonic interpretation is at variance and still in debate. To the east of southern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> the inactive andesitic volcanic islands of Lutao and Lanhsu mark the top of the Luzon arc, separated from <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> by a somewhat deformed fore-arc basin [McIntosh et al., 2005]. To its west the Manila Trench is the western limit of a series of trend-parallel small thrusts on the ocean floor [Lunberg et al., 1997]. As the Trench approaches the continental shelf from the south it gradually loses its bathymetric signature. Southern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> itself is commonly viewed as a part of the accretionary prism, and yet is also considered a continuation of the Central Range, produced by the collision of the Luzon arc and continental shelf. Suppe [1981] and many others had long recognized the central <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> orogeny, as a result of the collision of the Luzon Arc with the EUR continental shelf and Central Range, is built from rocks of the continental shelf. Inspection of a map of bathymetry around <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> shows that the continental shelf turns noticeably westward offshore of southwestern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, and that southern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> is situated off the continental shelf. The presence of the Benioff zone under southern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> and the normal faulting earthquakes (M7) west of Hengchun in 2006 indicate that southern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> is a part of the PSP that is moving over the subducting EUR. It appears that southern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> has not yet fully engaged in collision with EUR. This interpretation implies that the high topography of southern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> is not created in the same manner as the Central Range. But how was it created? Where is the boundary between the EUR and PSP on land? If southern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> does move westward as a part of PSP then when it collides with the continental shelf it will become a part of a new coastal range. A reexamination is timely as new sea-land, local and teleseismic tomography, more detailed seismicity, and dense GPS data are becoming available, and when there are chances to enhance experiments early next year for testing ideas. References Lunberg et al., 1997. Tectonophysics 274, 5-23. McIntosh et al., 2005. Tectonophysics, 401,23-54. Suppe, J., 1981. Geol. Soc. China, Mem. 4, 67- 89. Wu et al., 2008. Manuscript submitted to JGR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3715463','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3715463"><span id="translatedtitle">Tumefactive Multiple Sclerosis in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kuan, Yi-Chun; Wang, Kai-Chen; Yuan, Wei-Hsin; Tsai, Ching-Piao</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is less common in Asia, including <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, and some characteristics of MS in Asians differ from those of Caucasians. Tumefactive brain lesion is even rarer in MS patients. Objective To review patients with tumefactive MS and compare them with those in other studies investigating tumefactive demyelinating lesions and our Taiwanese typical MS patients. Methods Twelve patients (6.3%) from the 190 MS patients visiting Taipei Veterans General Hospital from 1985 to 2010 were enrolled. They all fulfilled the McDonald or Poser criteria for MS and had at least one brain lesion larger than 2 centimeters with or without a mass effect. Results Eleven patients (91.7%) were female and presented tumefactive brain lesions during the first attack. The clinical course of all patients was relapsing-remitting with a second attack within 2 years. Their initial extended disability status score was higher, but the prognosis was better after more than 2 years of follow-up, than in other studies. Moreover, our patients did not have optic or spinal involvement as well as positive neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin or aquaporin-4 antibody, which is very common in Taiwanese MS patients. Conclusion Tumefactive MS is not common in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. Although the tumefactive demyelinating lesions seem to be terrible initially, their prognosis is relatively more favorable than expected. PMID:23875010</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMED23A0539L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMED23A0539L"><span id="translatedtitle">Marine Educational and Research Cruise in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, C.; Lallemand, S.; Wu, F. T.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>During April 2009, we conducted a seismic and ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) cruise as part of the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> mountain building process study, called the TAIGER. The seismic is shot by the US Columbia University’s research vessel Langseth and the OBSs, including <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, French and American OBSs, are carried out by a Taiwanese student training ship, called Yu-Yin (means to educate the young people) No. 2. Both ships take a big number of research scientists and technical staff (15-25 people) to conduct the seismic and OBS survey. In addition, the Yu-Yin No. 2 ship hosts a total of 25 students, both MS and PhD graduate students, from <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, France and USA. The student group consists of 13 from the National <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Ocean University (<span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>), 1 from the National Central University (<span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>), 9 from the Montpellier University (France) and 2 from the New York State University. Nearly all the French and American students are on their very first trip to <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. The research activities will be reported in the T25 Tectonophysics Section. This paper only deals with the educational events. The cruise includes two parts: the first mainly to deploy the OBSs and the second to retrieve the OBSs back to the ship. In addition, the French group arranges a field geological trip onshore <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> to put into their hands of the actions of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> mountain building processes. The marine educational courses are filled in the daily ship time at 4 hours per day. As a result, we believe that we have achieved the followings: (1) mix the students and encourage a lovely study environment, (2) mix the teachers and enhance their teaching spectrum, (3) stay in a live and work together boat, allowing more and wider culture exchange. In the future, we certainly will use every possible opportunity to promote more Marine Educational and Research Cruises.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=miracle&pg=4&id=EJ640382','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=miracle&pg=4&id=EJ640382"><span id="translatedtitle">The Evolution of Education and Training Strategies in Singapore, <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> and S. Korea: A Development Model of Skill Formation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ashton, D.; Green, F.; Sung, J.; James, D.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Examination of the government role in labor force development in Singapore, <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, and South Korean identified strategies and structures enabling the "East Asian Miracle" of economic development, including <span class="hlt">strong</span> states with high autonomy regarding capital and labor, super-ministries linking institutions, and <span class="hlt">strong</span> central control of education</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=role+AND+government+AND+taiwan&pg=2&id=EJ640382','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=role+AND+government+AND+taiwan&pg=2&id=EJ640382"><span id="translatedtitle">The Evolution of Education and Training Strategies in Singapore, <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> and S. Korea: A Development Model of Skill Formation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ashton, D.; Green, F.; Sung, J.; James, D.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Examination of the government role in labor force development in Singapore, <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, and South Korean identified strategies and structures enabling the "East Asian Miracle" of economic development, including <span class="hlt">strong</span> states with high autonomy regarding capital and labor, super-ministries linking institutions, and <span class="hlt">strong</span> central control of education…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..85...64C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..85...64C"><span id="translatedtitle">Health risk assessment for residents exposed to atmospheric diesel exhaust particles in southern region of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chio, Chia-Pin; Liao, Chung-Min; Tsai, Ying-I.; Cheng, Man-Ting; Chou, Wei-Chun</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Evidence shows a <span class="hlt">strong</span> association among air pollution, oxidative stress (OS), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage, and diseases. Recent studies indicated that the aging, human neurodegenerative diseases and cancers resulted from mitochondrial dysfunction and OS. The purpose of this study is to provide a probabilistic risk assessment model to quantify the atmospheric diesel exhaust particles (DEP)-induced pre-cancer biomarker response and cancer incidence risk for residents in south <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. We conducted entirely monthly particulate matter sampling data at five sites in Kaohsiung of south <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> in the period 2002-2003. Three findings were found: (i) the DEP dose estimates and cancer risk quantification had heterogeneously spatiotemporal difference in south <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, (ii) the pre-cancer DNA damage biomarker and cancer incidence estimates had a positive yet insignificant association, and (iii) all the estimates of cancer incidence in south <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> populations fell within and slight lower than the values from previous cancer epidemiological investigations. In this study, we successfully assessed the tumor incidence for residents posed by DEP exposure in south <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> compared with the epidemiological approach. Our approach provides a unique way for assessing human health risk for residences exposed to atmospheric DEP depending on specific combinations of local and regional conditions. Our work implicates the importance of incorporating both environmental and health risk impacts into models of air pollution exposure to guide adaptive mitigation strategies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24676946','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24676946"><span id="translatedtitle">[Nursing manpower and solutions in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Teng, Su-Wen</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>The shortage of nursing manpower is a long-term problem worldwide that affects <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> despite this country's internationally admired achievements in terms of its healthcare and national health insurance systems. This article reviews discussions related to the nursing shortage issue published by the World Health Organization, International Council of Nurses, and <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Ministry of Health and Welfare. Next, an overview is given of the nursing workforce profile, causal factors behind the nursing shortage, and demand for and supply of nursing manpower. Finally, problems, resolutions, and expected outcomes for the nursing shortage in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> are analyzed. PMID:24676946</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22056921','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22056921"><span id="translatedtitle">Deposition of beryllium-7 in Hsinchu, <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chao, J H; Chiu, Y J; Lee, H P; Lee, M C</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>In the present study, factors that influence the distribution and variation of (7)Be in Hsinchu, <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> were elucidated. The (7)Be activity including the deposition flux and air concentration was continuously monitored and recorded throughout a 15-year period (1996-2010). To explain the observed variability in the (7)Be activity over time, air concentration and deposition flux of (7)Be were correlated to rainfall and solar activity. The monthly average deposition flux and air concentration of (7)Be were inversely related to solar activity with the 11-year cycle and were not <span class="hlt">strongly</span> correlated to rainfall. The highest seasonal deposition flux of (7)Be occurred in March, which is commonly referred to as the spring maximum, due to air-mass mixing processes in the troposphere. The air concentration of (7)Be was seasonally variable and was significantly affected by monsoons. The lowest deposition flux and air concentration of (7)Be were observed in July and August due to the occurrence of southwest monsoons from low latitudes, which carry air masses with low concentrations of (7)Be. The deposition flux was enhanced by precipitation, which increased the deposition velocity, transferring more (7)Be from the troposphere to the ground. The fraction of dry to total deposition varied seasonally and was equal to 9.86%, on average. PMID:22056921</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000AmJPh..68..637N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000AmJPh..68..637N"><span id="translatedtitle">Circular <span class="hlt">motion</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Newton, Isaac; Henry, Richard Conn</p> <p>2000-07-01</p> <p>An extraordinarily simple and transparent derivation of the formula for the acceleration that occurs in uniform circular <span class="hlt">motion</span> is presented, and is advocated for use in high school and college freshman physics textbooks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024352','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024352"><span id="translatedtitle">Instrumental intensity distribution for the Hector Mine, California, and the Chi-Chi, <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, earthquakes: Comparison of two methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Sokolov, V.; Wald, D.J.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>We compare two methods of seismic-intensity estimation from ground-<span class="hlt">motion</span> records for the two recent <span class="hlt">strong</span> earthquakes: the 1999 (M 7.1) Hector Mine, California, and the 1999 (M 7.6) Chi-Chi, <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. The first technique utilizes the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and velocity (PGV), and it is used for rapid generation of the instrumental intensity map in California. The other method is based on the revised relationships between intensity and Fourier amplitude spectrum (FAS). The results of using the methods are compared with independently observed data and between the estimations from the records. For the case of the Hector Mine earthquake, the calculated intensities in general agree with the observed values. For the case of the Chi-Chi earthquake, the areas of maximum calculated intensity correspond to the areas of the greatest damage and highest number of fatalities. However, the FAS method producees higher-intensity values than those of the peak amplitude method. The specific features of ground-<span class="hlt">motion</span> excitation during the large, shallow, thrust earthquake may be considered a reason for the discrepancy. The use of PGA and PGV is simple; however, the use of FAS provides a natural consideration of site amplification by means of generalized or site-specific spectral ratios. Because the calculation of seismic-intensity maps requires rapid processing of data from a large network, it is very practical to generate a "first-order" map from the recorded peak <span class="hlt">motions</span>. Then, a "second-order" map may be compiled using an amplitude-spectra method on the basis of available records and numerical modeling of the site-dependent spectra for the regions of sparse station spacing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.T54A..01W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.T54A..01W"><span id="translatedtitle">A Tectonic Tear Of The Philippine Sea Plate Under The <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Orogen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, F. T.; Kuo-Chen, H.; Us; Taiwan Taiger Teams</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>New tomographic images from TAIGER (<span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Integrated Geodynamics Research) project allow a comprehensive view of the plate and deformation structures under the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> orogen. A recently articulated major tectonic feature is a tear of the northward subducting Philippine Sea plate (PSP), evidently as a result of its WNW-directed collision with <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. The interpretation is based on tomography and seismicity. A west-dipping, near-vertical planar seismic zone down to about 80 km located west of Hualien has been recognized but its tectonic role remains unexplained. The earthquakes in this zone are small, in the 2< M <3 range, but the zone is very distinct and has been recognized after the location of seismic events were resolved well enough in the late 1970’s. The few available mechanisms of events in this zone show thrust (with WNW P axis) and strike-slip <span class="hlt">motions</span> (NE P-axis)). To the north of this seismic zone we have recently found a WNW-dipping high velocity anomaly that is clearly connected to the north-dipping PSP. This anomaly essentially underlies the “mountain root” of northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. The planar seismic zone is located near the southern limit of the high velocity anomaly. To explain the seismicity and the high velocity anomaly we note that the Coastal Range is known to the product of collision of PSP with the Eurasian plate (EUP); along its length the collision created also the Central Range on the west. Just north, the subducting PSP has reached a depth where the upper mantle evidently yields to the westward advancement of PSP. Previously the edge of PSP was thought to be distorted into a continuous curve, but the spatial distribution of the high velocity anomaly under northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> in relation to the planar seismic zone lead us to postulate a break. The PSP to the northeast of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> subducts northward and collides with <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, but a portion of it may also have a westward subducting component. The planar seismic zone may be the locus of relative <span class="hlt">motion</span> between PSP and EUP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.3448R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.3448R"><span id="translatedtitle">Triggering Factor of <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Earthquakes and Its Prediction Verification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ren, Z. Q.; Ren, S. H.</p> <p></p> <p>After 30 yearsS research, we have found that great earthquakes are triggered by tide- generation force of the moon. ItSs not the tide-generation force in classical view- points, but is a non-classical viewpoint tide-generation force. We call it as TGFR (Tide-Generation ForcesS Resonance). TGFR <span class="hlt">strongly</span> depends on the tide-generation force at time of the strange astronomical points (SAP). The SAP mostly are when the moon and another celestial body are arranged with the earth along a straight line (with the same apparent right ascension or 180o difference), the other SAP are the turning points of the moonSs relatively <span class="hlt">motion</span> to the earth. Moreover, TGFR have four different types effective areas. Our study indicates that a majority of earthquakes are triggering by the rare superimposition of TGFRsS effective areas. In China the great earthquakes in the plain area of Hebei Province, <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, Yunnan Province and Sichuan province are trigger by the decompression TGFR; Other earthquakes are trig- gered by compression TGFR which are in Gansu Province, Ningxia Provinces and northwest direction of Beijing. The great earthquakes in Japan, California, southeast of Europe also are triggered by compression of the TGFR. and in the other part of the world like in Philippines, Central America countries, and West Asia, great earth- quakes are triggered by decompression TGFR. We have carried out examinational im- mediate prediction cooperate TGFR method with other earthquake impending signals such as suggested by Professor Li Junzhi. The successful ratio is about 40Key words: imminent prediction; triggering factor; TGFR (Tide-Generation ForcesS Resonance); TGFR compression; TGFR compression zone; TGFR decompression; TGFR decom- pression zone Triggering factor of <span class="hlt">strong</span> earthquakes and its prediction verification</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/245474','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/245474"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>: Facing the future with nuclear power</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-07-01</p> <p>The republic of China on <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> is located approximately 100 miles off the southeast coast of mainland China, between Japan and the Philippines, and has an area of 13,970 square miles. The island nation has a population exceeding twenty million people, with over five million living in the capital of Taipei, making <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> the second most densely populated country in the world. The country also has one of the world`s fastest growing economies, with major industries that include electronics, textiles, food processing, chemicals and plastics. Annual growth of <span class="hlt">Taiwan`s</span> gross national product (GNP) has averaged more than 7 percent for the past several years, and the small island is now the twelfth largest trading nation in the world, with a GNP exceeding US$200 billion.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4874L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4874L"><span id="translatedtitle">H/V spectral ratios of the continental margin sediments offshore southwestern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lin, Jing-Yi; Cheng, Win-Bin; Chin, Shao-Jinn; Hsu, Shu-Kun</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>For decades, it has been mentioned that submarine slope failures are spatially linked to the presence of gas hydrates/gas-charged sediments. When triggered by earthquakes, over steepen and instable sediments may prompt breakouts of the slopes containing gas hydrates and cause submarine landslides and tsunamis. Widely distributed BSRs have been observed in the area offshore of southwestern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> where the active accretionary complex meets with the passive China continental margin. In the region, large or small scale landslides were also reported based on seismic interpretations. In order to clarify the link between earthquake, landslide and the presence of gas hydrate, we evaluate the response of seafloor sediments in regard to passive dynamic loads. Horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) spectral ratios are used to characterize the local sediment response. Ambient noise as well as distant earthquake is used as generators of the passive dynamic loads. Based on this study, we aim to characterize the site in terms of its physical properties and the local site effect produced by shallow marine sediments. Estimating H/V spectral ratios of data recorded by the short period OBSs (Ocean Bottom Seismometer) deployed in the active and paqssive margin offshore southwestern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> show similar spectral characteristics and provide a general understanding of the preferential vibration modes of sediment systems. The results show that the maximal H/V ratios appeared in the range of 5-10 Hz, where the horizontal amplitudes increased by an order of magnitude relative to the vertical amplitude. The stations located in the northwestern part of study area were characterized by another relatively small peak at proximately 2 Hz, which may indicates the presence of a discontinuity of sediments. For most stations, the H/V ratios estimated based on the earthquakes (i.e. <span class="hlt">strong</span> input signal) and noise (background, micro-seismic noise) records were characterized by different pattern. No distinct peak is observed for the H/V pattern calculated during earthquakes. This phenomenon may suggest that no clear sedimentary boundary exist when a stronger <span class="hlt">motion</span> applies. We found that the resonance frequency for the relative rigid material, such as mud diapir, is relatively higher, about 9 Hz. Moreover, their main resonance frequency is not affected by occurrence of earthquakes. On the general sedimentary layer and marine landslide, the resonance frequency shows relatively low value, about 7~8 Hz. When the site is affected by earthquakes, the main frequency becomes unclear. Finally, when a site is characterized by very thick sedimentary layer, the frequency of about 5 Hz is the lowest observed in the experiment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.T23D..06C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.T23D..06C"><span id="translatedtitle">Decadal Erosion Rates Derived From An Earthquake-Induced Landslide Region, Central <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chan, Y.; Lu, C.; Chang, K.; Chen, R.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The island of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> is resulted from the collision between the Philippine sea plate and the Eurasian plate. The subtropical climate and averaging four typhoons annually, combined with frequent earthquakes, influence much of the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> region. Due to the factors above, not only the active orogeny of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> causes the high uplift rate at about 4 mm/yr, but also drive amazing erosion rate of about 3-6 mm/yr. Previous study indicated approximately 1.9% of global suspended sediment is derived from the small island of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, which is only about 0.024% of Earth’s subaerial surface. Furthermore, modern erosion rates are <span class="hlt">strongly</span> influenced by large earthquakes and typhoons, and the sediment fluxes after the Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> are much higher than those before the earthquake. Here we study the Chiufenerhshan landslide, which is one of the large landslides triggered by the Chi-Chi earthquake in the central <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. The avalanche transported a mass of sedimentary rock about 60 m thick and 1.5 km long. Based on the high-resolution topographic data sets from LiDAR or photogrammetry at various years and rain fall data, we have reached the following conclusions: In the period of 8.5 years after the Chi-Chi earthquake, almost 4.2% of the landslide deposits were transported out of the landslide system. Comparing with the mean annual erosion rate of 3-6 mm/yr in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, the sediment brought out of Chiufenerhshan landslide area is 89.4 mm/yr, a significant amount contributed by the landslide. The mean sediment discharge from this small system is as large as 0.064% of the sediment discharge from the whole <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> annually; while the area is only about 0.005% of Taiwan’s subaerial surface. Thus, the landslide process has contributed much more to the surface erosion of the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> mountain than other erosion processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15171491','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15171491"><span id="translatedtitle">Acute metaldehyde poisoning in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shih, Chi-Chung; Chang, Shy-Shin; Chan, Yi-Ling; Chen, Jih-Chang; Chang, Meng-Wei; Tung, Meng-Sheng; Deng, Jou-Fang; Yang, Chen-Chang</p> <p>2004-06-01</p> <p>Metaldehyde, a cyclic tetramer of acetaldehyde, is a widely used molluscicide. Although cases with acute metaldehyde poisoning have been reported, the occurrence of severe poisoning is uncommon. To provide more information on human metaldehyde poisoning, we reviewed 15 cases of metaldehyde exposure reported to the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> National Poison Control Center at the Taipei Veterans General Hospital between 1991 and 2002. While 7 patients were asymptomatic, the other 8 patients, including 4 who coingested alcohol or other poisons, exhibited toxic manifestations of abdominal pain, dizziness, nausea, irritation of oral mucosa, and seizures after oral exposure. One patient died after ingesting 12 g (or 258.6 mg/kg) of metaldehyde. Although the toxicity from metaldehyde is largely mild, the clinical course of metaldehyde poisoning may be rapidly deteriorating and fatal on rare occasions. Physicians should therefore be cautious in managing patients with metaldehyde poisoning, and vigorous supportive measures should be promptly instituted in patients who manifest severe toxicity. PMID:15171491</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26378025','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26378025"><span id="translatedtitle">Onychomycosis Associated with Exophiala oligosperma in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wen, Yu-Min; Rajendran, Ranjith Kumar; Lin, Ying-Fang; Kirschner, Roland; Hu, Sindy</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>A fungus was isolated from a nail of a 54-year-old female patient with onychomycosis in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. Based on ITS rDNA as well as beta tubulin gene sequences and microscopic analyses, this fungus was identified as Exophiala oligosperma. This is the first record of E. oligosperma in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. Negative keratin azure test indicates that keratin degradation is not involved in cases of E. oligosperma associated with skin and nail diseases. PMID:26378025</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991IJRS...12..253B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991IJRS...12..253B"><span id="translatedtitle">SAR <span class="hlt">motion</span> compensation using autofocus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Blacknell, D.; Quegan, S.</p> <p>1991-02-01</p> <p>Conventional <span class="hlt">motion</span> compensation schemes correct for unwanted synthetic aperture radar (SAR) platform <span class="hlt">motions</span> using information from an inertial measurement unit (IMU). Autofocus techniques, which focus SAR images, produce an 'autofocus parameter' which is related to the platform <span class="hlt">motion</span>. In this paper, <span class="hlt">strong</span> evidence is presented to support the assumption that the contrast optimization autofocus algorithm behaves as a least-squares quadratic fitting to the SAR platform trajectory. Using this assumption, the relationship between the autofocus parameter and across-track accelerations of the SAR platform is derived. This allows the SAR platform <span class="hlt">motion</span> to be estimated from the autofocus parameter measurements and incorporated in a <span class="hlt">motion</span> compensation instead of IMU measurements. Three implementations of <span class="hlt">motion</span> compensation using autofocus are compared and the achievable image quality is quantified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3951936','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3951936"><span id="translatedtitle">Early Austronesians: Into and Out Of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Chen, Chung-Yu; Fu, Qiaomei; Delfin, Frederick; Li, Mingkun; Chiu, Hung-Lin; Stoneking, Mark; Ko, Ying-Chin</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> origin for the expansion of the Austronesian languages and their speakers is well supported by linguistic and archaeological evidence. However, human genetic evidence is more controversial. Until now, there had been no ancient skeletal evidence of a potential Austronesian-speaking ancestor prior to the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Neolithic ∼6,000 years ago, and genetic studies have largely ignored the role of genetic diversity within <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> as well as the origins of Formosans. We address these issues via analysis of a complete mitochondrial DNA genome sequence of an ∼8,000-year-old skeleton from Liang Island (located between China and <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>) and 550 mtDNA genome sequences from 8 aboriginal (highland) Formosan and 4 other Taiwanese groups. We show that the Liangdao Man mtDNA sequence is closest to Formosans, provides a link to southern China, and has the most ancestral haplogroup E sequence found among extant Austronesian speakers. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis allows us to reconstruct a history of early Austronesians arriving in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> in the north ∼6,000 years ago, spreading rapidly to the south, and leaving <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> ∼4,000 years ago to spread throughout Island Southeast Asia, Madagascar, and Oceania. PMID:24607387</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..78...35Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..78...35Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate and weather characteristics in association with the active fires in northern Southeast Asia and spring air pollution in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> during 2010 7-SEAS/Dongsha Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yen, Ming-Cheng; Peng, Chi-Ming; Chen, Tsing-Chang; Chen, Ching-Sen; Lin, Neng-Huei; Tzeng, Ren-Yow; Lee, Yung-An; Lin, Cheng-Chih</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Climatologically, the East Asian high merges with the westward expansion of the northwestern Pacific subtropical high in March. The local East-West cell/circulation is enhanced by a well-organized convergent center that forms over Indochina at 925 h Pa in March. This allows the emitted air pollutants from the biomass burning to be uplifted to the free troposphere and immediately transported downwind to the east. Using the data collected from the 2010 7-SEAS/Dongsha Experiment, six cases of long-range transport events involving air pollutants during March-April were identified at the Hengchun air quality monitoring station in southern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. These events were related to active burning phases over Indochina Peninsula. The air pollutants produced by these events were transported to <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> after a 2-3 day journey. A composite analysis for these identified six cases showed that the boundary layer of the southwesterly flow confluence coupled with a well-organized convergent center located over a thermal low under clear skies over the Indochina Peninsula may induce a distinct ascending <span class="hlt">motion</span> to form the upward branch of the transient local East-West cell/circulation during the burning phase. This inferred upward <span class="hlt">motion</span> together with the <span class="hlt">strong</span> thermal buoyancy created by the active biomass burnings could carry the air pollutants to the lower free troposphere where they would effectively be conveyed downwind along the westerly flow above 850 h Pa level. The air pollutants were brought down to the surface by downward branch of the transient local East-West cell/circulation, which was induced by the subsidence of a cold surge anticyclone. Using continuous point sources, the six identified cases were simulated with the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian-Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) particle dispersion forward model to confirm our supposition regarding the mechanism for the long-range transport of Southeast Asian biomass burning pollutants that has a significant impact on the surface air quality of the downstream areas, particularly in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.3887D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.3887D"><span id="translatedtitle">Neotectonic characteristics of Liuchia fault, southwestern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, from the analysis of fluvial channel morphology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Du, Kuan-Ying; Shyu, J. Bruce H.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The Liuchia fault in southwestern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> has been considered as one of major active faults in the active <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> orogen. It is identified by its clear geomorphic features, and forms a major geologic boundary of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>'s Western Foothills. In the twentieth century, several large earthquakes occurred in southwestern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> and caused significant damages. However, there is no unanimous historical evidence for the activity on the Liuchia fault. Therefore, the Liuchia fault poses large hazard potentials for this populous area. Several previous studies have shown that fluvial channel morphology, such as channel slope and width, is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> influenced by tectonic activities. As river channels reach steady state, the rock uplift would be balanced by the incision of river channels. Base on these hypotheses, it has been shown previously that the analysis of river channel morphology can successfully estimate the activity of potentially active faults in central <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. As a result, we attempted to obtain information of recent activity of the Liuchia fault by analyzing the channel morphology of the Erchung River, which flows across the fault. We also attempted to calculate the actual river incision rates from the age of river terraces along the river. Such information would enable us to construct the subsurface geometry of this important active structure. We have obtained a detailed river long profile of the Erchung River from surveys using RTK-GPS, and the channel width profile from actual field measurements using a Laser Rangefinder. The fluvial channel morphology of the Erchung River appears to have been affected by active folding in the hanging-wall block of the Liuchia fault. Such active deformation pattern is also evident from river incision rate patterns, calculated from the ages and elevations of river terraces along the channel. We have also measured bedrock attitudes across the Liuchia fault and into its hanging-wall block. Combing these different datasets, we are able to construct a realistic model of the subsurface geometry of the Liuchia fault in southwestern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Kinetic+AND+theory&pg=6&id=EJ312709','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Kinetic+AND+theory&pg=6&id=EJ312709"><span id="translatedtitle">Brownian <span class="hlt">Motion</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lavenda, Bernard H.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Explains the phenomenon of Brownian <span class="hlt">motion</span>, which serves as a mathematical model for random processes. Topics addressed include kinetic theory, Einstein's theory, particle displacement, and others. Points out that observations of the random course of a particle suspended in fluid led to the first accurate measurement of atomic mass. (DH)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.S51A2400H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.S51A2400H"><span id="translatedtitle">Spectral Amplification Factors of Long-Period (3 to 10 s) <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Ground <span class="hlt">Motions</span> in and around the Los Angeles Basin during the Mw7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake of April 4, 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hatayama, K.; Kalkan, E.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>We evaluated spectral amplification factors of long-period ground <span class="hlt">motions</span> (3 to 10 s) in the Los Angeles (LA) basin by computing Fourier spectral ratios of the basin sites with respect to the surrounding reference hard-rock sites from the Mw7.2 April 4, 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake records and presented period-specific (4, 6, 8 and 10 s) maps of amplification factors for the long periods. This earthquake was the first event providing many (236) high-quality recordings to study spatial variation of long-period amplification in the LA basin. We also tried numerical wave propagation simulations for two of the recent 3D seismic-velocity models for south California: SCEC (Southern California Earthquake Center) CVM (Community Velocity Model)-4.0 and CVM-H 6.2 to examine how these models account for the observed long-period amplification factors. Comparison of the period-specific maps of amplification factors between the observation and the simulation for the two velocity models shows that both CVM-4.0 and CVM-H 6.2 can roughly reproduce the observed amplification factors with the period range of 8 to 10 s in the LA basin. Concerning the shorter-period range (4 to 6 s), however, both of the two models leave more to be improved so that the observed amplification factors can be better simulated. We also find that CVM-4.0 has an advantage over CVM-H 6.2 in terms of the south-eastern part of the LA basin, because CVM-H 6.2 indicates non-observed large amplification there, while CVM-4.0 does not indicate the false amplification. For the period of 10 s, the largest amplification factor of about 5 was observed in the central part of the LA basin, which is well simulated in terms of good agreements between the observed and the simulated amplification factors. The simulation from the two velocity models also indicates the large amplification even in the San Gabriel (SG) valley, which disagrees with the observation. For 8 s, larger amplification factors of about 5 were observed not only in the central part of the LA basin but also in the SG valley, which are also well simulated by both of the two models. The CVM-H 6.2 simulation undershoots the observation in the western part of the LA basin, while CVM-4.0 can almost reproduce it. For 6 s, the largest amplification is observed in the western part of the basin (Manhattan Beach), although the amplification in the central part is also large. Around Manhattan Beach, the ground <span class="hlt">motions</span> with this period are amplified by a factor of 10. There is significant discrepancy between the observation and the simulation for the two models in terms of the places where the largest amplification occurs. For the period of 4 s, the largest amplification factor of about 8 occurs in the central part of the LA basin. Again, the spatial pattern of amplification is basically failed to simulate by either of the two models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18444403','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18444403"><span id="translatedtitle">Occupational health nursing practice, education, and research in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, Yun-Ping; Hong, OiSaeng; Yeh, Mei Chang</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>This article describes occupational health nursing practice, education, research, and future perspectives in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. It also provides a brief overview of major occupational health and safety problems, laws and regulations, and organizations in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. PMID:18444403</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T13C2544C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T13C2544C"><span id="translatedtitle">Co-Seismic Indentor-Related Deformation during the Termination of Subduction and its Associated Geophysical Characteristics: An Example from <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chi, W.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Collision is among the important processes for the growth of continents, and how subduction becomes a collision is still an active research topic. Here we examine the seismogenic structures of southern and central <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> where the subduction along the Manila Trench has terminated and given way to an arc-continent collision on land. Based on focal mechanisms and seven finite-fault slip models, co-seismic tectonic extrusion is active in this region in which the basement highs on the in-coming passive margin are acting as indentors, and <span class="hlt">strongly</span> modify the seismic moment release patterns in the collision zone. At least three magnitude 7 earthquakes have ruptured both north and south of an indentor called the Peikang high in the last hundred years. After examination, the basement highs show little GPS-recorded relative <span class="hlt">motion</span> with respect to the incoming passive margin; high Bouguer gravity anomaly associated with denser materials of the basement; and low heat flow due to less dewatering and exhumation. With regard to seismogenic structures, faster GPS relative <span class="hlt">motions</span>, lower Bouguer gravity anomaly, and higher heat flow characterizes the regions surrounding the indentors. Similar processes might be operating in other arc-continent collision zones. For other regions where there are fewer seismic instruments to monitor earthquakes, it might be helpful to combine a geological survey with gravity and other geophysical datasets to help identify such potential seismogenic structures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22479744','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22479744"><span id="translatedtitle">Land, carbon and water footprints in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lee, Yung-Jaan</p> <p>2015-09-15</p> <p>The consumer responsibility approach uses footprints as indicators of the total direct and indirect effects of a product or consumption activity. This study used a time-series analysis of three environmental pressures to quantify the total environmental pressures caused by consumption in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>: land footprint, carbon footprint, and water footprint. Land footprint is the pressure from appropriation of biologically productive land and water area. Carbon footprint is the pressure from greenhouse gas emissions. Water footprint is the pressure from freshwater consumption. Conventional carbon footprint is the total CO{sub 2} emitted by a certain activity or the CO{sub 2} accumulation during a product life cycle. This definition cannot be used to convert CO{sub 2} emissions into land units. This study responds to the needs of “CO{sub 2} land” in the footprint family by applying the carbon footprint concept used by GFN. The analytical results showed that consumption by the average <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> citizen in 2000 required appropriation of 5.39 gha (hectares of land with global-average biological productivity) and 3.63 gha in 2011 in terms of land footprint. The average <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> citizen had a carbon footprint of 3.95 gha in 2000 and 5.94 gha in 2011. These results indicate that separately analyzing the land and carbon footprints enables their trends to be compared and appropriate policies and strategies for different sectors to be proposed accordingly. The average <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> citizen had a blue water footprint of 801 m{sup 3} in 2000 and 784 m{sup 3} in 2011. By comparison, their respective global averages were 1.23 gha, 2.36 gha and 163 m{sup 3} blue water in 2011, respectively. Overall, <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> revealed higher environmental pressures compared to the rest of the world, demonstrating that <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> has become a high footprint state and has appropriated environmental resources from other countries. That is, through its imports of products with embodied pressures and its exports, <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> has transferred the environmental pressures from consuming goods and services to other parts of the world, which is an environmental injustice. This study examines the time series trend of land, carbon, and water footprints in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. However, if these analyses can be downscaled to city/county levels, they will be more useful for examining different sustainability performance of local governments in different regions. - Highlights: • This study used a time-series analysis of three environmental pressures to quantify the total environmental pressures caused by consumption in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>: land footprint, carbon footprint and water footprint. • The average <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> citizen had a land footprint of 5.39 gha in 2000 and 3.63 gha in 2011. • The average <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> citizen had a carbon footprint of 3.95 gha in 2000 and 5.94 gha in 2011. • The average <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> citizen had a blue water footprint of 801 m{sup 3} in 2000 and 784 m{sup 3} in 2011. • By comparison, their respective global averages were 1.23 gha, 2.36 gha and 163 m{sup 3} blue water footprint in 2011, respectively. <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> revealed higher environmental pressures compared to the rest of the world.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3740711','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3740711"><span id="translatedtitle">Local Ablation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lin, Shi-Ming</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second commonest cancer in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. The national surveillance program can detect HCC in its early stages, and various curative modalities (including surgical resection, orthotopic liver transplantation, and local ablation) are employed for the treatment of small HCC. Local ablation therapies are currently advocated for early-stage HCC that is unresectable because of co-morbidities, the need to preserve liver function, or refusal of resection. Among the various local ablation therapies, the most commonly used modalities include percutaneous ethanol injection and radiofrequency ablation (RFA); percutaneous acetic acid injection and microwave ablation are used less often. RFA is more commonly employed than other local ablative modalities in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> because the technique is highly effective, minimally invasive, and requires fewer sessions. RFA is therefore advocated in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> as the first-line curative therapy for unresectable HCC or even for resectable HCC. However, current RFA procedures are less effective against tumors that are in high-risk or difficult-to-ablate locations, are poorly visualized on ultrasonography (US), or are large. Recent advancements in RFA in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> can resolve these issues by the creation of artificial ascites or pleural effusion, application of real-time virtual US assistance, use of combination therapy before RFA, or use of switching RF controllers with multiple electrodes. This review article provides updates on the clinical outcomes and advances in local ablative modalities (mostly RFA) for HCC in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. PMID:24159599</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED510638.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED510638.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">What University Governance Can <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Learn from the United States?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lee, Lung-Sheng; Land, Ming H.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Due to changes from centralization to marketization, <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>'s university governance must increase its effectiveness. The purpose of this paper was to introduce trends in and issues of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>'s university governance, describe university governance in the United States, and draw implications that <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>'s university governance needs to learn from…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=language+AND+shift&pg=2&id=EJ884730','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=language+AND+shift&pg=2&id=EJ884730"><span id="translatedtitle">Language Shift and Language Accommodation across Family Generations in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sandel, Todd L.; Chao, Wen-Yu; Liang, Chung-Hui</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This study explored language shift and accommodation among bilingual Mandarin and Tai-gi (also called Hokkien, Holo, Tai-gu, <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Min, Taiwanese) families in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. From the 1940s until the 1980s the Chinese Nationalist Party (KMT) on <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> promoted Mandarin Chinese. Recent years have witnessed a shift in policy: since 2001 elementary schools…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001340&hterms=killing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dkilling','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001340&hterms=killing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dkilling"><span id="translatedtitle">Super Typhoon Halong off <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>On July 14, 2002, Super Typhoon Halong was east of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> (left edge) in the western Pacific Ocean. At the time this image was taken the storm was a Category 4 hurricane, with maximum sustained winds of 115 knots (132 miles per hour), but as recently as July 12, winds were at 135 knots (155 miles per hour). Halong has moved northwards and pounded Okinawa, Japan, with heavy rain and high winds, just days after tropical Storm Chataan hit the country, creating flooding and killing several people. The storm is expected to be a continuing threat on Monday and Tuesday. This image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite on July 14, 2002. Please note that the high-resolution scene provided here is 500 meters per pixel. For a copy of the scene at the sensor's fullest resolution, visit the MODIS Rapid Response Image Gallery. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26114680','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26114680"><span id="translatedtitle">Synchronous <span class="hlt">motion</span> modulates animacy perception.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Visual <span class="hlt">motion</span> serves as a cue for high-level percepts. The present study reports novel modulation of animacy perception through synchronous <span class="hlt">motion</span>. A target dot moving along a random trajectory was presented. The trajectory was generated based on a variant of 1/f noise; hence, the dot could be perceived as animate. Participants were asked to rate the strength of perceived animacy and perceived intention from the target dot. Several task-irrelevant dots surrounding the target were also presented. Results indicated that perceived animacy and intention were drastically weakened when surrounding dots created synchronous <span class="hlt">motion</span> with the target dot as compared to when surrounding dots did not create synchronous <span class="hlt">motion</span>. A series of follow-up experiments replicated these results and revealed specific characteristics of this modulation. The present findings suggest synchronous visual <span class="hlt">motion</span> serves as a <span class="hlt">strong</span> modulator of animacy perception. PMID:26114680</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27..513R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27..513R"><span id="translatedtitle">Triggering Factor of <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Earthquakes and Its Prediction Verification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ren, Z. Q.; Ren, S. H.</p> <p></p> <p>After 30 yearsS research, we have found that great earthquakes are triggered by tide- generation force of the moon. ItSs not the tide-generation force in classical view- points, but is a non-classical viewpoint tide-generation force. We call it as TGFR (Tide-Generation ForcesS Resonance). TGFR <span class="hlt">strongly</span> depends on the tide-generation force at time of the strange astronomical points (SAP). The SAP mostly are when the moon and another celestial body are arranged with the earth along a straight line (with the same apparent right ascension or 180o difference), the other SAP are the turning points of the moonSs relatively <span class="hlt">motion</span> to the earth. Moreover, TGFR have four different types effective areas. Our study indicates that a majority of earthquakes are triggering by the rare superimposition of TGFRsS effective areas. In China the great earthquakes in the plain area of Hebei Province, <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, Yunnan Province and Sichuan province are trigger by the decompression TGFR; Other earthquakes are trig- gered by compression TGFR which are in Gansu Province, Ningxia Provinces and northwest direction of Beijing. The great earthquakes in Japan, California, southeast of Europe also are triggered by compression of the TGFR. and in the other part of the world like in Philippines, Central America countries, and West Asia, great earthquakes are triggered by decompression TGFR. We have carried out examinational immediate prediction cooperate TGFR method with other earthquake impending signals such as suggested by Professor Li Junzhi. The successful ratio is about 40%(from our fore- cast reports to the China Seismological Administration). Thus we could say the great earthquake can be predicted (include immediate earthquake prediction). Key words: imminent prediction; triggering factor; TGFR (Tide-Generation ForcesS Resonance); TGFR compression; TGFR compression zone; TGFR decompression; TGFR decom- pression zone</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19443057','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19443057"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating outcomes of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>'s first gerontology certification program.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Cheng-Ching; Yen, Chi-Hua; Liao, Wen-Chun; Yuan, Su-Chuan; Chen, Yu-Ru; Lee, Meng-Chih; Lu, Hsin-Ju; Bloom, Patricia</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The elderly population will approach 20% within the next 20 years. This enhances the need for skilled and experienced health care providers. There is a critical need to strengthen gerontology curricula to prepare health-related professionals for a graying population. The purpose of this article is to investigate student satisfaction with the first National Project for Excellence in Gerontological Care Education (NPEGCE) in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. A cross-sectional design was used. A sample of 151 medical, nursing, and physical therapy students, who had enrolled in the NPEGCE and had taken at least one core course, completed a satisfaction questionnaire. To ensure content validity, a multidisciplinary, institutional committee of gerontology and geriatric faculty designed the content. Overall satisfaction scores varied between satisfied (4-points) and very satisfied (5-points). Medical students gave higher ratings than others. Two factors (Curriculum and Teaching) were extracted. A <span class="hlt">strong</span> correlation was found between the subscales and overall satisfaction scores. Internal scale consistency reliability scores ranged from 0.92 to 0.96. Overall, this study demonstrates a moderate level of satisfaction with the NPEGCE. However, these results are from a single institution; they are not generalizable. This is also the first student satisfaction report from <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. There are no similar programs or evaluation results to compare them with. Since the NPEGCE was well received by students and seemed to encourage a more nurturing attitude towards the elderly; it can be regarded as a catalyst for better elderly care in the future. PMID:19443057</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH13D..03T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH13D..03T"><span id="translatedtitle">Initiation and runaway process of Tsaoling landslide, triggered by the 1999 <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Chi-Chi earthquake, as studied by high-velocity friction experiments (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Togo, T.; Shimamoto, T.; Dong, J.; Lee, C.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>High-velocity friction experiments in the last two decades have demonstrated dramatic weakening of simulated faults at seismic slip rates on the order of 1 m/s (e.g., Di Toro et al., 2011, Nature). Similar experiments revealed very low friction of landslide materials (0.05-0.2 in friction coefficient) that can cause catastrophic landslides with velocity exceeding even 10 m/s (e.g., Miyamoto et al. (2009) on the 1999 Tsaoling landslide in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>; Yano et al. (2009) on the 1999 Jiufengershan landslide in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>,; Ferri et al. (2010, 2011) on the 1963 Vaiont landslide in Italy; Kuo et al. (2011) on the 2009 Hsiaolin landslide in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>). Those studies <span class="hlt">strongly</span> suggest that there are common processes operative in fault zones and along slip surfaces of catastrophic landslides along bedding planes, fractures or joints. As for catastrophic landslides triggered by an earthquake, an important issue to be addressed is how a landslide initiates during seismic ground <span class="hlt">motion</span>. Thus we have studied the initiation and runaway process of the Tsaoling landslide by idealizing the initial landslide movement during seismic ground <span class="hlt">motion</span> as an oscillating accelerating/decelerating <span class="hlt">motion</span>. Tsaoling landslide is the largest landslide among those triggered by the Chi-Chi earthquake with its volume of about 130 Mm3. The landslide took place along very planar bedding planes of the porous Pliocene sedimentary rocks (mostly siltstone and sandstone), with a dip angle of 14 degree. A seismic record at a station about 500 m away from the landslide and a witness of a survivor who slid on top of the landslide mass indicate that the average speed of the landslide reached 20~40 m/s. A simple analysis of sliding block indicates that the kinetic friction has to be 0.05~0.15 to produce such a high-velocity. Moreover, Tang et al. (2009, Eng. Geol.) analyzed landslide <span class="hlt">motion</span> with the discrete element method and showed that the landslide mass must have slid nearly as an intact mass, without much disaggregation, in order to prevent the complete mixing of broken-up pieces that would have given no chance for survival. This work partly justifies our experimental approach for understanding the Tsaoling landslide. We performed a series of oscillatory slip experiments on the crushed siltstone gouge at a normal stress of 3 MPa that corresponds to the overburden pressure at the base of about 150-meter thick landslide mass, using a rotary-shear low to high-velocity friction apparatus at Hiroshima University. The slip rate was increased linearly to the maximum velocity of 0.33-1.3 m/s and was decreased linearly to zero with oscillation frequencies ranging 0.3-1.2 Hz. Results indicate that the accelerating and decelerating <span class="hlt">motions</span> cause weakening and strengthening, respectively, at each oscillation cycle and that the gouge undergoes overall weakening with the repeated oscillation cycles. The overall weakening of the gouge depends on the maximum velocity, but not on the oscillation frequency. When the maximum velocity is 1.0 and 1.3 m/s, the friction coefficient decreases from about 0.8 to below 0.25 (or friction angle of 14 degree) after a few to several oscillations to initiate a runaway sliding of the landslide mass and the friction coefficient reduces to 0.1-0.2. Our results are consistent with the delayed onset and the high speed of the Tsaoling landslide. Our experiments will provide a way of evaluating the potential danger for earthquake-induced catastrophic landslides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21718093','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21718093"><span id="translatedtitle">E-healthcare maturity in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Chung-Feng; Hwang, Hsin-Ginn; Chang, Hui-Chuan</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to explore the status of e-healthcare maturity in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> following a nationwide investigation sponsored by the Department of Health. Based on Nolan's stage model and related studies, we propose a multidimensional model to gain a better understanding of the current status of e-healthcare maturity in hospitals. The target subjects included every hospital in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. A total of 538 hospitals were successfully interviewed, showing a high response rate of 94.4%. The results indicate that the overall e-healthcare maturity of Taiwanese hospitals is fairly high. Such a high degree of maturity is critical for formulating e-healthcare policy to stimulate the exchange of electronic medical record. This article provides a brief comparison of the situation in other countries and posits that <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> holds a position of relative maturity in the world of e-healthcare development. PMID:21718093</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26273051','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26273051"><span id="translatedtitle">GEOPHYSICS. Layered deformation in the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> orogen.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, T-Y; Gung, Y; Kuo, B-Y; Chiao, L-Y; Chen, Y-N</p> <p>2015-08-14</p> <p>The underthrusting of continental crust during mountain building is an issue of debate for orogens at convergent continental margins. We report three-dimensional seismic anisotropic tomography of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> that shows a nearly 90° rotation of anisotropic fabrics across a 10- to 20-kilometer depth, consistent with the presence of two layers of deformation. The upper crust is dominated by collision-related compressional deformation, whereas the lower crust of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, mostly the crust of the subducted Eurasian plate, is dominated by convergence-parallel shear deformation. We interpret this lower crustal shearing as driven by the continuous sinking of the Eurasian mantle lithosphere when the surface of the subducted plate is coupled with the orogen. The two-layer deformation clearly defines the role of subduction in the formation of the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> mountain belt. PMID:26273051</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CSR...114...41C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CSR...114...41C"><span id="translatedtitle">Temporal variations of volume transport through the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Strait, as identified by three-year measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Hsien-Wen; Liu, Cho-Teng; Matsuno, Takeshi; Ichikawa, Kaoru; Fukudome, Ken-ichi; Yang, Yih; Doong, Dong-Jiing; Tsai, Wei-Ling</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The water characteristics of the East China Sea depend on influxes from river run-off, the Kuroshio, and the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Strait. A three-year observation using an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) operated on a ferry provides the first nearly continuous data set concerning the seasonal flow pattern and the volume transport from the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Strait to the East China Sea. The observed volume transport shows <span class="hlt">strong</span> seasonality and linkage to the along-strait wind stress. An empirical regression formula between the volume transport and wind was derived to fill the gaps of observation so as to obtain a continuous data set. Based on this unique data set, the three-year mean of monthly volume transport is northeastward throughout the year, large (nearly 3 Sv) in summer and low (nearly zero) in winter. The China Coastal Current flows southward in winter, while the northward-flowing <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Strait Current may reverse direction during severe northeasterly winds in the winter or under typhoons. The sea level difference across <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Strait is closely correlated to the transport through the strait, and their relation is found seasonally nearly stable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24508942','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24508942"><span id="translatedtitle">Phylogenetic and molecular dating analysis of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Blue Pheasant (Lophura swinhoii).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jiang, Lichun; Wang, Gaochao; Peng, Rui; Peng, Quekun; Zou, Fangdong</p> <p>2014-04-10</p> <p>The Swinhoe's Pheasant (Lophura swinhoii) is an endemic and most endangered species to <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, China. It belongs to the genus Lophura, family Phasianidae. To further investigate the evolutionary history of L. swinhoii, we determined its complete mitochondrial genome and reconstructed a single, robust phylogenetic tree. Our results showed that L. swinhoii is clustered with Lophura nycthemera and forms a sister group of Lophura ignita. The genus Lophura is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> supported as the sister taxon of the genus Crossoptilon. The molecular clock analysis showed that the genetic divergence of L. swinhoii occurred in 2.71 (1.31-4.22) Mya. The most common ancestor of L. swinhoii might have migrated from mainland of South East Asia to <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Island by the land bridge at 2.71 Mya ago. <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Island is separated from the mainland by the sea (<span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Strait) and formed a separate island at around 2.5 Mya because of the transgression and regression. Therefore, geographical isolation and climate change may accelerate the evolution of L. swinhoii. In this study, we propose a biogeographic hypothesis for speciation of the L. swinhoii based on known events of the geographic and geological history of South East Asia and southeast China, which would benefit the understanding of evolutionary history of L. swinhoii as well as other galliform birds. PMID:24508942</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AtmEn..60..403L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AtmEn..60..403L"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of different transport mechanisms of Asian dust and anthropogenic pollutants to <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lin, Chuan-Yao; Chou, Charles C. K.; Wang, Zifa; Lung, Shih-Chun; Lee, Chung-Te; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Chen, Wei-Nai; Chang, Shih-Yu; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Wan-Ching; Liu, Shaw Chen</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The impacts of long-range transport of Asian dust and anthropogenic air pollutants to <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> are <span class="hlt">strongly</span> associated with the atmospheric conditions and paths of transport. In this study, we identified 16 significant dust events (daily mean mass concentration ≥ 120 μg m-3) to <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> from 2002 to 2008. To investigate transport characteristics associated with long-range transport of Asian dust and anthropogenic air pollutants to <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, significant dust events were further classified into dry (12 cases) and wet (4 cases) types according to atmospheric conditions. We found that the major transport paths for the dry type (DT) dust cases passed through anthropogenic source areas in the low boundary while the major paths for the wet type (WT) dust cases passed over the ocean. After mineral dust, which occupied around 32% of total PM10 mass concentration, anthropogenic ionic pollutants was the second major contributor and occupied 19-22% at three sampling stations in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> for DT cases. In the fine particle, the anthropogenic ionic pollutants contributed from 29 to 36% to PM2.5, making it the major contributor. The two most significant cases, one from the DT and one from the WT cases, were selected to study transport mechanisms with the NAQPMS air quality model. Simulation results also suggest that transport paths and boundary atmospheric conditions play important roles in aerosol compositions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A21A0036L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A21A0036L"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of different transport mechanisms of Asian dust and anthropogenic pollutants to <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lin, C.; Chou, C. C.; Wang, Z.; Lung, S.; Lee, C.; Yuan, C.; Chen, W.; Chang, S.; Hsu, S.; Liu, S. C.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The impacts of long-range transport of Asian dust and anthropogenic air pollutants to <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> are <span class="hlt">strongly</span> associated with the atmospheric conditions and paths of transport. In this study, we identified 16 significant dust events (daily mean mass concentration >= 120 μgm-3) to <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> from 2002 to 2008. To investigate transport characteristics associated with long-range transport of Asian dust and anthropogenic air pollutants to <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, significant dust events were further classified into dry (12 cases) and wet (4 cases) types according to atmospheric conditions. We found that the major transport paths for the dry type (DT) dust cases passed through anthropogenic source areas in the low boundary while the major paths for the wet type (WT) dust cases passed over the ocean. After mineral dust, which occupied around 32% of total PM10 mass concentration, anthropogenic ionic pollutants was the second major contributor and occupied 19~ 22% at three sampling stations in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> for DT cases. In the fine particle, the anthropogenic ionic pollutants contributed from 29 to 36% to PM2.5, making it the major contributor. The two most significant cases, one from the DT and one from the WT cases, were selected to study transport mechanisms with the NAQPMS air quality model. Simulation results also suggest that transport paths and boundary atmospheric conditions play important roles in aerosol compositions.;</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25125155','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25125155"><span id="translatedtitle">[The <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Nurses Association and professional diplomacy].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Sheuan</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Nurses Association (TWNA) is publishing a special centenary issue to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the association in 2014. For this issue, TWNA invited the author to write a review article that addresses the involvement of the TWNA in professional diplomacy and international exchange over the past century. The author reviews the history of both TWNA and the International Council of Nurses and introduces the contributions of the association in the field of professional diplomacy and the positive contributions of many <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> nursing leaders to global healthcare and society. The purpose of the paper is to convey the traditions and experiences of TWNA forward to the next generation. PMID:25125155</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=lobbying&pg=6&id=EJ808419','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=lobbying&pg=6&id=EJ808419"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhancing the Interactive Relationship between Lifelong Learning and Social Changes to Carry Out a Learning Society in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wang, Cheng-Yen</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>A national white paper was published in 1998 with 14 action plans to be the blueprints for developing lifelong learning. These were based on continuously <span class="hlt">strong</span> recommendations of academics and lobbying groups in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. Many national policies were formulated and implemented based on the white paper and its action plans, and this has paved a way…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24530595','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24530595"><span id="translatedtitle">Case study of the Asian dust and pollutant event in spring 2006: source, transport, and contribution to <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tsai, Fujung; Tu, Jien-Yi; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Wei-Nai</p> <p>2014-04-15</p> <p>Surface measurements and a regional dust model were used to analyze the source, transport, and contribution of a dust event transporting with aerosol pollutant over <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> from 16 to 19 March, 2006. During the event, the hourly aerosol concentrations reached close to 400 μg m(-3) in northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, and approximately 300 μg m(-3) in other areas of the island. Trajectory and regional dust models show that the dust event originated in eastern Mongolia and northern China, and the dust layer can descend from 2 to 3 km in the source area to below 1.5 km over <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. On the other hand, model results show that pollution was transported near the surface from coastal China to <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. During this dust event, polluted aerosol was first observed over northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> right after a frontal passage, and the concentration was <span class="hlt">strongly</span> enhanced following the passage of the light rainfall 12h later. The descent of dusty air from the free troposphere lagged the arrival of polluted air by 7h, and was partially mixed with polluted aerosol when the transport decelerated over <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. During the event, dust particles accounted for up to 60% of observed particulate matter less than 10 μm (PM10) over <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, but decreased to less than 35% for particulate matter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) over most areas of the island. On the other hand, the long-range transport of non-dust aerosols, mainly anthropogenic pollutants, accounted for close to 30% of observed PM10 concentration in northern and western <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> prior to dust arrival, and the contribution of PM2.5 increased to close to 40% over the same areas. Local emission of aerosols accounted for less than 25% of PM10 concentrations in northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, but was about 60% for PM2.5 in central and southern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> because these areas are less influenced by long-range transport. PMID:24530595</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18297225','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18297225"><span id="translatedtitle">A body-weight-based method to estimate inorganic arsenic body burden through tilapia consumption in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, B-C; Liao, C-M</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>In the present study, a stage-classified exposure model is developed to better characterize long-term arsenic (As) accumulation of both genders of children, adolescents, and adults through tilapia consumption in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. Ingestion rate as well as elimination rate of As are treated dynamically and are used to parameterize the stage-classified accumulation model. Model simulations are carried out to produce temporal changes of As body burden of the residents who consume tilapia from blackfoot disease (BFD)-endemic area in three major cities in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. The model presented here can be served as a <span class="hlt">strong</span> framework for refining human health risk assessments through fish consumption. PMID:18297225</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/800016','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/800016"><span id="translatedtitle">Collective Beam Instabilities in the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Light Source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chao, Alex W.</p> <p>2002-08-12</p> <p>The storage ring at <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Light Source has experienced a <span class="hlt">strong</span> collective instability since 1994. Various cures have been attempted to suppress this instability, including the use of damping antenna, tunable rf plungers, different filling patterns, and rf gap voltage modulation. So far these cures have improved the beam intensity, but the operation remains to be limited by the instability. The dominant phenomenon is the longitudinal coupled bunch instability. The major source of longitudinal impedance is from rf cavities of Doris type. The high-order modes of the cavity were numerically analyzed using a 3-D code GdfidL. The correlation of the observed phenomenon in user operation with high-order modes of rf cavities will be presented. Results of various attempts to suppress beam instabilities will be summarized. Proposed cures for beam instabilities will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMAE21B0273H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMAE21B0273H"><span id="translatedtitle">TLEs and their electromagnetic characteristics from 2010 <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> ground campaign</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, S.; Chen, A. B.; Chou, J.; Lee, L.; Chang, S.; Wu, Y.; Lee, Y.; Hsu, C.; Yang, G.; Kuo, C.; Su, H.; Hsu, R.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Hundreds of transient luminous events (TLEs), including sprites, elves, halos, blue jets, and several interesting gigantic jets are captured during <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> 2010 ground campaign. Most of the associated sferics of these TLEs was recorded simultaneously by a ULF recording system located at Mt. Lulin [Wang et al., 2005; two EMI-BF4 magnetic coils] and a newly-installed ELF/VLF Quasar system. To suppress <span class="hlt">strong</span> 60-Hz power grid emissions, both systems are equipped with notch-filtering signal modulators. Inevitably, phase and waveform of the sferics passing through these modulators will be altered. A waveform reconstruction method is developed to restore the waveform distortion and the phase shift to a satisfactory level. Electromagnetic characteristics of the TLE-associated sferics and the TLE-producing lightning are inferred from the reconstructed sferics. The paper will report the recorded TLEs, the associated sferics, and the inferred physical characteristics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9532726','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9532726"><span id="translatedtitle">Dioxin contents in fly ashes of MSW incineration in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chang, M B; Chung, Y T</p> <p>1998-04-01</p> <p>Fly ashes from three municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> were collected and segregated into different fractions for determining the physical and chemical properties and dioxin contents. Analysis of ashes with each fraction indicated that fine particles had higher dioxin contents than large particles. Dioxin homologue components of ashes generated from large-scale mass burn MSW incinerator were less toxic than that from small-scale batch incinerators, and contained less non-2,3,7,8 PCDD/Fs. Correlation analysis did not reveal a consistent trend between dioxins content and ashes' physical properties, while <span class="hlt">strong</span> positive correlation was found between dioxins content and chloride content. Positive correlation between dioxin content and heavy metals content such as copper and zinc in the fly ash was also established. PMID:9532726</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=parenting+AND+styles+AND+culture&pg=5&id=EJ661558','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=parenting+AND+styles+AND+culture&pg=5&id=EJ661558"><span id="translatedtitle">Factors Related to Parenting Practices in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chen, Fu-Mei; Luster Tom</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>This study examined factors related to authoritarian and authoritative parenting practices among 463 Chinese mothers with preschoolers in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. Questionnaire findings suggested that maternal depression, child temperament, and degree of parenting daily hassles might have cross-culturally universal influence on parenting practices. Chinese…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED437912.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED437912.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Internet Addiction among High Schoolers in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lin, Sunny S. J.; Tsai, Chin-Chung</p> <p></p> <p>The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid measurement for the identification of Internet addictive high school students. There were 615 subjects selected by a stratified sampling from the population of Taiwanese 10th to 12th graders. The final version of the Internet Addiction Scale for <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> High Schoolers (IAST) contained 20…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=gestalt&pg=3&id=EJ722231','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=gestalt&pg=3&id=EJ722231"><span id="translatedtitle">Gestalt Group Dreamwork Demonstrations in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Coven, Arnold B.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The application of Gestalt dreamwork was explored with counselor education students and professors at two <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> universities. The literature indicates Asians are reluctant to disclose personal matters or to display emotions. Contrary to expectations, the Taiwanese participants readily enacted roles, were personally open, and expressed intense</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Barometers&pg=3&id=EJ838818','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Barometers&pg=3&id=EJ838818"><span id="translatedtitle">The Quality of Life in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yao, Grace; Cheng, Yen-Pi; Cheng, Chiao-Pi</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The AsiaBarometer survey of 1,006 respondents shows that in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, people have access to modern utilities and digital media, signs of materialistic achievement, and yet are more concerned with physical security and financial safety than with personal growth. Regardless of their demographic backgrounds and value priorities, the Taiwanese, like…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED368004.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED368004.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Ethos Derived from Karaoke Performance in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ma, Ringo</p> <p></p> <p>Karaoke (singing along to music videos) has swept <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> with such force that many people go to singing schools to improve their singing. Three cases in this paper demonstrate how the ethos, or credibility, of the singer is a combination of initial and derived ethos. Who the singer is tends to determine how much attention he or she receives…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sense+AND+life&pg=4&id=EJ838818','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sense+AND+life&pg=4&id=EJ838818"><span id="translatedtitle">The Quality of Life in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yao, Grace; Cheng, Yen-Pi; Cheng, Chiao-Pi</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The AsiaBarometer survey of 1,006 respondents shows that in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, people have access to modern utilities and digital media, signs of materialistic achievement, and yet are more concerned with physical security and financial safety than with personal growth. Regardless of their demographic backgrounds and value priorities, the Taiwanese, like</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAr.XL5..533T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAr.XL5..533T"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>'s underwater cultural heritage documentation management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tung, Y.-Y.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> is an important trading and maritime channels for many countries since ancient time. Numerous relics lie underwater due to weather, wars, and other factors. In the year of 2006, Bureau of Cultural Heritage (BOCH) entrusted the Underwater Archaeological Team of Academia Sinica to execute the underwater archaeological investigation projects. Currently, we verified 78 underwater targets, with 78 site of those had been recognized as shipwrecks sites. Up to date, there is a collection of 638 underwater objects from different underwater archaeological sites. Those artefacts are distributed to different institutions and museums. As very diverse management methods/systems are applied for every individual institution, underwater cultural heritage data such as survey, excavation report, research, etc. are poorly organized and disseminated for use. For better communication regarding to <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>'s underwater cultural heritage in every level, a universal format of documentation should be established. By comparing the existing checklist used in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> with guidelines that are followed in other countries, a more intact and appropriate underwater cultural heritage condition documentation system can be established and adapted in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED537943.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED537943.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The Workforce Education and Development in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lee, Lung-Sheng</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Workforce education and development (WED) can be broadly defined as those formal, informal and nonformal activities that prepare people for work. In <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, it includes technological and vocational education (TVE), human resource development (HRD), public vocational training and adult education. In order to promote information exchanges and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=taiwan&pg=2&id=EJ967208','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=taiwan&pg=2&id=EJ967208"><span id="translatedtitle">Language Policy and Group Identification in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Liu, Ruey-Ying</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> is a multicultural and multilingual society. Generally speaking, Taiwanese residents fall into one of four ethnic groups. Each ethnic group has a different cultural context and a preferred language. Therefore, one's use of language may reveal his/her identification with an ethnic group, and language policy implementation may imply the power…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=role+AND+government+AND+taiwan&id=EJ896194','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=role+AND+government+AND+taiwan&id=EJ896194"><span id="translatedtitle">Language Skills and Status Attainment in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tsai, Shu-Ling</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This article addresses the importance of language underlying the stratification process in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> within the context of globalization. Specifically, I ask if one's language skills may serve as a key to getting ahead. The Taiwanese government has imposed Mandarin as the official language since 1945 and introduced English courses into compulsory…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=taiwan+AND+economics&pg=2&id=EJ927488','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=taiwan+AND+economics&pg=2&id=EJ927488"><span id="translatedtitle">Women's Aspirations for Graduate Education in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lin, Meng-Jie</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This study investigates female undergraduates' aspirations for master's and doctoral degree programs in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>'s universalized and stratified higher education system. It considers the potential effects of economic prospects, parental attitudes, and gender values. First, graduate education is perceived as a means to enhance one's comparative…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED472608.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED472608.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A Profile of Technology Education in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lee, Lung-Sheng</p> <p></p> <p>Technology education (TE) in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> is implemented in elementary, junior high, senior high, and comprehensive high schools. Since 2001, the new curriculum syllabus for grades 1-9 reflects the call for educational reform in such areas as articulation, integration, and flexibility of reform. The national curriculum for grades 10-12 is being revised;…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=flack&pg=4&id=ED291275','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=flack&pg=4&id=ED291275"><span id="translatedtitle">Faculty Development Practices in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Higher Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Flack, Bruce C.</p> <p></p> <p>The universities in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, in carrying out their missions of research, teaching, and public service, have made significant advances in improving the quality of their faculties. Both public and private universities have undertaken a variety of faculty development activities to help their faculties grow professionally and to remain vital. The major…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=university+AND+ranking&pg=7&id=EJ927488','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=university+AND+ranking&pg=7&id=EJ927488"><span id="translatedtitle">Women's Aspirations for Graduate Education in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lin, Meng-Jie</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This study investigates female undergraduates' aspirations for master's and doctoral degree programs in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>'s universalized and stratified higher education system. It considers the potential effects of economic prospects, parental attitudes, and gender values. First, graduate education is perceived as a means to enhance one's comparative</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=farm+AND+industry&pg=4&id=EJ418869','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=farm+AND+industry&pg=4&id=EJ418869"><span id="translatedtitle">Industrialization and Household Complexity in Rural <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lavely, William</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>In 274 Taiwanese townships, farm household complexity in 1960 and 1970 was positively related to the proportion of the labor force in nonagricultural occupations. The close proximity of industry to family farms in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> has reduced rural to urban migration usually associated with industrialization. Contains 46 references. (Author/SV)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1066568.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1066568.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Improving the Textbook Adoption Process in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ho, Hsuan-fu; Hsu, Ying-tsun</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Textbooks were centrally selected in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> until 1996 when the government commissioned its Textbook Liberalization Reform. Although this policy received complements from scholars and the general public, it encounters many unexpected problems in its implementation. The aims of this research are thus to identify the major criteria used by…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED490627.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED490627.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">No Aboriginal Students left Behind in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wu, Sue-Jen; Hartzler-Miller, Cynthia</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The project is motivated by <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>'s huge gap of educational levels between the aborigines and the Hans. The low achievement of aboriginal students lies in factors related to problems in finance, health, and cultural difference, which contribute to their sense of self-deprecation. The purpose of the project is to provide early intervention and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=TCC&pg=3&id=ED429945','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=TCC&pg=3&id=ED429945"><span id="translatedtitle">An Inquiry into Teacher Concerns in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chen, Yih-fen; Reeves, Carolyn</p> <p></p> <p>This study identified concerns of teachers in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> and contrasted concerns of these teachers with the 56 concerns which comprise the Teacher Concerns Checklist (TCC), Form B, developed in the United States. A total of 294 teachers (155 preservice teachers and 139 inservice teachers) completed a Chinese version of the Survey of Teacher Concerns.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRB..120.4539L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRB..120.4539L"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismogenic strain across the transition from fore-arc slivering to collision in southern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lewis, Jonathan C.; O'Hara, Daniel J.; Rau, Ruey-Juin</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Tectonic slivers have profound implications on the mechanical behavior of fore arcs and subduction zones. Southern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> is characterized by precollision fore-arc slivering that likely exerts important controls on the evolution of collision. Inversion of focal mechanism solutions for seismogenic strain reveals spatially partitioned plate <span class="hlt">motion</span> south of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, with dip-slip faulting nearer the Manila trench and strike-slip faulting nearer the Luzon arc. To the north these kinematics are less clearly segregated, and both types of faults appear to occur in the same volume of crust. Further north deformation is dominated by oblique slip on potentially reactivated steep reverse faults in the collision zone. Existing work on the active fault zones in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> suggests that the subduction-to-collision transition is marked by a releasing step between the strike-slip fault that bounds the fore-arc sliver and the oblique thrusts of the collision zone. This configuration may help to explain the lack of fore-arc basement and cover exposed in the suture zone marked by the Longitudinal Valley.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.T32A..02C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.T32A..02C"><span id="translatedtitle">Ground deformation in and around metropolitan Taipei of northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> observed by radar interferometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, C.; Yen, J.; Chen, Y.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> island is a young and active orogenic belt as indicated by the acute surface deformation and frequent seismicity. These activities bring habitants of this island considerable damage. The Taipei basin in northern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> is a tectonic basin, in which a metropolitan is developed since late 19th century. A sudden land subsidence event triggered by large earthquake about 300 years ago has been reported in the western part of the Taipei basin and formed a lake that once occupied more than 60 percent surface of the current Taipei basin. However, observations from the recent geodetic measurement, no clear movement have been detected around this area. Since the Taipei metropolitan and its suburban area is the most populated area in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> it is also the capital of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, the tectonic activity and the potential geological hazard of this area is thus an important issue for <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. This study aims at applying the DInSAR technique and tectono-geomorphological field work to reveal the recent and present surface deformation occurred in and around the Taipei metropolitan. The surface deformation events revealed in this study all belong to the gentle event, which does not have a single catastrophic incident (for example, a <span class="hlt">strong</span>, shallow earthquake that causes a large surface rupture along a fault line) but occurs over a longer time span, analogous to a series of continuous small incidents. The causes of these events include tectonic processes and human activity. These two effects may occur concurrently or compound each other to create a complex deformation pattern and making it difficult to attribute degrees of effect to each factor. In general, these observations could provide useful information to understand the regional surface deformation and its relationship with the neo-tectonic activity and environmental change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26295540','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26295540"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploring potential contributors to endocrine disrupting activities in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>'s surface waters using yeast assays and chemical analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chou, Pei-Hsin; Lin, Yi-Ling; Liu, Tong-Cun; Chen, Kuang-Yu</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Surface waters serve as sinks for anthropogenic contaminants, including naturally occurring hormones and a variety of synthetic endocrine active substances. To investigate the presence of endocrine active contaminants in the aquatic environment in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, river water and suspended solids were analyzed by yeast assays to examine the distribution of estrogenic, androgenic, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist activities. The results showed that dry-season river samples exhibited <span class="hlt">strong</span> estrogenic and aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist activities, but no androgenic activity was detected. Owing to the ubiquitous detection of estrogenic activities in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>'s surface waters, samples were further subjected to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis for quantification of selected estrogenic compounds. LC-MS/MS results indicated that natural estrogens, such as estrone and 17β-estradiol were often the most contributing compounds for the bioassay-derived estrogenic activities due to their <span class="hlt">strong</span> estrogenic potencies and high detection frequencies, whereas high concentrations of bisphenol A and nonylphenol also posed a threat to the aquatic ecosystems in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. Water samples eliciting <span class="hlt">strong</span> estrogenic activities were further fractionated using high performance liquid chromatography, and significant estrogenic activities were detected in fractions containing estrone, 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethynylestradiol, and bisphenol A. Also, the presence of unidentified estrogenic compounds was found in few river water samples. Further identification of unknown endocrine active substances is necessary to better protect the aquatic environment in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. PMID:26295540</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020080892','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020080892"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Motion</span> Simulator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>MOOG, Inc. supplies hydraulic actuators for the Space Shuttle. When MOOG learned NASA was interested in electric actuators for possible future use, the company designed them with assistance from Marshall Space Flight Center. They also decided to pursue the system's commercial potential. This led to partnership with InterActive Simulation, Inc. for production of cabin flight simulators for museums, expositions, etc. The resulting products, the Magic <span class="hlt">Motion</span> Simulator 30 Series, are the first electric powered simulators. Movements are computer-guided, including free fall to heighten the sense of moving through space. A projection system provides visual effects, and the 11 speakers of a digital laser based sound system add to the realism. The electric actuators are easier to install, have lower operating costs, noise, heat and staff requirements. The U.S. Space & Rocket Center and several other organizations have purchased the simulators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T43D2373R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T43D2373R"><span id="translatedtitle">Three-dimensional modeling of interseismic deformation in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rousset, B.; Barbot, S.; Avouac, J.; Hsu, Y.; Lee, J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>At the boundary between the Pacific Sea Plate and the Eurasian Plate, converging at one of the highest rate in the world (8 cm.an-1), the <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> Island orogenic system is a key location to study the seismic cycle. The 1999 Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake, the latest of a series of Mw 7+ earthquakes, was a reminder of the active tectonics shaping the island. Yet, the structure of the fault system at crustal depths, responsible for the sequence of devastating earthquakes, is not fully resolved. In this study, we establish the fault structure of <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> in its intirety that reconciles many geophysicals observations (seismicity, tomography and structural analyses) and explains the pattern of interseismic and postseismic deformation . We optimise and complement the fault geometry at crustal depths using data from several GPS networks, including island-wide continuous measurements and regional campaigns. The inversion of the entire velocity field in <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> can be challenging because a large portion of the convergence is taking place on deep décollements, far below the surface, for which a precise geometry is unknown. We develop a new inversion scheme where we use the difference between nearby GPS stations to constrain slip rate on faults. We show that the method allows for a much finer optimization of fault geometry and is particularly fitted for a complex faulting environment such as <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. We find that the Chihshang segment of the Longitudinal Valley Fault is slipping at a rate of ˜30 mm.yr-1 whereas the Yumei segment to the north appears to be locked. The Chelungpu Fault and the Shuangtung Fault also appear locked, but we infer the subjacent décollement to load it at a rate of 20 to 30 mm.yr-1. The Chuckou fault system, from which 10 earthquakes of Mw 6+ originated in the past 100 years, seems locked at the surface and loaded from below at a rate of ˜20 mm.yr-1. The Hsincheng fault, 50 km to the south of Taipei, seems loaded from below at a rate of 12 mm.yr-1. The GPS data alone are not sufficient to determine uniquely the degree and area of locking, but if completely locked, such a fault could host an earthquake of Mw 6.2 with a recurrence time of ˜40 yr. Additionally, we study the <span class="hlt">strong</span> postseismic signal that followed the 1999 Chi-Chi event. The stress far-reaching perturbation caused by the rupture accelerated some faults and decelerated others. In the near field this earthquake, most of the postseismic deformation is accommodated by afterslip, but in the far field, we show that some of the deformation can be due to a viscoelastic relaxation of the lower crust. The integration of decades of GPS monitoring, previous fine-scale structural analyses, seismic and tomography imaging, allows for a refined three-dimensional fault structure for <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. Our study reveals areas under active loading, which could represent substantial seismic hazards around the regions of Hualien, Jhudong, Fongyuan and Chiayi.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3100D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3100D"><span id="translatedtitle">Gravity anomaly caused by the mud diapirs off southwest <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> and its implication to the development of the submarine canyons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Doo, Wen-Bin; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Huang, Yuan-Ping; Chen, Song-Chuen</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Both the overpressure and buoyancy effects are generally used to account for the formation of submarine mud volcanoes (MVs) and mud diapirs (MDs). According to the distribution of the MDs and structural features, the compressive tectonic stress should play an important role on the formation of the MDs in the offshore area of southwest <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. Onland <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>, the Tainan and Chungchou anticlinal structures (associated with MD) reveal positive gravity anomalies. The MDs in offshore southwest <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span> are considered to be more active than onshore diapirs. However, the gravity nature of the submarine MDs is not clear. In 2012 and 2013, we have collected shipboard gravity data using R/V Ocean Researcher I in the offshore area of southwest <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. By removing the gravimetric effect from the water-sediment interface and the regional gravity effect along the profiles, we find that the gravity contrasts of the MDs with respect to the surrounding strata are generally positive. The results seem conflict with the buoyant force that triggers the upward <span class="hlt">motion</span> of the MDs. The positive density contrasts of the MDs can further indicate the relatively rigid rocks which influence the development of the Kaoping and the Fangliao Canyon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.T33E..06L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.T33E..06L"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismogenic extensional faults in the southwestern tip of Okinawa trough: with constraint of coseismic ground slips of 2005 Ilan earthquakes, northeastern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lai, K.; Chen, Y.; Wu, Y.; Chang, C.; Wu, C.; Kuochen, H.; Kuo, Y.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Two similar magnitude (ML=5.9) earthquakes occurred on March 6, 2005 at Ilan, northeastern <span class="hlt">Taiwan</span>. Associated with the main shocks a large amount of aftershocks were recorded by Central Weather Bureau Seismic Network (CWBSN). This event provided an opportunity to explore the seismogenic structures by coseismic ground slips in Ilan Plain, an alluvial delta with sediments more than one thousand meters in depth. First of all, we relocated the aftershocks and determined the focal mechanisms of larger ones, and then identified the 3D fault geometry by analyzing the spatial seismicity distribution. We secondly conducted baseline corrections to determine the centimeter-scale coseismic displacement from <span class="hlt">strong-motion</span> records to further inverse the fault model. Our results show the epicenters are assembled in a nearly E-W zone in the southern Ilan Plain. By 3D spatial analysis, two potential f-shaped fault planes can be distinguished: one is dipping to the north with steeper angle (~80 degree), and another dipping to the south branching out from the former one with gentler angle (~55 degree). Two main shocks actually occurred along the junction of derived two fault-planes at depth of 7 km. On the other hand, the coseismic displacements determined from <span class="hlt">strong-motion</span> records show that in the north of the seismic cluster all stations coseismically moved northwestward and stations in the south moved southeastward, implying two fault planes mentioned above slipped at the same time. Using ground slips and dislocation model, two fault planes (N70E, 75NW from near surface down to 10 km in depth; N65E, 60SE from 7 km to 10 km in depth) are tested by both inversed and forwarded simulations. Further combining the focal solutions, the derived extensional mechanism and the fault geometry well coincide with the possible origin of the opening Ilan Plain, which is the southwestern tip of the current back-arc spreading, Okinawa Trough.</p>