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Sample records for taiwan strong motion

  1. Strong-Motion Instrumentation Programs in Taiwan

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yih-Min

    western Taiwan, with high- rise buildings as a consequence of developing economy, is vulnerable Network (SMA) An islandwide strong-motion network was deployed by the Institute of Earth Sciences (IES), Academia Sinica, beginning in 1974, and by 1983, this network consisted of 72 stations. The instruments

  2. Strong-motion data from the two Pingtung, Taiwan, earthquakes of 26 December 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, C.-F.; Lee, W.H.K.; Boore, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    1016 strong-motion records at 527 free-field stations and 131 records at 42 strong-motion arrays at buildings and bridges were obtained for the Pingtung earthquake doublet from the Taiwan Central Weather Bureau's dense, digital strong-motion network. We carried out standard processing of these strong-motion records at free-field stations. A data set, including the originally recorded files, processed data files, and supporting software and information, is archived online http:// tecdc.earth.sinica.edu.tw/data/EQ2006Pingtung/. We have not yet completed the processing of the strong-motion array data at buildings and bridges. However, some preliminary results and the strong-motion array data recorded at the second nearest instrumented building to the Pingtung earthquake doublet are shown. This paper is intended to document our data processing procedures and the online archived data files, so that researchers can efficiently use the data. We also include two preliminary analyses: (1) a comparison of ground motions recorded by multiple accelerographs at a common site, the TAP 117 station in Taipei, and (2) attenuation of the horizontal ground motions (peak acceleration and response spectra at periods of 0.2, 1.0, and 3.0 s) with respect to distance. Our comparison study of multiple recordings at TAP 117 indicates that waveform coherence among 20- and 24-bit accelerograph records is much higher as compared to records from 16-bit or 12-bit accelerographs, suggesting that the former are of better quality. For the 20- and 24-bit accelerographs, waveform coherence is nearly 1 over the frequency range 1 to 8 Hz for all components, and is greater than about 0.9 from 8 to 20 Hz for the horizontal component, but only from 8 to 12 Hz for the vertical component. Plots of pseudo-acceleration response spectra (PSA) as a function of distance, however, show no clear indication for a difference related to the performance level of the accelerographs. The ground-motions of the first event (Mw = 7.0) are comparable, or even somewhat lower, than those from the smaller second event (Mw = 6.9), consistent with the relative difference of the local magnitudes (ML = 6.96 and 6.99 for the first and second events, respectively). The ground motions from the first event are generally lower than those predicted from equations based on other in-slab subduction earthquakes, whereas the ground motions from the second event are closer to the predictions. Ground-motions for soil sites are generally larger than those from rock sites.

  3. Computing Site Effects via Using Blank Noise Records in Strong Motion Stations, Middle Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. S.; Yu, T. T.; Peng, W. F.; Yeh, Y. T.

    2014-12-01

    Site response frequency could be obtained through using ambient noise and earthquake data. Measuring microseismic in situ, could collect better stable signals and higher density data arrays but costing more labors and hard to get data in time series, in contrast, earthquake stations could record data automatically during wide range of time scales but causing lager error in calculating results from different seismic source conditions. Based on these pros and cons, this study aims on assessing the applicability of computing site response from background noise in earthquake stations. Data were collected from Central Weather Bureau free field strong motion system, the instruments would be triggered when vibration amplitudes exceeding a specific threshold (about 3.9 gal), and the 20 seconds data before trigger point would be retained. The blank records before P wave arrival from this 20 seconds were considered as ambient noise, and Nakaruma horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) technique was involved to analysis the site response. Results were compare with response frequency from S waves in middle Taiwan, showing that the background noise from strong motion records also could reflect peak frequency as S wave band, and had well consistency with previous studies used microseismic data. This study provides a new vision for strong motion station data applying to site effect analysis, the blank record is a worth considering material which could assist in understanding site response.

  4. Seismic tomography of Taiwan: Improved constraints from a dense network of strong motion stations

    E-print Network

    Avouac, Jean-Philippe

    that includes the offshore islands of Lutao and Lanyu and the Coastal Ranges in eastern Taiwan, at the depth. In the east, the Philippine Sea plate subducts northward under the Eurasian plate along the Ryukyu trench. Off on the geological timescale. The island has a high rate of crustal deformation and a strong seismic activity

  5. Strong ground motion in the Taipei basin from the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, Joe B.; Wen, K.-L.

    2005-01-01

    The Taipei basin, located in northwest Taiwan about 160 km from the epicenter of the Chi-Chi earthquake, is a shallow, triangular-shaped basin filled with low-velocity fluvial deposits. There is a strong velocity contrast across the basement interface of about 600 m/sec at a depth of about 600-700 m in the deeper section of the basin, suggesting that ground motion should be amplified at sites in the basin. In this article, the ground-motion recordings are analyzed to determine the effect of the basin both in terms of amplifications expected from a 1D model of the sediments in the basin and in terms of the 3D structure of the basin. Residuals determined for peak acceleration from attenuation curves are more positive (amplified) in the basin (average of 5.3 cm/ sec2 compared to - 24.2 cm/sec2 for those stations outside the basin and between 75 and 110 km from the surface projection of the faulted area, a 40% increase in peak ground acceleration). Residuals for peak velocity are also significantly more positive at stations in the basin (31.8 cm/sec compared to 20.0 cm/sec out). The correlation of peak motion with depth to basement, while minor in peak acceleration, is stronger in the peak velocities. Record sections of ground motion from stations in and around the Taipei basin show that the largest long-period arrival, which is coherent across the region, is strongest on the vertical component and has a period of about 10-12 sec. This phase appears to be a Rayleigh wave, probably associated with rupture at the north end of the Chelungpu fault. Records of strong motion from stations in and near the basin have an additional, higher frequency signal: nearest the deepest point in the basin, the signal is characterized by frequencies of about 0.3 - 0.4 Hz. These frequencies are close to simple predictions using horizontal layers and the velocity structure of the basin. Polarizations of the S wave are mostly coherent across the array, although there are significant differences along the northwest edge that may indicate large strains across that edge of the basin. The length of each record after the main S wave are all longer at basin stations compared to those outside. This increase in duration of ground shaking is probably caused by amplification of ground motion at basin stations, although coda Q (0.67 - 1.30 Hz) is slightly larger inside the basin compared to those at local stations outside the basin. Durations correlate with depth to basement. These motions are in the range that can induce damage in buildings and may have contributed to the structural collapse of multistory buildings in the Taipei basin.

  6. Some observations on colocated and closely spaced strong ground-motion records of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, G.-Q.; Boore, D.M.; Igel, H.; Zhou, X.-Y.

    2003-01-01

    The digital accelerograph network installed in Taiwan produced a rich set of records from the 20 September 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake (Mw 7.6). Teledyne Geotech model A-800 and A-900A* digital accelerographs were colocated at 22 stations that recorded this event. Comparisons of the amplitudes, frequency content, and baseline offsets show that records from several of the A-800 accelerographs are considerably different than those from the colocated A-900A accelerographs. On this basis, and in view of the more thorough predeployment testing of the newer A-900A instruments, we recommend that the records from the A-800 instruments be used with caution in analyses of the mainshock and aftershocks. At the Hualien seismic station two A-900A and one A-800 instruments were colocated, along with a Global Positioning System instrument. Although the records from the two A-900A instruments are much more similar than those from a colocated A-800 instrument, both three-component records contain unpredictable baseline offsets, which produced completely unrealistic ground displacements derived from the accelerations by double integration, as do many of the strong-motion data from this event; the details of the baseline offsets differ considerably on the two three-component records. There are probably numerous sources of the baseline offsets, including sources external to the instruments, such as tilting or rotation of the ground, and sources internal to the instruments, such as electrical or mechanical hysteresis in the sensors. For the two colocated A-900A records at the Hualien seismic station, however, the differences in the baseline offsets suggest that the principal source is some transient disturbance within the instrument. The baseline offsets generally manifest themselves in the acceleration time series as pulses or steps, either singly or in combination. We find a 0.015-Hz low-cut filter can almost completely eliminate the effects of the baseline offsets, but then information regarding the permanent displacements is lost. The causative mechanisms of the baseline offsets are unknown presently. Hence, it is very difficult to recover the permanent displacements from the modern digital records, although for records close to large earthquakes, the signal-to-noise ratio should theoretically be adequate to obtain ground motions with periods of hundreds of seconds. This study reinforces our conclusion from previous studies that the sources of baseline offsets occurring in digital strong-motion records are very complex and often unpredictable, and that, therefore, it is difficult to remove the baseline effects to maximize the information content of the record. The baseline offsets only affect very long period motions (e.g., >20 sec), however, and therefore are of little or no engineering concern.

  7. Latest Development of Real-Time Strong-Motion Monitoring System in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, N.; Wu, Y.; Shin, T.; Teng, T.

    2003-12-01

    Based on the experience of the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake, the Central Weather Bureau (CWB) has made substantial improvements to the earthquake rapid report system. Besides the current use of digital lease phone line and internet transmission, the satellite link for station to center is setup for backup. The station is also equipped with UPS to prevent the failure of electricity power. This backup link system is designed as automatically switching in case of ground link interrupted. On the other hand, two real-time seismic sub-network are deployed stand alone at Hualein (East coast of Taiwan) and Tainan (south Taiwan) stations separately. The sub-network only manipulates real-time seismic data of nearby stations to shorten the procession time. The configuration and function of sub-network can be monitored and changed by Taipei center through computer link. Results from sub-network can be sent to Taipei center simultaneously. The collective use of these redundant systems significantly improves the capability and reliability of seismic emergency response. It will provide more robust foundation to develop earthquake early warning system. To safeguard train transportation from a disaster earthquake, the CWB assists Taiwan Railway Administration (TRA) to establish a seismic alert system including 44 3-component accelerographs along the track of the round-the-island Taiwan railway system. The configuration of the system is similar to the use of sub-network of CWB. It becomes the third backup of earthquake report system. In addition, ground vibration of a TRA instrument exceeds 180 gals, the power of the railway will be automatically cut-off to slow down the nearby train.

  8. Detecting changes in long-period site responses after the M w 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake, Taiwan, using strong motion records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Teng-To; Wu, Chi-Shin; Cheng, Youg-Sin

    2015-06-01

    Temporal changes in site effects are obtained using the HVSR (horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio) method and strong motion records after the M w 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake, Taiwan. Seismic data recorded between 1995 and 2010 are used, comprising 3,708 data from 15 stations adjacent to the Chelungpu fault. Temporal fluctuations are determined by analyzing the site effect variation using a time-frequency variation (TFV) diagram based on these seismic data. Stations adjacent to the fault show significant disturbances in the resonance frequency at 16-26 Hz. Station TCU129 shows a 40% drop in fundamental frequency after the main shock, and a gradual return to the original state over nine years. For stations located farther from the fault zone, sudden changes in tectonic stress play a dominant role in temporal changes to the HVSR. An impact analysis of the directional factor confirms our finding that the proximity of the fault to seismic stations has the most influence on data.

  9. Site response variation due to the existence of near-field cracks based on strong motion records in the Shi-Wen river valley, southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chi-Shin; Yu, Teng-To; Peng, Wen-Fei; Yeh, Yeoin-Tein; Lin, Sih-Siao

    2014-10-01

    Site effect analysis has been applied to investigate soil classification, alluvium depth, and fracture detection, although the majority of previous studies have typically focused only on the response of large-scale single structures. In contrast, we investigated the site effect for small-scale cracks using a case study in southern Taiwan to provide a means of monitoring slope stability or foundation integrity in situ using only an accelerometer. We adopted both the reference site and horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio methods. We obtained seismographs associated with the typhoon-related development of a crack set (52?m long, 5?m deep) in a steep slope and compared the resonance frequency between two conditions (with and without cracks). Moreover, we divided the seismic waves into P, S, and coda waves and examined the seismic source effect. Our results demonstrate that frequencies of 14.5-17.5?Hz are most sensitive to these cracks, particularly for the E-W component of the P-waves, which coincides with the crack’s strike. Peak ground acceleration, which is controlled by seismic moment and attenuated distance, is another important factor determining the resonance results. Our results demonstrate that the ratio of temporal seismic waves can be used to detect the existence of nearby subsurface cracks.

  10. Coseismic Fault Slip Rupture from the Joint Inversion of Teleseismic, Local Strong-Motion and CGPS Related to the 2010 Jia-Shian Earthquake in Southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kuan-Chuan; Delouis, Bertrand; Hu, Jyr-Ching; Nocquet, Jean-Mathieu; Mozziconacci, Laetitia; Bethoux, Nicole

    2013-04-01

    The Jia-Shian earthquake (Mw=6.3) occurred on 04th March 2010 in the southwestern Taiwan. We used the waveforms of teleseismics to identify the strike, dip and rake of focal mechanism are 311/33/37. Furthermore, we explored the strike, dip and rake are 316/40/44 on the first pulse of the teleseismic P wave. We also took account of the Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) data for the coseismic offset. The maximum horizontal and vertical (uplift) of coseismic offsets at the surface are 29.8mm± 1.0mm and 30.6mm± 5.1mm, respectively at station GS51. Moreover, the space and time distribution of slip during the coseismic rupture was modeled by the joint inversion, which includes the CGPS coseismic offset, the teleseismic, and near field seismic records. We identified the faults geometry and reconstructed the rupture process of coseismic faults slip. The initial rupture was generated on the northwest - southeast trending fault and propagated to the northeast - southwest trending structure after 5 s of main shock. Their strike, dip and rake are 311/33/37 and 020/25/108, respectively. The average slip of rupture was 20.1 cm, with the maximum slip of 50.4 cm. The rupture of the seismic moment was 4.0 × 10 ^ 25 dyne-cm in 30 s of duration time.The slip rupture constrained the synthetic data quite well, especially for the CGPS coseismic offset. We inferred the Jia-Shian earthquake took place on blind fault and the northeast - southwest trending structure was activated following the rupture on main northwest - southeast trending fault.

  11. Stochastic Ground Motion Simulation with Site Correction in Ilan Area, Northeastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NFN, Megawati; Kuo-Liang, Wen

    2015-04-01

    Earthquake waveform is controlled by three factors - source properties, path characteristics, and local site effects. The local site effect is the important factor participate strong ground motion prediction. In this study, we used stochastic point-source method for simulating ground motion (Boore, 2005). This method has been widely used in the development of ground-motion prediction equation and in modeling the parameters that controls observed ground motion (Atkinson et al., 2009). The shallow earthquake events which recorded by Taiwan Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) from 1992 to 2012 are simulated with the stochastic point-source method (Boore, 1983; Boore, 2003). The earthquake records are selected with the depth from 0 to 30 km and the magnitude (Mw) from 4 to 6.5. The study area is situated in Ilan area which is located in the northeastern Taiwan. There are 70 TSMIP stations which based on the Vs30 consist of site class B, C, D, and E. Seismic parameters for stochastic method were selected based on previous studies (Sokolov et al., 2006; 2009). The crustal amplification parameter is set to the halfspace. The empirical transfer functions from 0.2 Hz to 10 Hz for each station in Ilan area will be calculated by H/H method between observed and simulated spectra (Borcheret, 1970). Ground motion prediction is calculated by selecting several target events for stochastic point-source simulating to the halfspace. The prediction of peak ground acceleration (PGA) is estimated after doing the site correction with the empirical transfer function. Finally, the simulated ground motion was compared in time domain (PGA) and frequency domain (Degree of spectrum difference, DSPD) to show the goodness of the simulation. Keywords : Stochastic point-source method, Site effect, Empirical transfer function

  12. Seismic switch for strong motion measurement

    DOEpatents

    Harben, P.E.; Rodgers, P.W.; Ewert, D.W.

    1995-05-30

    A seismic switching device is described that has an input signal from an existing microseismic station seismometer and a signal from a strong motion measuring instrument. The seismic switch monitors the signal level of the strong motion instrument and passes the seismometer signal to the station data telemetry and recording systems. When the strong motion instrument signal level exceeds a user set threshold level, the seismometer signal is switched out and the strong motion signal is passed to the telemetry system. The amount of time the strong motion signal is passed before switching back to the seismometer signal is user controlled between 1 and 15 seconds. If the threshold level is exceeded during a switch time period, the length of time is extended from that instant by one user set time period. 11 figs.

  13. Earthquake Scaling and Development of Ground Motion Prediction for Earthquake Hazard Mitigation in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, K.; Yen, Y.

    2011-12-01

    For earthquake hazard mitigation toward risk management, integration study from development of source model to ground motion prediction is crucial. The simulation for high frequency component ( > 1 Hz) of strong ground motions in the near field was not well resolved due to the insufficient resolution in velocity structure. Using the small events as Green's functions (i.e. empirical Green's function (EGF) method) can resolve the problem of lack of precise velocity structure to replace the path effect evaluation. If the EGF is not available, a stochastic Green's function (SGF) method can be employed. Through characterizing the slip models derived from the waveform inversion, we directly extract the parameters needed for the ground motion prediction in the EGF method or the SGF method. The slip models had been investigated from Taiwan dense strong motion and global teleseismic data. In addition, the low frequency ( < 1 Hz) can obtained numerically by the Frequency-Wavenumber (FK) method. Thus, broadband frequency strong ground motion can be calculated by a hybrid method that combining a deterministic FK method for the low frequency simulation and the EGF or SGF method for high frequency simulation. Characterizing the definitive source parameters from the empirical scaling study can provide directly to the ground motion simulation. To give the ground motion prediction for a scenario earthquake, we compiled the earthquake scaling relationship from the inverted finite-fault models of moderate to large earthquakes in Taiwan. The studies show the significant involvement of the seismogenic depth to the development of rupture width. In addition to that, several earthquakes from blind fault show distinct large stress drop, which yield regional high PGA. According to the developing scaling relationship and the possible high stress drops for earthquake from blind faults, we further deploy the hybrid method mentioned above to give the simulation of the strong motion in displacement, velocity and acceleration. We now give this exercise to the high stress drop event, and the events, which might have potential seismic hazard to a specific site to give further estimation on seismic hazard evaluation.

  14. Puerto Rico Strong Motion Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta-Lopez, C. I.; Martínez-Cruzado, J. A.; Martínez-Pagan, J.; Santana-Torres, E. X.; Torres-O, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Puerto Rico Strong Motion Seismic Network is currently in charge of the operation of: (i) free-field (ff) strong motion stations, (ii) instrumented structures (STR) (Dams, Bridges, Buildings), and (iii) the data acquisition/monitoring and analysis of earthquakes considered strong from the point of view of their intensity and magnitude. All these instruments are deployed in the Puerto Rico Island (PRI), US-, and British-Virgin Islands (BVI), and Dominican Republic (DR). The Puerto Rico Island and the Caribbean region have high potential to be affected by earthquakes that could be catastrophic for the area. The Puerto Rico Strong Motion Seismic Network (actually Puerto Rico Strong Motion Program, PRSMP) has grown since 1970's from 7 ff strong motion stations and one instrumented building with analog accelerographs to 111 ff strong motion stations and 16 instrumented buildings with digital accelerographs: PRI: 88 ff, 16 STR., DR: 13 ff, BVI: 5 ff, 2 STR collecting data via IP (internet), DU (telephone), and stand alone stations The current stage of the PRSMP seismic network, the analysis of moderate earthquakes that were recorded and/or occurred on the island, results of the intensity distribution of selected earthquakes, as well as results of dynamic parameter identification of some of the instrumented structures are here presented.

  15. A hybrid method of simulating broadband ground motion : A case study of the 2006 Pingtung earthquake, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Y.; Ma, K.; Cheng, C.; Shao, K.; Lin, P.

    2011-12-01

    For the demand of engineering, the time-history of ground motions which consider the reliability and earthquake physical characters have been provided for earthquake resistant design of important building structures. However, the high frequency portion ( > 1 Hz) of near-fault ground motions was restricted by the insufficient resolution of velocity structure. Considering the relative small events which contain path and site effect in waveforms as Green's functions (i.e. empirical Green's function (EGF) method) can resolve the problem of lack of precise velocity structure to replace the path effect evaluation. Alternatively, a stochastic Green's function (SGF) method can be employed when the EGF is unavailable. Further, the low frequency ( < 1 Hz) can be obtained numerically by the Frequency-Wavenumber (FK) method. Thus, broadband frequency strong ground motion can be calculation by a hybrid method that combining a deterministic FK method for the low frequency simulation and the EGF or SGF method for high frequency simulation. The slip models had been investigated from Taiwan dense strong motion and global teleseismic data. Characterizing the slip models derived from the waveform inversion can directly extract the source parameters needed for the ground motion prediction in the EGF method or the SGF method. The nuclear power plant in southern tip of Taiwan was experienced a strong shaking by the 26 December 2006 Pingtung, Taiwan offshore earthquake. The closest strong motion station of the Central Weather Bureau, KAU082, recorded the peak acceleration value (PGA) of 0.24 g. We considered the adjacent stations to be the case study for possibility evaluation of predicting ground motion utilizing the EGF method or SGF method. The possible damage impact toward nuclear power plant for specific sites can be estimated and verified according to the simulation results

  16. Strong Motion Recording in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archuleta, R. J.; Fletcher, J. B.; Shakal, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    The United States strong motion program began in 1932 when the Coast and Geodetic Survey (C&GS) installed eight strong motion accelerographs in California. During the March 1933 Long Beach earthquake, three of these produced the first strong motion records. With this success the C&GS expanded the number of accelerographs to 71 by 1964. With development of less expensive, mass-produced accelerographs the number of strong motion accelerographs expanded to ~575 by 1972. Responsibilities for operating the network and disseminating data were transferred to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in 1970 and then to the U.S. Geological Survey in 1973. In 1972 the California Legislature established the California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP). CSMIP operates accelerographs at 812 ground stations, with multi-channel accelerographs in 228 buildings, 125 lifelines and 37 geotechnical arrays, in California. The USGS and the ANSS effort operate accelerographs at 1584 ground stations, 96 buildings, 14 bridges, 70 dams, and 15 multi-channel geotechnical arrays. The USC Los Angeles array has 78 ground stations; UCSB operates 5 geotechnical arrays; other government and private institutions also operate accelerographs. Almost all accelerographs are now digital with a sampling rate of 200 Hz. Most of the strong motion data can be downloaded from the Center for Engineering Strong Motion Data (http://strongmotioncenter.org). As accelerographs have become more sophisticated, the concept of what constitutes strong motion has blurred because small earthquakes (M ~3) are well recorded on accelerometers as well as seismometers. However, when accelerations are over ~10%g and velocities over ~1 cm/s, the accelerometers remain on scale, providing the unclipped data necessary to analyze the ground motion and its consequences. Strong motion data are essential to the development of ground motion prediction equations, understanding structural response, performance based engineering, soil response, and inversions for earthquake rupture parameters. While an important number of stations have been installed, many areas of the US are significantly deficient, e.g., recordings were obtained from only 2 stations within 60 km of the Mineral earthquake that damaged the nation's capital and other areas.

  17. Strong ground motion prediction using virtual earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Denolle, M A; Dunham, E M; Prieto, G A; Beroza, G C

    2014-01-24

    Sedimentary basins increase the damaging effects of earthquakes by trapping and amplifying seismic waves. Simulations of seismic wave propagation in sedimentary basins capture this effect; however, there exists no method to validate these results for earthquakes that have not yet occurred. We present a new approach for ground motion prediction that uses the ambient seismic field. We apply our method to a suite of magnitude 7 scenario earthquakes on the southern San Andreas fault and compare our ground motion predictions with simulations. Both methods find strong amplification and coupling of source and structure effects, but they predict substantially different shaking patterns across the Los Angeles Basin. The virtual earthquake approach provides a new approach for predicting long-period strong ground motion. PMID:24458636

  18. Motion and evolution of the Chaochou Fault, Southern Taiwan 

    E-print Network

    Hassler, Lauren E.

    2005-11-01

    The Chaochou Fault (CCF) is both an important lithologic boundary and a significant topographic feature in the Taiwan orogenic belt. It is the geologic boundary between the Slate Belt to the east, and the Western Foothills to the west. Although...

  19. Next Generation Attenuation of Ground Motions in Ilan, Taiwan: Establishment and Analysis of Attenuation Relations for Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and Peak Ground Velocity (PGV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.

    2009-12-01

    An evaluation of seismic hazards requires an estimate of the expected ground motion at the site of interest. The most common means of estimating this ground motion in engineering practice is the use of an attenuation relation. A number of developments have arisen recently to suggest that a new generation of attenuation relationships is warranted. The project named Next Generation Attenuation of Ground Motions (NGA) Project was developed by Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) in response to a core objective: reducing uncertainty in earthquake ground motion estimation. This objective reflects recognition from industry sponsors that improvements in earthquake ground motion estimation will result in significant cost savings and will result in improved system performance in the event of a large earthquake. The Central Weather Bureau has implemented the Taiwan Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) to collect high-quality instrumental recordings of strong earthquake shaking.It is necessary for us to study the strong ground motion characteristics at the Ilan area of northeastern Taiwan. Further analyses using a good quality data base that includes 486 events and 4172 recordings of magnitude greater than 4.0 are required to derive the next generation attenuation of ground motion in Ilan area. In addition, Liu and Tsai (2007) used a catalog of more than 1840 shallow earthquakes with homogenized Mw magnitude ranging from 5.0 to 8.2 in 1900-2007 to estimate the seismic hazard potential in Taiwan. As a result, the PGA and PGV contour patterns of maximum ground motion show that Ilan Plain has high values of 0.2g and 80cm/sec with respect to MMI intensity VII and IX, respectively. Furthermore, from the mean ground motion and the seismic intensity rate analyses, they show that a high annul probability of MMI > VI greater than 35 percents are located at the Chianan area of western Taiwan and Ilan Plain in northeastern Taiwan. However, these results was estimated by used attenuation relationship of Taiwan which conducted by Liu and Tsai (2005). Hence, Next Generation Attenuation of Ground Motions (NGA) of Ilan Plain must be developed as soon as possible, in order to provide more important information for the site evaluation of critical facilities in those relatively high earthquake hazard potential regions and will be helpful for the plan of land-using.

  20. The Athens Acropolis Strong Motion Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogeras, I. S.; Evangelidis, C. P.; Melis, N. S.; Boukouras, K.

    2012-04-01

    During the last decades, extensive restoration works through a dedicated "Acropolis Restoration Service" (YSMA) take place in the Acropolis, the greatest sanctuary of ancient Athens. Since 2008, a permanent strong motion array was deployed by the Institute of Geodynamics, National Observatory of Athens (NOA-IG) in collaboration with YSMA. Free field installations were decided at sites showing various characteristics, aiming to investigate differences in geotechnical properties as well as the structure response of Parthenon itself. The installation phase is presented, with the techniques used to overcome difficulties (i.e. extreme weather conditions, power and communication limitations, restoration works and visitors) and the special care taken for the specific archaeological site. Furthermore, indicative examples of seismic events recorded by the array are analyzed and the complexity of the hill and the monument is made apparent. Among them, the long distance events of Tohoku, Japan 2010 and Van, Turkey 2011, some regional moderate earthquakes in Greece and some weak earthquakes from the vicinity. Continuous ambient noise monitoring using PQLX software gives some first indicative results, showing a variety of characteristics at installation sites. Finally, further developments and future steps are presented such as: the extension of the array, the integration of seismic data within the GIS platform of YSMA at the site and the use of strong motion records, in conjunction with data from other monitoring systems operating in Acropolis for the study of specific monuments.

  1. Towards Integrated Marmara Strong Motion Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durukal, E.; Erdik, M.; Safak, E.; Ansal, A.; Ozel, O.; Alcik, H.; Mert, A.; Kafadar, N.; Korkmaz, A.; Kurtulus, A.

    2009-04-01

    Istanbul has a 65% chance of having a magnitude 7 or above earthquake within the next 30 years. As part of the preparations for the future earthquake, strong motion networks have been installed in and around Istanbul. The Marmara Strong Motion Network, operated by the Department of Earthquake Engineering of Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute, encompasses permanent systems outlined below. It is envisaged that the networks will be run by a single entity responsible for technical management and maintanence, as well as for data management, archiving and dissemination through dedicated web-based interfaces. • Istanbul Earthquake Rapid Response and Early Warning System - IERREWS (one hundred 18-bit accelerometers for rapid response; ten 24-bit accelerometers for early warning) • IGDA? Gas Shutoff Network (100 accelerometers to be installed in 2010 and integrated with IERREWS) • Structural Monitoring Arrays - Fatih Sultan Mehmet Suspension Bridge (1200m-long suspension bridge across the Bosphorus, five 3-component accelerometers + GPS sensors) - Hagia Sophia Array (1500-year-old historical edifice, 9 accelerometers) - Süleymaniye Mosque Array (450-year-old historical edifice,9 accelerometers) - Fatih Mosque Array (237-year-old historical edifice, 9 accelerometers) - Kanyon Building Array (high-rise office building, 5 accelerometers) - Isbank Tower Array (high-rise office building, 5 accelerometers) - ENRON Array (power generation facility, 4 acelerometers) - Mihrimah Sultan Mosque Array (450-year-old historical edifice,9 accelerometers + tiltmeters, to be installed in 2009) - Sultanahmet Mosque Array, (390-year-old historical edifice, 9 accelerometers + tiltmeters, to be installed in 2009) • Special Arrays - Atakoy Vertical Array (four 3-component accelerometers at 25, 50, 75, and 150 m depths) - Marmara Tube Tunnel (1400 m long submerged tunnel, 128 ch. accelerometric data, 24 ch. strain data, to be installed in 2010) - Air-Force Academy Array (72 ch. dense accelerometric array to be installed in 2010) - Gemlik Array (a dense basin array of 8 stations, to be installed in 2010) The objectives of these systems and networks are: (1) to produce rapid earthquake intensity, damage and loss assessment information after an earthquake (in the case of IERREWS), (2) to monitor conditions of structural systems, (3) to develop real-time data processing, analysis, and damage detection and location tools (in the case of structural networks) after an extreme event, (4) to assess spatial properties of strong ground motion and ground strain, and to characterise basin response (in the case of special arrays), (5) to investigate site response and wave propagation (in the case of vertical array). Ground motion data obtained from these strong motion networks have and are being used for investigations of attenuation, spatial variation (coherence), simulation benchmarking, source modeling, site response, seismic microzonation, system identification and structural model verification and structural health control. In addition to the systems and networks outlined above there are two temporary networks: KIMNET - a dense urban noise and microtremor network consisting of 50 broadband stations expected to be operational in mid 2009, and SOSEWIN - a 20-station, self-organizing structural integrated array at Ataköy in Istanbul.

  2. Strong Motion Seismograph Based On MEMS Accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Y.; Hu, X.

    2013-12-01

    The MEMS strong motion seismograph we developed used the modularization method to design its software and hardware.It can fit various needs in different application situation.The hardware of the instrument is composed of a MEMS accelerometer,a control processor system,a data-storage system,a wired real-time data transmission system by IP network,a wireless data transmission module by 3G broadband,a GPS calibration module and power supply system with a large-volumn lithium battery in it. Among it,the seismograph's sensor adopted a three-axis with 14-bit high resolution and digital output MEMS accelerometer.Its noise level just reach about 99?g/?Hz and ×2g to ×8g dynamically selectable full-scale.Its output data rates from 1.56Hz to 800Hz. Its maximum current consumption is merely 165?A,and the device is so small that it is available in a 3mm×3mm×1mm QFN package. Furthermore,there is access to both low pass filtered data as well as high pass filtered data,which minimizes the data analysis required for earthquake signal detection. So,the data post-processing can be simplified. Controlling process system adopts a 32-bit low power consumption embedded ARM9 processor-S3C2440 and is based on the Linux operation system.The processor's operating clock at 400MHz.The controlling system's main memory is a 64MB SDRAM with a 256MB flash-memory.Besides,an external high-capacity SD card data memory can be easily added.So the system can meet the requirements for data acquisition,data processing,data transmission,data storage,and so on. Both wired and wireless network can satisfy remote real-time monitoring, data transmission,system maintenance,status monitoring or updating software.Linux was embedded and multi-layer designed conception was used.The code, including sensor hardware driver,the data acquisition,earthquake setting out and so on,was written on medium layer.The hardware driver consist of IIC-Bus interface driver, IO driver and asynchronous notification driver. The application program layer mainly concludes: earthquake parameter module, local database managing module, data transmission module, remote monitoring, FTP service and so on. The application layer adopted multi-thread process. The whole strong motion seismograph was encapsulated in a small aluminum box, which size is 80mm×120mm×55mm. The inner battery can work continuesly more than 24 hours. The MEMS accelerograph uses modular design for its software part and hardware part. It has remote software update function and can meet the following needs: a) Auto picking up the earthquake event; saving the data on wave-event files and hours files; It may be used for monitoring strong earthquake, explosion, bridge and house health. b) Auto calculate the earthquake parameters, and transferring those parameters by 3G wireless broadband network. This kind of seismograph has characteristics of low cost, easy installation. They can be concentrated in the urban region or areas need to specially care. We can set up a ground motion parameters quick report sensor network while large earthquake break out. Then high-resolution-fine shake-map can be easily produced for the need of emergency rescue. c) By loading P-wave detection program modules, it can be used for earthquake early warning for large earthquakes; d) Can easily construct a high-density layout seismic monitoring network owning remote control and modern intelligent earthquake sensor.

  3. Application of Dense Array Analysis to Strong Motion Data Recorded at The SMART-1 Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francois, C.

    2003-12-01

    This paper is part of a project to design an optimal strong motion dense array in New Zealand. The overall project looks at developing a dense network of strong motion seismometers in order to measure directly the rupture process of major seismogenic sources such as the Alpine Fault and strands of the Marlborough Fault System defining the South Island sector of the Australia-Pacific plate boundary zone. This work shows the application of dense array analysis to a set of seismic data recorded at the SMART-1 array in Taiwan (data kindly provided by the Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica Data Management Center for Strong Motion Seismology - Taiwan). The data have been processed and analysed applying modified MUSIC algorithm with higher computing capabilities giving higher resolution results. The SMART-1 array is an ideal dense array of 37 strong motion instruments set up in the following configuration: 3 concentric circles of radii 200m, 1 km and 2km, and one central station. The studied event called Event 5 was recorded on January 29th 1981 and had a magnitude 6. Event 5 is an ideal case study as its epicentral distance (about 30 km) is comparable to epicentral distances for expected events on the Alpine Fault or on the Hope Fault in New Zealand. Event 5 has been previously widely analysed using strong motion array studies and aftershocks studies but with disagreeing results; this new study hopes to bring new insights in the debate. Using simple fault and velocity models, this latest analysis of Event 5 has given the following rupture properties. It has confirmed one of the hypotheses that the fault ruptured from southeast to northwest. The higher resolution of the computation has improved the location of the hypocentre depth and the location of the propagating rupture front. This allowed resolving changes of velocities in the rupture process and locating asperities in the fault plane. Contrary to the previous array studies, the inferred size of the fault plane is in agreement with a magnitude 6 earthquake. Finally, this event 5 case study has shown significant improvement in imaging the fault rupture using strong motion dense array analysis. But are we truly imaging the real process of a fault rupturing? This question brings on the need to compare known synthetic rupture processes with their computed projection using synthetic strong motion accelerograms.

  4. Parallel simulation of strong ground motions during recent and historical

    E-print Network

    Furumura, Takashi

    Parallel simulation of strong ground motions during recent and historical damaging earthquakes in Tokyo, Japan T. Furumura a,*, L. Chen b a Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, 1 such as the Earth Simulator supercomputer and the deployment of dense networks of strong ground motion instruments

  5. Strong motion instrumentation of an RC building structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, H.-J.; Celebi, M.

    2001-01-01

    The strong-motion instrumentation scheme of a reinforced concrete building observed by California Strong-Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP) is introduced in this paper. The instrumented building is also described and the recorded responses during 1994 Northridge earthquake are provided.

  6. The Commercial TREMOR Strong-Motion Seismograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. R.; Hamstra, R. H.; Kuendig, C.; Camina, P.

    2001-12-01

    The emergence of major seismological and earthquake-engineering problems requiring large, dense instrument arrays led several of us to investigate alternate solutions. Evans and Rogers (USGS Open File Report 95-555, 1995) and Evans (USGS Open File Report 98-109, 1998) demonstrated the efficacy of low-cost robust silicon accelerometers in strong-motion seismology, making possible a vast increase in the spatial density of such arrays. The 1998 design displays true 16-bit performance and excellent robustness and linearity---13 of these prototype near-real-time instruments are deployed in Oakland, California, and have recorded data from seven small events (up to 5.7 %g). Since this technology is a radical departure from past efforts, it was necessary for the USGS to develop the sensor and demonstrate its efficacy thoroughly. Since it is neither practical nor appropriate for the USGS to produce instrumentation beyond a demonstration phase, the US Geological Survey and GeoSIG Ltd undertook a collaborative effort (a ``CRAD'') to commercialize the new technology. This effort has resulted in a fully temperature-compensated 16-bit system, the GeoSIG GT-316, announced in April, 2001, combining the ICS-3028 TM-based USGS sensor, temperature compensation technique, and peak ground velocity (PGV) computation with a highly customized 16-bit GeoSIG recorder. The price has not been set but is likely to be around \\2000 in large quantities. The result is a near-real-time instrument telemetering peak ground acceleration (PGA) and PGV about 90 s after onset of the P wave, then minutes later transmitting the waveform. The receiving software, ``HomeBase()'', also computes spectral acceleration, S_{a}. PGA, PGV, S_{a}, and waveforms are forwarded immediately by HomeBase() for ShakeMap generation and other uses. Shaking metrics from the prototypes in Oakland are consistently among the first to arrive for the northern California ShakeMap. For telemetry we use a low-cost always-connected cell-phone-based Internet technology (CDPD), but any RS-232 connected telemetry system is a viable candidate (spread spectrum, CDMA, GSM, POT). The instruments can be synchronized via CDPD to a few tenths of a second, or to full precision with an optional GPS receiver. Sensor RMS noise is 33 \\mathrm \\mu g over the band 0.1 to 35 Hz, 11 \\mathrm \\mu g$ over the band 0.1 to 1.0 Hz; the sensor is extremely linear (far better than 1% of full scale); temperature compensation is to better than 1% of full scale. TREMOR-class instruments are intended to fill the niche of high spatial resolution with an economical low-maintenance device, while conventional instruments continue to pursue maximum amplitude resolution. The TREMOR instrument also has applications in areas where budget or access limitations require lower purchase, installation, or maintenance cost (commercial ANSS partners, remote sites, on-call aftershock arrays, extremely dense arrays, and organizations with limited budgets). However, we primarily envision large, mixed arrays of conventional and TREMOR instruments in urban areas, the former providing better early information from small events and the TREMOR instruments guaranteeing better spatial resolution and more near-field recording of large events. Together, they would meet the ANSS goal of dense near-real-time urban monitoring and the collection of requisite data for risk mitigation.

  7. Integration of strong motion networks and accelerometric data in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luzi, L.; Clinton, J. F.; Akkar, S.; Sleeman, R.; Van Eck, T.

    2014-12-01

    Efforts for an organized collection of strong motion data in Europe started during the Fourth Framework Program granted by the European Union, with the first release of the European Strong Motion database. Subsequently other attempts were made, but the initiatives were carried out within a project by a single or few institutions, often isolated from data providers. During the Seventh Framework Program, in the context of the project NERA, parallel to the establishment of infrastructures, major efforts were devoted on the improvement of networking among strong-motion data providers in the broader European countries. Two major infrastructures for storing and disseminating accelerometric data and metadata were built: a. The Rapid-Raw Strong Motion (RRSM) database that automatically delivers strong motion products in near-real time. The system collects and uses all relevant, unrestricted waveform data from the European Integrated waveform Data Archive (EIDA) within minutes after an earthquake (M>=3.5) in the European- Mediterranean region. The RRSM web interface is available at http://orfeusdev.knmi.nl:8080/opencms/rrsm b. A prototype of strong-motion database (Engineering Strong Motion database, ESM) that contains an initial core formed by the accelerograms recorded by Italian and Turkish strong-motion data providers. ESM is structured to contain not only the data available in EIDA but also off-line data; earthquake and strong-motion metadata contain more detailed information than the corresponding metadata in RRSM. A Working Group (WG5 - acceleration and strong motion data), operating under ORFEUS, has been created to build the basis for the sustainable integrated pan-European accelerometric data distribution. The responsibilities and duties of the WG5 are envisaged as follows: 1. Setting rules for data dissemination; 2. Establishing MoU's with data providers; 3. Collaborating with the European project EPOS for the preparation of projects; 4. Contacting similar establishments in the other parts of the world; 5. Ensure quality of metadata and waveforms; 6. Ensure IT development improvements. The steps made in two years towards the Integration of strong motion networks in Europe are illustrated and the major results of this initiative discussed.

  8. Strong-Motion Program report, January-December 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porcella, R. L., (Edited By)

    1989-01-01

    This Program Report contains preliminary information on the nature and availability of strong-motion data recorded by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The Strong-Motion Program is operated by the USGS in cooperation with numerous Federal, State, and local agencies and private organizations. Major objective of this program are to record both strong ground motion and the response of various types of engineered structures during earthquakes, and to disseminate this information and data to the international earthquake-engineering research and design community. This volume contains a summary of the accelerograms recovered from the USGS National Strong-Motion Instrumentation Network during 1985, summaries of recent strong-motion publications, notes on the availability of digitized data, and general information related to the USGS and other strong-motion programs. The data summary in table 1 contains information on all USGS accelerograms recovered (though not necessarily recorded) during 1985; event data are taken from "Preliminary Determination of Epicenters," published by the USGS.

  9. An Improved Approach for Nonstationary Strong Ground Motion Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanan; Wang, Guoxin

    2015-10-01

    A new stochastic ground motion model for generating a suite of ground motion time history with both temporal and frequency nonstationarities for specified earthquake and site characteristics is proposed based on the wavelet method. This new model is defined in terms of 6 key parameters that characterize the duration, evolving intensity, predominant frequency, bandwidth and frequency variation of the ground acceleration process. All parameters, except for peak ground acceleration (PGA), are identified manually from a database of 2444 recorded horizontal accelerations. The two-stage regression analysis method is used to investigate the inter- and intra-event residuals. For any given earthquake and site characteristics in terms of the fault mechanism, moment magnitude, Joyner and Boore distance and site shear-wave velocity, sets of the model parameters are generated and used, in turn, by the stochastic model to generate strong ground motion accelerograms, which can capture and properly embody the primary features of real strong ground motions, including the duration, evolving intensity, spectral content, frequency variation and peak values. In addition, it is shown that the characteristics of the simulated and observed response spectra are similar, and the amplitude of the simulated response spectra are in line with the predicted values from the published seismic ground motion prediction equations (SGMPE) after a systematic comparison. The proposed method can be used to estimate the strong ground motions as inputs for structural seismic dynamic analysis in engineering practice in conjunction with or instead of recorded ground motions.

  10. Phase derivatives and simulation of strong ground motions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    Phase derivatives can be used to compute instantaneous frequency and envelope delay (also known as group delay). Envelope delay, in the guise of phase differences, has been used by engineers in the simulation of strong ground motion, particularly as a way of controlling the duration of motion. Simulations using the stochastic method, in which duration is a simple function of source duration and a path-dependent duration, possess envelope delay properties similar to those from simulations based on phase differences. Envelope delay provides a way of extending the standard stochastic method to produce nonstationary frequency content, as produced by ground motions containing surface waves.

  11. Predicting Strong Ground Motion from Weak Ground Motion (Beno Gutenberg Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beroza, Gregory

    2014-05-01

    Predicting strong ground motion from future earthquakes is among the most important research topics in seismology. Typically, seismologists do this through ground motion prediction equations that express relationships between earthquake characteristics and ground motion intensity. In some locations (e.g., Cascadia) there is relatively little data to constrain these relationships. For all areas there is the problem that there are few records of ground motion available close to large earthquakes. As a result, seismologists are increasingly turning to simulations to compensate for this lack of data, but validating the accuracy of these simulations is critically important. In this talk I present two new approaches for strong ground motion prediction. Both methods rely on data that is approximately one million times weaker in amplitude than the strong ground motion of interest. The first method uses the recently discovered phenomenon of tectonic tremor to constrain the amplitude decay with distance of seismic waves in subduction zones. The abundant data represented by tremor should allow us to explore the variability of ground motion with distance both regionally, and between different subduction zones. The second method uses the ambient seismic field to construct virtual earthquakes that predict spatial variations in long period strong ground motion for scenario earthquakes.

  12. A simple model for strong ground motions and response spectra

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, Erdal; Mueller, Charles; Boatwright, John

    1988-01-01

    A simple model for the description of strong ground motions is introduced. The model shows that response spectra can be estimated by using only four parameters of the ground motion, the RMS acceleration, effective duration and two corner frequencies that characterize the effective frequency band of the motion. The model is windowed band-limited white noise, and is developed by studying the properties of two functions, cumulative squared acceleration in the time domain, and cumulative squared amplitude spectrum in the frequency domain. Applying the methods of random vibration theory, the model leads to a simple analytical expression for the response spectra. The accuracy of the model is checked by using the ground motion recordings from the aftershock sequences of two different earthquakes and simulated accelerograms. The results show that the model gives a satisfactory estimate of the response spectra.

  13. A high and low noise model for strong motion accelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clinton, J. F.; Cauzzi, C.; Olivieri, M.

    2010-12-01

    We present reference noise models for high-quality strong motion accelerometer installations. We use continuous accelerometer data acquired by the Swiss Seismological Service (SED) since 2006 and other international high-quality accelerometer network data to derive very broadband (50Hz-100s) high and low noise models. The proposed noise models are compared to the Peterson (1993) low and high noise models designed for broadband seismometers; the datalogger self-noise; background noise levels at existing Swiss strong motion stations; and typical earthquake signals recorded in Switzerland and worldwide. The standard strong motion station operated by the SED consists of a Kinemetrics Episensor (2g clip level; flat acceleration response from 200 Hz to DC; <155dB dynamic range) coupled with a 24-bit Nanometrics Taurus datalogger. The proposed noise models are based on power spectral density (PSD) noise levels for each strong motion station computed via PQLX (McNamara and Buland, 2004) from several years of continuous recording. The 'Accelerometer Low Noise Model', ALNM, is dominated by instrument noise from the sensor and datalogger. The 'Accelerometer High Noise Model', AHNM, reflects 1) at high frequencies the acceptable site noise in urban areas, 2) at mid-periods the peak microseismal energy, as determined by the Peterson High Noise Model and 3) at long periods the maximum noise observed from well insulated sensor / datalogger systems placed in vault quality sites. At all frequencies, there is at least one order of magnitude between the ALNM and the AHNM; at high frequencies (> 1Hz) this extends to 2 orders of magnitude. This study provides remarkable confirmation of the capability of modern strong motion accelerometers to record low-amplitude ground motions with seismic observation quality. In particular, an accelerometric station operating at the ALNM is capable of recording the full spectrum of near source earthquakes, out to 100 km, down to M2. Of particular interest for the SED, this study provides acceptable noise limits for candidate sites for the on-going Strong Motion Network modernisation.

  14. Development of three-dimensional basement structure in Taiwan deduced from past plate motion: Consistency with the present seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Youichiro; Fukahata, Yukitoshi; Hashima, Akinori; Terakawa, Toshiko; Fukui, Kenji; Yanagisawa, Takatoshi; Ikeda, Yasutaka; Kimura, Gaku; Matsu'Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2007-06-01

    Using colored clay, we examined geometrical evolution of the three-dimensional basement structure in Taiwan due to relative plate motion under the following assumptions: the motion of the Philippine Sea plate relative to the Eurasian plate has been constant during the last 15 Myr, the Ryukyu and Manila trenches had been connected by a transform fault before the collision between the Luzon arc and Eurasian continental margin, and the collision started at 5 Ma. The basement structure obtained from the clay model was fully consistent with observed deep seismicity, which led us to the following conclusions. There are no oceanic slabs beneath central Taiwan. Instead, the Eurasian continental margin is underthrusting beneath it. The Philippine Sea slab extends northwestward from the Ryukyu trench, while the South China Sea slab extends southeastward from the Manila trench. The downdip length of the South China Sea slab becomes shorter from south to north.

  15. Strong motion observations and recordings from the great Wenchuan Earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, X.; Zhou, Z.; Yu, H.; Wen, R.; Lu, D.; Huang, M.; Zhou, Y.; Cu, J.

    2008-01-01

    The National Strong Motion Observation Network System (NSMONS) of China is briefly introduced in this paper. The NSMONS consists of permanent free-field stations, special observation arrays, mobile observatories and a network management system. During the Wenchuan Earthquake, over 1,400 components of acceleration records were obtained from 460 permanent free-field stations and three arrays for topographical effect and structural response observation in the network system from the main shock, and over 20,000 components of acceleration records from strong aftershocks occurred before August 1, 2008 were also obtained by permanent free-field stations of the NSMONS and 59 mobile instruments quickly deployed after the main shock. The strong motion recordings from the main shock and strong aftershocks are summarized in this paper. In the ground motion recordings, there are over 560 components with peak ground acceleration (PGA) over 10 Gal, the largest being 957.7 Gal. The largest PGA recorded during the aftershock exceeds 300 Gal. ?? 2008 Institute of Engineering Mechanics, China Earthquake Administration and Springer-Verlag GmbH.

  16. Strong Ground Motion Database System for the Mexican Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Yanez, C.; Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Ruiz, A. L.; Delgado, R.; Macías, M. A.; Sandoval, H.; Alcántara, L.; Quiroz, A.

    2014-12-01

    A web-based system for strong Mexican ground motion records dissemination and archival is presented. More than 50 years of continuous strong ground motion instrumentation and monitoring in Mexico have provided a fundamental resource -several thousands of accelerograms- for better understanding earthquakes and their effects in the region. Lead by the Institute of Engineering (IE) of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), the engineering strong ground motion monitoring program at IE relies on a continuously growing network, that at present includes more than 100 free-field stations and provides coverage to the seismic zones in the country. Among the stations, approximately 25% send the observed acceleration to a processing center in Mexico City in real-time, and the rest require manual access, remote or in situ, for later processing and cataloguing. As part of a collaboration agreement between UNAM and the National Center for Disaster Prevention, regarding the construction and operation of a unified seismic network, a web system was developed to allow access to UNAM's engineering strong motion archive and host data from other institutions. The system allows data searches under a relational database schema, following a general structure relying on four databases containing the: 1) free-field stations, 2) epicentral location associated with the strong motion records available, 3) strong motion catalogue, and 4) acceleration files -the core of the system. In order to locate and easily access one or several records of the data bank, the web system presents a variety of parameters that can be involved in a query (seismic event, region boundary, station name or ID, radial distance to source or peak acceleration). This homogeneous platform has been designed to facilitate dissemination and processing of the information worldwide. Each file, in a standard format, contains information regarding the recording instrument, the station, the corresponding earthquake, the record itself, and the numerical data. The standard format used was designed and preserved by many institutions in Mexico. At this stage, only cataloged accelerograms (M>=5) from IE are integrated. Institutions expected to become part of the unified network of Mexico, will make available data through the platform described in this paper.

  17. Enhancement of the national strong-motion network in Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gulkan, Polat; Ceken, U.; Colakoglu, Z.; Ugras, T.; Kuru, T.; Apak, A.; Anderson, J.G.; Sucuoglu, H.; Celebi, M.; Akkar, D.S.; Yazgan, U.; Denizlioglu, A.Z.

    2007-01-01

    Two arrays comprising 20 strong-motion sensors were established in western Turkey. The 14 stations of BYTNet follow a N-S trending line about 65 km in length, normal to strands of the North Anatolian fault that runs between the cities of Bursa and Yalova. Here the dominant character of the potential fault movement is a right-lateral transform slip. The DATNet array, comprising a total of eight stations, is arranged along a 110-km-long E-W trending direction along the Menderes River valley between Denizli and Aydin. (Two stations in this array were incorporated from the existing Turkish national strong-motion network.) This is an extensional tectonic environment, and the network mornitors potential large normal-faulting earthquakes on the faults in the valley. The installation of the arrays was supported by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) under its Science for Peace Program. Maintenance and calibration is performed by the General Directorate of Disaster Affairs (GDDA) according to a protocol between Middle East Technical University (METU) and GDDA. Many young engineers and scientists have been trained in network operation and evaluation during the course of the project, and an international workshop dealing with strong-motion instrumentation has been organized as part of the project activities.

  18. Source Characteristics of Shallow Intraslab Earthquakes from Strong Motion Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, K.; Iwata, T.; Irikura, K.

    2002-12-01

    Large shallow intraslab earthquakes, occurring within subducting slabs at 30-100km depths, generate earthquake damages by strong ground motions (e.g. the 1993 Kushiro-oki earthquake, the 2001 Geiyo earthquake, and the 2001 Nisqually earthquake). Source characteristics of intraslab earthquakes have been pointed out to have some different features compared to those of inland crustal earthquakes and interplate earthquakes by some researchers. We examined six shallow intraslab earthquakes that recently occurred around Japan (MJMA 5.1-7.0) using dense strong motion network data. The observed peak ground accelerations at K-NET stations for the 2001 Geiyo earthquake in near distance are about 3 times larger than those expected from the attenuation relation based on inland crustal earthquakes proposed by Fukushima and Tanaka (1992). For other intraslab events, the observed peak ground accelerations are also larger than the expected values. These seem to be related with high stress drop in source as well as low attenuation along the propagation path in case of intraslab earthquakes. We carried out strong motion simulation based on the empirical Green's function method to investigate the source characteristics of intraslab earthquakes. Using the empirical Green's function method, we can construct the source model to explain observed waveforms in broadband frequency range (Irikura, 1986; Miyake et al., 1999). We used the observed waveforms of a small event occurring at each source region as the empirical Green's function, and estimated the number, size, and location of asperity (strong motion generation area), rise time, and rupture propagation velocity of target events by forward modeling. Since the combined area of asperities obtained for each earthquake is about 14-66% of values predicted by the empirical relation for inland crustal earthquakes proposed by Somerville et al. (1999), the stress drops on asperity of shallow intraslab earthquakes are higher than those of inland crustal earthquakes. The ratios between the combined area of asperities obtained in this study and the value predicted from the empirical relation decrease with focal depth. The stress drops on asperity of shallow intraslab earthquakes increase with focal depth. We used the strong motion data from K-NET, KiK-net, and F-net operated by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) and the CMT solutions by F-net and Harvard University. We also used the hypocentral information provided by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA).

  19. Can mobile phones used in strong motion seismology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessandro, Antonino; D'Anna, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) accelerometers are electromechanical devices able to measure static or dynamic accelerations. In the 1990s MEMS accelerometers revolutionized the automotive-airbag system industry and are currently widely used in laptops, game controllers and mobile phones. Nowadays MEMS accelerometers seems provide adequate sensitivity, noise level and dynamic range to be applicable to earthquake strong motion acquisition. The current use of 3 axes MEMS accelerometers in mobile phone maybe provide a new means to easy increase the number of observations when a strong earthquake occurs. However, before utilize the signals recorded by a mobile phone equipped with a 3 axes MEMS accelerometer for any scientific porpoise, it is fundamental to verify that the signal collected provide reliable records of ground motion. For this reason we have investigated the suitability of the iPhone 5 mobile phone (one of the most popular mobile phone in the world) for strong motion acquisition. It is provided by several MEMS devise like a three-axis gyroscope, a three-axis electronic compass and a the LIS331DLH three-axis accelerometer. The LIS331DLH sensor is a low-cost high performance three axes linear accelerometer, with 16 bit digital output, produced by STMicroelectronics Inc. We have tested the LIS331DLH MEMS accelerometer using a vibrating table and the EpiSensor FBA ES-T as reference sensor. In our experiments the reference sensor was rigidly co-mounted with the LIS331DHL MEMS sensor on the vibrating table. We assessment the MEMS accelerometer in the frequency range 0.2-20 Hz, typical range of interesting in strong motion seismology and earthquake engineering. We generate both constant and damped sine waves with central frequency starting from 0.2 Hz until 20 Hz with step of 0.2 Hz. For each frequency analyzed we generate sine waves with mean amplitude 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1600 mg0. For damped sine waves we generate waveforms with initial amplitude of 2 g0. Our tests show as, in the frequency and amplitude range analyzed (0.2-20 Hz, 10-2000 mg0), the LIS331DLH MEMS accelerometer have excellent frequency and phase response, comparable with that of some standard FBA accelerometer used in strong motion seismology. However, we found that the signal recorded by the LIS331DLH MEMS accelerometer slightly underestimates the real acceleration (of about 2.5%). This suggests that may be important to calibrate a MEMS sensor before using it in scientific applications. A drawback of the LIS331DLH MEMS accelerometer is its low sensitivity. This is an important limitation of all the low cost MEMS accelerometers; therefore nowadays they are desirable to use only in strong motion seismology. However, the rapid development of this technology will lead in the coming years to the development of high sensitivity and low noise digital MEMS sensors that may be replace the current seismic accelerometer used in seismology. Actually, the real main advantage of these sensors is their common use in the mobile phones.

  20. CSMIP (California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program) strong-motion records from the Santa Cruz Mountains (Loma Prieta), California earthquake of 17 October 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Shakal, A.; Reichle, M.; Ventura, C.; Cao, T.; Sherburne, R.; Savage, M.; Darragh, R.; Petersen, C.

    1990-01-01

    Strong-motion records were recovered from 93 stations of the California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP) after the earthquake. CSMIP provides information on the force of ground motion and the deformation induced in structures and in rock and soil by earthquake-generated ground motion. This information is recorded by strong-motion sensors placed in engineered structures and at free field (ground) sites, and is used by earthquake engineers and earth scientists to improve the design of earthquake-resistant structures. The strong-motion instrumentation program was established after the San Fernando earthquake in 1971. A total of 125 records were recovered from the 93 CSMIP stations which recorded the Loma Prieta event. These 125 records contain data from a total of 690 strong-motion sensors. These data are important because of the unique structures and sites at which records were obtained during this event. Some highlights of particular interest are included in this paper.

  1. Database for earthquake strong motion studies in Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scasserra, G.; Stewart, J.P.; Kayen, R.E.; Lanzo, G.

    2009-01-01

    We describe an Italian database of strong ground motion recordings and databanks delineating conditions at the instrument sites and characteristics of the seismic sources. The strong motion database consists of 247 corrected recordings from 89 earthquakes and 101 recording stations. Uncorrected recordings were drawn from public web sites and processed on a record-by-record basis using a procedure utilized in the Next-Generation Attenuation (NGA) project to remove instrument resonances, minimize noise effects through low- and high-pass filtering, and baseline correction. The number of available uncorrected recordings was reduced by 52% (mostly because of s-triggers) to arrive at the 247 recordings in the database. The site databank includes for every recording site the surface geology, a measurement or estimate of average shear wave velocity in the upper 30 m (Vs30), and information on instrument housing. Of the 89 sites, 39 have on-site velocity measurements (17 of which were performed as part of this study using SASW techniques). For remaining sites, we estimate Vs30 based on measurements on similar geologic conditions where available. Where no local velocity measurements are available, correlations with surface geology are used. Source parameters are drawn from databanks maintained (and recently updated) by Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and include hypocenter location and magnitude for small events (M< ??? 5.5) and finite source parameters for larger events. ?? 2009 A.S. Elnashai & N.N. Ambraseys.

  2. On pads and filters: Processing strong-motion data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    Processing of strong-motion data in many cases can be as straightforward as filtering the acceleration time series and integrating to obtain velocity and displacement. To avoid the introduction of spurious low-frequency noise in quantities derived from the filtered accelerations, however, care must be taken to append zero pads of adequate length to the beginning and end of the segment of recorded data. These padded sections of the filtered acceleration need to be retained when deriving velocities, displacements, Fourier spectra, and response spectra. In addition, these padded and filtered sections should also be included in the time series used in the dynamic analysis of structures and soils to ensure compatibility with the filtered accelerations.

  3. Deterministic earthquake scenario for the Basel area: Simulating strong motions and site effects for Basel,

    E-print Network

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    Deterministic earthquake scenario for the Basel area: Simulating strong motions and site effects ground motion simulations for earthquake scenarios for the city of Basel and its vicinity. The numerical, and D. Giardini (2005), Deterministic earthquake scenario for the Basel area: Simulating strong motions

  4. High-frequency filtering of strong-motion records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Douglas, J.; Boore, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of noise in strong-motion records is most problematic at low and high frequencies where the signal to noise ratio is commonly low compared to that in the mid-spectrum. The impact of low-frequency noise (5 Hz) on computed pseudo-absolute response spectral accelerations (PSAs). In contrast to the case of low-frequency noise our analysis shows that filtering to remove high-frequency noise is only necessary in certain situations and that PSAs can often be used up to 100 Hz even if much lower high-cut corner frequencies are required to remove the noise. This apparent contradiction can be explained by the fact that PSAs are often controlled by ground accelerations associated with much lower frequencies than the natural frequency of the oscillator because path and site attenuation (often modelled by Q and ?, respectively) have removed the highest frequencies. We demonstrate that if high-cut filters are to be used, then their corner frequencies should be selected on an individual basis, as has been done in a few recent studies.

  5. Nonlinear attenuation and rock damage during strong seismic ground motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleep, Norman H.; Hagin, Paul

    2008-10-01

    Strong seismic waves cause nonlinear behavior in the shallow subsurface in fractured rocks. Seismologists use low-amplitude signals from small repeating earthquakes to measure S wave velocity decrease after strong motion. The 2004 Parkfield, California, earthquake provides examples of such velocity changes in fractured sandstone with an S wave velocity of ˜300 m s-1. This nonlinear behavior occurred around the wave number depth of the incident waves, ˜30 m, for the ˜10 s-1 dominant angular frequency on a velocity seismogram. The low-amplitude S wave velocity gradually recovered with the logarithm of time. The attenuation of strong waves in general depends nonlinearly on their amplitude. High dynamic stress triggered small, very shallow earthquakes, at sites including Parkfield. The theoretical frictional behavior of a fractured medium with heterogeneous prestress relates these phenomena. Failure occurs in the highly prestressed domains causing small earthquakes and opening-mode cracks. The energy to dilate the cracks dissipates a significant fraction of the incoming seismic energy. The local high-porosity domains close with the logarithm of time, as expected from the aging law of rate and state friction, increasing the S wave velocity. The domain model indicates that nonlinear effects increase gradually over a range of dynamic Coulomb stresses as observed and as included in the widely used Masing rules. The Linker and Dieterich (1992) relationship provides the maximum sustainable dynamic coefficient of friction needed to utilize the Masing rules. This parameter is the coefficient of friction at a laboratory normal traction plus a constant ˜0.15 times the logarithm of the ratio of field normal traction to the laboratory normal traction. It is helpful to relate S wave velocity to starting frictional strength, as coefficient of friction near the quarter-wavelength depth determines nonlinear behavior. Then the dynamic coefficient of friction and equivalently the maximum sustainable acceleration at the dominant frequency depend weakly on S wave velocity. For example, the coefficient of friction at an angular frequency of 10 s-1 is less than 1.5 for rocks ranging from Parkfield sandstone to intact granite.

  6. Perceptual Training Strongly Improves Visual Motion Perception in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Daniel J.; McBain, Ryan K.; Ongur, Dost; Chen, Yue

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients exhibit perceptual and cognitive deficits, including in visual motion processing. Given that cognitive systems depend upon perceptual inputs, improving patients' perceptual abilities may be an effective means of cognitive intervention. In healthy people, motion perception can be enhanced through perceptual learning, but it…

  7. Field relations between the spectral composition of ground motion and hydrological effects during the 1999 Chi-Chi (Taiwan) earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Alexander; Wang, Chi-Yuen

    2007-10-01

    The possibility that the frequency content of ground motion in earthquakes affects hydrological responses to earthquakes has yet to be extensively tested in the field. The Mw = 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake provided an opportunity to do so, as widespread liquefaction and groundwater level changes were recorded by instrumentation in the Choshui Alluvial Fan. Analysis of the resulting data shows that ground motion parameters that measure low-frequency ground motions are more strongly correlated with coseismic groundwater level change and the occurrence of liquefaction than parameters that measure high-frequency motions. Notably, horizontal peak ground acceleration, a metric often used to enumerate the strength of ground motion in liquefaction analysis, is weakly correlated with these hydrological effects. It is unclear from this analysis whether low-frequency ground motion caused coseismic groundwater level change and liquefaction or whether the hydrological changes changed the spectral composition of the observed seismograms during the Chi-Chi earthquake.

  8. Comparison Studies on the Observation of Raindrop Size Distribution in Strong Precipitation Frontal Case in Northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Pay-Liam; Chen, Ying-Jhen

    2015-04-01

    In the nighttime of 11th June 2012, a mature Mai-Yu front passed through northern Taiwan. The leading edge of front associated with southwesterly flow produced strong precipitation in a short time. The extreme rainfall event caused multiple areas flooding. In order to investigate the characteristic of drop size distribution (DSD) accompanied with this heavy rainfall event, we used an impact type Joss-Waldgovel disdrometer (JWD), a laser-optical OTT Parsivel disdrometer (Parsivel) and a two dimensional video disdrometer (2DVD) collocated at NCU, and we also used three JWDs in FeiCui, NanGang and XiaYung to investigate the frontal precipitation. In the weak precipitation period, we found the concentration of small raindrops would be underestimated because the velocity detected by Parsivel is faster than the real situation. But we also made sure that before the strong precipitation happens, the three type disdrometers (JWD, 2DVD and Parsivel) operate consistently.During strong precipitation period, we found a significant DSD variation characteristic. As a convective cell passes, the concentration of medium to large drops increases in Parsivel, while decreases in JWD. Due to the limitation of instrument, Parsivel tended to overestimate the concentration of medium to large drops in the strong rainfall intensity. Comparing the rain drops concentration with the rain rate varies with time, Parsivel showed a good agreement but JWD even did not get the most significant characteristic as the strongest rainfall occurred. The rain rates of JWD and Parsivel varied in the same trend, but compared the rain rates with the rain gauge observation in the 10 m tower at NCU, both of them showed obvious underestimation. We suspected the limitation of instrument made the rain rate underestimated.

  9. Perceptual training strongly improves visual motion perception in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Daniel J.; McBain, Ryan K.; Ongur, Dost; Chen, Yue

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients exhibit perceptual and cognitive deficits, including in visual motion processing. Given that cognitive systems depend upon perceptual inputs, improving patients’ perceptual abilities may be an effective means of cognitive intervention. In healthy people, motion perception can be enhanced through perceptual learning, but it is unknown whether this perceptual plasticity remains in schizophrenia patients. The present study examined the degree to which patients’ performance on visual motion discrimination can be improved, using a perceptual learning procedure. While both schizophrenia patients and healthy controls showed decreased direction discrimination thresholds (improved performance) with training, the magnitude of the improvement was greater in patients (47% improvement) than in controls (21% improvement). Both groups also improved moderately but non-significantly on an untrained task—speed discrimination. The large perceptual training effect in patients on the trained task suggests that perceptual plasticity is robust in schizophrenia and can be applied to develop bottom-up behavioral interventions. PMID:21872380

  10. Strong ground motion prediction for southwestern China from small earthquake records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Z. R.; Tao, X. X.; Cui, A. P.

    2015-09-01

    For regions lack of strong ground motion records, a method is developed to predict strong ground motion by small earthquake records from local broadband digital earthquake networks. Sichuan and Yunnan regions, located in southwestern China, are selected as the targets. Five regional source and crustal medium parameters are inversed by micro-Genetic Algorithm. These parameters are adopted to predict strong ground motion for moment magnitude (Mw) 5.0, 6.0 and 7.0. Strong ground motion data are compared with the results, most of the result pass through ideally the data point plexus, except the case of Mw 7.0 in Sichuan region, which shows an obvious slow attenuation. For further application, this result is adopted in probability seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) and near-field strong ground motion synthesis of the Wenchuan Earthquake.

  11. The Internet Quick Report of the CISN Engineering Strong Motion Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, K.; Shakal, T.; Huang, M.; Stephens, C.; Savage, W.

    2002-12-01

    The CISN Engineering Strong Motion Data Center (CEDC) provides data for engineering applications, ranging from the ShakeMap to distribution of the data and calculated parameters. The California Department of Conservation's Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP) in cooperation with the USGS/National Strong Motion Program (NSMP) operates the CEDC. The CEDC is currently at http://www.conservation.ca.gov/cisn-edc/, but reflecting the dual-agency nature of the EDC, it will be operating in parallel at a USGS address later in 2002. The Internet Quick Report (IQR) is the tool used by the CEDC to rapidly disseminate strong-motion data over the Internet after major earthquakes. The IQR and the ShakeMap interact with each other with the time series plots of the IQR directly linked from the ShakeMap. Currently the CEDC is under development and is serving strong motion data for both CGS and NSMP. With the completion of the CISN Intranet and the standard protocols for exchange of strong motion data, the CEDC will assemble strong-motion data sets for the earthquake engineering community incorporating data from all CISN stations.

  12. SISMA (Site of Italian Strong Motion Accelerograms): a Web-Database of Ground Motion Recordings for Engineering Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Scasserra, Giuseppe; Lanzo, Giuseppe; D'Elia, Beniamino; Stewart, Jonathan P.

    2008-07-08

    The paper describes a new website called SISMA, i.e. Site of Italian Strong Motion Accelerograms, which is an Internet portal intended to provide natural records for use in engineering applications for dynamic analyses of structural and geotechnical systems. SISMA contains 247 three-component corrected motions recorded at 101 stations from 89 earthquakes that occurred in Italy in the period 1972-2002. The database of strong motion accelerograms was developed in the framework of a joint project between Sapienza University of Rome and University of California at Los Angeles (USA) and is described elsewhere. Acceleration histories and pseudo-acceleration response spectra (5% damping) are available for download from the website. Recordings can be located using simple search parameters related to seismic source and the recording station (e.g., magnitude, V{sub s30}, etc) as well as ground motion characteristics (e.g. peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, peak ground displacement, Arias intensity, etc.)

  13. Site Characterization of Italian Strong Motion Recording Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Scasserra, Giuseppe; Lanzo, Giuseppe; Stewart, Jonathan P.; Kayen, Robert E.

    2008-07-08

    A dataset of site conditions at 101 Italian ground motion stations with recorded motions has been compiled that includes geologic characteristics and seismic velocities. Geologic characterization is derived principally from local geologic investigations by ENEL that include detailed mapping and cross sections. For sites lacking such detailed geologic characterization, the geology maps of the by Servizio Geologico d'Italia are used. Seismic velocities are extracted from the literature and the files of consulting engineers, geologists and public agencies for 33 sites. Data sources utilized include post earthquake site investigations (Friuli and Irpinia events), microzonation studies, and miscellaneous investigations performed by researchers or consulting engineers/geologists. Additional seismic velocities are measured by the authors using the controlled source spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) method for 18 sites that recorded the 1997-1998 Umbria Marche earthquake sequence. The compiled velocity measurements provide data for 51 of the 101 sites. For the remaining sites, the average seismic velocity in the upper 30 m (V{sub s30}) is estimated using a hybrid approach. For young Quaternary alluvium, V{sub s30} an existing empirical relationship for California sites by Wills and Clahan (2006) is used, which we justify by validating this relationship against Italian data. For Tertiary Limestone and Italian Mesozoic rocks, empirical estimates of V{sub s30} are developed using the available data. This work is also presented in Scasserra et al. (2008: JEE, in review)

  14. Comparisons of ground motions from five aftershocks of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake with empirical predictions largely based on data from California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, G.-Q.; Boore, D.M.; Igel, H.; Zhou, X.-Y.

    2004-01-01

    The observed ground motions from five large aftershocks of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake are compared with predictions from four equations based primarily on data from California. The four equations for active tectonic regions are those developed by Abrahamson and Silva (1997), Boore et al. (1997), Campbell (1997, 2001), and Sadigh et al. (1997). Comparisons are made for horizontal-component peak ground accelerations and 5%-damped pseudoacceleration response spectra at periods between 0.02 sec and 5 sec. The observed motions are in reasonable agreement with the predictions, particularly for distances from 10 to 30 km. This is in marked contrast to the motions from the Chi-Chi mainshock, which are much lower than the predicted motions for periods less than about 1 sec. The results indicate that the low motions in the mainshock are not due to unusual, localized absorption of seismic energy, because waves from the mainshock and the aftershocks generally traverse the same section of the crust and are recorded at the same stations. The aftershock motions at distances of 30-60 km are somewhat lower than the predictions (but not nearly by as small a factor as those for the mainshock), suggesting that the ground motion attenuates more rapidly in this region of Taiwan than it does in the areas we compare with it. We provide equations for the regional attenuation of response spectra, which show increasing decay of motion with distance for decreasing oscillator periods. This observational study also demonstrates that ground motions have large earthquake-location-dependent variability for a specific site. This variability reduces the accuracy with which an earthquake-specific prediction of site response can be predicted. Online Material: PGAs and PSAs from the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake and five aftershocks.

  15. Synthetic strong ground motions for engineering design utilizing empirical Green`s functions

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchings, L.J.; Jarpe, S.P.; Kasameyer, P.W.; Foxall, W.

    1996-04-11

    We present a methodology for developing realistic synthetic strong ground motions for specific sites from specific earthquakes. We analyzed the possible ground motion resulting from a M = 7.25 earthquake that ruptures 82 km of the Hayward fault for a site 1.4 km from the fault in the eastern San Francisco Bay area. We developed a suite of 100 rupture scenarios for the Hayward fault earthquake and computed the corresponding strong ground motion time histories. We synthesized strong ground motion with physics-based solutions of earthquake rupture and applied physical bounds on rupture parameters. By having a suite of rupture scenarios of hazardous earthquakes for a fixed magnitude and identifying the hazard to the site from the statistical distribution of engineering parameters, we introduce a probabilistic component into the deterministic hazard calculation. Engineering parameters of synthesized ground motions agree with those recorded from the 1995 Kobe, Japan and the 1992 Landers, California earthquakes at similar distances and site geologies.

  16. Estimation of strong ground motions from hypothetical earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone, Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heaton, T.H.; Hartzell, S.H.

    1989-01-01

    Strong ground motions are estimated for the Pacific Northwest assuming that large shallow earthquakes, similar to those experienced in southern Chile, southwestern Japan, and Colombia, may also occur on the Cascadia subduction zone. Fifty-six strong motion recordings for twenty-five subduction earthquakes of Ms???7.0 are used to estimate the response spectra that may result from earthquakes Mw<81/4. Large variations in observed ground motion levels are noted for a given site distance and earthquake magnitude. When compared with motions that have been observed in the western United States, large subduction zone earthquakes produce relatively large ground motions at surprisingly large distances. An earthquake similar to the 22 May 1960 Chilean earthquake (Mw 9.5) is the largest event that is considered to be plausible for the Cascadia subduction zone. This event has a moment which is two orders of magnitude larger than the largest earthquake for which we have strong motion records. The empirical Green's function technique is used to synthesize strong ground motions for such giant earthquakes. Observed teleseismic P-waveforms from giant earthquakes are also modeled using the empirical Green's function technique in order to constrain model parameters. The teleseismic modeling in the period range of 1.0 to 50 sec strongly suggests that fewer Green's functions should be randomly summed than is required to match the long-period moments of giant earthquakes. It appears that a large portion of the moment associated with giant earthquakes occurs at very long periods that are outside the frequency band of interest for strong ground motions. Nevertheless, the occurrence of a giant earthquake in the Pacific Northwest may produce quite strong shaking over a very large region. ?? 1989 Birkha??user Verlag.

  17. Strong motion deficits in dyslexia associated with DCDC2 gene alteration.

    PubMed

    Cicchini, Guido Marco; Marino, Cecilia; Mascheretti, Sara; Perani, Daniela; Morrone, Maria Concetta

    2015-05-27

    Dyslexia is a specific impairment in reading that affects 1 in 10 people. Previous studies have failed to isolate a single cause of the disorder, but several candidate genes have been reported. We measured motion perception in two groups of dyslexics, with and without a deletion within the DCDC2 gene, a risk gene for dyslexia. We found impairment for motion particularly strong at high spatial frequencies in the population carrying the deletion. The data suggest that deficits in motion processing occur in a specific genotype, rather than the entire dyslexia population, contributing to the large variability in impairment of motion thresholds in dyslexia reported in the literature. PMID:26019324

  18. Damage assessment of RC buildings subjected to the different strong motion duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortezaei, Alireza; mohajer Tabrizi, Mohsen

    2015-07-01

    An earthquake has three important characteristics; namely, amplitude, frequency content and duration. Amplitude and frequency content have a direct impact but not necessarily the sole cause of structural damage. Regarding the duration, some researchers show a high correlation between strong motion duration and structural damage whereas some others find no relation. This paper focuses on the ground motion durations characterized by Arias Intensity (AI). High duration may increase the damage state of structure for the damage accumulation. This paper investigates the response time histories (acceleration, velocity and displacement) of RC buildings under the different strong motion durations. Generally, eight earthquake records were selected from different soil type, and these records were grouped according to their PGA and frequency ranges. Maximum plastic rotation and drift response was chosen as damage indicator. In general, there was a positive correlation between strong motion duration and damage; however, in some PGA and frequency ranges input motions with shorter durations might cause more damage than the input motions with longer durations. In soft soils, input motions with longer durations caused more damage than the input motions with shorter durations.

  19. Simulation of strong earthquake motion by explosions --experiments at the Lyaur testing range in Tajikistan

    E-print Network

    Southern California, University of

    Simulation of strong earthquake motion by explosions -- experiments at the Lyaur testing range in Tajikistan S.Kh. Negmatullaeva , M.I. Todorovskab , M.D. Trifunacb,* a Institute of Earthquake Engineering compared with those of strong earthquake shaking data and other published explosion data. The comparison

  20. A new seismic-geotechnical approach to site-specific strong motion

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F.E.; Ueng, T.S.; Hutchings, L.J.; Jarpe, S.P.; Kasameyer, P.W.

    1995-12-01

    The authors have developed a new approach to estimate site-specific strong motion due to earthquakes on specific faults or source zones. It combines seismologic and geotechnical studies. It entails obtaining records of small earthquakes at the site, both at the surface and downhole in bedrock, as well as performing geotechnical dynamic site characterization. This new approach has the dual result of providing an optimized definition of the dynamic geotechnical site properties and providing calculated free-field, strong motion estimates. The procedure is demonstrated at the Painter Street Bridge site in Rio Dell, CA, for which the authors provide a range of surface motions corresponding to an earthquake of magnitude 7 on the subducting plate underlying this region. These calculated motions bracket the records of the Petrolia event (M = 7) measured near the site.

  1. ANALYSIS OF STRONG-MOTION EARTHQUAKE RECORDS FROM A WELL-INSTRUMENTED EARTH DAM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fedock, Joseph J.

    1986-01-01

    Strong-motion records from Long Valley Dam during the Mammoth Lakes earthquake sequence of May 1980 are analyzed to determine the main features of the dam's motions. The dam was instrumented with 22 accelerometers on its embankment and in the immediate vicinity, and more than 60 high-quality, long-duration accelerograms were recorded for the three largest earthquakes of the sequence. Free-field responses are compared with embankment responses to help establish the amplification of the structural motions and to identify modes of vibration of the structure.

  2. Strong-motion observations of the M 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake sequence and development of the N-shake strong-motion network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixit, Amod; Ringler, Adam; Sumy, Danielle F.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Hough, Susan E.; Martin, Stacey; Gibbons, Steven; Luetgert, James H.; Galetzka, John; Shrestha, Surya; Rajaure, Sudhir; McNamara, Daniel E.

    2015-01-01

    We present and describe strong-motion data observations from the 2015 M 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake sequence collected using existing and new Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) and U.S. Geological Survey NetQuakes sensors located in the Kathmandu Valley. A comparison of QCN data with waveforms recorded by a conventional strong-motion (NetQuakes) instrument validates the QCN data. We present preliminary analysis of spectral accelerations, and peak ground acceleration and velocity for earthquakes up to M 7.3 from the QCN stations, as well as preliminary analysis of the mainshock recording from the NetQuakes station. We show that mainshock peak accelerations were lower than expected and conclude the Kathmandu Valley experienced a pervasively nonlinear response during the mainshock. Phase picks from the QCN and NetQuakes data are also used to improve aftershock locations. This study confirms the utility of QCN instruments to contribute to ground-motion investigations and aftershock response in regions where conventional instrumentation and open-access seismic data are limited. Initial pilot installations of QCN instruments in 2014 are now being expanded to create the Nepal–Shaking Hazard Assessment for Kathmandu and its Environment (N-SHAKE) network.

  3. An evaluation of the strong ground motion recorded during the May 1, 2003 Bingol Turkey, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akkar, Sinan; Boore, David M.; Gulkan, Polat

    2005-01-01

    An important record of ground motion from a M6.4 earthquake occurring on May 1, 2003, at epicentral and fault distances of about 12 and 9 km, respectively, was obtained at a station near the city of Bingöl, Turkey. The maximum peak ground values of 0.55g and 36 cm/s are among the largest ground-motion amplitudes recorded in Turkey. From simulations and comparisons with ground motions from other earthquakes of comparable magnitude, we conclude that the ground motion over a range of frequencies is unusually high. Site response may be responsible for the elevated ground motion, as suggested from analysis of numerous aftershock recordings from the same station. The mainshock motions have some interesting seismological features, including ramps between the P- and S-wave that are probably due to near- and intermediate-field elastic motions and strong polarisation oriented at about 39 degrees to the fault (and therefore not in the fault-normal direction). Simulations of motions from an extended rupture explain these features. The N10E component shows a high-amplitude spectral acceleration at a period of 0.15 seconds resulting in a site specific design spectrum that significantly overestimates the actual strength and displacement demands of the record. The pulse signal in the N10E component affects the inelastic spectral displacement and increases the inelastic displacement demand with respect to elastic demand for very long periods.

  4. Effects of seismic ground motion and geological setting on the coseismic groundwater level changes caused by the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, W.-C.; Koizumi, N.; Matsumoto, N.; Kitagawa, Y.; Lin, C.-W.; Shieh, C.-L.; Lee, Y.-P.

    2004-09-01

    The groundwater level changes induced by the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake were well recorded at the monitoring wells in and around the Choshui River alluvial fan, Taiwan, which is adjacent to the focal region. We analyzed the coseismic groundwater level changes related to the geological setting and seismic ground motion. In a typical fan area, the groundwater levels coseismically rose and those amplitudes increased as the ground acceleration and hydraulic conductivity became larger. In the slope area near the earthquake fault, the groundwater levels coseismically dropped and those amplitudes increased as the ground acceleration became larger. The liquefaction and permeability enhancement, whose degrees depend on the geological setting and seismic ground motion, might explain the characteristics of the coseismic groundwater level changes in the Choshui River alluvial fan.

  5. Coherence, Strain, and Phase Velocity of Strong Ground Motions in the Mississippi Charles A. Langston

    E-print Network

    Langston, Charles A.

    , lose coherency quickly over the 105 m length of the array. Transverse component signals are least of individual seismic phases and sections of the three component waveforms. #12;3 Introduction The spatial are coherent or incoherent over the length of the structure. Information on the coherence of the strong motion

  6. Magnitude estimation using the covered areas of strong ground motion in earthquake early warning

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yih-Min

    Click Here for Full Article Magnitude estimation using the covered areas of strong ground motion the area of high PGA and the corresponding earthquake magnitude. We found that the logarithms of the areas inside the PGA contours have a linear relation to the corresponding earthquake magnitudes. We propose

  7. Turkey Flat Site Effects Test Area The Turkey-Flat strong motion "blind"

    E-print Network

    Oprsal, Ivo

    Turkey Flat Site Effects Test Area B B' A A' C C' The Turkey-Flat strong motion "blind" prediction experiment "Blind" Test Approach · Conduct high quality field and laboratory tests to characterize Geological Survey Turkey Flat, USA Site Effects Test Area: "Blind" Test of Predicted Ground Response

  8. Self-noise models of five commercial strong-motion accelerometers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringler, Adam; Evans, John R.; Hutt, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    To better characterize the noise of a number of commonly deployed accelerometers in a standardized way, we conducted noise measurements on five different models of strong?motion accelerometers. Our study was limited to traditional accelerometers (Fig. 1) and is in no way exhaustive.

  9. New Hybridized Surface Wave Approach for Geotechnical Modeling of Shear Wave Velocity at Strong Motion Recording Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayen, R.; Carkin, B.; Minasian, D.

    2006-12-01

    Strong motion recording (SMR) networks often have little or no shear wave velocity measurements at stations where characterization of site amplification and site period effects is needed. Using the active Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW) method, and passive H/V microtremor method we have investigated nearly two hundred SMR sites in California, Alaska, Japan, Australia, China and Taiwan. We are conducting these studies, in part, to develop a new hybridized method of site characterization that utilizes a parallel array of harmonic-wave sources for active-source SASW, and a single long period seismometer for passive-source microtremor measurement. Surface wave methods excel in their ability to non-invasively and rapidly characterize the variation of ground stiffness properties with depth below the surface. These methods are lightweight, inexpensive to deploy, and time-efficient. They have been shown to produce accurate and deep soil stiffness profiles. By placing and wiring shakers in a large parallel circuit, either side-by-side on the ground or in a trailer-mounted array, a strong in-phase harmonic wave can be produced. The effect of arraying many sources in parallel is to increase the amplitude of waves received at far-away spaced seismometers at low frequencies so as to extend the longest wavelengths of the captured dispersion curve. The USGS system for profiling uses this concept by arraying between two and eight electro-mechanical harmonic-wave shakers. With large parallel arrays of vibrators, a dynamic force in excess of 1000 lb can be produced to vibrate the ground and produce surface waves. We adjust the harmonic wave through a swept-sine procedure to profile surface wave dispersion down to a frequency of 1 Hz and out to surface wave-wavelengths of 200-1000 meters, depending on the site stiffness. The parallel-array SASW procedure is augmented using H/V microtremor data collected with the active source turned off. Passive array microtremor data reveal the natural and resonance characteristics of the ground by capturing persistent natural vibrations. These microtremors are the result of the interaction of surface waves arriving from distant sources and the stiffness structure of the site under investigation. As such, these resonance effects are effective in constraining the layer thicknesses of the SASW shear wave velocity structure and aid in determining the depth of the deepest layer. Together, the hybridized SASW and H/V procedure provides a complete data set for modeling the geotechnical aspects of ground amplification of earthquake motions. Data from these investigations are available at http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/geotech.

  10. Strong earthquake motion estimates for three sites on the U.C. San Diego campus

    SciTech Connect

    Day, S; Doroudian, M; Elgamal, A; Gonzales, S; Heuze, F; Lai, T; Minster, B; Oglesby, D; Riemer, M; Vernon, F; Vucetic, M; Wagoner, J; Yang, Z

    2002-05-07

    The approach of the Campus Earthquake Program (CEP) is to combine the substantial expertise that exists within the UC system in geology, seismology, and geotechnical engineering, to estimate the earthquake strong motion exposure of UC facilities. These estimates draw upon recent advances in hazard assessment, seismic wave propagation modeling in rocks and soils, and dynamic soil testing. The UC campuses currently chosen for application of our integrated methodology are Riverside, San Diego, and Santa Barbara. The procedure starts with the identification of possible earthquake sources in the region and the determination of the most critical fault(s) related to earthquake exposure of the campus. Combined geological, geophysical, and geotechnical studies are then conducted to characterize each campus with specific focus on the location of particular target buildings of special interest to the campus administrators. We drill, sample, and geophysically log deep boreholes next to the target structure, to provide direct in-situ measurements of subsurface material properties, and to install uphole and downhole 3-component seismic sensors capable of recording both weak and strong motions. The boreholes provide access below the soil layers, to deeper materials that have relatively high seismic shear-wave velocities. Analyses of conjugate downhole and uphole records provide a basis for optimizing the representation of the low-strain response of the sites. Earthquake rupture scenarios of identified causative faults are combined with the earthquake records and with nonlinear soil models to provide site-specific estimates of strong motions at the selected target locations. The predicted ground motions are shared with the UC consultants, so that they can be used as input to the dynamic analysis of the buildings. Thus, for each campus targeted by the CEP project, the strong motion studies consist of two phases, Phase 1--initial source and site characterization, drilling, geophysical logging, installation of the seismic station, and initial seismic monitoring, and Phase 2--extended seismic monitoring, dynamic soil testing, calculation of estimated site-specific earthquake strong motions at depth and at the surface, and , where applicable, estimation of the response of selected buildings to the CEP-estimated strong motions.

  11. Hanford strong motion accelerometer network: A summary of the first year of operation

    SciTech Connect

    Conrads, T.J.

    1997-09-22

    The Hanford Seismic Monitoring Network consists of two designs of equipment and sites: seismometer sites and strong motion accelerometer (SMA) sites. Seismometer sites are designed to locate earthquakes on and near the Hanford Site and determine their magnitude and hypocenter location. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards (DOE 1993) requires that facilities or sites that have structures or components in Performance Category 2 with hazardous material, and all Performance Category 3 and 4 facilities shall have instrumentation or other means to detect and record the occurrence and severity of seismic events. In order to comply with DOE Order 5480.28, the Hanford Seismic Monitoring Network seismometer sites needed to be complemented with strong motion accelerometers to record the ground motion at specific sites. The combined seismometer sites and strong motion accelerometer sites provide the Hanford Site with earthquake information to comply with DOE Order 5480.28. The data from these instruments will be used by the PHMC staff to assess the damage to facilities following a significant earthquake.

  12. Development of an Earthquake Early Warning System Using Real-Time Strong Motion Signals

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yih-Min; Kanamori, Hiroo

    2008-01-01

    As urbanization progresses worldwide, earthquakes pose serious threat to lives and properties for urban areas near major active faults on land or subduction zones offshore. Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) can be a useful tool for reducing earthquake hazards, if the spatial relation between cities and earthquake sources is favorable for such warning and their citizens are properly trained to respond to earthquake warning messages. An EEW system forewarns an urban area of forthcoming strong shaking, normally with a few sec to a few tens of sec of warning time, i.e., before the arrival of the destructive S-wave part of the strong ground motion. Even a few second of advanced warning time will be useful for pre-programmed emergency measures for various critical facilities, such as rapid-transit vehicles and high-speed trains to avoid potential derailment; it will be also useful for orderly shutoff of gas pipelines to minimize fire hazards, controlled shutdown of high-technological manufacturing operations to reduce potential losses, and safe-guarding of computer facilities to avoid loss of vital databases. We explored a practical approach to EEW with the use of a ground-motion period parameter ?c and a high-pass filtered vertical displacement amplitude parameter Pd from the initial 3 sec of the P waveforms. At a given site, an earthquake magnitude could be determined from ?c and the peak ground-motion velocity (PGV) could be estimated from Pd. In this method, incoming strong motion acceleration signals are recursively converted to ground velocity and displacement. A P-wave trigger is constantly monitored. When a trigger occurs, ?c and Pd are computed. The earthquake magnitude and the on-site ground-motion intensity could be estimated and the warning could be issued. In an ideal situation, such warnings would be available within 10 sec of the origin time of a large earthquake whose subsequent ground motion may last for tens of seconds.

  13. Designed microtremor array based actual measurement and analysis of strong ground motion at Palu city, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thein, Pyi Soe; Pramumijoyo, Subagyo; Brotopuspito, Kirbani Sri; Wilopo, Wahyu; Kiyono, Junji; Setianto, Agung; Putra, Rusnardi Rahmat

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the strong ground motion characteristics under Palu City, Indonesia. The shear wave velocity structures evaluated by eight microtremors measurement are the most applicable to determine the thickness of sediments and average shear wave velocity with Vs ? 300 m/s. Based on subsurface underground structure models identified, earthquake ground motion was estimated in the future Palu-Koro earthquake by using statistical green's function method. The seismic microzonation parameters were carried out by considering several significant controlling factors on ground response at January 23, 2005 earthquake.

  14. Designed microtremor array based actual measurement and analysis of strong ground motion at Palu city, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Thein, Pyi Soe; Pramumijoyo, Subagyo; Wilopo, Wahyu; Setianto, Agung; Brotopuspito, Kirbani Sri; Kiyono, Junji; Putra, Rusnardi Rahmat

    2015-04-24

    In this study, we investigated the strong ground motion characteristics under Palu City, Indonesia. The shear wave velocity structures evaluated by eight microtremors measurement are the most applicable to determine the thickness of sediments and average shear wave velocity with Vs ? 300 m/s. Based on subsurface underground structure models identified, earthquake ground motion was estimated in the future Palu-Koro earthquake by using statistical green’s function method. The seismic microzonation parameters were carried out by considering several significant controlling factors on ground response at January 23, 2005 earthquake.

  15. Comparison of damping in buildings under low-amplitude and strong motions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of damping values and other dynamic characteristics of five buildings using strong-motion and low-amplitude (ambient vibration) data. The strong-motion dynamic characteristics of five buildings within the San Francisco Bay area are extracted from recordings of the 17 October 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (LPE). Ambient vibration response characteristics for the same five buildings were inferred using data collected in 1990 following LPE. Additional earthquake data other than LPE for one building and ambient vibration data collected before LPE for two other buildings provide additional confirmation of the results obtained. For each building, the percentages of critical damping and the corresponding fundamental periods determined from low-amplitude test data are appreciably lower than those determined from strong-motion recordings. These differences are attributed mainly to soil-structure interaction and other non-linear behavior affecting the structures during strong shaking. Significant contribution of radiation damping to the effective damping of a specific building is discussed in detail.

  16. Predicting trench and plate motion from the dynamics of a strong slab Claudio Faccenna a,, Arnauld Heuret b

    E-print Network

    Becker, Thorsten W.

    Predicting trench and plate motion from the dynamics of a strong slab Claudio Faccenna a,, Arnauld subduction velocities but the trench motion is not directly included in the computation. Here, using a recent compilation of a global data set, we found that the motion of trenches (either advancing or retreating

  17. Chapter A. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Strong Ground Motion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    1994-01-01

    Strong ground motion generated by the Loma Prieta, Calif., earthquake (MS~7.1) of October 17, 1989, resulted in at least 63 deaths, more than 3,757 injuries, and damage estimated to exceed $5.9 billion. Strong ground motion severely damaged critical lifelines (freeway overpasses, bridges, and pipelines), caused severe damage to poorly constructed buildings, and induced a significant number of ground failures associated with liquefaction and landsliding. It also caused a significant proportion of the damage and loss of life at distances as far as 100 km from the epicenter. Consequently, understanding the characteristics of the strong ground motion associated with the earthquake is fundamental to understanding the earthquake's devastating impact on society. The papers assembled in this chapter address this problem. Damage to vulnerable structures from the earthquake varied substantially with the distance from the causative fault and the type of underlying geologic deposits. Most of the damage and loss of life occurred in areas underlain by 'soft soil'. Quantifying these effects is important for understanding the tragic concentrations of damage in such areas as Santa Cruz and the Marina and Embarcadero Districts of San Francisco, and the failures of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge and the Interstate Highway 880 overpass. Most importantly, understanding these effects is a necessary prerequisite for improving mitigation measures for larger earthquakes likely to occur much closer to densely urbanized areas in the San Francisco Bay region. The earthquake generated an especially important data set for understanding variations in the severity of strong ground motion. Instrumental strong-motion recordings were obtained at 131 sites located from about 6 to 175 km from the rupture zone. This set of recordings, the largest yet collected for an event of this size, was obtained from sites on various geologic deposits, including a unique set on 'soft soil' deposits (artificial fill and bay mud). These exceptional ground-motion data are used by the authors of the papers in this chapter to infer radiation characteristics of the earthquake source, identify dominant propagation characteristics of the Earth?s crust, quantify amplification characteristics of near-surface geologic deposits, develop general amplification factors for site-dependent building-code provisions, and revise earthquake-hazard assessments for the San Francisco Bay region. Interpretations of additional data recorded in well-instrumented buildings, dams, and freeway overpasses are provided in other chapters of this report.

  18. Vision for the Future of the US National Strong-Motion Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Committee for the Future of the US National Strong-Motion Program

    1997-01-01

    This document provides the requested vision for the future of the National Strong-Motion Program operated by the US Geological Survey. Options for operation of the program are presented in a companion document. Each of the three major charges of the EHRP, program council pertaining to the vision document is addressed here. The 'Vision Summary' through a series of answers to specific questions is intended to provide a complete synopsis of the committees response to program council charges. The Vision for the Future of the NSMP is presented as section III of the Summary. Analysis and detailed discussion supporting the answers in the summary are presented as sections organized according to the charges of the program council. The mission for the program is adopted from that developed at the national workshop entitled 'Research Needs for Strong Motion Data to Support Earthquake Engineering' sponsored by the National Science Foundation.

  19. Before and after retrofit - response of a building during ambient and strong motions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.; Liu, Huaibao P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents results obtained from ambient vibration and strong-motion responses of a thirteen-story, moment-resisting steel framed Santa Clara County Office Building (SCCOB) before being retrofitted by visco-elastic dampers and from ambient vibration response following the retrofit. Understanding the cumulative structural and site characteristics that affect the response of SCCOB before and after the retrofit is important in assessing earthquake hazards to other similar buildings and decision making in retrofitting them. The results emphasize the need to better evaluate structural and site characteristics in developing earthquake resisting designs that avoid resonating effects. Various studies of the strong-motion response records from the SCCOB during the 24 April 1984 (MHE) Morgan Hill (MS = 6.1), the 31 March 1986 (MLE) Mt. Lewis (MS = 6.1) and the 17 October 1989 (LPE) Loma Prieta (MS = 7.1) earthquakes show that the dynamic characteristics of the building are such that it (a) resonated (b) responded with a beating effect due to close-coupling of its translational and torsional frequencies, and (c) had a long-duration response due to low-damping. During each of these earthquakes, there was considerable contents damage and the occupants felt the rigorous vibration of the building. Ambient tests of SCCOB performed following LPE showed that both translational and torsional periods of the building are smaller than those derived from strong motions. Ambient tests performed following the retrofit of the building with visco-elastic dampers show that the structural fundamental mode frequency of the building has increased. The increased frequency implies a stiffer structure. Strong-motion response of the building during future earthquakes will ultimately validate the effectiveness of the retrofit method.This paper presents results obtained from ambient vibration and strong-motion responses of a thirteen-story, moment-resisting steel framed Santa Clara County Office Building (SCCOB) before being retrofitted by visco-elastic dampers and from ambient vibration response following the retrofit. Understanding the cumulative structural and site characteristics that affect the response of SCCOB before and after the retrofit is important in assessing earthquake hazards to other similar buildings and decision making in retrofitting them. The results emphasize the need to better evaluate structural and site characteristics in developing earthquake resisting designs that avoid resonating effects. Various studies of the strong-motion response records from the SCCOB during the 24 April 1984 (MHE) Morgan Hill (Ms = 6.1), the 31 March 1986 (MLE) Mt. Lewis (Ms = 6.1) and the 17 October 1989(LPE) Loma Prieta (Ms = 7.1) earthquakes show that the dynamic characteristics of the building are such that it (a) resonated (b) responded with a beating effect due to close-coupling of its translational and torsional frequencies, and (c) had a long-duration response due to low-damping. During each of these earthquakes, there was considerable contents damage and the occupants felt the rigorous vibration of the building. Ambient tests of SCCOB performed following LPE showed that both translational and torsional periods of the building are smaller than those derived from strong motions. Ambient tests performed following the retrofit of the building with visco-elastic dampers show that the structural fundamental mode frequency of the building has increased. The increased frequency implies a stiffer structure. Strong-motion response of the building during future earthquakes will ultimately validate the effectiveness of the retrofit method.

  20. Deployment of strong-motion instrumentation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Shakal, A.F.; Murray, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    A network of strong-motion accelerographs has been deployed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the Site Seismic Safety Program. The network has three objectives: (1) the measurement of free-field ground motion for analyses of the ground shaking and its variation at the site, (2) measurement of the motion in certain buildings for detailed analyses of structural response, and (3) measurement of the level of strong shaking for rapid assessment of structural safety following an earthquake. The free-field component of the network includes six stations at and near the Laboratory. Structural instrumentation includes multichannel central-recording systems in Building 111 (9-channel) and in Building 332 (18-channel). Central-recording systems have also been installed on the spaceframe of the Shiva/Nova laser facility, and in Building 981 of Sandia Laboratory, near LLNL. The network is comprised primarily of digital accelerographs, with analog accelerographs included for redundancy. In addition to these conventional accelerographs, the network includes immediate-readout ground motion monitors to provide data for structural safety assessment immediately after an earthquake.

  1. Influence of strong monsoon winds on the water quality around a marine cage-culture zone in a shallow and semi-enclosed bay in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuan-Chao Angelo; Huang, Shou-Chung; Meng, Pei-Jie; Hsieh, Hernyi Justin; Chen, Chaolun Allen

    2012-04-01

    Influences of marine cage culture and monsoonal disturbances, northeasterly (NE) and southwesterly (SW) monsoons on the proximal marine environment were investigated across a gradient of sites in a semi-enclosed bay, Magong Bay (Penghu Islands, Taiwan). Elevated levels of ammonia produced by the cages were the main pollutant and distinguished the cage-culture and intermediary zones (1000 m away from the cages) from the reference zone in the NE monsoon, indicating currents produced by the strong monsoon may have extended the spread of nutrient-enriched waters without necessarily flushing such effluents outside Magong Bay. Moreover, the levels of chlorophyll-a, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity were distinguishable between two seasons, suggesting that resuspension caused by the NE monsoon winds may also influence the water quality across this bay. It indicated that the impacts of marine cage culture vary as a function of distance, and also in response to seasonal movements of water driven by local climatic occurrences. PMID:22306313

  2. LETTER Earth Planets Space, 57, 191196, 2005 Simulation of strong ground motions caused by the 2004 off the Kii peninsula

    E-print Network

    Furumura, Takashi

    : Strong motion, simulation, FDM, 3D structure. 1. Introduction A large Mj 7.4 earthquake occurredLETTER Earth Planets Space, 57, 191­196, 2005 Simulation of strong ground motions caused by the 2004 off the Kii peninsula earthquakes Toshihiko Hayakawa, Takashi Furumura, and Yoshiko Yamanaka

  3. Relativistic electron motion in cylindrical waveguide with strong guiding magnetic field and high power microwave

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ping; Sun, Jun; Cao, Yibing

    2015-06-15

    In O-type high power microwave (HPM) devices, the annular relativistic electron beam is constrained by a strong guiding magnetic field and propagates through an interaction region to generate HPM. Some papers believe that the E × B drift of electrons may lead to beam breakup. This paper simplifies the interaction region with a smooth cylindrical waveguide to research the radial motion of electrons under conditions of strong guiding magnetic field and TM{sub 01} mode HPM. The single-particle trajectory shows that the radial electron motion presents the characteristic of radial guiding-center drift carrying cyclotron motion. The radial guiding-center drift is spatially periodic and is dominated by the polarization drift, not the E × B drift. Furthermore, the self fields of the beam space charge can provide a radial force which may pull electrons outward to some extent but will not affect the radial polarization drift. Despite the radial drift, the strong guiding magnetic field limits the drift amplitude to a small value and prevents beam breakup from happening due to this cause.

  4. Relativistic electron motion in cylindrical waveguide with strong guiding magnetic field and high power microwave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ping; Sun, Jun; Cao, Yibing

    2015-06-01

    In O-type high power microwave (HPM) devices, the annular relativistic electron beam is constrained by a strong guiding magnetic field and propagates through an interaction region to generate HPM. Some papers believe that the E × B drift of electrons may lead to beam breakup. This paper simplifies the interaction region with a smooth cylindrical waveguide to research the radial motion of electrons under conditions of strong guiding magnetic field and TM01 mode HPM. The single-particle trajectory shows that the radial electron motion presents the characteristic of radial guiding-center drift carrying cyclotron motion. The radial guiding-center drift is spatially periodic and is dominated by the polarization drift, not the E × B drift. Furthermore, the self fields of the beam space charge can provide a radial force which may pull electrons outward to some extent but will not affect the radial polarization drift. Despite the radial drift, the strong guiding magnetic field limits the drift amplitude to a small value and prevents beam breakup from happening due to this cause.

  5. Strong Ground Motion Simulation of the 2008 MS 8.0 Wenchuan, China, Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Yao, X.; Yu, X.

    2014-12-01

    The near source strong ground motions of the 2008 MS 8.0 Wenchuan, China, earthquake are simulated using empirical Green's function (EFG) method. At first, we estimate the locations of strong motion generation areas (SMGA) based on the teleseismic data inversion results by some other researchers. Then, preliminarily determine the total areas of SMGA referring to the scaling law introduced by Somerville et al. (1999). Finally, we implement the genetic algorithm searching for the optimized source parameters. Based on the source models, we synthetize the waveforms for the 18 stations located near the source region. Our results show that the comparison between the synthetic waveforms and the observed records agree each other very well. We find that there are five obvious SMGAs on the fault. The locations of the two of them are similar with the asperities from the teleseismic data inversion. However, the combined strong motion generation areas and the rise time we obtained are smaller than those values predicted by the extension value of the scaling law by Somerville et al. (1999).

  6. The Engineering Strong Ground Motion Network of the National Autonomous University of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco Miranda, J. M.; Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Aguilar Calderon, L. A.; Almora Mata, D.; Ayala Hernandez, M.; Castro Parra, G.; Molina Avila, I.; Mora, A.; Torres Noguez, M.; Vazquez Larquet, R.

    2014-12-01

    The coverage, design, operation and monitoring capabilities of the strong ground motion program at the Institute of Engineering (IE) of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) is presented. Started in 1952, the seismic instrumentation intended initially to bolster earthquake engineering projects in Mexico City has evolved into the largest strong ground motion monitoring system in the region. Today, it provides information not only to engineering projects, but also to the near real-time risk mitigation systems of the country, and enhances the general understanding of the effects and causes of earthquakes in Mexico. The IE network includes more than 100 free-field stations and several buildings, covering the largest urban centers and zones of significant seismicity in Central Mexico. Of those stations, approximately one-fourth send the observed acceleration to a processing center in Mexico City continuously, and the rest require either periodic visits for the manual recovery of the data or remote interrogation, for later processing and cataloging. In this research, we document the procedures and telecommunications systems used systematically to recover information. Additionally, we analyze the spatial distribution of the free-field accelerographs, the quality of the instrumentation, and the recorded ground motions. The evaluation criteria are based on the: 1) uncertainty in the generation of ground motion parameter maps due to the spatial distribution of the stations, 2) potential of the array to provide localization and magnitude estimates for earthquakes with magnitudes greater than Mw 5, and 3) adequacy of the network for the development of Ground Motion Prediction Equations due to intra-plate and intra-slab earthquakes. We conclude that the monitoring system requires a new redistribution, additional stations, and a substantial improvement in the instrumentation and telecommunications. Finally, we present an integral plan to improve the current network's monitoring capabilities.

  7. Source complexity of the 1987 Whittier Narrows, California, earthquake from the inversion of strong motion records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, S.; Iida, M.

    1990-01-01

    Strong motion records for the Whittier Narrows earthquake are inverted to obtain the history of slip. Both constant rupture velocity models and variable rupture velocity models are considered. The results show a complex rupture process within a relatively small source volume, with at least four separate concentrations of slip. Two sources are associated with the hypocenter, the larger having a slip of 55-90 cm, depending on the rupture model. These sources have a radius of approximately 2-3 km and are ringed by a region of reduced slip. The aftershocks fall within this low slip annulus. Other sources with slips from 40 to 70 cm each ring the central source region and the aftershock pattern. All the sources are predominantly thrust, although some minor right-lateral strike-slip motion is seen. The overall dimensions of the Whittier earthquake from the strong motion inversions is 10 km long (along the strike) and 6 km wide (down the dip). The preferred dip is 30?? and the preferred average rupture velocity is 2.5 km/s. Moment estimates range from 7.4 to 10.0 ?? 1024 dyn cm, depending on the rupture model. -Authors

  8. A Comprehensive Relocation of Earthquakes in Taiwan from 1991 to 2005

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yih-Min

    Agency (JMA) stations in the southern Ryukyu Island chain to enhance the station coverage for eastern. It is situated in the western portion of the Pacific Rim seismic belt. Along the Ryukyu trench east of the island Taiwan Strong-Motion Instrumentation Pro- gram (TSMIP) stations distributed throughout the island

  9. Attenuation Characteristics of Strong Ground Motions during the Mw 6.1 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, H.; Koketsu, K.; Miyake, H.; Ibrahim, R.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 South Napa earthquake (Mw 6.1, GCMT) occurred near the American Canyon, California, at 3:20 on 24 August 2014. The earthquake is the largest damaging earthquakes in the area since the 1989 Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake. A large number of strong ground motions were recorded during this earthquake. We discuss the attenuation characteristics of the strong ground motions of the earthquake.The data used in this study are PGAs compiled by the Center for Engineering Strong Motion Data (CESMD), while the records derived at the stations located in a building were excluded. PGA is defined as the larger one among the PGAs of two horizontal components. We use a source model derived based on the waveform inversion by Dreger (2014). Based on the source model, we calculated the fault distance (FD) and the median distance (MED) which defined as the closest distance from a station to the middle line of the fault plane. We compared the observed PGAs with the GMPEs developed both in US (Boore et al., 2014) and Japan (Si and Midorikawa, 1999; Koketsu et al., 2013), as shown in Figure 1 (left, and center). The predictions by the GMPEs are generally consistent with the observations in near-field area, but overestimated at stations farther than about 10 km in fault distance. The reasons of the overestimates are assumed as follows: (1) the backward propagation effects since many far stations are located in bay area, (2) the energy loss when the seismic waves pass through the sharp discontinuities in the shear wave velocity structure. The second reason are taken into account for the case using MED based on the methods used in Si et al. (2012, 15WCEE). The corrected predictions are significantly improved (Figure 1, right).

  10. The SCEC Broadband Platform: A Collaborative Open-Source Software Package for Strong Ground Motion Simulation and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, F.; Maechling, P. J.; Goulet, C.; Somerville, P.; Jordan, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Broadband Platform is a collaborative software development project involving SCEC researchers, graduate students, and the SCEC Community Modeling Environment. The SCEC Broadband Platform is open-source scientific software that can generate broadband (0-100Hz) ground motions for earthquakes, integrating complex scientific modules that implement rupture generation, low and high-frequency seismogram synthesis, non-linear site effects calculation, and visualization into a software system that supports easy on-demand computation of seismograms. The Broadband Platform operates in two primary modes: validation simulations and scenario simulations. In validation mode, the Broadband Platform runs earthquake rupture and wave propagation modeling software to calculate seismograms of a historical earthquake for which observed strong ground motion data is available. Also in validation mode, the Broadband Platform calculates a number of goodness of fit measurements that quantify how well the model-based broadband seismograms match the observed seismograms for a certain event. Based on these results, the Platform can be used to tune and validate different numerical modeling techniques. During the past year, we have modified the software to enable the addition of a large number of historical events, and we are now adding validation simulation inputs and observational data for 23 historical events covering the Eastern and Western United States, Japan, Taiwan, Turkey, and Italy. In scenario mode, the Broadband Platform can run simulations for hypothetical (scenario) earthquakes. In this mode, users input an earthquake description, a list of station names and locations, and a 1D velocity model for their region of interest, and the Broadband Platform software then calculates ground motions for the specified stations. By establishing an interface between scientific modules with a common set of input and output files, the Broadband Platform facilitates the addition of new scientific methods, which are written by earth scientists in a number of languages such as C, C++, Fortran, and Python. The Broadband Platform's modular design also supports the reuse of existing software modules as building blocks to create new scientific methods. Additionally, the Platform implements a wrapper around each scientific module, converting input and output files to and from the specific formats required (or produced) by individual scientific codes. Working in close collaboration with scientists and research engineers, the SCEC software development group continues to add new capabilities to the Broadband Platform and to release new versions as open-source scientific software distributions that can be compiled and run on many Linux computer systems. Our latest release includes the addition of 3 new simulation methods and several new data products, such as map and distance-based goodness of fit plots. Finally, as the number and complexity of scenarios simulated using the Broadband Platform increase, we have added batching utilities to substantially improve support for running large-scale simulations on computing clusters.

  11. The Quake-Catcher Network: Improving Earthquake Strong Motion Observations Through Community Engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, E. S.; Lawrence, J. F.; Christensen, C. M.; Chung, A. I.; Neighbors, C.; Saltzman, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) involves the community in strong motion data collection by utilizing volunteer computing techniques and low-cost MEMS accelerometers. Volunteer computing provides a mechanism to expand strong-motion seismology with minimal infrastructure costs, while promoting community participation in science. Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) triaxial accelerometers can be attached to a desktop computer via USB and are internal to many laptops. Preliminary shake table tests show the MEMS accelerometers can record high-quality seismic data with instrument response similar to research-grade strong-motion sensors. QCN began distributing sensors and software to K-12 schools and the general public in April 2008 and has grown to roughly 1500 stations worldwide. We also recently tested whether sensors could be quickly deployed as part of a Rapid Aftershock Mobilization Program (RAMP) following the 2010 M8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake. Volunteers are recruited through media reports, web-based sensor request forms, as well as social networking sites. Using data collected to date, we examine whether a distributed sensing network can provide valuable seismic data for earthquake detection and characterization while promoting community participation in earthquake science. We utilize client-side triggering algorithms to determine when significant ground shaking occurs and this metadata is sent to the main QCN server. On average, trigger metadata are received within 1-10 seconds from the observation of a trigger; the larger data latencies are correlated with greater server-station distances. When triggers are detected, we determine if the triggers correlate to others in the network using spatial and temporal clustering of incoming trigger information. If a minimum number of triggers are detected then a QCN-event is declared and an initial earthquake location and magnitude is estimated. Initial analysis suggests that the estimated locations and magnitudes are similar to those reported in regional and global catalogs. As the network expands, it will become increasingly important to provide volunteers access to the data they collect, both to encourage continued participation in the network and to improve community engagement in scientific discourse related to seismic hazard. In the future, we hope to provide access to both images and raw data from seismograms in formats accessible to the general public through existing seismic data archives (e.g. IRIS, SCSN) and/or through the QCN project website. While encouraging community participation in seismic data collection, we can extend the capabilities of existing seismic networks to rapidly detect and characterize strong motion events. In addition, the dense waveform observations may provide high-resolution ground shaking information to improve source imaging and seismic risk assessment.

  12. Earthquake Strong Ground Motion Scenario at the 2008 Olympic Games Sites, Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Rohrbach, E. A.; Chen, Q.; Chen, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Historic earthquake record indicates mediate to strong earthquakes have been frequently hit greater Beijing metropolitan area where is going to host the 2008 summer Olympic Games. For the readiness preparation of emergency response to the earthquake shaking for a mega event in a mega city like Beijing in summer 2008, this paper tries to construct the strong ground motion scenario at a number of gymnasium sites for the 2008 Olympic Games. During the last 500 years (the Ming and Qing Dynasties) in which the historic earthquake record are thorough and complete, there are at least 12 earthquake events with the maximum intensity of VI or greater occurred within 100 km radius centered at the Tiananmen Square, the center of Beijing City. Numerical simulation of the seismic wave propagation and surface strong ground motion is carried out by the pseudospectral time domain methods with viscoelastic material properties. To improve the modeling efficiency and accuracy, a multi-scale approach is adapted: the seismic wave propagation originated from an earthquake rupture source is first simulated by a model with larger physical domain with coarser grids. Then the wavefield at a given plane is taken as the source input for the small-scale, fine grid model for the strong ground motion study at the sites. The earthquake source rupture scenario is based on two particular historic earthquake events: One is the Great 1679 Sanhe-Pinggu Earthquake (M~8, Maximum Intensity XI at the epicenter and Intensity VIII in city center)) whose epicenter is about 60 km ENE of the city center. The other one is the 1730 Haidian Earthquake (M~6, Maximum Intensity IX at the epicenter and Intensity VIII in city center) with the epicentral distance less than 20 km away from the city center in the NW Haidian District. The exist of the thick Tertiary-Quaternary sediments (maximum thickness ~ 2 km) in Beijing area plays a critical role on estimating the surface ground motion at the Olympic Games sites, which are most located north of the city center.

  13. Liquefaction and strong motion during the 2010-2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, M.; Wang, C. Y.; Dreger, D. S.; Cox, S.

    2014-12-01

    Liquefaction is a major seismic hazard for engineered structures; thus improved ability to predict the potential for liquefaction in seismically active regions is badly needed. The 2010 Mw 7.1 Darfield event and its associated aftershock sequence caused numerous occurrences of liquefaction in the Canterbury region of New Zealand, providing an excellent opportunity to study the occurrence of liquefaction in coastal plains near an active mountain belt. In this study we utilize strong motion data from over 100 stations in the New Zealand region and examine a number of major liquefaction events associated with the Canterbury earthquake sequence. These data are used to construct empirical attenuation relationships of ground motion as functions of hypocentral distance. The attenuation relationships so derived for the Canterbury region are similar to those developed for Southern California. This similarity suggests some generality of ground motion attenuation in sedimentary basins, even between geographically disparate regions. These relationships are used to estimate the seismic energy density at each liquefaction site in the Canterbury region, which is compared with a global database of liquefaction occurrences. Some liquefaction sites in the Canterbury region experienced seismic energy densities near the lower threshold for liquefaction established for the global dataset, suggesting high sensitivity to liquefaction.

  14. Source complexity of the 1987 Whittier Narrows, California, earthquake from the inversion of strong motion records

    SciTech Connect

    Hartzell, S. ); Iida, M. )

    1990-08-10

    Strong motion records for the Whittier Narrows earthquake are inverted to obtain the history of slip. Both constant rupture velocity models and variable rupture velocity models are considered. The results show a complex rupture process within a relatively small source volume, with at least four separate concentrations of slip. Two sources are associated with the hypocenter, the larger having a slip of 55-90 cm, depending on the rupture model. These sources have a radius of approximately 2-3 km and are ringed by a region of reduced slip. The aftershocks fall within this low slip annulus. Other sources with slips from 40 to 70 cm each ring the central source region and the aftershock pattern. All the sources are predominantly thrust, although some minor right-lateral strike-slip motion is seen. The overall dimensions of the Whittier earthquake from the strong notion inversions is 10 km long (along the strike) and 6 km wide (down the dip). The preferred dip is 30{degree} and the preferred average rupture velocity is 2.5 km/s. Moment estimates range from 7.4 to 10.0 {times} 10{sup 24} dyn cm, depending on the rupture model.

  15. Development of High-resolution Real-Time Strong Motion Observation Network in CEORKA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akazawa, T.; Araki, M.; Sawada, S.; Hayashi, Y.; Horike, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Committee of Earthquake Observation and Research in the Kansai Area (CEORKA), distributing 20 stations throughout the Kansai district in Japan, has obtained many velocity records, not only during major earthquakes (e.g. 1995 Kobe Earthquake and 2011 Tohoku Earthquake) but also during moderate ones (M>2) occurred in and near the district. The committee continues to use the old data loggers, which were installed in 1994 and 1997. It takes more than one hour after the shaking to collect the time history records, because dial-up telecommunication lines are used. In addition, the data logger starts saving the observed data when the ground shaking exceeds a preset level. This "trigger" system do not often store the valuable data properly. We develop a new low-cost data logger (KS-002D), which can send the observed data in real-time through Internet and save it in SD card continuously, for the network of CEORKA. The logger has eight input channels to obtain both high and low gain signals output from the existing strong motion seismograph (VSE-11 & 12). The logger also gets the high accuracy clock signals from GPS system. The observed data show that the new date logger can obtain broadband and high-resolution data from strong motion to microtremor. The developed data loggers are installed to the all stations of CEORKA, in addition to old loggers which are working as back-up systems.

  16. Site effects by generalized inversion technique using strong motion recordings of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yefei; Wen, Ruizhi; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Kashima, Toshihide

    2013-06-01

    The generalized inversion of S-wave amplitude spectra from the free-field strong motion recordings of the China National Strong Motion Observation Network System (NSMONS) are used to evaluate the site effects in the Wenchuan area. In this regard, a total of 602 recordings from 96 aftershocks of the Wenchuan earthquake with magnitudes of M3.7- M6.5 were selected as a dataset. These recordings were obtained from 28 stations at a hypocenter distance ranging from 30 km to 150 km. The inversion results have been verified as reliable by comparing the site response at station 62WUD using the Generalized Inversion Technique (GIT) and the Standard Spectral Ratio method (SSR). For all 28 stations, the site predominant frequency F p and the average site amplification in different frequency bands of 1.0-5.0 Hz, 5.0-10.0 Hz and 1.0-10.0 Hz have been calculated based on the inversion results. Compared with the results from the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) method, it shows that the HVSR method can reasonably estimate the site predominant frequency but underestimates the site amplification. The linear fitting between the average site amplification for each frequency band and the V s20 (the average uppermost-20 m shear wave velocity) shows good correlation. A distance measurement called the asperity distance D Aspt is proposed to reasonably characterize the source-to-site distance for large earthquakes. Finally, the inversed site response is used to identify the soil nonlinearity in the main shock and aftershocks of Wenchuan earthquake. In ten of the 28 stations analyzed in the main shock, the soil behaved nonlinearly, where the ground motion level is apparently beyond a threshold of PGA > 300 cm/s2 or PGV > 20 cm/s, and only one station coded 51SFB has evidence of soil nonlinear behavior in the aftershocks.

  17. Regional Characterization of the Crust in Metropolitan Areas for Prediction of Strong Ground Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, N.; Sato, H.; Koketsu, K.; Umeda, Y.; Iwata, T.; Kasahara, K.

    2003-12-01

    Introduction: After the 1995 Kobe earthquake, the Japanese government increased its focus and funding of earthquake hazards evaluation, studies of man-made structures integrity, and emergency response planning in the major urban centers. A new agency, the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture (MEXT) has started a five-year program titled as Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Urban Areas (abbreviated to Dai-dai-toku in Japanese) since 2002. The project includes four programs: I. Regional characterization of the crust in metropolitan areas for prediction of strong ground motion. II. Significant improvement of seismic performance of structure. III. Advanced disaster management system. IV. Investigation of earthquake disaster mitigation research results. We will present the results from the first program conducted in 2002 and 2003. Regional Characterization of the Crust in Metropolitan Areas for Prediction of Strong Ground Motion: A long-term goal is to produce map of reliable estimations of strong ground motion. This requires accurate determination of ground motion response, which includes a source process, an effect of propagation path, and near surface response. The new five-year project was aimed to characterize the "source" and "propagation path" in the Kanto (Tokyo) region and Kinki (Osaka) region. The 1923 Kanto Earthquake is one of the important targets to be addressed in the project. The proximity of the Pacific and Philippine Sea subducting plates requires study of the relationship between earthquakes and regional tectonics. This project focuses on identification and geometry of: 1) Source faults, 2) Subducting plates and mega-thrust faults, 3) Crustal structure, 4) Seismogenic zone, 5) Sedimentary basins, 6) 3D velocity properties We have conducted a series of seismic reflection and refraction experiment in the Kanto region. In 2002 we have completed to deploy seismic profiling lines in the Boso peninsula (112 km) and the Sagami bay area (75 km) to image the subducting Philippine Sea plate. On the Boso line we drilled a hole at a depth of 2000 m with core sampling and logging including VSP. A high sensitivity down hole seismometer will bee installed at the hole. In 2003, a 71-km-long reflection/refraction line covered the Tokyo bay area to characterize the source area of the 1923 Kanto quake. The southern part of the line ran through the Miura peninsula, which was covered by a 20 x 15 km array consisting of 51 3-component continuously recording seismographs to identify the asperities suggested by strong motion studies. We also cover the eastern boundary of the Kanto Mountains in this fall. Reconstruction of source fault and velocity models allow for more realistic 3D seimic wave simulations. All of this information will be synthesized and provided to communities involved in probabilistic hazards analysis, risk assessment and societal response.

  18. Site effects in Avcilar, West of Istanbul, Turkey, from strong- and weak-motion data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ozel, O.; Cranswick, E.; Meremonte, M.; Erdik, M.; Safak, E.

    2002-01-01

    Approximately 1000 people were killed in the collapse of buildings in Istanbul, Turkey, during the 17 August 1999 I??zmit earthquake, whose epicenter was roughly 90 km east of the city. Most of the fatalities and damage occurred in the suburb of Avcilar that is 20 km further west of the epicenter than the city proper. To investigate this pattern of damage, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI), deployed portable digital seismographs at seven free-field sites in western Istanbul, to record aftershocks during the period from 24 August to 2 September. The primary objective of this deployment was to study the site effects by comparing the aftershock ground motions recorded at sites inside and outside the damaged area, and to correlate site effects with the distribution of the damaged buildings. In addition to using weak-motion data, mainshock and aftershock acceleration records from the KOERI permanent strong-motion array were also used in estimating the site effects. Site effects were estimated using S waves from both types of records. For the weak-motion data set, 22 events were selected according to the criteria of signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ratio) and the number of stations recording the same event. The magnitudes of these events ranged from 3.0 to 5.2. The acceleration data set consisted of 12 events with magnitudes ranging from 4.3 to 5.8 and included two mainshock events. Results show that the amplifying frequency band is, in general, less than 4 Hz, and the physical properties of the geologic materials are capable of amplifying the motions by a factor of 5-10. In this frequency band, there is a good agreement among the spectral ratios obtained from the two mainshocks and their aftershocks. The damage pattern for the 17 August I??zmit earthquake is determined by several factors. However, our study suggests that the site effects in Avcilar played an important role in contributing to the damage.

  19. NetQuakes - A new approach to urban strong-motion seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luetgert, J. H.; Evans, J. R.; Hamilton, J.; Hutt, C. R.; Jensen, E. G.; Oppenheimer, D. H.

    2009-12-01

    There is a recognized need for more densely sampled strong ground motion recordings in urban areas to provide more accurate ShakeMaps for post-earthquake disaster assessment and to provide data for structural engineers to improve design standards. Ideally, the San Francisco Bay area would have a strong ground motion recorder every 1-2 km to adequately sample the region’s varied geology and built environment. This would require the addition of thousands of instruments to the existing network. There are several fiscal and logistical constraints that prevent us from doing this with traditional strong motion instrumentation and telemetry. In addition to the initial expense of instruments and their installation, there are the continuing costs of telemetry and maintenance. To address these issues, the USGS implemented the NetQuakes project to deploy small, relatively inexpensive seismographs for installation in 1-2 story homes and businesses that utilize the host’s existing Internet connection. The recorder has 18 bit resolution with ±3g internal tri-axial MEMS accelerometers. Data is continuously recorded at 200 sps into a 1-2 week ringbuffer. When triggered, a miniSEED file is sent to USGS servers via the Internet. Data can also be recovered from the ringbuffer by a remote request through the servers. Following a power failure, the instrument can run for 36 hours using its internal battery. All client-server interactions are initiated by the instrument, so it safely resides behind a host’s firewall. Instrument and battery replacement can be performed by hosts to reduce maintenance costs. A connection to the host’s LAN, and thence to the public Internet, can be made using WiFi to minimize cabling. Although timing via a cable to an external GPS antenna is possible, it is simpler to use the Network Time Protocol (NTP) to synchronize the internal clock. NTP achieves timing accuracy generally better than a sample interval. Since February, 2009, we have installed more than 60 NetQuakes instruments in the San Francisco Bay Area and have successfully integrated their data into the near real time data stream of the Northern California Seismic System.

  20. Consistency of GPS and strong-motion records: case study of Mw9.0 Tohoku-Oki 2011 earthquake

    E-print Network

    Psimoulis, P; Meindl, M; Rothacher, M

    2014-01-01

    GPS and strong-motion sensors are broadly used for the monitoring of structural health and Earth surface motions, focusing on response of structures, earthquake characterization and rupture modeling. Most studies have shown differences between the two systems at very long periods (e.g. >100sec). The aim of this study is the assessment of the compatibility of GPS and strong-motion records by comparing the consistency in the frequency domain and by comparing their respective displacement waveforms for several frequency bands. For this purpose, GPS and strong-motion records of 23 collocated sites of the Mw9.0 Tohoku 2011 earthquake were used to show that the consistency between the two datasets depends on the frequency of the excitation, the direction of the excitation signal and the distance from the excitation source.

  1. On the Effects of Non-Planar Fault Geometry on Strong Ground Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, K. B.; Aochi, H.

    2002-12-01

    We quantify the effects of complex fault geometry on low-frequency (<1 Hz) strong ground motion using numerical modeling of dynamic rupture. Our tests include the computation of synthetic seismograms for several simple rupture scenarios with planar and curved fault approximations of the 1994 Northridge and the 1992 Landers earthquakes. We use the boundary integral equation method (BIEM) to compute the dynamic rupture process, which includes the normal stress effects along the curved fault geometries. The wave propagation and computation of synthetic seismograms are modeled using a fourth-order finite-difference method (FDM). The near-field ground motion is significantly affected by the acceleration, deceleration and arrest of rupture due to fault bending, as well as the the variation in directivity of the rupture. We compare 1-Hz near-fault peak velocities for 40o-dipping, thrust faults buried 5 km with dimensions 24 km by 16 km. Compared to that for a planar fault, such as most approximations of the Northridge earthquake, a 6-km-long hanging-wall or footwall splay with a maximum offset of 1 km can change peak velocities by up to a factor of 2-3 above the fault. This change is caused in part by a variation in directivity, in part by differences in the rupture dynamics for the scenarios. In particular, the curved faults cause a gradual arrest of rupture, while the planar fault rupture stops abruptly with a resulting increase in moment. Our tests suggest that the differences in waveform are larger on the hanging wall compared to those on the footwall. The results imply that kinematic ground motion estimates and slip inversion may be significantly biased by the omission of dynamic rupture effects and of relatively gentle variation in fault geometry, even for long-period waves.

  2. An improved method for tight integration of GPS and strong-motion records: Complementary advantages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Rui; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Li; Liu, Zhanke; Huang, Guanwen

    2015-12-01

    The complementary nature of GPS and seismic sensors for station ground motion estimation is well recognized and many studies have proposed the integrated processing of the two datasets for obtaining more accurate and reliable seismic waves (displacement, velocity and acceleration). There are two critical issues in the integrated processing; one is the precise correction of the strong-motion's baseline shifts which are caused by tilting and/or rotation of the seismic sensors, the other is the suitable constraint of the high resolution accelerations to get more reliable seismic waves. In this contribution, we present an improved approach for the integration estimation in two steps. First, proper introduction of the baseline-corrected acceleration into the Precise Point Positioning (PPP)'s state equation and treatment of the baseline shifts as unknown parameters to be estimated for each epoch. Second, after correction of these baseline shifts, use of the high resolution acceleration for constraint of the GPS solution and ambiguity resolution. The efficiency of the improved approach was validated using an experimental dataset which was recorded by a pair of collocated GPS antenna and an accelerometer, and it shows that the advantages of each sensor are complementary.

  3. Deterministic earthquake scenario for the Basel area: Simulating strong motions and site effects for Basel, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    OpršAl, Ivo; FäH, Donat; Mai, P. Martin; Giardini, Domenico

    2005-04-01

    The Basel earthquake of 18 October 1356 is considered one of the most serious earthquakes in Europe in recent centuries (I0 = IX, M ? 6.5-6.9). In this paper we present ground motion simulations for earthquake scenarios for the city of Basel and its vicinity. The numerical modeling combines the finite extent pseudodynamic and kinematic source models with complex local structure in a two-step hybrid three-dimensional (3-D) finite difference (FD) method. The synthetic seismograms are accurate in the frequency band 0-2.2 Hz. The 3-D FD is a linear explicit displacement formulation using an irregular rectangular grid including topography. The finite extent rupture model is adjacent to the free surface because the fault has been recognized through trenching on the Reinach fault. We test two source models reminiscent of past earthquakes (the 1999 Athens and the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake) to represent Mw ? 5.9 and Mw ? 6.5 events that occur approximately to the south of Basel. To compare the effect of the same wave field arriving at the site from other directions, we considered the same sources placed east and west of the city. The local structural model is determined from the area's recently established P and S wave velocity structure and includes topography. The selected earthquake scenarios show strong ground motion amplification with respect to a bedrock site, which is in contrast to previous 2-D simulations for the same area. In particular, we found that the edge effects from the 3-D structural model depend strongly on the position of the earthquake source within the modeling domain.

  4. The Geophysical Database Management System in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, H.; Shin, T.; Chang, C.; Leu, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Geophysical Database Management System (GDMS) is an integrated and web-based open data service which has been developed by the Central Weather Bureau (CWB), Taiwan, R.O.C. since 2005. This service went online on Aug. 1, 2008. The GDMS provides six types of geophysical data acquired from the Short-period Seismographic System, Broadband Seismographic System, Free-field Strong-motion Station, Strong-motion Building Array, Global Positioning System, and Groundwater Observation System. When utilizing the GDMS website, users can download seismic event data and continuous geophysical data. At present, many researchers have accessed this public platform to obtain geophysical data. Clearly, the establishment of GDMS is a significant improvement in data sorting for interested researchers. The geophysical monitoring network in CWB. (a) The Short-period Seismographic System. (b) The Broadband Seismographic System. (c) The Free-field Strong-motion Seismographic System. (d) The Strong-motion Building Array. (e) The Global Positioning System. (f) The Groundwater Observation System.

  5. Importance of bimaterial interfaces for earthquake dynamics and strong ground motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brietzke, Gilbert B.; Cochard, Alain; Igel, Heiner

    2009-08-01

    We perform a numerical investigation of dynamic ruptures on a bimaterial interface in 3-D with regularized slip-weakening friction and a heterogeneous initial shear stress and discuss the resulting strong ground motion. To isolate effects introduced by the material contrast, we perform pairs of simulations with opposite material orientations. We show that for many parameter sets the dynamics of rupture propagation are significantly influenced by the broken symmetry due to the material contrast during rupture propagation. The resulting slip histories of two events with reversed orientations of the material contrast can deviate such that the emanating waves lead to large differences in peak ground motion (peak ground velocity and peak ground acceleration), even when slip-distribution of the individual events are very similar, and therefore their moment magnitudes are basically identical. We also show that the wrinkle-like slip pulse specific to the bimaterial mechanism can be nucleated naturally from an initially crack-like mode of rupture, when the initial stress allows for large propagation distances. Once such a pulse has been nucleated, it travels at a dominant propagation speed close to the generalized Rayleigh velocity. The dynamic weakening of the fault due to the normal stress alteration during slip allows nucleating ruptures to overcome asperities of low initial shear stress in the preferred direction, which is the direction of displacement on the seismically slower side of the fault. In such situations, the orientation of the material contrast determines rupture extent and therefore the size of the earthquake, potentially by orders of magnitude.

  6. Effects of 2D small-scale sedimentary basins on strong ground motion characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Movahedasl, R.; Ghayamghamian, M. R.

    2015-08-01

    A lot of research on the 2D or 3D effects of large-scale basins (within several kilometers depth) have been conducted in the past. However, different 2D aspects of small-scale sedimentary basins (within tens of meters depth) remain in the developing stage. Here, an attempt is made to analyze different aspects of small-scale basins using both numerical and empirical investigations. In the first step, the 2D effects of small-scale basins on strong motion characteristics are numerically examined both in the time and frequency domains. In addition, the effects of input motion are also explained by the results of model excitation in different orthogonal directions. Then, the numerical outcomes are verified by the analysis of actual earthquake data recorded at a downhole array in the Fujisawa small basin, Japan. In the second step, since available recorded earthquake data in small basins with a clear understanding of subsurface geology are very limited, different 2D aspects of the small basin are parametrically investigated. For this purpose, extensive parametrical studies are carried out on the main features of a small basin such as slope angle, shape, infill soil properties, and basin thickness by using the finite difference numerical method. The horizontal and vertical peak ground accelerations of 2D with respect to 1D ones are defined as the horizontal and vertical aggravation factors (AGH and AGV). The AGH and AGV factors show large sensitivity to infill soil properties, shape and thickness, and small sensitivity to slope angle. The values of AGH and AGV factors vary in the range of 0.5-2 with large variations around small basin edges due to wave coupling, conversion, scattering and focusing in the vicinity of small basin edges. These cause a complicated pattern of 2D de-amplification and amplification, which mostly affect the motion in the high frequency range (>1?Hz). Finally, the outcomes provide numerical and field evidence on the 2D effects of small basins, and give some recommendations for design codes.

  7. Survey of strong motion earthquake effects on thermal power plants in California with emphasis on piping systems. Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1995-11-01

    Volume 2 of the ``Survey of Strong Motion Earthquake Effects on Thermal Power Plants in California with Emphasis on Piping Systems`` contains Appendices which detail the detail design and seismic response of several power plants subjected to strong motion earthquakes. The particular plants considered include the Ormond Beach, Long Beach and Seal Beach, Burbank, El Centro, Glendale, Humboldt Bay, Kem Valley, Pasadena and Valley power plants. Included is a typical power plant piping specification and photographs of typical power plant piping specification and photographs of typical piping and support installations for the plants surveyed. Detailed piping support spacing data are also included.

  8. Single-Path Sigma and Spatial Correlation of Gmpe Residuals Deduced from a Huge Dataset in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, C. H.; Lee, C. T.; Gao, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    A strong ground-motion attenuation equation is an essential part in the probability seismic hazard analysis. Therefore, we need to study the strong ground-motion attenuation relationship for earthquakes in Taiwan. In this study, well processed strong ground-motion data from aiwan Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) in Taiwan are used to establish attenuation equations. A total of 158 earthquakes with 18,859 records are selected and nonlinear mixed-effect model with maximum likelihood method is used to accomplish the regression analysis of ground-motion attenuation relationships for peak ground acceleration (PGA), with considering earthquake source, distance, site condition (Vs30), fault mechanism, and tectonic regine. The very much concerned ground-motion variability in PSHA is reviewed and studied with huge amount of data from Taiwan. We analyzed aleatory variability firstly by direct observation on inter-event variability and site-specific variability, and then by two additional simple approaches, the variogram and the standard deviation distribution in single site stady and in single earthquake study and got spatial distribution of single-path sigma as well as their earthquake component and site component. The single-path sigma is ranging from 0.219 to 0.254. These are 58% to 64% smaller than the total sigma (0.601). If we only use aleatory variability in PSHA, then the resultant hazard level would be 20% lower than the traditional one in 2,475 year return-perid.

  9. Characteristics of strong ground motions in the 2014 M s 6.5 Ludian earthquake, Yunnan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, J. J.; Zhang, Q.; Jiang, Z. J.; Xie, L. L.; Zhou, B. F.

    2015-10-01

    The 2014 M s 6.5 (M w6.1) Ludian earthquake occurred in the eastern Sichuan-Yunnan border region of western China. This earthquake caused much more severe engineering damage than the usual earthquakes with the same magnitude in China. The National Strong Motion Network obtained large set of ground motion recordings during the earthquake. To investigate the engineering interested characteristics of ground motion from Ludian earthquake and compare it with the M w 7.9 Wenchuan and the M w 6.6 Lushan earthquakes in western China, studies on the ground motion field, attenuation relationship, distance dependence of significant duration, and site amplification were carried out. Some conclusion is drawn. Specifically, the ground motion field reveals a directional feature, and the distribution characteristics of the two horizontal components are similar. The attenuation relationship for Ludian earthquake is basically consistent with the ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) for western China, except the slight smaller than the GMPE predicted at short periods. The distance dependences of ground motion duration are different in Sichuan and Yunnan regions due to the local physical dispersion and Q value. The site amplification factors are dominated by linear site response for lower reference ground motion, but the nonlinearity becomes notable for higher reference ground motion. This feature is basically consistent with the empirical model for western China. All the results indicate that the spatial distribution of ground motion, the attenuation characteristics, and the site amplification effect should be considered in characterization of near-field ground motion.

  10. Seismic Intensity Maps for North Anatolian Fault Zone (Turkey) using Local Felt Intensity and Strong Motion Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askan, A.

    2014-12-01

    Seismic intensity maps indicate the spatial distribution of ground shaking levels in the meizoseismal area affected from an earthquake. Intensity maps provide guidance for the rapid assessment of shaking intensity and consequently the physical damage involved with an earthquake. Local correlations between the instrumental ground motion parameters and shaking intensity values are used to prepare these maps. There are several correlations derived using data from different regions in the world. However, since local damage characteristics of the built environment affect the felt-intensity values directly, different felt-intensity values may be reported in two different regions subjected to ground motions with similar amplitude and frequency contents. Thus such relationships should be derived based on regional strong motion and intensity datasets. Despite the intense seismic activity, as of now there are no such local correlations for the North Anatolian Fault Zone. In this study, we use the recently-compiled Turkish strong motion dataset along with the corresponding felt intensity data from past earthquakes to derive local relationships between MMI and a selected ground motion parameter (PGA, PGV, and SA at selected periods). We provide two sets of predictive equations: first group expresses the intensity values as a function of a selected ground motion parameter while the second set is more refined involving the event magnitude, distance and site class terms as independent variables. We present intensity maps of selected past events against the observed maps. We conclude that regional data from seismic networks is crucial for preparing realistic maps for use disaster management purposes.

  11. Strong ground motion synthesis along the Sanyi-Tungshih-Puli seismic zone using empirical Green`s functions

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchings, L.; Foxall, W.; Kasameyer, P.; Wu, F.T.; Rau, R.-J.; Jarpe, S.

    1997-01-01

    We synthesize strong ground motion from a M=7.25 earthquake along the NW-trending Sanyi-Tungshih-Puli seismic zone. This trend extends from Houlong to Taichung and forms a nearly continuous 78 km long seismic zone identified by the occurrence of M<5 events. It extends from a shallow depth all the way down to about 40 km. The entire length of the fault, if activated at one time, can lead to an event comparable to that the 1995 Kobe earthquake. With the improved digital CWBSN data now provided routinely by CWBSN, it becomes possible to use these data as empirical Green`s functions to synthesize potential ground motion for future large earthquakes. We developed a suite of 100 rupture scenarios for the earthquake and computed the commensurate strong ground motion time histories. We synthesized strong ground motion with physics-based solutions of earthquake rupture and applied physical bounds on rupture parameters. the synthesized ground motions obtained for a fixed magnitude and identifying the hazard to a site from the statistical distribution of engineering parameters, we have introduced a probabilistic component to the deterministic hazard calculation, The time histories suggested for engineering design are the ones that most closely match either the average or one standard deviation absolute acceleration response values.

  12. BulletinoftheSeismologicalSocietyofAmerica,Vol 73,No 6,pp 1553-1583,December1983 INVERSION OF STRONG GROUND MOTION AND TELESEISMIC

    E-print Network

    Heaton, Thomas H.

    -by-point inversion of strong ground motion and tele- seismic body waves is used to infer the fault rupture history and temporal variations in dislocation on the fault plane for both right-lateral strike-slip and normal dip the strong ground motions alone, the teleseismic body waves alone, and simultaneously the strong ground

  13. Site correction of earthquake early warning system in Ilan, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiao Chu, Hsu; Liang, Wen Kuo; Jyun Yan, Huang

    2015-04-01

    When large earthquake occurs, earthquake early warning (EEW) provides alerts to urban areas of the forthcoming strong ground shaking. Depending on the specific geometry of the epicenter and the strong motion network used in EEW, the warning time can be a few seconds to tens of seconds. This warning time can be extremely important since even a few seconds can be sufficient for pre-programmed systems to have emergency response. The Central Weather Bureau (CWB) had already used network EEW system to predict intensity map. Due to leveling of intensity was roughly divided into seven grades according to peak acceleration (PGA) in Taiwan, the warning message is not cautious for company, home and school use, the accuracy of predicted PGA were discuss for our result. A practical site correction approach for EEW was constructed in this study. Period parameter (?c) and an amplitude parameter (Pd)from the initial 3 seconds of P waves were calculated after Wu et al.(2005) first for each site of Taiwan Strong-Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) in Ilan, Taiwan for focal depths less than 35 km and magnitude Mw>=5.0. Two pairs of linear relations had showed in each station between ?c, magnitude (Mw) and Pd, hypocenter distance (R) that could be corrected individually. Prediction results of PGA from site correction based ground motion prediction equation (Jean et al. 2006) indicated that the corrected parameters of EEW in this study had improved the accuracy of ground motion prediction. Which means reasonable site correction of each station was needed for EEW system. Key works: earthquake early warning, P wave, site correction

  14. Application of the 'Recipe for Strong Ground Motion Evaluation' to the 2003 Tokachi-oki, Japan, Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morikawa, N.; Aoi, S.; Honda, R.; Senna, S.; Hayakawa, Y.; Fujiwara, H.

    2004-12-01

    The National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention has carried on the special research project 'National Seismic Hazard Mapping Project of Japan'. In this project, strong ground motion evaluations for scenario earthquakes have been carried out based on the 'Recipe for strong ground motion evaluation' proposed by Irikura et al. (2004). Here we simulate strong ground motions during the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake (Mw=8.0) by applying the 'Recipe', and examine its validity. A simplified source model consists of some rectangular-shaped asperities on a fault plane is constructed following the method in the 'Recipe'. A 3D velocity structure model in and around Hokkaido, which is the target area for the simulation, is also constructed based on boreholes, reflection and refraction surveys, and geological data. Waveforms are calculated by the hybrid Green's function method (Kamae et al., 1998). We use the 3D finite-difference method and the stochastic Green's function method for low (< 0.2 Hz) and high frequency content, respectively. As an overall feature, the peak ground velocity and seismic intensity distributions of simulated strong ground motions agree well with the observed ones. However, some problems become clear. The first is the underestimations in the frequency range of 0.2-1 Hz at sites located on deep basins. This may be a lack in the evaluation on the effects of 3D structure in the calculations using the stochastic Green's function. The second is the overestimations in high frequency range (> 2 Hz) at sites located on back-arc side. This may be caused by the existence of low-Q zone beneath the volcanic front, which is not considered in this simulation. In addition, the non-linear site effects also should be considered in strong motion evaluations, especially for soft soil sites near source region.

  15. Modelling of Strong Ground Motions from 1991 Uttarkashi, India, Earthquake Using a Hybrid Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Teotia, S. S.; Sriram, V.

    2011-10-01

    We present a simple and efficient hybrid technique for simulating earthquake strong ground motion. This procedure is the combination of the techniques of envelope function (M idorikawa et al. Tectonophysics 218:287-295, 1993) and composite source model (Z eng et al. Geophys Res Lett 21:725-728, 1994). The first step of the technique is based on the construction of the envelope function of the large earthquake by superposition of envelope functions for smaller earthquakes. The smaller earthquakes (sub-events) of varying sizes are distributed randomly, instead of uniform distribution of same size sub-events, on the fault plane. The accelerogram of large event is then obtained by combining the envelope function with a band-limited white noise. The low-cut frequency of the band-limited white noise is chosen to correspond to the corner frequency for the target earthquake magnitude and the high-cut to the Boore's f max or a desired frequency for the simulation. Below the low-cut frequency, the fall-off slope is 2 in accordance with the ?2 earthquake source model. The technique requires the parameters such as fault area, orientation of the fault, hypocenter, size of the sub-events, stress drop, rupture velocity, duration, source-site distance and attenuation parameter. The fidelity of the technique has been demonstrated by successful modeling of the 1991 Uttarkashi, Himalaya earthquake (Ms 7). The acceptable locations of the sub-events on the fault plane have been determined using a genetic algorithm. The main characteristics of the simulated accelerograms, comprised of the duration of strong ground shaking, peak ground acceleration and Fourier and response spectra, are, in general, in good agreement with those observed at most of the sites. At some of the sites the simulated accelerograms differ from observed ones by a factor of 2-3. The local site geology and topography may cause such a difference, as these effects have not been considered in the present technique. The advantage of the technique lies in the fact that detailed parameters such as velocity-Q structures and empirical Green's functions are not required or the records of the actual time history from the past earthquakes are not available. This method may find its application in preparing a wide range of scenarios based on simulation. This provides information that is complementary to the information available in probabilistic hazard maps.

  16. Strong-Field Modulated Diffraction Effects in the Correlated Electron-Nuclear Motion in Dissociating H

    E-print Network

    Becker, Andreas

    .213002 PACS numbers: 32.80.Rm, 33.80.Rv, 42.50.Hz The formation and rupture of chemical bonds is deter- mined bound electronic motion dur- ing the breakup of chemical bonds in more complex chemical reactions in time the electronic motion in chemical reactions. This has spurred the investigation of a variety

  17. Acceleration and volumetric strain generated by the Parkfield 2004 earthquake on the GEOS strong-motion array near Parkfield, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borcherdt, Rodger D.; Johnston, Malcolm J.S.; Dietel, Christopher; Glassmoyer, Gary; Myren, Doug; Stephens, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    An integrated array of 11 General Earthquake Observation System (GEOS) stations installed near Parkfield, CA provided on scale broad-band, wide-dynamic measurements of acceleration and volumetric strain of the Parkfield earthquake (M 6.0) of September 28, 2004. Three component measurements of acceleration were obtained at each of the stations. Measurements of collocated acceleration and volumetric strain were obtained at four of the stations. Measurements of velocity at most sites were on scale only for the initial P-wave arrival. When considered in the context of the extensive set of strong-motion recordings obtained on more than 40 analog stations by the California Strong-Motion Instrumentation Program (Shakal, et al., 2004 http://www.quake.ca.gov/cisn-edc) and those on the dense array of Spudich, et al, (1988), these recordings provide an unprecedented document of the nature of the near source strong motion generated by a M 6.0 earthquake. The data set reported herein provides the most extensive set of near field broad band wide dynamic range measurements of acceleration and volumetric strain for an earthquake as large as M 6 of which the authors are aware. As a result considerable interest has been expressed in these data. This report is intended to describe the data and facilitate its use to resolve a number of scientific and engineering questions concerning earthquake rupture processes and resultant near field motions and strains. This report provides a description of the array, its scientific objectives and the strong-motion recordings obtained of the main shock. The report provides copies of the uncorrected and corrected data. Copies of the inferred velocities, displacements, and Psuedo velocity response spectra are provided. Digital versions of these recordings are accessible with information available through the internet at several locations: the National Strong-Motion Program web site (http://agram.wr.usgs.gov/), the COSMOS Virtual Data Center Web site (http://www.cosmos-eq.org), and the CISN Engineering and Berkeley data centers (http://www.quake.ca.gov/cisn-edc). They are also accessible together with recordings on the GEOS Strong-motion Array near Parkfield, CA since its installation in 1987 through the USGS GEOS web site ( http://nsmp.wr.usgs.gov/GEOS).

  18. Observing Structure and Motion in Molecules with Ultrafast Strong Field and Short Wavelength Laser Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bucksbaum, Philip H.

    2011-04-13

    The term "molecular movie" has come to describe efforts to track and record Angstrom-scale coherent atomic and electronic motion in a molecule. The relevant time scales for this range cover several orders of magnitude, from sub-femtosecond motion associated with electron-electron correlations, to 100-fs internal vibrations, to multi-picosecond motion associated with the dispersion and quantum revivals of molecular reorientation. Conventional methods of cinematography do not work well in this ultrafast and ultrasmall regime, but stroboscopic "pump and probe" techniques can reveal this motion with high fidelity. This talk will describe some of the methods and recent progress in exciting and controlling this motion, using both laboratory lasers and the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source x-ray free electron laser, and will further try to relate the date to the goal of molecular movies.

  19. Characteristics of strong motions and damage implications of M S6.5 Ludian earthquake on August 3, 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Peibin; Wen, Ruizhi; Wang, Hongwei; Ji, Kun; Ren, Yefei

    2015-02-01

    The Ludian County of Yunnan Province in southwestern China was struck by an M S6.5 earthquake on August 3, 2014, which was another destructive event following the M S8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, M S7.1 Yushu earthquake in 2010, and M S7.0 Lushan earthquake in 2013. National Strong-Motion Observation Network System of China collected 74 strong motion recordings, which the maximum peak ground acceleration recorded by the 053LLT station in Longtoushan Town was 949 cm/s2 in E-W component. The observed PGAs and spectral ordinates were compared with ground-motion prediction equation in China and the NGA-West2 developed by Pacific Earthquake Engineering Researcher Center. This earthquake is considered as the first case for testing applicability of NGA-West2 in China. Results indicate that the observed PGAs and the 5 % damped pseudo-response spectral accelerations are significantly lower than the predicted ones. The field survey around some typical strong motion stations verified that the earthquake damage was consistent with the official isoseismal by China Earthquake Administration.

  20. An estimation of sediment thickness using Sp converted phases in Kaoping, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, M.; Wu, Y.; Wei, J.; Chang, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Kaoping area is a triangle alluvial plain, located in the southwestern Taiwan. Accelerograms recorded from 1991 to 2010 by the Taiwan Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) stations are used to study the thickness variations of the Quaternary alluviums beneath Kaoping area by examining the Sp converted phase. Travel-time difference of S and Sp phases is used to estimate the sediment thickness. With highly seismicity activities and dense strong motion array, this technique has been used in Lan-Yang Plain and Chia-Nan Plain. In this study we focus on Kaoping region in order to discuss the underground structures in the study region. The major targets are to determine the location of Chaochou fault and Sp phase is converted from which formation boundary. Results show that the thickness become thicker toward the west in Kaohsiung area, and the thickness become thinner toward east. Details will be presented in this study.

  1. Clastic Pipes: Proxies of High Water Tables and Strong Ground Motion, Jurassic Carmel Formation, Southern Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheatley, David; Chan, Marjorie

    2015-04-01

    Multiple soft sediment deformation features from bed-scale to basin-scale are well preserved within the Jurassic Carmel Formation of Southern Utah. Field mapping reveals thousands of small-scale clastic injectite pipes (10 cm to 10 m diameter, up to 20 m tall) in extremely high densities (up to 500+ pipes per 0.075 square kilometers). The pipes weather out in positive relief from the surrounding host strata of massive sandstone (sabkha) and crossbedded sands with minor conglomerate and shale (fluvial) deposits. The host rock shows both brittle and ductile deformation. Reverse, normal, and antithetical faulting is common with increased frequency, including ring faults, surrounding the pipes. The pipes formed from liquefaction and subsequent fluidization induced by strong ground motion. Down-dropped, graben blocks and ring faults surrounding pipes indicate initial sediment volume increase during pipe emplacement followed by sediment volume decrease during dewatering. Complex crosscutting relationships indicate several injection events where some pipe events reached the surface as sand blows. Multiple ash layers provide excellent stratigraphic and temporal constraints for the pipe system with the host strata deposited between 166 and 164 Ma. Common volcanic fragments and rounded volcanic cobbles occur within sandstone and conglomerate beds, and pipes. Isolated volcanic clasts in massive sandstone indicate explosive volcanic events that could have been the exogenic trigger for earthquakes. The distribution of pipes are roughly parallel to the Middle Jurassic paleoshoreline located in marginal environments between the shallow epicontinental Sundance Sea and continental dryland. At the vertical stratigraphic facies change from dominantly fluvial sediments to dominantly massive sabkha sediments, there is a 1-2 m-thick floodplain mudstone that was a likely seal for underlying, overpressurized sediments. The combination of loose porous sediment at a critical depth of water saturation made the system extremely susceptible to liquefaction. Fluid inclusions of carbonate nodules present on the pipe margins indicate salinity, temperature, and character of possible early diagenetic fluids before significant burial. These inclusions can reveal information about brines from point sources or fed via groundwater. Overall, the combination of clastic pipes and their related soft deformation structures in the host rock provide proxies for the existence of high water table conditions within arid climate regimes and transitional paleoenvironments previously assumed to be devoid of significant amounts of water. The pipe distribution and evidence of multiple injectite events paralleling an ancient paleoshoreline provides basin-scale insights on repeated paleoseismicity and volcanism along the convergent boundary of the Cordilleran.

  2. Effects of fault dip and slip rake angles on near-source ground motions: Why rupture directivity was minimal in the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aagaard, B.T.; Hall, J.F.; Heaton, T.H.

    2004-01-01

    We study how the fault dip and slip rake angles affect near-source ground velocities and displacements as faulting transitions from strike-slip motion on a vertical fault to thrust motion on a shallow-dipping fault. Ground motions are computed for five fault geometries with different combinations of fault dip and rake angles and common values for the fault area and the average slip. The nature of the shear-wave directivity is the key factor in determining the size and distribution of the peak velocities and displacements. Strong shear-wave directivity requires that (1) the observer is located in the direction of rupture propagation and (2) the rupture propagates parallel to the direction of the fault slip vector. We show that predominantly along-strike rupture of a thrust fault (geometry similar in the Chi-Chi earthquake) minimizes the area subjected to large-amplitude velocity pulses associated with rupture directivity, because the rupture propagates perpendicular to the slip vector; that is, the rupture propagates in the direction of a node in the shear-wave radiation pattern. In our simulations with a shallow hypocenter, the maximum peak-to-peak horizontal velocities exceed 1.5 m/sec over an area of only 200 km2 for the 30??-dipping fault (geometry similar to the Chi-Chi earthquake), whereas for the 60??- and 75??-dipping faults this velocity is exceeded over an area of 2700 km2 . These simulations indicate that the area subjected to large-amplitude long-period ground motions would be larger for events of the same size as Chi-Chi that have different styles of faulting or a deeper hypocenter.

  3. Modeling of strong ground motion during the 1992 Cairo earthquake in the urban area northern Greater of Cairo, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Khaled; Attia, Mohsen; Fergany, El Sayed; Hassoup, Awad; Elkhashab, Hussein

    2013-06-01

    The 1992 Cairo earthquake originated from Dahshour seismic zone at an epicentral distance of about 25 km southwest of Cairo. Regardless of its relatively moderate magnitude (Mb = 5.8), it caused extensive property damage besides injuries and loss of lives. The significant damage of this earthquake was probably associated with amplification of seismic waves due to local site effects. Liquefaction was observed at many sites near the epicenter. There are no records of strong ground motion at the damaged area during this earthquake. The main shock was recorded only by the local Kattamya station (KEG) constructed in limestone rock site at about 46-48 km east of Cairo. In the present work, the strong ground motion during 1992 Cairo earthquake was analyzed and the possible causes of damage and structural failure were discussed. The study area is located at the southern part of Cairo city, holding heavy population and many public structures and strategic buildings. The ground motion parameters in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV), and pseudo-spectral acceleration (PSA) were estimated for each site in the study area and in the KEG site. The site-dependent spectral models together with the stochastic technique were applied for this purpose, using the Fourier amplitude spectrum (FAS) source scaling, attenuation model, and the site amplification functions. The peak ground acceleration of the studied area, comprising 89 sites in northern great of Cairo (Qalyoub city) was calculated. The calculated peak ground acceleration values indicate the sites of high values of peak ground acceleration which are also characterized by high ground motion amplification factors. The ground motion, which is presented in this study, is highly amplified by the soil layer covering the area. Otherwise, the surface layer must be totally removed before construction of the buildings to avoid its large amplification to the ground motion.

  4. Slip history of the 2003 San Simeon earthquake constrained by combining 1-Hz GPS, strong motion, and teleseismic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ji, C.; Larson, K.M.; Tan, Y.; Hudnut, K.W.; Choi, K.

    2004-01-01

    The slip history of the 2003 San Simeon earthquake is constrained by combining strong motion and teleseismic data, along with GPS static offsets and 1-Hz GPS observations. Comparisons of a 1-Hz GPS time series and a co-located strong motion data are in very good agreement, demonstrating a new application of GPS. The inversion results for this event indicate that the rupture initiated at a depth of 8.5 km and propagated southeastwards with a speed ???3.0 km/sec, with rake vectors forming a fan structure around the hypocenter. We obtained a peak slip of 2.8 m and total seismic moment of 6.2 ?? 1018 Nm. We interpret the slip distribution as indicating that the hanging wall rotates relative to the footwall around the hypocenter, in a sense that appears consistent with the shape of the mapped fault trace. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Peak horizontal acceleration and velocity from strong-motion records including records from the 1979 imperial valley, California, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joyner, William B.; Boore, David M.

    1981-01-01

    We have taken advantage of the recent increase in strong-motion data at close distances to derive new attenuation relations for peak horizontal acceleration and velocity. This new analysis uses a magnitude-independent shape, based on geometrical spreading and anelastic attenuation, for the attenuation curve. An innovation in technique is introduced that decouples the determination of the distance dependence of the data from the magnitude dependence.

  6. Revelations from a single strong-motion record retreived during the 27 June 1998 Adana (Turkey) earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.

    2000-01-01

    During the 27 June 1998 Adana (Turkey) earthquake, only one strong-motion record was retrieved in the region where the most damage occurred. This single record from the station in Ceyhan, approximately 15 km from the epicenter of that earthquake, exhibits characteristics that are related to the dominant frequencies of the ground and structures. The purpose of this paper is to explain the causes of the damage as inferred from both field observations and the characteristics of a single strong-motion record retrieved from the immediate epicentral area. In the town of Ceyhan there was considerable but selective damage to a significant number of mid-rise (7-12 stories high) buildings. The strong-motion record exhibits dominant frequencies that are typically similar for the mid-rise building structures. This is further supported by spectral ratios derived using Nakamura's method [QR of RTRI, 30 (1989) 25] that facilitates computation of a spectral ratio from a single tri-axial record as the ratio of amplitude spectrum of horizontal component to that of the vertical component [R = H(f)/V(f)]. The correlation between the damage and the characteristics exhibited from the single strong-motion record is remarkable. Although deficient construction practices played a significant role in the extent of damage to the mid-rise buildings, it is clear that site resonance also contributed to the detrimental fate of most of the mid-rise buildings. Therefore, even a single record can be useful to explain the effect of site resonance on building response and performance. Such information can be very useful for developing zonation criteria in similar alluvial valleys. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  7. ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 471, Vol. 43, No. 3, September 2006, pp. 65-74 ESTIMATION OF NEAR-FAULT STRONG GROUND MOTIONS FOR

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Vinay Kumar

    ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 471, Vol. 43, No. 3, September 2006, pp. 65 of the recorded strong motions. The spectral differences between small and strong earthquakes are described ground motions of the Northridge (Mw = 6.7) earthquake. It is concluded that the finite-fault effect

  8. Strong ground motion simulation during the November 1759 Earthquake along Serghaya Fault in the metropolitan of Damascus, Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaineh, Hussam Eldein; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Dhakal, Yadab Prasad; Dakkak, Rawaa; Daoud, Mohamad

    2013-10-01

    The seismic hazard potential for metropolitan of Damascus, Syria is mainly controlled by earthquakes along Serghaya Fault which is a branch of Dead Sea Fault System. In this study, strong ground motion due to the November 1759 Earthquake along the fault of Serghaya was estimated with a numerical simulation technique. In the simulation, the Kostrov-like slip-velocity function was used as an input to the discrete wave number method to simulate the strong ground motions in a broadband frequency range. In order to model the incoherent rupture propagation which can excite large high-frequency waves, random numbers are added to arrival time of circular rupture front. MMI intensities calculated from the synthetic ground motions are compared with the observed values by Ambraseys and Barazangi (J Geophys Res 94:4007-4013, 1989). The calculated intensities are in good agreement with the observed ones at the most sites that validate appropriateness of the proposed source model. The PGA and PGV in the eastern region of Damascus city are higher than those in the western region due to the effects of local site amplification. The simulated high-frequency (1.0-6.0 Hz) ground motions for the sites in the Damascus city are higher than the design requirements defined by the Syrian building code. Furthermore, the simulated high-frequency ground motions for sites in the focal region are bigger than the design requirements in the case of the near-fault factors and are not considered. That demonstrates the appropriateness of considering the near-fault factors for a site near the focal region as introduced by the new building code.

  9. A source model of the 2014 South Napa Earthquake by the EGF broad-band strong ground motion simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, T.; Asano, K.; Kubo, H.

    2014-12-01

    The source model of the 2014 South Napa earthquake (Mw6.0) is estimated using broad band strong ground motion simulation by the empirical Green's function method (Irikura, 1986, Irikura et al., 1997). We used the CESMD strong motion data. Aftershock ground motion records of Mw3.6 which occurred at 05:33 on 24th August (PDT), are used as an empirical Green's function. We refer to the finite source model by Dreger et al. (2014) for setting the geometry of the source fault plane and the rupture velocity. We assume a single rectangular strong motion generation area (e.g. Miyake et al., 2003; Asano and Iwata, 2012). The seismic moment ratio between the target and EGF events is fixed from the moment magnitudes. As only five station data are available for the aftershock records, the size of SMGA area, rupture starting point, and the rise time on the SMGA are determined by the trial and error.?Preliminary SMGA model is 6x6km2 and the rupture mainly propagates WNW and shallower directions. The SMGA size we obtained follows the empirical relationship of Mw and SMGA size for the inland crustal events (Irikura and Miyake, 2011). Waveform fittings are fairly well at the near source station NHC (Huichica creek) and 68150 (Napa Collage), where as the fitting is not good at the south-side stations, 68206 (Crockett - Carquinez Br. Geotech Array) and 68310 (Vallejo - Hwy 37/Napa River E Geo. Array). Particularly, we did not succeed in explaining the high PGA at the 68206 surface station. We will try to improve our SMGA model and will discuss the origin of the high PGA observed at that station.

  10. Calculation of broadband time histories of ground motion: Comparison of methods and validation using strong-ground motion from the 1994 Northridge earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, S.; Harmsen, S.; Frankel, A.; Larsen, S.

    1999-01-01

    This article compares techniques for calculating broadband time histories of ground motion in the near field of a finite fault by comparing synthetics with the strong-motion data set for the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Based on this comparison, a preferred methodology is presented. Ground-motion-simulation techniques are divided into two general methods: kinematic- and composite-fault models. Green's functions of three types are evaluated: stochastic, empirical, and theoretical. A hybrid scheme is found to give the best fit to the Northridge data. Low frequencies ( 1 Hz) are calculated using a composite-fault model with a fractal subevent size distribution and stochastic, bandlimited, white-noise Green's functions. At frequencies below 1 Hz, theoretical elastic-wave-propagation synthetics introduce proper seismic-phase arrivals of body waves and surface waves. The 3D velocity structure more accurately reproduces record durations for the deep sedimentary basin structures found in the Los Angeles region. At frequencies above 1 Hz, scattering effects become important and wave propagation is more accurately represented by stochastic Green's functions. A fractal subevent size distribution for the composite fault model ensures an ??-2 spectral shape over the entire frequency band considered (0.1-20 Hz).

  11. Equations of motion for natural orbitals of strongly driven two-electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, J.; Brics, M.; Bauer, D.

    2014-07-01

    Natural orbital theory is a computationally useful approach to the few- and many-body quantum problems. While natural orbitals have been known and applied for many years in electronic structure applications, their potential for time-dependent problems started being investigated only recently. Correlated two-particle systems are of particular importance because the structure of the two-body reduced density matrix expanded in natural orbitals is known exactly in this case. However, in the time-dependent case the natural orbitals carry time-dependent phases that allow for certain time-dependent gauge transformations of the first kind. Different phase conventions will, in general, lead to different equations of motion for the natural orbitals. A particular phase choice allows us to derive the exact equations of motion for the natural orbitals of any (laser-) driven two-electron system explicitly, i.e., without any dependence on quantities that, in practice, require further approximations. For illustration, we solve the equations of motion for a model helium system. Besides calculating the spin-singlet and spin-triplet ground states, we show that the linear response spectra and the results for resonant Rabi flopping are in excellent agreement with the benchmark results obtained from the exact solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation.

  12. Displaced rocks, strong motion, and the mechanics of shallow faulting associated with the 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michael, A.J.; Ross, S.L.; Stenner, H.D.

    2002-01-01

    The paucity of strong-motion stations near the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake makes it impossible to make instrumental studies of key questions about near-fault strong-motion patterns associated with this event. However, observations of displaced rocks allow a qualitative investigation of these problems. By observing the slope of the desert surface and the frictional coefficient between these rocks and the desert surface, we estimate the minimum horizontal acceleration needed to displace the rocks. Combining this information with observations of how many rocks were displaced in different areas near the fault, we infer the level of shaking. Given current empirical shaking attenuation relationships, the number of rocks that moved is slightly lower than expected; this implies that slightly lower than expected shaking occurred during the Hector Mine earthquake. Perhaps more importantly, stretches of the fault with 4 m of total displacement at the surface displaced few nearby rocks on 15?? slopes, suggesting that the horizontal accelerations were below 0.2g within meters of the fault scarp. This low level of shaking suggests that the shallow parts of this rupture did not produce strong accelerations. Finally, we did not observe an increased incidence of displaced rocks along the fault zone itself. This suggests that, despite observations of fault-zone-trapped waves generated by aftershocks of the Hector Mine earthquake, such waves were not an important factor in controlling peak ground acceleration during the mainshock.

  13. Resolution analysis of finite fault source inversion using one- and three-dimensional Green's functions 1. Strong motions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graves, R.W.; Wald, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    We develop a methodology to perform finite fault source inversions from strong motion data using Green's functions (GFs) calculated for a three-dimensional (3-D) velocity structure. The 3-D GFs are calculated numerically by inserting body forces at each of the strong motion sites and then recording the resulting strains along the target fault surface. Using reciprocity, these GFs can be recombined to represent the ground motion at each site for any (heterogeneous) slip distribution on the fault. The reciprocal formulation significantly reduces the required number of 3-D finite difference computations to at most 3NS, where NS is the number of strong motion sites used in the inversion. Using controlled numerical resolution tests, we have examined the relative importance of accurate GFs for finite fault source inversions which rely on near-source ground motions. These experiments use both 1-D and 3-D GFs in inversions for hypothetical rupture models in order (1) to analyze the ability of the 3-D methodology to resolve trade-offs between complex source phenomena and 3-D path effects, (2) to address the sensitivity of the inversion results to uncertainties in the 3-D velocity structure, and (3) to test the adequacy of the 1-D GF method when propagation effects are known to be three-dimensional. We find that given "data" from a prescribed 3-D Earth structure, the use of well-calibrated 3-D GFs in the inversion provides very good resolution of the assumed slip distribution, thus adequately separating source and 3-D propagation effects. In contrast, using a set of inexact 3-D GFs or a set of hybrid 1-D GFs allows only partial recovery of the slip distribution. These findings suggest that in regions of complex geology the use of well-calibrated 3-D GFs has the potential for increased resolution of the rupture process relative to 1-D GFs. However, realizing this full potential requires that the 3-D velocity model and associated GFs should be carefully validated against the true 3-D Earth structure before performing the inverse problem with actual data. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Structure and dynamics of an imidazoline nitroxide side chain with strongly hindered internal motion in proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo Warshaviak, Dora; Khramtsov, Valery V.; Cascio, Duilio; Altenbach, Christian; Hubbell, Wayne L.

    2013-07-01

    A disulfide-linked imidazoline nitroxide side chain (V1) has a similar and highly constrained internal motion at diverse topological sites in a protein, unlike that for the disulfide-linked pyrroline nitroxide side chain (R1) widely used in site directed spin labeling EPR. Crystal structures of V1 at two positions in a helix of T4 Lysozyme and quantum mechanical calculations suggest the source of the constraints as intra-side chain interactions of the disulfide sulfur atoms with both the protein backbone and the 3-nitrogen in the imidazoline ring. These interactions apparently limit the conformation of the side chain to one of only three possible rotamers, two of which are observed in the crystal structure. An inter-spin distance measurement in frozen solution using double electron-electron resonance (DEER) gives a value essentially identical to that determined from the crystal structure of the protein containing two copies of V1, indicating that lattice forces do not dictate the rotamers observed. Collectively, the results suggest the possibility of predetermining a unique rotamer of V1 in helical structures. In general, the reduced rotameric space of V1 compared to R1 should simplify interpretation of inter-spin distance information in terms of protein structure, while the highly constrained internal motion is expected to extend the dynamic range for characterizing large amplitude nanosecond backbone fluctuations.

  15. Engineering Analysis of Strong-motion Data Recorded During German Task Force Missions To Turkey (1998-2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, J.; Ende, C.; Habenberger, J.; Lang, D. H.; Raschke, M.

    Obviously, structural damage caused by strong earthquakes can not only be attributed to defects in design or construction, but rather the widely discussed phenomenon of local site effects has to be considered as well. In the last decade extensive strong-motion measurements were carried out by the reconnaissance team of the German TaskForce for Earthquakes. Missions to Turkey in 1998 (Adana, Ceyhan) and in 1999 (Izmit/Kocaeli and Duezce) provided a unique database of recorded aftershocks at sites where building damage occurred. To gain more insight into the effect of local site conditions post-earthquake investigations were initiated in Adana and Kocaeli (October 2000). Microtremors were recorded at sites of the previously installed strong-motion accelerographs and locations of evident concentration or variation of building damage spreaded over the area of main shaking effects. The predominant frequencies and amplification potential at recording sites were identified by H/V spectral ratio method. On the basis of H/V-spectra the sites were classified (into soft soil, stiff soil, rock-type conditions) enabling more detailed studies of recorded strong motion data which were obtained by previous TaskForce missions. Attenuation laws for spectral and peak ground acceleration were statistically determined similar to the approach by Ambraseys et al. (1996). As it can be concluded, the differences between ground motion on soft and stiff soil are less pronounced and of a similar level of amplitudes. It has to be emphasized that the studies are supported by different data types referring to an unique and consistent data-set. Thus, conclusions concerning the reliability of recently applied site response estimation techniques will be derived in dependence on soil conditions. Finally, it will be discussed to which extent subsoil conditions are responsible for the enforcement of building damage. For this purpose and in relation to geological features, a macroseismic map of shaking effects (intensity) was prepared taking into consideration the results of a damage survey undertaken immediately after the 1999 Izmit/Kocaeli earthquake as well as meanwhile presented intensity assignments of other research groups. As a result, instrumentally investigated (micro)sites are correlated with macroseismic shaking effects.

  16. Strong correlation of atomic thermal motion in the first coordination shell of a Cu-Zr metallic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Mattern, N.; Eckert, J.; Institut fuer Werkstoffwissenschaft, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden

    2013-02-25

    We demonstrate a strong correlation of atomic thermal motions in the first coordination shell of Cu{sub 50}Zr{sub 50} metallic glass using molecular dynamics simulations, which explains directly the small thermal expansion coefficient calculated by the first maxima of pair correlation functions. The vibrational anisotropy in the glass is found to be even higher than in crystalline copper. The parallel-perpendicular anisotropy gradually decreases upon heating. The anisotropy in Zr-Zr is the strongest bonds among all the interatomic bonds, which is also very stable near the glass transition at 700 K. Structurally, the anisotropy can be correlated to Cu-centered (0 2 8 1) clusters.

  17. Site-dependent spectra from the 1999 Turkey earthquakes considering different sets of strong-motion data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, J.; Ende, C.; Habenberger, J.; Lang, D. H.

    2003-04-01

    In the last decade extensive strong-motion measurements were carried out by the reconnaissance team of the German TaskForce for Earthquakes. Aftershocks were recorded by a mesh of temporarily installed strong-motion recorders during the field surveys to Turkey in 1998 (Adana/Ceyhan), 1999 (Izmit/Kocaeli and Duezce/Bolu) and 2002 (Sultandagi/Afyon). Particularly the two missions in 1999 provided a unique and comprehensive database of recorded aftershocks at sites where building damage occurred. In addition, post-earthquake investigations were initiated around the provinces Adana and Kocaeli in October 2000 to gain more insight into the effect of local site conditions. Therefore, microtremors were recorded at sites of the previously installed strong-motion accelerographs and locations of evident concentration or remarkable scatter of building damage. By applying H/V-spectral ratio method on microtremor data, a classification of the recording sites (into soft soil, stiff soil, rock-type conditions) was performed. For the derivation of attenuation laws different databases were applied. In addition to the aftershock records of the strong-motion stations of German TaskForce for Earthquakes (Schwarz et al., 2002), a small dataset of main- and aftershocks from the 1999 Turkey earthquakes provided by the Kandilli Observatory (KOERI, 2002) and the General Directorate of Disaster Affairs (AFET) could be implied. The magnitude-distance composition of both datasets are quite different in terms of the covered magnitude and distance range. While the dataset of the German TaskForce mainly consists of small magnitude aftershocks (at the present state of elaboration: Ml <= 4.9) being recorded in epicentral distances Re < 70 km, the KOERI dataset is featured by larger magnitudes (Ml = 4.8-7.2) and by a distance range of about 10--250 km. The aftershock database of German TaskForce consists of 538 triaxial acceleration records (rock 53, stiff 52, soft 433), while that of KOERI comprises 145 triaxial acceleration records (rock 6, stiff 36, soft 103). On this basis, three sets of strong motion records were investigated by an one-step as well as a two-step regression analysis (similar to the approach by Ambraseys et al., 1996). Furthermore, parametric studies with respect to the lower bounds of magnitude and source depth were performed. Results indicate that the composition of the dataset and in particular the decision on the lower bound magnitude significantly determine the qualitative spectrum shape. In comparison to the spectra determined by Ambraseys et al. (1996) attenuation functions, the recorded data lead to significant lower accelerations for the borizontal as well as for the vertical components. Furthermore, no significant differences between data from soft and stiff soil recording sites can be observed, supporting the authors opinion that the severity of ground motion during earthquakes is less responsible for the high extent of building damage than the vulnerability of the building stock (which seem to be quite different for one particular building type in dependence on the date of construction). Therefore more attention should be attributed to the investigation of the building inventory.

  18. Strong non-circular motions of gas in the spiral galaxy NGC 1084

    E-print Network

    A. V. Moiseev

    2000-09-09

    The results of $H_\\alpha$ and [NII]$\\lambda 6583$ observations of the spiral galaxy NGC 1084 at the SAO 6m telescope with a Fabry-Perot interferometer are presented. The complex structure of the emission line profile has revealed the presence of giant star formation regions (``spur'') in the NE part of the galaxy. In this region the $H_\\alpha$ line shows two distinct components, with line-of-sight velocity differences of $\\pm(100-150)\\km$. The first component corresponds to normal circular rotation. The second velocity component may be a signature of non-circular motions of the ionized gas in shock wave fronts. An increase of the ${[NII]}/H_\\alpha$ line ratio confirms the shock wave interpretation of these features. The ionized gas kinematics in this galaxy is discussed.

  19. Strong Erosion-Driven Nongravitational Effects in Orbital Motions of the Kreutz Sungrazing System's Dwarf Comets

    E-print Network

    Sekanina, Zdenek

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the relationship among the angular orbital elements --- the longitude of the ascending node, Omega, the inclination, i, and the argument of perihelion, omega --- of dwarf sungrazing comets of the Kreutz system, whose catalogued orbits were derived using a parabolic gravitational approximation. While in a plot of omega against Omega the major and dwarf sungrazers follow a similar law, in a plot of i against Omega they behave differently. The major sungrazers fit a curve of invariable (reference) apsidal orientation, whereas the dwarf comets lie along a curve that makes with it 15 deg. While the perihelion longitude of dwarf sungrazers is statistically constant, the perihelion latitude increases systematically with Omega. A perturbation analysis indicates that this is due to an acceleration normal to the orbit plane. The culprit is neglect of an erosion-driven acceleration in the motions of the dwarf sungrazers, as illustrated by computing, for several test SOHO/STEREO sungrazers, orbital solutio...

  20. Strong ground motion and source mechanism studies for earthquakes in the northern Baja California/southern California region

    SciTech Connect

    Munguia-Orozco, L.

    1983-01-01

    Earthquake data sets collected from arrays of digital seismic event recorders and strong motion instruments operated in the northern Baja California/southern California region are analyzed. Complementing these near-source data sets with data from more distant seismic stations it was possible to begin to separate and understand the effects of stress drop, source size, sediment amplification, and physical attenuation on the variation of ground motion with distance. Surprisingly large ground accelerations, over 0.5g, were recorded for some relatively small (M/sub L/ < 5) earthquakes in the Victoria, Baja California earthquake swarm of March 1978. It was concluded that this is a result of relatively high stress drops (approx. 1 kilobar) and a relatively high sediment amplification factor of about 3.4. The ground motion from these earthquakes was relatively high frequency, which was somewhat surprising since the well-established depth of the events is about 10-12 km and the energy thus passed through the 5 km thick column of sediments of the Imperial and Mexicali Valleys, which might have been expected to produce severe attenuation. The primary factors which influence the results of studies with distant station data are geologic complexities, especially the boundary region between the Imperial Valley and the granitic batholith of the Peninsular Ranges.

  1. ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Technical Note, Vol. 45, No. 3-4, Sept.-Dec. 2008, pp. 97113 MODE-BASED PROCEDURE TO INTERPOLATE STRONG MOTION

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Vinay Kumar

    ­113 MODE-BASED PROCEDURE TO INTERPOLATE STRONG MOTION RECORDS OF INSTRUMENTED BUILDINGS Rakesh K. Goel Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo, CA polynomial interpolation (PWCPI) procedure to estimate the motions of non-instrumented floors in buildings

  2. Executive Summary of Vision and Options for the Future of the US National Strong-Motion Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Committee for the Future of the US National Strong-Motion Program

    1997-01-01

    These reports are presented in response to a charge of the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (EHRP) Program Council of the U.S. Geological Survey to 'define the future of the USGS National Strong-Motion Program (NSMP)' (Appendix A). The council requested that a 'Vision Paper' and an 'Options Document' be prepared. Each of these reports is a separate document. The 'Executive Summary' of both reports is presented here under separate cover. The content of the reports and the executive summary is organized to the extent possible according to the main charges of the EHRP Program Council. Detailed evaluation of charges and questions posed by the Council with the benefit of modern GIS tools and the recent deliberations of three national workshops have yielded substantial new insight regarding the status of strong-motion measurement in the US. These reports are intended as an objective evaluation of the nation's need and capability to record the next major earthquake at locations of most significance for public safety.

  3. Three-Dimensional Attenuation Structure of the Kumaon Himalayas, India, Based on Inversion of Strong Motion Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Parveen; Joshi, A.; Sandeep; Kumar, Ashvini

    2015-02-01

    Three-dimensional attenuation structure based on frequency-dependent shear wave quality factor, Q ? ( f), has been determined for the Kumaon region of the Himalayas. An algorithm based on inversion of strong motion data developed by J oshi (Curr Sci 90:581-585, 2006a) and later modified by K umar et al. (Pure Appl Geophys, doi: 10.1007/s00024-013-0658-x, 2013) was used for determination of three-dimensional attenuation coefficients. The input of this algorithm is the spectral acceleration of the S phase of the accelerogram and the outcome is the attenuation coefficient and the source acceleration spectra. A dense network monitoring strong ground motion in the Kumaon region of the Uttarakhand Himalayas has been operating since 2006. This network recorded 287 earthquakes up to July, 2013, of which 18 were used for this work. Shear-wave quality-factors were estimated for frequencies of 1.0, 5.0, and 10.0 Hz for two rectangular blocks of surface of dimensions 85 × 55 and 90 × 30 km2 in the Kumaon region of the Himalayas. Both blocks were divided into 25 three-dimensional blocks of uniform thickness with different Q ? ( f) values. The spatial distribution of frequency-dependent shear-wave quality factors in two different blocks reveal the attenuation properties of the region. The profiles of the contours of shear-wave quality factors observed were comparable with those of major tectonic units present in the region.

  4. Strong ground motion inferred from liquefaction caused by the 1811-1812 New Madrid, Missouri, earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Noce, Thomas E.; Bennett, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Peak ground accelerations (PGAs) in the epicentral region of the 1811–1812 New Madrid, Missouri, earthquakes are inferred from liquefaction to have been no greater than ?0.35g. PGA is inferred in an 11,380??km2 area in the Lower Mississippi Valley in Arkansas and Missouri where liquefaction was extensive in 1811–1812. PGA was inferred by applying liquefaction probability curves, which were originally developed for liquefaction hazard mapping, to detailed maps of liquefaction by Obermeier (1989). The low PGA is inferred because both a shallow (1.5 m deep) water table and a large moment magnitude (M 7.7) earthquake were assumed in the analysis. If a deep (5.0 m) water table and a small magnitude (M 6.8) earthquake are assumed, the maximum inferred PGA is 1.10g. Both inferred PGA values are based on an assumed and poorly constrained correction for sand aging. If an aging correction is not assumed, then the inferred PGA is no greater than 0.22g. A low PGA value may be explained by nonlinear site response. Soils in the study area have an averageVS30 of 220±15??m/s. A low inferred PGA is consistent with PGA values estimated from ground?motion prediction equations that have been proposed for the New Madrid seismic zone when these estimates are corrected for nonlinear soil site effects. This application of liquefaction probability curves demonstrates their potential usefulness in paleoseismology.

  5. Kinematic inversion of strong motion data using a Gaussian parameterization of the slip: application to the Iwate-Miyagi earthquake.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucca, Ernestina; Festa, Gaetano; Emolo, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    We present a non linear technique to invert strong motion records with the aim of obtaining the final slip and the rupture velocity distributions on the fault plane. Kinematic inversion of strong motion data is an ill-conditioned inverse problem, with several solutions available also in the case of noise-free synthetic data (Blind test on earthquake source inversion,http://www.seismo.ethz.ch/staff/martin/BlindTest.html).On the other hand, complete dynamic inversion still looks impracticable, because of an unclear understanding of the physical mechanisms controlling the energy balance at the rupture tip and a strong correlation between the initial stress field and the parameters of the constitutive law. Hence a strong effort is demanded to increase the robustness of the inversion, looking at the details of the slip and rupture velocity parameterization, at the global exploration techniques, at the efficiency of the cost-function in selecting solutions, at the synthesis process in retrieving the stable features of the rupture. In this study, the forward problem, i.e. the ground motion simulation, is solved evaluating the representation integral in the frequency domain by allowing possible rake variation along the fault plane. The Green's tractions on the fault are computed using the discrete wave-number integration technique that provides the full wave-field in a 1D layered propagation medium. The representation integral is computed through a finite elements technique on a Delaunay triangulation of the fault plane. The rupture velocity is finally defined on a coarser regular grid and rupture times are computed by integration of the eikonal equation. For the inversion, the slip distribution is parameterized by 2D overlapping Gaussian functions, which can easily relate the spectrum of the possible solutions with the minimum resolvable wavelength, related to source-station distribution and data processing. The inverse problem is solved by a two-step procedure aimed at separating the computation of the rupture velocity from the evaluation of the slip distribution, the latter being a linear problem, when the rupture velocity is fixed. The non-linear step is solved by optimization of an L2 misfit function between synthetic and real seismograms, and solution is searched by the use of the Neighbourhood Algorithm. The conjugate gradient method is used to solve the linear step instead. The developed methodology has been applied to the M7.2, Iwate Nairiku Miyagi, Japan, earthquake that was recorded by the K-net and Kik-net accelerometric networks.

  6. A Web-Based Borehole Strong-motion Data Dissemination Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steidl, J. H.; Seale, S.; Ratzesberger, H.; Civilini, F.; Vaughan, N.

    2009-12-01

    Accelerometric and pore pressure data from instrumented boreholes in southern California are producing very interesting observations from a large data set that includes 100’s of earthquake observations each month. While the majority of these are very small events, they provide the control data that represents the linear behavior of the site. In addition, the largest motions recorded to date, ~10%g, are getting to the regime where nonlinear soil behavior effects become important. In order to make these data more accessible to the seismology and earthquake engineering research community, software development of a web-based data dissemination portal has taken place under the George E. Brown Jr., Network for Earthquake Engineering (NEES) program. This development includes processing and analysis tools, and web-based data dissemination available through the NEES@UCSB website [http://nees.ucsb.edu]. Of interest to the research community are the tools developed to provide search, waveform viewing, and download capabilities for access to data acquired through the various borehole-monitoring programs at UC Santa Barbara. Researchers interested in obtaining data recorded at the various field sites can use the map-based search tool to select a particular station and instrument(s). The user is then provided another map-based interface that allows the user to select events with choice of magnitude, distance, and time period. Once the user has selected an event of interest, the ability to view the data is provided, along with some waveform parameters like peak velocity and acceleration. The records can then be downloaded in a number of common formats, including MSEED, SAC, and an ASCII text-based real-time data viewer (RDV) format. The last format allows the data to be viewed in the NEES RDV tool, a platform independent JAVA program developed to display both real-time streaming data, or playback data that has been downloaded through the web-based event search tool.

  7. Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhart, James B.; Nussbaum, Rudi H.

    This monograph was written for the Conference on the New Instructional Materials in Physics held at the University of Washington in summer, 1965. It is intended for use in an introductory course in college physics. It consists of an extensive qualitative discussion of motion followed by a detailed development of the quantitative methods needed to…

  8. Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic of motion. Contents include: (1) "First Word" (Zach Tobias); (2) "Cosmic Collisions" (Robert Irion); (3) "The Mobile Cell" (Karen E. Kalumuck); (4) "The Paths of Paths" (Steven Vogel); (5) "Fragments" (Pearl Tesler); (6) "Moving Pictures" (Amy Snyder); (7) "Plants on the Go" (Katharine…

  9. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989: Strong Ground Motion and Ground Failure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coordinated by Holzer, Thomas L.

    1992-01-01

    Professional Paper 1551 describes the effects at the land surface caused by the Loma Prieta earthquake. These effects: include the pattern and characteristics of strong ground shaking, liquefaction of both floodplain deposits along the Pajaro and Salinas Rivers in the Monterey Bay region and sandy artificial fills along the margins of San Francisco Bay, landslides in the epicentral region, and increased stream flow. Some significant findings and their impacts were: * Strong shaking that was amplified by a factor of about two by soft soils caused damage at up to 100 kilometers (60 miles) from the epicenter. * Instrumental recordings of the ground shaking have been used to improve how building codes consider site amplification effects from soft soils. * Liquefaction at 134 locations caused $99.2 million of the total earthquake loss of $5.9 billion. Liquefaction of floodplain deposits and sandy artificial fills was similar in nature to that which occurred in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and indicated that many areas remain susceptible to liquefaction damage in the San Francisco and Monterey Bay regions. * Landslides caused $30 million in earthquake losses, damaging at least 200 residences. Many landslides showed evidence of movement in previous earthquakes. * Recognition of the similarities between liquefaction and landslides in 1906 and 1989 and research in intervening years that established methodologies to map liquefaction and landslide hazards prompted the California legislature to pass in 1990 the Seismic Hazards Mapping Act that required the California Geological Survey to delineate regulatory zones of areas potentially susceptible to these hazards. * The earthquake caused the flow of many streams in the epicentral region to increase. Effects were noted up to 88 km from the epicenter. * Post-earthquake studies of the Marina District of San Francisco provide perhaps the most comprehensive case history of earthquake effects at a specific site developed for any earthquake. Soft soils beneath the Marina amplified ground shaking to damaging levels and caused liquefaction of sandy artificial fills. Liquefaction required 123 repairs of pipelines in the Municipal Water Supply System, more than three times the number of repairs elsewhere in the system. Approximately 13.6 km of gas-distribution lines were replaced, and more than 20% of the wastewater collection lines were repaired or replaced.

  10. A PHYSICAL MODEL OF THE EFFECT OF A SHALLOW WEAK LAYER ON STRONG GROUND MOTION FOR STRIKE-SLIP RUPTURES

    SciTech Connect

    JAMES N. BRUNE AND ABDOLRASOOL ANOOSHEHPOOR

    1998-02-23

    We report results of foam-rubber modeling of the effect of a shallow weak layer on ground motion from strike-slip ruptures. Computer modeling of strong ground motion from strike-slip earthquakes has involved somewhat arbitrary assumptions about the nature of slip along the shallow part of the fault (e.g., fixing the slip to be zero along the upper 2 kilometers of the fault plane) in order to match certain strong motion accelerograms. Most modeling studies of earthquake strong ground motion have used what is termed kinematic dislocation modeling. In kinematic modeling the time function for slip on the fault is prescribed, and the response of the layered medium is calculated. Unfortunately, there is no guarantee that the model and the prescribed slip are physically reasonable unless the true nature of the medium and its motions are known ahead of time. There is good reason to believe that in many cases faults are weak along the upper few kilometers of the fault zone and may not be able to maintain high levels of shear strain required for high dynamic energy release during earthquakes. Physical models of faulting, as distinct from numerical or mathematical models, are guaranteed to obey static and dynamic mechanical laws. Foam-rubber modeling studies have been reported in a number of publications. The object of this paper is to present results of physical modeling using a shallow weak layer, in order to verify the physical basis for assuming a long rise time and a reduced high frequency pulse for the slip on the shallow part of faults. It appears a 2-kilometer deep, weak zone along strike-slip faults could indeed reduce the high frequency energy radiated from shallow slip, and that this effect can best be represented by superimposing a small amplitude, short rise-time pulse at the onset of a much longer rise-time slip. A weak zone was modeled by inserting weak plastic layers of a few inches in thickness into the foam rubber model. For the 15 cm weak zone the average pulse is reduced by a factor of 0.46. The factor for the 20 cm case reduction is 0.11. For the 30 cm case it is 0.045. From these results we can see that, the thicker the weak layer, the more difficult it is for a short rise-time acceleration pulse to push its way through the weak layer to the surface. This is thus an approximate justification for reducing the high frequency radiation from shallower parts of strike-slip faults if it is known that the shallow part of the fault is weak or has not stored up shear stress.

  11. Source Rupture Process of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku, Japan, Earthquake Revealed from Near Fault Strong Motion Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, W.; Aoi, S.; Sekiguchi, H.

    2008-12-01

    We reveal the source rupture process of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake through the waveform inversion of the near fault strong motion records. At 8:43, June 14, 2008 (JST), a M7.2 shallow inland crustal earthquake struck Iwate and Miyagi Prefectures, northeast Japan. This earthquake, the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake, is a reverse fault event, whose fault plane strikes to the southwest and dips to the northwest according to moment tensor solutions, aftershock distribution, and surface fault break. Strong motion networks, K-NET and KiK-net, operated by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) obtained lots of the strong motion records at the near source region, which provide the information of the detailed source rupture process. We employ the multi-time-window linear waveform inversion method (Hartzell and Heaton, 1983). S-wave portion of the velocity waveforms (0.1-1 Hz) are used for the inversion. We use mainly borehole data at KiK- net stations. Green's functions are calculated using the discrete wavenumber method (Bouchon, 1981) and reflection/transmission coefficient matrix method (Kennett and Kerry, 1979) on the assumption of 1-D layered velocity structure. The rupture propagation effect within the subfault is included in the Green's function following Sekiguchi et al. (2002). Some stations are located on thick sediment. In order to take into account their effect on the observed waveforms, we construct the velocity structure model for each station referring to a 3-D subsurface structure model compiled for strong motion evaluation of whole Japan (Fujiwara et al., 2006). Validity of the assumed velocity structure is confirmed by simulating the aftershock records. The rupture starting point is set on the hypocenter relocated by Sekine et al. (2008) using double-difference method (Waldhauser and Ellsworth, 2000). Assumed fault plane covers a space of 40 km × 18 km. Its strike angle is 209° referring to F-net moment tensor (NIED) and dip angle is 40° considering the location of the observed surface fault trace. The fault plane is divided into 2 km × 2 km subfaults. The slip history on each subfault is represented by 7 smoothed ramp functions whose duration is 0.8 s at 0.4 s interval. The weight of each function, model parameter in the inversion, is obtained by minimizing the L-2 norm between the observed and synthetic waveforms using the least square method. Restriction of the variation in the rake angle and the spatio-temporal smoothing of the model parameter are applied as constraint conditions to stabilize the inversion. The obtained rupture model shows that the rupture propagated mainly southward. There are two large slip areas. One is located at the hypocenter and the other lies at the shallow part of the fault, which is to the south of the hypocenter. The extent of the large slip area at the hypocenter is rather small. The southern large slip area occupies larger area, from which the seismic moment is largely released between 4 s and 7 s after rupture started. The fitting between the observed and synthetic waveforms is favorable except for IWTH25, which is closest to the epicenter (epicentral distance is 3 km). For further study, we will improve the waveform fitting of IWTH25 since the data of this very near source station constrain the source rupture model better.

  12. Strong vortical flows generated by the collective motion of magnetic particle chains rotating in a fluid cell.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Beerens, Jasper; van Reenen, Alexander; Hulsen, Martien A; de Jong, Arthur M; Prins, Menno W J; den Toonder, Jaap M J

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic microparticles, assembled into chains that are actuated with rotating magnetic fields, can be used as microstirrers to promote fluid transport and biochemical reactions in microfluidic systems. We show that, within a certain range of magnetic field rotation frequency, the microstirrers exhibit a coherent collective motion: the rotating magnetic particle chains move throughout the volume of a flat fluid cell and generate very strong (~1 mm s(-1)) and global (9 mm) vortical fluid flows, with many eddy-type substructures that fluctuate continuously in time, resembling turbulent flow. The collective motion makes the microstirrers not only defy gravity, but also move against magnetic field gradients. The induced fluid flow is directly related to the stirring rate and the amount of magnetic particle chains. The observed behavior is caused by the magnetic and hydrodynamic interactions between the magnetic microparticles and the fluid. We utilized the phenomenon of swarming particles to enhance biochemical assays with magnetic capture particles (4000 ?L(-1)) and IgG targets (500 pM). When compared to a reference system of sedimented magnetic capture particles, magnetic actuation leads to both a ~9 times increase in the initial assay kinetics as well as a ~7 times increase of target capture signal after 30 minutes. PMID:25380482

  13. Comments on baseline correction of digital strong-motion data: Examples from the 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.; Stephens, C.D.; Joyner, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    Residual displacements for large earthquakes can sometimes be determined from recordings on modern digital instruments, but baseline offsets of unknown origin make it difficult in many cases to do so. To recover the residual displacement, we suggest tailoring a correction scheme by studying the character of the velocity obtained by integration of zeroth-order-corrected acceleration and then seeing if the residual displacements are stable when the various parameters in the particular correction scheme are varied. For many seismological and engineering purposes, however, the residual displacement are of lesser importance than ground motions at periods less than about 20 sec. These ground motions are often recoverable with simple baseline correction and low-cut filtering. In this largely empirical study, we illustrate the consequences of various correction schemes, drawing primarily from digital recordings of the 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquake. We show that with simple processing the displacement waveforms for this event are very similar for stations separated by as much as 20 km. We also show that a strong pulse on the transverse component was radiated from the Hector Mine earthquake and propagated with little distortion to distances exceeding 170 km; this pulse leads to large response spectral amplitudes around 10 sec.

  14. Third-and-a-half order post-Newtonian equations of motion for relativistic compact binaries using the strong field point particle limit

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, Yousuke

    2009-12-15

    We report our rederivation of the equations of motion for relativistic compact binaries through the third-and-a-half post-Newtonian (3.5 PN) order approximation to general relativity using the strong field point particle limit to describe self-gravitating stars instead of the Dirac delta functional. The computation is done in harmonic coordinates. Our equations of motion describe the orbital motion of the binary consisting of spherically symmetric nonrotating stars. The resulting equations of motion fully agree with the 3.5 PN equations of motion derived in the previous works. We also show that the locally defined energy of the star has a simple relation with its mass up to the 3.5 PN order.

  15. Strong motion characteristics of the M w 6.6 Lushan earthquake, Sichuan, China — an insight into the spatial difference of a typical thrust fault earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinjun; Zhang, Wenbo; Xie, Lili; Zhang, Qi; Jiang, Zhijun

    2015-06-01

    Near-field strong ground motions are useful for engineering seismology studies and seismic design, but dense observation networks of damaging earthquakes are still rare. In this study, based on the strong-motion data from the M w 6.6 Lushan earthquake, the ground motion parameters in different spatial regions are systematically analyzed, and the contributions from different effects, like the hanging-wall effect, directivity effect, and attenuation effect are separated to the extent possible. Different engineering parameters from the observed ground motions are compared with the local design response spectra and a new attenuation relation of Western China. General results indicate that the high frequency ground motion, like the peak ground acceleration, on two sides of the fault plane is sensitive to the hanging-wall effect, whereas the low frequency ground motion, like the long period spectral acceleration, in the rupture propagation direction is affected by the directivity effect. Moreover, although the M w 6.6 Lushan earthquake is not a large magnitude event, the spatial difference of ground motion is still obvious; thus, for a thrust faulting earthquake, in addition to the hanging effect, the directivity effect should also be considered.

  16. Robust features of the source process for the 2004 Parkfield, California, earthquake from strong-motion seismograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twardzik, C.; Madariaga, R.; Das, S.; Custódio, S.

    2012-12-01

    We explore a recently developed procedure for kinematic inversion based on an elliptical subfault approximation. In this method, the slip is modelled by a small set of elliptical patches, each ellipse having a Gaussian distribution of slip. We invert near-field strong ground motion for the 2004 September 28 Mw 6.0 Parkfield, California, earthquake. The data set consists of 10 digital three-component 18-s long displacement seismograms. The best model gives a moment of 1.21 × 1018 N m, with slip on two distinct ellipses, one with a high-slip amplitude of 0.91 m located 20 km northwest of the hypocentre. The average rupture speed of the rupture process is ˜2.7 km s-1. We find no slip in the top 5 km. At this depth, a lineation of small aftershocks marks the transition from creeping above to locked below, in the interseismic period. The high-slip patch coincides spatially with the hypocentre of the 1966 Mw6.0 Parkfield, California, earthquake. The larger earthquakes prior to the 2004 Parkfield earthquake and the aftershocks of the 2004 earthquake (Mw > 3) also lie around this high-slip patch, where our model images a sharp slip gradient. This observation suggests the presence of a permanent asperity that breaks during large earthquakes, and has important implications for the slip deficit observed on the Parkfield segment, which is necessary for reliable seismic hazard assessment.

  17. A teleseismic study of the 2002 Denali fault, Alaska, earthquake and implications for rapid strong-motion estimation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ji, C.; Helmberger, D.V.; Wald, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Slip histories for the 2002 M7.9 Denali fault, Alaska, earthquake are derived rapidly from global teleseismic waveform data. In phases, three models improve matching waveform data and recovery of rupture details. In the first model (Phase I), analogous to an automated solution, a simple fault plane is fixed based on the preliminary Harvard Centroid Moment Tensor mechanism and the epicenter provided by the Preliminary Determination of Epicenters. This model is then updated (Phase II) by implementing a more realistic fault geometry inferred from Digital Elevation Model topography and further (Phase III) by using the calibrated P-wave and SH-wave arrival times derived from modeling of the nearby 2002 M6.7 Nenana Mountain earthquake. These models are used to predict the peak ground velocity and the shaking intensity field in the fault vicinity. The procedure to estimate local strong motion could be automated and used for global real-time earthquake shaking and damage assessment. ?? 2004, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  18. Strong ground motion synthesis for a M=7.2 earthquake in the Gulf of Corinth, Greece using Empirical Green`s functions

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchings, L.; Stavrakakis, G.N.; Ioannidou, E.; Wu, F.T.; Jarpe, S.; Kasameyer, P.

    1998-01-01

    We synthesize strong ground motion at three sites from a M=7.2 earthquake along the MW-trending Gulf of Cornith seismic zone. We model rupture along an 80 segment of the zone. The entire length of the fault, if activated at one time, can lead to an event comparable to that of the 1995 Kobe earthquake. With the improved digital data now routinely available, it becomes possible to use recordings of small earthquakes as empirical Green`s functions to synthesize potential ground motion for future large earthquakes. We developed a suite of 100 rupture scenarios for the earthquake and computed the commensurate strong ground motion time histories. We synthesized strong ground motion with physics-based solutions of earthquake rupture and applied physical bounds on rupture parameters. The synthesized ground motions obtained are source and site specific. By having a suite of rupture scenarios of hazardous earthquakes for a fixed magnitude and identifying the hazard to a site from the statistical distribution of engineering parameters, we have introduced a probabilistic component to the deterministic hazard calculation. The time histories suggested for engineering design are the ones that most closely match either the average or one standard deviation absolute accelerations response values.

  19. Stochastic strong ground motion simulations for the intermediate-depth earthquakes of the south Aegean subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kkallas, Harris; Papazachos, Konstantinos; Boore, David; Margaris, Vasilis

    2015-04-01

    We have employed the stochastic finite-fault modelling approach of Motazedian and Atkinson (2005), as described by Boore (2009), for the simulation of Fourier spectra of the Intermediate-depth earthquakes of the south Aegean subduction zone. The stochastic finite-fault method is a practical tool for simulating ground motions of future earthquakes which requires region-specific source, path and site characterizations as input model parameters. For this reason we have used data from both acceleration-sensor and broadband velocity-sensor instruments from intermediate-depth earthquakes with magnitude of M 4.5-6.7 that occurred in the south Aegean subduction zone. Source mechanisms for intermediate-depth events of north Aegean subduction zone are either collected from published information or are constrained using the main faulting types from Kkallas et al. (2013). The attenuation parameters for simulations were adopted from Skarladoudis et al. (2013) and are based on regression analysis of a response spectra database. The site amplification functions for each soil class were adopted from Klimis et al., (1999), while the kappa values were constrained from the analysis of the EGELADOS network data from Ventouzi et al., (2013). The investigation of stress-drop values was based on simulations performed with the EXSIM code for several ranges of stress drop values and by comparing the results with the available Fourier spectra of intermediate-depth earthquakes. Significant differences regarding the strong-motion duration, which is determined from Husid plots (Husid, 1969), have been identified between the for-arc and along-arc stations due to the effect of the low-velocity/low-Q mantle wedge on the seismic wave propagation. In order to estimate appropriate values for the duration of P-waves, we have automatically picked P-S durations on the available seismograms. For the S-wave durations we have used the part of the seismograms starting from the S-arrivals and ending at the 95%-energy limit of the Husid plots. After appropriate calibration of all parameters involved in the simulations we generated separate stochastic waveforms for both P- and S-waves, and produce the final synthetics by appropriate merging of the two stochastic waveforms. This work has been partly supported by the 3D-SEGMENTS project #1337 funded by EC European Social Fund and the Operational Programme "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the ARISTEIA-I call of the Greek Secretariat of Research and Technology.

  20. ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 506, Vol. 46, No. 3-4, Sept.-Dec. 2009, pp. 125132 SIMULATION OF STRONG GROUND MOTIONS OF WENCHUAN

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Vinay Kumar

    ­132 SIMULATION OF STRONG GROUND MOTIONS OF WENCHUAN EARTHQUAKE BY STOCHASTIC FINITE-FAULT METHOD Guoxin WangISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 506, Vol. 46, No. 3-4, Sept.-Dec. 2009, pp. 125, Dalian 116024, China ABSTRACT The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake ( sM = 8; May 12, 2008; Sichuan, China) had

  1. Survey of strong motion earthquake effects on thermal power plants in California with emphasis on piping systems. Volume 1, Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1995-11-01

    Since 1982, there has been a major effort expended to evaluate the susceptibility of nuclear Power plant equipment to failure and significant damage during seismic events. This was done by making use of data on the performance of electrical and mechanical equipment in conventional power plants and other similar industrial facilities during strong motion earthquakes. This report is intended as an extension of the seismic experience data collection effort and a compilation of experience data specific to power plant piping and supports designed and constructed US power piping code requirements which have experienced strong motion earthquakes. Eight damaging (Richter Magnitude 7.7 to 5.5) California earthquakes and their effects on 8 power generating facilities in use natural gas and California were reviewed. All of these facilities were visited and evaluated. Seven fossel-fueled (dual use natural gas and oil) and one nuclear fueled plants consisting of a total of 36 individual boiler or reactor units were investigated. Peak horizontal ground accelerations that either had been recorded on site at these facilities or were considered applicable to these power plants on the basis of nearby recordings ranged between 0.20g and 0.5lg with strong motion durations which varied from 3.5 to 15 seconds. Most US nuclear power plants are designed for a safe shutdown earthquake peak ground acceleration equal to 0.20g or less with strong motion durations which vary from 10 to 15 seconds.

  2. Site correction of stochastic simulation in southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lun Huang, Cong; Wen, Kuo Liang; Huang, Jyun Yan

    2014-05-01

    Peak ground acceleration (PGA) of a disastrous earthquake, is concerned both in civil engineering and seismology study. Presently, the ground motion prediction equation is widely used for PGA estimation study by engineers. However, the local site effect is another important factor participates in strong motion prediction. For example, in 1985 the Mexico City, 400km far from the epicenter, suffered massive damage due to the seismic wave amplification from the local alluvial layers. (Anderson et al., 1986) In past studies, the use of stochastic method had been done and showed well performance on the simulation of ground-motion at rock site (Beresnev and Atkinson, 1998a ; Roumelioti and Beresnev, 2003). In this study, the site correction was conducted by the empirical transfer function compared with the rock site response from stochastic point-source (Boore, 2005) and finite-fault (Boore, 2009) methods. The error between the simulated and observed Fourier spectrum and PGA are calculated. Further we compared the estimated PGA to the result calculated from ground motion prediction equation. The earthquake data used in this study is recorded by Taiwan Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) from 1991 to 2012; the study area is located at south-western Taiwan. The empirical transfer function was generated by calculating the spectrum ratio between alluvial site and rock site (Borcheret, 1970). Due to the lack of reference rock site station in this area, the rock site ground motion was generated through stochastic point-source model instead. Several target events were then chosen for stochastic point-source simulating to the halfspace. Then, the empirical transfer function for each station was multiplied to the simulated halfspace response. Finally, we focused on two target events: the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw=7.6) and the 2010 Jiashian earthquake (Mw=6.4). Considering the large event may contain with complex rupture mechanism, the asperity and delay time for each sub-fault is to be concerned. Both the stochastic point-source and the finite-fault model were used to check the result of our correction.

  3. High-frequency source imaging of the 2011 October 23 Van (Eastern Turkey) earthquake by backprojection of strong motion waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangelidis, C. P.; Kao, H.

    2014-02-01

    We backproject strong motion waveforms to image the rupture process of the 2011 October 23 Van (Mw 7.1) earthquake. We show that the followed backprojection approach is applicable for studying earthquake sources with a complex and uncertain fault geometry. It is especially suitable for cases where the implementation of conventional source inversion methods is difficult due to incomplete data coverage from local networks. Normalized high frequency (HF, 2-8 Hz) S-waveform envelopes from recordings on local Turkish and Iranian stations are used to scan a pre-defined 3-D source volume over time. The envelopes are forced to focus at the hypocentre by applying the appropriate station corrections, estimated from waveform cross-correlation. We image two distinct sources of HF radiation during the earthquake rupture at depths between 10 and 12 km. The first one, a few seconds after the rupture initiation, is located near the hypocentre. The second, at least 13 km southwestwards, follows 3.5 s later. While a continuous rupture propagation is not clearly imaged, the average rupture speed is 3.5 km s-1. Synthetic tests show that both HF sources could be resolved adequately from this station distribution. Both sources of HF are located at the edge of large slip patches, imaged by seismic and geodetic inversions. The existence of a complex fault geometry, like a pair of en-echelon reverse faults, explains the radiation of HF energy. The first source is attributed to a stopping phase of the eastern subfault or a possible change on a single fault geometry. The second HF source is produced from the abrupt cease of rupture at the shallow part of the upper crust.

  4. Reconciling strong slab pull and weak plate bending: The plate motion constraint on the strength of mantle slabs

    E-print Network

    Conrad, Clint

    , USA c Dipartimento Scienze Geologiche, Università Roma TRE, Roma, Italy d Department of Earth Sciences , Serge Lallemand e a Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD the relatively rapid motions of oceanic plates, observed plate motions constrain the importance of bending. We

  5. Trip to Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, William A.

    1978-01-01

    Reports on the United States-Republic of China Conference on Junior College Education held in Taiwan to strengthen mutual liaison and cooperation. Conference results include the establishment of sister college relationships, faculty and student exchange programs, and joint staff and curriculum development projects. Describes Taiwan's junior…

  6. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  7. A Study of the Influence of Organizational Knowledge Ability and Knowledge Absorptive Capacity on Organization Performance in Taiwan`s Hi-Tech Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ching-Piao; Liu, Pang-Lo; Tsai, Chih-Hung

    In recent years, business operation tends to be internationalized and the production cost increases day by day, the technology promotion of Taiwan`s hi-tech enterprises met its bottleneck; lots of industries have introduced Knowledge Management (KM) and emphasized the knowledge absorptive capacity of the employees to promote the organizational business performance under this competition environment. This research studied the influence of organizational knowledge ability and knowledge absorptive capacity on organization performance in Taiwan`s hi-tech enterprises. The research found that: the industry with strong organizational knowledge ability has positive influence on organization performance; the industry with strong organizational knowledge ability has positive influence on knowledge absorptive capacity and the industry with strong knowledge absorptive capacity has positive influence on organization performance. Therefore, the organizational knowledge ability and knowledge absorption capacity of Taiwan`s high-tech enterprises have positive influence on the promotion of their organization performance.

  8. Some Key Features of the Strong-Motion Data from the M 6.0 Parkfield, California, Earthquake of 28 September 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shakal, A.; Haddadi, H.; Graizer, V.; Lin, K.; Huang, M.

    2006-01-01

    The 2004 Parkfield, California, earthquake was recorded by an extensive set of strong-motion instruments well positioned to record details of the motion in the near-fault region, where there has previously been very little recorded data. The strong-motion measurements obtained are highly varied, with significant variations occurring over only a few kilometers. The peak accelerations in the near fault region range from 0.13g to over 1.8g (one of the highest acceleration recorded to date, exceeding the capacity of the recording instrument The largest accelerations occurred near the northwest end of the inferred rupture zone. These motions are consistent with directivity for a fault rupturing from the hypocenter near Gold Hill toward the northwest. However, accelerations up to 0.8g were also observed in the opposite direction, at the south end of the Cholame Valley near Highway 41, consistent with bilateral rupture, with rupture southeast of the hypocenter. Several stations near and over the rupturing fault recorded relatively weak motions, consistent with seemingly paradoxical observations of low shaking damage near strike-slip faults. This event had more ground-motion observations within 10 km of the fault than many other earthquakes combined. At moderate distances peak horizontal ground acceleration (PGA) values dropped off more rapidly with distance than standard relationships. At close-in distance the wide variation of PGA suggests a distance-dependent sigma may be important to consider. The near-fault ground-motion variation is greater than that assumed in ShakeMap interpolations, based on the existing set of observed data. Higher density of stations near faults may be the only means in the near future to reduce uncertainty in the interpolations. Outside of the near-fault zone the variance is closer to that assumed. This set of data provides the first case where near-fault radiation has been observed at an adequate number of stations around the fault to allow detailed study of the fault-normal and fault-parallel motion and the near-field S-wave radiation. The fault-normal motions are significant, but they are not large at the central part of the fault, away from the ends. The fault-normal and fault-parallel motions drop off quite rapidly with distance from the fault. Analysis of directivity indicates increased values of peak velocity in the rupture direction. No such dependence is observed in the peak acceleration, except for stations close to the strike of the fault near and beyond the ends of the faulting.

  9. Rupture process and strong ground motions of the 2007 Niigataken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake -Directivity pulses striking the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irikura, K.; Kagawa, T.; Miyakoshi, K.; Kurahashi, S.

    2007-12-01

    The Niigataken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake occurred on July 16, 2007, northwest-off Kashiwazaki in Niigata Prefecture, Japan, causing severe damages of ten people dead, about 1300 injured, about 1000 collapsed houses and major lifelines suspended. In particular, strong ground motions from the earthquake struck the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant (hereafter KKNPP), triggering a fire at an electric transformer and other problems such as leakage of water containing radioactive materials into air and the sea, although the radioactivity levels of the releases are as low as those of the radiation which normal citizens would receive from the natural environment in a year. The source mechanism of this earthquake is a reverse fault, but whether it is the NE-SW strike and NW dip or the SW-NE strike and SE dip are still controversial from the aftershock distribution and geological surveys near the source. Results of the rupture processes inverted by using the GPS and SAR data, tsunami data and teleseismic data so far did not succeed in determining which fault planes moved. Strong ground motions were recorded at about 390 stations by the K-NET of NIED including the stations very close to the source area. There was the KKNPP which is probably one of buildings and facilities closest to the source area. They have their own strong motion network with 22 three-components' accelerographs locating at ground-surface, underground, buildings and basements of reactors. The PGA attenuation-distance relationships made setting the fault plane estimated from the GPS data generally follow the empirical relations in Japan, for example, Fukushima and Tanaka (1990) and Si and Midorikawa (1999), even if either fault plane, SE dip or NW dip, is assumed. However, the strong ground motions in the site of the KKNPP had very large accelerations and velocities more than those expected from the empirical relations. The surface motions there had the PGA of more than 1200 gals and even underground motions at the basements of the reactors locating five stories below the ground had the PGA of 680 gals. We simulated ground motions using the characterized source model (Kamae and Irikura, 1998) with three asperities and the empirical Green's function method (Irikura, 1986). Then, we found that the source model should be a reverse fault with the NE-SW strike and NW dip to explain the strong motion records obtained near the source area. In particular, strong ground motions in the site of the KKNPP had three significant pulses which are generated as directivity pulses in forward direction of rupture propagation. This is the reason why the strong ground motions in the site of the KKNPP had very large accelerations and velocities. The source model is also verified comparing the observed records at the KKNPP with the numerical simulations by the discrete wavenumber method (Bouchon, 1981).

  10. Rigorous noise test and calibration check of strong-motion instrumentation at the Conrad Observatory in Austria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, R.; Costa, G.; Lenhardt, W.; Horn, N.; Suhadolc, P.

    2012-04-01

    In the framework of the European InterregIV Italy/Austria project: "HAREIA - Historical and Recent Earthquakes in Italy and Austria" the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) and Mathematic and Geosciences Department of University of Trieste (DMG) are upgrading the transfrontier seismic network of South-Eastern Alps with new 12 accelerometric stations to enhance the strong motion instrument density near the Austria/Italy border. Various public institutions of the provinces Alto Adige (Bolzano Province), Veneto (ARPAV) and Friuli Venezia Giulia (Regional Civil Defense) in Italy and in the Austrian province of Tyrol are involved in the project. The site selection was carried out to improve the present local network geometry thus meeting the needs of public Institutions in the involved regions. In Tyrol and Alto Adige some strategic buildings (hospitals and public buildings) have been selected, whereas in Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia the sites are in the free field, mainly located near villages. The instruments will be installed in an innovative box, designed by ZAMG, that provides electric and water isolation. The common choice regarding the instrument selection has been the new Kinemetrics Basalt ® accelerograph to guarantee homogeneity with the already installed instrumentation and compatibility with the software already in use at the different seismic institutions in the area. Prior to deployment the equipment was tested at the Conrad Observatory and a common set-up has been devised. The Conrad Observatory, seismically particularly quiet, permits to analyze both the sensor and the acquisition system noise. The instruments were connected to the network and the data sent in real-time to the ZAMG data center in Vienna and the DMG data center in Trieste. The data have been collected in the database and analyzed using signal processing modules PQLX and Matlab. The data analysis of the recordings at the ultra-quiet Conrad Observatory pointed out some differences in the seismic response of the 12 instruments, mainly within the tolerance stated by the factory, and an optimization of a few sensors can be carried out in order to guarantee compatible high quality measurements.

  11. Microtremor Array Measurement Survey and Strong Ground Motion Observation Activities of The MarDiM (SATREPS) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozgur Citak, Seckin; Karagoz, Ozlem; Chimoto, Kosuke; Ozel, Oguz; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Aksahin, Bengi; Arslan, Safa; Hatayama, Ken; Ohori, Michihiro; Hori, Muneo

    2015-04-01

    Since 1939, devastating earthquakes with magnitude greater than seven ruptured North Anatolian Fault (NAF) westward, starting from 1939 Erzincan (Ms=7.9) at the eastern Turkey and including the latest 1999 Izmit-Golcuk (Ms=7.4) and the Duzce (Ms=7.2) earthquakes in the eastern Marmara region, Turkey. On the other hand, the west of the Sea of Marmara an Mw7.4 earthquake ruptured the NAF' s Ganos segment in 1912. The only un-ruptured segments of the NAF in the last century are within the Sea of Marmara, and are identified as a "seismic gap" zone that its rupture may cause a devastating earthquake. In order to unravel the seismic risks of the Marmara region a comprehensive multidisciplinary research project The MarDiM project "Earthquake And Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey", has already been started since 2003. The project is conducted in the framework of "Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS)" sponsored by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). One of the main research field of the project is "Seismic characterization and damage prediction" which aims to improve the prediction accuracy of the estimation of the damages induced by strong ground motions and tsunamis based on reliable source parameters, detailed deep and shallow velocity structure and building data. As for detailed deep and shallow velocity structure microtremor array measurement surveys were conducted in Zeytinburnu district of Istanbul and Tekirdag province at about 81 sites on October 2013 and September 2014. Also in September 2014, 11 accelerometer units were installed mainly in public buildings in both Zeytinburnu and Tekirdag area and are currently in operation. Each accelerometer unit compose of a Network Sensor (CV-374A2) by Tokyo Sokushin, post processing PC for data storage and power supply unit. The Network Sensor (CV-374A2) consist of three servo type accelerometers for two horizontal and one vertical component combined with 24 bit AD converter. In the presentation current achievements and activities of research group, preliminary results of microtremor array measurement surveys and recorded data by the newly installed stations will be introduced.

  12. Application of bounding spectra to seismic design of piping based on the performance of above ground piping in power plants subjected to strong motion earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1995-02-01

    This report extends the potential application of Bounding Spectra evaluation procedures, developed as part of the A-46 Unresolved Safety Issue applicable to seismic verification of in-situ electrical and mechanical equipment, to in-situ safety related piping in nuclear power plants. The report presents a summary of earthquake experience data which define the behavior of typical U.S. power plant piping subject to strong motion earthquakes. The report defines those piping system caveats which would assure the seismic adequacy of the piping systems which meet those caveats and whose seismic demand are within the bounding spectra input. Based on the observed behavior of piping in strong motion earthquakes, the report describes the capabilities of the piping system to carry seismic loads as a function of the type of connection (i.e. threaded versus welded). This report also discusses in some detail the basic causes and mechanisms for earthquake damages and failures to power plant piping systems.

  13. Strong ground motion simulation for the Mw6.6 Lushan Earthquake, Sichuan, China, base on the inverted and synthetic slip models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, W.; Zhong, Q.; Shi, B.

    2013-12-01

    As we know, the estimation of slip distributions on the fault surface is one of the most important issues for the source inversion of earthquake fault rupturing process. The characteristics of slip distribution on the mainfault play an important role to control strong ground motion pattern. Wang et al., and Zhang et al., published the fast inversion for the rupturing process soon after the 20 April 2013 Lushan, Ya'an earthquake in Sichuan, China. A large amount of works has suggested that variable slip models derived from longer-period ground motion recording are relevant for the prediction of higher-frequency ground motions. The k square model and crack model are well known to describe the slip distribution on the rupture surface. In this study, first we synthesize two forward models: the value of maximum slip, fault dimension, corner wave number derived from Wang model is used to constrain the production of k square model; also, the value of maximum slip, the dimension of asperities from Wang model is used to produce the crack model. Calculation shows that the value of corner wave number of these two synthetic slip models and the inverted models are much the same, and these four slip models are then used to simulate the ground motions for the Lushan earthquake base on the stochastic finite-fault method. Furthermore, a stochastic slip model is also employed for the simulation of strong ground motion for the Lushan event. The simulated results characterized by PGA and PGV show that the source models base on the inverted and synthetic slip distributions could capture most of the basic features of the ground motion. Moreover, the simulated MMI distributions reflect the obvious rupture directivity effect and the influence of the shallow velocity structure well. While the simulation of stochastic slip model is apparently higher than observed MMI. In addition, our simulation result shows that the higher-frequency ground is strongly sensitive to the degree of slip roughness, therefore, we suggest that, for a realistic ground motion simulations due to future earthquake, it is imperative to properly estimate the slip roughness distribution.

  14. Investigation of the Local Soil Effects at the New Strong-Motion Array (MATNet) in Hatay-K.Maras Region, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polat, O.; Çeken, U.

    2014-12-01

    The national strong-motion network in Turkey (TR-KYH) is owned and operated by the Prime Ministry, Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency Earthquake Department (AFAD). All TR-KYH stations generates real-time continuous data. A new dense strong-motion array (MATNet) has been installed near Hatay-K.Maras areas. It is at the SW corner of the East Anatolia Fault Zone (EAFZ). Primary target of MATNet is to investigate local site effects. Other important goal is to evaluate them as a part of early warning and preliminary damage estimate system. We also aim to develop a new attenuation relationship in the future from records including this new array. Most recorders are deployed as free-field and mounted in the container which is designed and produced for specific purposes. Hatay, Iskenderun and K.Maras cities have residential, industrial and dense populated areas. New stations are installed on different geological units in 1-3 km or 5-15 km intervals in city centers. Distances increase up to 30 km at the outside of settlements. The MATNet contains 55 triaxial force-balance accelerometers and capable to record explosions. A recent earthquake (Mw=4.5) occurred in the Gulf of Iskenderun on 14 February 2014, and triggered the MATNet and other regional accelerographs (80 triaxial strong-motion stations in total). Location of MATNet strong-motion stations in Hatay-K.Maras Region, Turkey, and distribution of triggered accelerometers during the recent earthquake (Mw=4.5), have been shown in the figure as a- and b-. In the present study, we analyzed to estimate the site response in the frequency range 0.5-10.0 Hz using the reference site (SSR) and HVSR techniques. The site response values thus obtained at each strong-motion sites were observed to be associated with the Quaternary formations. The maximum site amplifications at 0.5-1.8 Hz are detected as 10 around Hatay city, 6-8 (for 0.8-2.3 Hz) near K.Maras and Iskenderun areas. It is apparent that in both 0.5-1.8 and 0.8-2.3 Hz frequency bands, presence of geological contacts and sediment thicknesses controls the site responses in the study areas. It is also inferred that larger site response (~10) value in the 0.5 Hz frequency band could be indicating the probable presence of soil class C (360

  15. Distributed system for strong motion data retrieval and archiving : metadata, databases and data exchange within the NA5 framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pequegnat, C.; Gueguen, P.; Jacquot, R.

    2009-04-01

    The goal of the NERIES NA5 activity (http://www.neries-eu.org, Improving Accelerometric Data Access) is the development of common access to equally formatted event based accelerometric data and to the corresponding sheet of strong motion parameters. The core of the NA5 is made of 5 European institutes and the final protocol should permit other European institutes to integrate the NA5 portal. More precisely, the aim of the NA5 distributed data system is (1) to make available the data in a in specific format for the engineering community (i.e., ASCII) and in standard format for the seismological community (i.e. full SEED, SAC) and (2) to retrieve data at an unique portal on seismological and - accelerometric criteria, using relations between seismic sources and recordings and using specific parameters for the engineering community, i.e. site conditions and parameter thresholds (e.g., PGA, Ia, Duration, Sa(T), Sv(T)…). Parametric data as well as the procedures to compute them have been defined, implemented and make avalaible for all the NA5 partners. The final product will be a system based on a distributed '3 tiers' architecture, the three main nodes of which are : (1) the primary data servers of NA5 data providers, who make available waveforms (in ascii format) and the associated parameters and events-records tables, via ftp or http protocols (2) the NA5 portal, which supports metadata databases (events and stations metadata) and the associated user interfaces and webservices (3) the NA5 dataserver, the main function of which is the evaluation of the end-users requests, involving data retrieval, data conversion (sac, ascii and miniseed) and metadata formatting (sac, ascii and seed headers). Both NA5 portal and NA5 dataserver are presently under development, the former at EMSC, the latter at LGIT. Our presentation will point out the main features and resources of the NA5 dataserver : - a database of the instrument response files for the accelerometric channels (coefficient, poles and zeros) called PZ database has been set up, as well as some database maintenance tools. The PZ database is hierarchically structured into three directories : sensor, ana_filter and digitizer. - user requests are materialized by a specific xml structure generated at the portal and pushed to the dataserver via QWID/EIDS (Earthquake Information Distribution System). A NA5 xml request contains all the information (metadata) needed for its evaluation : requested data files matching the user search criteria are described by their URL, their network, site of installation and acquisition channel, the events and hypocentral informations they are linked to, as well as values of the parametric data. - the NA5 server notifies a xml parser, which checks and compiles the structure and store the information into an internal permanent relational metadata database. This database and the PZ directory are linked together by the way of a dedicated table, which contains directories and files names. Thus, the NA5 dataserver database will progressively be filled up by values carried on by NA5 requests. - once a request has been loaded into the database, the NA5 archiver process will then fork into four different sub-processes, each of them calling the internal database to get value(s) for its parameters : (a) get the ascii native waveforms files by downloading their URL if needed, i-e if the data are not already stored in the local cache, convert them into sac binary and miniseed (if needed, ie if miniseed files have not already been generated for this native waveforms files). (b) build the linked seed dataless, if the PZ files for these channels are available. (c) build the headers files (such headers will contain some more specific information about event, site condition and soil classification, max accelaration, aso. ) (d) pack the parametric data before archiving and compressing the result. The archiver process will end by filling up and re-writing the xml request file with updated information (archive URL for download, waveforms found and packed, size, etc.),

  16. Structure and evolution of the active fold and thrust belt of southwestern Taiwan using GPS geodesy 

    E-print Network

    Hickman, John Bibb

    1999-01-01

    the strike of this region. Although there is a general decrease in motion from east to west, significant variations occur across local structures. Deformation across southern Taiwan is neither halogenous, nor distributed evenly across its surface...

  17. Strong-motion, site-effects and hazard issues in rebuilding Turkey: In light of the 17 August, 1999 earthquake and its aftershocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.; Toprak, S.; Holzer, T.

    2000-01-01

    The August 17, 1999 Izmit (Turkey) earthquake (Mw=7.4) will be remembered as one of the largest earthquakes of recent times that affected a large urban environment (U.S. Geological Survey, 1999). The shaking that caused the widespread damage and destruction was recorded only by a handful of accelerographs in the earthquake area operated by different networks. The characteristics of these records show that the recorded peak accelerations, even those from near field stations, are smaller than expected. On the other hand, smaller magnitude aftershocks yielded larger peak accelerations. This is attributed to the sparse networks, which possibly missed recording of larger motions during the main shock. As rebuilding of Turkey starts, strong-motion networks that yield essential data must be enlarged. In addition, attention must be paid to new developments elsewhere, such as earthquake zoning maps, earthquake hazard maps, liquefaction potentials and susceptibility. This paper aims to discuss these issues. Copyright??2000 IAHS.

  18. Kinematic Source Rupture Process of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake, a MW6.9 thrust earthquake in northeast Japan, using Strong Motion Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, K.; Iwata, T.

    2008-12-01

    The 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake (MJMA7.2) on June 14, 2008, is a thrust type inland crustal earthquake, which occurred in northeastern Honshu, Japan. In order to see strong motion generation process of this event, the source rupture process is estimated by the kinematic waveform inversion using strong motion data. Strong motion data of the K-NET and KiK-net stations and Aratozawa Dam are used. These stations are located 3-94 km from the epicenter. Original acceleration time histories are integrated into velocity and band- pass filtered between 0.05 and 1 Hz. For obtaining the detailed source rupture process, appropriate velocity structure model for Green's functions should be used. We estimated one dimensional velocity structure model for each strong motion station by waveform modeling of aftershock records. The elastic wave velocity, density, and Q-values for four sedimentary layers are assumed following previous studies. The thickness of each sedimentary layer depends on the station, which is estimated to fit the observed aftershock's waveforms by the optimization using the genetic algorithm. A uniform layered structure model is assumed for crust and upper mantle below the seismic bedrock. We succeeded to get a reasonable velocity structure model for each station to give a good fit of the main S-wave part in the observation of aftershocks. The source rupture process of the mainshock is estimated by the linear kinematic waveform inversion using multiple time windows (Hartzell and Heaton, 1983). A fault plane model is assumed following the moment tensor solution by F-net, NIED. The strike and dip angle is 209° and 51°, respectively. The rupture starting point is fixed at the hypocenter located by the JMA. The obtained source model shows a large slip area in the shallow portion of the fault plane approximately 6 km southwest of the hypocenter. The rupture of the asperity finishes within about 9 s. This large slip area corresponds to the area with surface break reported by the field survey group (e.g., AIST/GSJ, 2008), which supports the existence of the large slip close to the ground surface. But, most of surface offset found by the field survey are less than 0.5 m whereas the slip amount of the shallow asperity of the source inversion result is 3-4 m. In north of the hypocenter, the estimated slip amount is small. Slip direction is almost pure dip-slip for the entire fault (Northwest side goes up against southeast side). Total seismic moment is 2.6× 1019 Nm (MW 6.9). Acknowledgments: Strong motion data of K-NET and KiK-net operated by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention are used. Strong motion data of Aratozawa Dam obtained by Miyagi prefecture government is also used in the study.

  19. Application of an iterative least-squares waveform inversion of strong-motion and teleseismic records to the 1978 Tabas, Iran, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, S.; Mendoza, C.

    1991-01-01

    An iterative least-squares technique is used to simultaneously invert the strong-motion records and teleseismic P waveforms for the 1978 Tabas, Iran, earthquake to deduce the rupture history. The effects of using different data sets and different parametrizations of the problem (linear versus nonlinear) are considered. A consensus of all the inversion runs indicates a complex, multiple source for the Tabas earthquake, with four main source regions over a fault length of 90 km and an average rupture velocity of 2.5 km/sec. -from Authors

  20. Strong ground motion generated by controlled blasting experiments and mining induced seismic events recorded underground at deep level mines in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milev, A.; Selllers, E.; Skorpen, L.; Scheepers, L.; Murphy, S.; Spottiswoode, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    A number of simulated rockbursts were conducted underground at deep level gold mines in South Africa in order to estimate the rock mass response when subjected to strong ground motion. The rockbursts were simulated by means of large blasts detonated in solid rock close to the sidewall of a tunnel. The simulated rockbursts involved the design of the seismic source, seismic observations in the near and far field, high-speed video filming, a study of rock mass conditions such as fractures, joints, rock strength etc. Knowledge of the site conditions before and after the simulated rockbursts was also gained. The numerical models used in the design of the simulated rockbursts were calibrated by small blasts taking place at each experimental site. A dense array of shock type accelerometers was installed along the blasting wall to monitor the attenuation of the strong ground motion as a function of the distance from the source. The attenuation of peak particle velocities, was found to be proportional to R^-1.7. Special investigations were carried out to evaluate the mechanism and the magnitude of damage, as well as the support behaviour under excessive dynamic loading. The strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events was studied, as part of this work, not only to characterize the rock mass response, but also to estimate the site effect on the surface of the underground excavations. A stand-alone instrument especially designed for recording strong ground motions was used to create a large database of peak particle velocities measured on stope hangingwalls. A total number of 58 sites located in stopes where the Carbon Leader Reef, Ventersdorp Contact Reef, Vaal Reef and Basal Reef are mined, were monitored. The peak particle velocities were measured at the surface of the excavations to identify the effect of the free surface and the fractures surrounding the underground mining. Based on these measurements the generally accepted velocity criterion of 3 m/s was found to be an adequate value to meet the requirements of support systems during a rockburst. The data recorded on the skin of the excavations were compared to the data recorded by the mine seismic networks to determine the site response, defined as the ratio of the measured peak ground velocity to the peak ground velocity inferred from the mine seismic data. The site response measured at all mines studied was found to be 9 ± 3 times larger on average.

  1. Seismic Structures of the Kuroshio Current off eastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, C.; Yeh, Y.; Hsu, S.; Ku, C.

    2009-12-01

    Kuroshio current is originated from North Equatorial Current that flows in the east of Taiwan then extends to southeast along coast of Japan. The high speed (~100cm/s) and high salinity (> 35 ‰) water of the Kuroshio current partially intrudes the Luzon Strait that flows into South China Sea then merged with the main flow around east of il-Lan, Taiwan annually. The seismic fine structure of Kuroshio current off Japan shows that the existence of strong linear reflections could be affected down to 1.5 TWT (~1,125 meters). However, due to only few profiles were analyzed and lack of comparison of physical oceanographic measurements (e.g. CTD), the characteristics of Kuroshio current is still unclear. In this study, we present all available multichannel seismic data east of Taiwan (e.g. beginning of Kuroshio current) including R/V Maurice Ewing collected in year 1995 and latest collected data by R/V Marcus G. Langseth this year. The result shows two branches of Kuroshio current east of Taiwan. One is close to east coast of Taiwan. The whole current column could be down to 1.6 TWT (~1,200 meters). The water from onland Taiwan also mix with the main Kuroshio current and reveals an obvious eastward dipping high seismic reflector. Second branch is situated at 110 km distance east of Taiwan, near the Gugua Ridge. This column forms oval-shaped and also be extended to 1,200 meters in deep.

  2. Philippine Sea Slab and South-Ryukyu Arc Sliver Accommodation of Arc-Continent Collision East of Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lallemand, S.; Theunissen, T.; Font, Y.; Schnurle, P.; Lee, C.; Liu, C.

    2011-12-01

    The southern termination of the Ryukyu arc-trench system underwent a complex polyphased and extremely rapid tectonic evolution during the last 5 to 8 My. At first, the relative motion of the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) has changed about 5 My ago from a northward to a northwestward motion relative to Eurasia. Secondly, the Ryukyu trench has propagated from east to west during the same time period resulting in a tectonic inversion along the former passive margin of the South China Sea into the active margin of the S-Ryukyu trench. Thirdly, the convergence rate along the neo-formed S-Ryukyu trench dramatically increased from 8 to 13 cm/yr since at least 2 My when the Southern Okinawa Trough (SOT) started to rift. At the same time, the oceanic subduction of the South China Sea beneath the northern Manila arc progressively evolved into a continental subduction of the Chinese platform at the origin of the Taiwan orogen. The timing of these various kinematic and tectonic events should have been recorded in the deformed sedimentary basins and fold-and-thrust belts in the region. Unfortunately, a large part is now below the sea-level and no or a few age constraints are available. The recent joint project between Taiwan-USA & France (TAIGER & ACTS) gave us the opportunity to considerably increase the resolution of the seismic imagery around the island and especially in the most highly deformed area east of Taiwan along the S-Ryukyu forearc. We already knew that the seismic activity focussed in this region but we ignored how the converging plates deformed. We can now argue that the PSP strongly deforms in the vicinity of its deep interaction with the root of the Taiwan orogen. The north-dipping PSP slab buckles and tears along two diverging directions with a down-faulted part subducting beneath the SOT.

  3. Fault rupture process and strong ground motion simulation of the 2014/04/01 Northern Chile (Pisagua) earthquake (Mw8.2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido Hernandez, N. E.; Suzuki, W.; Aoi, S.

    2014-12-01

    A megathrust earthquake occurred in Northern Chile in April 1, 2014, 23:46 (UTC) (Mw 8.2), in a region that had not experienced a major earthquake since the great 1877 (~M8.6) event. This area had been already identified as a mature seismic gap with a strong interseismic coupling inferred from geodetic measurements (Chlieh et al., JGR, 2011 and Metois et al., GJI, 2013). We used 48 components of strong motion records belonging to the IPOC network in Northern Chile to investigate the source process of the M8.2 Pisagua earthquake. Acceleration waveforms were integrated to get velocities and filtered between 0.02 and 0.125 Hz. We assumed a single fault plane segment with an area of 180 km by 135 km, a strike of 357, and a dip of 18 degrees (GCMT). We set the starting point of rupture at the USGS hypocenter (19.610S, 70.769W, depth 25km), and employed a multi-time-window linear waveform inversion method (Hartzell and Heaton, BSSA, 1983), to derive the rupture process of the Pisagua earthquake. Our results show a slip model characterized by one large slip area (asperity) localized 50 km south of the epicenter, a peak slip of 10 m and a total seismic moment of 2.36 x 1021Nm (Mw 8.2). Fault rupture slowly propagated to the south in front of the main asperity for the initial 25 seconds, and broke it by producing a strong acceleration stage. The fault plane rupture velocity was in average 2.9 km/s. Our calculations show an average stress drop of 4.5MPa for the entire fault rupture area and 12MPa for the asperity area. We simulated the near-source strong ground motion records in a broad frequency band (0.1 ~ 20 Hz), to investigate a possible multi-frequency fault rupture process as the one observed in recent mega-thrust earthquakes such as the 2011 Tohoku-oki (M9.0). Acknowledgments Strong motion data was kindly provided by Chile University as well as the IPOC (Integrated Plate boundary Observatory Chile).

  4. Current crustal deformation at the junction of collision to subduction around the Hualien area, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sean Kuanhsiang; Chan, Yu-Chang; Hu, Jyr-Ching; Kuo, Long-Chen

    2014-03-01

    We analyzed continuous GPS (CGPS) data recorded on 15 stations from 2002 to 2009 and examined the CGPS-derived strain along with local seismicity to characterize the current crustal deformation at the plate junction around the Hualien area in Taiwan. By examining the CGPS time series in detail, we discovered abnormal variations in the CGPS horizontal displacements and an annual cycle with a peak-to-peak difference of more than 20 mm. Most stations move in the ESE direction during May to October, and move in the opposite direction during November to April every year. We found that the average semi-annual velocity of each CGPS station is generally parallel to the direction of convergence between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea plates, and that the CGPS temporal areal strain is strongly related to the occurrence of larger local earthquakes, while the strain reverses from contraction to extension. The CGPS displacement is well known to have been influenced by seasonal changes or loadings from several environmental factors. We tested these perceptions with the newly acquired CGPS data and seismicity, and found that the environmental factors are unlikely to explain the patterns of surface motion in the study area. We also compared our results with previously reported cases and found distinctive patterns in the temporal and spatial distributions of the CGPS data and seismic behavior. The geodetic and seismic observations should provide motion constraints for further studies of the plate junction kinematics from collision to subduction around the Hualien area in Taiwan.

  5. Rupture history of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan, China, earthquake: Evaluation of separate and joint inversions of geodetic, teleseismic, and strong-motion data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, Stephen; Mendoza, Carlos; Ramírez-Guzmán, Leonardo; Zeng, Yuesha; Mooney, Walter

    2013-01-01

    earthquake. A linear multiple-time-window approach is used to parameterize the rupture. Because of the complexity of the Wenchuan faulting, three separate planes are used to represent the rupturing surfaces. This earthquake clearly demonstrates the strengths and limitations of geodetic, teleseismic, and strong-motion data sets. Geodetic data (static offsets) are valuable for determining the distribution of shallower slip but are insensitive to deeper faulting and reveal nothing about the timing of slip. Teleseismic data in the distance range 30°–90° generally involve no modeling difficulties because of simple ray paths and can distinguish shallow from deep slip. Teleseismic data, however, cannot distinguish between different slip scenarios when multiple fault planes are involved because steep takeoff angles lead to ambiguity in timing. Local strong-motion data, on the other hand, are ideal for determining the direction of rupture from directivity but can easily be over modeled with inaccurate Green’s functions, leading to misinterpretation of the slip distribution. We show that all three data sets are required to give an accurate description of the Wenchuan rupture. The moment is estimated to be approximately 1:0×1021 N · m with the slip characterized by multiple large patches with slips up to 10 m. Rupture initiates on the southern end of the Pengguan fault and proceeds unilaterally to the northeast. Upon reaching the cross-cutting Xiaoyudong fault, rupture of the adjacent Beichuan fault starts at this juncture and proceeds bilaterally to the northeast and southwest.

  6. Automatic Imaging the Rupture Process of the 2014 South Napa Earthquake by Iterative Deconvolution and Stacking the Strong-motion Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Wang, R.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 South Napa earthquake was well recorded by a densely distributed strong-motion network. By using the automatic iterative deconvolution and stacking (IDS) method, we invert data of strong-motion networks with different apertures and station spacings for rupture processes, in order to examine the influences of networks on the rupture models. By performing a series of inversions, we have found that networks, with apertures more than 60 km and station spacings less than 10 km, are sufficient to imaging the rupture process of the South Napa earthquake. The automatically estimated rupture models of different networks are consistent with each other; all of them suggest that the ruptures mainly propagated to the north and to shallow depths, and formed a unilateral rupture event. The peak slip of this earthquake is about 0.5-0.7 m, located near the ground surface and about 5 km to the north of the epicenter. This work suggests that, with the IDS method, it is feasible in principle to automatically estimate the earthquake rupture process after the earthquake occurrence. This would be beneficial to the earthquake emergency responses, such as earthquake relief and disaster mitigations.

  7. Respiratory motion compensation for simultaneous PET/MR based on a 3D-2D registration of strongly undersampled radial MR data: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rank, Christopher M.; Heußer, Thorsten; Flach, Barbara; Brehm, Marcus; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2015-03-01

    We propose a new method for PET/MR respiratory motion compensation, which is based on a 3D-2D registration of strongly undersampled MR data and a) runs in parallel with the PET acquisition, b) can be interlaced with clinical MR sequences, and c) requires less than one minute of the total MR acquisition time per bed position. In our simulation study, we applied a 3D encoded radial stack-of-stars sampling scheme with 160 radial spokes per slice and an acquisition time of 38 s. Gated 4D MR images were reconstructed using a 4D iterative reconstruction algorithm. Based on these images, motion vector fields were estimated using our newly-developed 3D-2D registration framework. A 4D PET volume of a patient with eight hot lesions in the lungs and upper abdomen was simulated and MoCo 4D PET images were reconstructed based on the motion vector fields derived from MR. For evaluation, average SUVmean values of the artificial lesions were determined for a 3D, a gated 4D, a MoCo 4D and a reference (with ten-fold measurement time) gated 4D reconstruction. Compared to the reference, 3D reconstructions yielded an underestimation of SUVmean values due to motion blurring. In contrast, gated 4D reconstructions showed the highest variation of SUVmean due to low statistics. MoCo 4D reconstructions were only slightly affected by these two sources of uncertainty resulting in a significant visual and quantitative improvement in terms of SUVmean values. Whereas temporal resolution was comparable to the gated 4D images, signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio were close to the 3D reconstructions.

  8. The SCEC Broadband Platform: A Collaborative Open-Source Software Package for Strong Ground Motion Simulation and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, F.; Maechling, P. J.; Goulet, C. A.; Somerville, P.; Jordan, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Broadband Platform is a collaborative software development project involving geoscientists, earthquake engineers, graduate students, and the SCEC Community Modeling Environment. The SCEC Broadband Platform (BBP) is open-source scientific software that can generate broadband (0-100Hz) ground motions for earthquakes, integrating complex scientific modules that implement rupture generation, low and high-frequency seismogram synthesis, non-linear site effects calculation, and visualization into a software system that supports easy on-demand computation of seismograms. The Broadband Platform operates in two primary modes: validation simulations and scenario simulations. In validation mode, the Platform runs earthquake rupture and wave propagation modeling software to calculate seismograms for a well-observed historical earthquake. Then, the BBP calculates a number of goodness of fit measurements that quantify how well the model-based broadband seismograms match the observed seismograms for a certain event. Based on these results, the Platform can be used to tune and validate different numerical modeling techniques. In scenario mode, the Broadband Platform can run simulations for hypothetical (scenario) earthquakes. In this mode, users input an earthquake description, a list of station names and locations, and a 1D velocity model for their region of interest, and the Broadband Platform software then calculates ground motions for the specified stations. Working in close collaboration with scientists and research engineers, the SCEC software development group continues to add new capabilities to the Broadband Platform and to release new versions as open-source scientific software distributions that can be compiled and run on many Linux computer systems. Our latest release includes 5 simulation methods, 7 simulation regions covering California, Japan, and Eastern North America, the ability to compare simulation results against GMPEs, and several new data products, such as map and distance-based goodness of fit plots. As the number and complexity of scenarios simulated using the Broadband Platform increases, we have added batching utilities to substantially improve support for running large-scale simulations on computing clusters.

  9. Inclusive Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu-Tien, Wu

    2007-01-01

    As an echo of the worldwide movement of inclusive education and because of the conviction of inclusive ideas, special education in Taiwan is moving toward a goal of inclusion, though not necessarily full inclusion. While its terminology is as yet undesignated, principles and strategies are significantly reflected in the Special Education Act and…

  10. Rupture-process images deduced from array back-projection analysis using data of a dense strong ground-motion seismograph network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, R.; Yukutake, Y.; Tanada, T.; Yoshida, A.

    2009-12-01

    An M6.5 earthquake occurred beneath Suruga Bay on 11 August 2009. Japanese seismic intensity scale 6- was recorded near the source region. The earthquake on 11 August occurred in the Philippine Sea plate which subducts beneath the Tokai region on the Suruga Trough and the mechanism was estimated as a thrust-type with strike-slip components. The rupture area is within the expected source region of the so-called M8 Tokai earthquake. Although strong ground motions were observed widely around the source area, it is difficult to recover the rupture process by the waveform inversions in detail, because magnitude of the earthquake is not so large and the dominant frequency is outside of suitable range for the waveform inversions. In this study, we estimated the rupture process by performing an array back-projection analysis (e.g., Honda and Aoi, 2009). A strong ground motion seismograph network has been deployed in Hakone caldera about 40 km to the northeast from the source region. The seismograph network was regarded as a dense array. Hereafter, we call the array as HK-net. Resolution of the analysis is affected by the array size. Seismographs of HK-net are distributed extensively in Hakone caldera whose diameter is about 10 km and the site separations in HK-net are less than 1 km. We expected that this array configuration is appropriate for the analysis using the waveforms whose frequency range is higher than 1 Hz. The waveforms are band-pass filtered in the frequency range of 0.5-5Hz and integrated into velocity. We adopted the hypocenter determined by NIED (138.502, 34.805, 21.6km) and took the nodal plane dipping south-eastward as the fault plane on which the hypocenter was located, although aftershocks were also seen to have been distributed on another plane dipping northeastward. Two peaks appeared in strong ground motion records observed in HK-net and this means there are two sources (asperities) on the fault. In order to determine the sources of the pulses, semblance-enhanced waveform stacking was performed. By projecting the power of the stacked waveforms on to the fault plane, two asperities that generated significant pulses were successfully imaged at the hypocenter and the northwestern edge of the fault, respectively. The rupture seems to have started at the hypocenter and propagated unilaterally toward the northwestern edge of the fault. These results agree with the fact that two pulses were observed only at the eastern side of the source region but not observed at the western side, which is reasonable if the directivity effect is taken into account.

  11. Preliminary study on soil to rock spectral ratio method of microtremor measurement in Taipei Basin, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jyun Yan; Wen, Kuo Liang; Te Chen, Chun; Chang, Shun Chiang

    2014-05-01

    Taipei city is the capital of Taiwan which located in Taipei basin and covered with hundreds meter of alluvial layer that might cause serious damage during huge earthquake. Prediction of possible strong motion levels occurred in the basin then became popular. Engineers most like to use Ground Motion Prediction Equation (GMPEs) as common tool for seismic hazard calculation but GMPEs were usually debated that it can only give one prediction value (PGA, PGV, Sa etc.) rather than time history or spectrum. Seismologists tried theoretical simulation (1D, 2D, 3D method) but could only give low frequency (usually less than 1 Hz) results restricted to that the shallow structures were not clear enough. Resent years, wide frequency simulation techniques such as empirical green's function added stochastic simulation method (hybrid method) were applied to several different purposes but site effect still plays an important role that need to be considered. Traditionally soil to rock spectral ratio of shear wave (denoted as S/R) was widely applied to check basin effect for decades but the technique needs lots of permanent stations and several years to get enough records. If some site located within strong motion network but not close enough to the strong motion stations, interpolate or extrapolate results needed to be used. Wen and Huang (2012) conducted a dense microtremor measurement network in whole Taiwan and applied microtremor H/V to discuss dominant frequency with traditional transfer functions from earthquake shear wave and found good agreement between them. Furthermore, in this study, the ability of soil to rock spectral ratio of microtremor (denoted as MS/R) measurement was tested in Taipei basin. The preliminary results showed MS/R had good agreement with S/R between 0.2 to 5 Hz. And distance from soil site to reference rock site should no greater than 8 to 10 km base on degree of spectrum difference (DSPD) calculation. If the MS/R works that site effect study from this technique could be applied for some region which distribution of strong motion stations were not dense enough after all.

  12. Rupture process of the Ms 6.6 Superstition Hills, California, earthquake determined from strong-motion recordings: application of tomographic source inversion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, A.; Wennerberg, L.

    1989-01-01

    We analyze strong-motion recordings of the Ms6.6 Superstition Hills earthquake to determine the timing, location, spatial extent, and rupture velocity of the subevents that produced the bulk of the high-frequency (0.5 to 4Hz) seismic energy radiated by this shock. The earthquake can be characterized by three principal subevents, the largest ones occurring about 3 and 10sec after initiation of rupture. Timing relationships between pulses on the seismograms indicate that the three subevents are located within 8km of each other along the northern portion of the Superstition Hills fault. The two largest subevents display different directivity effects. We apply a tomographic source inversion to the integrated accelerograms to determine the slip acceleration on the fault as a function of time and distance, based on a one-dimensional fault model. -from Authors

  13. Kinematic rupture process of the 2014 Chile Mw 8.1 earthquake constrained by strong-motion, GPS static offsets and teleseismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chengli; Zheng, Yong; Wang, Rongjiang; Xiong, Xiong

    2015-08-01

    On 2014 April 1, a magnitude Mw 8.1 interplate thrust earthquake ruptured a densely instrumented region of Iquique seismic gap in northern Chile. The abundant data sets near and around the rupture zone provide a unique opportunity to study the detailed source process of this megathrust earthquake. We retrieved the spatial and temporal distributions of slip during the main shock and one strong aftershock through a joint inversion of teleseismic records, GPS offsets and strong motion data. The main shock rupture initiated at a focal depth of about 25 km and propagated around the hypocentre. The peak slip amplitude in the model is ˜6.5 m, located in the southeast of the hypocentre. The major slip patch is located around the hypocentre, spanning ˜150 km along dip and ˜160 km along strike. The associated static stress drop is ˜3 MPa. Most of the seismic moment was released within 150 s. The total seismic moment of our preferred model is 1.72 × 1021 N m, equivalent to Mw 8.1. For the strong aftershock on 2014 April 3, the slip mainly occurred in a relatively compact area, and the major slip area surrounded the hypocentre with the peak amplitude of ˜2.5 m. There is a secondary slip patch located downdip from the hypocentre with the peak slip of ˜2.1 m. The total seismic moment is about 3.9 × 1020 N m, equivalent to Mw 7.7. Between the rupture areas of the main shock and the 2007 November 14 Mw 7.7 Antofagasta, Chile earthquake, there is an earthquake vacant zone with a total length of about 150 km. Historically, if there is no big earthquake or obvious aseismic creep occurring in this area, it has a great potential of generating strong earthquakes with magnitude larger than Mw 7.0 in the future.

  14. Seismotectonic characteristics of the northernmost part of the Longitudinal Valley suture, eastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.-F.; Shyu, J. B. H.; Wu, Y.-M.

    2012-04-01

    The island of Taiwan is located at the collisional boundary between the Philippine Sea and the Eurasian plates. In eastern Taiwan, the Longitudinal Valley between the Central Range and the Coastal Range is generally considered as the suture zone. The Ryukyu subduction system, on the other hand, extends southwestward from offshore eastern Taiwan, and intersects with the northernmost Longitudinal Valley suture. As a result, this area is characterized by frequent earthquakes and complex geological structures. Although there have been several tectonic investigations in this area, detailed knowledge of seismotectonic characteristics of this complicated region is still very limited. Recently, we have obtained high resolution earthquake data by combining records from seismic stations of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and data from Taiwan Central Weather Bureau Seismic Network (CWBSN) and Taiwan Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP). Therefore, we attempted to analyze this area in detail using these high resolution seismic data, together with tectonic geomorphic investigations. The distribution of background seismicity shows that many earthquakes occurred at about 10 km deep in this area, and a linear seismicity cluster extends to the surface west of the Hualien City. We infer that this seismicity cluster represents a structure that crops out within the eastern flank of the Central Range. This structure would be different from the Milun fault, which is a known structure in the Hualien area and ruptured during an M7.3 earthquake in October 1951. Another major feature in this area is a listric cluster of seismicity that appears to extend to the surface near the Liwu River mouth, north of the Hualien City. This cluster likely represents an E-W striking structure that dips to the south. Based on the focal mechanisms of several recent moderate earthquakes that occurred within these seismic clusters, we suggest that these two structures are reverse faults. We are currently collecting more data, such as the crustal deformation patterns from GPS networks, 3-D velocity structure, and the bedrock structural features from field investigations, to further understand these two unknown structures and the general seismotectonic characteristics of this area.

  15. Seismotectonic characteristics of the northernmost part of the Longitudinal Valley suture, eastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyu, J. H.; Chen, C.; Wu, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The island of Taiwan is located at the collisional boundary between the Philippine Sea and the Eurasian plates. In eastern Taiwan, the Longitudinal Valley between the Central Range and the Coastal Range is generally considered as the suture zone. The Ryukyu subduction system, on the other hand, extends southwestward from offshore eastern Taiwan, and intersects with the northernmost Longitudinal Valley suture. As a result, this area is characterized by frequent earthquakes and complex geological structures. Although there have been several tectonic investigations in this area, detailed knowledge of seismotectonic characteristics of this complicated region is still very limited. Recently, we have obtained high resolution earthquake data by combining records from seismic stations of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and data from Taiwan Central Weather Bureau Seismic Network (CWBSN) and Taiwan Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP). Therefore, we attempted to analyze this area in detail using these high resolution seismic data, together with tectonic geomorphic investigations. The distribution of background seismicity shows that many earthquakes occurred at about 10 km deep in this area, and a linear seismicity band extends to the surface west of the Hualien City. We infer that this band of seismicity represents a structure that crops out within the eastern flank of the Central Range. This structure would be different from the Milun fault, which is a known structure in the Hualien area and ruptured during an M7.3 earthquake in October 1951. Another major feature in this area is a listric band of seismicity that appears to extend to the surface near the Liwu River mouth, north of the Hualien City. This seismicity band likely represents an E-W striking structure that dips to the south. Based on the focal mechanisms of several recent moderate earthquakes that occurred within these seismic bands, we suggest that these two structures are reverse faults. These two structures may connect with each other to form a major boundary structure system in this area. In the northernmost part of the Longitudinal Valley suture, we propose that as the Coastal Range subducts northward beneath the Eurasian plate with the Philippine Sea plate, the shallow sediments of the Longitudinal Valley, being a buoyant block, do not subduct, but overthrust northward and westward instead.

  16. Taiwan Nantou County earthquake 0327 Taiwan Nantou County earthquake

    E-print Network

    Chen, Sheng-Wei

    Taiwan Nantou County earthquake 20130327 1 #12;0327 Taiwan Nantou County earthquake Source, Intensity 5 #12;I II III IV V VI VII Intensity Shake map of the March 27 Earthquake The peak ground and Technology Center for Disaster Reduction (NCDR) #12;Earthquake Response and Evacuation are a Part of Students

  17. Comparison of shear-wave slowness profiles at 10 strong-motion sites from noninvasive SASW measurements and measurements made in boreholes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, L.T.; Boore, D.M.; Stokoe, K.H., II

    2002-01-01

    The spectral-analysis-of-surface-waves (SASW) method is a relatively new in situ method for determining shear-wave slownesses. All measurements are made on the ground surface, making it much less costly than methods that require boreholes. The SASW method uses a number of active sources (ranging from a commercial Vibroseis truck to a small handheld hammer for the study conducted here) and different receiver spacings to map a curve of apparent phase velocity versus frequency. With the simplifying assumption that the phase velocities correspond to fundamental mode surface waves, forward modeling yields an estimate of the sub-surface shear-wave slownesses. To establish the reliability of this indirect technique, we conducted a blind evaluation of the SASW method. SASW testing was performed at 10 strong-motion stations at which borehole seismic measurements were previously or subsequently made; if previously made, the borehole results were not used for the interpretation of the SASW data, and vice-versa. Comparisons of the shear-wave slownesses from the SASW and borehole measurements are generally very good. The differences in predicted ground-motion amplifications are less than about 15% for most frequencies. In addition, both methods gave the same NEHRP site classification for seven of the sites. For the other three sites the average velocities from the downhole measurements were only 5-13 m/sec larger than the velocity defining the class C/D boundary. This study demonstrates that in many situations the SASW method can provide subsurface information suitable for site response predictions.

  18. Practical Applications of Low Cost Seismic Network for Producing Quick Shaking Map in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yih-Min

    2014-05-01

    Two major earthquakes of ML greater than 6.0 occurred in Taiwan in the first half of 2013. The vibrantly shakings brought landslides, falling rocks and casualties. This paper presents a seismic network developed by National Taiwan University (NTU) with 401 Micro-ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) accelerators. The network recorded high quality strong motion signals of the two events and produced delicate shaking maps within one minute after the earthquake occurrence. The high shaking regions of the intensity map produced by the NTU system precisely indicate the locations of damages and casualties. Equipping with the dense array of MEMS accelerometers, the NTU system is able to accommodate 10% signals loss from part of the seismic stations and maintains its normal functions for producing shaking maps. The system also has the potential to identify the direction of rupture which is one of the key indices to estimate possible damages. The low cost MEMS accelerator array shows its potential in real-time earthquake shaking map generation and damage avoidance.

  19. Rupture process of the two main 2014 Pisagua earthquakes (Mw 8.1 and 7.6) from strong motion, geodetic and global seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallee, M.; Grandin, R.; Ruiz, S.; Delouis, B.; Vigny, C.; Rivera, E.; Aissaoui, E. M.; Allgeyer, S.; Satriano, C.; Poiata, N.; Bernard, P.; Vilotte, J. P.; Schurr, B.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 seismic sequence in Northern Chile culminated with the Mw8.1 Pisagua earthquake (2014/04/01), rapidly followed by a large aftershock close to Iquique (Mw=7.6, 2014/04/03). A detailed analysis of these two earthquakes is required to better relate these major events with their preparatory phase, and in particular with the intense activity of the area between March 16th and April 1st. This area has been densely instrumented by several international and Chilean projects, including strong motion and broadband sensors as well as high-rate GPS stations. In this study, we make an extensive use of the seismo-geodetic data collected by the IPOC/CSN (http://www.ipoc-network.org/) and ONEMI networks. In a first step, we model several of the foreshocks with magnitudes in the range [5.5 6.5] in order to determine a seismic velocity model able to reproduce the observations up to 0.1Hz. This velocity model is then used to analyze the rupture process of the two main shocks. Besides the use of the local displacement waveforms (coming from strong motion sensors and high-rate GPS), the inversion procedure also includes the static GPS displacements and the teleseismic P and SH waves. The source models are finally validated with other geophysical information not included in the inversion, such as InSAR or surface waves analysis through an empirical Green function approach. These data consistently show that most of the coseismic slip of the 1st April main shock is located in a 50km long zone (along strike), close and South from the hypocenter. In the time domain, this large slip patch has been activated 15-20s after origin time and lasted about 30s. Before this activation, seismic moment release was low and rupture remained in the hypocentral region. Differences and relations between the two shocks, as well as their interpretation in the 2014 seismic sequence, will be discussed.

  20. Taiwan orogeny: thin-skinned or lithospheric collision?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Francis T.; Rau, Ruey-Juin; Salzberg, David

    1997-06-01

    The Taiwan orogeny is young and presently very active. It provides an excellent environment for studying ongoing orogenic processes, especially since the region is monitored intensively with dense seismological and geodetic networks, and new studies aiming at deciphering shallow and deep structures in and around Taiwan have been recently conducted or are being planned. The available data can be used continually to test critically hypotheses of the Taiwan orogeny. Hypotheses dealing with the mechanics of mountain building are basic to the understanding of Taiwan orogeny and are particularly amenable to testing. The widely cited 'thin-skinned tectonics' hypothesis was formulated to explain mainly the geologic and relatively shallow (<10 km) seismic data. In various forms of this hypothesis, the mountain building involves the deformation of ready-to-fail (Tertiary) sediments in a thin (<20 km at the deepest point) wedge deformed by the advancing Philippine Sea plate; the Eurasian plate is assumed to subduct the Philippine Sea plate with the Taiwan orogenic belt on top as an accretionary wedge. We tested this hypothesis against newly acquired seismological and geophysical data and found it to be largely inadequate as a model for Taiwan orogeny, because the evidence for the participation of the lower crust and even the upper mantle in the orogeny is very strong. Rather than the result of deforming a thin wedge, the formation of the Central Range is shown to include the thickening of crust as well as the extrusion of mid- to lower crustal high-velocity materials to shallow depth. Seismicity and focal mechanisms demonstrate that significant deformation is taking place at depths far below what the think-skinned tectonics hypothesis predicts. As an alternative, the lithospheric collision hypothesis is proposed. In this model the Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plates are colliding at least down to a depth of 60 km. This hypothesis involves not only greater depth but also greater lateral extent. It accounts for the formation of the deep-rooted Central Range on the Eurasian side, as well as the shortening and thickening of the margin of the Philippine Sea plate near Taiwan. It also asserts that the Central Range was built mainly under ductile conditions, while in the Western Foothills area, the deformation involves the whole brittle-ductile-brittle-ductile sandwiched crust and upper mantle. Furthermore, it is asserted that the collision effect is transmitted to the Taiwan Strait resulting in normal faulting striking perpendicular to the trend of Taiwan. Among the implications of this hypothesis some can be readily subjected to falsification. By critically evaluating the components and accepting or rejecting them, our understanding of the Taiwan orogeny in particular and mountain building in general can be improved.

  1. Shear Wave Velocity and Site Amplification Factors for 25 Strong-Motion Instrument Stations Affected by the M5.8 Mineral, Virginia, Earthquake of August 23, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kayen, Robert; Carkin, Bradley; Corbett, Skye; Zangwill, Aliza; Estevez, Ivan; Lai, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Vertical one-dimensional shear wave velocity (Vs) profiles are presented for 25 strong-motion instrument sites along the Mid-Atlantic eastern seaboard, Piedmont region, and Appalachian region, which surround the epicenter of the M5.8 Mineral, Virginia, Earthquake of August 23, 2011. Testing was performed at sites in Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, the District of Columbia, North Carolina, and Tennessee. The purpose of the study is to determine the detailed site velocity profile, the average velocity in the upper 30 meters of the profile (VS,30), the average velocity for the entire profile (VS,Z), and the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site classification. The Vs profiles are estimated using a non-invasive continuous-sine-wave method for gathering the dispersion characteristics of surface waves. A large trailer-mounted active source was used to shake the ground during the testing and produce the surface waves. Shear wave velocity profiles were inverted from the averaged dispersion curves using three independent methods for comparison, and the root-mean square combined coefficient of variation (COV) of the dispersion and inversion calculations are estimated for each site.

  2. Rupture Process of the 23 October 2011 Mw7.1 Van Earthquake in Eastern Turkey by Joint Inversion of Teleseismic, GPS and Strong-Motion Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chengli; Zheng, Yong; Xiong, Xiong; Wang, Rongjiang

    2015-06-01

    On 23 October 2011, a strong earthquake (Mw = 7.1) struck the Van (Eastern Turkey) region and its surrounding areas at 10:41:22 UTC (hereafter referred to as the Van earthquake), causing severe damage to the source region. Several studies have been carried out on the focal mechanism, seismic moment, focal depth and rupture model of this earthquake. However, there are still significant differences in the moment release, focal depth and slip asperities among these models. Since most of these models only used a single data set to investigate the source parameters, the reliability of these results is still a concern. In order to make clear the uncertainties and provide a reliable detailed rupture model for the mainshock, we investigated the rupture process of the Van earthquake by a joint inversion of teleseismic broadband seismograms, near-field static GPS displacement records and strong-motion data. The inversion results indicate that the mainshock was dominated by a thrust slip with a small part of a left-lateral strike-slip component below the hypocenter. The rupture initiated at a focal depth of 16 km and propagated to the surface with a relatively low average rupture velocity of ~1.8 km/s, suggesting that the major energy of the earthquake was released in a long-period band, which is the main reason why the seismic moments inverted by a long period or static signals are higher than those obtained by short-period data. Most of the slip occurred around the hypocenter with a maximum slip of more than 3.3 m, and the associated static stress drop was ~3 MPa. The total seismic moment of the whole fault was 5.76 × 1019 N·m, and most energy was released in the first 20 s, which is in the variation range of the released rupture models. The major slip was concentrated at deeper depth and extended to a depth of around 25 km. Meanwhile, the surface rupture was quite small, which explains why only weak ruptures were observed at the surface although caused by such a strong earthquake.

  3. Clonorchiasis in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, E R

    1991-12-01

    Since Ohi in 1915 found clonorchiasis patients in Taiwan, many surveys have shown that Miao-li in the north, Sun-moon Lake in the middle and Mei-nung in the south of Taiwan are three important endemic areas of clonorchiasis. In recent studies, the disease showed a tendency to extend its endemicity. Rats, cats, dogs and pigs are the natural reservoir hosts, and 17 species of fresh water fish are also infected with metacercaria. One definitive snail host, Parafossarulus manchouricus, and two other suggested snails, Semisulcospira libertina and Thiara granifera, may serve as the first intermediate host. The human incidence is about 20-50% in endemic areas and 10-20% in newly infected localities. Higher infection rates and more intensities of the worm burden are observed in the adult males. A higher incidence is also observed in the Hakkanense ethnic group. The infection according to the occupation has changed from merchants and government employees to farmers. Praziquantel, 60 mg/kg body weight divided into three doses by oral route in one day, has been given to 356 patients and revealed a 96% cure rate and a 99% egg reduction rate. This regimen is highly recommended for the treatment of clonorchiasis. PMID:1822883

  4. Therapeutic apheresis in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yeh, J H; Chiu, H C

    2001-12-01

    From July 1, 1999, to June 30, 2000, the Formosan Blood Purification Society conducted a survey on the current status of therapeutic apheresis (TA) treatments in Taiwan. There were 13 centers with a total of 437 patients, 498 courses, and 2,086 procedures. The most common indication was for neurological disorders (58.4%), which included mainly myasthenia gravis (34.9%) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (18.2%). The other indications were hematological disorders (19.3%), hepatic-pancreatic disorders (12.3%), and rheumatic disorders (7.1%). Seventy-one percent of TA treatments were reported to be effective. Plasma exchange (PE) performed by either centrifugation or the filtration method constituted 55.4% of TA treatments, the double-filtration (DF) method constituted 39.3% of treatments, and cytapheresis constituted 5.3% of treatments. The most common machines used for TA were the Plasauto iQ, the KM 8800, the Hemonetics series, and the Fenwal CS-3000. The overall frequency of complications was 42.2% per course and 12.9% per procedure. Among them, fever, urticaria, and hypotension were the major complications. As compared with the trends of TA treatment in the world, PE still represents the major TA treatment in Taiwan, which should be replaced by DF or more selective adsorptive methods to reduce the PE-related adverse effects. PMID:11800091

  5. ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 468, Vol. 43, No. 1-2, March-June 2006, pp. 11-29 ANALYSIS OF STRONG MOTION DATA OF THE UTTARKASHI

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Vinay Kumar

    ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 468, Vol. 43, No. 1-2, March-June 2006, pp. 11-29 ANALYSIS OF STRONG MOTION DATA OF THE UTTARKASHI EARTHQUAKE OF 20TH OCTOBER 1991 AND THE CHAMOLI EARTHQUAKE of two major earthquakes in the Garhwal Himalayas, namely the 1991 Uttarkashi Earthquake and the 1999

  6. Why does the co-seismic slip of the 1999 Chi-Chi (Taiwan) earthquake increase progressively northwestward on the plane

    E-print Network

    Cattin, Rodolphe

    Taiwan Island extends along the convergent boundary between Philippine Sea Plate (PH) and Eurasia (EU) at the junction of the Manila and Ryukyu Trenches (Fig. 1). The rapid northwest motion of the Philippine Sea Plate. To the north, beneath Taiwan Island, the Chinese margin underthrusts the Luzon volcanic arc in a subduction

  7. Broad-band strong motion simulations coupling k-square kinematic source models with empirical Green's functions: the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Gaudio, Sergio; Causse, Mathieu; Festa, Gaetano

    2015-10-01

    The use of simulated accelerograms may improve the evaluation of the seismic hazard when an accurate modelling of both source and propagation is performed. In this paper, we performed broad-band simulations of the 2009, M 6.3 L'Aquila earthquake, coupling a k-2 kinematic model for the seismic source with empirical Green's functions (EGFs) as propagators. We extracted 10 EGFs candidates from a database of aftershocks satisfying quality criteria based on signal-to-noise ratio, fault proximity, small magnitude, similar focal mechanism and stress drop. For comparison with real observations, we also derived a low-frequency kinematic model, based on inversion of ground displacement as integrated from strong motion data. Kinematic properties of the inverted model (rupture velocity, position of the rupture nucleation, low-frequency slip and roughness degree of slip heterogeneity) were used as constraints in the k-2 model, to test the use of a single specific EGF against the use of the whole set of EGFs. Comparison to real observations based on spectral and peak ground acceleration shows that the use of all available EGFs improves the fit of simulations to real data. Moreover the epistemic variability related to the selection of a specific EGF is significantly larger (two to three times) than recent observations of between event variability, that is the variability associated with the randomness of the rupture process. We finally performed `blind' simulations releasing all the information on source kinematics and only considering the fault geometry and the magnitude of the target event as known features. We computed peak ground acceleration, acceleration Fourier and response spectra. Simulations follow the same trend with distance as real observations. In most cases these latter fall within one sigma from predictions. Predictions with source parameters constrained at low frequency do not perform better than `blind' simulations, showing that extrapolation of the low-frequency description of the rupture front as inferred by the kinematic inversion may introduce some bias in the final simulations.

  8. Rupture process of 2011 Mw7.1 Van, Eastern Turkey earthquake from joint inversion of strong-motion, high-rate GPS, teleseismic, and GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konca, A. Ozgun

    2015-10-01

    We analyzed the rupture process of the 2011 Mw7.1 Van, Eastern Turkey earthquake using teleseismic, strong-motion, 1-Hz GPS waveforms and static GPS displacement measurements. We performed data sensitivity analyses using four different rupture scenarios. Overall, when geodetic and seismic datasets are modeled jointly, slip distribution is well-constrained and rupture velocity can be obtained. The 2011 Van earthquake is a case where none of the available datasets are sufficient to constrain the slip distribution and the rupture kinematics on their own. This study confirms that rather than fitting one dataset perfectly, using multiple datasets jointly leads to a better-constrained slip distribution. The kinematic model obtained from the joint inversion of all the available data shows a 45-km-long bilateral rupture with two sub-events; one larger slip patch propagating up-dip and toward west of the hypocenter and a smaller second slip patch toward the east. The highest slip is to the west of the hypocenter with a peak value of 4.5 m. The slip is confined to the depths of 7.5 to 20 km and the shallower part of the fault remains unbroken. The average rupture velocity is around 3 km/s, close the Rayleigh wave velocity. The rupture is faster with shorter rise times for the larger sub-event toward the west, while the rise times are longer for the smaller sub-event to the east. This difference in seismic behavior might be related to the segmentation of the fault.

  9. ARRA-funded VS30 measurements using multi-technique approach at strong-motion stations in California and central-eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yong, Alan; Martin, Antony; Stokoe, Kenneth; Diehl, John

    2013-01-01

    Funded by the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), we conducted geophysical site characterizations at 191 strong-motion stations: 187 in California and 4 in the Central-Eastern United States (CEUS). The geophysical methods used at each site included passive and active surface-wave and body-wave techniques. Multiple techniques were used at most sites, with the goal of robustly determining VS (shear-wave velocity) profiles and VS30 (the time-averaged shear-wave velocity in the upper 30 meters depth). These techniques included: horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR), two-dimensional (2-D) array microtremor (AM), refraction microtremor (ReMi™), spectral analysis of surface wave (SASW), multi-channel analysis of surface waves (Rayleigh wave: MASRW; and Love wave: MASLW), and compressional- and shear-wave refraction. Of the selected sites, 47 percent have crystalline, volcanic, or sedimentary rock at the surface or at relatively shallow depth, and 53 percent are of Quaternary sediments located in either rural or urban environments. Calculated values of VS30 span almost the full range of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) Site Classes, from D (stiff soils) to B (rock). The NEHRP Site Classes based on VS30 range from being consistent with the Class expected from analysis of surficial geology, to being one or two Site Classes below expected. In a few cases where differences between the observed and expected Site Class occurred, it was the consequence of inaccurate or coarse geologic mapping, as well as considerable degradation of the near-surface rock. Additionally, several sites mapped as rock have Site Class D (stiff soil) velocities, which is due to the extensive weathering of the surficial rock.

  10. Is the Lishan fault of Taiwan active?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo-Chen, Hao; Wu, Francis; Chang, Wu-Lung; Chang, Chih-Yu; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Hirata, Naoshi

    2015-10-01

    The Lishan fault has been characterized alternately as a major discontinuity in stratigraphy, structures and metamorphism, a ductile shear zone, a tectonic suture or non-existent. In addition to being a geological boundary, it also marks transitions in subsurface structures. Thus, the seismicity to the west of the fault permeates through the upper and mid-crust while beneath the Central Range it is noticeably less and largely concentrated in the upper 12 km. A prominent west-dipping conductive zone extends upward to meet the Lishan fault. Also, the eastward increase of crust thickness from ~ 30 km in the Taiwan Strait quickens under the Lishan fault to form a root of over 50 km under the Central Range. In the past, the small magnitude seismicity along the Lishan fault has been noticed but is too diffuse for definitive association with the fault. Recent processing of aftershock records of the 1999 Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake using Central Weather Bureau data and, especially, data from three post-Chi-Chi deployments of seismic stations across central Taiwan yielded hypocenters that appear to link directly to the Lishan structure. The presence of a near 4-km-long vertical seismic zone directly under the surface trace of the Lishan fault indicates that it is an active structure from the surface down to about 35 km, and the variety of focal mechanisms indicates that the fault motion can be complex and depth-dependent.

  11. Synchrotrons: Taiwan unveils new synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuchi, Noriaki

    2015-05-01

    Competitive activities around the globe to develop the world's brightest synchrotron light source have accelerated in recent years. Taiwanese scientists now aspire to be at the top of the list with the recently constructed Taiwan Photon Source.

  12. Subsurface imaging, TAIGER experiments and tectonic models of Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Francis T.; Kuo-Chen, H.; McIntosh, K. D.

    2014-08-01

    The seismicity, deformation rates and associated erosion in the Taiwan region clearly demonstrate that plate tectonic and orogenic activities are at a high level. Major geologic units can be neatly placed in the plate tectonic context, albeit critical mapping in specific areas is still needed, but the key processes involved in the building of the island remain under discussion. Of the two plates in the vicinity of Taiwan, the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) is oceanic in its origin while the Eurasian Plate (EUP) is comprised partly of the Asian continental lithosphere and partly of the transitional lithosphere of the South China Sea basin. It is unanimously agreed that the collision of PSP and EU is the cause of the Taiwan orogeny, but several models of the underlying geological processes have been proposed, each with its own evolutionary history and implied subsurface tectonics. TAIGER (TAiwan Integrated GEodynamics Research) crustal- and mantle-imaging experiments recently made possible a new round of testing and elucidation. The new seismic tomography resolved structures under and offshore of Taiwan to a depth of about 200 km. In the upper mantle, the steeply east-dipping high velocity anomalies from southern to central Taiwan are clear, but only the extreme southern part is associated with seismicity; toward the north the seismicity disappears. The crustal root under the Central Range is strongly asymmetrical; using 7.5 km/s as a guide, the steep west-dipping face on the east stands in sharp contrast to a gradual east-dipping face on the west. A smaller root exists under the Coastal Range or slightly to the east of it. Between these two roots lies a well delineated high velocity rise spanning the length from Hualien to Taitung. The 3-D variations in crustal and mantle structures parallel to the trend of the island are closely correlated with the plate tectonic framework of Taiwan. The crust is thickest in the central Taiwan collision zone, and although it thins toward the south, the crust is over 30 km thick over the subduction in the south; in northern Taiwan, the northward subducting PSP collides with Taiwan and the crust thins under northern Taiwan where the subducting indenter reaches 50 km in depth. The low Vp/Vs ratio of around 1.6 at a mid-crustal depth of 25 km in the Central Range indicates that current temperatures could exceed 700 °C. The remarkable thickening of the crust under the Central Range, its rapid uplift without significant seismicity, its deep exhumation and its thermal state contribute to make it the core of orogenic activities on Taiwan Island. The expanded network during the TAIGER deployment captured broadband seismic data yielding enhanced S-splitting results with mainly SKS/SKKS data. The polarization directions of the fast S-waves follow very closely the structural trends of the island, supporting the concept of a vertically coherent Taiwan orogeny in the outer few hundred kilometers of the Earth.

  13. Progress and Prospect of Physics Research and Education in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raynien Kwo, J.

    2010-03-01

    Started about two decades ago, the global trend of shifting industrial manufacture power from western developed countries toward developing countries in Asia has in turn become the impetus in building up physical science and research in these areas. A very good example is the remarkable progress of physical research and education in Taiwan, in terms of quantity and quality. The continuous elevation of Taiwan's high education into graduate level plus the government's strong commitment to research and development on a level of 2.62 % GDP have led to an impressive physics program with an annual budget ˜32 million USD from National Science Council in supporting 568 PIs. The investigation scope encompasses high energy and astrophysics, nano and condensed matter, and semiconductor, optoelectronic physics, etc. The former is vigorously conducted via international collaborative efforts of LHC, KEK, ALMA, Pan-STARRS, etc. The latter is driven by vital Taiwan high tech industry mostly semiconductor IC and optoelectronics flourished during this period. The early trend of outflows of BS physics majors to western world for advanced studies has reversed dramatically. Nearly 80% of the BS students continue their MS and PhD degrees in Taiwan, attracted by lucrative job markets of high tech industry. In addition, healthy inflow of high-quality science manpower of well trained PhDs and senior scholars returning to homeland has strengthened the competitiveness. Overall, the physics community in Taiwan is thriving. The annual Physical Society meeting is expanding at a rate of 6%, reaching ˜1800 attendants and 1200 papers, and dedicated to promotions of female physicists and students. The publication quantity of Taiwan in top journals of PRs and PRL is ranked among top 20^th for all fields of physics, and ranked the 6^th in APL. Clearly Taiwan has now emerged as a strong power in applied science, not limited by its population size. Concerted efforts on scientific exchanges are being taken to connect to international societies. The bright outlook of physical science and its vital power in Taiwan is anticipated to provide a stimulus to benefit South East Asia, and have far-reaching impacts on China and worldwide.

  14. Rock mass response to strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events and blasting observed at the surface of the excavations in deep level gold mines in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milev, Alexander; Durrheim, Ray; Ogasawara, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    The strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events was studied to characterize the rock mass response and to estimate the site effect on the surface of the underground excavations. A stand-alone instruments, especially designed for recording strong ground motions, were installed underground at a number of deep level gold mines in South Africa. The instruments were recording data at the surface of the stope hangingwalls. A maximum value of 3 m/s was measured. Therefore data were compared to the data recorded in the solid rock by the mine seismic networks to determine the site response. The site response was defined as the ratio of the peak ground velocity measured at the surface of the excavations to the peak ground velocity inferred from the mine seismic data measured in the solid rocks. The site response measured at all mines studied was found to be 9 ± 3 times larger on average. A number of simulated rockbursts were conducted underground in order to estimate the rock mass response when subjected to extreme ground motion and derive the attenuation factors in near field. The rockbursts were simulated by means of large blasts detonated in solid rock close to the sidewall of a tunnel. The numerical models used in the design of the simulated rockbursts were calibrated by small blasts taking place at each experimental site. A dense array of shock type accelerometers was installed along the blasting wall to monitor the attenuation of the strong ground motion as a function of the distance from the source. The attenuation of the ground motion was found to be proportional to the distance from the source following R^-1.1 & R^-1.7 for compact rock and R^-3.1 & R^-3.4 for more fractured rock close to the surface of the tunnel. In addition the ground motion was compared to the quasi-static deformations taking place around the underground excavations. The quasi-static deformations were measured by means of strain, tilt and closure. A good correspondence between the quasi-static deformations and seismic ground motion was found. During the blasting time and the subsequent seismic events the strain, tilt and closure show a rapid increase. Similar increase was observed during the strong seismic event. The deformations associated with a strong seismic event were described as 'fast' seismic events. Much of quasi-static deformations, however, occurred independently of the seismic events and was described as 'slow' or aseismic events.

  15. On the similarity of strong ground motions from a deep-focus earthquake (01/01/2012, Mj7.0) and the 2011 Tohoku earthquake - possible effects of specific propagation path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakai, A.; Nozu, A.

    2013-12-01

    On 1st January, 2012, there was a deep-focus earthquake (Mj7.0) at the depth of 397km close to the Izu-Ogasawara Trench, south of Japan. It is well known that, for such a deep-focus earthquake, anomalous seismic intensity distribution is obtained because of the propagation of seismic waves through the high-Q subducting plate (in this case, The Pacific plate). According to our analysis, such a specific propagation path may have significant effects, not only for intensity distribution but also for the characteristics of strong ground motions. For this earthquake, records of ground motions were obtained at permanent strong motion stations in a wide area. We focused on the records in the Kanto region, where largest ground motions were observed. We analyzed the Fourier phase characteristics of the records, using the method of substituting the Fourier phase characteristics of the records with those from other earthquakes at the same station [Nozu and Irikura, 2008; Wakai and Nozu, 2012]. It was surprising to find that the Fourier phase characteristics of the deep-focus event were similar to those of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. In the past study, such similarities were observed for two or more closely-located earthquakes, because, for the closely-located earthquakes, the path and site effects are shared between the two events [Nozu and Irikura, 2008; Wakai and Nozu, 2012]. However, for the current earthquake pair, the earthquakes are not closely-located at all. Our interpretation is as follows. In this case, seismic waves radiated from the deep-focus event can propagate with little attenuation through the Pacific plate until they approach to the plate boundary close to the Kanto region. Then they can propagate through the landside plate, toward the observation sites, being affected by the existence of the sedimentary basin. By the way, the seismic waves from the Tohoku earthquake also propagate from the plate boundary to the observation sites, being affected by the sedimentary basin. The sedimentary basin has similar effects for the two events because the incident angles are similar. This should be the reason why strong ground motions from the two events are so similar. Thus, we concluded that the specific propagation path for the deep-focus event contributed to the similarity of strong ground motions of the two events. The permanent strong-motion stations (black triangles), the rupture starting point of the 2011 mainshock by JMA (red star), epicentres of a deep-focus events (blue star), the SPGAs of the 2011 main shock (orange cross and circle) [Nozu, 2011] .

  16. 76 FR 13660 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1088 (Final)] Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan Determination On the...Polyvinyl Alcohol from Taiwan: Investigation No. 731-TA-1088 (Final). By order of the Commission. Issued: March 9,...

  17. Korean restaurant business plan in Taiwan

    E-print Network

    Chen, Kai Wei Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Taiwan's food and beverage business has been one of the main drivers of the country's economic growth for the past several years. As Taiwan becomes more prosperous and grows beyond the traditional OEM/ODM businesses, ...

  18. Joint inversion of seismic and geodetic data for the source of the 2010 March 4, Mw 6.3 Jia-Shian, SW Taiwan, earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Mong-Han; Dreger, Douglas; Bürgmann, Roland; Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Hashimoto, Manabu

    2013-06-01

    The 2010 March 4, Jia-Shian (Mw 6.3) earthquake in SW Taiwan caused moderate damage and no surface rupture was observed, reflecting a deep source that is relatively rare in western Taiwan. We develop finite-source models using a combination of seismic waveform (strong motion and broadband), Global Positioning System (GPS) and synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) data to understand the rupture process and slip distribution of this event. The rupture centroid source depth is 19 km based on a series of moment tensor solution tests with improved 1-D Green's functions. The preferred fault model strikes 322° and dips 27° to the NE and the mainshock is a thrust event with a small left-lateral component. The finite-source model shows a primary slip asperity that is about 20 km in diameter at a depth range from 22 to 13 km, with peak slip of 42.5 cm, a total scalar seismic moment of 3.25 × 1018 N m (Mw 6.34) and with an average static stress drop of 0.24 MPa. The rupture velocity of this event is faster than the mid-crustal shear wave velocity in Taiwan, which suggests the possibility of a supershear event which has not been previously observed in Taiwan. Systematic resolution and sensitivity tests are performed to confirm the slip distribution, rupture velocity, the choice of weighting and smoothing for the joint inversions, and the consistency of the slip distribution. The first 24 hours of aftershocks appeared along the upper periphery of the main coseismic slip asperity. Both the mainshock and aftershocks are located in a transition zone where the depth of seismicity and an inferred regional basal décollement increases from central to southern Taiwan. The difference between the current orientation of plate convergence in Taiwan (120º) and the P axis of this event (052º) and nearby measurements of recent crustal strain directions (050° to 080°), as well as the relatively low static stress drop, suggest that the Jia-Shian event involves the reactivation of a deep and weak pre-existing NW-SE geological structure.

  19. Quantifying the seismicity on Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yi-Hsuan; Chen, Chien-Chih; Turcotte, Donald L.; Rundle, John B.

    2013-07-01

    We quantify the seismicity on the island of Taiwan using the frequency-magnitude statistics of earthquakes since 1900. A break in Gutenberg-Richter scaling for large earthquakes in global seismicity has been observed, this break is also observed in our Taiwan study. The seismic data from the Central Weather Bureau Seismic Network are in good agreement with the Gutenberg-Richter relation taking b ? 1 when M < 7. For large earthquakes, M ? 7, the seismic data fit Gutenberg-Richter scaling with b ? 1.5. If the Gutenberg-Richter scaling for M < 7 earthquakes is extrapolated to larger earthquakes, we would expect a M > 8 earthquake in the study region about every 25 yr. However, our analysis shows a lower frequency of occurrence of large earthquakes so that the expected frequency of M > 8 earthquakes is about 200 yr. The level of seismicity for smaller earthquakes on Taiwan is about 12 times greater than in Southern California and the possibility of a M ? 9 earthquake north or south of Taiwan cannot be ruled out. In light of the Fukushima, Japan nuclear disaster, we also discuss the implications of our study for the three operating nuclear power plants on the coast of Taiwan.

  20. Professional Counseling in Taiwan: Past to Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Yuh-Jen; Wang, Shu-Ching; Combs, Don C.; Lin, Yi-Chun; Johnson, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Because of the recent introduction of a licensure law, professional counseling has grown rapidly in Taiwan after decades of slow development. The authors provide a historical review of the development of professional counseling in Taiwan and discuss the current status and future trajectory of professional counseling in Taiwan.

  1. Surface waves in the western Taiwan coastal plain from an aftershock of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, G.-Q.; Tang, G.-Q.; Boore, D.M.; Van Ness, Burbach, G.; Jackson, C.R.; Zhou, X.-Y.; Lin, Q.-L.

    2006-01-01

    Significant surface waves were recorded in the western coastal plain (WCP) of Taiwan during the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake and its series of aftershocks. We study in detail the surface waves produced by one aftershock (20 September 1999, 18hr 03m 41.16sec, M 6.2) in this paper. We take the Chelungpu-Chukou fault to be the eastern edge of the WCP because it marks a distinct lateral contrast in seismic wave velocities in the upper few kilometers of the surface. For many records from stations within the WCP, body waves and surface waves separate well in both the time domain and the period domain. Long-period (e.g., >2 sec) ground motions in the plain are dominated by surface waves. Significant prograde Rayleigh wave particle motions were observed in the WCP. The observed peak ground velocities are about 3-5 times larger than standard predictions in the central and western part of the plain. Observed response spectra at 3 sec, 4 sec, and 5 sec at the center of the plain can be 15 times larger than standard predictions and 10 times larger than the predictions of Joyner (2000) based on surface wave data from the Los Angeles basin. The strong surface waves were probably generated at the boundary of the WCP and then propagated toward the west, largely along radial directions relative to the epicenter. The geometry of the boundary may have had a slight effect on propagation directions of surface waves. Group velocities of fundamental mode Rayleigh and Love waves are estimated using the multiple filter analysis (MFA) technique and are refined with phase matched filtering (PMF). Group velocities of fundamental mode surface waves range from about 0.7 km/sec to 1.5 km/sec for the phases at periods from 3 sec to 10 sec. One important observation from this study is that the strongest surface waves were recorded in the center of the plain. The specific location of the strongest motions depends largely on the period of surface waves rather than on specific site conditions or plain structures. Accordingly, we conjecture that surface waves could be generated in a wide area close to boundaries of low-velocity sedimentary wave guides. In the case studied in this article the area can be as wide as 30 km (from the Chelungpu fault to the center of the plain). Surface waves converted by P and S waves at different locations would overlap each other and add constructively along their propagation paths. As a result, the surface waves would get stronger and stronger. Beyond a certain distance to the boundary, no more surface waves would be generated. Consequently, no more local surface waves would be superimposed into the invasive surface waves, and the surface waves would tend to decay in amplitude with distance.

  2. Black monazite from Taiwan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matzko, J.J.; Overstreet, W.C.

    1977-01-01

    Two forms of detrital monazite are known in offshore bars in southwestern Taiwan: a yellow-green to colorless form and an unusual but abundant pelletlike form, generally black but also colored gray or brown. These black pellets, which are about 160 by 200 microns in size, are composed of fine-grained monazite crystals from 2 to 20 microns in size. The pellets are associated with highly variable amounts of discrete grains of detrital quartz, rutile, amphibole, tourmaline, and other minerals. Intergrown with the monazite are quartz, a cerium oxide mineral, chlorite, sulfides, and other minerals. Opaqueness of the pelletlike monazite is due principally to the cryptocrystalline nature of part of the monazite; only a small part of the opaqueness can be attributed to opaque inclusions. The black pelletlike monazite lacks thorium and has a high content of europium. In this respect, as in color, shape, size, and inclusions, the pelletlike monazite differs from the yellow-green detrital monazite. Despite the fact that they occur together in the littoral placers, they appear to have had different origins. The yellow-green monazite originated as an accessory mineral in plutonic rocks and has accumulated at the coast through erosion and transport. The origin of the pelletlike monazite is as yet unknown, but it is here inferred that it originated in unconsolidated coastal plain sediments through migration of cerium from the detrital monazite during weathering, and of the intermediate weight mobile rare earths from clay minerals during diagenesis. Possibly these pelletlike grains are detrital particles formed through erosion and transport from originally larger aggregates cemented by diagenetic monazite.

  3. Joint Inversion of Seismic and Geodetic Data for the Source of the 4th March 2010 MW 6.3 Jia-Shian, SW Taiwan, Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, M.; Dreger, D. S.; Burgmann, R.; Suppe, J.; Hashimoto, M.

    2010-12-01

    The 4th March 2010 Jia-Shian (MW 6.3) earthquake occurred in SW Taiwan and caused moderate damage. According to the Central Weather Bureau (CWB) report, this event is located at a depth of ~23 km under the Central Range. No fault related surface rupture was observed, reflecting an unusually deep source that is relatively rare in west Taiwan. The coseismic GPS measurements show a fan shape pattern with azimuths from SW to NW. The highest observed horizontal displacement is 3.67 cm in the direction of N80°W and is about 20 km far away from the epicenter. We develop finite-source models using a combination of Global Positioning System (GPS), synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR), and seismic strong motion waveform data to understand the rupture process of this event. The preferred model shows a primary slip patch that is about 20 km in diameter with a peak slip of 25.1 cm and total scalar seismic moment of 1.96 × 1018 N m (MW 6.13). This fault geometry is N38°W in strike and 27° dipping to NE. The majority of slip is between 8 and 14 cm located to the NW of the hypocenter, which is very close to the northern end of the active Chi-Shan Fault (CSF) and the high angle reverse Chao-Chou Fault (CCF). Our moment tensor solution using data from the Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology (BATS) shows a NW-striking and east dipping thrust with a left-lateral strike-slip component to the focal mechanism, which is close to the current direction of plate motion in Taiwan. The main shock mechanism and the aftershock distribution have different orientations, neither of which is similar to NS or NE-SW trending Chi-Shan and Chao-Chou surface faults. The aftershock sequence extends nearly 25 km into western Foothills striking EW when close to the epicenter but in a NW direction farther west from the epicenter. The different directions from the main shock to the aftershock distribution may imply different fault planes being ruptured during coseismic and postseismic periods. In addition, the focal mechanisms of aftershocks show two strikes and two senses of motions: one is close to the main shock and another is in a more E-W direction with a larger left-lateral strike-slip component. Both agree well with the orientations of the aftershock sequence. The primary east-dipping detachment of Taiwan is generally at the depths of 10-15 km in the north-central Taiwan but becomes deeper in the south, which is very close to the Jia-Shian earthquake hypocenter. As the result, the main shock might locate right above the detachment and then transferred the stress westward. This stress change might induce a series of aftershocks, and then illuminated a pre-existing fault. Hence, the stress changes from this event could enhance or decrease the regional Coulomb stress level to the nearby faults, which could be an important indicator of potential earthquake hazards in SW Taiwan.

  4. Ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chi-Hsin; Lin, I-Chan; Shen, Yun-Dun; Hsu, Wen-Ming

    2014-06-01

    We describe in this paper the current status of ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery in Taiwan. Data were collected from the Bureau of National Health Insurance of Taiwan, the Bulletin of the Taiwan Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Society, and the Statistics Yearbook of Practicing Physicians and Health Care Organizations in Taiwan by the Taiwan Medical Association. We ascertained that 94 ophthalmologists were oculoplastic surgeons and accounted for 5.8% of 1621 ophthalmologists in Taiwan. They had their fellowship training abroad (most ophthalmologists trained in the United States of America) or in Taiwan. All ophthalmologists were well trained and capable of performing major oculoplastic surgeries. The payment rates by our National Health Insurance for oculoplastic and orbital surgeries are relatively low, compared to Medicare payments in the United States. Ophthalmologists should promote the concept that oculoplastic surgeons specialize in periorbital plastic and aesthetic surgeries. However, general ophthalmologists should receive more educational courses on oculoplastic and cosmetic surgery. PMID:24898627

  5. International Benchmarking with the Best Universities: Policy and Practice in Mainland China and Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho; Chan, Ying

    2008-01-01

    With a strong conviction to enhance their global competitiveness, governments across different parts of the world have tried various means to promote the ranking of their universities in the global university leagues. With a strong determination to do better in such global ranking exercises, universities in mainland China and Taiwan have attempted…

  6. Faculty Autonomy: Perspectives from Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dee, Jay R.; Henkin, Alan B.; Chen, Jessica Hsin-Hwa

    2000-01-01

    Investigated whether institutional autonomy related to faculty autonomy in Taiwan's higher education system, which has recently implemented policies to enhance institutional autonomy. Faculty surveys conditionally supported the claim that faculty members work within the constraints of regulated autonomy, where individual behaviors are delimited by…

  7. Kindergartener's Technology Education in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Chun-Chin

    According to the American Association for Advancement of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the International Technology Education Association (ITEA) and its Technology for All Americans Project (TfAAP), technology education should begin in kindergarten. Educators in Taiwan have also advocated beginning technology education in…

  8. Gravity anomalies of the active mud diapirs off southwest Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doo, Wen-Bin; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Lo, Chung-Liang; Chen, Song-Chuen; Tsai, Ching-Hui; Lin, Jing-Yi; Huang, Yuan-Ping; Huang, Yin-Sheng; Chiu, Shye-Donq; Ma, Yu-Fang

    2015-12-01

    Overpressure and buoyant effect of underlying sediments are generally used to account for the upward motion or formation of submarine mud volcanoes and mud diapirs. In this study, we process and interpret the gravity anomalies associated with the active mud diapirs off SW Taiwan. Geologically, the mud diapirs are just formed and are still very active, thus we can better understand the initial process of the mud diapirs formation through the gravity analysis. Our results show that the density contrasts of the submarine mud diapirs with respect to the surroundings are generally positive. Because the study area is in a tectonically compressive regime and the gas plume venting from the submarine mud volcanoes is very active, we thus infer that mechanically the mud diapirs off SW Taiwan have been formed mainly due to the tectonic compression on the underlying sediments of high pore-fluid pressure, instead of the buoyancy of the buried sediments. The overpressured sediments and fluid are compressed and pushed upwards to pierce the overlying sediments and form the more compacted mud diapirs. The relatively denser material of the mud diapirs probably constrains the flowing courses of the submarine canyons off SW Taiwan, especially for the upper reaches of the Kaoping and Fangliao submarine canyons.

  9. Taiwan Australian National University Scholarships (699/2012) Student ID....................................

    E-print Network

    Botea, Adi

    Taiwan Australian National University Scholarships (699/2012) Student ID.................................... TAIWAN AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL UNIVERSITY SCHOLARSHIP CONDITIONS OF AWARD In August 2012, the Taiwan Ministry of Education (MOE) and ANU signed an agreement to collaborate to provide scholarships for Taiwanese higher

  10. Queering Taiwan: in search of nationalism's other.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-fen

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with the formation of Taiwan’s homosexual cultural politics in the 1990s, the impact and implications of which are yet to be examined within the larger context of Taiwan’s cultural and political development and ethnic relationships. It is argued that the rise of this cultural politics is both a reflection and a source of a growing sense of identity crisis on the island. By examining the configurations of “queer” in various discursive domains, this interdisciplinary study seeks to delineate the cross-referencing ideological network of this cultural movement and its entanglement with the complexity of Taiwan’s nationalism. At the same time, to the extent that this movement tends to present itself as a radical politics from a privileged epistemological and cultural standpoint, this claimed radicalism is also scrutinized for its problematics and ironies. PMID:21966703

  11. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program, Phase I. Project II: seismic input. Compilation, assessment and expansion of the strong earthquake ground motion data base

    SciTech Connect

    Crouse, C B; Hileman, J A; Turner, B E; Martin, G R

    1980-04-01

    A catalog has been prepared which contains information for: (1) world-wide, ground-motion accelerograms, (2) the accelerograph sites where these records were obtained, and (3) the seismological parameters of the causative earthquakes. The catalog is limited to data for those accelerograms which have been digitized and published. In addition, the quality and completeness of these data are assessed. This catalog is unique because it is the only publication which contains comprehensive information on the recording conditions of all known digitized accelerograms. However, information for many accelerograms is missing. Although some literature may have been overlooked, most of the missing data has not been published. Nevertheless, the catalog provides a convenient reference and useful tool for earthquake engineering research and applications.

  12. HVAC Commissioning - A Status Report in Taiwan 

    E-print Network

    Yang, K. H.

    2006-01-01

    CommisioningCommisioning ?? A Status Report in TaiwanA Status Report in Taiwan Dr. K.H. YangDr. K.H. Yang Fellow ASHRAEFellow ASHRAEProfessor, National Sun Professor, National Sun YatYat--SenSenUniversityUniversityKaohsiungKaohsiung, Taiwan, Taiwankhkh...--yang@mail.nsysu.edu.twyang@mail.nsysu.edu.tw 2006.11.2006.11. Introduction I n t ro d uc ti on ?Being located in subtropical area, the weather in Taiwan is constantly hot and humid, with ambient temperature around 35 o Cand relative humidity of 85 %, which imposes heavy cooling load to buildings...

  13. Decadal Erosion Rates Derived From An Earthquake-Induced Landslide Region, Central Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Y.; Lu, C.; Chang, K.; Chen, R.

    2010-12-01

    The island of Taiwan is resulted from the collision between the Philippine sea plate and the Eurasian plate. The subtropical climate and averaging four typhoons annually, combined with frequent earthquakes, influence much of the Taiwan region. Due to the factors above, not only the active orogeny of Taiwan causes the high uplift rate at about 4 mm/yr, but also drive amazing erosion rate of about 3-6 mm/yr. Previous study indicated approximately 1.9% of global suspended sediment is derived from the small island of Taiwan, which is only about 0.024% of Earth’s subaerial surface. Furthermore, modern erosion rates are strongly influenced by large earthquakes and typhoons, and the sediment fluxes after the Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake of Taiwan are much higher than those before the earthquake. Here we study the Chiufenerhshan landslide, which is one of the large landslides triggered by the Chi-Chi earthquake in the central Taiwan. The avalanche transported a mass of sedimentary rock about 60 m thick and 1.5 km long. Based on the high-resolution topographic data sets from LiDAR or photogrammetry at various years and rain fall data, we have reached the following conclusions: In the period of 8.5 years after the Chi-Chi earthquake, almost 4.2% of the landslide deposits were transported out of the landslide system. Comparing with the mean annual erosion rate of 3-6 mm/yr in Taiwan, the sediment brought out of Chiufenerhshan landslide area is 89.4 mm/yr, a significant amount contributed by the landslide. The mean sediment discharge from this small system is as large as 0.064% of the sediment discharge from the whole Taiwan annually; while the area is only about 0.005% of Taiwan’s subaerial surface. Thus, the landslide process has contributed much more to the surface erosion of the Taiwan mountain than other erosion processes.

  14. Occupational Neurotoxic Diseases in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chi-Hung; Huang, Chu-Yun

    2012-01-01

    Occupational neurotoxic diseases have become increasingly common in Taiwan due to industrialization. Over the past 40 years, Taiwan has transformed from an agricultural society to an industrial society. The most common neurotoxic diseases also changed from organophosphate poisoning to heavy metal intoxication, and then to organic solvent and semiconductor agent poisoning. The nervous system is particularly vulnerable to toxic agents because of its high metabolic rate. Neurological manifestations may be transient or permanent, and may range from cognitive dysfunction, cerebellar ataxia, Parkinsonism, sensorimotor neuropathy and autonomic dysfunction to neuromuscular junction disorders. This study attempts to provide a review of the major outbreaks of occupational neurotoxins from 1968 to 2012. A total of 16 occupational neurotoxins, including organophosphates, toxic gases, heavy metals, organic solvents, and other toxic chemicals, were reviewed. Peer-reviewed articles related to the electrophysiology, neuroimaging, treatment and long-term follow up of these neurotoxic diseases were also obtained. The heavy metals involved consisted of lead, manganese, organic tin, mercury, arsenic, and thallium. The organic solvents included n-hexane, toluene, mixed solvents and carbon disulfide. Toxic gases such as carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide were also included, along with toxic chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, tetramethylammonium hydroxide, organophosphates, and dimethylamine borane. In addition we attempted to correlate these events to the timeline of industrial development in Taiwan. By researching this topic, the hope is that it may help other developing countries to improve industrial hygiene and promote occupational safety and health care during the process of industrialization. PMID:23251841

  15. Stress tensor analysis in the Taiwan area from focal mechanisms of earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yih-Hsiung, Yeh; Eric, Barrier; Cheng-Horng Lin; Jacques, Angelier

    1991-12-01

    We produce a map of the stress pattern in and around Taiwan based on 200 earthquake focal mechanism solutions. These solutions were determined by using data from Taiwan Telemetered Seismographic Network, microearthquake surveys and WWSSN. The stresses are derived through a minimization of angles between the slip vector and the shear stress on each nodal plane considered as a fault, employing appropriate weighting factors. The whole set of focal mechanisms is divided into several groups, mainly according to apparent clustering of the event locations. The results show that the direction of maximum principal stress in Taiwan area is nearly horizontal and SE-NW on average. This is in good agreement with the direction of relative motion between the Philippine Sea plate and the Eurasian plate. In western Taiwan, the fan-shaped distribution of the maximum principal stress is consistent with the direction of Philippine Sea-Eurasian plate convergence through a simple model of viscous material indented by a rigid wedge. In the northeastern part of Taiwan, a nearly horizontal minimum principal stress oriented N-S is found for shallow depths; it occurs in a region of low seismic velocities, probably related to the back-arc activity of the Okinawa Trough. Down-dip compressional and down-dip extensional stresses have been identified in different depth ranges within the subducting slab of the Philippine Sea plate in the northern Taiwan; this may reflect the slab characteristics in this area. A complex stress pattern prevails in the Hualien area, at the junction between the Ryukyu subduction system and the Taiwan collision zone.

  16. Spatial distribution of non volcanic tremors offshore eastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, X. S.; Lin, J. Y.; Hsu, S. K.; Lee, C. H.; Liang, C. W.

    2012-04-01

    Non-volcanic tremor (NVT), originally identified in the subduction zone of the southwest Japan, have been well studied in the circum-Pacific subduction zones and the transform plate boundary in California. Most studies related NVT to the release of fluids, while some others associated them with slow-slip events, and can be triggered instantaneously by the surface waves of teleseismic events. Taiwan is located at a complex intersection of the Philippines Sea Plate and the Eurasian Plate. East of Taiwan, the Philippine Sea plate subducts northward beneath the Ryukyu arc. The major part of the island results from the strong convergence between the two plates and the convergent boundary is along the Longitudinal Valley. Moreover, an active strike-slip fault along the Taitung Canyon was reported in the offshore eastern Taiwan. In such complicate tectonic environments, NVT behavior could probably bring us more information about the interaction of all the geological components in the area. In this study, we analyze the seismic signals recorded by the Ocean bottom Seismometer (OBS) deployed offshore eastern Taiwan in September 2009. TAMS (Tremor Active Monitor System) software was used to detect the presence of NVT. 200 tremor-like signals were obtained from the 3 weeks recording period. We use the SSA (Source-Scanning Algorithm) to map the possible distribution of the tremor. In total, 180 tremors were located around the eastern offshore Taiwan. The tremors are mainly distributed in two source areas: one is along the Taitung Canyon, and the other is sub-parallel to the Ryukyu Trench, probably along the plate interface. Many tremors are located at depth shallower than 5 km, which suggests a possible existence of a weak basal detachment along the sea bottom. Other tremors with larger depth may be related to the dehydration of the subducting sea plate as suggested by the former studies. Limited by the short recording period of the OBS experiment, we could not obtain any possible repeating interval and the spatial migration about the tremor occurrence. However, the presence of NVT offshore eastern Taiwan shown in our study still brings us valuable understanding about the undergoing tectonic processes in the marine area.

  17. Taiwan Earthquake Damage Index Sin Mei Nga* and Masataka Andob a* Department of Geology, Chinese Culture University, No. 55, Hwa-Kang Road, Yang-Ming-Shan, Taipei 11114, Taiwan b Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, 128, Sec2, Academia Road, Nangang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan * Corresponding author. Tel.: +886 (02) 28 61 05 11 ext.26133 fax: +886 (02) 28 61 49 59 E-mail: wsw2@ulive.pccu.edu.tw or sin_mei_josephine_ng@hotmail.com

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, S.

    2012-12-01

    Taking advantage of a previous study and twelve-year, free-field strong motion data in Taiwan, a preliminary, five-level earthquake damage index is newly proposed: I-No (no damage), II-Very Light, III-Light, IV-Moderate, and V-Heavy. For index I, PGA and PGV are, respectively, <62.5 gal and <11 cm/s. Likewise, for index II, PGA is ?62.5 and ?187.5 gal; but, PGV is ?11 and ?35 cm/s. Similarly, PGA is ?187.5 and ?325 gal; but, PGV is ?35 and ?55 cm/s for index III. The corresponding PGA and PGV, for index IV, are ?325 and ?450 gal and ?55 and ?75 cm/s. Finally, for index V, PGA and PGV are respectively >450 gal and >75 cm/s. Ten damaging seismic events in the past twelve years are redefined using this new earthquake damage index, with the devastating Chi-Chi earthquake and one non-damaging event as reference earthquakes. This newly proposed index depicts seismic hazard of these earthquakes with higher accuracy when compared to the existing intensity scale in Taiwan region. For further analysis, Japan earthquakes are also plotted as references.

  18. Educating Students with Learning Disabilities in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Yun-Ju

    2011-01-01

    In East Asia, Taiwan is one of only a few countries that has a clear definition of learning disabilities (LD) as well as operational criteria for the identification of LD. In Taiwan, special education services for students with LD are mandated in the Special Education Act of 1984. According to the official statistics from the Taiwanese Special…

  19. Estimation of foreign versus domestic contributions to Taiwan's air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jen-Ping; Yang, Cheng-En; Tsai, I.-Chun

    2015-07-01

    Based on the analysis of observational data obtained over a period of 17 years, this study developed a novel approach estimating long-term changes in the relative contributions of domestic and foreign sources to air pollution levels over the island of Taiwan. The contribution from foreign sources was calculated using data measured at selected coastal monitoring stations under specific meteorological conditions. The domestic contribution was derived by subtracting the foreign contribution from the overall concentration, which was calculated with island-wide monitoring station data averaged using Thiessen polygon area weighting. The trends of mean CO, NO, NO2 and SO2 concentrations in Taiwan were -2.1%, -3.3%, -1.4% and 0% yr-1; while the background concentrations varied by -1.0%, 5.7%, 3.8% and 6.6% yr-1, respectively. These figures suggest that the efforts of Taiwan in reducing air pollution are largely being negated by foreign contributions. Ozone showed a steady increase of 3.3% yr-1, and a portion of this was associated with a 1.0% yr-1 increase in background values. Local and background PM10 concentrations did not show significant long-term trends, but rather strong inter-annual variations associated with dust storm activity in East Asia. The domestic fractions of NO and NO2 respectively decreased from 90% and 85% in 1994 to less than 60% and 70% in 2010. In contrast, the domestic fraction of SO2 decreased from 82% in 1994 to 27% in 2010. The domestic fraction of CO exhibited no obvious trend due to concurrent decreases in local and background contributions. Background O3 values tended to drop across Taiwan due to the titration effect from domestic NO emissions, and the fraction of domestic O3 titration decreased from 50% in the mid-90s to 25% in 2010.

  20. Shear Wave Structure of Umbria and Marche, Italy, Strong Motion Seismometer Sites Affected by the 1997-98 Umbria-Marche, Italy, Earthquake Sequence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kayen, Robert; Scasserra, Giuseppe; Stewart, Jonathan P.; Lanzo, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    A long sequence of earthquakes, eight with magnitudes between 5 and 6, struck the Umbria and Marche regions of central Italy between September 26, 1997 and July 1998. The earthquake swarm caused severe structural damage, particularly to masonry buildings, and resulted in the loss of twelve lives and about 150 injuries. The source of the events was a single seismogenic structure that consists of several faults with a prevailing northwest-southeast strike and crosses the Umbria-Marche border. The focal mechanism of the largest shocks indicates that the events were the product of shallow extensional normal faulting along a NE-SW extension perpendicular to the trend of the Apennines. The network of analog seismometer stations in the Umbria and Marche regions recorded motions of the main September and October 1997 events and a dense array of mobile digital stations, installed since September 29, recorded most of the swarm. The permanent national network Rete Accelerometrica Nazionale (RAN) is administered and maintained by Dipartimento delle Protezione Civile (DPC: Civil Protection Department); the temporary array was managed by Servizio Sismico Nazionale (SSN) in cooperation with small agencies and Universities. ENEA, the operator of many seismometer stations in Umbria, is the public Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment. Many of the temporary and permanent stations in the Italian seismic network have little or no characterization of seismic velocities. In this study, we investigated 17 Italian sites using an active-source approach that employs low frequency harmonic waves to measure the dispersive nature of surface waves in the ground. We used the Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW) approach, coupled with an array of harmonic-wave electro-mechanical sources that are driven in-phase to excite the ground. An inversion algorithm using a non-linear least-squares best-fit method is used to compute shear wave velocities for up to 100 meters of the soil column. A draft report was published in the summer of 2008, followed by a comment period, lengthy discussions with Italian colleagues, and improved knowledge of the subsurface at the sites from soil logs. Four of the sites were reprocessed in order to correct issues with phase unwrapping of the field dispersion curves that complicated the velocity profile calculations at the lowest velocity sites. This report presents the final results from the reprocessing effort.

  1. Upper-ocean currents around Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, W.-D.; Tang, T. Y.; Yang, Y. J.; Ko, M. T.; Chuang, W.-S.

    2003-03-01

    Current velocity, measured by Shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (Sb-ADCP) during 1991-2000, was used to study the upper-ocean (<300 m) currents around Taiwan. The collected data were debugged, calibrated, grid, and averaged to compose a three-dimensional current-velocity distribution. The validity of the composite current velocity was supported by 12 sets of moored current-velocity time series. Qualitative agreement was obtained. The moored time series also indicated that the seasonal variation of current around Taiwan was generally weak except for the shallow-water regimes. The composite and moored currents revealed a branch of the Kuroshio that intruded steadily and persistently into the South China Sea. Part of the intruded Kuroshio flowed out of the South China Sea through the northern Luzon Strait and re-united with the main stream Kuroshio. The Kuroshio had two velocity maximum cores southeast of Taiwan, but gradually combined into one as the Kuroshio flowed north. The Kuroshio was deflected by the I-Lan Ridge east of Taiwan and the zonal-running shelf break northeast of Taiwan. At the shelf break, the Kuroshio split, with one branch intruding onto the shelf. West of the Luzon Strait, the Kuroshio intruded into the South China Sea. Some water flowed northward into the Taiwan Strait and re-joined the Kuroshio. Currents in the Taiwan Strait flowed primarily in a northward direction, except for the southward current near the coast of Mainland China. North of the Taiwan Strait, a branch of the northward flow followed the northern coast of Taiwan to join the Kuroshio. The composite current varied consistently from season to season. There was generally poor correlation between currents and local winds, especially in the deep-water regime. Remote forces were important in the currents around Taiwan.

  2. Internationalization or Commodification? A Case Study of Internationalization Practices in Taiwan's Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Dorothy I-ru; Lo, William Yat Wai

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how commodification and consumerism have sharpened the discourse of internationalization in Taiwan's higher education. Given the strong sense of crisis in the less prestigious universities, this article argues that internationalization is only a means to survive instead of a pursuit of excellence to these universities. This…

  3. Analyzing Strain to Create a Regional Deformation Model of Northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanderLeest, R. A.; Byrne, T. B.; Rau, R.

    2012-12-01

    A Global Positioning System (GPS) network is used to calculate the strain and rotations at the intersection of an arc-continent collision and retreating trench in northern Taiwan. The island of Taiwan forms as Eurasia collides obliquely with the Philippine Sea plate (PSP), resulting in substantial along-strike extension throughout the island. In northern Taiwan, the PSP is also subducting towards the northwest beneath Eurasia and the associated Ryukyu trench is rolling back, forming the Okinawa Trough. GPS velocities were collected over a ten-year period (1995-2005) from 125 stations (Rau et al., 2008) and were inverted to calculate the 2D velocity gradient tensors (Allmendinger, Cardozo and Fisher, 2012). In northwest Taiwan, although the GPS velocities relative to the Penghu Island are low, volumetric strains are negative and generally show N-S shortening. Areas of E-W shortening and extension also occur, however. The GPS data suggests a heterogeneous deformation field consistent with the occurrence of thrust (e.g., Hukou fault), strike slip, and oblique slip normal faults (e.g., Nankan and Schanciao) in northwest Taiwan. In northeast Taiwan, GPS velocities show an increase in magnitude from north to south as well as a change from NE trending velocities to SE trending velocities. Volumetric strains are generally positive, indicating extension, which is consistent with spreading in the Okinawa Trough as it propagates into the Ilan Plain. Spreading in the Okinawa Trough and rotation from NE to SE velocities reflect rollback of the Ryukyu Trench. Therefore, northern Taiwan exhibits N-S shortening in the west and rotation and extrusion in the east. This complex deformation pattern is similar to larger continental collision areas such as the extrusion and rotation of China associated with the northward motion of India and the Mediterranean-Middle Eastern extrusion and rotation associated with the northward motion of Arabia. Allmendinger, R.W., Cardozo, N., Fisher, D.M. (2012), Structural Geology Algorithms: Vectors and Tensors, Cambridge University Press, New York, N.Y. Cardozo, N., and Allmendinger, R. W. (2009), SSPX: A program to compute strain from displacement/velocity data, Computers & Geosciences, 35,1343-1357. Rau, R.-J., Ching, K.-E., Hu, J.-C., and Lee, J.-C. (2008), Crustal deformation and block kinematics in transition from collision to subduction: Global positioning system measurements in northern Taiwan, 1995-2005, J. Geophys. Res., 113, B09404, doi: 10.1029/2007JB005414.

  4. Slip history and dynamic implications of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ji, C.; Helmberger, D.V.; Wald, D.J.; Ma, K.-F.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the rupture process of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake using extensive near-source observations, including three-component velocity waveforms at 36 strong motion stations and 119 GPS measurements. A three-plane fault geometry derived from our previous inversion using only static data [Ji et al., 2001] is applied. The slip amplitude, rake angle, rupture initiation time, and risetime function are inverted simultaneously with a recently developed finite fault inverse method that combines a wavelet transform approach with a simulated annealing algorithm [Ji et al., 2002b]. The inversion results are validated by the forward prediction of an independent data set, the teleseismic P and SH ground velocities, with notable agreement. The results show that the total seismic moment release of this earthquake is 2.7 ?? 1020 N m and that most of the slip occured in a triangular-shaped asperity involving two fault segments, which is consistent with our previous static inversion. The rupture front propagates with an average rupture velocity of ???2.0 km s-1, and the average slip duration (risetime) is 7.2 s. Several interesting observations related to the temporal evolution of the Chi-Chi earthquake are also investigated, including (1) the strong effect of the sinuous fault plane of the Chelungpu fault on spatial and temporal variations in slip history, (2) the intersection of fault 1 and fault 2 not being a strong impediment to the rupture propagation, and (3 the observation that the peak slip velocity near the surface is, in general, higher than on the deeper portion of the fault plane, as predicted by dynamic modeling.

  5. Dust Activity during Winter Time in East Asia and Snowfall Obervations and Simulations in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, L.

    2013-12-01

    Taiwan has relatively frequent snowfall in mountain during winter among regions of the same latitude. The phenomenon is contributed by Taiwan's unique topography - high and steep mountains, and geographical location - sitting on the route the continental polar air mass travels from its birthplace to the ocean, contribute to this phenomenon. Snow occurence, in addition to the freezing-point temperature, when two requirements are met: sufficient vapor and the condensation nuclei in the air. This study pursues the causes of the snowfall activity in Taiwan, the relations between the East Asian dust aerosol and the snowfall activity in Taiwan, and the impacts the climate changes have on the snowfall activity in Taiwan. In this study, Yushan snowfall activity from 1995~2011 and related atmosphere circulations were examined using SYNOP data, NCEP/DOE reanalysis atmospheric data, the observations of the Central Weather Bureau's Yushan Weather Station and the Taiwan Air Quality Monitoring Network of the Environment Protect Administration, Executive Yuan. To provide a quantitative measure of snowfall events and dust activity, a snowfall activity index (SAI) and the DAI Index by Yu et al. (2010) were defined. The time series of yearly SAI and DAI show that East Asian dust storm activity and Taiwan snowfall marked interannual variations during 1995 ~ 2011. For active years such as 2008, 2010, and 2011, SAI was hundreds of times larger than that for inactive years such as 1996, 1999 and 2003; and DAI in active years such as 2001 and 2002 was several tens of times larger than that in inactive years such as 1997 and 2003. In active years when the EAT (East Asian Trough) was shifted eastward, the strength of WPH (West Pacific High) increased in the south and an anticyclone thus occurred. This anticyclone introduced anomalous southwesterly flows along the southeastern coast of mainland China and over Taiwan, resulting in a wetter-than-normal atmosphere in support of snowfall. Oppositely, for inactive years, drier-than-normal atmosphere appeared and consequently sluggish snowfall seasons followed. A SVD (singular value decomposition) analysis of the Asian synoptic circulation indicated that the connection between the pressure dipoles and the position of EAT is strong in 1998, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2010, and 2011. It significantly affects both of the snowfall and dust activities. In summary, snowfall active years usually occurred when the East Asian dust storm was inactive. Nevertheless, the snowfall activity increased in Taiwan if there was dust event and the dust aerosol successfully transported to Taiwan. This finding is also demonstrated in the model simulation of this study.

  6. Clandestine labor migration to Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsay, C

    1992-01-01

    "Illegal migration to Taiwan is a recent phenomenon but with a rapid rate of increase. Most illegal foreign workers enter on visitor's visas and overstay. This paper's detailed analysis of official data reveals that Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia and Thailand are the major sources, providing a stock of mostly male workers numbering around 40,000. Sociodemographic and attitudinal changes among Taiwanese workers coupled with labor shortages in low-skilled jobs are pressuring the Taiwanese government to formulate plans for a systematic importation of foreign labor." PMID:12285774

  7. The observation of crustal deformation derived from Taiwan Continuous GPS Array (2007-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min-Chien, Tsai; Shui-Beih, Yu; Tzay-Chyn, Shin

    2015-04-01

    Data collected by 281 sites of Taiwan Continuous GPS Array from 2007 to 2013 are processed with GAMIT/GLOBK software. The acquired GPS position time series are described by model parameters such as linear rate, annual and semi-annual periodic motions, coseismic offsets, postseismic rate change, and exponential decay after earthquakes. Stacking of power spectral densities from 281 continuous GPS data in Taiwan, we found the slopes of spectra (spectral index) are -0.72, -0.77, and -0.57 for the E, N, U components, respectively. It indicates the errors of continuous GPS data can be described as a combination of white noise and flicker noise. The common-mode errors are removed by stacking data from 50 continuous GPS sites with data period more than 5 years. By removing common-mode errors, the precision of GPS data is further improved to 2.3 mm, 1.9 mm, and 6.9 mm in the E, N, U components, respectively. After strictly data quality control, time series analysis and noise analysis, we derive a new ITRF2008 velocity field and velocity field relative to Penghu using GPS data from 2007 to 2013 in the Taiwan area. The general pattern of the newly derived 2007-2013 velocity field is quite similar with that from previous studies, but the station density is much larger and spatial coverage is better, too. About 80 mm/yr plate convergence rate is observed, approximately half of plate convergence rate is accommodated on the fold and thrust belt of western Taiwan and another half is taken up in the Longitudinal Valley and the Coastal Range in eastern Taiwan. The velocities in western Taiwan generally show a fan-shaped pattern, consistent with the direction of maximum compression tectonic stress. In northern Taiwan, the velocity vectors reveal clockwise rotation, indicating the on-going extensional deformation related to the back-arc extension of the Okinawa Trough. In southern Taiwan, the horizontal velocity increases from about 40 mm/yr at Chiayi-Tainan to 55 mm/yr in the Kaohsiung-Pingtung area with a counterclockwise rotation in the directions. The 2007-2013 Taiwan velocity field and GPS position time series can be used in active tectonics and earthquake prediction studies. It also provides important information for seismic hazard analysis.

  8. Feasibility study of a nation-wide Early Warning System: the application of the EEW software PRESTo on the Italian Strong Motion Network (RAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollo, Aldo; Picozzi, Matteo; Elia, Luca; Martino, Claudio; Brondi, Piero; Colombelli, Simona; Emolo, Antonio; Festa, Gaetano; Marcucci, Sandro

    2014-05-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a huge progress in the development, implementation and testing of Earthquakes Early Warning Systems (EEWS) worldwide, as the result of a joint effort of the seismological and earthquake engineering communities to set up robust and efficient methodologies for the real-time seismic risk mitigation. The leading experience of the operational early warning system implemented by the Japan Meteorological Agency showed the effectiveness of a combined onsite and network-based approach to rapidly broadcast the rapid warning after a potential damaging earthquake. At the nation-wide scale, the Japanese system makes use of real-time data streamed by the extremely dense accelerograph array (about 1000 seismic instruments) deployed across Japan. With more than 750 accelerometric stations installed over all the active seismic zones, target cities and strategic infrastructures, Italy has the potential for a nation-wide early warning system, although the communication network and data sharing must be expanded and improved. A significant number of these stations are nodes of the RAN (Italian Accelerometric Network) managed by the Italian national emergency management department (Dipartimento della Protezione Civile, DPC), whose data are used for emergency response services. In the framework of the REAKT-Strategies and tools for Real Time Earthquake RisK ReducTion FP7 European project, the AMRA-RISSCLab group is engaged in a feasibility study on the implementation of the EEW software PRESTo earthquake early warning platforms on the Italian accelerometric network (RAN) PRESTo (PRobabilistic and Evolutionary early warning SysTem) is a highly configurable and easily portable platform for Earthquake Early Warning. The system processes the live accelerometric streams from the stations of a seismic network to promptly provide probabilistic and evolutionary estimates of location and magnitude of detected earthquakes while they are occurring, as well as shaking prediction at the regional scale. Alarm messages containing those parameters can reach target sites before the destructive waves, enabling automatic safety procedures. The earthquake location is obtained by an evolutionary, probabilistic approach that uses information from both triggered and not-yet-triggered stations at each time step. Magnitude estimation is based on a Bayesian approach that uses the peak displacement measured on short 2-4 second windows of P- and S-waves signal. Peak ground motion is estimated at target sites by GMPEs using location and magnitude. The performance of the potential EW system at the national scale has been investigated through simulated earthquake scenarios using real-data from several M 5-6 earthquakes recorded by the network RAN. Furthermore, a statistical approach has been implemented considering a nation-wide grid of synthetic sources, the same grid which is used to derive the seismic hazard map in Italy. By considering a virtual testing period of 50 years, each grid's node is considered as a seismic source capable of generating a sequence of earthquakes with magnitude varying according the seismogenic zones properties to which it belongs. Then, the EW algorithm, PRESTo, is run on the sequences of synthetic data created for each of the grid's points considering the present-day RAN configuration, and network performance in terms of lead-time, errors in event location and magnitude determination is computed for the tested sources.

  9. Taiwan's 1995 health care reform.

    PubMed

    Chiang, T L

    1997-03-01

    Under considerable domestic political pressure, the Taiwan government inaugurated a compulsory universal health insurance scheme on 1 March 1995. This new scheme is financed mainly by payroll tax and provides comprehensive health care benefits with a moderate cost sharing. In order to gain efficiency in delivering health services, the scheme enters contracts with health care providers and has been developing a prospective payment system. Meanwhile, the scheme uses a uniform fee schedule and makes all payments through a public single-payer system to control health care costs. By the end of the inaugural year, the scheme covered 92% of the population and the utilization pattern of the newly insured became close to that of the previously insured. However, there is the beginning of a financial crisis because the payments of the scheme are rapidly increasing and expect to exceed the premiums in the coming year. Besides, the scheme did not bring in the efficient use of health care resources and probably caused it to worsen. Taiwan's health care reform has an unfinished agenda. PMID:10165463

  10. A model for the termination of the Ryukyu subduction zone against Taiwan: A junction of collision, subduction/separation, and subduction boundaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, F.T.; Liang, W.-T.; Lee, J.-C.; Benz, H.; Villasenor, A.

    2009-01-01

    The NW moving Philippine Sea plate (PSP) collides with the Eurasian plate (EUP) in the vicinity of Taiwan, and at the same time, it subducts toward the north along SW Ryukyu. The Ryukyu subduction zone terminates against eastern Taiwan. While the Ryukyu Trench is a linear bathym??trie low about 100 km east of Taiwan, closer to Taiwan, it cannot be clearly identified bathymetrically owing to the deformation related to the collision, making the location of the intersection of the Ryukyu with Taiwan difficult to decipher. We propose a model for this complex of boundaries on the basis of seismicity and 3-D velocity structures. In this model the intersection is placed at the latitude of about 23.7??N, placing the northern part of the Coastal Range on EUP. As PSP gets deeper along the subduction zone it collides with EUP on the Taiwan side only where they are in direct contact. Thus, the Eurasian plate on the Taiwan side is being pushed and compressed by the NW moving Philippine Sea plate, at increasing depth toward the north. Offshore of northeastern Taiwan the wedge-shaped EUP on top of the Ryukyu subducting plate is connected to the EUP on the Ryukyu side and coupled to the NW moving PSP by friction at the plate interface. The two sides of the EUP above the western end of the subduction zone are not subjected to the same forces, and a difference in motions can be expected. The deformation of Taiwan as revealed by continuous GPS measurements, geodetic movement along the east coast of Taiwan, and the formation of the Hoping Basin can be understood in terms of the proposed model. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Anatomy of strong ground motion: near-source records and three-dimensional physics-based numerical simulations of the Mw 6.0 2012 May 29 Po Plain earthquake, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolucci, R.; Mazzieri, I.; Smerzini, C.

    2015-12-01

    Stimulated by the recent advances in computational tools for the simulation of seismic wave propagation problems in realistic geological configurations, this paper presents a 3D physics-based numerical analysis of near-source ground motion during the MW 6.0 2012 May 29 earthquake in the Po Plain, Northern Italy. To reproduce with sufficient accuracy some of the most peculiar features of the near-source strong-motion records and of the spatial variability of damage distribution, this study required a sequence of investigations, starting from the analysis of a wide set of near-source records, to the calibration of an improved kinematic seismic source model, up to the development of a 3D numerical model of the portion of the Po Plain interested by the earthquake. The latter includes the basin geometry, characterized by sediment thickness sharply varying from few tens of metres to some kilometres. The spatial resolution of the numerical model is suitable to propagate frequencies up to about 1.5 Hz. Numerical simulations were performed using the open-source high-performance code SPEED, based on the Discontinuous Galerkin Spectral Elements method. The 3D numerical model, coupled with the updated slip distribution along the rupturing fault, proved successful to reproduce with good agreement, measured through quantitative goodness-of-fit criteria, the most relevant features of the observed ground motion. These include: (i) the large fault normal velocity peaks at the near-source stations driven by updip directivity effects; (ii) the small-scale variability at short distance from the source, resulting in the out-of-phase motion at stations separated by only 3 km distance; (iii) the propagation of prominent trains of surface waves, especially in the Northern direction; (iv) the map of earthquake-induced ground uplift with maximum values of about 10 cm, in substantial agreement with geodetic measurements and (v) the two-lobed pattern of the peak ground velocity map, well correlated with the distribution of macroseismic intensity.

  12. Health risk assessment for residents exposed to atmospheric diesel exhaust particles in southern region of Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chio, Chia-Pin; Liao, Chung-Min; Tsai, Ying-I.; Cheng, Man-Ting; Chou, Wei-Chun

    2014-03-01

    Evidence shows a strong association among air pollution, oxidative stress (OS), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage, and diseases. Recent studies indicated that the aging, human neurodegenerative diseases and cancers resulted from mitochondrial dysfunction and OS. The purpose of this study is to provide a probabilistic risk assessment model to quantify the atmospheric diesel exhaust particles (DEP)-induced pre-cancer biomarker response and cancer incidence risk for residents in south Taiwan. We conducted entirely monthly particulate matter sampling data at five sites in Kaohsiung of south Taiwan in the period 2002-2003. Three findings were found: (i) the DEP dose estimates and cancer risk quantification had heterogeneously spatiotemporal difference in south Taiwan, (ii) the pre-cancer DNA damage biomarker and cancer incidence estimates had a positive yet insignificant association, and (iii) all the estimates of cancer incidence in south Taiwan populations fell within and slight lower than the values from previous cancer epidemiological investigations. In this study, we successfully assessed the tumor incidence for residents posed by DEP exposure in south Taiwan compared with the epidemiological approach. Our approach provides a unique way for assessing human health risk for residences exposed to atmospheric DEP depending on specific combinations of local and regional conditions. Our work implicates the importance of incorporating both environmental and health risk impacts into models of air pollution exposure to guide adaptive mitigation strategies.

  13. Deposition of beryllium-7 in Hsinchu, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chao, J H; Chiu, Y J; Lee, H P; Lee, M C

    2012-02-01

    In the present study, factors that influence the distribution and variation of (7)Be in Hsinchu, Taiwan were elucidated. The (7)Be activity including the deposition flux and air concentration was continuously monitored and recorded throughout a 15-year period (1996-2010). To explain the observed variability in the (7)Be activity over time, air concentration and deposition flux of (7)Be were correlated to rainfall and solar activity. The monthly average deposition flux and air concentration of (7)Be were inversely related to solar activity with the 11-year cycle and were not strongly correlated to rainfall. The highest seasonal deposition flux of (7)Be occurred in March, which is commonly referred to as the spring maximum, due to air-mass mixing processes in the troposphere. The air concentration of (7)Be was seasonally variable and was significantly affected by monsoons. The lowest deposition flux and air concentration of (7)Be were observed in July and August due to the occurrence of southwest monsoons from low latitudes, which carry air masses with low concentrations of (7)Be. The deposition flux was enhanced by precipitation, which increased the deposition velocity, transferring more (7)Be from the troposphere to the ground. The fraction of dry to total deposition varied seasonally and was equal to 9.86%, on average. PMID:22056921

  14. National Chung Hsing University , National Taiwan University , National Central University National Chung Hsing University

    E-print Network

    Santipach, - Wiroonsak

    ;6 Taiwan Mushroom Museum Taiwan Mushroom Museum .. 1998 Wufeng 1. Council of Agriculture, Executive and Development Institute 4. National Chung Hsing University Taiwan Mushroom Museum 50 ( .. 1953) Taiwan Mushroom Museum () Wufeng 700,000 Wufeng Wufeng Wufeng Farmers

  15. Taiwan: Facing the future with nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    1994-07-01

    The republic of China on Taiwan is located approximately 100 miles off the southeast coast of mainland China, between Japan and the Philippines, and has an area of 13,970 square miles. The island nation has a population exceeding twenty million people, with over five million living in the capital of Taipei, making Taiwan the second most densely populated country in the world. The country also has one of the world`s fastest growing economies, with major industries that include electronics, textiles, food processing, chemicals and plastics. Annual growth of Taiwan`s gross national product (GNP) has averaged more than 7 percent for the past several years, and the small island is now the twelfth largest trading nation in the world, with a GNP exceeding US$200 billion.

  16. Simulation of Source Functions in Taiwan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    Since the Taiwan area is situated on the subduction zone, where the Philippine Sea Plate is subducting underneath the Eurasian Plate, much attention is focused on seismic risk mitigation. The purpose of this paper is to study the potential of earthquakes hazard in the Taiwan area, using the seismic acceleration data collected by the Central Weather Bureau from 1993 to 2012. The source time functions for 32 events have been calculated by using the attenuation equation and the Q-structures. These source time functions can be classified into 3 groups. Type A, B, and C indicates subduction, normal and strike slip faults respectively. The source time functions of type A are almost located in the off-shore of the eastern Taiwan. Most of the type C are located in the well known faults (ex. ChelungPu fault) area. Type B are located in the volcano area of northern Taiwan.

  17. 76 FR 13660 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ..., Washington, DC, and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register of October 4, 2010 (75 FR 61175). The... Publication 4218 (March 2011), entitled Polyvinyl Alcohol from Taiwan: Investigation No. 731-TA-1088...

  18. Occupational health research in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Shih, Tung-Sheng; Chang, Ho-Yuan; Yeh, Wen-Yu; Su, Teh-Sheng; Huang, Yi-Shiao; Chang, Cheng-Ping; Ho, Jiune-Jye; Guo, Yueliang Leon

    2004-04-01

    This article gave a brief introduction of population, labor force, general status of occupational safety and health in Taiwan. Statistics of occupational injuries and health disorders, laws and regulations relevant to occupational health were also covered. Research activities driven by universities, research institutes, society/association were provided. Two multi-lateral collaborative research examples were presented: an intoxication outbreak-initiated CS2 study and an information-demand-motivated 2-methoxy-ethanol study. Industrial hygienists, engineers, epidemiologists, and occupational physicians from both universities and research institutes, governmental agencies, and from non-profit R&D organizations and academic associations were involved in these researches, presenting a promise that integrated collaboration of inter-disciplinary specialty cooperated with governmental participation could benefit not only academic achievement, governmental policy-makeup, but also to the employees themselves. PMID:15128161

  19. Acute metaldehyde poisoning in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chi-Chung; Chang, Shy-Shin; Chan, Yi-Ling; Chen, Jih-Chang; Chang, Meng-Wei; Tung, Meng-Sheng; Deng, Jou-Fang; Yang, Chen-Chang

    2004-06-01

    Metaldehyde, a cyclic tetramer of acetaldehyde, is a widely used molluscicide. Although cases with acute metaldehyde poisoning have been reported, the occurrence of severe poisoning is uncommon. To provide more information on human metaldehyde poisoning, we reviewed 15 cases of metaldehyde exposure reported to the Taiwan National Poison Control Center at the Taipei Veterans General Hospital between 1991 and 2002. While 7 patients were asymptomatic, the other 8 patients, including 4 who coingested alcohol or other poisons, exhibited toxic manifestations of abdominal pain, dizziness, nausea, irritation of oral mucosa, and seizures after oral exposure. One patient died after ingesting 12 g (or 258.6 mg/kg) of metaldehyde. Although the toxicity from metaldehyde is largely mild, the clinical course of metaldehyde poisoning may be rapidly deteriorating and fatal on rare occasions. Physicians should therefore be cautious in managing patients with metaldehyde poisoning, and vigorous supportive measures should be promptly instituted in patients who manifest severe toxicity. PMID:15171491

  20. Onychomycosis Associated with Exophiala oligosperma in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yu-Min; Rajendran, Ranjith Kumar; Lin, Ying-Fang; Kirschner, Roland; Hu, Sindy

    2016-02-01

    A fungus was isolated from a nail of a 54-year-old female patient with onychomycosis in Taiwan. Based on ITS rDNA as well as beta tubulin gene sequences and microscopic analyses, this fungus was identified as Exophiala oligosperma. This is the first record of E. oligosperma in Taiwan. Negative keratin azure test indicates that keratin degradation is not involved in cases of E. oligosperma associated with skin and nail diseases. PMID:26378025

  1. Early Austronesians: Into and Out Of Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Chen, Chung-Yu; Fu, Qiaomei; Delfin, Frederick; Li, Mingkun; Chiu, Hung-Lin; Stoneking, Mark; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2014-01-01

    A Taiwan origin for the expansion of the Austronesian languages and their speakers is well supported by linguistic and archaeological evidence. However, human genetic evidence is more controversial. Until now, there had been no ancient skeletal evidence of a potential Austronesian-speaking ancestor prior to the Taiwan Neolithic ?6,000 years ago, and genetic studies have largely ignored the role of genetic diversity within Taiwan as well as the origins of Formosans. We address these issues via analysis of a complete mitochondrial DNA genome sequence of an ?8,000-year-old skeleton from Liang Island (located between China and Taiwan) and 550 mtDNA genome sequences from 8 aboriginal (highland) Formosan and 4 other Taiwanese groups. We show that the Liangdao Man mtDNA sequence is closest to Formosans, provides a link to southern China, and has the most ancestral haplogroup E sequence found among extant Austronesian speakers. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis allows us to reconstruct a history of early Austronesians arriving in Taiwan in the north ?6,000 years ago, spreading rapidly to the south, and leaving Taiwan ?4,000 years ago to spread throughout Island Southeast Asia, Madagascar, and Oceania. PMID:24607387

  2. Motion Sickness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... people traveling by car, train, airplanes and especially boats. Motion sickness can start suddenly, with a queasy ... motion sickness. For example, down below on a boat, your inner ear senses motion, but your eyes ...

  3. Classifying Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duzen, Carl; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents a series of activities that utilizes a leveling device to classify constant and accelerated motion. Applies this classification system to uniform circular motion and motion produced by gravitational force. (MDH)

  4. Instrumental intensity distribution for the Hector Mine, California, and the Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquakes: Comparison of two methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sokolov, V.; Wald, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    We compare two methods of seismic-intensity estimation from ground-motion records for the two recent strong earthquakes: the 1999 (M 7.1) Hector Mine, California, and the 1999 (M 7.6) Chi-Chi, Taiwan. The first technique utilizes the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and velocity (PGV), and it is used for rapid generation of the instrumental intensity map in California. The other method is based on the revised relationships between intensity and Fourier amplitude spectrum (FAS). The results of using the methods are compared with independently observed data and between the estimations from the records. For the case of the Hector Mine earthquake, the calculated intensities in general agree with the observed values. For the case of the Chi-Chi earthquake, the areas of maximum calculated intensity correspond to the areas of the greatest damage and highest number of fatalities. However, the FAS method producees higher-intensity values than those of the peak amplitude method. The specific features of ground-motion excitation during the large, shallow, thrust earthquake may be considered a reason for the discrepancy. The use of PGA and PGV is simple; however, the use of FAS provides a natural consideration of site amplification by means of generalized or site-specific spectral ratios. Because the calculation of seismic-intensity maps requires rapid processing of data from a large network, it is very practical to generate a "first-order" map from the recorded peak motions. Then, a "second-order" map may be compiled using an amplitude-spectra method on the basis of available records and numerical modeling of the site-dependent spectra for the regions of sparse station spacing.

  5. Population identification of red-fin pargo, Parargyrops edita Tanaka, in Taiwan strait and Beibu Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiyong; Cai, Zeping; Xu, Xucai

    1985-06-01

    This paper deals with population identification of Parargyrops edita Tanaka. Samples of spawning stocks were collected from Niushan-Penghu, Minnan-Taiwan shoal (Southern Fujian-Taiwan shoal) and Beibu Gulf during the spawning period 1981 1982. Morphological characters, both meristic and morphometric, are counted and measured respectively. The stock concept and intraspecific categories have been discussed. Some meristic characters as the number of left or right ventral fin spine, right ventral fin rays and abdominal vertebrae of this fish may be constant, others as the numbers of left or right pectoral fin rays and gill-rakers may have obvious geographical variation. Morphological characters have not attained the level of subspecific distinctness, no sub-species could be found among these stocks by means of coefficient of difference (C.D.). Basing upon the comparative analysis of M diff, the authors consider that stocks of Minnan-Taiwan shoal and Niushan-Penghu belong to the same local population, Taiwan Strait local population. By means of the discriminant function analysis and linear relationship analysis, statistical differences will be found to exist in meristic characters between the stock of Minnan-Taiwan shoal and that of Niushan-Penghu, so that the two are virtually different stocks or subpopulations. The stock of Beibu Gulf belongs to another called the Beibu Gulf local population. These two local populations are of allopatric distribution and show statistically significant difference between themselves. Among these stocks, the Minnan-Taiwan shoal stock is strongly influenced by the much more complicated environmental conditions of the mixed boundary region of the subtropical Sino-Japanese Subregion in the north and the tropical Indo-Malayan Subregion in the south. Thus its coefficient of variability (C.V.) is greater than those of the other two in the mean values of various meristic characters.

  6. Holocene Bedrock Channel Incision in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, M.; Knuepfer, P.; Chen, Y.; Chyi, S.; Liew, P.

    2002-12-01

    We present available bedrock channel incision rates, based on more than 100 radiocarbon dates (mostly late Holocene), for the entire Taiwan Island. Most of these rates are derived from southwestern Taiwan; others are from northern, northeastern Taiwan, from one major river (Choshui River) in central Taiwan, and from one river (Anhu River; on eastern side of the Central Range) in southern Taiwan. Our observed bedrock incision is negligible (<1 mm/yr) for the rivers in northern and southern Taiwan, which should reflect the long-term stability of the rivers in both rock uplift and sediment flux. In contrast, the incision rates are high (up to 20 mm/yr) in central and southwestern Taiwan, where active folding and regional tilting are well documented by river-terrace sequences. We, however, fail to find a simple model, such as unit stream power or bed shear stress, to formulate our observed incision rates. This may, in part, reflect non-equilibrium between the rock uplift and the resulting channel incision (and widening) over the time scale (late Holocene) being considered. In this time scale, bedrock incision may be sensitive to fluctuating sediment flux and local base levels (e.g., active anticlinal structures, tributary debris fans, resistant rock formations or bed arming). This explains why our observed bedrock incision had been episodic and varied through time and through places where rock uplift rates are likely similar. This complexity is further demonstrated by the inconsistency between our observed incision rates and the denudation rates estimated from suspended load (a feature also varying from basin to basin).

  7. Calibration of PS09, PS10, and PS11 trans-Alaska pipeline system strong-motion instruments, with acceleration, velocity, and displacement records of the Denali fault earthquake, 03 November 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, John R.; Jensen, E. Gray; Sell, Russell; Stephens, Christopher D.; Nyman, Douglas J.; Hamilton, Robert C.; Hager, William C.

    2006-01-01

    In September, 2003, the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company (APSC) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) embarked on a joint effort to extract, test, and calibrate the accelerometers, amplifiers, and bandpass filters from the earthquake monitoring systems (EMS) at Pump Stations 09, 10, and 11 of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS). These were the three closest strong-motion seismographs to the Denali fault when it ruptured in the MW 7.9 earthquake of 03 November 2002 (22:12:41 UTC). The surface rupture is only 3.0 km from PS10 and 55.5 km from PS09 but PS11 is 124.2 km away from a small rupture splay and 126.9 km from the main trace. Here we briefly describe precision calibration results for all three instruments. Included with this report is a link to the seismograms reprocessed using these new calibrations: http://nsmp.wr.usgs.gov/data_sets/20021103_2212_taps.html Calibration information in this paper applies at the time of the Denali fault earthquake (03 November 2002), but not necessarily at other times because equipment at these stations is changed by APSC personnel at irregular intervals. In particular, the equipment at PS09, PS10, and PS11 was changed by our joint crew in September, 2003, so that we could perform these calibrations. The equipment stayed the same from at least the time of the earthquake until that retrieval, and these calibrations apply for that interval.

  8. Chinese Teenagers Perceptions of and Attitudes toward Taiwan Mandarin 

    E-print Network

    Juan, Yu-Tien

    2011-11-23

    This dissertation is a language attitude study which has Taiwan Mandarin as its main concern. The study is based on a pilot study, which suggests Chinese people’s attitudes toward Hong Kong and Taiwan Mandarin related ...

  9. Evolution of Taiwan's health care system.

    PubMed

    Rachel Lu, Jui-Fen; Chiang, Tung-Liang

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to present an overview of the evolutionary policy process in reforming the health care system in Taiwan, through dissecting the forces of knowledge, social-cultural context, economic resources and political system. We further identify factors, which had a significant impact on health care reform policies in Taiwan through illustrative policy examples. One of the most illuminating examples highlighted is the design and implementation of a single-payer National Health Insurance (NHI) program in 1995, after nearly five years of planning efforts (1988-1993) and a two-year legislative marathon. The NHI is one of the most popular social programs ever undertaken in the history of Taiwan, which greatly enhances financial protection against unexpected medical expenses and assures access to health services. Nonetheless, health care reform still has an unfinished agenda. Despite high satisfaction ratings, Taiwan's health care system today is encountering mounting pressure for new reforms as a result of its rapidly aging population, economic stagnation, and imbalanced NHI checkbook. Although there may exist some heterogeneous system characteristics and challenges among different health care systems around the world, Taiwan's experiences in reforming its health care system for the past few decades may provide valuable lessons for countries going through rapid economic and political transition. PMID:20199715

  10. Super Typhoon Halong off Taiwan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On July 14, 2002, Super Typhoon Halong was east of Taiwan (left edge) in the western Pacific Ocean. At the time this image was taken the storm was a Category 4 hurricane, with maximum sustained winds of 115 knots (132 miles per hour), but as recently as July 12, winds were at 135 knots (155 miles per hour). Halong has moved northwards and pounded Okinawa, Japan, with heavy rain and high winds, just days after tropical Storm Chataan hit the country, creating flooding and killing several people. The storm is expected to be a continuing threat on Monday and Tuesday. This image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite on July 14, 2002. Please note that the high-resolution scene provided here is 500 meters per pixel. For a copy of the scene at the sensor's fullest resolution, visit the MODIS Rapid Response Image Gallery. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  11. Language Shift and Language Accommodation across Family Generations in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandel, Todd L.; Chao, Wen-Yu; Liang, Chung-Hui

    2006-01-01

    This study explored language shift and accommodation among bilingual Mandarin and Tai-gi (also called Hokkien, Holo, Tai-gu, Taiwan Min, Taiwanese) families in Taiwan. From the 1940s until the 1980s the Chinese Nationalist Party (KMT) on Taiwan promoted Mandarin Chinese. Recent years have witnessed a shift in policy: since 2001 elementary schools…

  12. Phylogenetic and molecular dating analysis of Taiwan Blue Pheasant (Lophura swinhoii).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lichun; Wang, Gaochao; Peng, Rui; Peng, Quekun; Zou, Fangdong

    2014-04-10

    The Swinhoe's Pheasant (Lophura swinhoii) is an endemic and most endangered species to Taiwan, China. It belongs to the genus Lophura, family Phasianidae. To further investigate the evolutionary history of L. swinhoii, we determined its complete mitochondrial genome and reconstructed a single, robust phylogenetic tree. Our results showed that L. swinhoii is clustered with Lophura nycthemera and forms a sister group of Lophura ignita. The genus Lophura is strongly supported as the sister taxon of the genus Crossoptilon. The molecular clock analysis showed that the genetic divergence of L. swinhoii occurred in 2.71 (1.31-4.22) Mya. The most common ancestor of L. swinhoii might have migrated from mainland of South East Asia to Taiwan Island by the land bridge at 2.71 Mya ago. Taiwan Island is separated from the mainland by the sea (Taiwan Strait) and formed a separate island at around 2.5 Mya because of the transgression and regression. Therefore, geographical isolation and climate change may accelerate the evolution of L. swinhoii. In this study, we propose a biogeographic hypothesis for speciation of the L. swinhoii based on known events of the geographic and geological history of South East Asia and southeast China, which would benefit the understanding of evolutionary history of L. swinhoii as well as other galliform birds. PMID:24508942

  13. Enhancing the Interactive Relationship between Lifelong Learning and Social Changes to Carry Out a Learning Society in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Cheng-Yen

    2008-01-01

    A national white paper was published in 1998 with 14 action plans to be the blueprints for developing lifelong learning. These were based on continuously strong recommendations of academics and lobbying groups in Taiwan. Many national policies were formulated and implemented based on the white paper and its action plans, and this has paved a way…

  14. [The Taiwan Nurses Association and professional diplomacy].

    PubMed

    Lee, Sheuan

    2014-08-01

    The Taiwan Nurses Association (TWNA) is publishing a special centenary issue to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the association in 2014. For this issue, TWNA invited the author to write a review article that addresses the involvement of the TWNA in professional diplomacy and international exchange over the past century. The author reviews the history of both TWNA and the International Council of Nurses and introduces the contributions of the association in the field of professional diplomacy and the positive contributions of many Taiwan nursing leaders to global healthcare and society. The purpose of the paper is to convey the traditions and experiences of TWNA forward to the next generation. PMID:25125155

  15. Initiation and runaway process of Tsaoling landslide, triggered by the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake, as studied by high-velocity friction experiments (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togo, T.; Shimamoto, T.; Dong, J.; Lee, C.

    2013-12-01

    High-velocity friction experiments in the last two decades have demonstrated dramatic weakening of simulated faults at seismic slip rates on the order of 1 m/s (e.g., Di Toro et al., 2011, Nature). Similar experiments revealed very low friction of landslide materials (0.05-0.2 in friction coefficient) that can cause catastrophic landslides with velocity exceeding even 10 m/s (e.g., Miyamoto et al. (2009) on the 1999 Tsaoling landslide in Taiwan; Yano et al. (2009) on the 1999 Jiufengershan landslide in Taiwan,; Ferri et al. (2010, 2011) on the 1963 Vaiont landslide in Italy; Kuo et al. (2011) on the 2009 Hsiaolin landslide in Taiwan). Those studies strongly suggest that there are common processes operative in fault zones and along slip surfaces of catastrophic landslides along bedding planes, fractures or joints. As for catastrophic landslides triggered by an earthquake, an important issue to be addressed is how a landslide initiates during seismic ground motion. Thus we have studied the initiation and runaway process of the Tsaoling landslide by idealizing the initial landslide movement during seismic ground motion as an oscillating accelerating/decelerating motion. Tsaoling landslide is the largest landslide among those triggered by the Chi-Chi earthquake with its volume of about 130 Mm3. The landslide took place along very planar bedding planes of the porous Pliocene sedimentary rocks (mostly siltstone and sandstone), with a dip angle of 14 degree. A seismic record at a station about 500 m away from the landslide and a witness of a survivor who slid on top of the landslide mass indicate that the average speed of the landslide reached 20~40 m/s. A simple analysis of sliding block indicates that the kinetic friction has to be 0.05~0.15 to produce such a high-velocity. Moreover, Tang et al. (2009, Eng. Geol.) analyzed landslide motion with the discrete element method and showed that the landslide mass must have slid nearly as an intact mass, without much disaggregation, in order to prevent the complete mixing of broken-up pieces that would have given no chance for survival. This work partly justifies our experimental approach for understanding the Tsaoling landslide. We performed a series of oscillatory slip experiments on the crushed siltstone gouge at a normal stress of 3 MPa that corresponds to the overburden pressure at the base of about 150-meter thick landslide mass, using a rotary-shear low to high-velocity friction apparatus at Hiroshima University. The slip rate was increased linearly to the maximum velocity of 0.33-1.3 m/s and was decreased linearly to zero with oscillation frequencies ranging 0.3-1.2 Hz. Results indicate that the accelerating and decelerating motions cause weakening and strengthening, respectively, at each oscillation cycle and that the gouge undergoes overall weakening with the repeated oscillation cycles. The overall weakening of the gouge depends on the maximum velocity, but not on the oscillation frequency. When the maximum velocity is 1.0 and 1.3 m/s, the friction coefficient decreases from about 0.8 to below 0.25 (or friction angle of 14 degree) after a few to several oscillations to initiate a runaway sliding of the landslide mass and the friction coefficient reduces to 0.1-0.2. Our results are consistent with the delayed onset and the high speed of the Tsaoling landslide. Our experiments will provide a way of evaluating the potential danger for earthquake-induced catastrophic landslides.

  16. Taiwan's underwater cultural heritage documentation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Y.-Y.

    2015-09-01

    Taiwan is an important trading and maritime channels for many countries since ancient time. Numerous relics lie underwater due to weather, wars, and other factors. In the year of 2006, Bureau of Cultural Heritage (BOCH) entrusted the Underwater Archaeological Team of Academia Sinica to execute the underwater archaeological investigation projects. Currently, we verified 78 underwater targets, with 78 site of those had been recognized as shipwrecks sites. Up to date, there is a collection of 638 underwater objects from different underwater archaeological sites. Those artefacts are distributed to different institutions and museums. As very diverse management methods/systems are applied for every individual institution, underwater cultural heritage data such as survey, excavation report, research, etc. are poorly organized and disseminated for use. For better communication regarding to Taiwan's underwater cultural heritage in every level, a universal format of documentation should be established. By comparing the existing checklist used in Taiwan with guidelines that are followed in other countries, a more intact and appropriate underwater cultural heritage condition documentation system can be established and adapted in Taiwan.

  17. Internet Addiction among High Schoolers in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Sunny S. J.; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid measurement for the identification of Internet addictive high school students. There were 615 subjects selected by a stratified sampling from the population of Taiwanese 10th to 12th graders. The final version of the Internet Addiction Scale for Taiwan High Schoolers (IAST) contained 20…

  18. No Aboriginal Students left Behind in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Sue-Jen; Hartzler-Miller, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    The project is motivated by Taiwan's huge gap of educational levels between the aborigines and the Hans. The low achievement of aboriginal students lies in factors related to problems in finance, health, and cultural difference, which contribute to their sense of self-deprecation. The purpose of the project is to provide early intervention and…

  19. Impax Taiwan Recruiting1 2009 6 FDA

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yih-Min

    with fluent English and little or no working experience to more than 10 years of industrial experience (Taiwan) offers the following opportunities: International pharmaceutical business experience TrainingGMP requirements. It has state-of-art equipment capable of producing oral solid dosage form products (tablets

  20. The Workforce Education and Development in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lung-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Workforce education and development (WED) can be broadly defined as those formal, informal and nonformal activities that prepare people for work. In Taiwan, it includes technological and vocational education (TVE), human resource development (HRD), public vocational training and adult education. In order to promote information exchanges and…

  1. Women's Aspirations for Graduate Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Meng-Jie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates female undergraduates' aspirations for master's and doctoral degree programs in Taiwan's universalized and stratified higher education system. It considers the potential effects of economic prospects, parental attitudes, and gender values. First, graduate education is perceived as a means to enhance one's comparative…

  2. Improving the Textbook Adoption Process in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Hsuan-fu; Hsu, Ying-tsun

    2011-01-01

    Textbooks were centrally selected in Taiwan until 1996 when the government commissioned its Textbook Liberalization Reform. Although this policy received complements from scholars and the general public, it encounters many unexpected problems in its implementation. The aims of this research are thus to identify the major criteria used by…

  3. Chinese Parenting Reconsideration: Parenting Practices in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Fu-mei; Luster, Tom

    This study examined authoritative and authoritarian parenting and specific parenting practices among Chinese mothers with preschoolers. The final sample consisted of 463 mothers with their 3 to 7 year-olds from 11 preschools, in Taiwan. Mothers completed a Chinese translation of the Parenting Behavior Questionnaire that assessed their parenting…

  4. Factors Related to Parenting Practices in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Fu-Mei; Luster Tom

    2002-01-01

    This study examined factors related to authoritarian and authoritative parenting practices among 463 Chinese mothers with preschoolers in Taiwan. Questionnaire findings suggested that maternal depression, child temperament, and degree of parenting daily hassles might have cross-culturally universal influence on parenting practices. Chinese…

  5. The Quality of Life in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Grace; Cheng, Yen-Pi; Cheng, Chiao-Pi

    2009-01-01

    The AsiaBarometer survey of 1,006 respondents shows that in Taiwan, people have access to modern utilities and digital media, signs of materialistic achievement, and yet are more concerned with physical security and financial safety than with personal growth. Regardless of their demographic backgrounds and value priorities, the Taiwanese, like…

  6. Language Policy and Group Identification in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ruey-Ying

    2012-01-01

    Taiwan is a multicultural and multilingual society. Generally speaking, Taiwanese residents fall into one of four ethnic groups. Each ethnic group has a different cultural context and a preferred language. Therefore, one's use of language may reveal his/her identification with an ethnic group, and language policy implementation may imply the power…

  7. Ethos Derived from Karaoke Performance in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Ringo

    Karaoke (singing along to music videos) has swept Taiwan with such force that many people go to singing schools to improve their singing. Three cases in this paper demonstrate how the ethos, or credibility, of the singer is a combination of initial and derived ethos. Who the singer is tends to determine how much attention he or she receives…

  8. Strong decoherence

    E-print Network

    Gell-Mann, Murray; Gell-Mann, Murray; Hartle, James B

    1997-01-01

    We introduce a condition for the strong decoherence of a set of alternative histories of a closed quantum-mechanical system such as the universe. The condition applies, for a pure initial state, to sets of homogeneous histories that are chains of projections, generally branch-dependent. Strong decoherence implies the consistency of probability sum rules but not every set of consistent or even medium decoherent histories is strongly decoherent. Two conditions characterize a strongly decoherent set of histories: (1) At any time the operators that effectively commute with generalized records of history up to that moment provide the pool from which --- with suitable adjustment for elapsed time --- the chains of projections extending history to the future may be drawn. (2) Under the adjustment process, generalized record operators acting on the initial state of the universe are approximately unchanged. This expresses the permanence of generalized records. The strong decoherence conditions (1) and (2) guarantee wha...

  9. An Empirical Relationship between Liquefaction and Seismic Wave Energy - Lesson from the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Zhang, J.; Mayeri, D.; Wang, C.; Dreger, D. S.

    2002-12-01

    The 1999 Chi-Chi (Mw=7.5) earthquake in Taiwan caused widespread liquefaction and serious property damage. However, most liquefaction was located in specific areas, i.e., in the Yuanlin district on the Choshui River alluvial fan and in the Nantao district in a piggyback basin west of the ruptured Chelungpu fault. Most other parts of the alluvial fan did not suffer similar damage. In order to understand the different seismic response in the different areas to the Chi-Chi earthquake and to find an empirical relationship between the occurrence of liquefaction and the seismic wave characteristics, we examined a large number of digitized water-level records from 188 monitoring wells on the Choshui River alluvial fan, a large number of well logs and a large number of seismic records from a dense network of strong-motion seismic stations. Furthermore, we constructed the 3D structure of the basin beneath the alluvial fan in search of any structural characteristics of the basin that might be related to the occurrence of liquefaction. Two relationships have emerged from this search: (1) The occurrence of liquefaction appears to be strongly correlated with the occurrence of the maximums in seismic energy at frequencies of 0.5~1 Hz; and (2) the occurrence of liquefaction appears to be strongly correlated with rising water-level in the unconfined aquifer, but not with that in the confined aquifers. These relationships are testable in other parts of the world where earthquake-induced liquefaction occurred and where strong-motion records and water-level records are available. They suggest that (1) the sediment deformation in the area under seismic shaking may be more sensitive to frequencies of 0.5~1 Hz, and (2) the occurrence of liquefaction in the Chi-Chi earthquake may have been restricted to the uppermost unconfined aquifer. On the other hand, no specific structural or lithological characteristics of the basin was found to be directly correlated with the occurrence of liquefaction.

  10. Ground deformation in and around metropolitan Taipei of northern Taiwan observed by radar interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C.; Yen, J.; Chen, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Taiwan island is a young and active orogenic belt as indicated by the acute surface deformation and frequent seismicity. These activities bring habitants of this island considerable damage. The Taipei basin in northern Taiwan is a tectonic basin, in which a metropolitan is developed since late 19th century. A sudden land subsidence event triggered by large earthquake about 300 years ago has been reported in the western part of the Taipei basin and formed a lake that once occupied more than 60 percent surface of the current Taipei basin. However, observations from the recent geodetic measurement, no clear movement have been detected around this area. Since the Taipei metropolitan and its suburban area is the most populated area in Taiwan it is also the capital of Taiwan, the tectonic activity and the potential geological hazard of this area is thus an important issue for Taiwan. This study aims at applying the DInSAR technique and tectono-geomorphological field work to reveal the recent and present surface deformation occurred in and around the Taipei metropolitan. The surface deformation events revealed in this study all belong to the gentle event, which does not have a single catastrophic incident (for example, a strong, shallow earthquake that causes a large surface rupture along a fault line) but occurs over a longer time span, analogous to a series of continuous small incidents. The causes of these events include tectonic processes and human activity. These two effects may occur concurrently or compound each other to create a complex deformation pattern and making it difficult to attribute degrees of effect to each factor. In general, these observations could provide useful information to understand the regional surface deformation and its relationship with the neo-tectonic activity and environmental change.

  11. Plate motion

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, R.G. )

    1991-01-01

    The motion of tectonic plates on the earth is characterized in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Topics addressed include the NUVEL-1 global model of current plate motions, diffuse plate boundaries and the oceanic lithosphere, the relation between plate motions and distributed deformations, accelerations and the steadiness of plate motions, the distribution of current Pacific-North America motion across western North America and its margin, plate reconstructions and their uncertainties, hotspots, and plate dynamics. A comprehensive bibliography is provided. 126 refs.

  12. Exploring potential contributors to endocrine disrupting activities in Taiwan's surface waters using yeast assays and chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Chou, Pei-Hsin; Lin, Yi-Ling; Liu, Tong-Cun; Chen, Kuang-Yu

    2015-11-01

    Surface waters serve as sinks for anthropogenic contaminants, including naturally occurring hormones and a variety of synthetic endocrine active substances. To investigate the presence of endocrine active contaminants in the aquatic environment in Taiwan, river water and suspended solids were analyzed by yeast assays to examine the distribution of estrogenic, androgenic, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist activities. The results showed that dry-season river samples exhibited strong estrogenic and aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist activities, but no androgenic activity was detected. Owing to the ubiquitous detection of estrogenic activities in Taiwan's surface waters, samples were further subjected to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis for quantification of selected estrogenic compounds. LC-MS/MS results indicated that natural estrogens, such as estrone and 17?-estradiol were often the most contributing compounds for the bioassay-derived estrogenic activities due to their strong estrogenic potencies and high detection frequencies, whereas high concentrations of bisphenol A and nonylphenol also posed a threat to the aquatic ecosystems in Taiwan. Water samples eliciting strong estrogenic activities were further fractionated using high performance liquid chromatography, and significant estrogenic activities were detected in fractions containing estrone, 17?-estradiol, 17?-ethynylestradiol, and bisphenol A. Also, the presence of unidentified estrogenic compounds was found in few river water samples. Further identification of unknown endocrine active substances is necessary to better protect the aquatic environment in Taiwan. PMID:26295540

  13. Seismogenic strain across the transition from fore-arc slivering to collision in southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Jonathan C.; O'Hara, Daniel J.; Rau, Ruey-Juin

    2015-06-01

    Tectonic slivers have profound implications on the mechanical behavior of fore arcs and subduction zones. Southern Taiwan is characterized by precollision fore-arc slivering that likely exerts important controls on the evolution of collision. Inversion of focal mechanism solutions for seismogenic strain reveals spatially partitioned plate motion south of Taiwan, with dip-slip faulting nearer the Manila trench and strike-slip faulting nearer the Luzon arc. To the north these kinematics are less clearly segregated, and both types of faults appear to occur in the same volume of crust. Further north deformation is dominated by oblique slip on potentially reactivated steep reverse faults in the collision zone. Existing work on the active fault zones in Taiwan suggests that the subduction-to-collision transition is marked by a releasing step between the strike-slip fault that bounds the fore-arc sliver and the oblique thrusts of the collision zone. This configuration may help to explain the lack of fore-arc basement and cover exposed in the suture zone marked by the Longitudinal Valley.

  14. 78 FR 38938 - Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ...Administration [A-583-833] Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping...antidumping duty order on polyester staple fiber (PSF) from Taiwan. The period of review...1\\ See Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of...

  15. 76 FR 58040 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ...Second Review] Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan Determination On...duty orders on certain polyester staple fiber from Korea and Taiwan would be likely to...2011), entitled Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan: Investigation...

  16. 76 FR 11268 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ...Second Review)] Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan AGENCY: United States...duty orders on certain polyester staple fiber from Korea and Taiwan...duty orders on certain polyester staple fiber from Korea and Taiwan would be likely...

  17. 78 FR 17637 - Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ...Administration [A-583-833] Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...antidumping duty order on polyester staple fiber (PSF) from Taiwan. The period of review...Administrative Review: Polyester Staple Fiber from Taiwan'' dated concurrently...

  18. 75 FR 34282 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2009-014, New Designated Country-Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ...Taiwan (known in the World Trade Organization as ``the Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu (Chinese Taipei))'' as a designated country, due to the accession of Taiwan to membership in the World Trade Organization...

  19. 78 FR 20890 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ...Administration [A-583-841] Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Preliminary Results...the antidumping duty order on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) from Taiwan. The period...Duty Administrative Review: Polyvinyl Alcohol from Taiwan;...

  20. 78 FR 39256 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2012-2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ...Administration [A-583-841] Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Rescission of...the antidumping duty order on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) from Taiwan for the...CCPC to the Department, ``Polyvinyl Alcohol from Taiwan: Withdrawal...

  1. 75 FR 22842 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ...Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam Determinations...material injury by reason of imports from Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam of PRCBs that...by Commerce that imports of PRCBs from Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam were being...

  2. 76 FR 38691 - Certain Pipe and Tube From Brazil, India, Korea, Mexico, Taiwan, Thailand, and Turkey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ...Review)] Certain Pipe and Tube From Brazil, India, Korea, Mexico, Taiwan, Thailand...duty orders on certain pipe and tube from Brazil, India, Korea, Mexico, Taiwan, Thailand...circular welded nonalloy steel pipe from Brazil, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan, and...

  3. 78 FR 52213 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ...Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand...of imports from India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand...tubular goods from India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan,...

  4. Gravity anomaly caused by the mud diapirs off southwest Taiwan and its implication to the development of the submarine canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doo, Wen-Bin; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Huang, Yuan-Ping; Chen, Song-Chuen

    2015-04-01

    Both the overpressure and buoyancy effects are generally used to account for the formation of submarine mud volcanoes (MVs) and mud diapirs (MDs). According to the distribution of the MDs and structural features, the compressive tectonic stress should play an important role on the formation of the MDs in the offshore area of southwest Taiwan. Onland Taiwan, the Tainan and Chungchou anticlinal structures (associated with MD) reveal positive gravity anomalies. The MDs in offshore southwest Taiwan are considered to be more active than onshore diapirs. However, the gravity nature of the submarine MDs is not clear. In 2012 and 2013, we have collected shipboard gravity data using R/V Ocean Researcher I in the offshore area of southwest Taiwan. By removing the gravimetric effect from the water-sediment interface and the regional gravity effect along the profiles, we find that the gravity contrasts of the MDs with respect to the surrounding strata are generally positive. The results seem conflict with the buoyant force that triggers the upward motion of the MDs. The positive density contrasts of the MDs can further indicate the relatively rigid rocks which influence the development of the Kaoping and the Fangliao Canyon.

  5. Thrust-type focal mechanisms of tectonic tremors in Taiwan: Evidence of subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ide, Satoshi; Yabe, Suguru; Tai, Hsin-Ju; Chen, Kate Huihsuan

    2015-05-01

    Unlike tectonic tremors in subduction zones and along transform faults, the hosting structure for tremors in Taiwan remains debated. Tectonic tremors in Taiwan have been discovered at ~30 km depth beneath the southern Central Range, which is a young and active collisional mountain belt. Here we provide the first evidence for the focal mechanism of tremor using moment tensor inversion in the very low frequency band, employing broadband seismograms stacked relative to the hypocentral time of tremor. The best solution corresponds to low-angle thrust faulting, suggesting the subduction of the Eurasian plate. This mechanism is consistent with strong tidal modulation of tremor activity but differs from the normal-type faulting that dominates regional shallow earthquakes. This result suggests vertical variations in the tectonic stress regime. Thrust faulting may be facilitated by a decrease in normal stress due to the buoyant roots of the mountain belt and local high fluid pressure.

  6. Development of Taiwan’s strategies for regulating nanotechnology-based pharmaceuticals harmonized with international considerations

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jiun-Wen; Lee, Yu-Hsuan; Huang, Hsiau-Wen; Tzou, Mei-Chyun; Wang, Ying-Jan; Tsai, Jui-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology offers potential in pharmaceuticals and biomedical developments for improving drug delivery systems, medical imaging, diagnosis, cancer therapy, and regenerative medicine. Although there is no international regulation or legislation specifically for nanomedicine, it is agreed worldwide that considerably more attention should be paid to the quality, safety, and efficacy of nanotechnology-based drugs. The US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency have provided several draft regulatory guidance and reflection papers to assist the development of nanomedicines. To cope with the impact of nanotechnology and to foster its pharmaceutical applications and development in Taiwan, this article reviews the trends of regulating nanotechnology-based pharmaceuticals in the international community and proposes strategies for Taiwan’s regulation harmonized with international considerations. The draft regulatory measures include a chemistry, manufacturing, and controls (CMC) review checklist and guidance for CMC review of liposomal products. These have been submitted for discussion among an expert committee, with membership comprised of multidisciplinary academia, research institutions, the pharmaceutical industry, and regulators, and are currently approaching final consensus. Once a consensus is reached, these mechanisms will be recommended to the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration for jurisdiction and may be initiated as the starting point for regulating nanotechnology-based pharmaceuticals in Taiwan. PMID:25342901

  7. Social Relationships and Inflammatory Markers: An Analysis of Taiwan and the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Glei, Dana A.; Goldman, Noreen; Ryff, Carol D.; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Weinstein, Maxine

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the association between two aspects of social relationships and six inflammatory markers in Taiwan and the U.S. These two countries share similar levels of current life expectancy, but exhibit important differences in social structure. The data comprised population based samples from Taiwan (aged 53+; n = 962) and the U.S. (aged 35-86; n = 990) collected between 2003 and 2009. Circulating levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and soluble forms of intercellular adhesion molecule 1, E-selectin, and IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) were measured in fasting blood samples. A social integration score was based on marital status, contact with family and friends, church attendance, and other social participation. A perceived social support index was based on questions regarding the availability of care and support from family and friends. Linear regression models tested the association between these two measures and each inflammatory marker controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, obesity, medication use, and baseline health status. After adjusting for potential confounders, social integration had a significant but weak inverse association with CRP in Taiwan. Perceived social support was significant in two of 12 models, and the coefficient was positive (i.e., higher support was associated with higher CRP and sIL-6R in the U.S.). We found no evidence that the coefficients for social relationship measures varied by sex or age. Our results yielded limited evidence of a weak association between two dimensions of social relationships and six inflammatory markers in Taiwan and the U.S. Given that the literature suggests a strong link between social relationships and mortality, and that inflammation plays an important role in the leading causes of death, we had expected to find consistent and moderately strong associations between social relationships and inflammatory markers. The small effect sizes and lack of robustness across markers were surprising. PMID:22483707

  8. Progress on Earthquake Rapid Reporting and Early Warning Systems in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Teng, T.; Hsiao, N.; Shin, T.; Lee, W. H.

    2003-12-01

    We report the recent progress on real-time seismic monitoring in Taiwan. Particularly on the earthquake rapid reporting (RRS) and earthquake early warning (EWS) systems developed by us at the Central Weather Bureau (CWB), using the telemetered signals from strong-motion instruments in the free-field. For the RRS, CWB has provided intensity map, hypocenter, and magnitude within one minute of the occurrence of large (M>4) earthquakes since 1995. The reliability, as documented by electronic messages to government agencies and scientists, has a nearly perfect record, especially for large damaging earthquakes. Using a set of empirical relationships from a study of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, CWB has been able to release through RRS the estimated distributions of PGA, PGV and potential damage within a few minutes after a big earthquake. This near real-time damage assessment is useful for rapid post-disaster emergency response and rescue missions. The concept of a virtual sub-network (VSN) has been implemented at CWB. The VSN-approach reduces the earthquake rapid reporting time to about 30 seconds or less. This represents a significant step towards a more realistic earthquake early warning capability, and has been in operation at CWB since December 2000. A 6-month result shows successful locations of 54 earthquakes with equivalent estimates of moment magnitude. The RRS and EWS have been in operation for several years essentially without false reports. For EWS since 2002, comprehensive earthquake reports have been issued mostly in less than 30 seconds, with an average of about 22 seconds from the origin time. At 3 km/sec for a typical shear wave velocity, the present operation is not useful if an earthquake occurs less than 66 km from a city, but the lead time will increase to more than 10 seconds for cities at distances greater than 100 km from the source. In the latter case, a lead time of several seconds will allows pre-programmed emergency response to take place prior to the arrival of strong shaking. The CWB's RRS and EWS reports are open to scientists (by e-mail) if a request is sent to ym.wu@socmail.cwb.gov.tw. Besides the earthquake-related information, these reports also document the processing time.

  9. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Ocular Infection in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yu-Chuan; Hsiao, Ching-Hsi; Yeh, Lung-Kun; Ma, David H.K.; Chen, Phil Y.F.; Lin, Hsin-Chiung; Tan, Hsin-Yuan; Chen, Hung-Chi; Chen, Shin-Yi; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is an important public health issue. This observational study aimed to characterize clinical features, antibiotic susceptibility, and genotypes of ocular infections caused by MRSA based on the clinical and molecular definitions of community-associated (CA) and healthcare-associated (HA) strains. Fifty-nine patients with culture-proven S aureus ocular infection were enrolled from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2011 at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan. Antibiotic susceptibility was verified using disk diffusion/E test. For characterization, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence type (MLST), and Panton–Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene, were performed. MRSA isolates from the patients with HA factors were classified as clinically defined HA-MRSA, and those carrying SCCmec type I to III as molecularly defined HA-MRSA. Thirty-four patients with MRSA ocular infection were identified. The most common clone of CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA isolates was ST59/PFGE type D/SCCmec IV,VT/PVL (+) (n?=?12) and CC 239/PFGE type A/SCCmec III, IIIA/PVL(?) (n?=?10), respectively. All the 11 patients with molecularly defined HA-MRSA infections and 50% of the 22 patients with molecularly defined CA-MRSA infections were found to have HA factors (P?=?.005). CA-MRSA tended to cause lid infections, whereas HA-MRSA tended to cause corneal infections. Contrary to HA-MRSA isolates, nearly all the CA-MRSA isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and fluoroquinolones under either clinical or molecular classifications. In Taiwan, CA-MRSA isolates exhibited considerably higher susceptibility to fluoroquinolones when compared with HA-MRSA isolates. A strong correlation was observed between the HA factors and molecularly defined HA-MRSA isolates. PMID:26496268

  10. The geologic study of Taiwan area following up the acquisition of Taiwan SLAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J. K.

    1984-06-01

    The general uses of SLAR imagery is investigated. Additional geologic data of the Central Mountain Range of Taiwan is presented. (1) The potential applications and related factors and parameters are studied and discussed in detail; an interpretation chart is worked out. Two main programs and four subroutines are set up to assist the analysis of SLAR lineaments and drainages. (2) SLAR lineaments reveal that there are four major sets of geologic structures on Taiwan Area, i.e., N29 deg E, N72 deg E, N30 deg W, and N66 deg W; nevertheless, only the N29 deg E trend was known previously. Through this study, the regional stress direction is concluded to be 125 deg in azimuth. Two tectonic patterns are discovered, the circular patterns surrounding Peikang Basement High and the NW/SE shear zone crossing the middle part of Taiwan Island.

  11. Lineage-specific late pleistocene expansion of an endemic subtropical gossamer-wing damselfly, Euphaea formosa, in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pleistocene glacial oscillations have significantly affected the historical population dynamics of temperate taxa. However, the general effects of recent climatic changes on the evolutionary history and genetic structure of extant subtropical species remain poorly understood. In the present study, phylogeographic and historical demographic analyses based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences were used. The aim was to investigate whether Pleistocene climatic cycles, paleo-drainages or mountain vicariance of Taiwan shaped the evolutionary diversification of a subtropical gossamer-wing damselfly, Euphaea formosa. Results E. formosa populations originated in the middle Pleistocene period (0.3 Mya) and consisted of two evolutionarily independent lineages. It is likely that they derived from the Pleistocene paleo-drainages of northern and southern Minjiang, or alternatively by divergence within Taiwan. The ancestral North-central lineage colonized northwestern Taiwan first and maintained a slowly growing population throughout much of the early to middle Pleistocene period. The ancestral widespread lineage reached central-southern Taiwan and experienced a spatial and demographic expansion into eastern Taiwan. This expansion began approximately 30,000 years ago in the Holocene interglacial period. The ancestral southern expansion into eastern Taiwan indicates that the central mountain range (CMR) formed a barrier to east-west expansion. However, E. formosa populations in the three major biogeographic regions (East, South, and North-Central) exhibit no significant genetic partitions, suggesting that river drainages and mountains did not form strong geographical barriers against gene flow among extant populations. Conclusions The present study implies that the antiquity of E. formosa's colonization is associated with its high dispersal ability and larval tolerance to the late Pleistocene dry grasslands. The effect of late Pleistocene climatic changes on the subtropical damselfly's historical demography is lineage-specific, depending predominantly on its colonization history and geography. It is proposed that the Riss and Würm glaciations in the late Pleistocene period had a greater impact on the evolutionary diversification of subtropical insular species than the last glacial maximum (LGM). PMID:21486452

  12. The Status of the Taiwan Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, C. C.; Wang, J. P.; Chen, J. R.; Hsu, K. T.; Wang, C.; Yang, Y. W.; Luo, G. H.; Chen, C. T.; Liang, K. S.

    2010-06-01

    NSRRC has been operating a 1.5 GeV synchrotron light source, the Taiwan Light Source (TLS), for over 15 years and has established a large user community. For the future development of synchrotron radiation research in Taiwan, a feasibility study report to construct a 3.0 GeV low-emittance storage ring, the Taiwan Photon Source (TPS), was issued in July 2005. The government approval of the TPS project was obtained in December 2007 and the machine will be built at current site of NSRRC. The project has progressed steadily since and reached several major milestones now: the architect firm has finished the site plan and civil design, the accelerator design has been fixed, and purchase of long-lead items begins its course. The TPS storage ring has a circumference of 518.4 meters with a concentric booster of 496.8 meters. The storage ring adopted a 24-cell double-bend structure with a 1.6 nm-rad natural emittance. There are six 12-m and eighteen 7-m ID straights. For user research, five new beamlines have been selected for the Phase I operations: the micro protein crystallography, the materials sub-micron diffraction, the inelastic soft x-ray scattering, the coherent x-ray scattering, and the nano probe beamlines. The civil construction is getting ready to start. The commissioning of the TPS storage ring is targeted for 2013.

  13. Characteristics of seabed tremors induced by gas emissions off Southwest Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Hsu, S.; Liang, C.; Doo, W.; Lin, J.

    2013-12-01

    Gas emissions out of the seabed have been observed in the offshore area of southwest Taiwan by 38 kHz echo sounders and sub-bottom profilers. The intensities of the gas emissions are closely modulated by the tidal variation. In this study, we use ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) to monitor the gas emissions and analyze the behavior of the seabed tremors. Among the recorded seismic signals, the long-duration tremors are very prounced. Those tremors are characterized by monochromatic signals and mainly horizontally oscillate for several hours. Becuse the particle motions are almost along horizontal directions, it suggests that the tremor source is from near-seafloor source link to gas emission out of the seabed. Gas-induced tremors mainly occur during both the rising periods and falling period of the tides, probably related to the higher stress variations induced by the tidal variation. However, although they may be recorded at different sites within a time interval, their amplitudes are not coherent, indicating the source is small and origin at the vicinity of each receiver. Because of the lack of temporal coherence, it's hard to identify the tremors' sources by traditional earthquake relocation methods. Here, we use the horizontal particle motions of the tremors to define the azimuths of the gas emission sources to each receiver. By summarizing multiple sources azimuths, we are able us to minimize the source spots. The results can also be used to characterize the seabed attributes in the offshore area of SW Taiwan.

  14. A Seismic Structure Study in the Kaoping Area, Southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, K. P.; Wang, C. Y.; Tsai, Y. B.; Chang, W. Y.

    2014-12-01

    The difference between S wave and S-to-P wave conversion (Sp phase) arrival times is enhanced with Rectilinear Motion Detector filtering to describe alluvial-sediment thickness in the Kaohsiung-Pingtung (Kaoping) plains area. A more complete understanding of the underground structures of the Kaoping area is provided and explains why the surrounding regions in Taiwan experience more earthquakes. Data are based on seismic activity recorded by PANDA for the period 1995 to 1997. The difference between S wave and Sp phase arrival times show that the sedimentary layer is thicker along the west and southwest coast. P wave travel time residuals, high frequency attenuation parameters kappa, and quality factor QP, QSand coda waves confirm this result. We also determined the orientation of the Chaochou fault using the first motion of P-waves arrivals. To the east of the Chaochou fault, stress trends southeast-northwest, while to the west, it trends northeast-southwest. The change of stress trends East and West of Chaochou fault suggest the presence of a highly fluid accretionary wedge in the Kaoping area. The Chaochou fault forms a seismically active tectonic boundary with uplift of the hanging wall leading to westward tilting of the basement of the Kaoping plains. We demonstrate these features are why there are relatively few earthquakes in the Kaoping area. The presence of a highly fluid accretionary wedge is indicated by a thick alluvial layer in the west and southwest Kaoping coast; the Peikung High acts as the indenter that may allow seismic energy to escape and reduce the number of earthquakes in the region.

  15. Characterization of CADASIL among the Han Chinese in Taiwan: Distinct Genotypic and Phenotypic Profiles.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yi-Chu; Hsiao, Cheng-Tsung; Fuh, Jong-Ling; Chern, Chang-Ming; Lee, Wei-Ju; Guo, Yuh-Cherng; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Lee, I-Hui; Liu, Yo-Tsen; Wang, Yen-Feng; Chang, Feng-Chi; Chang, Ming-Hung; Soong, Bing-Wen; Lee, Yi-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is originally featured with a strong clustering of mutations in NOTCH3 exons 3-6 and leukoencephalopathy with frequent anterior temporal pole involvement. The present study aims at characterizing the genotypic and phenotypic profiles of CADASIL in Taiwan. One hundred and twelve patients with CADASIL from 95 families of Chinese descents in Taiwan were identified by Sanger sequencing of exons 2 to 24 of NOTCH3. Twenty different mutations in NOTCH3 were uncovered, including 3 novel ones, and R544C in exon 11 was the most common mutation, accounting for 70.5% of the pedigrees. Haplotype analyses were conducted in 14 families harboring NOTCH3 R544C mutation and demonstrated a common haplotype linked to NOTCH3 R544C at loci D19S929 and D19S411. Comparing with CADASIL in most Caucasian populations, CADASIL in Taiwan has several distinct features, including less frequent anterior temporal involvement, older age at symptom onset, higher incidence of intracerebral hemorrhage, and rarer occurrence of migraine. Subgroup analyses revealed that the R544C mutation is associated with lower frequency of anterior temporal involvement, later age at onset and higher frequency of cognitive dysfunction. In conclusion, the present study broadens the spectrum of NOTCH3 mutations and provides additional insights for the clinical and molecular characteristics of CADASIL patients of Han-Chinese descents. PMID:26308724

  16. Characterization of CADASIL among the Han Chinese in Taiwan: Distinct Genotypic and Phenotypic Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Fuh, Jong-Ling; Chern, Chang-Ming; Lee, Wei-Ju; Guo, Yuh-Cherng; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Lee, I-Hui; Liu, Yo-Tsen; Wang, Yen-Feng; Chang, Feng-Chi; Chang, Ming-Hung; Soong, Bing-Wen; Lee, Yi-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is originally featured with a strong clustering of mutations in NOTCH3 exons 3–6 and leukoencephalopathy with frequent anterior temporal pole involvement. The present study aims at characterizing the genotypic and phenotypic profiles of CADASIL in Taiwan. One hundred and twelve patients with CADASIL from 95 families of Chinese descents in Taiwan were identified by Sanger sequencing of exons 2 to 24 of NOTCH3. Twenty different mutations in NOTCH3 were uncovered, including 3 novel ones, and R544C in exon 11 was the most common mutation, accounting for 70.5% of the pedigrees. Haplotype analyses were conducted in 14 families harboring NOTCH3 R544C mutation and demonstrated a common haplotype linked to NOTCH3 R544C at loci D19S929 and D19S411. Comparing with CADASIL in most Caucasian populations, CADASIL in Taiwan has several distinct features, including less frequent anterior temporal involvement, older age at symptom onset, higher incidence of intracerebral hemorrhage, and rarer occurrence of migraine. Subgroup analyses revealed that the R544C mutation is associated with lower frequency of anterior temporal involvement, later age at onset and higher frequency of cognitive dysfunction. In conclusion, the present study broadens the spectrum of NOTCH3 mutations and provides additional insights for the clinical and molecular characteristics of CADASIL patients of Han-Chinese descents. PMID:26308724

  17. 4th International Conference on Earthquake Engineering Taipei, Taiwan

    E-print Network

    Lynch, Jerome P.

    Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering (NCREE) in Taiwan. Emphasis is placed on using simulation4th International Conference on Earthquake Engineering Taipei, Taiwan October 12-13, 2006 Paper No. 175 EXPERIMENTS AND SIMULATION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS SUBJECTED TO REVERSED CYCLIC

  18. Research on English Teaching and Learning: Taiwan (2004-2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Suchiao; Tsai, Yachin

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes research in second/foreign language teaching and learning conducted in Taiwan over the period 2004-2009. Representative articles published in local refereed journals and conference proceedings--not readily accessible outside Taiwan--are reviewed to reflect current trends in English teaching and learning. The main themes…

  19. Active continental subduction and crustal exhumation: the Taiwan orogeny

    E-print Network

    Lin, Cheng-Horng

    . General background The island of Taiwan is located at a complex intersection between the Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates (Fig. 1). East of Taiwan, the Philippine Sea plate subducts northward beneath the Ryukyu arc, while south of the island Eurasian plate oceanic litho- sphere beneath the south China Sea

  20. GIS Adoption among Senior High School Geography Teachers in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lay, Jinn-Guey; Chen, Yu-Wen; Chi, Yu-Lin

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the adoption of geographic information system (GIS) knowledge and skills through in-service training for high school geography teachers in Taiwan. Through statistical analysis of primary data collected from a census of Taiwan's high school geography teachers, it explores what motivates these teachers to undertake GIS…

  1. A Re-Examination of the Suicide Rates in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, Hwei-Lin; Huang, Wei-Chiao

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the suicide rates of 23 cities and counties in Taiwan from 1983 to 2001. We found that a combination of economic and social variables can significantly account for the tremendous variations in suicide rates across Taiwan's cities and counties over the last two decades. The level of income per capita in a region appears as the…

  2. Current Trends in Aerospace Engineering Education on Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Sheng-Jii

    A proposal for current trends in Aerospace Engineering Education on Taiwan has been drawn from the suggestions made after a national conference of "Workshop on Aerospace Engineering Education Reform." This workshop was held in January 18-20, 1998, at the Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan

  3. Teacher Preparation for Early Childhood: Special Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Hua-Kuo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is intended to present the current model of teacher preparation for early childhood special education in Taiwan. Documentary analysis was conducted in the study to collect and analyze the obtained data. The main features of teacher preparation policies for early childhood special education in Taiwan could be summarized…

  4. Springtime Aerosol Observations at Dongsha Atoll,Taiwan

    E-print Network

    Pierce, Jeffrey

    , and Peng Xian-Lynch · Advanced Light Source program, including Kevin Perry #12;Background · Role? · The (Multi-Partner) Seven SouthEast Asian Studies (7 SEAS) Mission: A Program to Study Pollution the transport of smoke and pollution from Indochina to Taiwan, led by National Central Univ of Taiwan ­ Dongsha

  5. Kindergarten Teachers' Experience with Reporting Child Abuse in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Jui-Ying; Huang, Tzu-Yi; Wang, Chi-Jen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objectives were to examine factors associated with reporting child abuse among kindergarten teachers in Taiwan based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Method: A stratified quota sampling technique was used to randomly select kindergarten teachers in Taiwan. The Child Abuse Intention Report Scale, which includes demographics,…

  6. The Construction of Taiwan's Educational Indicator Systems: Experiences and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chien, Maw-Fa; Lee, Chi-Ming; Cheng, Yu-Ping

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to illuminate the state of education in Taiwan by constructing Educational Indicator Systems. The study, sponsored by the National Science Council between 1998 and 2000, was the first comprehensive indicator project to cover all educational levels in Taiwan. Various research methods were used, including panel discussion,…

  7. Taiwan Teacher Preparation Program Evaluation: Some Critical Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Tze-Chang

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the influences and changes of recent Taiwan teacher preparation program evaluation (TTPPE) as one of the national evaluation projects conducted by the Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan. The main concerns are what kind of ideology is transformed through the policy by means of evaluation, and what…

  8. The Past, Present, and Future of Career Counseling in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Doris H. F.

    2002-01-01

    The development of career counseling in Taiwan during the last 40 years suggests priorities for future development. Although many of the basic constructs of career counseling are used in Taiwan, cultural differences are also apparent. The future presents many conflicts between Western and Asian values, traditional or modern demands, and self or…

  9. Circular Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Paul D.

    1995-01-01

    Provides a period-long activity using battery powered cars rolling in a circular motion on a tile floor. Students measure the time and distance as the car moves to derive the equation for centripetal acceleration. (MVL)

  10. A Scheme for "The Window of Taiwan National Park"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, E. Y.-F.

    2015-08-01

    There are nine distinguished national parks in Taiwan. Each one has its own wild variety of natural inhabitants and cultural resources. However, due to the geographical inaccessibility, partially closed by natural disaster, or under the restrict protection by the authority, most of the places are difficult to reach for the public, not to mention for the disabled people. Therefore, a scheme, with the cutting edge technology, comprising the essences of all nine national parks in a space located in one of the national parks which is more convenient with public transportation system is presented. The idea is to open a window in the hope to offer a platform for better and easy understanding the features of all national parks, to increase the accessibility for disabled people, and to provide advanced services for the public. Recently, the progressing of digital image technology becomes more and more promising. Using mutual interactive ways and game-liked formation to promote the participation of visitors to gain learning experiences is now becoming a mainstream for exhibition in visitor centers and museums around the world. The method of the motion-sensing interactive exhibition has personalized feature which is programmed to store visitor's behaviors and become smarter in response with visitor in order to make each person feel that they are playing in a game. It involves scenarios, concepts and visitors' participation in the exhibition design to form an interactive flow among human, exhibits, and space. It is highly attractive and low barrier for young, senior and disabled people, and for the case of no physical objects to exhibit, visual technology is a way of solution. This paper presents the features and difficulties of national parks in Taiwan. Visitors' behavior and several cases have been investigated and analysed to find a suitable way for combining all the features of national parks in an exhibition. However, it should be noticed that this is not an alternative way trying to create a place for the public to explore visual national parks instead of visiting real ones. The main purpose is not only to provide more information and attract more people to realize the beauty of national parks, but also to inspire visitors' wishes to come and experience in person in the future.

  11. Animating Pictures with Stochastic Motion Textures Yung-Yu Chuang1,3

    E-print Network

    Chuang, Yung-Yu

    , floating objects such as boats, and clouds. The motion of each of these objects is driven by a single National Taiwan University (a) Japanese Temple (b) Harbor (c) Boat Studio (d) Argenteuil (e) Sunflowers of a Japanese Temple (a) and a harbor (b). The paintings shown in (c) and (d) are Claude Monet's The Boat Studio

  12. Circulation and Mixing of Water Masses in the Taiwan Strait Elucidated from Radium Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, F.; Huh, C.; Chen, W.; Liu, C.; Guo, Z.; Gao, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Taiwan Strait is a pivotal gateway connecting two largest marginal seas in the Pacific Ocean, namely the South China Sea and the East China Sea. The strait thus serves as an important conduit for the transport and exchange of water, heat and associated chemical materials in the western Pacific margin. To shed light on the complex circulation and mixing of water masses in the strait, distributions of 226Ra and 228Ra were observed during 2009-2012 and studied in conjunction with concurrent CTD and ADCP data. The results show strong seasonality and inter-annual variability in the flow of four water masses in response to East Asia monsoon and ENSO cycles. The four water masses are the China Coastal Water (CCW) flowing southward along the Chinese coast, the South China Sea Water (SCSW) entering the strait from the south, the Kuroshio Branch Water (KBW) intruding northward through the Penghu Channel, and the Taiwan Warm Current (TWC) flowing toward the East China Sea. The TWC exiting the strait in the north is in fact a mixture of SCSW and KBW from the south. When the southwest monsoon prevails in the summertime, volume transport toward the East China Sea increases and correlates positively with wind speed and apparent horizontal eddy diffusivity derived from cross-strait distribution of 228Ra in surface water, suggesting the effectiveness of wind in enhancing coastal divergence and along-strait transport. An integrated analysis of our datasets suggests that volume transport in the Taiwan Strait is dominated by geostrophic flow and modified by Ekman flow. Furthermore, it is likely that the intrusion of KBW into the Taiwan Strait is stronger and contributes more to volume transport in El Niño than in La Niña years. In comparison, SCSW may contribute proportionately less to the northbound flow of the TWC in El Niño than in La Niña years.

  13. Millennial-scale variability in vegetation records from the East Asian Islands: Taiwan, Japan and Sakhalin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahara, Hikaru; Igarashi, Yaeko; Hayashi, Ryoma; Kumon, Fujio; Liew, Ping-Mei; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Kawai, Sayuri; Oba, Tadamichi; Irino, Tomohisa

    2010-10-01

    High-resolution pollen records from Taiwan, Japan and Sakhalin document regional vegetation changes during Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) cycles during the last glacial. During the period from the cold phase (GS 18/19) to warm phase (D-O 19), the biome shift from temperate conifer forest to cold/cool conifer forest in Japan and from subtropical forest to temperate deciduous/conifer forest in Taiwan. The vegetation in D-O 17, cool mixed forest in central Japan, temperate deciduous broadleaf forest in western Japan and subtropical forest in Taiwan, indicates warm condition but not wet in all area. These vegetation changes lead to biome shift from MIS (Marine Isotope Stage) 4 to MIS 3. The abundance of Cryptomeria japonica and Fagus crenata in D-O 12 and D-O 8 indicates wet conditions brought by the strong summer monsoon through the Islands and high snowfall brought by the inflow of the Tsushima Warm Current into the Sea of Japan. The registration of other D-O warming events in MIS 3, although reflected by shifts in the abundance of key species, is not sufficient to produce changes in biomes. Development of cold deciduous forest in HS (Heinrich events) 1 in Sakhalin, Hokkaido and central Japan was conspicuous and was much larger than that in YD. Vegetation response in YD was small scale and within the same biome in the East Asian Islands. In D-O 1 at the termination of the last glacial, the same taxa that developed in the early Holocene, cold evergreen needleleaf trees in northern region, temperate deciduous broadleaf trees in central and western Japan, and warm-temperate evergreen trees in Taiwan, increased.

  14. Community resilience after disaster in Taiwan: a case study of Jialan Village with the strengths perspective.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lih-Rong; Chen, Steven; Chen, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This article examines community resilience in disaster recovery in Jialan Village, where many families lost their homes when Typhoon Morakot struck Taiwan in 2008. In-depth interviews were conducted with policymakers, social workers, resource coordinators, and leaders of the local aboriginal community. The main findings were (a) the village's recovery was due to the effective use and coordination of community resources; (b) partnership building between the public and private sectors was crucial in the community's recovery; and (c) the recovery was enhanced by values such as a strong sense of mutual help, good physical health, positive attitudes, and autonomy. PMID:23679806

  15. Perceiving Motion and Events Image motion vs. Object Motion

    E-print Network

    Majumder, Aditi

    Perceiving Motion and Events #12;2 Image motion vs. Object Motion Image Motion ­ Caused by eye ­ sensitivity = roughly 1/6 ­ 1/3 visual angle/second A light spot against a texture background = sensitivity = roughly 1/60 visual angle/second Conclusion ­ Much more sensitive to motion relative to another object vs

  16. Flower drinking and masculinity in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Bedford, Olwen; Hwang, Shu-Ling

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the role of the hostess club culture in the creation and maintenance of masculinity in Taiwan. The article focuses on flower drinking (the consumption of alcohol in bars, often integrated with prostitution), which is a common practice in Taiwan. Data were obtained from 58 in-depth interviews with men from a variety of occupations and social backgrounds (mean age = 38.50, SD = 11.00) and 73 questionnaires administered to soldiers (mean age = 21.00, SD = 1.10). Findings indicated that demonstration of skill at flower drinking and facility with the related social etiquette are important channels for male bonding that were central to the mid- to upper-class participants' professional development. Flower drinking also provided a method of discriminating men from other men through their choices of why and where to go and how to behave while there. Specific ways that Taiwanese masculinity differs from Western and from Japanese masculinity, and support for the continuing relevance of the traditional Confucian ideal of masculinity, wen-wu, are discussed. PMID:19763998

  17. Fetal Exposure to Environmental Neurotoxins in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chuen-Bin; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Fan, Chun-Hua; Chien, Ling-Chu

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) are recognized neurotoxins in children that particularly affect neurodevelopment and intellectual performance. Based on the hypothesis that the fetal basis of adult disease is fetal toxic exposure that results in adverse outcomes in adulthood, we explored the concentrations of key neurotoxins (i.e., Hg, Pb, Cd, and As) in meconium to identify the risk factors associated with these concentrations. From January 2007 to December 2009, 545 mother-infant pairs were recruited. The geometric mean concentrations of Pb and As in the meconium of babies of foreign-born mothers (22.9 and 38.1 µg/kg dry weight, respectively) were significantly greater than those of babies of Taiwan-born mothers (17.5 and 33.0 µg/kg dry weight, respectively). Maternal age (?30 y), maternal education, use of traditional Chinese herbs during pregnancy, and fish cutlet consumption (?3 meals/wk) were risk factors associated with concentrations of key prenatal neurotoxins. The Taiwan government should focus more attention on providing intervention programs for immigrant mothers to help protect the health of unborn babies. Further investigation on how multiple neurotoxins influence prenatal neurodevelopment is warranted. PMID:25299345

  18. Brownian Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavenda, Bernard H.

    1985-01-01

    Explains the phenomenon of Brownian motion, which serves as a mathematical model for random processes. Topics addressed include kinetic theory, Einstein's theory, particle displacement, and others. Points out that observations of the random course of a particle suspended in fluid led to the first accurate measurement of atomic mass. (DH)

  19. Crustal Structure Across Northern Taiwan Determined by the 2008 TAIGER Land Refraction Experiment Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ching-Ching; Huang, Bor-Shouh; Chiao, Ling-Yun

    2010-05-01

    Taiwan is located along a segment of the convergent boundary between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea plates. East of the island, the Philippine Sea plate has subducted northward beneath the Eurasian Plate. The collision of two plates has generated the ongoing Taiwan Orogen. Currently, seismic studies have given us some indications of the velocity structure beneath Taiwan and the gravity data also have provided depth models of the Mohoroviči? discontinuity. However, high-resolution images of the crust and upper mantle adjacent to the boundary and detailed seismic velocity analyses are still insufficient in this region. The experiment of the 2008 wide-angle seismic refraction from the project of Taiwan Integrated Geodynamic Research (TAIGER) provided a valuable dataset to determine high resolution image of the crust. We attempt to construct a two-dimensional model for seismic velocity across the northern part of the island from P-wave arrival times of TAIGER data. We selected data from the Transect 6 line. It is an onshore seismic survey spanned approximate 100-km in northern Taiwan with receiver spacing in 200 meters and consists of five explosions with the dynamite from 750 to 3000 kilograms. In this study, we employed the ray-tracing method for forward modeling which is developed by Zelt and Smith in 1992. This popular and readily method is able to determine depth and velocity simultaneously. By adjusting iteratively until the minimum of root-mean-square misfits between observed and simulated travel times is achieved. In addition, the normalized chi-squared, ?2, is taken into account as well. In general, an appropriate value of ?2 is considered that the data have been fit suitably. Eventually, we can thus obtain the optimal velocity model. During the modeling that we referred as layer stripping, we first picked the initial arrivals to constrain the uppermost crustal structure. We then traced ray paths from different layers respectively. In this way, we could build up the whole velocity structure step by step. The preliminary results for shallow structures indicate that this method yield results consistent with geological structures and provide details for velocity with depths. Velocities at the uppermost crust indicate strong lateral variations of P-wave velocities, ranging from 2.3 km/sec to 4.4 km/sec and increase from 2.8 km/sec to 4.8 km/sec at the bottom of this layer. The largest velocity gradient in this layer is under the Central Range. We will continue our study for the deep layers to establish a detailed velocity models.

  20. Aging scaled Brownian motion.

    PubMed

    Safdari, Hadiseh; Chechkin, Aleksei V; Jafari, Gholamreza R; Metzler, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Scaled Brownian motion (SBM) is widely used to model anomalous diffusion of passive tracers in complex and biological systems. It is a highly nonstationary process governed by the Langevin equation for Brownian motion, however, with a power-law time dependence of the noise strength. Here we study the aging properties of SBM for both unconfined and confined motion. Specifically, we derive the ensemble and time averaged mean squared displacements and analyze their behavior in the regimes of weak, intermediate, and strong aging. A very rich behavior is revealed for confined aging SBM depending on different aging times and whether the process is sub- or superdiffusive. We demonstrate that the information on the aging factorizes with respect to the lag time and exhibits a functional form that is identical to the aging behavior of scale-free continuous time random walk processes. While SBM exhibits a disparity between ensemble and time averaged observables and is thus weakly nonergodic, strong aging is shown to effect a convergence of the ensemble and time averaged mean squared displacement. Finally, we derive the density of first passage times in the semi-infinite domain that features a crossover defined by the aging time. PMID:25974439

  1. Aging scaled Brownian motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safdari, Hadiseh; Chechkin, Aleksei V.; Jafari, Gholamreza R.; Metzler, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Scaled Brownian motion (SBM) is widely used to model anomalous diffusion of passive tracers in complex and biological systems. It is a highly nonstationary process governed by the Langevin equation for Brownian motion, however, with a power-law time dependence of the noise strength. Here we study the aging properties of SBM for both unconfined and confined motion. Specifically, we derive the ensemble and time averaged mean squared displacements and analyze their behavior in the regimes of weak, intermediate, and strong aging. A very rich behavior is revealed for confined aging SBM depending on different aging times and whether the process is sub- or superdiffusive. We demonstrate that the information on the aging factorizes with respect to the lag time and exhibits a functional form that is identical to the aging behavior of scale-free continuous time random walk processes. While SBM exhibits a disparity between ensemble and time averaged observables and is thus weakly nonergodic, strong aging is shown to effect a convergence of the ensemble and time averaged mean squared displacement. Finally, we derive the density of first passage times in the semi-infinite domain that features a crossover defined by the aging time.

  2. COPD in Taiwan: a National Epidemiology Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shih-Lung; Chan, Ming-Cheng; Wang, Chin-Chou; Lin, Ching-Hsiung; Wang, Hao-Chien; Hsu, Jeng-Yuan; Hang, Liang-Wen; Chang, Chee-Jen; Perng, Diahn-Warng; Yu, Chong-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of COPD in Taiwan and to document the disease characteristics and associated risk factors. Methods We conducted a random cross-sectional national survey of adults older than 40 years in Taiwan. Respiratory health screening questions identified subjects with diagnosed COPD or whose reported symptoms also fulfilled an epidemiological case definition; these were eligible to complete the survey, which also included indices of symptom severity and disability and questions on comorbidities, medical treatments, smoking habits, and occupations potentially harmful to respiratory health. Subjects with diagnosed COPD were subdivided by smoking status. Subjects who fulfilled the case definition of COPD and smoked were designated as “possible COPD”. Participants who did not fit the case definition of COPD were asked only about their personal circumstances and smoking habits. Data from these groups were analyzed and compared. Results Of the 6,600 participants who completed the survey, 404 (6.1%) fulfilled the epidemiological case definition of COPD: 137 with diagnosed COPD and 267 possible COPD. The most common comorbidities of COPD were hypertension or cardiovascular diseases (36.1%). Subjects with definite COPD had significantly higher COPD Assessment Test scores than the possible COPD group (14.6±8.32 vs 12.6±6.49, P=0.01) and significantly more comorbid illnesses (P=0.01). The main risk factors contributing to health care utilization in each COPD cohort were higher COPD Assessment Test scores (odds ratio [OR] 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04–1.26), higher modified Medical Research Council Breathlessness Scale scores (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.11–3.51), and having more than one comorbidity (OR 5.19, 95% CI 1.05–25.61). Conclusion With estimated prevalence of 6.1% in the general population, COPD in Taiwan has been underdiagnosed. Symptoms and comorbidities were independent risk factors for health care utilization in subjects with definite or possible COPD. There is an urgent need to raise awareness of the importance of early evaluation and prompt treatment for subjects with chronic airway symptoms. PMID:26648708

  3. The Midwife in Taiwan: An Alternative Model for Maternity Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang-Wang, Janet F.

    1980-01-01

    The author compares and analyzes American and Taiwanese maternity care systems, discussing the history of midwifery in Taiwan; the process by which a midwife establishes her practice; and her role in childbirth, abortion, adoption, and other services. (Author/DS)

  4. Paths toward hepatitis B immunization in South Korea and Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    South Korea and Taiwan have had similar experiences of economic development in the post-war era. The two societies have also successfully overcome the threat of liver cancer by using mass hepatitis B vaccinations. However, to reach their current states, they followed different directions, and experienced differing effects on their national health governance systems. In South Korea, vaccine production occurred prior to effectively introducing immunization programs. In contrast, Taiwan established an effective immunization program first. However, industrialization of vaccines against hepatitis B has failed. Taiwan has to import vaccines for domestic use. This article provides a contextual overview on the different methods South Korea and Taiwan have used to arrive at their modern status of hepatitis B immunization. PMID:23858397

  5. 75 FR 15726 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan; Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ...COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1088 (Preliminary) (Remand)] Polyvinyl...antidumping duty investigation No. 731- TA-1088 (Preliminary). Notice of the institution...Taiwan: Investigation No. 731- TA-1088 (Preliminary). Domestic...

  6. Amoebiasis among institutionalized psychiatric patients in Taiwan.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, H. S.; Wang, L. C.

    1999-01-01

    Although information on amoebiasis among institutionalized psychiatric patients is available, reports on the relationship between behaviour and this infection are not abundant. From July 1995 to June 1996, stool and blood samples were collected from 565 patients in three psychiatric hospitals of North Taiwan. Stool samples were examined using the direct smear and formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation techniques as well as ProSpecT Entamoeba histolytica Microplate Assay kit. Blood samples were examined by the Amebiasis Serology Microwell ELISA kit. Among these patients, 14 (2.5%) harboured one or two species of intestinal parasites. There were 6 (1.1%) E. histolytica/E. dispar cyst passers: 5 positive in stool ELISA test and 2 with antibodies against E. histolytica. Among demographic factors, type of psychiatric disorder and disability, only a significant sexual difference in seropositivity of E. histolytica was observed. These findings indicate that the infected patients acquired the infections before they entered the hospitals. PMID:10355798

  7. The first archaic Homo from Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chun-Hsiang; Kaifu, Yousuke; Takai, Masanaru; Kono, Reiko T.; Grün, Rainer; Matsu’ura, Shuji; Kinsley, Les; Lin, Liang-Kong

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of an increasing number of hominin fossils highlight regional and chronological diversities of archaic Homo in the Pleistocene of eastern Asia. However, such a realization is still based on limited geographical occurrences mainly from Indonesia, China and Russian Altai. Here we describe a newly discovered archaic Homo mandible from Taiwan (Penghu 1), which further increases the diversity of Pleistocene Asian hominins. Penghu 1 revealed an unexpectedly late survival (younger than 450 but most likely 190–10 thousand years ago) of robust, apparently primitive dentognathic morphology in the periphery of the continent, which is unknown among the penecontemporaneous fossil records from other regions of Asia except for the mid-Middle Pleistocene Homo from Hexian, Eastern China. Such patterns of geographic trait distribution cannot be simply explained by clinal geographic variation of Homo erectus between northern China and Java, and suggests survival of multiple evolutionary lineages among archaic hominins before the arrival of modern humans in the region. PMID:25625212

  8. The first archaic Homo from Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Hsiang; Kaifu, Yousuke; Takai, Masanaru; Kono, Reiko T; Grün, Rainer; Matsu'ura, Shuji; Kinsley, Les; Lin, Liang-Kong

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of an increasing number of hominin fossils highlight regional and chronological diversities of archaic Homo in the Pleistocene of eastern Asia. However, such a realization is still based on limited geographical occurrences mainly from Indonesia, China and Russian Altai. Here we describe a newly discovered archaic Homo mandible from Taiwan (Penghu 1), which further increases the diversity of Pleistocene Asian hominins. Penghu 1 revealed an unexpectedly late survival (younger than 450 but most likely 190-10 thousand years ago) of robust, apparently primitive dentognathic morphology in the periphery of the continent, which is unknown among the penecontemporaneous fossil records from other regions of Asia except for the mid-Middle Pleistocene Homo from Hexian, Eastern China. Such patterns of geographic trait distribution cannot be simply explained by clinal geographic variation of Homo erectus between northern China and Java, and suggests survival of multiple evolutionary lineages among archaic hominins before the arrival of modern humans in the region. PMID:25625212

  9. Illegal migration in Taiwan: a preliminary overview.

    PubMed

    Selya, R M

    1992-01-01

    Since 1986, there have been indications that Taiwan (the Republic of China) has been experiencing an increase in illegal migration. Despite a lack of data describing the number, origins, and demographic characteristics of the illegal migrants, an open policy debate has been carried out by economic and social planners, entrepreneurs, and labor leaders. Interviews with representatives of these 3 groups suggest that, contrary to expectations, planners favor the legalization of foreign workers; individual entrepreneurs also consider legalization a wise option. Labor leaders, as expected, are opposed to the use of imported labor. In January 1990, the Executive Yuan (Assembly) adopted regulations permitting limited use of foreign labor. The increase in illegal migrants and the decision to regularize their status suggests the need to review carefully the implications of all planning initiatives as far in advance as possible, and preferably when development plans are being initially implemented. PMID:12317592

  10. 77 FR 71579 - Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ...Administration [A-583-833] Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Notice of Court Decision...antidumping duty order on polyester staple fiber from Taiwan covering the period of review...6\\ See Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Final Results of...

  11. 75 FR 34097 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Extension of the Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ...A-583-833] Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Extension of the Final Results...antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from Taiwan. See Certain Polyester Staple Fiber from Taiwan: Preliminary Results of...

  12. 76 FR 65748 - Certain Pipe and Tube From Brazil, India, Korea, Mexico, Taiwan, Thailand, and Turkey; Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ...Review)] Certain Pipe and Tube From Brazil, India, Korea, Mexico, Taiwan, Thailand...circular welded nonalloy steel pipe from Brazil, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan, and the...party group responses with respect to Brazil, India, Korea, and Taiwan were...

  13. 76 FR 19788 - Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ...Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand Determinations On the basis of the record...Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand would be likely to lead to continuation...Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand: Investigation Nos....

  14. Application of INCSEA principles to the Taiwan Strait.

    SciTech Connect

    Wen-Chung, Chai

    2003-06-01

    The waters surrounding Taiwan are important international waterways. In addition to merchant ships of every nation, the warships of the United States, Japan, Russia, and China may appear in these waters. No hostility is expected between Taiwan and the United States, Japan, or Russia; however, Taiwan and China have a tense relationship, and both sides face a potential for naval incidents. As Taiwan and China expand their naval capability, the International Maritime Organization Convention for the lnternational Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea may not be sufficient to prevent naval incidents, any of which might develop into conflict or war. Therefore, China and Taiwan need to develop maritime confidence building measures (CBMs) that could reduce the chance of naval incidents and strengthen mutual trust and confidence. Among the variety of maritime CBM concepts for military purposes, the most successful and effective measure has been the 1972 U.S.-Soviet Union Agreement on the Prevention of Incidents On and Over the High Seas (INCSEA). The success of the agreement demonstrates that CBMs represent a workable alternative to traditional arms controls. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a concrete approach to the constraint of naval activities between China and Taiwan to reduce accidents and misunderstandings. This paper outlines the categories and characteristics of incidents at sea. Next, the author identifies the successful factors of the U.S.-Soviet INCSEA and applies the INCSEA concept to the Taiwan Strait. Finally, the author develops a framework of options and a step-by-step approach for establishing an INCSEA between Taiwan and China.

  15. The establishment of experimental watershed in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-Chi; Tsung, Shun-Chung; Wang, Hau-Wei; Chen, Cheng-Hsin; Chang, Ya-Chi; Ho, Jui-Yi; Lee, Shih-Chiang; Hong, Jian-Hao

    2015-04-01

    The rainfall distribution in Taiwan is non-uniform in space and unsteady in time. The water level in the river usually rises rapidly due to the steep slope gradient in the upland area of the watershed. In addition, urbanization and high rainfall intensity result in an increase in surface runoff and decrease the time of concentration. All of these lead to flooding-related disasters and influence people's lives. Thus, the establishment of a more complete hydro-information will increase our understanding of the characteristics of watersheds, prevent disasters, and mitigate damages. To overcome these deficiencies, the Water Resources Agency (WRA), Ministry of Economic Affairs has identified Yilan and Dianbao River Basin to develop a long-term monitoring, then Taiwan Typhoon and Flood Research Institute is responsible for this project. The monitoring sites had been installed in 2012. The sensors for monitoring include rainfall gauge, water level sensor, water surface velocity sensor and pressure-type water depth sensor. Totally, there are 73 sites in the experimental watershed, including the sites installed by the Central Weather Bureau and the Water Resources Agency. Over 30 million data have been collected and validated. Most of data have been passed the processes and considered reliable data. Then, three types of models are applied including rainfall-runoff, river routing and two-dimensional flood models. The simulation results can properly fit the monitored data in these selected events and indicates these models are proper for the experimental watersheds and suitable used for real-time warning. Finally, for purpose of hydrological monitoring and disaster mitigation, a website has been created to show the monitoring data. The users can login and browse the real time monitoring data and figure of temporal data in the past 24 hours and get the information for flood mitigation and emergent evacuation.

  16. Submarine landslide hazard off Northeastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C. L.; Hsu, S. K.; Tsai, C. H.; Doo, W. B.; Lin, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    In the northern margin of the western end of the Okinawa Trough, three major submarine channels running across the continental margin are distinctive. From east to west, they are the North Mein-Hua Submarine Canyon, Mein-Hua Submarine Canyon and the Keelung Valley. To the east of the Mein-Hua Submarine Canyon, the slope of the continental margin is quite gentle, implying that the risk of slope instability is low. However, between the Keelung Valley and the Mei-Hua Submarine Canyon, the slope is rather steep. We have conducted multi-channel reflection seismics, sub-bottom profilers and multi-beam bathymetry in this area. The results show two general trends of fracture or faulting. The NE-SW trending faults generally follow the major orientation of the Taiwan mountain belt. Thus, these faults could be reverse faults from the former collisional thrust faults to currently post-collisional normal faults. Another almost E-W trending faults are consistent with the N-S extending of the Southern Okinawa Trough. Because the most significant faulting in the northwest end of the study is probably associated with the offshore extension of the Kenchiao Fault or the Sanchiao Fault, we consider either of these two faults as the northeast boundary (headwall) of the potential submarine landslide. Taking the stability slope angle of 0.5 degree as the stable landslide slope as shown in the area to the northeast of the study area, we estimate the total volume of the potential submarine landslide could be 300 cubic kilometers. Such a landslide volume may generate a local tsunami and affect especially the northeast coast of Taiwan.

  17. Microbiological Quality of Seafood Marketed in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wong, Hin-Chung; Jiang, Huai-Yu; Lin, Hsu-Yang; Wang, Yu-Ting

    2015-11-01

    Seafood is often associated with foodborne illnesses, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the most common pathogen implicated in outbreaks in Taiwan. In this study, the microbiological quality of 300 raw or mixed ready-to-eat (RTE) and other cooking-needed seafood samples was examined. The total aerobic and coliform counts of the RTE samples were significantly higher than those of other cooking-needed samples. On average, 55.8 and 29.7% of the RTE samples failed to meet the local microbiological standards for total aerobic (5 log CFU/g) and coliform (3 log most probable number [MPN] per g), counts respectively; the corresponding percentages for the RTE samples from Taipei City were 9.1 and 18.2%, respectively. The total aerobic and coliform counts in the RTE samples from supermarkets and chain restaurants were significantly lower than those from traditional restaurants. The Vibrio species were more frequently identified in the cooking-needed samples than in RTE samples. Low incidences of V. parahaemolyticus (1.4%), V. vulnificus (1.9%), and V. cholerae (0%) were detected in most RTE samples. High densities of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus (1,200 MPN/g) were detected in a few RTE samples, only one of which contained toxigenic (tdh(+)) V. parahaemolyticus. The results of this investigation reveal that better hygiene of seafood providers such as chain restaurants, supermarkets, and traditional restaurants in Taipei City would effectively improve the microbiological quality of the seafood. The results will facilitate the establishment of measures for controlling the risks associated with seafood in Taiwan. PMID:26555520

  18. Analysis of Crustal Deformation in Central Taiwan Using Block Modeling with GPS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. F.; Chang, W. L.

    2014-12-01

    Taiwan locates in a high seismic activity belt of the southeastern Asia. In central Taiwan, many large earthquakes occurred in historic time, such as the 1906 Meishan (ML= 7.1), the 1935 Hsinchu-Taichung (ML=7.1), and the 1999 Chi-Chi (Mw= 7.6) earthquakes. GPS horizontal velocities, in addition, also show a shortening rate of up to 40 mm/yr across the Western Foothill to the Deformation Front. In this study, we employed a method of block modeling to study the interseismic behavior and evaluate slip deficits and earthquake potential of a series of N-S trended active faults in this area. We use the 2002-2012 GPS observations from 155 continuous and 449 campaign stations and set our model with 16 blocks and 12 boundary faults for the central Taiwan (Fig. 1). We first analyzed the sensitivity of the model parameters to the surface deformation for different block configurations, and results indicate that the shallow (<7 km) slips of the boundary faults can be better resolved than the deep (15 km) slips possibly due to the narrow aperture of our geodetic network (Fig. 1). We then calculated the geodetic long-term slip rates, which reflect relative motion between blocks, and the back-slip rates, which reflect interseismic fault coupling, of the boundary faults. Our preliminary results revealed that large rates of slip deficit (>6 mm/yr) occur on the N-S trended Tamaopu-Shuangtung and Sanyi-Chelungpu-Tachienshan-Chukou faults of the Western Foothill rather than the Changhua fault of the Deformation Front (see fault locations in Fig. 1). Although the Chelungpu fault was recently ruptured during the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, we may still consider faults to its north, south, and east to have relatively high earthquake potential due to the fast absorption of contracted strain energy across the Western Foothill of Taiwan. Furthermore, two-dimensional dislocation modeling of interseismic fault loading is also under progress to justify the above block modeling results.

  19. Tropical cyclone triggering of sediment discharge in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galewsky, J.; Stark, C. P.; Dadson, S.; Wu, C.-C.; Sobel, A. H.; Horng, M.-J.

    2006-09-01

    The impact of tropical cyclones on precipitation variability and surface processes in Taiwan is studied using suspended sediment and river discharge data along with a meteorological model of tropical cyclone dynamics. The interactions between tropical cyclones and topography produce distinctive, localized patterns of heavy precipitation that can trigger high sediment discharge in Taiwan's rivers. We focus on Typhoon Toraji, which made landfall in Taiwan on 30 July 2001 and was the first major tropical cyclone to affect Taiwan after the 1999 Chichi earthquake. The passage of the tropical cyclone eye over the east coast of Taiwan produced intense rainfall (>100 mm h-1) for a short period (about 2 hours), triggering the highest sediment concentration ever recorded on the Hualien River. Orographic effects localized heavy rainfall (between 10 and 50 mm h-1) over the southwestern slopes of the Central Mountain Range, triggering high sediment discharge on the Kaoping River and flushing landslide debris produced during the Chichi earthquake into the Choshui River. We show that a range of atmospheric processes, with distinctive spatial variability and varying degrees of coupling to topography, interacted with tectonic processes of limited spatial extent to produce the overall sediment discharge from Taiwan during Typhoon Toraji. Landscape evolution models may need to be modified to account for the distinctive patterns of localized rainfall in tropical mountain belts. Furthermore, the links between tropical cyclones and topography suggest the potential for a range of previously unrecognized feedbacks between tectonics and climate in tropical mountain belts.

  20. Human Freshwater Demand for Economic Activity and Ecosystems in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferng, Jiun-Jiun

    2007-12-01

    Freshwater is necessary to economic activity, and humans depend on goods and services generated by water-dependent ecosystems. However, national freshwater management usually focuses on direct use of domestic freshwater. With an increasing scarcity of freshwater, attention has turned to two indirect uses of freshwater by humans. The first indirect use is freshwater used by foreign countries when producing products for export. The second use is freshwater required by local ecosystems: human survival and development depend on goods and services generated in these ecosystems. This work adopted Taiwan as a case study. In addition to two widely recognized ecosystem freshwater demands, evapotranspiration and reversed river flow, this study suggests that freshwater is a constituent of some abiotic components, such as groundwater in aquifers, because excessive withdrawal has already caused significant land subsidence in Taiwan. Moreover, the estimated results show that Taiwan’s net imports of freshwater through trade amounts to approximately 25% of its total freshwater use for economic production. Integrating industrial policy, trade policy, and national freshwater management is a useful approach for developing strategies to limit the growing use of freshwater in Taiwan. Policy implications are then developed by further analyzing withdrawal sources of freshwater (domestic and foreign) for supporting economic production in Taiwan and identifying the factors (domestic final demand and export) driving freshwater-intensive products.

  1. Building collapse and human deaths resulting from the Chi-Chi Earthquake in Taiwan, September 1999.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yen-Hsiung; Hwang, Long-Chih; Chang, Chih-Ching; Hong, Yu-Jue; Lee, I-Nong; Huang, Jen-Hsuan; Lin, Shu-Fang; Shen, Maurice; Lin, Chia-Hong; Gau, Yung-Yen; Yang, Chin-Tzo

    2003-09-01

    In this study, the authors attempted to determine factors associated with earthquake deaths in the great Chi-Chi Earthquake that occurred on September 21, 1999, in Taiwan. An isoseismal map was used to identify life-threatening hazards. The vertical peak ground acceleration of ground motion intensity was deemed the most appropriate index for the evaluation of building collapse and mortality. Mortality increased with the increase in earthquake intensity, and building collapse, approaching the epicenter. The greatest number of collapsed buildings and human deaths occurred between the Chelungpu Fault and the Shuantun Fault. Individuals 65 yr of age and older were the most vulnerable to the impact. The authors' findings suggest that improvements in earthquake-resistant building design and construction, as well as improved medical rescue for the elderly, could reduce the level of exposure to earthquake hazards. PMID:15369275

  2. Slab interactions in the Taiwan region based on the P- and S-velocity distributions in the upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koulakov, Ivan; Wu, Yih-Min; Huang, Hsin-Hua; Dobretsov, Nikolay; Jakovlev, Andrey; Zabelina, Irina; Jaxybulatov, Kairly; Chervov, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    We present a new model of P- and S-velocity anomalies in the upper mantle beneath the Taiwan region based on the inversion of travel time data from the global International Seismological Center (ISC) catalog. We clearly observed the anomalies of high P- and S-velocities associated with the subducting plates beneath the Ryukyu and Luzon arcs. At depths in the range of 100-200 km, the anomalies related to both slabs seem to be connected, which might be evidence of the lithosphere collision of the two oppositely oriented subduction zones. This model has been carefully verified using different synthetic tests. Based on the derived seismic model, we propose a model of recent plate reconstructions in the region around Taiwan. Initially, we presume the existence of two oppositely oriented subduction zones underneath the Luzon Island and the Ryukyu arc, separated with a transform fault. The NW movement of the Philippine Sea Plate led to first a shortening and then a disappearance of this transform fault. As a result, the edge of the Luzon arc collided with the edge of the Ryukyu arc. Simple simulations indicate that in this edge area, very strong stresses and deformation might take place that result in significant shortening of the earth surface. We believe that the origin of the Taiwan island was caused by the collisional processes due to the interaction of the two subduction zones. Note that in this case, no other conditions, such as the existence of arcs and/or buoyant continental crustal blocks, are required to explain the origin of the thick, strongly shortened crust in Taiwan.

  3. Research on Earthquake Precursor in E-TEC: A Study on Land Surface Thermal Anomalies Using MODIS LST Product in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, W. Y.; Wu, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    Taiwan has been known as an excellent natural laboratory characterized by rapid active tectonic rate and high dense seismicity. The Eastern Taiwan Earthquake Research Center (E-TEC) is established on 2013/09/24 in National Dong Hwa University and collaborates with Central Weather Bureau (CWB), National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering (NCREE), National Science and Technology Center for Disaster Reduction (NCDR), Institute of Earth Science of Academia Sinica (IES, AS) and other institutions (NCU, NTU, CCU) and aims to provide an integrated platform for researchers to conduct the new advances on earthquake precursors and early warning for seismic disaster prevention in the eastern Taiwan, as frequent temblors are most common in the East Taiwan rift valley. E-TEC intends to integrate the multi-disciplinary observations and is equipped with stations to monitor a wide array of factors of quake precursors, including seismicity, GPS, strain-meter, ground water, geochemistry, gravity, electromagnetic, ionospheric density, thermal infrared remote sensing, gamma radiation etc, and will maximize the value of the data for researches with the range of monitoring equipment that enable to predict where and when the next devastated earthquake will strike Taiwan and develop reliable earthquake prediction models. A preliminary study on earthquake precursor using monthly Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Land Surface Temperature (LST) data before 2013/03/27 Mw6.2 Nantou earthquake in Taiwan is presented. Using the statistical analysis, the result shows the peak of the anomalous LST that exceeds a standard deviation of LST appeared on 2013/03/09 and became less or none anomalies observed on 2013/03/16 before the main-shock, which is in consist with the phenomenon observed by other researchers. This preliminary experimental result shows that the thermal anomalies reveal the possibility to associate surface thermal phenomena before the strong earthquakes.

  4. The application of InSAR for crustal deformation and land subsidence in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, M.; Hu, J.; Shieh, C.

    2004-12-01

    We apply InSAR technique between August 1995 and November 2001 for crustal deformation in central Taiwan. We utilize 2-pass and 3-pass methods to obtain interferograms from 12 ERS SAR images in central Taiwan. The result of D-InSAR (Differential-InSAR) reveals land subsidence and earthquake deformation in our study area. The critical land subsidence region was located in the mouth of Choshui River and Erhlin River. After comparing with the distribution of aquaculture in Changhua County, we find that in the aquacultural area of Tacheng Village has the greatest subsidence value of 14-17 cm/yr due to groundwater overdrafted. The subsidence region is not only located in aquacultural area but has also been detected in urban area near aquacultural area. Comparison with the result of our study is consistent with the report from Water Resources Agency during 1985-1995. In temporal analysis we find the interferograms would lose coherence on the mouth of Choshui River (approx. 408 km2) when the time interval between 2 images was longer than 3 months. The low coherence here is mainly affected by vegetation and lower backscattering buildings density. The Chi-Chi earthquake on 21 September, 1999, with magnitude Mw=7.6 and an epicenter near Chi-Chi in central Taiwan caused surface rupture along thrust Chenlungpu fault. Interferograms obtain during Chi-Chi earthquake reveal the crustal deformation on the footwall, and the result of interferograms shows that the earthquake caused more than 33.6 cm uplift in line of sight of ERS satellite relative to coastline at Chenlungpu fault east of Taichung City. There are 2 interferograms show the coseismic and 1 shows the post-seismic. The coseismic interferograms reveal an increasing gradient from the coastline and deep on Chelungpu fault. The post-seimic group shows a slightly increasing phase line relative to the global trend, which corresponds to the Changhua fault trace. We consider this maybe the reactive motion after the mainshock triggered the motion of this fault. Constructing the displacement map using the GPS data, we can simulate interferograms from GPS and reveal the same trend between the results. This technique doesn¡¦t need to do the field work, which is well suited for crustal deformation monitoring and analysis.

  5. The development and prospects of the end-of-life vehicle recycling system in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-chung; Huang, Shih-han; Lian, I-wei

    2010-01-01

    Automobiles usually contain toxic substances, such as lubricants, acid solutions and coolants. Therefore, inappropriate handling of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) will result in environmental pollution. ELV parts, which include metallic and non-metallic substances, are increasingly gaining recycling value due to the recent global shortage of raw materials. Hence, the establishment of a proper recycling system for ELVs will not only reduce the impact on the environment during the recycling process, but it will also facilitate the effective reuse of recycled resources. Prior to 1994, the recycling of ELVs in Taiwan was performed by related operators in the industry. Since the publishing of the "End-of-life vehicle recycling guidelines" under the authority of the Waste Disposal Act by the Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) in 1994, the recycling of ELVs in Taiwan has gradually become systematic. Subsequently, the Recycling Fund Management Board (RFMB) of the EPA was established in 1998 to collect a Collection-Disposal-Treatment Fee (recycling fee) from responsible enterprises for recycling and related tasks. Since then, the recycling channels, processing equipment, and techniques for ELVs in Taiwan have gradually become established. This paper reviews the establishment of the ELV recycling system, analyzes the current system and its performance, and provides some recommendations for future development. The reduction of auto shredder residue (ASR) is a key factor in maximizing the resource recovery rate and recycling efficiency. The RFMB needs to provide strong economic incentives to further increase the recycling rate and to encourage the automobile industry to design and market greener cars. PMID:20382516

  6. Lead content in human scalp hair of rural and urban residents in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, P.C.; Saito, S.; Kojima, Y.

    1996-12-01

    In the last three decades, vehicular traffic has increased drastically in Taiwan, from 50 thousand registered motor vehicles in 1967 to over 5 million at present. Although the lead content of leaded gasoline produced in Taiwan was reduced from 0.56 g/L to 0.12 g/L between 1982 and 1988, half of these vehicles still use leaded gasoline. It is one of the major sources of lead contamination in the ambient air and dust in the city. The suitability of hair analysis as a means of screening for heavy metal exposure and heavy-metal poisoning is well documented. Numerous investigations worldwide have shown that hair lead concentrations are strongly correlated with the lead concentrations of other organs in the body. Hair presents an advantage from the sampling point of view because it is easily obtained, stored and analyzed. It also concentrates more lead per unit weight than any other tissue or body fluid. It has been estimated that for healthy persons, the lead concentration in hair may be 2-5 times higher than that in bone, 10-50 times than that of blood and from 100-500 times higher than in urine. The determination of trace elements in human scalp hair has become an accepted adjuvant to the more traditional blood and urine analyses for identifying systemic heavy metal intoxication. In this study, the concentrations of lead were measured in hair from an urban and a rural population in Taiwan. The levels and distributions of lead between rural and urban residents were compared. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Characteristics and management of infectious industrial waste in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, M.-C. Lin, Jim Juimin

    2008-11-15

    Infectious industrial waste management in Taiwan is based on the specific waste production unit. In other countries, management is based simply on whether the producer may lead to infectious disease. Thus, Taiwan has a more detailed classification of infectious waste. The advantage of this classification is that it is easy to identify the sources, while the disadvantage lies in the fact that it is not flexible and hence increases cost. This study presents an overview of current management practices for handling infectious industrial waste in Taiwan, and addresses the current waste disposal methods. The number of small clinics in Taiwan increased from 18,183 to 18,877 between 2003 and 2005. Analysis of the data between 2003 and 2005 showed that the majority of medical waste was general industrial waste, which accounted for 76.9%-79.4% of total medical waste. Infectious industrial waste accounted for 19.3%-21.9% of total medical waste. After the SARS event in Taiwan, the amount of infectious waste reached 19,350 tons in 2004, an increase over the previous year of 4000 tons. Waste minimization was a common consideration for all types of waste treatment. In this study, we summarize the percentage of plastic waste in flammable infectious industrial waste generated by medical units, which, in Taiwan was about 30%. The EPA and Taiwan Department of Health have actively promoted different recycling and waste reduction measures. However, the wide adoption of disposable materials made recycling and waste reduction difficult for some hospitals. It has been suggested that enhancing the education of and promoting communication between medical units and recycling industries must be implemented to prevent recyclable waste from entering the incinerator.

  8. Ground motion input in seismic evaluation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Sewell, R.T.; Wu, S.C.

    1996-07-01

    This report documents research pertaining to conservatism and variability in seismic risk estimates. Specifically, it examines whether or not artificial motions produce unrealistic evaluation demands, i.e., demands significantly inconsistent with those expected from real earthquake motions. To study these issues, two types of artificial motions are considered: (a) motions with smooth response spectra, and (b) motions with realistic variations in spectral amplitude across vibration frequency. For both types of artificial motion, time histories are generated to match target spectral shapes. For comparison, empirical motions representative of those that might result from strong earthquakes in the Eastern U.S. are also considered. The study findings suggest that artificial motions resulting from typical simulation approaches (aimed at matching a given target spectrum) are generally adequate and appropriate in representing the peak-response demands that may be induced in linear structures and equipment responding to real earthquake motions. Also, given similar input Fourier energies at high-frequencies, levels of input Fourier energy at low frequencies observed for artificial motions are substantially similar to those levels noted in real earthquake motions. In addition, the study reveals specific problems resulting from the application of Western U.S. type motions for seismic evaluation of Eastern U.S. nuclear power plants.

  9. 75 FR 23667 - Antidumping Duty Orders: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Indonesia, Taiwan, and the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ...A-552-806 Antidumping Duty Orders: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Indonesia...issuing antidumping duty orders on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from...investigation of PRCBs from Taiwan. See Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Taiwan:...

  10. Language Change through Language Contact in Computer-Mediated Communication in Taiwan 

    E-print Network

    Tsai, Ni-Yen

    2007-11-28

    -induced influence may spread to language used in other non-CMC domains and lead to both the change in Taiwan Mandarin and the rising of the status and popularity of Taiwanese in Taiwan society in the near future....

  11. 77 FR 14342 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Correction to Notice of Opportunity To Request Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ...International Trade Administration [A-583-841] Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Correction to Notice of Opportunity...administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyvinyl alcohol from Taiwan. See Antidumping or Countervailing...

  12. 76 FR 50495 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ...Second Review] Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan...duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan would...determinations regarding stainless steel plate from Belgium, Korea, South Africa, and...

  13. 78 FR 41421 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ...Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and...materially retarded, by reason of imports from India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine,...

  14. 75 FR 67110 - Forged Stainless Steel Flanges From India and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ...640 (Third Review)] Forged Stainless Steel Flanges From India and Taiwan...antidumping duty orders on forged stainless steel flanges from India and Taiwan...antidumping duty orders on forged stainless steel flanges from India and...

  15. 76 FR 8773 - Forged Stainless Steel Flanges From India and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ...731-TA-639 and 640 (Third Review)] Forged Stainless Steel Flanges From India and Taiwan AGENCY: United States...revocation of the antidumping duty orders on forged stainless steel flanges from India and Taiwan would be likely to...

  16. Burden experienced by community health volunteers in Taiwan: a survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Volunteers in Taiwan complement the delivery of health services by paid health professionals. However, in doing so, community health volunteers experience burdens associated with their activities. The reasons for these burdens and degree to which they are experienced are explored in this paper. Our study adds to international research regarding the burden experienced by volunteers. This project is the first to assess how community health volunteers in Taiwan experience burden. Methods The 20 item Burden on Community Health Volunteer (BCHV) instrument, specifically designed for this project, was administered to 435 volunteers attached to Community Health Promotion Development Centres in northern Taiwan. Results The overall burden experienced by volunteers is relatively low. However, a multivariate adjusted regression analysis revealed significant differences in volunteer burden depending on the number of people each volunteer served on average per week, as well as the volunteer’s marital status and their perceptions about personal health. Volunteers who served many people and who perceived their own health as poor experienced a higher level of burden. Those who were a widow or a widower felt less burdened than others. Conclusions The results of the study identify areas where burden is high and where strategies can be developed to reduce the level of burden experienced by community health volunteers in Taiwan. Community health volunteers in Taiwan complement the role of nurses and other health care providers so their retention is important to ongoing service delivery. PMID:23687966

  17. Microzonation of Seismic Hazard Potential in Southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K. S.

    2014-12-01

    Majority of southwestern Taiwan is densely populated in alluvial plains. Medium- and high-story buildings are increasing. Reconstruction speed of old buildings in some communities is slow. However, in southwestern Taiwan has repeatedly been struck by large earthquakes such as 1736 Tainan earthquake, 1792 Chiayi earthquake, 1839 Chiayi earthquake, 1862 Tainan earthquake, 1906 Meishan earthquake, 1941 Jhongpu earthquake, 1946 Hsinhua earthquake, 1964 Baihe earthquake, 1988 Rueili earthquake and 1999 Chiayi earthquake. In addition, at least nine active faults are distributed in this area, we can foresee very high earthquake hazard potential. In this study, a catalog of 2041 shallow earthquakes occurred from 1900 to 2010 with Mw magnitudes ranging from 5.0 to 8.2, and 11 disastrous earthquakes occurred from 1683-1899 as well as 3 active faults are used to estimate the seismic hazard potential in southwestern Taiwan for seismic microzonation. Furthermore, the probabilities of seismic intensity exceeding CWB intensity 5, 6, 7 and MMI VI, VII, VIII in 10, 30, and 50-year periods in above areas are also analyzed for the seismic microzonation. Finally, by comparing with the seismic zoning map of Taiwan in current building code that was revised after 921 earthquakes. Results of this study show high earthquake hazard potential in southwestern Taiwan. They provide a valuable database for the seismic design of critical facilities. It will help mitigate Chianan earthquake disaster loss in the future, as well as provide critical information for emergency response plans.

  18. Hazardous workplace review program in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi-Kuo; Chuang, Kuen-Yuan; Tseng, Jo-Ming; Lin, Fang-Chen; Su, Teh-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    In Taiwan, relevant mid-term plans and projects of mitigating occupational hazards have been launched in recent years in the hopes of lowering the incidence of occupational hazards. In light of the lack of objective methodologies for researches on issues pertaining occupational safety and health, this research aims to explore the priorities of safety and health issues through focal groups, expert questionnaires and interviews on relevant issues such as hazard installations identified in R181 Prevention of Major Industrial Accidents Recommendation, 1993 proposed during the 18th World Congress on Safety and Health at work in Seoul 2008. Results revealed that distribute reports of major domestic/foreign occupational disasters to relevant sectors for the prevention of major accidents is needed, both from the importance and feasibility analysis. It is the only topic that scored over 4 points in average for expert and focal group consensus. Furthermore, the experts and focal groups came to consensus in the ranking of priority for 4 items, namely: 1) Installations containing/using large quantities of hazardous materials should be prioritized for inspection, 2) Incorporation of hazard installation review/inspection into OSH management system accreditation, 3) Impose operation shutdown as a means of penalty) and 4) Prioritize the promotion of preliminary PHA. PMID:23648770

  19. Structural design of Kaohsiung Stadium, Taiwan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watanabe, Hideyuki; Tanno, Yoshiro; Nakai, Masayoshi; Ohshima, Takashi; Suguichi, Akihiro; Lee, William H.; Wang, Jensen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an outline description of the structural design of the main stadium for the World Games held in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, in 2009. Three new design concepts, unseen in previous stadiums, were proposed and realized: “an open stadium”, “an urban park”, and “a spiral continuous form”. Based on the open stadium concept, simple cantilever trusses in the roof structure were arranged in a delicate rhythm, and a so-called oscillating hoop of steel tubes was wound around the top and bottom surfaces of a group of cantilever trusses to form a continuous spiral form. Also, at the same time by clearly grouping the structural elements of the roof structure, the dramatic effect of the urban park was highlighted by unifying the landscape and the spectator seating area to form the stadium facade. This paper specifically reports on the overview of the building, concepts of structural design, structural analysis of the roof, roof design, foundation design, and an outline of the construction.

  20. Finasteride use and acute pancreatitis in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lai, Hsueh-Chou; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether there is an association between finasteride use and the risk of acute pancreatitis. This population-based case-control study used the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. There were 2,530 male subjects aged 40-84 years with a first-attack of acute pancreatitis during the period of 1998-2011 as the case group and 10,119 randomly selected subjects without acute pancreatitis as the control group. Both groups were matched by age and index year of diagnosing acute pancreatitis. Subjects who never had finasteride prescription were defined as "never use." Subjects who at least received 1 prescription for finasteride before the date of diagnosing acute pancreatitis were defined as "ever use." The association of acute pancreatitis with finasteride use was examined by the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using the multivariable unconditional logistic regression model. The crude OR of acute pancreatitis was 1.78 (95%CI 1.33, 2.39) for subjects with ever use of finasteride, when compared with subjects with never use of finasteride. After adjusting for potential confounders, the adjusted OR of acute pancreatitis decreased to 1.25 (95%CI 0.90, 1.73) for subjects with ever use of finasteride, but no statistical significance was seen. No association can be detected between finasteride use and the risk of acute pancreatitis. PMID:25573785

  1. 76 FR 57955 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ...A-583-833] Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping...duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from Taiwan. The period of review is May...duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from Taiwan. See Certain Polyester...

  2. 76 FR 22366 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ...A-583-833] Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...duty order on certain polyester staple fiber (PSF) from Taiwan. The period of review...respect to Nan Ya. See Polyester Staple Fiber from Taiwan: Rescission of...

  3. 77 FR 54561 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ...A-583-833] Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping...duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from Taiwan. The period of review is May...duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from Taiwan. See Certain Polyester...

  4. 75 FR 51442 - Polyester Staple Fiber from Taiwan: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review in Part

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ...Administration [A-583-833] Polyester Staple Fiber from Taiwan: Rescission of Antidumping...antidumping duty order on polyester staple fiber from Taiwan. The period of review is May...antidumping duty order on polyester staple fiber from Taiwan with respect to...

  5. SWOT Analysis on Educational Systems on the Two Sides of the Taiwan Strait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, I-Ming; Shieh, Chich-Jen

    2005-01-01

    It was an important, historic phenomenon for Taiwan to separate from mainland China in 1949. Mainland China and Taiwan were originally a unified country, using the same language and same alphabet characters. Now there are still similarities in many aspects; the differences are primarily governmental. Taiwan has become more Westernized and more…

  6. Internet Service Cognition and Use, and Their Promotion of Quality of Life in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Te-Hsin

    2011-01-01

    The "e-Taiwan Program" implemented by Taiwan government is aimed at showing the e-advantage in people's life and bring about essential benefits. This research follows the e-Life indicators of the Quality of Life measurement system developed by "e-Taiwan Program", which including four major dimensions of e-Daily Life, e-Business, e-Government,…

  7. How fast is the denudation of the Taiwan mountain belt? Perspectives from in situ cosmogenic 10

    E-print Network

    Lee, Jian-Cheng

    How fast is the denudation of the Taiwan mountain belt? Perspectives from in situ cosmogenic 10 Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, 128 Academia Road Sec. 2, Nankang, Taipei 115, Taiwan c Department of Geology, Chinese Culture University, 55, Hwa-Kang Road, Yang-Ming-Shan, Taipei, Taiwan d

  8. 76 FR 57075 - Helical Spring Lock Washers From China and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ...731-TA-624-625; Third Review] Helical Spring Lock Washers From China and Taiwan Scheduling...the antidumping duty orders on helical spring lock washers from China and Taiwan. AGENCY...the antidumping duty orders on helical spring lock washers from China and Taiwan...

  9. Origin of the West Taiwan basin by orogenic loading and flexure of a rifted continental margin

    E-print Network

    Watts, A. B. "Tony"

    Origin of the West Taiwan basin by orogenic loading and flexure of a rifted continental margin A. T-type continental margin. The most likely source of the loading is Taiwan, where oblique convergence between of the West Taiwan basin by orogenic loading and flexure of a rifted continental margin, J. Geophys. Res., 107

  10. 3 CFR - Proposed Agreement for Cooperation Between the American Institute in Taiwan and the Taipei...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...in Taiwan and the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in the United...in Taiwan and the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in the United States...in Taiwan and the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in the...

  11. Modeling the Impacts of Cetacean-Focused Tourism in Taiwan: Observations from Cetacean Watching Boats: 2002-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Yung-Ping; Huang, Yu-Chin; Kyle, Gerard T.; Yang, Ming-Ching

    2011-01-01

    Cetacean-focused tourism in Taiwan has grown rapidly since 1997. This development, measured in terms of both number of tour boats and visitors, has resulted in many resource management challenges stemming from the absence of regulation and scientific data. To fill this void in empirical evidence, we used 464 sighting records from 2002 to 2005 to model the impact of cetacean-focused tourism. Cox proportional hazard analysis indicated cetacean avoidance responses to cetacean watching boats were strongly associated with pod size, mother-calf pairs, and cetacean-vessel distances. Mother-calf pairs abandoned their avoidance tactic by 55% compared to noncalf groups when tour boats approached. Second, the hazard ratio of abundance was 0.996, suggesting that the odds of encountering avoidance responses by the cetaceans decreased by 42% for every 100-member increase in the cetacean pod size. Last, distances maintained by boats from the cetaceans was positively related to avoidance responses (i.e., less avoidance behavior with closer interaction). Based on our findings, we have the following recommendations: (a) limit vessels from approaching mothers with calves, (b) limit vessels from approaching small groups of cetaceans, (c) reduced avoidance behavior to boat traffic may be a red flag for potential long-term disturbance, and (d) apply the "precautionary principle" based on the best scientific information available in cetacean-based tourism in Taiwan. These recommendations will help contribute to the sustainable development of cetacean-focused tourism in Taiwan.

  12. Effects of mineral composition and pore structure in HC potential of reservoir rocks in the Western Foothill Belt, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J. M.; Tsai, L. Y.

    2014-12-01

    The exploration of unconventional gas resource achieved a successful breakthrough in USA due to the innovation of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling since 1995. The production of shale gas dramatically changed the energy structure and released the demand of fossil fuel in USA. Many studies about the unconventional oil-gas resource were performed worldwide especially in China, which provide very useful characterization for unconventional gas reservoirs. Since Taiwan has a strong energy demand and still highly relied on imported fossil fuel, the development of unconventional gas resource needs to be concerned. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the potential of unconventional oil-gas in Taiwan. In this study, we examine mineral composition and pore structure of Miocene oil-gas bearing strata from the Western Foothill Belt in Taiwan. Sandstone samples were collected from Cholan Fm, Yutengpin ss, Kuantaoshan ss, Shangfuchi ss, Tungkeng Fm, Guanyinshang ss and Peiliao Fm; whereas shale samples were collected from Chinshui sh and Talu sh, as well as outcropped coal sample from Nanchung Fm. The porosity, permeability, TOC, thermal maturity, and mineral composition of samples are examined after a series of geochemical experiments. Finally, after comparing the data with their gas sorption capacity, the reservoir with the strongest potential in unconventional gas resource can be identified.

  13. A mesoscale eddy pair southwest of Taiwan and its influence on deep circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Zhao, Wei; Tian, Jiwei; Liang, Xinfeng

    2013-12-01

    A pair of mesoscale eddies, namely, an anticyclonic eddy (AE) and a cyclonic eddy (CE), generated southwest of Taiwan was investigated using long-term moored observations augmented with satellite and reanalysis data. AE (CE) increased the upper-ocean current to 100 cm/s (50 cm/s) and generated temperature anomaly (T') up to 7.5°C (-3.0°C). The vertical structure of AE presented a phase difference between T' and velocity, with the core of T' located south of the zero-velocity line. This phase difference induced a -28.5 ± 12.0 TW (1 TW = 1012 W) westward eddy heat transport southwest of Taiwan. AE also presented strong nonlinearity in the upper ocean and yielded an annual mean volume transport of 0.86 ± 0.15 Sv. Energy analysis showed that both baroclinic and barotropic instabilities were important for the generation and growth of the eddy pair, and contribution from wind work was relative small. In the deep sea, AE (CE) intensified the deep currents and generated large positive (negative) T'. The deep and surface currents flowed in opposite directions during the eddy events, which is consistent with the interpretation that the eddy pair is dominated by the first baroclinic mode. The observed deep-penetrating eddy pair could greatly influence the deep circulation of the northeastern South China Sea.

  14. Sequence Variants of ADIPOQ and Association with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Taiwan Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ming-Kai; Wang, Hui-Min David; Shiang, Jeng-Chuan; Chen, I-Hung; Wang, Chih-Chiang; Shiao, Ya-Fen; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Lin, Tai-Jung; Chen, Tsung-Ming; Chen, Ya-Huey

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a serious global health problem. Large-scale genome-wide association studies identified loci for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), including adiponectin (ADIPOQ) gene and transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2), but few studies clarified the effect of genetic polymorphisms of ADIPOQ and TCF7L2 on risk of T2DM. We attempted to elucidate association between T2DM and polymorphic variations of both in Taiwan's Chinese Han population, with our retrospective case-control study genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ADIPOQ and TCF7L2 genes both in 149 T2DM patients and in 139 healthy controls from Taiwan. Statistical analysis gauged association of these polymorphisms with risk of T2DM to show ADIPOQ rs1501299 polymorphism variations strongly correlated with T2DM risk (P = 0.042), with rs2241766 polymorphism being not associated with T2DM (P = 0.967). However, both polymorphisms rs7903146 and rs12255372 of TCF7L2 were rarely detected in Taiwanese people. This study avers that ADIPOQ rs1501299 polymorphism contributes to risk of T2DM in the Taiwanese population. PMID:25121131

  15. Establishing multiple regression models for ozone sensitivity analysis to temperature variation in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Pao-Wen Grace; Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Tsai, Der-Min; Li, Li-Wei

    2013-11-01

    Sensitivity of meteorological variation to air quality has attracted people's attention since climate change became a world issue. The goal of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of ground-level ozone concentrations to temperature variation in Taiwan. Several multivariate regression models were built based on historical data of ozone and meteorological variables at three cities located in northern, mid-western, and southern Taiwan. Results of descriptive statistics indicate that the severe pollution from the highest to the minor conditions following by the order of the southern (Pingtung), mid-western (Fengyuan), and the northern sites (Hsichih). Multiple regression models containing a principal component trigger variable effectively simulated the historical ozone exceedance during 2004-2009. Inclusion of the PC trigger were improved R2 from the lowest 0.38 to the highest 0.58. High probability of detection and critical success index (mostly between 85% and 90%) and low false alarm rates (0-2.6%) were achieved for predicting the high ozone days (?100 ppb). The results of sensitivity analysis indicated that (1) the ozone sensitivity was positively correlated with the temperature variation, (2) the sensitivity levels were opposite to that of the ozone problem severity, (3) the sensitivity was mostly apparent in ozone seasons, and (4) the sensitivity strongly depended on the seasonality in the urban cities Hischih and Fengyuan, but weakly depended on seasonality in the rural city Pingtung.

  16. Evidence of Formation Scaling Occurred in the Chingshui Geothermal Field, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Y.-C.; Song, S.-R.; Liu, C.-M.

    2012-04-01

    Taiwan is located at the margin of young orogenic belt which the Philippine Sea plate collides with Asian continental margin. It is characteristic that the geothermal outcrops and hot springs are widely distributed in this island and has great potential to explore and develop the geothermal heat for power plant. A 3-Mw pilot power plant, therefore, was constructed in 1981 in the Chingshui area, northeastern Taiwan. However, due to rapid decline of power generation from 1.2 MWe to 0.2 MWe and shortage of economic efficiency, this plant was terminated in 1993. Most of the engineers and researchers considered the important reason for termination may be resulted from carbonate scaling, based on the findings of calcite deposits inside well pipe. A production well with the depth 1,500 m has been drilled into the reservoir of slate host rocks and raises 200 m cores between 600 m to 800 m in depth. Many calcite or aragonite minerals filled up the fractures, veins and open cracks have been found in the cores. Meanwhile, surface survey on outcrops shows that there are many quartz veins occurred in slate formation, but a few or no calcite veins. Those lines of evidence strongly suggest that the formation scaling rather than carbonate precipitations inside the wells termination of power plant have been occurred in the Chingshui geothermal field.

  17. Natural variation of 87Sr/86Sr in coral Porites from southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Chiang, H.; Shen, C.; Lee, D.; Chen, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Monthly resolution 87Sr/86Sr records of living coral Porites heads, collected in Nanwan Bay, southernmost Taiwan (21o55’N, 120o47’E), were analyzed by a MC-ICP-MS at the Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University. Between the time window of 1992 and 2002, 87Sr/86Sr ratios remained constant at 0.709176 in winter, while strong annual fluctuations between 0.709171 and 0.709203 were observed during the summer. No relationship is found between Sr/Ca and ?18O, which suggests that the effect of temperature and fresh water input are negligible to the observed summer fluctuations of 87Sr/86Sr in these corals. Furthermore, 87Sr/86Sr ratio in offshore water exhibits a significantly offset of 0.00002-0.00003, and which is positively correlated to the variations of the coral values of 0.70917-0.70918. If this is correct, there exists a source that is responsible for the low 87Sr/86Sr observed in the corals, alternatively, a biologically kinetic effect can also explain the data. In order to better constrain the causes of the observed 87Sr/86Sr variations in these corals, a 84Sr-86Sr double-spike method using TIMS is currently being set up, and the data will be presented in this meeting.

  18. Auditory motion capturing ambiguous visual motion.

    PubMed

    Alink, Arjen; Euler, Felix; Galeano, Elena; Krugliak, Alexandra; Singer, Wolf; Kohler, Axel

    2012-01-01

    In this study, it is demonstrated that moving sounds have an effect on the direction in which one sees visual stimuli move. During the main experiment sounds were presented consecutively at four speaker locations inducing left or rightward auditory apparent motion. On the path of auditory apparent motion, visual apparent motion stimuli were presented with a high degree of directional ambiguity. The main outcome of this experiment is that our participants perceived visual apparent motion stimuli that were ambiguous (equally likely to be perceived as moving left or rightward) more often as moving in the same direction than in the opposite direction of auditory apparent motion. During the control experiment we replicated this finding and found no effect of sound motion direction on eye movements. This indicates that auditory motion can capture our visual motion percept when visual motion direction is insufficiently determinate without affecting eye movements. PMID:22232613

  19. Characteristic of riverine dissolved inorganic nitrogen export in subtropic high-standing island, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Li-Chin; Huang, -Chuan, Jr.; Lee, Tsung-Yu; Shih, Yu-Ting

    2015-04-01

    Extreme increase of anthropogenic nitrogen (e.g. fertilizer and excretion) has altered the nitrogen cycling and terrestrial ecosystems. Taiwan located between eastern Asia and Oceania is the hotspot of global riverine DIN (dissolved inorganic nitrogen, including NH4, NO3, and NO2) export, but rarely documented comprehensively. Totally 50 catchments, covering 2/3 of this island, with different anthropogenic activities are involved in this study. The monthly sampling for NH4 and seasonal sampling for NO3 and NO2 supplemented with daily discharge are used to estimate the riverine DIN export. Meanwhile, the landscape characteristics, land-use, and population density are also used to discriminate the characteristics of riverine DIN export. Results showed that the observed riverine DIN concentration and yield vary from 17.7-603.5 ?M and 575.0-15588.9 kg-N km-2 yr-1 corresponding to the increase of anthropogenic activities. The arithmetic mean of DIN concentration and yield are 126.7?M and 3594.7 kg-N km-2 yr-1, respectively. The unexpected high yields can attribute to abundant precipitation, heavy fertilizer application, and high population. For concentration variation, no significant variation can be found in the pristine and agriculture-dominated catchments, whereas the strong dilution effect in the wet season is characterized in the intensively-disturbed catchments. Although there are some seasonal variations in concentration, the yields in wet season are almost doubled than that in dry season indicating the strong control of streamflow. For speciation, NH4 is the dominant species in intensively-disturbed catchment, but NO3 dominates the DIN composition for the pristine and agriculture-dominated catchments. Our result can provide a strong basis for supplementary estimation for regional to global study and DIN export control which is the aim of the Kampala Declaration on global nitrogen management. Keywords: dissolved inorganic nitrogen, anthropogenic nitrogen, Taiwan.

  20. Probing strongly coupled anisotropic plasma

    E-print Network

    Dimitrios Giataganas

    2012-07-09

    We calculate the static potential, the drag force and the jet quenching parameter in strongly coupled anisotropic N=4 super Yang-Mills plasma. We find that the jet quenching is in general enhanced in presence of anisotropy compared to the isotropic case and that its value depends strongly on the direction of the moving quark and the direction along which the momentum broadening occurs. The jet quenching is strongly enhanced for a quark moving along the anisotropic direction and momentum broadening happens along the transverse one. The parameter gets lower for a quark moving along the transverse direction and the momentum broadening considered along the anisotropic one. Finally, a weaker enhancement is observed when the quark moves in the transverse plane and the broadening occurs on the same plane. The drag force for quark motion parallel to the anisotropy is always enhanced. For motion in the transverse space the drag force is enhanced compared to the isotropic case only for quarks having velocity above a critical value. Below this critical value the force is decreased. Moreover, the drag force along the anisotropic direction is always stronger than the force in the transverse space. The diffusion time follows exactly the inverse relations of the drag forces. The static potential is decreased and stronger decrease observed for quark-antiquark pair aligned along the anisotropic direction than the transverse one. We finally comment on our results and elaborate on their similarities and differences with the weakly coupled plasmas.

  1. A material flow of lithium batteries in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, T C; You, S J; Yu, B S; Yao, K F

    2009-04-30

    Li batteries, including secondary and cylindrical/button primary Li batteries, are used worldwide in computers, communications and consumer electronics products. However, there are several dangerous issues that occur during the manufacture, shipping, and storage of Li batteries. This study analyzes the material flow of lithium batteries and their valuable heavy metals in Taiwan for the year 2006 by material flow analysis. According to data from the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration, Taiwan External Trade Development Council, Bureau of Foreign Trade, Directorate General of Customs, and the Li batteries manufactures/importers/exporters. It was found that 2,952,696 kg of Li batteries was input into Taiwan for the year 2006, including 2,256,501 kg of imported Li batteries and 696,195 kg of stock Li batteries in 2005. In addition, 1,113,867 and 572,215 kg of Li batteries was domestically produced and sold abroad, revealing that 3,494,348 kg of different types of Li batteries was sold in Taiwan. Of these domestically sold batteries, 504,663 and 146,557 kg were treated domestically and abroad. Thus, a total of 2,843,128 kg of Li batteries was stored by individual/industry users or illegally disposed. In addition, it was also observed that 2,120,682 kg of heavy metals contained in Li batteries, including Ni, Co, Al, Cu and Ni, was accumulated in Taiwan, with a recycled value of 38.8 million USD. These results suggest that these heavy metals should be recovered by suitable collection, recycling and reuse procedures. PMID:18723278

  2. Rainfall intensity-duration conditions for mass movements in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chi-Wen; Saito, Hitoshi; Oguchi, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    Mass movements caused by rainfall events in Taiwan are analyzed during a 7-year period from 2006 to 2012. Data from the Taiwan Soil and Water Conservation Bureau reports were compiled for 263 mass movement events, including 156 landslides, 91 debris flows, and 16 events with both landslides and debris flows. Rainfall totals for each site location were obtained from interpolated rain gauge data. The rainfall intensity-duration ( I-D) relationship was examined to establish a rainfall threshold for mass movements using random sampling: I = 18.10(±2.67) D -0.17(±0.04), where I is mean rainfall intensity (mm/h) and D is the time (h) between the beginning of a rainfall event and the resulting mass movement. Significant differences were found between rainfall intensities and thresholds for landslides and debris flows. For short-duration rainfall events, higher mean rainfall intensities were required to trigger debris flows. In contrast, for long-duration rainfall events, similar mean rainfall intensities triggered both landslides and debris flows. Mean rainfall intensity was rescaled by mean annual precipitation (MAP) to define a new threshold: I MAP = 0.0060(±0.0009) D -0.17(±0.04), where I MAP is rescaled rainfall intensity and MAP is the minimum for mountainous areas in Taiwan (3000 mm). Although the I-D threshold for Taiwan is high, the I MAP -D threshold for Taiwan tends to be low relative to other areas around the world. Our results indicate that Taiwan is highly prone to rainfall-induced mass movements. This study also shows that most mass movements occur in high rainfall-intensity periods, but some events occur before or after the rainfall peak. Both antecedent and peak rainfall play important roles in triggering landslides, whereas debris flow occurrence is more related to peak rainfall than antecedent rainfall.

  3. Elucidating the characteristics of eyewalls and rainbands associated with a severe typhoon influenced by Taiwan's high orography using Doppler radar analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chih-Hsien; Hor, Tai-Hwa; Wang, Jian-Liang

    2011-04-01

    Radar observations of the strong Typhoon Bilis (2000) are unique for investigating the effect of Taiwan high orography on the mesoscale structures of storm system in the vicinity of southeastern Taiwan. Typhoon Bilis was the first tropical storm, which possessed the double eyewall feature observed by Doppler radar over the Taiwan area. The inner eyewall exhibited an approximately circular shape with a diameter of 20 km. Convections associated with the storm were cyclonically and radially outward propagated, with the linear aspect in the right flank of the system and counterclockwise and spiral migration in the left flank, maintaining the development of the outer eyewall. The low-level maximum Doppler winds in the left and right flanks relative to the typhoon movement were comparable, owing to a prominent confluence in the left flank. The prominent confluent zone was constructed by two wind fields, the northwesterly from the inner circulation of the typhoon and the outer circulation in the streamline analysis. The replacement of maximum wind between the inner and outer eyewalls, extending from low levels to middle levels in the left flank of the storm, was a clear model for the examination of the significance of the orographic effect on a severe typhoon. A conceptual model for a case of super typhoon under the influence of Taiwan high terrain was constructed.

  4. Quantifying biomechanical motion using Procrustes motion analysis.

    PubMed

    Adams, Dean C; Cerney, Melinda M

    2007-01-01

    The ability to quantify and compare the movements of organisms is a central focus of many studies in biology, anthropology, biomechanics, and ergonomics. However, while the importance of functional motion analysis has long been acknowledged, quantitative methods for identifying differences in motion have not been widely developed. In this article, we present an approach to the functional analysis of motion and quantification of motion types. Our approach, Procrustes Motion Analysis (PMA) can be used to distinguish differences in cyclical, repeated, or goal-directed motions. PMA exploits the fact that any motion can be represented by an ordered sequence of postures exhibited throughout the course of a motion. Changes in posture from time step to time step form a trajectory through a multivariate data space, representing a specific motion. By evaluating the size, shape, and orientation of these motion trajectories, it is possible to examine variation in motion type within and among groups or even with respect to continuous variables. This represents a significant analytical advance over current approaches. Using simulated and digitized data representing cyclical, repeated and goal-directed motions, we show that PMA correctly identifies distinct motion tasks in these data sets. PMID:16448654

  5. From subduction to collision: results of French POP2 program on Taiwan-Philippine festoon

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchet, R.; Stephan, J.F.; Rangin, C.; Baladad, D.; Bouysse, Ph.; Chen, M.P.; Chotin, P.; Collot, J.Y.; Daniel, J.; Drouhot, J.M.; Marsset, B.; Pelletier, B.; Richard, M.; Tardy, M.

    1986-07-01

    A sea-beam, seismic, magnetic, and gravimetric survey was conducted with the R/V Jean-Charcot in three key regions off the Taiwan-Philippine festoon in the western Pacific: (1) Ryukyu active margin and its junction with Taiwan; (2) northern part of the Manila Trench and its junction with the Taiwan tectonic prism; and (3) southern termination of Manila Trench in front of Mindoro Island. Transitions between active subduction along the Manila Trench and collision of Taiwan and Mindoro, and relations between active subduction and extension in the Okinawa-Ryukyu and the northeastern Taiwan systems are particularly studied.

  6. Multiple sensors applied to monitorland subsidence in Central Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, W.-C.; Wang, C.; Hwang, C.; Chen, Y.-A.; Chiu, H.-C.; Lin, S.-H.

    2015-11-01

    During 1992-2013, pumping of groundwater caused large-scale aquifer-system compaction and land subsidence in the Choshui River Alluvial Fan (CRAF) in Taiwan. The subsidence has already endangered the operation of Taiwan High Speed Rail (THSR). In this paper, we introduce the multiple sensors monitoring system to study the extent of subsidence in CRAF and its mechanism, including GPS (Global Positioning System), PSI (Persistent Scatterer Interferometry), leveling and multi-layer compaction monitoring well. These sensors complement each other in spatial and temporal resolutions.

  7. Methanogenic Archaea Isolated from Taiwan's Chelungpu Fault? †

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sue-Yao; Lai, Mei-Chin

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial rocks, petroleum reservoirs, faults, coal seams, and subseafloor gas hydrates contain an abundance of diverse methanoarchaea. However, reports on the isolation, purification, and characterization of methanoarchaea in the subsurface environment are rare. Currently, no studies investigating methanoarchaea within fault environments exist. In this report, we succeeded in obtaining two new methanogen isolates, St545MbT of newly proposed species Methanolobus chelungpuianus and Methanobacterium palustre FG694aF, from the Chelungpu fault, which is the fault that caused a devastating earthquake in central Taiwan in 1999. Strain FG694aF was isolated from a fault gouge sample obtained at 694 m below land surface (mbls) and is an autotrophic, mesophilic, nonmotile, thin, filamentous-rod-shaped organism capable of using H2-CO2 and formate as substrates for methanogenesis. The morphological, biochemical, and physiological characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that this isolate belongs to Methanobacterium palustre. The mesophilic strain St545MbT, isolated from a sandstone sample at 545 mbls, is a nonmotile, irregular, coccoid organism that uses methanol and trimethylamine as substrates for methanogenesis. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain St545MbT was 99.0% similar to that of Methanolobus psychrophilus strain R15 and was 96 to 97.5% similar to the those of other Methanolobus species. However, the optimal growth temperature and total cell protein profile of strain St545MbT were different from those of M. psychrophilus strain R15, and whole-genome DNA-DNA hybridization revealed less than 20% relatedness between these two strains. On the basis of these observations, we propose that strain St545MbT (DSM 19953T; BCRC AR10030; JCM 15159) be named Methanolobus chelungpuianus sp. nov. Moreover, the environmental DNA database survey indicates that both Methanolobus chelungpuianus and Methanobacterium palustre are widespread in the subsurface environment. PMID:21148697

  8. Air quality and pollution control in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Shu-Hwei; Chen, Hsiung-Wen

    Due to limited land and great emphasis on economic growth in the past, Taiwan has an extremely heavy environmental burden. Population density, factory density, as well as densities of motor vehicles are several times higher than those in the United States and Japan. According to the statistics of 1991, the Pollutant Standards Index (PSI) fell mostly in the "moderate" category, i.e., in the range of 50-100. There were 16.25% of the monitored days with PSI above 100, and 0.51% with PSI beyond 200. Suspended particulates were the major pollutant responsible for PSI above 100, followed by carbon monoxide, ozone, and sulfur dioxide. The measures adopted to control air pollution can be divided into four categories, namely law and regulations, control measures on stationary sources, mobile sources and construction projects. The latest amended Air Pollution Control Act was promulgated on 1 February 1992. Several major revisions were introduced to make the amended Act much more stringent than the 1982 amendment, especially on the offenses likely to endanger public health and welfare. In regard to stationary sources, a permit system was enacted to regulate the establishment and alteration of stationary sources. Designated stationary sources are required to be equipped with automatic monitoring facilities. An inspection and enforcement program have expanded to cover more than 10,000 factories. Major control measures for motor vehicles include introducing stringent emission standards for gasoline-fueled vehicles and diesel cars, setting up ratification and approval program for new vehicle model, promoting the inspection/maintenance program on in-used motorcycles and encouraging the use of unleaded and low sulfur fuels. In order to control the pollution caused by construction work, constructors are required to use low-pollution machinery and engineering methods and incorporate pollution prevention into the construction budget.

  9. Self Motion Perception and Motion Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    The studies conducted in this research project examined several aspects of motion sickness in animal models. A principle objective of these studies was to investigate the neuroanatomy that is important in motion sickness with the objectives of examining both the utility of putative models and defining neural mechanisms that are important in motion sickness.

  10. Application of Radar Interferometry for Monitoring the Landslide Creeping of Jiufen Area, Northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, YuHeng; Chang, ChungPai

    2015-04-01

    Taiwan is one of the most active landslide areas in the world because of its high precipitation and active tectonic. Landslide, which destroys buildings and human lives, causes a lot of hazard and economical loss in the recent years. Jiufen, which have been determined as a creeping area with previous studies, is one of the famous tourist place in northern Taiwan. Therefore, detection and monitoring of landslide and creeping thus play an important role in risk management and help us decrease the damage from such mass movement. In this study, we apply Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) techniques at Jiufen area to monitor the creeping of slope. InSAR observations are obtained from ERS and ENVISAT, which were launched by European Space Agency, spaning from 1994 to 2008. Persistent Scatterer InSAR (PSInSAR) method is also applied to reduce the phase contributed from atmosphere and topography and help us get more precise measurement. We compare the result with previous studies carried out by fieldwork to confirm the possibility of InSAR techniques applying on landslide monitoring. Moreover, the time-series analysis helps us to understand the motion of the creeping along with time. After completion of some amelioration measures, time-series can illustrate the effect of these structures. Then, the result combining with fieldwork survey will give good suggestion of future remediation works. Furthermore, we estimate the measuring error and possible factors, such as slope direction, dip angle, etc., affecting InSAR result and. The result helps us to verify the reliability of this method and gives us more clear deformation pattern of the creeping area.

  11. Mesoscale processes for super heavy rainfall of Typhoon Morakot (2009) over Southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C.-Y.; Hsu, H.-M.; Sheng, Y.-F.; Kuo, C.-H.; Liou, Y.-A.

    2010-05-01

    Within 100 h, a record-breaking rainfall, 2855 mm, was brought to Taiwan by Typhoon Morakot in August, 2009 resulting in devastating landslides and casualties. Analyses and simulations show that under favorable large-scale situations, this unprecedented precipitation was caused first by the convergence of the southerly component of the pre-existing strong southwesterly monsoonal flow and the northerly component of the typhoon circulation. Then the westerly component of southwesterly flow pushed the highly moist air eastward against the Central Mountain Range, and forced it to lift in the preferred area. The mesoscale processes in two stages were responsible for the unprecedented heavy rainfall total that accompanied this typhoon. Thus, understanding the dynamical interactions between the typhoon's circulation and monsoonal flow at different scales should enhance the forecasting capability in precipitation events brought by similar typhoons in the future.

  12. Self-Motion Perception and Motion Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    Motion sickness typically is considered a bothersome artifact of exposure to passive motion in vehicles of conveyance. This condition seldom has significant impact on the health of individuals because it is of brief duration, it usually can be prevented by simply avoiding the eliciting condition and, when the conditions that produce it are unavoidable, sickness dissipates with continued exposure. The studies conducted examined several aspects of motion sickness in animal models. A principle objective of these studies was to investigate the neuroanatomy that is important in motion sickness with the objectives of examining both the utility of putative models and defining neural mechanisms that are important in motion sickness.

  13. Widespread Rickettsia spp. Infections in Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea) in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chi-Chien; Shu, Pei-Yun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Lee, Pei-Lung; Wu, Yin-Wen; Chung, Chien-Kung; Wang, Hsi-Chieh

    2015-09-01

    Ticks are second to mosquitoes as the most important disease vectors, and recent decades have witnessed the emergence of many novel tick-borne rickettsial diseases, but systematic surveys of ticks and tick-borne rickettsioses are generally lacking in Asia. We collected and identified ticks from small mammal hosts between 2006 and 2010 in different parts of Taiwan. Rickettsia spp. infections in ticks were identified by targeting ompB and gltA genes with nested polymerase chain reaction. In total, 2,732 ticks were collected from 1,356 small mammals. Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides Supino (51.8% of total ticks), Haemaphysalis bandicota Hoogstraal & Kohls (28.0%), and Ixodes granulatus Supino (20.0%) were the most common tick species, and Rattus losea Swinhoe (44.7% of total ticks) and Bandicota indica Bechstein (39.9%) were the primary hosts. The average Rickettsia infective rate in 329 assayed ticks was 31.9% and eight Rickettsia spp. or closely related species were identified. This study shows that rickettsiae-infected ticks are widespread in Taiwan, with a high diversity of Rickettsia spp. circulating in the ticks. Because notifiable rickettsial diseases in Taiwan only include mite-borne scrub typhus and flea-borne murine typhus, more studies are warranted for a better understanding of the real extent of human risks to rickettsioses in Taiwan. PMID:26336223

  14. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Prevention in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hsueh-Erh

    2004-01-01

    Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is a newly identified respiratory disease that threatened Taiwan between April 14 and July 5, 2003. Chang Gung University experienced various SARS-related episodes, such as the postponement of classes for 7 days, the reporting of probable SARS cases, and the isolation of students under Level A and B…

  15. Early Childhood Music Education in Taiwan: An Ecological Systems Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leu, Jennifer Chau-Ying

    2008-01-01

    The author examines early childhood music education in Taiwan through Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. Factors in the microsystem level that influenced the musical development of children included adult perception of children, child-adult interactions, Taiwanese family structure, and the existing early childhood education system. The…

  16. Challenges and Opportunities Facing Technology Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lung-Sheng Steven

    2009-01-01

    The technology education in Taiwan is prescribed in the national curriculum and provided to all students in grades 1-12. However, it faces the following challenges: (1) Lack of worthy image, (2) Inadequate teachers in elementary schools, (3) Deficient teaching vitality in secondary schools, and (4) Diluted technology teacher education programs. In…

  17. Taiwan Industrial Vocational Education: The Personnel Development Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Frank Tien-Jin

    The goal of industrial vocational education is reached only when the technical personnel it prepares find employment in a technological world and enjoy their working experience. Technological upgrading and economic advancement in Taiwan necessitate drastic revisions and improvements in the personnel development program. The government has been…

  18. Expansion and Stratification of Higher Educational Opportunity in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Cheng Sheng; Jacob, W. James

    2012-01-01

    The global phenomenon of higher educational expansion and opportunity is one of the major social changes since World War II. In 1949, only 1 university and 3 junior colleges existed in Taiwan. After 60 years, the number of higher education institutions had grown to 163, including 147 universities/colleges and 16 junior colleges. The dialectic…

  19. Higher Education Learning Experiences among Vietnamese Immigrant Women in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ya-Ling; Wu, Hsing-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Based on a sociocultural approach to adult learning and poststructural feminist theories, this study draws on interviews with 11 married Vietnamese women to explore the higher education learning experiences of Vietnamese immigrant women in Taiwan. On the basis of their husbands' permission and support, Vietnamese immigrant women embraced the…

  20. Outcome Evaluation of Active Support Training in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Harman, Anthony D.; Lin, Chwen-Jen; Lee, Wan-ping; Chang, Shu-chuan; Lin, Mei-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Active Support was implemented for the first time in Taiwan in March, 2009. This study aims to evaluate whether the supervisors and front line managers of residential services receiving Active Support Training (AST) caused a positive impact on their users with intellectual disabilities (ID) while comparing this with their counterparts with ID…

  1. Evaluating an Assistive Technology Resource Center in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Hua-Kuo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is intended to present the procedure and outcomes of an evaluation of the Assistive Technology Resource Center in a city of Taiwan. The evaluation was initiated by Chiayi City Government through inviting three professionals in the field of assistive technology as evaluators. For the purpose of evaluation, the Executive…

  2. Discovering land transaction relations from land deeds of Taiwan............................................................................................................................................................

    E-print Network

    Chu, Hao-hua

    for the studies of Taiwan's social, anthropological, and economic evolution. We have built a full-text digital, the Japanese officials spent over a decade collecting and studying land deeds, and eventually published several of which includes 104 deeds. Some of these graphs involve land behavior that had never been studied before

  3. Essays on the IT Industry in Korea and Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Wen-Chieh

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three studies on the development of information technology (IT) industry in Korea and Taiwan. Using industry-level data from those countries, I would like to investigate why similar economies would take different paths toward developing their industries. The first chapter, "Span of Control and Production…

  4. Peer Mentors in Undergraduates' Research Proposal Writing in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Ya-Hui

    2010-01-01

    To date, there has been little research in the existing literature exploring how peer mentors can assist college students' research proposal. This paper provides the background to the adoption of a peer mentoring program in a research writing class in Taiwan. The purpose of this study is to investigate the value of using peer mentors to assist…

  5. Vocational Training for the Disabled in Taiwan, Republic of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Robert T. Y.

    For Taiwan, Republic of China, a nation with limited natural resources and a population of 22 million people in an area of only 36,000 square kilometers, the development and use of human resources plays a pivotal role in sustainable economic growth. Vocational education and training are two major human development methods. Since persons with…

  6. The Ranking Phenomenon and the Experience of Academics in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, William Yat Wai

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim of the paper is to examine how global university rankings have influenced the higher education sector in Taiwan from the perspective of academics. A qualitative case study method was used to examine how university ranking influenced the Taiwanese higher education at institutional and individual levels, respectively, thereby…

  7. National Program for e-Learning in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Maiga; Wang, Chin-Yeh; Chen, Gwo-Dong

    2009-01-01

    Taiwan government has initiated a five-year program since 2002: the National Science and Technology Program for e-Learning. The national program started from 2003 and was completed at the end of year 2007, involving thirteen government agencies. This paper describes the results that the national program has accomplished at its first phase, 2003 to…

  8. The Work-Study Experience of Indigenous Undergraduates in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shan-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Due to the large number of universities in Taiwan and the increased availability of scholarships for disadvantaged students, the number of college students from indigenous families has been on the rise in recent years. However, many indigenous students still find it necessary to work part-time. In this study, indigenous students were interviewed…

  9. Language Use in Asynchronous Computer-Mediated Communication in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Daphne Li-jung

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes how Chinese-English bilinguals in Taiwan use their languages in asynchronous computer-mediated communication, specifically, via Bulletin Board System (BBS) and email. The main data includes two types: emails collected from a social network and postings collected from two BBS websites. By examining patterns of language choice…

  10. Factors Affecting Middle School Students' Reading Motivation in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, SuHua

    2013-01-01

    This study employed a triangulated mixed method to investigate reading motivation of Chinese middle school students in Taiwan. A total of 247 seventh grade students (122 boys and 125 girls) participated voluntarily by completing the Chinese Motivation for Research Questionnaire (CMRQ). Sixteen of the 247 students were purposely selected to…

  11. Policy Analysis of the English Graduation Benchmark in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Chih-Min

    2012-01-01

    To nudge students to study English and to improve their English proficiency, many universities in Taiwan have imposed an English graduation benchmark on their students. This article reviews this policy, using the theoretic framework for education policy analysis proposed by Haddad and Demsky (1995). The author presents relevant research findings,…

  12. 77 FR 72884 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... Register on August 20, 2012 (77 FR 50160) and on August 22, 2012 (77 FR 50713, corrected). The hearing was... Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... United States is materially injured by reason of imports of steel wire garment hangers from...

  13. Understanding the Desirability of English Language Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Chao-Ling

    2008-01-01

    The popularity and desirability of English language education has become somewhat unbeatable in Taiwan. This article seeks to understand the multiple threads of reasoning systems that come together to constitute and sustain the desirability of English learning. It conceptualizes that language education is more than teaching and learning a…

  14. Social Capital and Health Inequality: Evidence from Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Lijun; Lin, Nan

    2009-01-01

    Does social capital, resources embedded in social relationships, influence health? This research examines whether social capital impacts depressive symptoms and overall perceived health status over and above the effects of social support. Our analyses use unique data from the Taiwan Social Change Survey collected in 1997, and measures social…

  15. Policies and Practices in Educational Gerontology in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yi-Yin; Huang, Chin-Shan

    2013-01-01

    Policy on educational gerontology seems a relatively recent subfield in most countries' social policies. The concept of education for older adults did not appear in Taiwan's political discourse until 1980. The purposes of this paper are to provide an overall introduction to the development of educational gerontology policies and practices in…

  16. A Case Study of an Affective Education Course in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chin-Chiang; Ku, Heng-Yu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the components of a framework for affective education implementation based on a positive psychology approach. A fifth grade class of 31 students in a public rural elementary school in Taiwan participated in a 13-week long affective education course that consisted of six units: Self-discovery, Love and…

  17. Traditional Chinese Celebrations: Continuity and Change in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Wendy L.

    This teaching unit is designed to introduce elementary school students to traditional Chinese celebrations in Taiwan. An introductory activity asks students to distinguish between various kinds of celebrations (traditional or modern; religious or secular), and to identify U.S. and Chinese examples of each kind. The body of the unit concerns four…

  18. The Results of the 2009 Elderhostel Program in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Li-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Since 2008, Taiwan's Ministry of Education has sponsored a number of short-term residential educational programs aimed at senior citizens and administered by local colleges and universities. In 2009, the Ministry of Education named a project the Elderhostel Program (notwithstanding the lack of involvement by the United States organization,…

  19. The Image of People with Intellectual Disability in Taiwan Newspapers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chih-Hsuan; Hsu, Kan-Lin; Shu, Bih-Ching; Fetzer, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is limited research on the development of newspaper analysis about the images of people with ID in Chinese newspapers. The purpose of this study was: (a) to understand the general image of persons with ID presented in printed newspapers in Taiwan, and (b) to classify the various images of persons with ID and to measure the…

  20. Learning Vietnamese as a Heritage Language in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Yu-Ching; Ho, Hsiang-Ju; Chen, Ming-Chung

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, the Taiwanese Government began a campaign to encourage new immigrants to teach their native languages (heritage languages) to their children. However, these heritage languages are seldom used in cross-national families and the effectiveness of formal heritage language courses in Taiwan has yet to be explored. The present study examines…

  1. Couple Relationship Quality, Coparenting, and Fathering in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hui-Hua

    2013-01-01

    This study examined connections among couple relationship quality, coparenting, and mother and father involvement in 100 families from urban Central Taiwan. Fathers and mothers with at least one school-age child completed questionnaires regarding their couple satisfaction and consensus, coparenting techniques and consistency, and involvement in…

  2. Internationalization versus Localization: "The Case of Primary Education in Taiwan"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li-Ping; Ho, Hsuan-Fu

    2012-01-01

    Internationalization is receiving increasing attention at academic institutions all over the world. Taiwan is no exception, where the government is promoting internationalization not only in higher education, but also at the primary education level. In this research we identified the key factors of the internationalization of primary education in…

  3. Ideal Careers Perceived by Education Major Undergraduates in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Hsuan-Fu

    2013-01-01

    The higher educational institutions produce several times as many college graduates each year as there are jobs available recently in Taiwan. This coupled with the deep recession of economy in recent years have contributed to the intensified competition for jobs. The fierce unemployment among young people has revived the demand on the contribution…

  4. Technological Literacy Education and Technological and Vocational Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lung-Sheng Steven

    2010-01-01

    Technology education in Taiwan is categorized into the following two types: (1) technological literacy education (TLE)--the education for all people to become technological literates; and (2) technological specialty education (TSE)--the education for specific people to become technicians and professionals for technology-related jobs. This paper…

  5. 4th International Conference on Earthquake Engineering Taipei, Taiwan

    E-print Network

    Bruneau, Michel

    4th International Conference on Earthquake Engineering Taipei, Taiwan October 12-13, 2006 Paper No Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering. The paper focuses on the design procedures, experimental accelerations, which were recorded in the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake and scaled up to represent seismic hazards

  6. Misconceptions about the Moon Held by Preservice Teachers in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dai, Meme F.; Capie, William

    The objective of this study was to assess the misconceptions held by preservice teachers about essential concepts of the moon related to information taught in elementary schools in Taiwan and to develop multiple-choice test items to identify the misconceptions about the moon. Additionally, this study considered relationships of gender, religion,…

  7. The Document Processing Workflow of THDL, Taiwan History

    E-print Network

    Chu, Hao-hua

    THDL THDL re-index THDL THDL THDL THDL consistent 1 "American Memory" (The Library of Congress, 2000). Electronic Library Projects. From http://www.ndl.go.jp/en/ aboutus/elib-project.html The Library of Congress, Taiwan History Digital Library Shih-pei Chen2 *, Hsieh-chang Tu **, Jieh Hsiang *** Abstract

  8. Suicide Experiences among Institutionalized Older Veterans in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, Yan-Chiou; Tsai, Yun-Fang; Lin, Yan-Chiou; Lin, Yea-Pyng

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Institutionalized veterans in Taiwan are a high-risk group for completing suicide due to their institutionalization and social minority status. The purpose of this study was to understand the suicide experiences, especially the triggers of suicide in this group. Design and Methods Data: about suicide experiences were collected from 19…

  9. Exploring "Gift" Theories for New Immigrants' Literacy Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chueh, Ho-Chia

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses "the gift" as the central concept in a discussion about the literacy education for new immigrants that has been developing in Taiwan since the early 1990s. The point of departure for this discussion is the advent of international marriages that are the consequence of new arrivals from Southeast Asia and China, and their effect…

  10. Adolescent Internet Usage in Taiwan: Exploring Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chien-Huang; Yu, Shu-Fen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences in adolescent Internet accessibility, motives for use, and online activities in Taiwan; 629 5th and 6th graders were surveyed. Findings revealed that the gap in gender differences with regard to Internet use has decreased in this generation. Even though the Internet is the most recent…

  11. Mantle Convection with Strong Subduction Zones

    E-print Network

    Conrad, Clint

    Chapter 6 Mantle Convection with Strong Subduction Zones Abstract. Because mantle viscosity deformation associated with subduction should resist plate motions, and thus slow convection in the underlying resolved in mantle-scale convection models, so its a ect on convection is di cult to investigate. We have

  12. NONLINEAR STRONG SHOCK INTERACTIONS: A SHOCKFITTED APPROACH

    E-print Network

    Erlebacher, Gordon

    expansion of the Rankine­Hugoniot conditions reveals that nonlinear effects dominate both the shock motionNONLINEAR STRONG SHOCK INTERACTIONS: A SHOCK­FITTED APPROACH G. Erlebacher, M.Y. Hussaini Program 23681­0001. ABSTRACT This paper addresses nonlinear effects which result from the interaction of shock

  13. Four Years of Absolute Gravity in the Taiwan Orogen (AGTO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouyen, Maxime; Masson, Frédéric; Hwang, Cheinway; Cheng, Ching-Chung; Le Moigne, Nicolas; Lee, Chiung-Wu; Kao, Ricky; Hsieh, Nicky

    2010-05-01

    AGTO is a scientific project between Taiwanese and French institutes, which aim is to improve tectonic knowledge of Taiwan primarily using absolute gravity measurements and permanent GPS stations. Both tools are indeed useful to study vertical movements and mass transfers involved in mountain building, a major process in Taiwan located at the convergent margin between Philippine Sea plate and Eurasian plate. This convergence results in two subductions north and south of Taiwan (Ryukyu and Manilla trenches, respectively), while the center is experiencing collision. These processes make Taiwan very active tectonically, as illustrated by numerous large earthquakes and rapid uplift of the Central Range. High slopes of Taiwan mountains and heavy rains brought by typhoons together lead to high landslides and mudflows risks. Practically, absolute gravity measurements have been yearly repeated since 2006 along a transect across south Taiwan, from Penghu to Lutao islands, using FG5 absolute gravimeters. This transect contains ten sites for absolute measurements and has been densified in 2008 by incorporating 45 sites for relative gravity measurements with CG5 gravimeters. The last relative and absolute measurements have been performed in November 2009. Most of the absolute sites have been measured with a good accuracy, about 1 or 2 ?Gal. Only the site located in Tainan University has higher standard deviation, due to the city noise. We note that absolute gravity changes seem to follow a trend in every site. However, straightforward tectonic interpretation of these trends is not valuable as many non-tectonic effects are supposed to change g with time, like groundwater or erosion. Estimating and removing these effects leads to a tectonic gravity signal, which has theoretically two origins : deep mass transfers around the site and vertical movements of the station. The latter can be well constrained by permanent GPS stations located close to the measurement pillar. Deep mass transfers, on the contrary, must be evaluated by modelling. Relative gravity, despite lower accuracy, enable us to cover wider area (about 10 000 km2). Our interest is thus to merge both types of measurements to have a large overview of temporal g changes in the south of Taiwan.

  14. Modern sedimentation and sediment dispersal pattern off southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Sheng-Ting; Su, Chih-Chieh; Tsai, Po-Hsuan; Cheng, Yiya

    2015-04-01

    Taiwan is located at the collision zone between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea Plates and also on the Western North Pacific corridor of typhoons. Every year, three to four typhoons will invaded Taiwan and brought heavy rainfall. The active tectonic setting and climatic conditions create the extremely high sediment yield and export to the ocean. Our study area is located offshore southwestern Taiwan which is mainly composed of a narrow Gaoping Shelf and broad Gaoping Slope. Four major submarine canyons, the Shoshan Submarine Canyon, Kaohsiung Submarine Canyon, Gaoping Submarine Canyon, and Fangliao Submarine Canyon, extended into deep sea, through Penghu Submarine Canyon and subsequently merged into north terminus of Manila Trench. Over 50 box and gravity cores were collected by using R/V Ocean Research 1, 3 and 5 from 2005 to 2014. The cores were split and conducted core description and surface photographs at the Core Laboratory of the Taiwan Ocean Research Institute (TORI). The following analyses, including X-radiography, bulk density, particle size, Pb-210 chronology, were accomplished at the Marine Radioactivity and Sedimentology Lab at the Institute of Oceanography, National Taiwan University. The grain size analysis result shows a finer trend from coastal to deep water , except for the lower Fangliao basin which the grain size is larger than the expected value. According to the previous studies on the Pingtung Earthquake induced submarine geohazard, the Fangliao Submarine Canyon and the Lower Fangliao Basin is an important conduit for gravity flow which triggered large scale submarine cable breakages and left coarse sediments on the passage. By using the excess Pb-210 derived sediment accumulation rates, Huh et al. (2009) suggested the depocenter off the southwestern Taiwan is located at the flank of the Gaoping Canyon over the upper slope with the highest rate >1 cm/yr. In this study we integrate the Pb-210 inventory data which covered the area from the Fangliao Submarine Canyon to the Tsengwen River mouth and discovered besides the depocenter which proposed by Huh et al. (2009), the Lower Fangliao Basin is another main depocenter off southwestern Taiwan.

  15. Anharmonicity in nuclear wobbling motion

    SciTech Connect

    Oi, M.

    2007-09-15

    An unexpected strong anharmonicity was observed in the wobbling spectrum in {sup 163}Lu. In an attempt to understand what causes the deviation from the original wobbling model by Bohr and Mottelson, an analysis is presented using several different approaches, such as exact diagonalization, a semiclassical model to deal with anharmonic wobbling motion, and a microscopic method based on the self-consistent cranking calculation.

  16. Carbapenem-Nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jann-Tay; Wu, Un-In; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling Yang; Chen, Mei-Chen; Li, Shu-Ying; Hsu, Le-Yin; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2015-01-01

    A total of 1135 carbapenem-resistant (nonsusceptible) Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) isolates were recovered between November 2010 and July 2012 (517 from 2010-2011 and 618 from 2012) from 4 hospitals in Taiwan. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) comprised 5.0% (57 isolates), including 17 KPC-2 (16 Klebsiella pneumoniae and 1 Escherichia coli), 1 NDM-1 (K. oxytoca), 37 IMP-8 (26 Enterobacter cloacae, 4 Citrobacter freundii, 4 Raoultella planticola, 1 K. pneumoniae, 1 E. coli and 1 K. oxytoca), and 2 VIM-1 (1 E. cloacae, 1 E. coli). The KPC-2-positive K. pneumoniae were highly clonal even in isolates from different hospitals, and all were ST11. IMP-8 positive E. cloacae from the same hospitals showed higher similarity in PFGE pattern than those from different hospitals. A total of 518 CRE isolates (45.6%) were positive for blaESBL, while 704 (62.0%) isolates were blaAmpC-positive, 382 (33.6% overall) of which carried both blaESBL and blaAmpC. CTX-M (414, 80.0%) was the most common blaESBL, while DHA (497, 70.6%) and CMY (157, 22.3%) were the most common blaAmpC. Co-carriage of blaESBL and blaAmpC was detected in 31 (54.4%) and 15 (26.3%) of the 57 CPE, respectively. KPC-2 was the most common carbapenemase detected in K. pneumoniae (2.8%), while IMP-8 was the most common in E. cloacae (9.7%). All KPC-2-positive CRE were resistant to all three tested carbapenems. However, fourteen of the 37 IMP-8-positive CRE were susceptible to both imipenem and meropenem in vitro. Intra- and inter-hospital spread of KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae and IMP-8-producing E. cloacae likely occurred. Although the prevalence of CPE is still low, careful monitoring is urgently needed. Non-susceptibility to ertapenem might need to be considered as one criterion of definition for CRE in areas where IMP type carbapenemase is prevalent. PMID:25794144

  17. Crustal deformation in the Taiwan plate boundary zone revealed by GPS observations, seismicity, and earthquake focal mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Y.; Yu, S.; Simons, M.; Kuo, L.; Chen, H.

    2008-12-01

    We use GPS-derived surface velocities, seismicity, as well as estimates of earthquake focal mechanisms from the time period before the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake to evaluate spatial variations of surface strain rate and crustal stress regime in the Taiwan plate boundary zone. We estimate strain rates with a new but simple approach that solves for surface velocity on a rectangular grid while accounting for the distance between observations and each grid node and the impact of a spatially variable density of observations. This approach provides stable and interpretable strain-rate estimates. In addition, we perform a stress tensor inversion using earthquake focal mechanisms determined by P waves first-motion polarities. Our estimates of the principal orientations of two-dimensional surface strain rate tensor generally agree with the inferred orientations of the stress axes. This agreement suggests that large scale variation of stress orientations from the surface to the seismogenic crust is insignificant and the predicted faulting style is consistent with stress buildup during the interseismic period. We find that the geometric configuration of the Chinese continental margin alone can not fully explain the distribution of maximum contraction and compressive axes in Taiwan. Distribution of seismicity and focal mechanisms before and after the Chi-Chi mainshock suggest that the maximum principal stress axis is vertically-oriented in the Central Range; in contrast to the horizontal maximum principal stress axis in western Taiwan and the Longitudinal Valley. Extension in the Central Range reflects the consequence of exhumation and crustal thickening; while that in the southern Central Range may result from eastward subduction of the South China Sea block underneath the Philippine Sea Plate.

  18. 2015 guidelines of the Taiwan Society of Cardiology and the Taiwan Hypertension Society for the management of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chern-En; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Ueng, Kwo-Chang; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Yeh, Hung-I; Chen, Chung-Yin; Wu, Yih-Jer; Tsai, Wei-Chuan; Chao, Ting-Hsing; Chen, Chen-Huan; Chu, Pao-Hsien; Chao, Chia-Lun; Liu, Ping-Yen; Sung, Shih-Hsien; Cheng, Hao-Min; Wang, Kang-Ling; Li, Yi-Heng; Chiang, Fu-Tien; Chen, Jyh-Hong; Chen, Wen-Jone; Yeh, San-Jou; Lin, Shing-Jong

    2015-01-01

    It has been almost 5 years since the publication of the 2010 hypertension guidelines of the Taiwan Society of Cardiology (TSOC). There is new evidence regarding the management of hypertension, including randomized controlled trials, non-randomized trials, post-hoc analyses, subgroup analyses, retrospective studies, cohort studies, and registries. More recently, the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) published joint hypertension guidelines in 2013. The panel members who were appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC) also published the 2014 JNC report. Blood pressure (BP) targets have been changed; in particular, such targets have been loosened in high risk patients. The Executive Board members of TSOC and the Taiwan Hypertension Society (THS) aimed to review updated information about the management of hypertension to publish an updated hypertension guideline in Taiwan. We recognized that hypertension is the most important risk factor for global disease burden. Management of hypertension is especially important in Asia where the prevalence rate grows faster than other parts of the world. In most countries in East Asia, stroke surpassed coronary heart disease (CHD) in causing premature death. A diagnostic algorithm was proposed, emphasizing the importance of home BP monitoring and ambulatory BP monitoring for better detection of night time hypertension, early morning hypertension, white-coat hypertension, and masked hypertension. We disagreed with the ESH/ESH joint hypertension guidelines suggestion to loosen BP targets to <140/90 mmHg for all patients. We strongly disagree with the suggestion by the 2014 JNC report to raise the BP target to <150/90 mmHg for patients between 60-80 years of age. For patients with diabetes, CHD, chronic kidney disease who have proteinuria, and those who are receiving antithrombotic therapy for stroke prevention, we propose BP targets of <130/80 mmHg in our guidelines. BP targets are <140/90 mmHg for all other patient groups, except for patients ?80 years of age in whom a BP target of <150/90 mmHg would be optimal. For the management of hypertension, we proposed a treatment algorithm, starting with life style modification (LSM) including S-ABCDE (Sodium restriction, Alcohol limitation, Body weight reduction, Cigarette smoke cessation, Diet adaptation, and Exercise adoption). We emphasized a low-salt strategy instead of a no-salt strategy, and that excessively aggressive sodium restriction to <2.0 gram/day may be harmful. When drug therapy is considered, a strategy called "PROCEED" was suggested (Previous experience, Risk factors, Organ damage, Contraindications or unfavorable conditions, Expert's or doctor's judgment, Expenses or cost, and Delivery and compliance issue). To predict drug effects in lowering BP, we proposed the "Rule of 10" and "Rule of 5". With a standard dose of any one of the 5 major classes of anti-hypertensive agents, one can anticipate approximately a 10-mmHg decrease in systolic BP (SBP) (Rule of 10) and a 5-mmHg decrease in diastolic BP (DBP) (Rule of 5). When doses of the same drug are doubled, there is only a 2-mmHg incremental decrease in SBP and a 1-mmHg incremental decrease in DBP. Preferably, when 2 drugs with different mechanisms are to be taken together, the decrease in BP is the sum of the decrease of the individual agents (approximately 20 mmHg in SBP and 10 mmHg in DBP). Early combination therapy, especially single-pill combination (SPC), is recommended. When patient's initial treatment cannot get BP to targeted goals, we have proposed an adjustment algorithm, "AT GOALs" (Adherence, Timing of administration, Greater doses, Other classes of drugs, Alternative combination or SPC, and LSM + Laboratory tests). Treatment of hypertension in special conditions, including treatment of resistant hypertension, hypertension in women, and perioperative management of hypertension, were also mentioned. The TSOC/THS hypertension guidelines pro

  19. Seismic Velocity Anomalies beneath Tatun Volcano Group, Northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tzu-yu; Lin, Cheng-Horng; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Chang, Li-Chin

    2015-04-01

    Volcanic eruption has been a natural disaster for human society. Taiwan is located in the Pacific Ring of Fire. Although there is no obvious phenomenon of volcanic activity in Taiwan, some volcanoes need to be monitored, especially the Tatun Volcano Group (TVG), which exhibits very active hydrothermal activity, is located on the tip of southwestern Ryukyu arc. TVG is about 15 km north to Taipei, capital of Taiwan, and is nearby two nuclear power plants along the northern coast of Taiwan. If TVG erupts, there must be a serious impact and damage to Taiwan. Since TVG is located within the Yangmingshan National Park, any artificial seismic source is not allowed to estimate possible eruption site and the degree of volcanic disaster. Instead, we use natural seismic waves generated by earthquakes to image the possible velocity anomaly of magma chamber and/or hydrothermal system beneath TVG. We systematically compare the differences of arrival times generated by some local earthquakes and recorded at 42 seismic stations in 2014 for finding any low-velocity zone within the crust. The results show that the arrival times always appeared significant delay at some particular seismic stations, such as Chi-Hsin-Shan (CHS), Siao-You-Keng (SYK) and some other stations at TVG, no matter where the earthquakes occurred. It implies that possible low-velocity zones, which could be the location of magma chamber and/or active hydrothermal system, exist beneath the CHS and SYK areas. This feature is generally consistent with the clustered micro-earthquakes in the shallow crust beneath the CHS area in the last decade.

  20. Infant Cancer in Taiwan: Incidence and Trends (1995-2009)

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Giun-Yi; Horng, Jiun-Lin; Yen, Hsiu-Ju; Lee, Chih-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Background Current information about cancer incidence patterns among infants in East Asia is rare. The objective of this study was to report the first population-based cancer surveillance of infants in Taiwan. Methods Cancer frequencies and incidence rates among subjects aged <1 year for the period 1995-2009 were obtained from the Taiwan Cancer Registry. Types of cancers were grouped according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer. Rates and trends were analyzed by sex and disease groups and further compared with that of other countries. Results A total of 900 infants were diagnosed with cancers, giving an incidence rate of 250.7 per million person-years from 1995 to 2009. The male-to-female incidence rate ratio was 1.22. Overall, leukemias (56.3 per million) were the most common cancer, followed by germ cell neoplasms (43.2) and neuroblastomas (41.8). The incidence increased by 2.5% annually during the 15-year study period and was predominantly contributed by male infants (3.5%). Compared with other countries, the rate of hepatoblastoma in Taiwan was second to that from Beijing (China) and 2 to 5 times greater compared with the US, France, the North of England and Osaka (Japan). The rates of germ cell neoplasms were 2 to 4 times greater in Taiwan. Conclusions The current data suggests that cancer incidence rate among male infants was rising in Taiwan. The factors associated with higher rates of hepatoblastoma and germ cell neoplasms warrant further investigation on similar ethnic groups of different areas to elucidate the potential environmental impacts while controlling for race. PMID:26110595

  1. Music Education Reform in Taiwan: Beginning Music Teachers' Perceptions of Their Teacher Preparation at National Taiwan Normal University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Ling-I.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate beginning music teachers' perceptions of their music teacher preparation at National Taiwan Normal University (NTNU) regarding the Arts and Humanities field of the Grade 1-9 Curriculum. Research questions focused on discovering the most and least effective components of undergraduate training at NTNU,…

  2. LABORATORY IV CIRCULAR MOTION

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Lab IV - 1 LABORATORY IV CIRCULAR MOTION The problems in this laboratory will help you investigate objects moving in uniform circular motion. This is the same motion that describes satellites in orbit around the earth, or objects whirled around on a rope. Circular motion can be explained with the same

  3. Visit of the Delegation of University System of Taiwan The Library was honored to receive a delegation of the University System of Taiwan (UST) on 27

    E-print Network

    Po, Lai-Man

    Visit of the Delegation of University System of Taiwan The Library was honored to receive a delegation of the University System of Taiwan (UST) on 27 May 2013. UST is a research-focused alliance, National Yang Ming University, and National Central University. The system aims to enhance the quality

  4. Impact of Excellence Programs on Taiwan Higher Education in Terms of Quality Assurance and Academic Excellence, Examining the Conflicting Role of Taiwan's Accrediting Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Angela Yung-chi

    2012-01-01

    Higher Education Evaluation & Accreditation Council of Taiwan (HEEACT) was established in 2005 and began to accredit 76 four-year comprehensive universities and colleges in Taiwan in 2006. Commissioned officially with a dual mission, HEEACT has been encouraged to conduct various ranking research projects, including global and national ones…

  5. Estimations of the S-wave velocity structures in Chia-Yi City, Taiwan, using the array records of microtremors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H.-C.; Wu, C.-F.

    2006-11-01

    Shear-wave velocities (VS) have been widely used for the site characterization of earthquake ground motion. We report here our investigation of the S-wave velocity structures of Chia-Yi City, Taiwan using the array records of microtremors at seven sites. The dispersion curves at these sites were first calculated using the F-K method proposed by Capon (1969); the S-wave velocity structures in Chia-Yi City were then estimated by employing the surface wave inversion technique (Herrmann, 1991). At frequencies lower than about 1 Hz, the propagation directions are concentrated in the northwest and southwest quadrants. The generation of these may be attributed to the ocean waves of the Taiwan Strait. The harder site (CBA) has higher phase velocities, while the softer sites (CWB, SHP and YRU) have lower phase velocities, especially at frequencies between 1 and 5 Hz. The shallow velocity structures (0-1,500 m) can be roughly divided into four to five layers. The depth of the alluvium gradually increases from east to west and from north to south.

  6. Seismic Site Effects from the Seafloor Motion Recorded by the Short-period Ocean Bottom Seismometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J. Y.; Cheng, W. B.; Chin, S. J.; Hsu, S. K.; Dong, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    For decades, it has been mentioned that submarine slope failures are spatially linked to the presence of gas hydrates/gas-charged sediments. When triggered by earthquakes, oversteepen and instable sediments may prompt breakouts of the slopes containing gas hydrates and cause submarine landslides and tsunamis. Widely distributed BSRs have been observed in the area offshore of southwestern Taiwan where the active accretionary complex meets with the passive China continental margin. In the region, large or small scale landslides were also reported based on seismic interpretations. In order to clarify the link between earthquake, landslide and the presence of gas hydrate, we evaluate the response of seafloor sediments in regard to passive dynamic loads. Horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) spectral ratios are used to characterize the local sediment response. Ambient noise as well as distant earthquakes are used as generators of the passive dynamic loads. Based on this study, we aim to characterize the site in terms of its physical properties and the local site effect produced by shallow marine sediments. The results show that the maximum H/V ratios appeared in the range of 5-10 Hz, where the horizontal amplitudes increased by an order of magnitude relative to the vertical amplitude. The stations located in the northwestern part of study area were characterized by another relatively small peak at proximately 2 Hz, which may indicates the presence of a discontinuity of sediments. For most stations, the H/V ratios estimated based on the earthquake (i.e. strong input signal) and noise (background, micro-seismic noise) records were characterized by different pattern. No distinct peak is observed for the H/V pattern calculated during earthquakes. This phenomenon may suggest that no clear sedimentary boundary exist when a stronger motion applies. Estimating H/V spectral ratios of data recorded by the seven short period OBSs (Ocean Bottom Seismometer) deployed in the southwest Taiwan offshore area in April 2014 offers a general understanding of the preferential vibration modes of soft sediment systems. By comparing the resonance characteristics of each sites and the gas hydrate distribution, we hope to provide precious information for the designing of marine structures such as oil drilling and production platforms.

  7. Wave-induced motion of magnetic spheres

    E-print Network

    Gissinger, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    We report an experimental study of the motion of magnetized beads driven by a travelling wave magnetic field. For sufficiently large wave speed, we report the existence of a backward motion, in which the sphere can move in the direction opposite to the driving wave. We show that the transition to this new state is strongly subcritical and can lead to chaotic motion of the bead. For some parameters, this counter-propagation of the sphere can be one order of magnitude faster than the driving wave speed. These results are understood in the framework of a model based on the interplay among solid friction, air resistance and magnetic torque.

  8. Geomorphic Responses to Check-Dam Removal on a Steep Mountain River in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. W.; Kuo, W. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Chijiawan creek, located in the mountains of Central Taiwan with a strongly seasonal hydrology, high discharge and sediment yields, is the only habitat in Taiwan of the endangered Formosan landlocked salmon. The 13-m-high No. 1 Check Dam was the largest and lowermost barrier on Chijiawan creek built in 1972. After forty years, the dam had 4-m scouring holes below its foundation, raising a significant risk of dam failure. Due to the safety concern and habitat restoration, the Shei-Pa National Park removed the dam in late May 2011. This paper documents the channel evolution after its removal by focusing on understanding the geomorphic responses to sediment processes and complexities of hydrological processes. We collected the hourly discharge data of a Taipower gaging station located 6.8 km from the dam from 2010 to 2013 and conducted surveys of grain size distributions, cross-sectional and longitudinal profiles, and carried out repeat photography. One month after dam removal, a one-year event (Typhoon Meari) excavated a wedge of sediment from the impoundment. The knickpoint migrated to 200 m upstream from the dam and about 20,000 m3 of sediment had eroded from the reservoir. The profile remained pretty much unchanged until a year after in June 2012. Following a 20-year event (Typhoon Saola) in August 2012, the highest flow after dam removal to present, the channel significantly changed and the knickpoint migrated to 800 m upstream to the dam. The cumulative eroded amount increased to 150,000 m3, about three-thirds of the former impounded sediment. After a 5-year event (Typhoon Soulik) later on in July 2013, the knickpoint did not show much difference and the eroded amount of impounded sediment only increased 10,000 m3. However, the surveyed cross-sections showed obvious channel form changes and thalweg migration. It is likely that the entire bed was mobilized during the earlier high flows (Typhoon Saola), resulting in more easily mobilized bed material. As many dams in Taiwan are located in steep mountainous area with highly variable hydrologic condition, we anticipate the observations will help enhancing future similar dam removal projects.

  9. Influenza A(H6N1) Virus in Dogs, Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hui-Ting; Wang, Ching-Ho; Chueh, Ling-Ling; Su, Bi-Ling

    2015-01-01

    We determined the prevalence of influenza A virus in dogs in Taiwan and isolated A/canine/Taiwan/E01/2014. Molecular analysis indicated that this isolate was closely related to influenza A(H6N1) viruses circulating in Taiwan and harbored the E627K substitution in the polymerase basic 2 protein, which indicated its ability to replicate in mammalian species. PMID:26583707

  10. Influenza A(H6N1) Virus in Dogs, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Ting; Wang, Ching-Ho; Chueh, Ling-Ling; Su, Bi-Ling; Wang, Lih-Chiann

    2015-12-01

    We determined the prevalence of influenza A virus in dogs in Taiwan and isolated A/canine/Taiwan/E01/2014. Molecular analysis indicated that this isolate was closely related to influenza A(H6N1) viruses circulating in Taiwan and harbored the E627K substitution in the polymerase basic 2 protein, which indicated its ability to replicate in mammalian species. PMID:26583707

  11. Optically Stimulated Luminescence dating of deposits from the Tachia river catchment (Taiwan) - a test for suitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüthgens, Christopher; Wenske, Dirk; Tsukamoto, Sumiko; Böse, Margot; Frechen, Manfred

    2010-05-01

    In the course of different field campaigns samples from the Tachia river catchment (high mountains of Taiwan) were collected for Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating. The 515 km² upper catchment area of Tachia river shows elevations from 1400 m at the Deji-Reservoir to over 3800 m in the summit areas of Hsueh Shan and Nanhuta Shan. Sediments were collected from different depositional environments, such as fluvial terraces, the recent riverbed at Sung Mao, and from the Jia Yang alluvial fan. The latter is located at the lower limit of a tributary of the Tachia River draining the Jia Yang Shan summit area. Despite its relatively small size of about 11 km² the material originating from this sub-catchment has built up an alluvial fan of remarkable dimensions. The transport distance between the summit area and the alluvial fan is roughly 6 km spanning a height difference from 3306 m to 1480 m asl. The lowest parts of the fan nowadays lie below the water lever of the Deji Reservoir. The recent riverbed samples from Sung Mao turned out to contain only minimal fractions of quartz and feldspar at all, and therefore were not suitable for luminescence dating techniques. Nevertheless, this highlights the strong dependency of the suitability of sediments from the high mountains of Taiwan for luminescence dating on the geological conditions within different catchments or even sub-catchments. The samples from the Jia Jang alluvial fan on the opposite contained enough quartz for OSL dating. After the extraction of the quartz, a series of test measurements including preheat tests and dose recovery tests were conducted in order to ensure the suitability of the quartz for optical dating. In a second step the bleaching characteristics of the sediments were analyzed, as incomplete bleaching is likely to occur in sediments related to hill slope processes and mass movements. First results of these analyses will be presented at the meeting.

  12. The structure and kinematics of the central Taiwan mountain belt derived from geological and seismicity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D.; Alvarez-Marron, J.; Schimmel, M.; Wu, Y.-M.; Camanni, G.

    2012-10-01

    The structure of the Taiwan mountain belt is thought to be that of an imbricate thrust and fold belt developed in a forward breaking sequence above a shallowly dipping basal detachment. In recent years, however, a growing amount of seismicity data from the internal part of the mountain belt indicates the existence of widespread fault activity in the middle and lower crust, suggesting that deeper levels of the crust must be involved in the deformation than predicted by the shallow detachment, imbricate thrust belt model. To address this issue, we present new geological mapping, together with earthquake focal mechanism and seismic energy release data from the central part of Taiwan. We concur with the interpretation that the foreland basin part of the Western Foothills comprises an imbricate thrust system that is developing as a forward breaking sequence that is structurally and kinematically linked to a basal detachment at between 7 and 10 km depth. To the east of the foreland basin, however, in the Hsuehshan and Central Ranges, our data show the presence of two fault systems. An earlier, inactive thrust system with a well-developed cleavage is cut by a system of steeply dipping active faults that penetrate to a depth of 25 to 30 km or more. In the Hsuehshan Range, the second fault system is best represented by a structural and kinematic model in which this part of the mountain belt forms a zone of transpression with a structural architecture similar to that of a crustal-scale positive flower structure. Eastward, in the Central Range, Mesozoic basement rocks are over thrusting strongly folded and cleaved deep water sediments of the first, now inactive, thrust system. The involvement of deep crustal levels and Mesozoic basement in the second fault system is suggestive of the reactivation of preexisting basin-bounding faults that were located on the Eurasian continental margin.

  13. Aerosol characteristics from the Taiwan aerosol supersite in the Asian yellow-dust periods of 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chung-Te; Chuang, Ming-Tung; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Cheng, Tsun-Jen; Huang, Song-Lih

    The occurrence of Asian dust storms, and the subsequent transport of yellow dust (YD) greatly influences the air quality of lee-side countries such as Korea and Japan. The dust is also frequently transported in a southward direction by a strong cold high-pressure system that affects the air quality in Taiwan. This study reports the aerosol properties that were monitored continuously at the Taiwan aerosol supersite during YD events in 2002. Based on the observations of meteorology and aerosols, we divided the time interval of a YD event into a before period, during period, and after period. Among the seven observed YD events, the second event was marked with the maximum hourly PM 10 level at 502 ?g m -3, and with the longest during period for a total of 147 h. The averages of the hourly PM 10 and PM 2.5-10 were much higher in the during period as compared to those in the before period. It is interesting to note that the time lapse in the during period was well correlated with the maximum level of both PM 10 and PM 2.5-10. It must be noted that the PM 2.5 levels were dramatically increased in the after period, which was due to the accumulation of particles influenced by the anticyclonic outflow. The aerosol size distribution in the third YD event verified that supermicron particles dominated in the during period, and that submicron particles were predominant in the before and after periods. For the chemical properties of the aerosols, time series results indicated that sulfates were mostly contributed by the dust transport, and the others were more related to vehicle exhausts. However, they all accumulated in the period of atmospheric stagnancy.

  14. Regulation of Cell and Gene Therapy Medicinal Products in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Chu; Wang, Po-Yu; Tsai, Shih-Chih; Lin, Chien-Liang; Tai, Hsuen-Yung; Lo, Chi-Fang; Wu, Shiow-Ing; Chiang, Yu-Mei; Liu, Li-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the rapid and mature development of emerging biotechnology in the fields of cell culture, cell preservation, and recombinant DNA technology, more and more cell or gene medicinal therapy products have been approved for marketing, to treat serious diseases which have been challenging to treat with current medical practice or medicine. This chapter will briefly introduce the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration (TFDA) and elaborate regulation of cell and gene therapy medicinal products in Taiwan, including regulatory history evolution, current regulatory framework, application and review procedures, and relevant jurisdictional issues. Under the promise of quality, safety, and efficacy of medicinal products, it is expected the regulation and environment will be more flexible, streamlining the process of the marketing approval of new emerging cell or gene therapy medicinal products and providing diverse treatment options for physicians and patients. PMID:26374219

  15. Unique macrocycles in the Taiwan traditional Chinese medicine database.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Christian; Podewitz, Maren; Ertl, Peter; Liedl, Klaus R

    2015-04-01

    Chemical space coverage within natural product databases is an important criterion for the selection of databases for virtual screening. Chemical space analysis can also provide valuable hints towards chemical substructures that are responsible for medical activity. We therefore developed a protocol for structurally characterizing the chemical space covered in specific natural product databases by comparing it to a "standard" natural product scaffold distribution. In this contribution, we analyzed the structural characteristics of the traditional Chinese medicine database@Taiwan as an example. While we did not find classes of very characteristic small molecule scaffolds, we found that there are a number of specific macrocyclic scaffolds that are highly enriched in the traditional Chinese medicine database@Taiwan and not documented elsewhere. This surprising finding points towards underused regions in chemical space with a big potential for biological impact. PMID:25856438

  16. CPTAC Establishes Formal Relationships with Two Academic Institutions in Taiwan - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute's Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) has entered into memorandum of understandings (MOUs) with Chang Gung University and Academia Sinica, in Taipei, Taiwan.

  17. Seismic Migration Imaging of the Crust and Upper Mantle Discontinuity Structure beneath Southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.-S.; Kuo, B.-Y.

    2009-04-01

    Taiwan is located in the convergent plate boundary zone where the Philippine Sea plate has obliquely collided on the Asian continental margin, initiating the arc-continent collision and subsequent mountain-building in Taiwan. Receiver function has been a powerful tool to image seismic velocity discontinuity structure in the crust and upper mantle which can help illuminate the deep dynamic process of active Taiwan orogeny. In this study, we adopt backprojection migration processing of teleseismic receiver functions to investigate the crust and upper mantle discontinuities beneath southern Taiwan, using the data from Southern Taiwan Transect Seismic Array (STTA), broadband stations of Central Weather Bureau (CWB), Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology (BATS), and Taiwan Integrated Geodynamics Research (TAIGER). This composite east-west trending linear array has the aperture of about 150 km with the station spacing of ~5-10 km. Superior to the common midpoint (CMP) stack approach, the migration can properly image the dipping, curved, or laterally-varying topography of discontinuous interfaces which very likely exist under the complicated tectonic setting of Taiwan. We first conduct synthetic experiments to test the depth and lateral resolution of migration images based on the WKBJ synthetic waveforms calculated from available source and receiver distributions. We will next construct the 2-D migration image under the array to reveal the topographic variation of the Moho and lithosphere discontinuities beneath southern Taiwan.

  18. Active faulting and earthquake hazard: The case study of the Chihshang Fault, Taiwan

    E-print Network

    Lee, Jian-Cheng

    Active faulting and earthquake hazard: The case study of the Chihshang Fault, Taiwan Jacques forthcoming locking stages, which would increase earthquake hazard. # 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights

  19. Team care of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Yuan; Yu, Neng-Chun; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng; Tsai, Shih-Tzer; Tai, Tong-Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global health-care and national policy issue. As fluctuating glycemic control in diabetes often results in serious complications, we must encourage the diabetes educators' efforts at long-term follow-up among patients with T2DM. Therefore, certified diabetes educators (CDEs) play the most pivotal roles as life-long protectors for patients with T2DM. In the past 15 years, more than 4,000 CDEs have been trained and qualified, including health professionals such as physicians, nurses, dieticians, and pharmacists. The most important initiation of diabetes share care in Taiwan was originated in I-Lan County. Initiated to provide regional diabetes care, the name of this program is the Lan-Yang Diabetes Shared Care System. In 2006, the Taiwanese Association of Diabetes Educators (TADE) carried out a nationwide survey to evaluate the status of diabetes control in Taiwan, focusing on the "ABC" goal (A: HbA1c <7.0%, B: blood pressure <130/80 mmHg, C: LDL-cholesterol <100 mg/dl/total cholesterol <160 mg/dl). The results revealed that the percentage of patients with diabetes who fulfilled all ABC goals was only 4.1%. Five years later, in 2011, TADE compared two nationwide surveys and found total ABC attainment rates of 4.1% and 8.6%, respectively. The team-care approach to T2DM has been underway for over 20 years in Taiwan. Future interventions and treatment algorithms with team-based education should aim at preventing acute and chronic complications, which remains a long-term challenge in Taiwan. PMID:25550059

  20. Emergence of OXA-48-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ling; Wang, Jann-Tay; Wu, Tsu-Lan; Siu, L Kristopher; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Lin, Jung-Chung; Lu, Min-Chi; Lu, Po-Liang

    2015-01-01

    The isolation of OXA-48-producing Enterobacteriaceae has increased dramatically in Mediterranean countries in the past 10 years, and has recently emerged in Asia. Between January 2012 and May 2014, a total of 760 carbapenem non-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae (CnSKP) isolates were collected during a Taiwan national surveillance. Carbapenemases were detected in 210 CnSKP isolates (27.6%), including 162 KPC-2 (n = 1), KPC-3, KPC-17, and NDM-1 (n = 1 each), OXA-48 (n = 4), IMP-8 (n = 18), and VIM-1 (n = 24). The four blaOXA-48 CnSKP isolates were detected in late 2013. Herein we report the emergence OXA-48-producing K. pneumoniae isolates in Taiwan. PFGE analysis revealed that the four isolates belonged to three different pulsotypes. Three isolates harboured blaCTX-M genes and belonged to MLST type ST11. In addition, the plasmids belonged to the incompatibility group, IncA/C. One isolate belonged to ST116 and the plasmid incompatibility group was non-typeable. The sequence upstream of the blaOXA-48 gene in all four isolates was identical to pKPOXA-48N1, a blaOXA-48-carrying plasmid. This is the first report of OXA-48-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Taiwan and the second report to identify blaOXA-48 on an IncA/C plasmid in K. pneumoniae. Given that three isolates belong to the same pandemic clone (ST11) and possess the IncA/C plasmid and similar plasmid digestion profile that indicated the role of clonal spread or plasmid for dissemination of blaOXA-48 gene, the emergence of OXA-48-producing K. pneumoniae in Taiwan is of great concern. PMID:26414183

  1. Topographic analysis of submarine cable failures offshore southwestern taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsia, Pei Cheng; Shine Liu, Char; Hsu, Ho Han

    2013-04-01

    In 2006, there was large scale of the submarine cable failures offshore southern Taiwan right after the Pingtung Earthquake. Apparently the December 26 Pingtung Earthquake triggered submarine mass movements which generated turbidity currents in the submarine canyons and damaged cables lying across the canyons. In addition, the Typhoon Morakot on August 8-9, 2009 and the Jiashian Earthquake on March 4, 2010 also caused many submarine cable failures offshore southwestern Taiwan. The most of broken cable sites are along the axis of the Gaoping Submarine Canyon (GPSC) and Fangliao Submarine Canyon (FLSC), topography should be an important factor controlling transport processes of submarine mass movement. The cable broken sites indicate that there were submarine mass movement pass through. Therefore, the topographic factor of the cable broken sites can be the threshold to index submarine mass movement. And as, submarine cables are distributed widely offshore southwestern Taiwan, why only a total of 35 sites of submarine cable failures occurred in 2006, 2009 and 2010? We use bathymetry data, CHIRP (compressed high-intensity radar pulse) sonar profile data and the time series of the cable breakage to investigate the characteristics of submarine mass movement and to develop a model for the series of submarine cable failure. Using the Geographic Information System (GIS) software, we analyze the bathymetric data collected before the 35 sites of submarine cable failures offshore southwestern Taiwan. Applying the hydrology in GIS software, the flow movement could be derived from the factors of slope and aspect. We quantify the transport process of submarine mass movement and combine with the time series of the cable breakage to discuss the effect between submarine cable failures. Based on the CHIRP sonar data, we identified the distinct CHIRP echo character patterns after the submarine cable failures and classify the distinct CHIRP echo characters. Using the threshold of topographic factor to expect where will be potential area of submarine mass movement and evidence the result by CHIRP sonar profile data.

  2. Tuberculosis in Healthcare Workers: A Matched Cohort Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Sung-Ching; Chen, Yee-Chun; Wang, Jann-Yuan; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Lin, Hsien-Ho; Fang, Chi-Tai; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2015-01-01

    Background Proportional mortality ratio data indicate that healthcare workers (HCWs) have an elevated tuberculosis (TB) mortality. Whether this is caused by an increased TB incidence, a worse TB treatment outcome, or a combination of effects, remains unclear. To elucidate the hazard components of occupational TB, we assessed TB incidence and TB treatment outcome among HCWs in Taiwan. Methods We compared the incidence of active TB among HCWs at a major medical center in Taiwan with that of Taiwan general population in 2004–2012. We also compared the TB treatment outcome of HCWs with that of age/sex-matched non-HCW patients treated at the same hospital, as well as that of nationally registered TB patients. Results The standardized TB incidence ratio of the HCWs was 1.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2–2.9), compared with the general population. HCWs with pulmonary TB (n = 30) were less likely to have underlying diseases, delay in diagnosis, delay in treatment, or side effects of treatment, compared with age/sex-matched non-HCW TB patients (n = 120) (all Ps<0.05). The TB treatment outcome of HCWs was significantly better than that of non-HCW patients (TB-related mortality: 0.0% vs. 5.8%, P = 0.008, Mantel-Haenszel test). The standardized TB-related mortality rate was 1.08% [95% CI: 0.96% - 1.20%] for all of the nationally registered TB patients in Taiwan. Conclusions HCWs are at increased risk of active TB, compared with general population. To mitigate this occupational hazard, more efforts need to be directed towards the prevention of nosocomial TB transmission. Healthy worker effect, more rapid diagnosis, and less delay in treatment contribute to a lower TB-related mortality in HCWs. PMID:26679188

  3. Effects of heat on workers' health and productivity in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ro-Ting; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2009-01-01

    Background The impact of global warming on population health is a growing concern and has been widely discussed. The issue of heat stress disorders and consequent productivity reduction among workers has not yet been widely addressed. Taiwan is an island straddling the Tropic of Cancer in the West Pacific and has both subtropical and tropical climates. As of 2008, the economy of Taiwan accounts for 1.1% of the world gross domestic product at purchasing power parity and is listed as 19th in the world and eighth in Asia, according to International Monetary Fund data. Objective The aim of this paper is to identify occupations at risk and the potential health impacts of heat on workers in Taiwan. Design Historical data relating to meteorology, population, the labour force and economy were obtained from publicly available databases from the Taiwanese government. Results Hot seasons with an average maximum temperature above 30°C and relative humidity above 74%, lasting for four to six months from May to October, pose health threats to construction, farming and fishery workers. In particular, populations of ageing farmers and physically overloaded construction workers are the two most vulnerable worker categories in which high temperature impacts on health and productivity. Conclusions Currently, regulations and preventive actions for heat relief are difficult to enforce for several reasons, including lack of equipment for measuring environmental conditions, lack of awareness of potential hazards and strict time constraints imposed on workers. There is an urgent need to systematically and comprehensively assess the impact of a warming climate on workers’ health and productivity to provide effective prevention strategies for a better working and living environment in Taiwan. PMID:20052376

  4. Emergence of OXA-48-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ling; Wang, Jann-Tay; Wu, Tsu-Lan; Siu, L. Kristopher; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Lin, Jung-Chung; Lu, Min-Chi; Lu, Po-Liang

    2015-01-01

    The isolation of OXA-48-producing Enterobacteriaceae has increased dramatically in Mediterranean countries in the past 10 years, and has recently emerged in Asia. Between January 2012 and May 2014, a total of 760 carbapenem non-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae (CnSKP) isolates were collected during a Taiwan national surveillance. Carbapenemases were detected in 210 CnSKP isolates (27.6%), including 162 KPC-2 (n = 1), KPC-3, KPC-17, and NDM-1 (n = 1 each), OXA-48 (n = 4), IMP-8 (n = 18), and VIM-1 (n = 24). The four blaOXA-48 CnSKP isolates were detected in late 2013. Herein we report the emergence OXA-48-producing K. pneumoniae isolates in Taiwan. PFGE analysis revealed that the four isolates belonged to three different pulsotypes. Three isolates harboured blaCTX-M genes and belonged to MLST type ST11. In addition, the plasmids belonged to the incompatibility group, IncA/C. One isolate belonged to ST116 and the plasmid incompatibility group was non-typeable. The sequence upstream of the blaOXA-48 gene in all four isolates was identical to pKPOXA-48N1, a blaOXA-48-carrying plasmid. This is the first report of OXA-48-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Taiwan and the second report to identify blaOXA-48 on an IncA/C plasmid in K. pneumoniae. Given that three isolates belong to the same pandemic clone (ST11) and possess the IncA/C plasmid and similar plasmid digestion profile that indicated the role of clonal spread or plasmid for dissemination of blaOXA-48 gene, the emergence of OXA-48-producing K. pneumoniae in Taiwan is of great concern. PMID:26414183

  5. Recruiting and managing of foreign workers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, J S; Wang, S W

    1996-01-01

    "The first part of this article reviews the reasons for a labor migration policy in Taiwan and the characteristics of foreign workers currently employed in the country. The second part examines the procedures and practices for recruiting and managing labor migrants and explores the reasons for the biggest issue in... Taiwanese labor migration policy: the runaway foreign workers. Admitting that illegal migration cannot be controlled, the paper recommends to limit employment of migrants only where it is absolutely necessary." PMID:12320773

  6. The dark side of Taiwan's globalization success story.

    PubMed

    Sass, R

    2000-01-01

    Government regulators and researchers in Taiwan (Republic of China) express optimism about their country's economic success in its transition from a traditional society to a first world, industrialized nation. But this economic success, as measured by the standards and ideology of globalization, also has a dark side for many ordinary workers, especially Taiwan's 300,000 foreign workers. The promise of growth and future prosperity is conditional upon global economic practices and an adherence to a science-technology ideological perspective that shapes political content. Multiple centers of opposition and critical thinking have no public presence in Taiwan; nor do organizational defiance and resistance by trade unions. Instead, individuals and small human rights groups seek to reveal areas of human degradation and suffering in a response to poverty and the American dream. Meanwhile, the dominant ideological perspective as articulated by globalism seeps into and directs all public policy on the work environment so that it is coherent with the neoliberal political agenda of multinational corporations. This direction is being questioned by students of the work environment and by labor activists in North America, who report the deterioration of working conditions and worsening of government regulatory instruments for protecting workers from physical, mental, and social risk and harm in the workplace. PMID:11127019

  7. Scenario analysis of freight vehicle accident risks in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Chih; Su, Chien-Chih

    2004-07-01

    This study develops a quantitative risk model by utilizing Generalized Linear Interactive Model (GLIM) to analyze the major freight vehicle accidents in Taiwan. Eight scenarios are established by interacting three categorical variables of driver ages, vehicle types and road types, each of which contains two levels. The database that consists of 2043 major accidents occurring between 1994 and 1998 in Taiwan is utilized to fit and calibrate the model parameters. The empirical results indicate that accident rates of freight vehicles in Taiwan were high in the scenarios involving trucks and non-freeway systems, while; accident consequences were severe in the scenarios involving mature drivers or non-freeway systems. Empirical evidences also show that there is no significant relationship between accident rates and accident consequences. This is to stress that safety studies that describe risk merely as accident rates rather than the combination of accident rates and consequences by definition might lead to biased risk perceptions. Finally, the study recommends using number of vehicle as an alternative of traffic exposure in commercial vehicle risk analysis. The merits of this would be that it is simple and thus reliable; meanwhile, the resulted risk that is termed as fatalities per vehicle could provide clear and direct policy implications for insurance practices and safety regulations. PMID:15094423

  8. Legionella prevalence in wastewater treatment plants of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, S W; Hsu, B M; Ma, P H; Chien, K T

    2009-01-01

    Legionella is a bacterium that is ubiquitous in natural and artificial aquatic environments. Some species of Legionella are recognized as opportunistic potential human pathogens. We investigated the distribution of Legionella at seventeen WWTPs throughout Taiwan. Legionella were detected in 10 of the 17 WWTPs (58.8%) and 25 of 41 samples (61.0%). In the integrated, hospital, industrial and domestic wastewater systems were 13/18 (72.2%), 7/12 (58.3%), 2/7 (28.6%) and 3/4 (75.0%) of the samples were positive for Legionella, respectively. The most frequently encountered species were L. donaldsonii and uncultured L. spp., which were both found in 10 samples (24.4% of all samples), then followed by L. lytica (4.9%) and L. pneumophila (4.9%). L. anisa was detected in one sample (2.4%). The results of this survey confirm that Legionella are ubiquitous in WWTPs in Taiwan. Therefore, long-term investigations should be conducted to evaluate the overall occurrence of Legionella in WWTPs in Taiwan. PMID:19717918

  9. Delayed Treatment of Diagnosed Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chern, Jimmy PS; Chen, Duan-Rung; Wen, Tzai-Hung

    2008-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is an ongoing public health problem in Taiwan. The National Tuberculosis Registry Campaign, a case management system, was implemented in 1997. This study examined this monitoring system to identify and characterize delayed treatment of TB patients. Methods Records of all tuberculosis cases treated in Taiwan from 2002 through 2005 were obtained from the National Tuberculosis Registry Campaign. Initiation of treatment more than 7 days after diagnosis was considered a long treatment delay. Results The study included 31,937 patients. The mean day of delayed treatment was 3.6 days. Most patients were treated immediately after diagnosis. The relationship between number of TB patients and days of delayed treatment after diagnosis exhibited a Power-law distribution. The long tail of the power-law distribution indicated that an extreme number occur cannot be neglected. Tuberculosis patients treated after an unusually long delay require close observation and follow up. Conclusion This study found that TB control is generally acceptabl in Taiwan; however, delayed treatment increases the risk of transmission. Improving the protocol for managing confirmed TB cases can minimize disease transmission. PMID:18620595

  10. High-frequency death certifiers in Taiwan: a sociocultural product.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Janes, Craig R; Lee, Meng-Chih; Chou, Ming-Chih; Shih, Tai-Ping

    2002-11-01

    Accurate death certification is essential to high-quality mortality statistics. Physicians who certify disproportionately large numbers of deaths can significantly affect the validity of the resultant mortality data. In Taiwan in 1994, 110 death certifiers issued more than 100 death certificates each; and nine of these high-frequency certifiers issued more than 500 death certificates. We explore the cultural, political, economic, historical, and social contexts of high-frequency death certification in Taiwan. Because of the traditional belief in Taiwan that one must die at home for the soul to be incorporated into the collective ancestral tablet of the household, many families bring their loved ones home from the hospital just before death. Hospital physicians cannot legally issue a death certificate in these cases because they did not witness the dying process. Although the government introduced an administrative certification system to handle these outside-hospital deaths, the great demands of this system have attracted many 'special exam' doctors (doctors with no formal medical degree) to adopt death certification as a full-time business. In this context, it is not surprising that 'routinization' of death certification (J. Health Soc. Behav. 32 (1991) 273) has led to low-quality reporting among these certifiers. We argue that attempts to improve the quality of mortality statistics should take into account the unique sociocultural contexts of different countries. PMID:12297250

  11. Human Parasitic Meningitis Caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis Infection in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yao-Shen; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2013-01-01

    The major cause of eosinophilic meningitis in Taiwan is Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Humans are infected by ingesting terrestrial and freshwater snails and slugs. In 1998 and 1999, two outbreaks of eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection were reported among 17 adult male immigrant Thai laborers who had eaten raw golden apple snails (Pomacea canaliculata). Another outbreak associated with consuming a health drink consisting of raw vegetable juice was reported in 2001. These adult cases differed from reports in the 1970s and 1980s, in which most of the cases were in children. With improvements in public health and education of foreign laborers, there have since been only sporadic cases in Taiwan. Review of clinical research indicates inconsistent association of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) results with clinical features of eosinophilic meningitis. MRI features were nonspecific but there was an association between the presence of high brain MRI signal intensities and severity of peripheral and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) eosinophilia. Inflammatory markers have been identified in the CSF of patients with eosinophlic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and the matrix metalloproteinase system may be associated with blood-brain barrier disruption. Eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection is not a reportable disease in Taiwan. It is important that a public advisory and education program be developed to reduce future accidental infection. PMID:23901378

  12. Human parasitic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hung-Chin; Chen, Yao-Shen; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2013-06-01

    The major cause of eosinophilic meningitis in Taiwan is Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Humans are infected by ingesting terrestrial and freshwater snails and slugs. In 1998 and 1999, two outbreaks of eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection were reported among 17 adult male immigrant Thai laborers who had eaten raw golden apple snails (Pomacea canaliculata). Another outbreak associated with consuming a health drink consisting of raw vegetable juice was reported in 2001. These adult cases differed from reports in the 1970s and 1980s, in which most of the cases were in children. With improvements in public health and education of foreign laborers, there have since been only sporadic cases in Taiwan. Review of clinical research indicates inconsistent association of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) results with clinical features of eosinophilic meningitis. MRI features were nonspecific but there was an association between the presence of high brain MRI signal intensities and severity of peripheral and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) eosinophilia. Inflammatory markers have been identified in the CSF of patients with eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and the matrix metalloproteinase system may be associated with blood-brain barrier disruption. Eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection is not a reportable disease in Taiwan. It is important that a public advisory and education program be developed to reduce future accidental infection. PMID:23901378

  13. Repetitive Motion Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    NINDS Repetitive Motion Disorders Information Page Synonym(s): Cumulative Trauma Disorders, Repetitive Stress Injuries, Overuse Syndrome Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Repetitive Motion Disorders? Is there any treatment? What ...

  14. Essay on Gyroscopic Motions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tea, Peter L., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Explains gyroscopic motions to college freshman or high school seniors who have learned about centripetal acceleration and the transformations of a couple. Contains several figures showing the direction of forces and motion. (YP)

  15. BUILDING STRONG Industry Listening

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Communications Team #12;BUILDING STRONG® U.S. Port and Inland Waterways Modernization Strategy: OptionsBUILDING STRONG® 1 Industry Listening Session Keith Hofseth USACE Institute for Water Resources US Strategy: Options for the Future #12;BUILDING STRONG® U.S. Port and Inland Waterways Modernization Strategy

  16. Guiding Center Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, H.J. de

    2004-03-15

    The motion of charged particles in slowly varying electromagnetic fields is analyzed. The strength of the magnetic field is such that the gyro-period and the gyro-radius of the particle motion around field lines are the shortest time and length scales of the system. The particle motion is described as the sum of a fast gyro-motion and a slow drift velocity.

  17. Compensation of Target Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bert, Christoph; Rietzel, Eike

    In ion beam therapy (IBT), organ motion requires special procedures. Of general concern is the impact on the dose distribution as a result of motion-related changes in the beam's range. In addition, interplay effects can arise for scanned beam application which cannot be addressed by the so-called margins to increase the treated volume. Dedicated motion mitigation techniques and/or 4D treatment planning are required. This chapter introduces the main concepts for management of respiratory motion in IBT.

  18. Ground Motions Due to Earthquakes on Creeping Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, R.; Abrahamson, N. A.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the peak ground motions from the largest well-recorded earthquakes on creeping strike-slip faults in active-tectonic continental regions. Our goal is to evaluate if the strong ground motions from earthquakes on creeping faults are smaller than the strong ground motions from earthquakes on locked faults. Smaller ground motions might be expected from earthquakes on creeping faults if the fault sections that strongly radiate energy are surrounded by patches of fault that predominantly absorb energy. For our study we used the ground motion data available in the PEER NGA-West2 database, and the ground motion prediction equations that were developed from the PEER NGA-West2 dataset. We analyzed data for the eleven largest well-recorded creeping-fault earthquakes, that ranged in magnitude from M5.0-6.5. Our findings are that these earthquakes produced peak ground motions that are statistically indistinguishable from the peak ground motions produced by similar-magnitude earthquakes on locked faults. These findings may be implemented in earthquake hazard estimates for moderate-size earthquakes in creeping-fault regions. Further investigation is necessary to determine if this result will also apply to larger earthquakes on creeping faults. Please also see: Harris, R.A., and N.A. Abrahamson (2014), Strong ground motions generated by earthquakes on creeping faults, Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 41, doi:10.1002/2014GL060228.

  19. Circular motion Isaac Newtona)

    E-print Network

    Circular motion Isaac Newtona) and Richard Conn Henryb) Received 20 October 1999; accepted 30 that occurs in uniform circular motion is presented, and is advocated for use in high school and college for the acceleration that occurs in uniform circular motion, a v2 r , 1 may be, today, a staple of freshman physics

  20. Bibliography 1. Motion Perception

    E-print Network

    Rheingans, Penny

    parallax as an indepent cue for depth perception, Perception, vol. 8, ppl 1225-134. 2. Some MotionBibliography 1. Motion Perception E. H. Adelson and J. R. Bergen. Spatiotemporal energy models for the perception of motion. Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, 2:284-299, February 1985. O. Braddick