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1

Strong-Motion Instrumentation Programs in Taiwan  

E-print Network

western Taiwan, with high- rise buildings as a consequence of developing economy, is vulnerable. 1057 #12;1058 Shin et al. of Taiwan. The total number of stations in this network is cur- rently 74 by rapid crustal deformation, regional-scale crustal faulting, and high seismicity. The densely populated

Wu, Yih-Min

2

Strong ground motion in the Taipei basin from the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Taipei basin, located in northwest Taiwan about 160 km from the epicenter of the Chi-Chi earthquake, is a shallow, triangular-shaped basin filled with low-velocity fluvial deposits. There is a strong velocity contrast across the basement interface of about 600 m/sec at a depth of about 600-700 m in the deeper section of the basin, suggesting that ground motion should be amplified at sites in the basin. In this article, the ground-motion recordings are analyzed to determine the effect of the basin both in terms of amplifications expected from a 1D model of the sediments in the basin and in terms of the 3D structure of the basin. Residuals determined for peak acceleration from attenuation curves are more positive (amplified) in the basin (average of 5.3 cm/ sec2 compared to - 24.2 cm/sec2 for those stations outside the basin and between 75 and 110 km from the surface projection of the faulted area, a 40% increase in peak ground acceleration). Residuals for peak velocity are also significantly more positive at stations in the basin (31.8 cm/sec compared to 20.0 cm/sec out). The correlation of peak motion with depth to basement, while minor in peak acceleration, is stronger in the peak velocities. Record sections of ground motion from stations in and around the Taipei basin show that the largest long-period arrival, which is coherent across the region, is strongest on the vertical component and has a period of about 10-12 sec. This phase appears to be a Rayleigh wave, probably associated with rupture at the north end of the Chelungpu fault. Records of strong motion from stations in and near the basin have an additional, higher frequency signal: nearest the deepest point in the basin, the signal is characterized by frequencies of about 0.3 - 0.4 Hz. These frequencies are close to simple predictions using horizontal layers and the velocity structure of the basin. Polarizations of the S wave are mostly coherent across the array, although there are significant differences along the northwest edge that may indicate large strains across that edge of the basin. The length of each record after the main S wave are all longer at basin stations compared to those outside. This increase in duration of ground shaking is probably caused by amplification of ground motion at basin stations, although coda Q (0.67 - 1.30 Hz) is slightly larger inside the basin compared to those at local stations outside the basin. Durations correlate with depth to basement. These motions are in the range that can induce damage in buildings and may have contributed to the structural collapse of multistory buildings in the Taipei basin.

Fletcher, Joe B.; Wen, K.-L.

2005-01-01

3

Some observations on colocated and closely spaced strong ground-motion records of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The digital accelerograph network installed in Taiwan produced a rich set of records from the 20 September 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake (Mw 7.6). Teledyne Geotech model A-800 and A-900A* digital accelerographs were colocated at 22 stations that recorded this event. Comparisons of the amplitudes, frequency content, and baseline offsets show that records from several of the A-800 accelerographs are considerably different than those from the colocated A-900A accelerographs. On this basis, and in view of the more thorough predeployment testing of the newer A-900A instruments, we recommend that the records from the A-800 instruments be used with caution in analyses of the mainshock and aftershocks. At the Hualien seismic station two A-900A and one A-800 instruments were colocated, along with a Global Positioning System instrument. Although the records from the two A-900A instruments are much more similar than those from a colocated A-800 instrument, both three-component records contain unpredictable baseline offsets, which produced completely unrealistic ground displacements derived from the accelerations by double integration, as do many of the strong-motion data from this event; the details of the baseline offsets differ considerably on the two three-component records. There are probably numerous sources of the baseline offsets, including sources external to the instruments, such as tilting or rotation of the ground, and sources internal to the instruments, such as electrical or mechanical hysteresis in the sensors. For the two colocated A-900A records at the Hualien seismic station, however, the differences in the baseline offsets suggest that the principal source is some transient disturbance within the instrument. The baseline offsets generally manifest themselves in the acceleration time series as pulses or steps, either singly or in combination. We find a 0.015-Hz low-cut filter can almost completely eliminate the effects of the baseline offsets, but then information regarding the permanent displacements is lost. The causative mechanisms of the baseline offsets are unknown presently. Hence, it is very difficult to recover the permanent displacements from the modern digital records, although for records close to large earthquakes, the signal-to-noise ratio should theoretically be adequate to obtain ground motions with periods of hundreds of seconds. This study reinforces our conclusion from previous studies that the sources of baseline offsets occurring in digital strong-motion records are very complex and often unpredictable, and that, therefore, it is difficult to remove the baseline effects to maximize the information content of the record. The baseline offsets only affect very long period motions (e.g., >20 sec), however, and therefore are of little or no engineering concern.

Wang, G.-Q.; Boore, D.M.; Igel, H.; Zhou, X.-Y.

2003-01-01

4

Latest Development of Real-Time Strong-Motion Monitoring System in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the experience of the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake, the Central Weather Bureau (CWB) has made substantial improvements to the earthquake rapid report system. Besides the current use of digital lease phone line and internet transmission, the satellite link for station to center is setup for backup. The station is also equipped with UPS to prevent the failure of electricity power. This backup link system is designed as automatically switching in case of ground link interrupted. On the other hand, two real-time seismic sub-network are deployed stand alone at Hualein (East coast of Taiwan) and Tainan (south Taiwan) stations separately. The sub-network only manipulates real-time seismic data of nearby stations to shorten the procession time. The configuration and function of sub-network can be monitored and changed by Taipei center through computer link. Results from sub-network can be sent to Taipei center simultaneously. The collective use of these redundant systems significantly improves the capability and reliability of seismic emergency response. It will provide more robust foundation to develop earthquake early warning system. To safeguard train transportation from a disaster earthquake, the CWB assists Taiwan Railway Administration (TRA) to establish a seismic alert system including 44 3-component accelerographs along the track of the round-the-island Taiwan railway system. The configuration of the system is similar to the use of sub-network of CWB. It becomes the third backup of earthquake report system. In addition, ground vibration of a TRA instrument exceeds 180 gals, the power of the railway will be automatically cut-off to slow down the nearby train.

Hsiao, N.; Wu, Y.; Shin, T.; Teng, T.

2003-12-01

5

Three-dimensional dense strong motion waveform inversion for the rupture process of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We inverted the high-resolution spatiotemporal slip distribution of the 21 September 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake utilizing data from densely distributed island-wide strong motion stations for a three-dimensional (3-D) fault geometry, and 3-D Green's functions calculations based upon parallel nonnegative least squares inversion. The 3-D fault geometry, consistent with high-resolution reflection profile, is determined from GPS inversion and aftershocks distribution. This 3-D fault model presents the dip angle gradually becoming shallower from south to north along the fault and near flat at the deeper portion of the fault. The 3-D Green's functions are calculated through numerical wavefield simulation from three-dimensional heterogeneous velocity structure derived from tomography studies. The Green's functions show significant azimuthal variations and suggest the necessity of lateral heterogeneity in velocity structure. Considering complex fault geometry and Green's functions in full 3-D scale, we invert the spatial/temporal slip distribution of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake using the best available and most densely populated strong motion waveform data. We perform the inversion under a parallel environment utilizing multiple-time window to manage the large data volume and source parameters. Results indicate that most slip occurred at the shallower portion of the fault above the decollement. Two major asperities are found, one in the middle of the fault and another one at the northern portion of the fault near the bend in the fault trace. The slip in the southern portion of the fault shows a relatively low slip rate with longer time duration, while the slip in the northern portion of the fault shows a large slip rate with shorter time duration. The synthetics explain the observations well for the island-wide distributed strong motion stations. This comprehensive study emphasizes the importance of realistic fault geometry, 3-D Green's functions, and parallel inversion technique in correctly accounting for both the detailed source rupture process and its relationship with the strong ground motion of this intense earthquake.

Lee, Shiann-Jong; Ma, Kuo-Fong; Chen, How-Wei

2006-11-01

6

Coseimic and postseismic deformation of Chengkung Earthquake in Eastern Taiwan Revealed by Strong Motion and GPS Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mw 6.5 Chengkung Earthquake occurred on December 10th, 2003 in the Costal Range of eastern Taiwan is believed to rupture the NNE-striking Chihshang fault in the Longitudinal Valley. The Chihshang fault is the most active creeping segment of the Longitudinal Valley fault, which is considered as a plate suture zone between the Luzon arc of the Philippine Sea plate and the Chinese continental margin of the Eurasian plate. Based on the relocation of aftershock sequences, the main shock is a pure thrust event that ruptures the east dipping Chihshang fault plane. All the stations in the hanging wall show significant uplift. The maximum permanent vertical displacement shown by strong motion data in the hanging wall side is about 19 cm, meanwhile the horizontal displacement is about 9 cm trending NE. In general the coseismic horizontal displacement shows a fan-shape pattern. It is worthy to notice that the some stations on the footwall of the Chihshang fault were uplifted during this earthquake event. For characterizing the coseismic pattern, we use 40 strong motion and 6 continuous GPS data around the Chihshang fault to simulate the subsurface fault geometry and the distribution of coseismic slip along the fault surface by 3-D dislocation model. The results show that the model containing only single Chihshang fault can not well fit the vertical displacement on the footwall side. Thus we try to reinvestigate the coseismic displacement by adding an additional subfault plane appended under the Longitudinal Valley. Due to this subfault geometry, additional rupture surface will locate at a distance of 3.5 km away from Chihshang fault trace. The predicted coseismic displacemet by inversion of the two fault geometry model is much better than that of single fault model, especially around the Longitudinal Valley. The best-fitted model reveals that the maximal dislocation is about 1m dip-slip on the Chihshang fault plane near the hypocenter, and the dislocations near the surface are partly locked and decline to about 1~10 cm on both fault planes. The calculated scalar moment is 1.9E26 dyne-cm, which is quite compatible with the 2.0E26 dyne-cm based on the result of Harvard CMT.

Hu, J.; Cheng, L.; Wu, Y.; Rau, R.; Lee, J.

2004-12-01

7

Inversion of Coseimic Deformation of Chengkung Earthquake in Eastern Taiwan Revealed by Strong Motion and Continuous GPS Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mw=6.8 Chengkung Earthquake is almost a pure thrust event which is occurred on Dec. 10th, 2003 in the Costal Range of eastern Taiwan. This earthquake is believed to rupture the NNE-striking Chihshang fault in the Longitudinal Valley. The Chihshang fault is the most active section of the Longitudinal Valley fault, which is a plate suture zone between the Luzon arc of the Philippine Sea plate and the Chinese continental margin of the Eurasian plate. Based on the relocation of aftershock sequences, it is believed that the main shock mainly dislocate the high-angle east dipping Chihshang fault plane. The maximum permanent vertical displacement shown by strong motion data in the hanging wall side is about 18 cm. We analyze 40 strong motion and 6 continuous GPS data around the Chihshang fault to model the fault plane geometry and the distribution of coseismic dislocations. Notably, not only all the stations on the hanging wall of the Chihshang fault were uplifted in this earthquake event, but also the stations on the Longitudinal Valley were still raised till the foothills of the Central Range. Because of the significant uplift on the Longitudinal Valley, we find that the model containing only single Chihshang fault can not well fit the data. Thus we try to investigate the much complex model with an addition subfault plane appended under the Longitudinal Valley. The modeled major Chihshang fault plane exhibits the strike of N20\\deg E and dipping of 65\\deg S. At the depth of 10 km, the dipping angle declines to 50\\deg to the depth of 30 km. For the other subfault connecting to Chihshang fault at depth 10 km, the strike is the same as previous major fault but the dip angle is 50\\deg S. Due to this subfault geometry, additional rupture surface will locate at a distance of 3.5 km away from Chihshang fault trace. The predicted coseismic displacements by inversion of the two fault geometry model are much better than that of single fault model, especially around the Longitudinal Valley. The best-fitted model reveals that the maximal dislocation is about 1m dip-slip on the Chihshang fault plane near the hypocenter, and the dislocations near the surface are partly locked declining to 1~10 cm on both fault planes. The calculated scalar moment is 1.9 * 10 26 dyne-cm, which is quite compatible with the 2.0 * 10 26 dyne-cm based on the data of Harvard CMT.

Cheng, L.; Lee, J.; Wu, Y.; Lin, K.; Hu, J.

2004-12-01

8

Yugoslav strong motion network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data concerning ground motion and the response of structures during strong earthquakes are necessary for seismic hazard evaluation and the definition of design criteria for structures to be constructed in seismically active zones. The only way to obtain such data is the installation of a strong-motion instrument network. The Yugoslav strong-motion programme was created in 1972 to recover strong-motion response

Vladimir Mihailov

1985-01-01

9

Yugoslav strong motion network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data concerning ground motion and the response of structures during strong earthquakes are necessary for seismic hazard evaluation and the definition of design criteria for structures to be constructed in seismically active zones. The only way to obtain such data is the installation of a strong-motion instrument network. The Yugoslav strong-motion programme was created in 1972 to recover strong-motion response data used by the structural engineering community in developing earthquake resistant design. Instruments, accelerographs SMA-1 and seismoscopes WM-1, were installed in free-field stations and on structures (high-rise buildings, dams, bridges, etc.). A total number of 176 accelerographs and 137 seismoscopes have been installed and are operating in Yugoslavia. The strong-motion programme in Yugoslavia consists of five subactivities: network design, network operation, data processing, network management and research as well as application. All these activities are under the responsibility of IZIIS in cooperation with the Yugoslav Association of Seismology. By 1975 in the realisation of this project participated the CALTECH as cooperative institution in the joint American-Yugoslav cooperative project. The results obtained which are presented in this paper, and their application in the aseismic design justify the necessity for the existence of such a network in Yugoslavia.

Mihailov, Vladimir

1985-04-01

10

The Propagation Characteristics of Strong Ground-Motion on the Footwall of Chelungpu Fault During the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observation records show different ground-motion effects between the footwall and the hanging wall during the Chi-Chi earthquake, September 21, 1999 (UTC was 17:47, 20 September 1999). A series of strong ground-motion snapshots which was constructed by using near source strong motion records of the earthquake shows that: 1. The rupture velocity decreased from the south to the north progressively during Chelungpu fault ruptured, the value was from 2.69 km/sec to 2.28 km/sec and the average rupture velocity was 2.5 km/sec. 2. The propagation of seismic wave front was outstandingly different between the east site (hanging wall) and the west site (footwall) of Chelungpu fault; to follow the rupture from the south to the north of fault, a linear wave front was in an included angle about 60° with the east, and traveled toward northwest on the footwall. Based on the compare with observation records and simulations of previous studies, the seismic velocity on the foot wall side could be lower than the rupture velocity of the Chi-Chi earthquake. Herein, the linear wave front which propagated similar to shock front displayed in the strong ground-motion snapshots. The aim of this study is to find out the linear wave front from waveform data by reexamining the near source strong motion data of the Chi-Chi earthquake and try to estimate its propagated velocity. Further, to verify whether the S-wave velocity on the footwall was lower than rupture velocity or not. The result shows that the S-wave propagated as a velocity 1.92 km/sec; it was lower than rupture velocity absolutely. In sedimentary structure, S-wave velocity can be from around 3.55 km/sec to under 1.0 km/sec which depends on how hard or soft the medium is passed through. The sediment in the footwall region of Chelungpu fault is thick and solid; it is very possible that the S-wave traveled slower than fault rupture during the Chi-Chi earthquake. To have come this far, a linear S-wave front on the footwall has been figured out and its velocity was about 1.92 km/sec has been estimated by this study. These prove the velocity of S-wave propagation on the footwall was lower than rupture velocity and caused the linear wave front which propagated similar to shock front.

Huang, Y.; Huang, B.; Wang, S.

2009-12-01

11

Site response variation due to the existence of near-field cracks based on strong motion records in the Shi-Wen river valley, southern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Site effect analysis has been applied to investigate soil classification, alluvium depth, and fracture detection, although the majority of previous studies have typically focused only on the response of large-scale single structures. In contrast, we investigated the site effect for small-scale cracks using a case study in southern Taiwan to provide a means of monitoring slope stability or foundation integrity in situ using only an accelerometer. We adopted both the reference site and horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio methods. We obtained seismographs associated with the typhoon-related development of a crack set (52?m long, 5?m deep) in a steep slope and compared the resonance frequency between two conditions (with and without cracks). Moreover, we divided the seismic waves into P, S, and coda waves and examined the seismic source effect. Our results demonstrate that frequencies of 14.5?17.5?Hz are most sensitive to these cracks, particularly for the E?W component of the P-waves, which coincides with the crack’s strike. Peak ground acceleration, which is controlled by seismic moment and attenuated distance, is another important factor determining the resonance results. Our results demonstrate that the ratio of temporal seismic waves can be used to detect the existence of nearby subsurface cracks.

Wu, Chi-Shin; Yu, Teng-To; Peng, Wen-Fei; Yeh, Yeoin-Tein; Lin, Sih-Siao

2014-10-01

12

Towards Integrated Marmara Strong Motion Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Istanbul has a 65% chance of having a magnitude 7 or above earthquake within the next 30 years. As part of the preparations for the future earthquake, strong motion networks have been installed in and around Istanbul. The Marmara Strong Motion Network, operated by the Department of Earthquake Engineering of Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute, encompasses permanent systems outlined

E. Durukal; M. Erdik; E. Safak; A. Ansal; O. Ozel; H. Alcik; A. Mert; N. Kafadar; A. Korkmaz; A. Kurtulus

2009-01-01

13

Motion and evolution of the Chaochou Fault, Southern Taiwan  

E-print Network

and Plate Tectonic Setting of Taiwan .????.. 2 2 Index Map Showing the Geology of Taiwan and the Study Area ????? 3 3 Seismic Tomographic Section Across the Study Area in Southern Taiwan ? 6 4 Field Area Stratigraphy...-facing Ryukyu slab propagates westward into the opening. The timing of the onset of slab 5 breakoff, the rate of its propagation, and the current extent of are still unclear (Rau and Wu, 1995, Teng et al., 2000, Lallemand et al., 2001). A tomographic section...

Hassler, Lauren E.

2005-11-01

14

The Italian Strong Motion Network (RAN)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A network for the strong motion monitoring of the territory allows recording data that provide an excellent opportunity to study the source, path, and site effects on the ground motions, specifically in near source area, for updating seismic hazard map and consequently construction codes and earthquake resistant design. Strong motion data also help to increase the effective preparation and response to seismic emergencies and the ability of a community to quickly recover from the damages of an earthquake contributes to lower the seismic risk usually measured in term of casualties and economic losses. The Italian network for monitoring the strong movement of the national territory (RAN) is the result of a fruitful cooperation over the last 16 years between the Italian government, the regions and local authorities and now counts more than 500 stations. Over the years, as a priority the DPC has focused mainly on the expansion of the network in terms of the number of measurement points and technological improvement of instrumentation as well as the data transmission system. A data acquisition centre was implemented in which the Antelope software collects, processes and archives, automatically, the data of the RAN and of the external strong motion networks that contribute to the database of the RAN. Recently the DPC has dedicated specific resources to improve the response of the network, in particular, in case of emergency. The efficiency of the network on a daily basis is not less than 95% and temporary networks were installed in the epicentral area within 24 hours after the earthquake and connected to the data acquisition centre in Rome. A fast seismic data analysis is essential to provide useful information to Authorities which make decisions immediately after a strong earthquake occurrence. During a strong earthquake, the modern accelerometers are the only instruments which can provide near source high-quality data that are important both for scientific and for civil protection purposes. Automatic and fast techniques have been developed by the University of Trieste for the automatic real-time strong motion data analysis. These techniques have been installed and customized in the data acquisition centre of the Department of Civil Protection of Italy (DPC) to process the quasi real-time data of the Italian Strong Motion Network (RAN) and to exploit information from RAN stations during seismic emergences for Civil protection purposes. RAN counts more than 500 stations covering all the Italian territory. Two local networks, the Friuli Venezia Giulia Accelerometric Network (RAF), located in NE Italy, and the Irpinia Seismic Network (ISNet), contribute their data into the RAN data acquisition system. The performance of the network and of the fast automatic strong motion data analysis during the Emilia 2012 sequence is analyzed.

Costa, Giovanni; Ammirati, Alfredo; de Nardis, Rita; Filippi, Luisa; Gallo, Antonella; Lavecchia, Giusy; Sirignano, Sebastiano; Zambonelli, Elisa; Nicoletti, Mario

2014-05-01

15

Strong ground motion prediction using virtual earthquakes.  

PubMed

Sedimentary basins increase the damaging effects of earthquakes by trapping and amplifying seismic waves. Simulations of seismic wave propagation in sedimentary basins capture this effect; however, there exists no method to validate these results for earthquakes that have not yet occurred. We present a new approach for ground motion prediction that uses the ambient seismic field. We apply our method to a suite of magnitude 7 scenario earthquakes on the southern San Andreas fault and compare our ground motion predictions with simulations. Both methods find strong amplification and coupling of source and structure effects, but they predict substantially different shaking patterns across the Los Angeles Basin. The virtual earthquake approach provides a new approach for predicting long-period strong ground motion. PMID:24458636

Denolle, M A; Dunham, E M; Prieto, G A; Beroza, G C

2014-01-24

16

A STUDY ON THE DURATION OF STRONG EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple definition of the duration of strong earthquake ground motion based on the mean-square integral of motion has been presented. It is closely related to that part of the strong motion which contributes significantly to the seismic energy as recorded at a point and to the related spectral amplitudes. Correlations have been established between the duration of strong-motion acceleration,

MI D. TRIFUNAC; A. G. BRADY

1975-01-01

17

Next Generation Attenuation of Ground Motions in Ilan, Taiwan: Establishment and Analysis of Attenuation Relations for Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and Peak Ground Velocity (PGV)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An evaluation of seismic hazards requires an estimate of the expected ground motion at the site of interest. The most common means of estimating this ground motion in engineering practice is the use of an attenuation relation. A number of developments have arisen recently to suggest that a new generation of attenuation relationships is warranted. The project named Next Generation Attenuation of Ground Motions (NGA) Project was developed by Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) in response to a core objective: reducing uncertainty in earthquake ground motion estimation. This objective reflects recognition from industry sponsors that improvements in earthquake ground motion estimation will result in significant cost savings and will result in improved system performance in the event of a large earthquake. The Central Weather Bureau has implemented the Taiwan Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) to collect high-quality instrumental recordings of strong earthquake shaking.It is necessary for us to study the strong ground motion characteristics at the Ilan area of northeastern Taiwan. Further analyses using a good quality data base that includes 486 events and 4172 recordings of magnitude greater than 4.0 are required to derive the next generation attenuation of ground motion in Ilan area. In addition, Liu and Tsai (2007) used a catalog of more than 1840 shallow earthquakes with homogenized Mw magnitude ranging from 5.0 to 8.2 in 1900-2007 to estimate the seismic hazard potential in Taiwan. As a result, the PGA and PGV contour patterns of maximum ground motion show that Ilan Plain has high values of 0.2g and 80cm/sec with respect to MMI intensity VII and IX, respectively. Furthermore, from the mean ground motion and the seismic intensity rate analyses, they show that a high annul probability of MMI > VI greater than 35 percents are located at the Chianan area of western Taiwan and Ilan Plain in northeastern Taiwan. However, these results was estimated by used attenuation relationship of Taiwan which conducted by Liu and Tsai (2005). Hence, Next Generation Attenuation of Ground Motions (NGA) of Ilan Plain must be developed as soon as possible, in order to provide more important information for the site evaluation of critical facilities in those relatively high earthquake hazard potential regions and will be helpful for the plan of land-using.

Liu, K.

2009-12-01

18

Towards Integrated Marmara Strong Motion Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Istanbul has a 65% chance of having a magnitude 7 or above earthquake within the next 30 years. As part of the preparations for the future earthquake, strong motion networks have been installed in and around Istanbul. The Marmara Strong Motion Network, operated by the Department of Earthquake Engineering of Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute, encompasses permanent systems outlined below. It is envisaged that the networks will be run by a single entity responsible for technical management and maintanence, as well as for data management, archiving and dissemination through dedicated web-based interfaces. • Istanbul Earthquake Rapid Response and Early Warning System - IERREWS (one hundred 18-bit accelerometers for rapid response; ten 24-bit accelerometers for early warning) • IGDA? Gas Shutoff Network (100 accelerometers to be installed in 2010 and integrated with IERREWS) • Structural Monitoring Arrays - Fatih Sultan Mehmet Suspension Bridge (1200m-long suspension bridge across the Bosphorus, five 3-component accelerometers + GPS sensors) - Hagia Sophia Array (1500-year-old historical edifice, 9 accelerometers) - Süleymaniye Mosque Array (450-year-old historical edifice,9 accelerometers) - Fatih Mosque Array (237-year-old historical edifice, 9 accelerometers) - Kanyon Building Array (high-rise office building, 5 accelerometers) - Isbank Tower Array (high-rise office building, 5 accelerometers) - ENRON Array (power generation facility, 4 acelerometers) - Mihrimah Sultan Mosque Array (450-year-old historical edifice,9 accelerometers + tiltmeters, to be installed in 2009) - Sultanahmet Mosque Array, (390-year-old historical edifice, 9 accelerometers + tiltmeters, to be installed in 2009) • Special Arrays - Atakoy Vertical Array (four 3-component accelerometers at 25, 50, 75, and 150 m depths) - Marmara Tube Tunnel (1400 m long submerged tunnel, 128 ch. accelerometric data, 24 ch. strain data, to be installed in 2010) - Air-Force Academy Array (72 ch. dense accelerometric array to be installed in 2010) - Gemlik Array (a dense basin array of 8 stations, to be installed in 2010) The objectives of these systems and networks are: (1) to produce rapid earthquake intensity, damage and loss assessment information after an earthquake (in the case of IERREWS), (2) to monitor conditions of structural systems, (3) to develop real-time data processing, analysis, and damage detection and location tools (in the case of structural networks) after an extreme event, (4) to assess spatial properties of strong ground motion and ground strain, and to characterise basin response (in the case of special arrays), (5) to investigate site response and wave propagation (in the case of vertical array). Ground motion data obtained from these strong motion networks have and are being used for investigations of attenuation, spatial variation (coherence), simulation benchmarking, source modeling, site response, seismic microzonation, system identification and structural model verification and structural health control. In addition to the systems and networks outlined above there are two temporary networks: KIMNET - a dense urban noise and microtremor network consisting of 50 broadband stations expected to be operational in mid 2009, and SOSEWIN - a 20-station, self-organizing structural integrated array at Ataköy in Istanbul.

Durukal, E.; Erdik, M.; Safak, E.; Ansal, A.; Ozel, O.; Alcik, H.; Mert, A.; Kafadar, N.; Korkmaz, A.; Kurtulus, A.

2009-04-01

19

Strong Motion Seismograph Based On MEMS Accelerometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MEMS strong motion seismograph we developed used the modularization method to design its software and hardware.It can fit various needs in different application situation.The hardware of the instrument is composed of a MEMS accelerometer,a control processor system,a data-storage system,a wired real-time data transmission system by IP network,a wireless data transmission module by 3G broadband,a GPS calibration module and power supply system with a large-volumn lithium battery in it. Among it,the seismograph's sensor adopted a three-axis with 14-bit high resolution and digital output MEMS accelerometer.Its noise level just reach about 99?g/?Hz and ×2g to ×8g dynamically selectable full-scale.Its output data rates from 1.56Hz to 800Hz. Its maximum current consumption is merely 165?A,and the device is so small that it is available in a 3mm×3mm×1mm QFN package. Furthermore,there is access to both low pass filtered data as well as high pass filtered data,which minimizes the data analysis required for earthquake signal detection. So,the data post-processing can be simplified. Controlling process system adopts a 32-bit low power consumption embedded ARM9 processor-S3C2440 and is based on the Linux operation system.The processor's operating clock at 400MHz.The controlling system's main memory is a 64MB SDRAM with a 256MB flash-memory.Besides,an external high-capacity SD card data memory can be easily added.So the system can meet the requirements for data acquisition,data processing,data transmission,data storage,and so on. Both wired and wireless network can satisfy remote real-time monitoring, data transmission,system maintenance,status monitoring or updating software.Linux was embedded and multi-layer designed conception was used.The code, including sensor hardware driver,the data acquisition,earthquake setting out and so on,was written on medium layer.The hardware driver consist of IIC-Bus interface driver, IO driver and asynchronous notification driver. The application program layer mainly concludes: earthquake parameter module, local database managing module, data transmission module, remote monitoring, FTP service and so on. The application layer adopted multi-thread process. The whole strong motion seismograph was encapsulated in a small aluminum box, which size is 80mm×120mm×55mm. The inner battery can work continuesly more than 24 hours. The MEMS accelerograph uses modular design for its software part and hardware part. It has remote software update function and can meet the following needs: a) Auto picking up the earthquake event; saving the data on wave-event files and hours files; It may be used for monitoring strong earthquake, explosion, bridge and house health. b) Auto calculate the earthquake parameters, and transferring those parameters by 3G wireless broadband network. This kind of seismograph has characteristics of low cost, easy installation. They can be concentrated in the urban region or areas need to specially care. We can set up a ground motion parameters quick report sensor network while large earthquake break out. Then high-resolution-fine shake-map can be easily produced for the need of emergency rescue. c) By loading P-wave detection program modules, it can be used for earthquake early warning for large earthquakes; d) Can easily construct a high-density layout seismic monitoring network owning remote control and modern intelligent earthquake sensor.

Teng, Y.; Hu, X.

2013-12-01

20

Strong motion instrumentation of an RC building structure  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The strong-motion instrumentation scheme of a reinforced concrete building observed by California Strong-Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP) is introduced in this paper. The instrumented building is also described and the recorded responses during 1994 Northridge earthquake are provided.

Li, H.-J.; Celebi, M.

2001-01-01

21

The Commercial TREMOR Strong-Motion Seismograph  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emergence of major seismological and earthquake-engineering problems requiring large, dense instrument arrays led several of us to investigate alternate solutions. Evans and Rogers (USGS Open File Report 95-555, 1995) and Evans (USGS Open File Report 98-109, 1998) demonstrated the efficacy of low-cost robust silicon accelerometers in strong-motion seismology, making possible a vast increase in the spatial density of such arrays. The 1998 design displays true 16-bit performance and excellent robustness and linearity---13 of these prototype near-real-time instruments are deployed in Oakland, California, and have recorded data from seven small events (up to 5.7 %g). Since this technology is a radical departure from past efforts, it was necessary for the USGS to develop the sensor and demonstrate its efficacy thoroughly. Since it is neither practical nor appropriate for the USGS to produce instrumentation beyond a demonstration phase, the US Geological Survey and GeoSIG Ltd undertook a collaborative effort (a ``CRAD'') to commercialize the new technology. This effort has resulted in a fully temperature-compensated 16-bit system, the GeoSIG GT-316, announced in April, 2001, combining the ICS-3028 TM-based USGS sensor, temperature compensation technique, and peak ground velocity (PGV) computation with a highly customized 16-bit GeoSIG recorder. The price has not been set but is likely to be around \\2000 in large quantities. The result is a near-real-time instrument telemetering peak ground acceleration (PGA) and PGV about 90 s after onset of the P wave, then minutes later transmitting the waveform. The receiving software, ``HomeBase()'', also computes spectral acceleration, S_{a}. PGA, PGV, S_{a}, and waveforms are forwarded immediately by HomeBase() for ShakeMap generation and other uses. Shaking metrics from the prototypes in Oakland are consistently among the first to arrive for the northern California ShakeMap. For telemetry we use a low-cost always-connected cell-phone-based Internet technology (CDPD), but any RS-232 connected telemetry system is a viable candidate (spread spectrum, CDMA, GSM, POT). The instruments can be synchronized via CDPD to a few tenths of a second, or to full precision with an optional GPS receiver. Sensor RMS noise is 33 \\mathrm \\mu g over the band 0.1 to 35 Hz, 11 \\mathrm \\mu g$ over the band 0.1 to 1.0 Hz; the sensor is extremely linear (far better than 1% of full scale); temperature compensation is to better than 1% of full scale. TREMOR-class instruments are intended to fill the niche of high spatial resolution with an economical low-maintenance device, while conventional instruments continue to pursue maximum amplitude resolution. The TREMOR instrument also has applications in areas where budget or access limitations require lower purchase, installation, or maintenance cost (commercial ANSS partners, remote sites, on-call aftershock arrays, extremely dense arrays, and organizations with limited budgets). However, we primarily envision large, mixed arrays of conventional and TREMOR instruments in urban areas, the former providing better early information from small events and the TREMOR instruments guaranteeing better spatial resolution and more near-field recording of large events. Together, they would meet the ANSS goal of dense near-real-time urban monitoring and the collection of requisite data for risk mitigation.

Evans, J. R.; Hamstra, R. H.; Kuendig, C.; Camina, P.

2001-12-01

22

Seismic Response of a Sedimentary Basin: Preliminary Results from Strong Motion Downhole Array in Taipei Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Strong Motion Downhole Array (SMDA) is an array of 32 triggered strong motion broadband seismometers located at eight sites in Taipei Basin. Each site features three to five co-located three-component accelerometers--one at the surface and an additional two to four each down independent boreholes. Located in the center of Taipei Basin is Taipei City and the Taipei metropolitan area, the capital of Taiwan and home to more than 7 million residents. Taipei Basin is in a major seismic hazard area and is prone to frequent large earthquakes producing strong ground motion. This unique three-dimension seismic array presents new frontiers for seismic research in Taiwan and, along with it, new challenges. Frequency-dependent and site-specific amplification of seismic waves from depth to surface has been observed: preliminary results indicate that the top few tens of meters of sediment--not the entire thickness--are responsible for significant frequency-dependent amplification; amplitudes of seismic waves at the surface may be as much as seven times that at depth. Dominant amplification frequencies are interpreted as quarter-wavelength constructive interference between the surface and major interfaces in the sediments. Using surface stations with known orientation as a reference, borehole seismometer orientations in these data--which are unknown, and some of which vary considerably from event to event--have been determined using several methods. After low-pass filtering the strong motion data, iteratively rotating the two horizontal components from an individual borehole station and cross-correlating them with that from a co-located surface station has proven to be very effective. In cases where the iterative cross-correlation method does not provide a good fit, rotating both surface and borehole stations to a common axis of maximum seismic energy provides an alternative approach. The orientation-offset of a borehole station relative to the surface station may be estimated by iteratively rotating the horizontal components of both and calculating the time-integral of the amplitude squared of each component; the difference in orientation between the maximum at the surface and at depth indicates the difference in orientation of the seismometers. After the horizontal orientations of borehole seismometers are correctly resolved, these data can be used in various scientific studies. Up-going and reflected down-going shear waves can be clearly identified, providing an excellent dataset for the study of interval velocity and seismic Q, localized shear wave splitting, and anisotropy. Further refinement of the geophysical structure of Taipei Basin and Northern Taiwan is also possible by combining data from the SMDA with that from the large array of surface stations maintained by the Central Weather Bureau.

Young, B.; Chen, K.; Chiu, J.

2013-12-01

23

DETERMINATION OF LOCAL MAGNITUDE, ML, FROM STRONG MOTION ACCELEROGRAMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique is presented for determination of local magnitude, ML, from strong-motion accelerograms. The accelerograph records are used as an accel- eration input to the equation of motion of the Wood-Anderson torsion seismo- graph to produce a synthetic seismogram which is then read in the standard manner. When applied to 14 records from the San Fernando earthquake, the resulting ML

HIROO KANAMORI; PAUL C. JENNINGS

1978-01-01

24

Paper No. SSMSA STRONG SEISMIC MOTIONS ESTIMATED FROM  

E-print Network

through shear modulus reduction and increase of damping for increasing strain levels. The effect on the 1-directional shear wave propagation in a "1D" soil column considering one motion component only ("1C"). Conversely. Gandomzadeh4 , S. Martino5 , F. Bonilla 6 ABSTRACT Strong seismic motions in soils generally lead to both

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

25

Phase derivatives and simulation of strong ground motions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Phase derivatives can be used to compute instantaneous frequency and envelope delay (also known as group delay). Envelope delay, in the guise of phase differences, has been used by engineers in the simulation of strong ground motion, particularly as a way of controlling the duration of motion. Simulations using the stochastic method, in which duration is a simple function of source duration and a path-dependent duration, possess envelope delay properties similar to those from simulations based on phase differences. Envelope delay provides a way of extending the standard stochastic method to produce nonstationary frequency content, as produced by ground motions containing surface waves.

Boore, D.M.

2003-01-01

26

Update on the Center for Engineering Strong Motion Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the California Geological Survey (CGS) established the Center for Engineering Strong-Motion Data (CESMD, Center) to provide a single access point for earthquake strong-motion records and station metadata from the U.S. and international strong-motion programs. The Center has operational facilities in Sacramento and Menlo Park, California, to receive, process, and disseminate records through the CESMD web site at www.strongmotioncenter.org. The Center currently is in the process of transitioning the COSMOS Virtual Data Center (VDC) to integrate its functions with those of the CESMD for improved efficiency of operations, and to provide all users with a more convenient one-stop portal to both U.S. and important international strong-motion records. The Center is working with COSMOS and international and U.S. data providers to improve the completeness of site and station information, which are needed to most effectively employ the recorded data. The goal of all these and other new developments is to continually improve access by the earthquake engineering community to strong-motion data and metadata world-wide. The CESMD and its Virtual Data Center (VDC) provide tools to map earthquakes and recording stations, to search raw and processed data, to view time histories and spectral plots, to convert data files formats, and to download data and a variety of information. The VDC is now being upgraded to convert the strong-motion data files from different seismic networks into a common standard tagged format in order to facilitate importing earthquake records and station metadata to the CESMD database. An important new feature being developed is the automatic posting of Internet Quick Reports at the CESMD web site. This feature will allow users, and emergency responders in particular, to view strong-motion waveforms and download records within a few minutes after an earthquake occurs. Currently the CESMD and its Virtual Data Center provide selected strong-motion records from 17 countries. The Center has proved to be significantly useful for providing data to scientists, engineers, policy makers, and emergency response teams around the world.

Haddadi, H. R.; Shakal, A. F.; Stephens, C. D.; Oppenheimer, D. H.; Huang, M.; Leith, W. S.; Parrish, J. G.; Savage, W. U.

2010-12-01

27

Optimum strong-motion array geometry for source inversion - II  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Optimum strong-motion array geometry for source inversions is determined for each of three types of earthquake faults: strike-slip, dip-slip and offshore subduction thrust. It is found that the complete Green's function is capable of stabilizing the accuracy of an inversion solution obtained using theoretical seismograms, regardless of the differences in array configuration. The optimum strong-motion array for a strike-slip fault is characterized by stations well distributed in azimuth, while the optimum array for a dip-slip event has stations arranged in a grid-shaped form. -from Author

Iida, M.

1990-01-01

28

A simple model for strong ground motions and response spectra  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A simple model for the description of strong ground motions is introduced. The model shows that response spectra can be estimated by using only four parameters of the ground motion, the RMS acceleration, effective duration and two corner frequencies that characterize the effective frequency band of the motion. The model is windowed band-limited white noise, and is developed by studying the properties of two functions, cumulative squared acceleration in the time domain, and cumulative squared amplitude spectrum in the frequency domain. Applying the methods of random vibration theory, the model leads to a simple analytical expression for the response spectra. The accuracy of the model is checked by using the ground motion recordings from the aftershock sequences of two different earthquakes and simulated accelerograms. The results show that the model gives a satisfactory estimate of the response spectra.

Safak, Erdal; Mueller, Charles; Boatwright, John

1988-01-01

29

Contemporary Strong-motion Network in Southwestern Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contemporary digital strong-motion instruments, designed by the Geological Survey of Canada, have recently replaced the traditional analogue network in southwestern Canada. The newly designed and built three-component accelerometers are inexpensive to both produce and operate, and provide data retrieval and basic maintenance via the internet. Continuous 0.1-42~Hz data streams of acceleration, velocity and displacement are computed in real-time by the instrument's embedded computer. Upon detection of an event, peak ground motion values are reported to the data centre. The majority of strong-motion instruments are installed in greater Vancouver and Victoria, key areas of vulnerability as they lie in one of the most seismically active and populous areas of the country. One of the focusses of the network design is to study the response of the thick sediments of the Fraser River delta. Instruments are deployed in the urban regions on sites which vary from bedrock to more than 300~m of sediment, and may experience basin-edge effects associated with the delta. Upgrading and densification of the strong motion network in southwest BC will allow for accurate maps showing instrumental intensity to be produced within minutes of a serious earthquake, providing emergency services and city workers with the means to respond efficiently. Prior to such an event, records of smaller events can illuminate areas of high risk and aid in urban planning.

Bird, A. L.; Rosenberger, A.; Cassidy, J.; Onur, T.; Rogers, G.

2003-12-01

30

Strong motion observations and recordings from the great Wenchuan Earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Strong Motion Observation Network System (NSMONS) of China is briefly introduced in this paper. The NSMONS consists of permanent free-field stations, special observation arrays, mobile observatories and a network management system. During the Wenchuan Earthquake, over 1,400 components of acceleration records were obtained from 460 permanent free-field stations and three arrays for topographical effect and structural response observation in the network system from the main shock, and over 20,000 components of acceleration records from strong aftershocks occurred before August 1, 2008 were also obtained by permanent free-field stations of the NSMONS and 59 mobile instruments quickly deployed after the main shock. The strong motion recordings from the main shock and strong aftershocks are summarized in this paper. In the ground motion recordings, there are over 560 components with peak ground acceleration (PGA) over 10 Gal, the largest being 957.7 Gal. The largest PGA recorded during the aftershock exceeds 300 Gal. ?? 2008 Institute of Engineering Mechanics, China Earthquake Administration and Springer-Verlag GmbH.

Li, X.; Zhou, Z.; Yu, H.; Wen, R.; Lu, D.; Huang, M.; Zhou, Y.; Cu, J.

2008-01-01

31

Structure Instrumentation in the California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the last 27 years the California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP) in the California Department of Conservation,\\u000a Division of Mines and Geology has instrumented over 240 structures, including 160 buildings, 58 bridges, and 20 dams. In addition\\u000a to these structures, CSMIP has installed over 500 ground response stations. Many of these stations have been installed since\\u000a the 1994 Northridge

Moh J. Huang; Anthony F. Shakal

32

Strong southward transport events due to typhoons in the Taiwan Wen-Zhou Zhang,1,2,3  

E-print Network

-Sheng Hong,1 Shao-Ping Shang,2 Xiao-Hai Yan,1,3 and Fei Chai4 Received 10 March 2009; revised 27 July 2009Strong southward transport events due to typhoons in the Taiwan Strait Wen-Zhou Zhang,1,2,3 Hua to these events and the contribution of the along-strait momentum gradient was insignificant. Citation: Zhang, W

33

Enhancement of the national strong-motion network in Turkey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two arrays comprising 20 strong-motion sensors were established in western Turkey. The 14 stations of BYTNet follow a N-S trending line about 65 km in length, normal to strands of the North Anatolian fault that runs between the cities of Bursa and Yalova. Here the dominant character of the potential fault movement is a right-lateral transform slip. The DATNet array, comprising a total of eight stations, is arranged along a 110-km-long E-W trending direction along the Menderes River valley between Denizli and Aydin. (Two stations in this array were incorporated from the existing Turkish national strong-motion network.) This is an extensional tectonic environment, and the network mornitors potential large normal-faulting earthquakes on the faults in the valley. The installation of the arrays was supported by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) under its Science for Peace Program. Maintenance and calibration is performed by the General Directorate of Disaster Affairs (GDDA) according to a protocol between Middle East Technical University (METU) and GDDA. Many young engineers and scientists have been trained in network operation and evaluation during the course of the project, and an international workshop dealing with strong-motion instrumentation has been organized as part of the project activities.

Gulkan, P.; Ceken, U.; Colakoglu, Z.; Ugras, T.; Kuru, T.; Apak, A.; Anderson, J.G.; Sucuoglu, H.; Celebi, M.; Akkar, D.S.; Yazgan, U.; Denizlioglu, A.Z.

2007-01-01

34

Establishment of Antakya Basin Strong Ground Motion Monitoring System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turkey is located in one of the most active earthquake zones of the world. The cities located along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and the East Anatolian Fault (EAF) are exposed to significant earthquake hazard. The Hatay province near the southern terminus of the EAF has always experienced a significant seismic activity, since it is on the intersection of the northernmost segment of Dead Sea Fault Zone coming from the south, with the Cyprean Arc approaching from south-west. Historical records extending over the last 2000 years indicate that Antakya, founded in the 3rd century B.C., is effected by intensity IX-X earthquakes every 150 years. In the region, the last destructive earthquake occurred in 1872. Destructive earthquakes should be expected in the region in the near future similar to the ones that occurred in the past. The strong response of sedimentary basins to seismic waves was largely responsible for the damage produced by the devastating earthquakes of 1985 Michoacan Earthquake which severely damaged parts of Mexico City, and the 1988 Spitak Earthquake which destroyed most of Leninakan, Armenia. Much of this devastating response was explained by the conversion of seismic body waves to surface waves at the sediment/rock contacts of sedimentary basins. "Antakya Basin Strong Ground Motion Monitoring System" is set up with the aim of monitoring the earthquake response of the Antakya Basin, contributing to our understanding of basin response, contributing to earthquake risk assessment of Antakya, monitoring of regional earthquakes and determining the effects of local and regional earthquakes on the urban environment of Antakya. The soil properties beneath the strong motion stations (S-Wave velocity structure and dominant soil frequency) are determined by array measurements that involve broad-band seismometers. The strong motion monitoring system consists of six instruments installed in small buildings. The stations form a straight line along the short axis of Antakya basin passing through the city center. They are equipped with acceleration sensors, GPS and communication units and operate in continuous recording mode. For on-line data transmission the EDGE mode of available GSM systems are employed. In the array measurements for the determination of soil properties beneath the stations two 4-seismometer sets have been utilized. The system is the first monitoring installment in Turkey dedicated to understanding basin effects. The records obtained will allow for the visualization of the propagation of long-period ground motion in the basin and show the refraction of surface waves at the basin edge. The records will also serve to enhance our capacity to realistically synthesize the strong ground motion in basin-type environments.

Durukal, E.; Özel, O.; Bikce, M.; Gene?, M. C.; Kac?n, S.; Erdik, M.; Safak, E.; Över, S.

2009-04-01

35

An Automatic System for Real-Time Determination of Earthquake Focal Mechanism and Ground Motion in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a computational platform for automatic and real-time determination of focal mechanisms and ground motion distributions from earthquakes in the Taiwan region. This automatic system is composed of two parts: (1) determination of earthquake focal mechanisms by waveform inversion based on 1D structural model, and (2) calculation of ground motion distributions using Green tensors in a realistic 3D structural model. For focal mechanism solutions, we use the cut-and-paste (CAP) method of Zhu and Helmberger [1] which offers an efficient means of obtaining reliable estimations of earthquake source properties including fault-plane solutions, focal depths and moment magnitudes by fitting broadband waveforms of P, S and surface waves. For real-time calculation of ground motions, we adopt the strain Green tensor (SGT) database approach of Zhao et al. [2]. The SGT database is established for a realistic regional 3D model by finite-difference simulations, and therefore real-time calculation of ground motion is replaced by simple extractions of appropriate Green's functions from the database and multiplication with the moment tensor. In our current implementation, we use waveform records at stations from the Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology (BATS) and earthquake epicenters (latitudes and longitudes) from alerts issued by the early warning system at the Central Weather Bureau of Taiwan. We also take the effects of surface topography and site amplification into account to further improve the reality and accuracy of the ground motion estimations. Shake movies and shake maps can also be generated automatically for quick assessment of earthquake intensity and damage distribution, disaster relief operation, and public information dissemination.

Zhao, L.; Hsieh, M.; Liang, W.; Tsai, C.

2011-12-01

36

Can mobile phones used in strong motion seismology?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) accelerometers are electromechanical devices able to measure static or dynamic accelerations. In the 1990s MEMS accelerometers revolutionized the automotive-airbag system industry and are currently widely used in laptops, game controllers and mobile phones. Nowadays MEMS accelerometers seems provide adequate sensitivity, noise level and dynamic range to be applicable to earthquake strong motion acquisition. The current use of 3 axes MEMS accelerometers in mobile phone maybe provide a new means to easy increase the number of observations when a strong earthquake occurs. However, before utilize the signals recorded by a mobile phone equipped with a 3 axes MEMS accelerometer for any scientific porpoise, it is fundamental to verify that the signal collected provide reliable records of ground motion. For this reason we have investigated the suitability of the iPhone 5 mobile phone (one of the most popular mobile phone in the world) for strong motion acquisition. It is provided by several MEMS devise like a three-axis gyroscope, a three-axis electronic compass and a the LIS331DLH three-axis accelerometer. The LIS331DLH sensor is a low-cost high performance three axes linear accelerometer, with 16 bit digital output, produced by STMicroelectronics Inc. We have tested the LIS331DLH MEMS accelerometer using a vibrating table and the EpiSensor FBA ES-T as reference sensor. In our experiments the reference sensor was rigidly co-mounted with the LIS331DHL MEMS sensor on the vibrating table. We assessment the MEMS accelerometer in the frequency range 0.2-20 Hz, typical range of interesting in strong motion seismology and earthquake engineering. We generate both constant and damped sine waves with central frequency starting from 0.2 Hz until 20 Hz with step of 0.2 Hz. For each frequency analyzed we generate sine waves with mean amplitude 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1600 mg0. For damped sine waves we generate waveforms with initial amplitude of 2 g0. Our tests show as, in the frequency and amplitude range analyzed (0.2-20 Hz, 10-2000 mg0), the LIS331DLH MEMS accelerometer have excellent frequency and phase response, comparable with that of some standard FBA accelerometer used in strong motion seismology. However, we found that the signal recorded by the LIS331DLH MEMS accelerometer slightly underestimates the real acceleration (of about 2.5%). This suggests that may be important to calibrate a MEMS sensor before using it in scientific applications. A drawback of the LIS331DLH MEMS accelerometer is its low sensitivity. This is an important limitation of all the low cost MEMS accelerometers; therefore nowadays they are desirable to use only in strong motion seismology. However, the rapid development of this technology will lead in the coming years to the development of high sensitivity and low noise digital MEMS sensors that may be replace the current seismic accelerometer used in seismology. Actually, the real main advantage of these sensors is their common use in the mobile phones.

D'Alessandro, Antonino; D'Anna, Giuseppe

2013-04-01

37

Oscillating molecular dipoles require strongly correlated electronic and nuclear motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To create an oscillating electric dipole in an homonuclear diatomic cation without an oscillating driver one needs (i) to break the symmetry of the system and (ii) to sustain highly correlated electronic and nuclear motion. Based on numerical simulations in H2+ we present results for two schemes. In the first one (i) is achieved by creating a superposition of symmetric and antisymmetric electronic states freely evolving, while (ii) fails. In a second scheme, by preparing the system in a dressed state of a strong static field, both conditions hold. We then analyze the robustness of this scheme with respect to features of the nuclear wave function and its intrinsic sources of decoherence.

Chang, Bo Y.; Shin, Seokmin; Palacios, Alicia; Martín, Fernando; Sola, Ignacio R.

2015-02-01

38

Overview of SMIP (Strong Motion Instrumentation Program) strong motion records from the Loma Prieta earthquake 17 October 1989  

SciTech Connect

A total of 125 strong-motion records were recovered from 93 stations of the California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP). The 93 stations include 53 ground-response stations and 40 extensively instrumented structures. The most distant stations were approximately 175 km (105 miles) from the epicenter. Twenty-five records were obtained within 40 km (24 miles) of the epicenter. The closest SMIP station is Corralitos, located very close to the San Andreas fault and near the center of the aftershock zone. A peak horizontal acceleration of 65 percent g was recorded at this station. This is the first record from the nearfield of a magnitude 7 earthquake in California. Three other stations, Santa Cruz, Capitola, and Watsonville, within 20 km (12 miles) of the epicenter, recorded the shaking in the heavily damaged coastal area. Peak horizontal accelerations ranged from 40 percent g at Watsonville to 54 percent g at Capitola. All four of these stations recorded high vertical accelerations ranging from 40 percent g at Santa Cruz to 60 percent g at Capitola. Nine SMIP stations recorded the ground motion in the City of San Francisco with peak horizontal accelerations ranging from 9 percent to 21 percent g. Stations located on Yerba Buena Island and Treasure Island form a rock/soil pair that recorded peak horizontal accelerations of 6 percent and 16 percent g, respectively. In Oakland two stations recorded the ground motion of 26 percent and 29 percent g suggesting a similar level of shaking at the I-880 Freeway and at the east end of the damaged San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge.

Reichle, M.; Darragh, R.; Cao, T.; Sherburne, R.; Shakal, A.

1990-01-01

39

Database for earthquake strong motion studies in Italy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We describe an Italian database of strong ground motion recordings and databanks delineating conditions at the instrument sites and characteristics of the seismic sources. The strong motion database consists of 247 corrected recordings from 89 earthquakes and 101 recording stations. Uncorrected recordings were drawn from public web sites and processed on a record-by-record basis using a procedure utilized in the Next-Generation Attenuation (NGA) project to remove instrument resonances, minimize noise effects through low- and high-pass filtering, and baseline correction. The number of available uncorrected recordings was reduced by 52% (mostly because of s-triggers) to arrive at the 247 recordings in the database. The site databank includes for every recording site the surface geology, a measurement or estimate of average shear wave velocity in the upper 30 m (Vs30), and information on instrument housing. Of the 89 sites, 39 have on-site velocity measurements (17 of which were performed as part of this study using SASW techniques). For remaining sites, we estimate Vs30 based on measurements on similar geologic conditions where available. Where no local velocity measurements are available, correlations with surface geology are used. Source parameters are drawn from databanks maintained (and recently updated) by Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and include hypocenter location and magnitude for small events (M< ??? 5.5) and finite source parameters for larger events. ?? 2009 A.S. Elnashai & N.N. Ambraseys.

Scasserra, G.; Stewart, J.P.; Kayen, R.E.; Lanzo, G.

2009-01-01

40

Future of the US National Strong-Motion Program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These reports are presented in response to a charge of the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (EHRP) Program Council of the U.S. Geological Survey to 'define the future of the USGS National Strong-Motion Program (NSMP)' (Appendix A). The council requested that a 'Vision Paper' and an 'Options Document' be prepared. Each of these reports is a separate document. The 'Executive Summary' of both reports is presented here under separate cover. The content of the reports and the executive summary is organized to the extent possible according to the main charges of the EHRP Program Council. Detailed evaluation of charges and questions posed by the Council with the benefit of modern GIS tools and the recent deliberations of three national workshops have yielded substantial new insight regarding the status of strong-motion measurement in the US. These reports are intended as an objective evaluation of the nation's need and capability to record the next major earthquake at locations of most significance for public safety.

Committee for the Future of the US National Strong-Motion Program

1997-01-01

41

GUIDELINES FOR UTILIZING STRONG-MOTION DATA FOR POST-EARTHQUAKE EVALUATION OF STRUCTURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes portions of the document, Guidelines for Using Strong-Motion Data for Postearthquake Response and Postearthquake Structural Evaluation, currently being developed by the Applied Technology Council for the California Geological Survey (formerly, California Division of Mines and Geology) Strong Motion Instrumentation Program 2000 Data Interpretation Project. The focus of the paper is on guidance for using strong- motion data

Christopher Rojahn; A. Gerald Brady; Craig D. Comartin

42

Mesh Creation and Strong Ground Motion Simulations in the Taipei Basin based upon the Spectral-Element Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong motion site responses as well as scenario earthquake studies are important tasks for earthquake hazard analysis within the Taipei metropolitan region. Taking the advantage of spectral-element method (SEM), the surface topography and subsurface structures, such as sedimentary basins, the Moho and the subducting plate, can be effectively incorporated in an SEM mesh. While for steep topography or a highly complex subsurface the mesh is seriously distorted, potentially leading to a numerically unstable problem. Here we show new techniques to incorporate topography and complex subsurface structures with successful benchmarks for the Taipei Basin. First, an additional doubling layer with variable grid size along depth axis is needed to have finer mesh configuration near the surface in order to save memory and computing time. A smoothed buffer map is then applied to reduce mesh distortion induced by steep surface topography. Finally, we adjusted the nodes of the basin meshes to coincide with the complex geometry of the basement boundary in the Taipei Basin. With this high resolution model, seismic responses from SEM based 3D simulation show that the ground motion within the Taipei Basin is strongly depends on the source frequency and basin geometry. The amplification of ground motion is mainly controlled by the depth of the basin. The lateral variations of S wave velocity also play an important role in modeling site amplification phenomena. Our results indicate that a high resolution topography mesh that follows most of the DTM data can be achieved. Large lateral variations in subsurface boundaries can also be careful defined by adjusting the nodes of the affected elements. With these developments, the spectral-element mesh readily deals with the complex subsurface in the Taipei metropolitan region, such as steep topography, complex basin structure, Moho and even the subducting plate beneath northern Taiwan. It will be straightforward to apply these techniques to build a model for all of Taiwan or other to study other regions with complex subsurface structures.

Lee, S.; Tromp, J.; Chen, H.; Huang, B.

2005-12-01

43

On pads and filters: Processing strong-motion data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Processing of strong-motion data in many cases can be as straightforward as filtering the acceleration time series and integrating to obtain velocity and displacement. To avoid the introduction of spurious low-frequency noise in quantities derived from the filtered accelerations, however, care must be taken to append zero pads of adequate length to the beginning and end of the segment of recorded data. These padded sections of the filtered acceleration need to be retained when deriving velocities, displacements, Fourier spectra, and response spectra. In addition, these padded and filtered sections should also be included in the time series used in the dynamic analysis of structures and soils to ensure compatibility with the filtered accelerations.

Boore, D.M.

2005-01-01

44

Another Look at Strong Ground Motion Accelerations and Stress Drop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between earthquake stress drop and ground motion acceleration is central to seismic hazard analysis. We revisit measurements of root-mean-square (RMS) acceleration, arms, using KikNet accelerometer data from Japan. We directly measure RMS and peak acceleration, and estimate both apparent stress and corner frequencies using the empirical Green’s function (eGf) coda method of Baltay et al. [2010]. We predict armsfrom corner frequency and stress drop following McGuire and Hanks [1980] to compare with measurements. The theoretical relationship does a good job of predicting observed arms. We use four earthquake sequences in Japan to investigate the source parameters and accelerations: the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi earthquake; the off-Kamaishi repeating sequence; and the 2004 and 2007 Niigata events. In each data set, we choose events that are nearly co-located so that the path term to any station is constant. Small events are used as empirical Green’s functions to correct for propagation effects. For all sequences, we find that the apparent stress averages ~1 MPa for most events. Corner frequencies are consistent with Mo-1/3 scaling. We find the ratio of stress drop and apparent stress to be 5, consistent with the theoretical derivation of Singh and Ordaz [1994], using a Brune [1970] spectra. armsis theoretically proportional to stress drop and the inverse square root of the corner frequency. We show that this calculation can be used as a proxy for armsobservations from strong motion records, using recent data from the four earthquake sequences mentioned above. Even for the Iwate-Miyagi mainshock, which experienced over 4 g’s of acceleration, we find that apparent stress, stress drop and corner frequency follow expected scaling laws and support self-similarity.

Baltay, A.; Prieto, G.; Ide, S.; Hanks, T. C.; Beroza, G. C.

2010-12-01

45

High-frequency filtering of strong-motion records  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The influence of noise in strong-motion records is most problematic at low and high frequencies where the signal to noise ratio is commonly low compared to that in the mid-spectrum. The impact of low-frequency noise (5 Hz) on computed pseudo-absolute response spectral accelerations (PSAs). In contrast to the case of low-frequency noise our analysis shows that filtering to remove high-frequency noise is only necessary in certain situations and that PSAs can often be used up to 100 Hz even if much lower high-cut corner frequencies are required to remove the noise. This apparent contradiction can be explained by the fact that PSAs are often controlled by ground accelerations associated with much lower frequencies than the natural frequency of the oscillator because path and site attenuation (often modelled by Q and ?, respectively) have removed the highest frequencies. We demonstrate that if high-cut filters are to be used, then their corner frequencies should be selected on an individual basis, as has been done in a few recent studies.

Douglas, J.; Boore, D.M.

2011-01-01

46

Perceptual Training Strongly Improves Visual Motion Perception in Schizophrenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schizophrenia patients exhibit perceptual and cognitive deficits, including in visual motion processing. Given that cognitive systems depend upon perceptual inputs, improving patients' perceptual abilities may be an effective means of cognitive intervention. In healthy people, motion perception can be enhanced through perceptual learning, but it…

Norton, Daniel J.; McBain, Ryan K.; Ongur, Dost; Chen, Yue

2011-01-01

47

Strong ground motions generated by earthquakes on creeping faults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tenet of earthquake science is that faults are locked in position until they abruptly slip during the sudden strain-relieving events that are earthquakes. Whereas it is expected that locked faults when they finally do slip will produce noticeable ground shaking, what is uncertain is how the ground shakes during earthquakes on creeping faults. Creeping faults are rare throughout much of the Earth's continental crust, but there is a group of them in the San Andreas fault system. Here we evaluate the strongest ground motions from the largest well-recorded earthquakes on creeping faults. We find that the peak ground motions generated by the creeping fault earthquakes are similar to the peak ground motions generated by earthquakes on locked faults. Our findings imply that buildings near creeping faults need to be designed to withstand the same level of shaking as those constructed near locked faults.

Harris, Ruth A.; Abrahamson, Norman A.

2014-06-01

48

Probabilistic Motion Planning of Balloons in Strong, Uncertain Wind Fields  

E-print Network

existing methods. I. INTRODUCTION This report presents a new method for 3D motion planning of Montgolfier. Further, our method accepts arbitrary, 3D, even time-varyin for Montgolfier´e balloons in the atmosphere of Titan. The goal of the algorithm is to determine what altitude

Williams, Brian C.

49

Site Characterization of Italian Strong Motion Recording Stations  

SciTech Connect

A dataset of site conditions at 101 Italian ground motion stations with recorded motions has been compiled that includes geologic characteristics and seismic velocities. Geologic characterization is derived principally from local geologic investigations by ENEL that include detailed mapping and cross sections. For sites lacking such detailed geologic characterization, the geology maps of the by Servizio Geologico d'Italia are used. Seismic velocities are extracted from the literature and the files of consulting engineers, geologists and public agencies for 33 sites. Data sources utilized include post earthquake site investigations (Friuli and Irpinia events), microzonation studies, and miscellaneous investigations performed by researchers or consulting engineers/geologists. Additional seismic velocities are measured by the authors using the controlled source spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) method for 18 sites that recorded the 1997-1998 Umbria Marche earthquake sequence. The compiled velocity measurements provide data for 51 of the 101 sites. For the remaining sites, the average seismic velocity in the upper 30 m (V{sub s30}) is estimated using a hybrid approach. For young Quaternary alluvium, V{sub s30} an existing empirical relationship for California sites by Wills and Clahan (2006) is used, which we justify by validating this relationship against Italian data. For Tertiary Limestone and Italian Mesozoic rocks, empirical estimates of V{sub s30} are developed using the available data. This work is also presented in Scasserra et al. (2008: JEE, in review)

Scasserra, Giuseppe; Lanzo, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Strutturale e Geotecnica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Via A. Gramsci 53, 00197, Rome (Italy); Stewart, Jonathan P. [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, 5731 Boelter Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Kayen, Robert E. [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California (United States)

2008-07-08

50

Synthetic strong ground motions for engineering design utilizing empirical Green`s functions  

SciTech Connect

We present a methodology for developing realistic synthetic strong ground motions for specific sites from specific earthquakes. We analyzed the possible ground motion resulting from a M = 7.25 earthquake that ruptures 82 km of the Hayward fault for a site 1.4 km from the fault in the eastern San Francisco Bay area. We developed a suite of 100 rupture scenarios for the Hayward fault earthquake and computed the corresponding strong ground motion time histories. We synthesized strong ground motion with physics-based solutions of earthquake rupture and applied physical bounds on rupture parameters. By having a suite of rupture scenarios of hazardous earthquakes for a fixed magnitude and identifying the hazard to the site from the statistical distribution of engineering parameters, we introduce a probabilistic component into the deterministic hazard calculation. Engineering parameters of synthesized ground motions agree with those recorded from the 1995 Kobe, Japan and the 1992 Landers, California earthquakes at similar distances and site geologies.

Hutchings, L.J.; Jarpe, S.P.; Kasameyer, P.W.; Foxall, W.

1996-04-11

51

The role of strong motion rotations in the response of structures near earthquake faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early studies of earthquake strong motion assumed linear materials and small deformations. It was observed that under favorable conditions (long waves), the accompanying rotational motions are usually small, and so their effects could be neglected. In 1932, when Biot opted for the vibrational method of solution of the dynamic response problems [Trifunac MD. 75th anniversary of the response spectrum method—a

Mihailo D. Trifunac

2009-01-01

52

Comparisons of ground motions from five aftershocks of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake with empirical predictions largely based on data from California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The observed ground motions from five large aftershocks of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake are compared with predictions from four equations based primarily on data from California. The four equations for active tectonic regions are those developed by Abrahamson and Silva (1997), Boore et al. (1997), Campbell (1997, 2001), and Sadigh et al. (1997). Comparisons are made for horizontal-component peak ground accelerations and 5%-damped pseudoacceleration response spectra at periods between 0.02 sec and 5 sec. The observed motions are in reasonable agreement with the predictions, particularly for distances from 10 to 30 km. This is in marked contrast to the motions from the Chi-Chi mainshock, which are much lower than the predicted motions for periods less than about 1 sec. The results indicate that the low motions in the mainshock are not due to unusual, localized absorption of seismic energy, because waves from the mainshock and the aftershocks generally traverse the same section of the crust and are recorded at the same stations. The aftershock motions at distances of 30-60 km are somewhat lower than the predictions (but not nearly by as small a factor as those for the mainshock), suggesting that the ground motion attenuates more rapidly in this region of Taiwan than it does in the areas we compare with it. We provide equations for the regional attenuation of response spectra, which show increasing decay of motion with distance for decreasing oscillator periods. This observational study also demonstrates that ground motions have large earthquake-location-dependent variability for a specific site. This variability reduces the accuracy with which an earthquake-specific prediction of site response can be predicted. Online Material: PGAs and PSAs from the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake and five aftershocks.

Wang, G.-Q.; Boore, D.M.; Igel, H.; Zhou, X.-Y.

2004-01-01

53

44444444 00000000 EE-21C, Topic 2: Strong Ground Motion, Engineering Seismology, Earthquake Hazard and Risk Assessment  

E-print Network

TTT222 44444444 00000000 EE-21C, Topic 2: Strong Ground Motion, Engineering Seismology, Earthquake Yugoslav Republic Of (2005)" #12;EE-21C, Topic 2: Strong Ground Motion, Engineering Seismology, Earthquake

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

54

Strong motion uncertainty determined from observed records by dense network in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variation of ground motions at specific stations from events in six narrow areas was inspected by using K-NET and KiK-net records. A source-area factor for individual observation stations was calculated by averaging ratios between observed values for horizontal peak acceleration and velocity, as well as acceleration response spectra for 5% damping, and predicted values using a ground-motion model (usually known as an attenuation relation) by Kanno et al. (Bull Seismol Soc Am, 96:879 897, 2006). Standard deviations between observed and predicted amplitudes after the correction factor are less than 0.2 on the logarithmic scale and decrease down to around 0.15 in the short-period range. Intra-event standard deviation clearly increases with decreasing distance due to differing paths around near source area. Standard deviations may increase with amplitude or decrease with magnitude; however, both amplitude and magnitude of the data are strongly correlated with distance. The standard deviation calculated in this study is obviously much smaller than that of the original ground-motion model, as epistemic uncertainties are minimized by grouping ground motions at specific stations. This result indicates that the accuracy of strong ground motion prediction could be improved if ground-motion models for specified region are determined individually. For this to be possible, it is necessary to have dense strong-motion networks in high-seismicity regions, such as K-NET and KiK-net.

Morikawa, Nobuyuki; Kanno, Tatsuo; Narita, Akira; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki; Okumura, Toshihiko; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Guerpinar, Aybars

2008-10-01

55

Current Status of Strong-Motion Monitoring and Notification at the United States Bureau of Reclamation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Acquisition of strong motion data at the Bureau of Reclamation provides near real time notification of strong shaking at our\\u000a structures as well as recordings of earthquakes for use in the dynamic analyses of large, engineered structures. To facilitate\\u000a rapid notification following strong ground shaking, we have developed a low-cost, automated system to retrieve event-triggered\\u000a seismic waveform data from digital

Chris Wood; Andy Viksne; Jon Ake; David Copeland

56

A study of the strong ground motion of the western Hidaka, Hokkaido earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An attempt is made to model strong ground motion from the western Hidaka earthquake of January 23, 1981. First, the source parameters for this event are obtained from a study of teleseismic P and S waves. Parameter values are: focal depth = 110 km, fault strike = 248, dip angle = 80, rake angle = 97, source process time = 3-4 sec, and seismic moment = 2.2 x 10 to the 26th power dyne-cm. Then synthetic strong-motion seismograms are calculated for the source parameters obtained and the assumed plane-layered earth model. These seismograms are compared with the observed JMA strong-motion seismograms at seven stations in Hokkaido. The duration and amplitude behavior of observed strong-motion can be explained by the simple source and earth models, except data from Tomakomai, Urakawa and Obihiro whose observed seismograms show waves with abnormally large amplitude after the direct S wave arrival. These abnormal strong-motions may be due to propagational effects introduced by local crustal structure.

Sasatani, T.

1985-10-01

57

A strong-motion database from the Central American subduction zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subduction earthquakes along the Pacific Coast of Central America generate considerable seismic risk in the region. The quantification\\u000a of the hazard due to these events requires the development of appropriate ground-motion prediction equations, for which purpose\\u000a a database of recordings from subduction events in the region is indispensable. This paper describes the compilation of a\\u000a comprehensive database of strong ground-motion

Maria Cristina Arango; Fleur O. Strasser; Julian J. Bommer; Douglas A. Hernández; Jose M. Cepeda

2011-01-01

58

A strong-motion database from the Peru–Chile subduction zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthquake hazard along the Peru–Chile subduction zone is amongst the highest in the world. The development of a database\\u000a of subduction-zone strong-motion recordings is, therefore, of great importance for ground-motion prediction in this region.\\u000a Accelerograms recorded by the different networks operators in Peru and Chile have been compiled and processed in a uniform\\u000a manner, and information on the source parameters

Maria C. Arango; Fleur O. Strasser; Julian J. Bommer; Ruben Boroschek; Diana Comte; Hernando Tavera

2011-01-01

59

Strong Motion Instrumentation of Seismically-Strengthened Port Structures in California by CSMIP  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP) has instrumented five port structures. Instrumentation of two more port structures is underway and another one is in planning. Two of the port structures have been seismically strengthened. The primary goals of the strong motion instrumentation are to obtain strong earthquake shaking data for verifying seismic analysis procedures and strengthening schemes, and for post-earthquake evaluations of port structures. The wharves instrumented by CSMIP were recommended by the Strong Motion Instrumentation Advisory Committee, a committee of the California Seismic Safety Commission. Extensive instrumentation of a wharf is difficult and would be impossible without the cooperation of the owners and the involvement of the design engineers. The instrumentation plan for a wharf is developed through study of the retrofit plans of the wharf, and the strong-motion sensors are installed at locations where specific instrumentation objectives can be achieved and access is possible. Some sensor locations have to be planned during design; otherwise they are not possible to install after construction. This paper summarizes the two seismically-strengthened wharves and discusses the instrumentation schemes and objectives. ?? 2009 ASCE.

Huang, M.J.; Shakal, A.F.

2009-01-01

60

Magnitude determination using strong ground motion attenuation in earthquake early warning  

E-print Network

Click Here for Full Article Magnitude determination using strong ground motion attenuation. This relationship can be used to dynamically define a "Mpga magnitude" for earthquakes using earthquake locations determined by earthquake early warning process. The Mpga magnitude using this strongmotion attenuation

Wu, Yih-Min

61

Magnitude estimation using the covered areas of strong ground motion in earthquake early warning  

E-print Network

Click Here for Full Article Magnitude estimation using the covered areas of strong ground motion the area of high PGA and the corresponding earthquake magnitude. We found that the logarithms of the areas inside the PGA contours have a linear relation to the corresponding earthquake magnitudes. We propose

Wu, Yih-Min

62

Simulations of Strong Ground Motion in the Los Angeles Basin Using the Spectral-Element Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the spectral-element method (SEM) to simulate strong ground motion in the Los Angeles basin. Our basin velocity model was constructed using sonic log and stacking velocity information provided by oil industry sources. The method includes effects due to attenuation, topography and bathymetry. The basin model is embedded into the regional model of Hauksson (2000). Our mesh honors the

D. Komatitsch; Q. Liu; J. Tromp; P. Suess; J. Shaw

2003-01-01

63

THE EMILIA THRUST EARTHQUAKE OF 20 MAY 2012 (NORTHERN ITALY): STRONG MOTION AND GEOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS  

E-print Network

1 THE EMILIA THRUST EARTHQUAKE OF 20 MAY 2012 (NORTHERN ITALY): STRONG MOTION AND GEOLOGICAL INTRODUCTION On 20 May 2012, at 02:03:53 (UTC), Northern Italy was struck by an earthquake of magnitude Ml 5 with Ml 4.8. Eleven events with magnitude 4.0 Ml 4.5, plus several other minor earthquakes, occurred

Fleskes, Joe

64

Study on the effect of the oceanic water layer on strong ground motion simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effect of the oceanic water layer on strong ground motion simulations. Source faults of subduction zone earthquakes, such as the Nankai-Tonankai earthquake, West Japan, are situated in the offshore area, under a thick water layer. The necessity of including the oceanic water layer in the velocity model for simulations employing the finite difference method is debated by

A. Petukhin; T. Iwata; T. Kagawa

2010-01-01

65

Renewal of K-NET (National Strong-motion Observation Network of Japan)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) operates K-NET (Kyoshin Network), the national strong-motion observation network, which evenly covers the whole of Japan at intervals of 25 km on average. K-NET was constructed after the Hyogoken-Nambu (Kobe) earthquake in January 1995, and began operation in June 1996. Thus, eight years have passed since K-NET started, and large amounts of strong-motion records have been obtained. As technology has progressed and new technologies have become available, NIED has developed a new K-NET with improved functionality. New seismographs have been installed at 443 observatories mainly in southwestern Japan where there is a risk of strong-motion due to the Nankai and Tonankai earthquakes. The new system went into operation in June 2004, although seismographs have still to be replaced in other areas. The new seismograph (K-NET02) consists of a sensor module, a measurement module and a communication module. A UPS, a GPS antenna and a dial-up router are also installed together with a K-NET02. A triaxial accelerometer, FBA-ES-DECK (Kinemetrics Inc.) is built into the sensor module. The measurement module functions as a conventional strong-motion seismograph for high-precision observation. The communication module can perform sophisticated processes, such as calculation of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) seismic intensity, continuous recording of data and near real-time data transmission. It connects to the Data Management Center (DMC) using an ISDN line. In case of a power failure, the measurement module can control the power supply to the router and the communication module to conserve battery power. One of the main features of K-NET02 is a function for processing JMA seismic intensity. K-NET02 functions as a proper seismic intensity meter that complies with the official requirements of JMA, although the old strong-motion seismograph (K-NET95) does not calculate seismic intensity. Another feature is near real-time data transmission. When a K-NET02 detects a strong-motion, it can automatically connect to the DMC in 2 to 5 seconds and then transmits seismic data. Furthermore, the full-scale is improved from 2000 gals to 4000 gals and the dynamic range of AD conversion is more than 132 dB. Strong-motion records of the new K-NET are available at: http://www.kyoshin.bosai.go.jp/

Kunugi, T.; Fujiwara, H.; Aoi, S.; Adachi, S.

2004-12-01

66

Synthesis of strong motions by using an aftershock record as the Green's function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method to synthesize strong ground motions by using aftershock records as Green's functions was developed to reproduce the high-frequency components of the main shock. We call it a random slip model, and have applied it to three large earthquakes, the east off-Izu Peninsula earthquake of 1980 ( M = 6.7), the off-Urakawa earthquake of 1982 ( M = 7.1) and the Central Japan Sea earthquake of 1983 ( M = 7.7). Seismic intensities at six stations during the earthquakes analyzed here were from I to VI on the JMA (Japan Meteorological Agency) scale. All the aftershock seismograms used as Green's functions in the present study were recorded by velocity-type strong-motion seismographs with a large dynamic range over a wide frequency range. A few main-shock seismograms were recorded by seismographs similar to those mentioned above; the rest were recorded by other types of strong-motion seismographs e.g. the SMAC (strong-motion accelerograph) and JMA strong-motion seismographs. From a comparison of the synthetic with the observed seismograms of the main shock, we conclude the following: (1) Using the record of an adequate aftershock and an adequate source model, we can satisfactorily reproduce any observed seismogram of the main shock. (2) The conditions for an adequate aftershock are that the hypocenter is located in the central part of the main-shock fault, and that the mechanism is similar to that of the main shock. (3) The high-frequency waves contained in the main-shock seismograms are reproduced by the random slip model up to 5 Hz for records at every station. (4) By considering a multiple-shock source model, we can fit the synthetic to the observed seismograms for two large earthquakes with magnitudes ( Mj) larger than 7.

Murumatu, I.; Ohnuma, H.

1988-06-01

67

A strong-motion database from the Peru-Chile subduction zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake hazard along the Peru-Chile subduction zone is amongst the highest in the world. The development of a database of subduction-zone strong-motion recordings is, therefore, of great importance for ground-motion prediction in this region. Accelerograms recorded by the different networks operators in Peru and Chile have been compiled and processed in a uniform manner, and information on the source parameters of the causative earthquakes, fault-plane geometries and local site conditions at the recording stations has been collected and reviewed to obtain high-quality metadata. The compiled database consists of 98 triaxial ground-motion recordings from 15 subduction-type events with moment magnitudes ranging from 6.3 to 8.4, recorded at 59 different sites in Peru and Chile, between 1966 and 2007. While the database presented in this study is not sufficient for the derivation of a new predictive equation for ground motions from subduction events in the Peru-Chile region, it significantly expands the global database of strong-motion data and associated metadata that can be used in the derivation of predictive equations for subduction environments. Additionally, the compiled database will allow the assessment of existing predictive models for subduction-type events in terms of their suitability for the Peru-Chile region, which directly influences seismic hazard assessment in this region.

Arango, Maria C.; Strasser, Fleur O.; Bommer, Julian J.; Boroschek, Ruben; Comte, Diana; Tavera, Hernando

2011-01-01

68

Hanford strong motion accelerometer network: A summary of the first year of operation  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Seismic Monitoring Network consists of two designs of equipment and sites: seismometer sites and strong motion accelerometer (SMA) sites. Seismometer sites are designed to locate earthquakes on and near the Hanford Site and determine their magnitude and hypocenter location. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards (DOE 1993) requires that facilities or sites that have structures or components in Performance Category 2 with hazardous material, and all Performance Category 3 and 4 facilities shall have instrumentation or other means to detect and record the occurrence and severity of seismic events. In order to comply with DOE Order 5480.28, the Hanford Seismic Monitoring Network seismometer sites needed to be complemented with strong motion accelerometers to record the ground motion at specific sites. The combined seismometer sites and strong motion accelerometer sites provide the Hanford Site with earthquake information to comply with DOE Order 5480.28. The data from these instruments will be used by the PHMC staff to assess the damage to facilities following a significant earthquake.

Conrads, T.J.

1997-09-22

69

Coupled cavities for motional ground-state cooling and strong optomechanical coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motional ground-state cooling and quantum-coherent manipulation of mesoscopic mechanical systems are crucial goals in both fundamental physics and applied science. We demonstrate that the motional ground state can be achieved in the highly unresolved sideband regime, through coherent auxiliary cavity interferences. We further illustrate coherent strong Rabi coupling between indirectly coupled and individually optimized mechanical resonators and optical cavities through effective dark-mode interaction. The proposed approach provides a platform for quantum manipulation of mesoscopic mechanical devices beyond the resolved sideband limit.

Liu, Yong-Chun; Xiao, Yun-Feng; Luan, Xingsheng; Gong, Qihuang; Wong, Chee Wei

2015-03-01

70

Comparison of damping in buildings under low-amplitude and strong motions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of damping values and other dynamic characteristics of five buildings using strong-motion and low-amplitude (ambient vibration) data. The strong-motion dynamic characteristics of five buildings within the San Francisco Bay area are extracted from recordings of the 17 October 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (LPE). Ambient vibration response characteristics for the same five buildings were inferred using data collected in 1990 following LPE. Additional earthquake data other than LPE for one building and ambient vibration data collected before LPE for two other buildings provide additional confirmation of the results obtained. For each building, the percentages of critical damping and the corresponding fundamental periods determined from low-amplitude test data are appreciably lower than those determined from strong-motion recordings. These differences are attributed mainly to soil-structure interaction and other non-linear behavior affecting the structures during strong shaking. Significant contribution of radiation damping to the effective damping of a specific building is discussed in detail.

Celebi, M.

1996-01-01

71

ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 427, Vol. 39, No. 4, December 2002, pp. 273-310 EMPIRICAL SCALING OF STRONG EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION  

E-print Network

ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 427, Vol. 39, No. 4, December 2002, pp. 273-310 EMPIRICAL SCALING OF STRONG EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION - PART III: SYNTHETIC STRONG MOTION V.W. Lee Civil A comprehensive and general method for the prediction of strong motion amplitudes, developed by Strong Motion

Gupta, Vinay Kumar

72

Chapter A. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Strong Ground Motion  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Strong ground motion generated by the Loma Prieta, Calif., earthquake (MS~7.1) of October 17, 1989, resulted in at least 63 deaths, more than 3,757 injuries, and damage estimated to exceed $5.9 billion. Strong ground motion severely damaged critical lifelines (freeway overpasses, bridges, and pipelines), caused severe damage to poorly constructed buildings, and induced a significant number of ground failures associated with liquefaction and landsliding. It also caused a significant proportion of the damage and loss of life at distances as far as 100 km from the epicenter. Consequently, understanding the characteristics of the strong ground motion associated with the earthquake is fundamental to understanding the earthquake's devastating impact on society. The papers assembled in this chapter address this problem. Damage to vulnerable structures from the earthquake varied substantially with the distance from the causative fault and the type of underlying geologic deposits. Most of the damage and loss of life occurred in areas underlain by 'soft soil'. Quantifying these effects is important for understanding the tragic concentrations of damage in such areas as Santa Cruz and the Marina and Embarcadero Districts of San Francisco, and the failures of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge and the Interstate Highway 880 overpass. Most importantly, understanding these effects is a necessary prerequisite for improving mitigation measures for larger earthquakes likely to occur much closer to densely urbanized areas in the San Francisco Bay region. The earthquake generated an especially important data set for understanding variations in the severity of strong ground motion. Instrumental strong-motion recordings were obtained at 131 sites located from about 6 to 175 km from the rupture zone. This set of recordings, the largest yet collected for an event of this size, was obtained from sites on various geologic deposits, including a unique set on 'soft soil' deposits (artificial fill and bay mud). These exceptional ground-motion data are used by the authors of the papers in this chapter to infer radiation characteristics of the earthquake source, identify dominant propagation characteristics of the Earth?s crust, quantify amplification characteristics of near-surface geologic deposits, develop general amplification factors for site-dependent building-code provisions, and revise earthquake-hazard assessments for the San Francisco Bay region. Interpretations of additional data recorded in well-instrumented buildings, dams, and freeway overpasses are provided in other chapters of this report.

Borcherdt, Roger D.

1994-01-01

73

Performance of power generation facilities during past strong motion earthquakes and corresponding risk management strategies  

SciTech Connect

Damage to electric power systems during past strong motion earthquakes has resulted in substantial financial losses due to direct property damage as well as widespread power outages caused by system disturbances. Extra-high voltage (EHV) transmission apparatus has consistently sustained the great damage while distribution system losses are generally well correlated with the performance of surrounding structures and infrastructure. Power generating stations, however, have consistently out-performed transmission stations and, in many cases, were available for service upon restoration of the power grid. Furthermore, generating station vulnerabilities that could lead to earthquake losses can be identified and corrected by drawing on experience gained from their performance during past earthquakes. The relatively positive performance of engineered power generation facilities during past strong motion earthquakes has not been reflected in the earthquake insurance market. This paper presents a methodology for identifying and mitigating seismic risk with the intention of reducing both losses and, possibly, premiums.

Roche, T.R. [EQE International, Irvine, CA (United States); Bragagnolo, L.J.; Norton, A.B. [EQE International, San Francisco, CA (United States)

1996-11-01

74

Vision for the Future of the US National Strong-Motion Program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This document provides the requested vision for the future of the National Strong-Motion Program operated by the US Geological Survey. Options for operation of the program are presented in a companion document. Each of the three major charges of the EHRP, program council pertaining to the vision document is addressed here. The 'Vision Summary' through a series of answers to specific questions is intended to provide a complete synopsis of the committees response to program council charges. The Vision for the Future of the NSMP is presented as section III of the Summary. Analysis and detailed discussion supporting the answers in the summary are presented as sections organized according to the charges of the program council. The mission for the program is adopted from that developed at the national workshop entitled 'Research Needs for Strong Motion Data to Support Earthquake Engineering' sponsored by the National Science Foundation.

Committee for the Future of the US National Strong-Motion Program

1997-01-01

75

Before and after retrofit - response of a building during ambient and strong motions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper presents results obtained from ambient vibration and strong-motion responses of a thirteen-story, moment-resisting steel framed Santa Clara County Office Building (SCCOB) before being retrofitted by visco-elastic dampers and from ambient vibration response following the retrofit. Understanding the cumulative structural and site characteristics that affect the response of SCCOB before and after the retrofit is important in assessing earthquake hazards to other similar buildings and decision making in retrofitting them. The results emphasize the need to better evaluate structural and site characteristics in developing earthquake resisting designs that avoid resonating effects. Various studies of the strong-motion response records from the SCCOB during the 24 April 1984 (MHE) Morgan Hill (MS = 6.1), the 31 March 1986 (MLE) Mt. Lewis (MS = 6.1) and the 17 October 1989 (LPE) Loma Prieta (MS = 7.1) earthquakes show that the dynamic characteristics of the building are such that it (a) resonated (b) responded with a beating effect due to close-coupling of its translational and torsional frequencies, and (c) had a long-duration response due to low-damping. During each of these earthquakes, there was considerable contents damage and the occupants felt the rigorous vibration of the building. Ambient tests of SCCOB performed following LPE showed that both translational and torsional periods of the building are smaller than those derived from strong motions. Ambient tests performed following the retrofit of the building with visco-elastic dampers show that the structural fundamental mode frequency of the building has increased. The increased frequency implies a stiffer structure. Strong-motion response of the building during future earthquakes will ultimately validate the effectiveness of the retrofit method.This paper presents results obtained from ambient vibration and strong-motion responses of a thirteen-story, moment-resisting steel framed Santa Clara County Office Building (SCCOB) before being retrofitted by visco-elastic dampers and from ambient vibration response following the retrofit. Understanding the cumulative structural and site characteristics that affect the response of SCCOB before and after the retrofit is important in assessing earthquake hazards to other similar buildings and decision making in retrofitting them. The results emphasize the need to better evaluate structural and site characteristics in developing earthquake resisting designs that avoid resonating effects. Various studies of the strong-motion response records from the SCCOB during the 24 April 1984 (MHE) Morgan Hill (Ms = 6.1), the 31 March 1986 (MLE) Mt. Lewis (Ms = 6.1) and the 17 October 1989(LPE) Loma Prieta (Ms = 7.1) earthquakes show that the dynamic characteristics of the building are such that it (a) resonated (b) responded with a beating effect due to close-coupling of its translational and torsional frequencies, and (c) had a long-duration response due to low-damping. During each of these earthquakes, there was considerable contents damage and the occupants felt the rigorous vibration of the building. Ambient tests of SCCOB performed following LPE showed that both translational and torsional periods of the building are smaller than those derived from strong motions. Ambient tests performed following the retrofit of the building with visco-elastic dampers show that the structural fundamental mode frequency of the building has increased. The increased frequency implies a stiffer structure. Strong-motion response of the building during future earthquakes will ultimately validate the effectiveness of the retrofit method.

Celebi, M.; Liu, H.-P.

1998-01-01

76

The Influence of Strong-Motion Duration on the Seismic Response of Masonry Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of strong-motion duration on the response of saturated soils is clearly recognised and accounted for in the\\u000a assessment of liquefaction potential. The degree to which duration of shaking influences damage to structures, however, remains\\u000a a topic of debate, with resolution of the issue complicated by the variety of definitions of duration and the variety of structural\\u000a behaviours, as

Julian J. Bommer; Guido Magenes; Jonathan Hancock; Paola Penazzo

2004-01-01

77

STRONG-MOTION INSTRUMENTATION OF STRUCTURES IN CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA AND ELSEWHERE.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Instrumentation of structures is part of earthquake hazard mitigation program of many institutions, including the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The USGS Strong-Motion Instrumentation of Structures Program is designed to complement other programs and to implement its own, within budget and other constraints. This paper reviews the overall national effort, cites examples of structures implemented and describes progress made to date. A recent example of instrumentation of an eight-story building in Charleston, South Carolina is documented.

Celebi, M.; Maley, R.

1986-01-01

78

Renewal of K-NET (National Strong-motion Observation Network of Japan)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) operates K-NET (Kyoshin Network), the national strong-motion observation network, which evenly covers the whole of Japan at intervals of 25 km on average. K-NET was constructed after the Hyogoken-Nambu (Kobe) earthquake in January 1995, and began operation in June 1996. Thus, eight years have passed since K-NET started, and

T. Kunugi; H. Fujiwara; S. Aoi; S. Adachi

2004-01-01

79

Simulation of strong ground motion in northern Iran using the specific barrier model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, based upon the calibrated specific barrier model (SBM) against the latest available strong motion data, ground motion prediction equations for soil and rock sites in northern Iran are developed. The SBM may provide the most complete, simple and self-consistent description of the faulting process, which is applicable in both 'near-fault' and 'far-field' regions. Consequently, the SBM may provide consistent ground motion simulations over the entire necessary frequency range and for all distances of engineering interests. To determine source parameters in this study, we used 163 three-component records of 32 earthquakes with magnitude ranging from MW 4.9 to 7.4 in northern Iran. In the database, records with hypocentral distances less than 200 km are chosen and only earthquakes whose moment-magnitude estimates are available have been used. Furthermore, using the best available information, recording sites are classified into two main geologic categories: rock and soil. Because of the lack of site amplification information in the most regions of the world including Iran, we used the H/V ratio method for estimating the site amplification. Moreover, the Kappa factor that shows diminishing the high-frequency amplitude is determined. In this study, two data sets are considered for determining the source parameters (??G and ??L) and the H/V ratio and the Kappa factor. Only S-wave part of signals is used in each analysis. Regression analysis is performed using 'random effects' method that considers both interseismic (event-to-event) and coseismic (within-event) variabilities to effectively deal with the problem of weighting observations from different earthquakes. The residuals are controlled against available northern Iranian strong ground motion data to verify that the model predictions are unbiased and that there are no significant residual trends with magnitude and distance. At first, it is assumed that no sign of self-similarity breakdown is observed between the source radius and its seismic moment. After controlling the results, the modified SBM should be used as some deviations have been observed. To verify the robustness of the results, the number of observations is changed by removing various randomly selected data sets from the original database, which results in unchanged results of the model. Stochastic simulations are then implemented to predict peak ground motion and response spectra parameters. The stochastic SBM predictions are in relatively good agreement with other available attenuation relationships proposed for Iran, Europe and Middle East. It has been shown that the proposed SBM of this study provides unbiased ground motion estimates over the entire frequency range of most engineering applications. It provides a reliable and physically realistic, yet computationally efficient, way to model strong ground motions.

Soghrat, M. R.; Khaji, N.; Zafarani, H.

2012-02-01

80

The near-source strong-motion accelerograms recorded by an experimental array in Tangshan, China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A joint research project on strong-motion earthquake studies between the People's Republic of China and the United States is in progress. As a part of this project, an experimental strong-motion array, consisting of twelve Kinemetrics PDR-1 Digital Event Recorders, was deployed in the meizoseismal area of the Ms = 7.8 Tangshan earthquake of July 28, 1976. These instruments have automatic gain ranging, a specified dynamic range of 102 dB, a 2.5 s pre-event memory, programmable triggering, and are equipped with TCG-1B Time Code Generators with a stability of 3 parts in 107 over a range of 0-50??C. In 2 y of operation beginning July, 1982 a total of 603 near-source 3-component accelerograms were gathered from 243 earthquakes of magnitude ML = 1.2-5.3. Most of these accelerograms have recorded the initial P-wave. The configuration of the experimental array and a representative set of near-source strong-motion accelerograms are presented in this paper. The set of accelerograms exhibited were obtained during the ML = 5.3 Lulong earthquake of October 19, 1982, when digital event recorders were triggered. The epicentral distances ranged from 4 to 41 km and the corresponding range of peak horizontal accelerations was 0.232g to 0.009g. A preliminary analysis of the data indicates that compared to motions in the western United States, the peak acceleration attenuates much more rapidly in the Tangshan area. The scaling of peak acceleration with magnitude, however, is similar in the two regions. Data at more distant sites are needed to confirm the more rapid attenuation. ?? 1985.

Peng, K.; Xie, L.; Li, S.; Boore, D.M.; Iwan, W.D.; Teng, T.L.

1985-01-01

81

Near-field strong ground-motions during the September 12-13, 2007 Sumatran earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three K2 triaxial accelerometers were operating at 200 samples per second within the region of strong shaking during the recent Mw 8.4, Mw 7.9 and Mw 7.0 Sumatran earthquakes and the many smaller events that followed. Presently, records from two stations, Pulau Sikuai (PSKI) and Silabu (SLBU) have been processed. Station PSKI is located 392 and 165 km from the epicenters of the two larger earthquakes, near Padang. Station Silabu (SLBU) is very near the northwestern limit of rupture during the Mw 8.4 and in the direction of rupture propagation. SLBU is up-dip and ~50 km distant from the hypocenter of the Mw 7.9 earthquake, providing a near-field constraint on indications from teleseismic data that this event nucleated sharply. Despite this, peak horizontal acceleration was approx. 300 cm/s/s and peak horizontal velocity was approx. 70 cm/sec. The SLBU station includes a GPS receiver that is part of the Sumatran GPS Array (SuGAr). The GPS instrument recorded the two larger earthquakes at a 1 sample per second data rate. Data from both the accelerometer and GPS instrument are expected to enable a useful comparison of the records from seismic inertial sensors (accelerometers) and GPS recordings of strong ground motions. A third station called Malakone (MLKN) on Enganno island lies about 100 km southeast of the epicenter of the Mw 8.4 and in the back-azimuth direction, away from propagation of that rupture. Because these three stations are located along-strike of the several large to great events in this sequence, and in one case even immediately up-dip, these recordings may be expected to provide data that are useful for refining attenuation relations that are used in engineering and hazard mapping. Strong-motion data are available through the National Center for Engineering Strong Motion Data (http://strongmotioncenter.org).

Hudnut, K.; Galetzka, J.; Sieh, K.; Heaton, T.; Yang, J.; Genrich, J.; Briggs, R.; Stephens, C.; Boore, D.; Acosta, A.; Borsa, A.; Stark, K.

2007-12-01

82

Translational motion of two interacting bubbles in a strong acoustic field.  

PubMed

Using the Lagrangian formalism, equations of radial and translational motions of two coupled spherical gas bubbles have been derived up to terms of third order in the inverse distance between the bubbles. The equations of radial pulsations were then modified, for the purpose of allowing for effects of liquid compressibility, using Keller-Miksis' approach, and the equations of translation were added by viscous forces in the form of the Levich drag. This model was then used in a numerical investigation of the translational motion of two small, driven well below resonance, bubbles in strong acoustic fields with pressure amplitudes exceeding 1 bar. It has been found that, if the forcing is strong enough, the bubbles form a bound pair with a steady spacing rather than collide and coalesce, as classical Bjerknes theory predicts. Moreover, the viscous forces cause skewness in the system, which results in self-propulsion of the bubble pair. The latter travels as a unit along the center line in a direction that is determined by the ratio of the initial bubble radii. The results obtained are of immediate interest for understanding and modeling collective bubble phenomena in strong fields, such as acoustic cavitation streamers. PMID:11497693

Doinikov, A A

2001-08-01

83

Earthquake Strong Ground Motion Scenario at the 2008 Olympic Games Sites, Beijing, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historic earthquake record indicates mediate to strong earthquakes have been frequently hit greater Beijing metropolitan area where is going to host the 2008 summer Olympic Games. For the readiness preparation of emergency response to the earthquake shaking for a mega event in a mega city like Beijing in summer 2008, this paper tries to construct the strong ground motion scenario at a number of gymnasium sites for the 2008 Olympic Games. During the last 500 years (the Ming and Qing Dynasties) in which the historic earthquake record are thorough and complete, there are at least 12 earthquake events with the maximum intensity of VI or greater occurred within 100 km radius centered at the Tiananmen Square, the center of Beijing City. Numerical simulation of the seismic wave propagation and surface strong ground motion is carried out by the pseudospectral time domain methods with viscoelastic material properties. To improve the modeling efficiency and accuracy, a multi-scale approach is adapted: the seismic wave propagation originated from an earthquake rupture source is first simulated by a model with larger physical domain with coarser grids. Then the wavefield at a given plane is taken as the source input for the small-scale, fine grid model for the strong ground motion study at the sites. The earthquake source rupture scenario is based on two particular historic earthquake events: One is the Great 1679 Sanhe-Pinggu Earthquake (M~8, Maximum Intensity XI at the epicenter and Intensity VIII in city center)) whose epicenter is about 60 km ENE of the city center. The other one is the 1730 Haidian Earthquake (M~6, Maximum Intensity IX at the epicenter and Intensity VIII in city center) with the epicentral distance less than 20 km away from the city center in the NW Haidian District. The exist of the thick Tertiary-Quaternary sediments (maximum thickness ~ 2 km) in Beijing area plays a critical role on estimating the surface ground motion at the Olympic Games sites, which are most located north of the city center.

Liu, L.; Rohrbach, E. A.; Chen, Q.; Chen, Y.

2006-12-01

84

The Quake-Catcher Network: Improving Earthquake Strong Motion Observations Through Community Engagement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) involves the community in strong motion data collection by utilizing volunteer computing techniques and low-cost MEMS accelerometers. Volunteer computing provides a mechanism to expand strong-motion seismology with minimal infrastructure costs, while promoting community participation in science. Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) triaxial accelerometers can be attached to a desktop computer via USB and are internal to many laptops. Preliminary shake table tests show the MEMS accelerometers can record high-quality seismic data with instrument response similar to research-grade strong-motion sensors. QCN began distributing sensors and software to K-12 schools and the general public in April 2008 and has grown to roughly 1500 stations worldwide. We also recently tested whether sensors could be quickly deployed as part of a Rapid Aftershock Mobilization Program (RAMP) following the 2010 M8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake. Volunteers are recruited through media reports, web-based sensor request forms, as well as social networking sites. Using data collected to date, we examine whether a distributed sensing network can provide valuable seismic data for earthquake detection and characterization while promoting community participation in earthquake science. We utilize client-side triggering algorithms to determine when significant ground shaking occurs and this metadata is sent to the main QCN server. On average, trigger metadata are received within 1-10 seconds from the observation of a trigger; the larger data latencies are correlated with greater server-station distances. When triggers are detected, we determine if the triggers correlate to others in the network using spatial and temporal clustering of incoming trigger information. If a minimum number of triggers are detected then a QCN-event is declared and an initial earthquake location and magnitude is estimated. Initial analysis suggests that the estimated locations and magnitudes are similar to those reported in regional and global catalogs. As the network expands, it will become increasingly important to provide volunteers access to the data they collect, both to encourage continued participation in the network and to improve community engagement in scientific discourse related to seismic hazard. In the future, we hope to provide access to both images and raw data from seismograms in formats accessible to the general public through existing seismic data archives (e.g. IRIS, SCSN) and/or through the QCN project website. While encouraging community participation in seismic data collection, we can extend the capabilities of existing seismic networks to rapidly detect and characterize strong motion events. In addition, the dense waveform observations may provide high-resolution ground shaking information to improve source imaging and seismic risk assessment.

Cochran, E. S.; Lawrence, J. F.; Christensen, C. M.; Chung, A. I.; Neighbors, C.; Saltzman, J.

2010-12-01

85

Wind speed and direction shears with associated vertical motion during strong surface winds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Strong surface winds recorded at the NASA 150-Meter Ground Winds Tower facility at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, are analyzed to present occurrences representative of wind shear and vertical motion known to be hazardous to the ascent and descent of conventional aircraft and the Space Shuttle. Graphical (percentage frequency distributions) and mathematical (maximum, mean, standard deviation) descriptions of wind speed and direction shears and associated updrafts and downdrafts are included as functions of six vertical layers and one horizontal distance for twenty 5-second intervals of parameters sampled simultaneously at the rate of ten per second during a period of high surface winds.

Alexander, M. B.; Camp, D. W.

1984-01-01

86

The SCEC Broadband Platform: A Collaborative Open-Source Software Package for Strong Ground Motion Simulation and Validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Broadband Platform is a collaborative software development project involving SCEC researchers, graduate students, and the SCEC Community Modeling Environment. The SCEC Broadband Platform is open-source scientific software that can generate broadband (0-100Hz) ground motions for earthquakes, integrating complex scientific modules that implement rupture generation, low and high-frequency seismogram synthesis, non-linear site effects calculation, and visualization into a software system that supports easy on-demand computation of seismograms. The Broadband Platform operates in two primary modes: validation simulations and scenario simulations. In validation mode, the Broadband Platform runs earthquake rupture and wave propagation modeling software to calculate seismograms of a historical earthquake for which observed strong ground motion data is available. Also in validation mode, the Broadband Platform calculates a number of goodness of fit measurements that quantify how well the model-based broadband seismograms match the observed seismograms for a certain event. Based on these results, the Platform can be used to tune and validate different numerical modeling techniques. During the past year, we have modified the software to enable the addition of a large number of historical events, and we are now adding validation simulation inputs and observational data for 23 historical events covering the Eastern and Western United States, Japan, Taiwan, Turkey, and Italy. In scenario mode, the Broadband Platform can run simulations for hypothetical (scenario) earthquakes. In this mode, users input an earthquake description, a list of station names and locations, and a 1D velocity model for their region of interest, and the Broadband Platform software then calculates ground motions for the specified stations. By establishing an interface between scientific modules with a common set of input and output files, the Broadband Platform facilitates the addition of new scientific methods, which are written by earth scientists in a number of languages such as C, C++, Fortran, and Python. The Broadband Platform's modular design also supports the reuse of existing software modules as building blocks to create new scientific methods. Additionally, the Platform implements a wrapper around each scientific module, converting input and output files to and from the specific formats required (or produced) by individual scientific codes. Working in close collaboration with scientists and research engineers, the SCEC software development group continues to add new capabilities to the Broadband Platform and to release new versions as open-source scientific software distributions that can be compiled and run on many Linux computer systems. Our latest release includes the addition of 3 new simulation methods and several new data products, such as map and distance-based goodness of fit plots. Finally, as the number and complexity of scenarios simulated using the Broadband Platform increase, we have added batching utilities to substantially improve support for running large-scale simulations on computing clusters.

Silva, F.; Maechling, P. J.; Goulet, C.; Somerville, P.; Jordan, T. H.

2013-12-01

87

Preliminary results of strong ground motion simulation for the Lushan earthquake of 20 April 2013, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earthquake occurred in Lushan County on 20 April, 2013 caused heavy casualty and economic loss. In order to understand how the seismic energy propagates during this earthquake and how it causes the seismic hazard, we simulated the strong ground motions from a representative kinematic source model by Zhang et al. (Chin J Geophys 56(4):1408-1411, 2013) for this earthquake. To include the topographic effects, we used the curved grids finite difference method by Zhang and Chen (Geophys J Int 167(1):337-353, 2006), Zhang et al. (Geophys J Int 190(1):358-378, 2012) to implement the simulations. Our results indicated that the majority of seismic energy concentrated in the epicentral area and the vicinal Sichuan Basin, causing the XI and VII degree intensity. Due to the strong topographic effects of the mountain, the seismic intensity in the border area across the northeastern of Boxing County to the Lushan County also reached IX degree. Moreover, the strong influence of topography caused the amplifications of ground shaking at the mountain ridge, which is easy to cause landslides. These results are quite similar to those observed in the Wenchuan earthquake of 2008 occurred also in a strong topographic mountain area.

Zhu, Gengshang; Zhang, Zhenguo; Wen, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Xiaofei

2013-08-01

88

The Slapdown Phase in the Strong Motion Record for the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake (Mw 6.9, Mjma 7.2) produced strong shaking throughout northern Honshu, Japan with severe damage of buildings and extensive landslides. The shallow event occurred in southwestern Iwate prefecture (39.03N, 140.88E, depth 8 km) on June 13, 2008 at 23:43:45 GMT (JMA, 2008). This earthquake produced relatively high-frequency ground motions, which resulted in large values of PGA (peak ground acceleration). Station IWTH25 of KiK-net, located 3 km southwest of the epicenter, produced one of the largest strong-motion values of PGA (4278 cm/s/s for the vector sum of the three components) ever recorded. The surface acceleration record at the station IWTH25 shows an asymmetric amplification in the vertical components (Aoi et al., 2008). The upward vertical acceleration is much larger than the downward direction, although in the borehole record at a depth of 260 m at the same site, the upward and downward accelerations have symmetric amplitudes. On the other hand, the horizontal components do not show this asymmetric effect. This difference between the surface and borehole recordings for the vertical component implies a strong non-linear amplification. In this presentation, we will analyze these records and provide an explanation for the asymmetric amplification in the vertical acceleration. We interpret the large upward spikes in acceleration as slapdown phases, which are also typically observed in near-field recordings of nuclear explosion tests. The large upward acceleration is produced when a near-surface layer separates from the sublayer then returns, striking the separation surface. This effect is seen in a number of strong-motion records that have larger upward than downward accelerations. If we assume the near-surface layer returns to the original level, the separation gap is roughly 1 to 12 mm. Slapdown phases observed in the records of a nuclear explostion, 1985 Nahanni earthquake, and 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake.

Mori, J. J.; Yamada, M.; Heaton, T. H.

2009-12-01

89

Regional Characterization of the Crust in Metropolitan Areas for Prediction of Strong Ground Motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: After the 1995 Kobe earthquake, the Japanese government increased its focus and funding of earthquake hazards evaluation, studies of man-made structures integrity, and emergency response planning in the major urban centers. A new agency, the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture (MEXT) has started a five-year program titled as Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Urban Areas (abbreviated to Dai-dai-toku in Japanese) since 2002. The project includes four programs: I. Regional characterization of the crust in metropolitan areas for prediction of strong ground motion. II. Significant improvement of seismic performance of structure. III. Advanced disaster management system. IV. Investigation of earthquake disaster mitigation research results. We will present the results from the first program conducted in 2002 and 2003. Regional Characterization of the Crust in Metropolitan Areas for Prediction of Strong Ground Motion: A long-term goal is to produce map of reliable estimations of strong ground motion. This requires accurate determination of ground motion response, which includes a source process, an effect of propagation path, and near surface response. The new five-year project was aimed to characterize the "source" and "propagation path" in the Kanto (Tokyo) region and Kinki (Osaka) region. The 1923 Kanto Earthquake is one of the important targets to be addressed in the project. The proximity of the Pacific and Philippine Sea subducting plates requires study of the relationship between earthquakes and regional tectonics. This project focuses on identification and geometry of: 1) Source faults, 2) Subducting plates and mega-thrust faults, 3) Crustal structure, 4) Seismogenic zone, 5) Sedimentary basins, 6) 3D velocity properties We have conducted a series of seismic reflection and refraction experiment in the Kanto region. In 2002 we have completed to deploy seismic profiling lines in the Boso peninsula (112 km) and the Sagami bay area (75 km) to image the subducting Philippine Sea plate. On the Boso line we drilled a hole at a depth of 2000 m with core sampling and logging including VSP. A high sensitivity down hole seismometer will bee installed at the hole. In 2003, a 71-km-long reflection/refraction line covered the Tokyo bay area to characterize the source area of the 1923 Kanto quake. The southern part of the line ran through the Miura peninsula, which was covered by a 20 x 15 km array consisting of 51 3-component continuously recording seismographs to identify the asperities suggested by strong motion studies. We also cover the eastern boundary of the Kanto Mountains in this fall. Reconstruction of source fault and velocity models allow for more realistic 3D seimic wave simulations. All of this information will be synthesized and provided to communities involved in probabilistic hazards analysis, risk assessment and societal response.

Hirata, N.; Sato, H.; Koketsu, K.; Umeda, Y.; Iwata, T.; Kasahara, K.

2003-12-01

90

Broadband strong motion simulation in layered half-space using stochastic Green's function technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stochastic Green’s function method, which simulates one component of the far-field S-waves from an extended fault plane at high frequencies (Kamae et al., J Struct Constr Eng Trans AIJ, 430:1 9, 1991), is extended to simulate the three components of the full waveform in layered half-spaces for broadband frequency range. The method firstly computes ground motions from small earthquakes, which correspond to the ruptures of sub-faults on a fault plane of a large earthquake, and secondly constructs the strong motions of the large earthquake by superposing the small ground motions using the empirical Green’s function technique (e.g., Irikura, Proc 7th Japan Earthq Eng Symp, 151 156, 1986). The broadband stochastic omega-square model is proposed as the moment rate functions of the small earthquakes, in which random and zero phases are used at higher and lower frequencies, respectively. The zero phases are introduced to simulate a smooth ramp function of the moment function with the duration of 1/fc s (fc: the corner frequency) and to reproduce coherent strong motions at low frequencies (i.e., the directivity pulse). As for the radiation coefficients, the theoretical values of double couple sources for lower frequencies and the theoretical isotropic values for the P-, SV-, and SH-waves (Onishi and Horike, J Struct Constr Eng Trans AIJ, 586:37 44, 2004) for high frequencies are used. The proposed method uses the theoretical Green’s functions of layered half-spaces instead of the far-field S-waves, which reproduce the complete waves including the direct and reflected P- and S-waves and surface waves at broadband frequencies. Finally, the proposed method is applied to the 1994 Northridge earthquake, and results show excellent agreement with the observation records at broadband frequencies. At the same time, the method still needs improvements especially because it underestimates the high-frequency vertical components in the near fault range. Nonetheless, the method will be useful for modeling high frequency contributions in the hybrid methods, which use stochastic and deterministic methods for high and low frequencies, respectively (e.g., the stochastic Green’s function method + finite difference methods; Kamae et al., Bull Seism Soc Am, 88:357 367, 1998; Pitarka et al., Bull Seism Soc Am 90:566 586, 2000), because it reproduces the full waveforms in layered media including not only random characteristics at higher frequencies but also theoretical and deterministic coherencies at lower frequencies.

Hisada, Y.

2008-04-01

91

Site effects in Avcilar, West of Istanbul, Turkey, from strong- and weak-motion data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Approximately 1000 people were killed in the collapse of buildings in Istanbul, Turkey, during the 17 August 1999 I??zmit earthquake, whose epicenter was roughly 90 km east of the city. Most of the fatalities and damage occurred in the suburb of Avcilar that is 20 km further west of the epicenter than the city proper. To investigate this pattern of damage, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI), deployed portable digital seismographs at seven free-field sites in western Istanbul, to record aftershocks during the period from 24 August to 2 September. The primary objective of this deployment was to study the site effects by comparing the aftershock ground motions recorded at sites inside and outside the damaged area, and to correlate site effects with the distribution of the damaged buildings. In addition to using weak-motion data, mainshock and aftershock acceleration records from the KOERI permanent strong-motion array were also used in estimating the site effects. Site effects were estimated using S waves from both types of records. For the weak-motion data set, 22 events were selected according to the criteria of signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ratio) and the number of stations recording the same event. The magnitudes of these events ranged from 3.0 to 5.2. The acceleration data set consisted of 12 events with magnitudes ranging from 4.3 to 5.8 and included two mainshock events. Results show that the amplifying frequency band is, in general, less than 4 Hz, and the physical properties of the geologic materials are capable of amplifying the motions by a factor of 5-10. In this frequency band, there is a good agreement among the spectral ratios obtained from the two mainshocks and their aftershocks. The damage pattern for the 17 August I??zmit earthquake is determined by several factors. However, our study suggests that the site effects in Avcilar played an important role in contributing to the damage.

Ozel, O.; Cranswick, E.; Meremonte, M.; Erdik, M.; Safak, E.

2002-01-01

92

Source Modeling of a Slab Earthquake in the Subducting Philippine Sea Plate Using Strong Ground Motion Records of High-Density Observation Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthquakes occurring within subducting slabs (slab earthquakes) can give large damage to the cities located above. The source characteristics of slab earthquakes, however, have not been investigated in detail. In Japan, high-density strong motion observation networks have been constructed in recent years, bringing very rich and high-quality strong motion database. This has enabled to record strong motion data from small

Y. Kakehi; M. Yamauchi

2001-01-01

93

Calibration of strong motion models for Central America region and its use in seismic hazard assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a study aimed at choosing the more suitable strong-motion models for seismic hazard analysis in the Central America (CA) Region. After a careful revision of the state of the art, different models developed for subduction and volcanic crustal zones, in tectonic environment similar to those of CA, were selected. These models were calibrated with accelerograms recorded in Costa Rica, Nicaragua and El Salvador. The peak ground acceleration PGA and Spectral Acceleration SA (T) derived from the records were compared with the ones predicted by the models in similar conditions of magnitude, distance and soil. The type of magnitude (Ms, Mb, MW), distance (Rhyp, Rrup, etc) and ground motion parameter (maximum horizontal component, geometrical mean, etc ) was taken into account in the comparison with the real data. As results of the analysis, the models which present a best fit with the local data were identified. These models have been applied for carrying out seismic hazard analysis in the region, in the frame of the RESIS II project financed by the Norwegian Foreign Department and also by the Spanish project SISMOCAES. The methodology followed is based on the direct comparison between PGA and SA 5 % damped response values extracted from actual records with the corresponding acceleration values predicted by the selected ground-motion models for similar magnitude, distance and soil conditions. Residuals between observed and predicted values for PGA, and SA (1sec) are calculated and plotted as a function of distance and magnitude, analyzing their deviation from the mean value. Besides and most important, a statistical analysis of the normalized residuals was carry out using the criteria proposed by Scherbaum et al. (2004), which consists in categorizing ground motion models based in a likelihood parameter that reflects the goodness-of-fit of the median values as well as the shape of the underlying distribution of ground motion residuals. Considering the results of the both analysis the conclusions can be drawn in the following paragraphs. Analyses of residuals show that in some cases the best adjustments of PGA and SA values do not always favor the same equation. Consequently, the following equations that present reasonable adjustments for both parameters are finally selected: Schmidt (2010) and Zhao et al (2006) for shallow crustal sources; Schmidt (2010), Zhao et al (2006), Youngs et al. (1997) and Lin & Lee (2008) for subduction interface and Schmidt (2010), Youngs et al (1997), Zhao et al (2006) and Garcia et al (2005) for inslab subduction sources. Finally, to improve the development of proper models of attenuation of the region, it is recommended to the governmental and private institutions, to support the implementation of permanent strong ground motion networks in all Central America countries, especially in Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama, including free field stations. In case of Costa Rica and El Salvador to strengthen the networks that already they operate.

Climent, A.; Benito, M. B.; Piedra, R.; Lindholm, C.; Gaspar-Escribano, J.

2013-05-01

94

Strong Motion Networks - Rapid Response and Early Warning Applications in Istanbul  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years several strong motion networks have been established in Istanbul with a preparation purpose for future probable earthquake. This study addresses the introduction of current seismic networks and presentation of some recent results recorded in these networks. Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning System Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning System has ten strong motion stations which were installed as close as possible to Marmara Sea main fault zone. Continuous on-line data from these stations via digital radio modem provide early warning for potentially disastrous earthquakes. Considering the complexity of fault rupture and the short fault distances involved, a simple and robust Early Warning algorithm, based on the exceedance of specified threshold time domain amplitude levels is implemented. The current algorithm compares the band-pass filtered accelerations and the cumulative absolute velocity (CAV) with specified threshold levels. Istanbul Earthquake Rapid Response System Istanbul Earthquake Rapid Response System has one hundred 18 bit-resolution strong motion accelerometers which were placed in quasi-free field locations (basement of small buildings) in the populated areas of the city, within an area of approximately 50x30km, to constitute a network that will enable early damage assessment and rapid response information after a damaging earthquake. Early response information is achieved through fast acquisition and analysis of processed data obtained from the network. The stations are routinely interrogated on regular basis by the main data center. After triggered by an earthquake, each station processes the streaming strong motion data to yield the spectral accelerations at specific periods and sends these parameters in the form of SMS messages at every 20s directly to the main data center through a designated GSM network and through a microwave system. A shake map and damage distribution map (using aggregate building inventories and fragility curves) will then be automatically generated using the algorithm developed for this purpose. Loss assessment studies are complemented by a large citywide digital database on the topography, geology, soil conditions, building, infrastructure and lifeline inventory. The shake and damage maps will be conveyed to the governor's and mayor's offices, fire, police and army headquarters within 3 minutes using radio modem and GPRS communication. Self Organizing Seismic Early Warning Information Network (SOSEWIN) in Atakoy District SOSEWIN sensors were developed by GFZ and Humbold University as part of SAFER project and EDIM project, and with cooperation of KOERI, the sensors were installed in Atakoy district of Istanbul city with Early Warning purpose. The main features of the SOSEWIN system are each sensing unit is comprised of low-cost components, undertakes its own seismological data processing, analysis and archiving, and its self-organizing capability with wireless mesh network communication. Seismic Network in Important Structures Some of the critical structures located in Istanbul city such as Fatih Sultan Mehmet Suspension Bridge which is connecting Asian and European sides of the city, Hagia Sophia Museum and Suleymaniye Mosque which are historical structures with an age of over 1000 years and 450 years respectively, and Isbank Tower which is one of the tallest structures in the city with a height of 181.2m are monitorized to observe their seismic behavior.

Zulfikar, C.; Alcik, H.; Ozel, O.; Erdik, M.

2009-04-01

95

Options for the Future of the US National Strong-Motion Program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report constitutes the requested 'Options Document'. This report considers three options. Option I assumes a constant level of financial support for Operating Expenses (OE) with not additional personnel support. Option II assumes a slight increase in OE support of $150K for FY 99 and beyond. Option III considers the role that a NSMP must play if the nation's urgent need to record the main earthquake at locations of significance for society is to be met. Two parts of Option III are considered. The first part of this option, termed Option III A, considers the role that strong-motion recording in and near man-made structures must play if a near-real time hazard initiative is to be implemented in the United States; The second part of Option III; termed Option III B, considers the scope of a NSMP needed to address society's needs to record the main earthquake in locations of significance for future public earthquake safety.

Committee for the Future of the US National Strong-Motion Program

1997-01-01

96

Attenuation Tomography Based on Strong Motion Data: Case Study of Central Honshu Region, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional frequency dependent S-wave quality factor (Q?(f)) value for the central Honshu region of Japan has been determined in this paper using an algorithm based on inversion of strong motion data. The method of inversion for determination of three-dimensional attenuation coefficients is proposed by H ashida and S himazaki (J Phys Earth. 32, 299-316, 1984) and has been used and modified by J oshi (Curr Sci. 90, 581-585, 2006; Nat Hazards. 43, 129-146, 2007) and J oshi et al. (J. Seismol. 14, 247-272, 2010). Twenty-one earthquakes digitally recorded on strong motion stations of Kik-net network have been used in this work. The magnitude of these earthquake ranges from 3.1 to 4.2 and depth ranging from 5 to 20 km, respectively. The borehole data having high signal to noise ratio and minimum site effect is used in the present work. The attenuation structure is determined by dividing the entire area into twenty-five three-dimensional blocks of uniform thickness having different frequency-dependent shear wave quality factor. Shear wave quality factor values have been determined at frequencies of 2.5, 7.0 and 10 Hz from record in a rectangular grid defined by 35.4°N to 36.4°N and 137.2°E to 138.2°E. The obtained attenuation structure is compared with the available geological features in the region and comparison shows that the obtained structure is capable of resolving important tectonic features present in the area. The proposed attenuation structure is compared with the probabilistic seismic hazard map of the region and shows that it bears some remarkable similarity in the patterns seen in seismic hazard map.

Kumar, Parveen; Joshi, A.; Verma, O. P.

2013-12-01

97

Extracting the Building Response with QCN-Taiwan Sensor Data: Application to the building of Science Education Center, National Taiwan Normal University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have taken advantage of strong motion sensor data collected from the Taiwan Quake Catcher Network (QCN-Taiwan) in 2012 to extract the building response of the Science Education Center, National Taiwan Normal University. The QCN-Taiwan project is mainly aimed to construct a school seismic network with low-cost sensors for the purpose of earthquake science education in Taiwan. So far there are more than 60 volunteer QCN sites deployed island-wide in the campus of Taiwan. There were 10 MEMS sensors deployed in the basement and every story from 1 to 8 in the building. We analyze the acceleration data generated from 3 moderate to strong earthquakes (6.4?ML?5.2) to study the characteristic frequencies and responses of the building. Both deconvolution and H/V spectral ratio methods are used to characterize the building response. The dominant frequency in the NS direction is 1.7-1.9 Hz, which is slightly higher than recorded in the EW direction of 1.65-1.8 Hz. In addition, the amplification is much significant in levels higher than the 3rd floor in the frequency range of 1-3 Hz as shown in the H/V spectral ratio diagrams. We deconvolve all waveforms with both the motions in the ground and top floors to derive the building responses, respectively. Results show that the 1.6 Hz resonance is dominant in levels higher than the 4th floor for waveforms deconvolved with the basement data. On the other hand, both the up-going and down-going shear waves are clearly seen in the waveforms deconvoled with top floor data, which tells a shear velocity of ~190 m/s. We have proven that the strong motion data collected by the low-cost QCN MEMS sensors during large earthquakes is useful for extracting the building response.

Liang, W.; Lee, W.; Chen, K. H.; Yen, E. H.; Lawrence, J. F.; Lin, C.; Chang, C.

2013-12-01

98

Seismic Hazard Mapping and Microzonation in the Sikkim Himalaya through GIS Integration of Site Effects and Strong Ground Motion Attributes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seismic ground motion hazard is mapped in the Sikkim Himalaya with local and regional site conditions incorporated through geographic information system. A strong motion network in Sikkim comprising of 9 digital accelerographs recorded more than 100 events during 1998–2002, of which 41 events are selected with signal-to-noise ratio =3 for the estimation of site response (SR), peak ground acceleration

Sankar Kumar Nath

2004-01-01

99

Site-specific strong ground motion prediction using 2.5-D modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An algorithm was developed using the 2.5-D elastodynamic wave equation, based on the displacement-stress relation. One of the most significant advantages of the 2.5-D simulation is that the 3-D radiation pattern can be generated using double-couple point shear-dislocation sources in the 2-D numerical grid. A parsimonious staggered grid scheme was adopted instead of the standard staggered grid scheme, since this is the only scheme suitable for computing the dislocation. This new 2.5-D numerical modelling avoids the extensive computational cost of 3-D modelling. The significance of this exercise is that it makes it possible to simulate the strong ground motion (SGM), taking into account the energy released, 3-D radiation pattern, path effects and local site conditions at any location around the epicentre. The slowness vector (py) was used in the supersonic region for each layer, so that all the components of the inertia coefficient are positive. The double-couple point shear-dislocation source was implemented in the numerical grid using the moment tensor components as the body-force couples. The moment per unit volume was used in both the 3-D and 2.5-D modelling. A good agreement in the 3-D and 2.5-D responses for different grid sizes was obtained when the moment per unit volume was further reduced by a factor equal to the finite-difference grid size in the case of the 2.5-D modelling. The components of the radiation pattern were computed in the xz-plane using 3-D and 2.5-D algorithms for various focal mechanisms, and the results were in good agreement. A comparative study of the amplitude behaviour of the 3-D and 2.5-D wavefronts in a layered medium reveals the spatial and temporal damped nature of the 2.5-D elastodynamic wave equation. 3-D and 2.5-D simulated responses at a site using a different strike direction reveal that strong ground motion (SGM) can be predicted just by rotating the strike of the fault counter-clockwise by the same amount as the azimuth of the site with respect to the epicentre. This adjustment is necessary since the response is computed keeping the epicentre, focus and the desired site in the same xz-plane, with the x-axis pointing in the north direction.

Narayan, J. P.

2001-08-01

100

Survey of strong motion earthquake effects on thermal power plants in California with emphasis on piping systems. Volume 2, Appendices  

SciTech Connect

Volume 2 of the ``Survey of Strong Motion Earthquake Effects on Thermal Power Plants in California with Emphasis on Piping Systems`` contains Appendices which detail the detail design and seismic response of several power plants subjected to strong motion earthquakes. The particular plants considered include the Ormond Beach, Long Beach and Seal Beach, Burbank, El Centro, Glendale, Humboldt Bay, Kem Valley, Pasadena and Valley power plants. Included is a typical power plant piping specification and photographs of typical power plant piping specification and photographs of typical piping and support installations for the plants surveyed. Detailed piping support spacing data are also included.

Stevenson, J.D. [Stevenson and Associates, Cleveland, OH (United States)

1995-11-01

101

An evaluation of the strong ground motion recorded during the May 1, 2003 Bingo??l Turkey, earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An important record of ground motion from a M6.4 earthquake occurring on May 1, 2003, at epicentral and fault distances of about 12 and 9km, respectively, was obtained at a station near the city of Bingo??l, Turkey. The maximum peak ground values of 0.55 g and 36 cm/s are among the largest ground-motion amplitudes recorded in Turkey. From simulations and comparisons with ground motions from other earthquakes of comparable magnitude, we conclude that the ground motion over a range of frequencies is unusually high. Site response may be responsible for the elevated ground motion, as suggested from analysis of numerous aftershock recordings from the same station. The mainshock motions have some interesting seismological features, including ramps between the P-and S-wave that are probably due to near- and intermediate-field elastic motions and strong polarisation oriented at about 39 degrees to the fault (and therefore not in the fault-normal direction). Simulations of motions from an extended rupture explain these features. The N10E component shows a high-amplitude spectral acceleration at a period of 0.15 seconds resulting in a site specific design spectrum that significantly overestimates the actual strength and displacement demands of the record. The pulse signal in the N10E component affects the inelastic spectral displacement and increases the inelastic displacement demand with respect to elastic demand for very long periods. ?? Imperial College Press.

Akkar, S.; Boore, D.M.; Gulkan, P.

2005-01-01

102

Adjoint Inversion for Extended Earthquake Source Kinematics From Very Dense Strong Motion Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Addressing key open questions about earthquake dynamics requires a radical improvement of the robustness and resolution of seismic observations of large earthquakes. Proposals for a new generation of earthquake observation systems include the deployment of “community seismic networks” of low-cost accelerometers in urban areas and the extraction of strong ground motions from high-rate optical images of the Earth's surface recorded by a large space telescope in geostationary orbit. Both systems could deliver strong motion data with a spatial density orders of magnitude higher than current seismic networks. In particular, a “space seismometer” could sample the seismic wave field at a spatio-temporal resolution of 100 m, 1 Hz over areas several 100 km wide with an amplitude resolution of few cm/s in ground velocity. The amount of data to process would be immensely larger than what current extended source inversion algorithms can handle, which hampers the quantitative assessment of the cost-benefit trade-offs that can guide the practical design of the proposed earthquake observation systems. We report here on the development of a scalable source imaging technique based on iterative adjoint inversion and its application to the proof-of-concept of a space seismometer. We generated synthetic ground motions for M7 earthquake rupture scenarios based on dynamic rupture simulations on a vertical strike-slip fault embedded in an elastic half-space. A range of scenarios include increasing levels of complexity and interesting features such as supershear rupture speed. The resulting ground shaking is then processed accordingly to what would be captured by an optical satellite. Based on the resulting data, we perform source inversion by an adjoint/time-reversal method. The gradient of a cost function quantifying the waveform misfit between data and synthetics is efficiently obtained by applying the time-reversed ground velocity residuals as surface force sources, back-propagating onto the locked fault plane through a seismic wave simulation and recording the fault shear stress, which is the adjoint field of the fault slip-rate. Restricting the procedure to a single iteration is known as imaging. The source reconstructed by imaging reproduces the original forward model quite well in the shallow part of the fault. However, the deeper part of the earthquake source is not well reproduced, due to the lack of data on the side and bottom boundaries of our computational domain. To resolve this issue, we are implementing the complete iterative procedure and we will report on the convergence aspects of the adjoint iterations. Our current work is also directed towards addressing the lack of data on other boundaries of our domain and improving the source reconstruction by including teleseismic data for those boundaries and non-negativity constraints on the dominant slip-rate component.

Ampuero, J. P.; Somala, S.; Lapusta, N.

2010-12-01

103

Strong ground motion synthesis along the Sanyi-Tungshih-Puli seismic zone using empirical Green`s functions  

SciTech Connect

We synthesize strong ground motion from a M=7.25 earthquake along the NW-trending Sanyi-Tungshih-Puli seismic zone. This trend extends from Houlong to Taichung and forms a nearly continuous 78 km long seismic zone identified by the occurrence of M<5 events. It extends from a shallow depth all the way down to about 40 km. The entire length of the fault, if activated at one time, can lead to an event comparable to that the 1995 Kobe earthquake. With the improved digital CWBSN data now provided routinely by CWBSN, it becomes possible to use these data as empirical Green`s functions to synthesize potential ground motion for future large earthquakes. We developed a suite of 100 rupture scenarios for the earthquake and computed the commensurate strong ground motion time histories. We synthesized strong ground motion with physics-based solutions of earthquake rupture and applied physical bounds on rupture parameters. the synthesized ground motions obtained for a fixed magnitude and identifying the hazard to a site from the statistical distribution of engineering parameters, we have introduced a probabilistic component to the deterministic hazard calculation, The time histories suggested for engineering design are the ones that most closely match either the average or one standard deviation absolute acceleration response values.

Hutchings, L.; Foxall, W.; Kasameyer, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Wu, F.T. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Rau, R.-J. [Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Inst. of Earth Sciences; Jarpe, S. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Inst. for Crustal Studies

1997-01-01

104

Scaling Relation of Mega-fault Systems for Strong Ground Motion Prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are studying scaling relations between fault length (L) and seismic moment (Mo) for mega-fault systems such as the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and the 2002 Denali earthquake. Scholz (2002) proposed an idea that the scaling relation changes from L-model to W-model for extra large earthquakes. According to the idea, Ikikura et al. (2004) proposed three-stage scaling relations between fault rupture area (S) and seismic moment; i.e., Mo is in proportion with S^{2/3} for Mo<7.5x1018Nm, S^{1/2} for Mo <7.5x1020, S for extra large earthquakes. Meanwhile, Somerville et al. (1999) proposed an uniform scaling, Mo is in proportion with S^{2/3}, even for larger earthquakes. We consider that the difference of the two scaling relations causes from their treatments of fault width (W). Irikura et al. (2004) introduces saturation of fault width considering thickness of seismogenic zone. However, fault widths are not observed values but estimated from aftershock distributions. We have to carefully evaluate S-Mo relationship considering uncertainty of fault widths. We try to estimate fault width from two empirical relationships, fault length vs. fault displacement (D) and seismic moment Mo vs fault length (L). The relationship L vs D is from certain data based on geological and geomorphological investigations. As for fault displacement, Awata (2006) proposes liner relationship between behavioral fault segment length and its maximum displacement. He also proposed saturation of fault displacement in case of mega-fault system. We here propose and demonstrate new scaling relations between fault length and seismic moment for mega-fault systems compiling past earthquake data (introducing field data about behavioral fault segments). We compare the derived fault width with carefully validated fault width from waveform and geodetic inversions to develop scaling relation for strong ground motion estimation. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: A portion of this study was supported by the JNES research topic 'Ground Motion Prediction for Mega-fault Systems Based on Dynamic Source Modeling' (P.I.: Kojiro Irikura). REFERENCES: Somerville et al. (1999), SRL. Irikura et al. (2004), 13WCEE. Scholz(2002),Cambridge University Press. Awata (2006), AGU 2006 Fall Meeting.

Irikura, K.; Awata, Y.; Miyake, H.; Kagawa, T.; Miyakoshi, K.; Sato, T.; Dan, K.; Matsushima, S.

2006-12-01

105

Cooling to the ground state of axial motion for one atom strongly coupled to an optical cavity.  

PubMed

Localization to the ground state of axial motion is demonstrated for a single, trapped atom strongly coupled to the field of a high finesse optical resonator. The axial atomic motion is cooled by way of coherent Raman transitions on the red vibrational sideband. An efficient state detection scheme enabled by strong coupling in cavity QED is used to record the Raman spectrum, from which the state of atomic motion is inferred. We find that the lowest vibrational level of the axial potential with zero-point energy variant Planck's over 2 h omega a/2kB = 13 microK is occupied with probability P0 approximately 0.95. PMID:17026303

Boozer, A D; Boca, A; Miller, R; Northup, T E; Kimble, H J

2006-08-25

106

Design of a low-cost servo-actuated shaking table for simulating ground motions with strong vertical component  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article proposes a new set of configurationsfor the construction of a low cost servo-actuatedshake table with a wide range simulation ability, especially regarding ground motions with strong vertical components up to 3.86g and 1.62m acceleration and stroke respectively. Designing decision and challenges faced during the process are also presented.

Tsolakis, Efstratios

2014-10-01

107

REVELATIONS FROM A SINGLE STRONG-MOTION RECORD RETRIEVED DURING THE 27 JUNE 1998 ADANA (TURKEY) EARTHQUAKE  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the June 27, 1998 Adana (Turkey) earthquake, only one strong-motion record was retrieved in the region where the most damage occurred. This single record from the station in Ceyhan, approximately 15 km from the epicenter of that earthquake, exhibits characteristics that are related to the dominant frequencies of the ground and structures. The purpose of this paper is to

Mehmet Çelebi

108

Prediction of Strong Ground Motion and Building Damage in Urban Areas and Development of a Disaster Mitigation Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the increased population and functional- ity of urban areas, we have studied the prediction of damages to and disaster mitigation strategies for ur- ban areas which may be devastated when large disas- ter strikes. We have developed high-precision, high- resolution subsurface soil structure models in Chukyo Area including Nagoya city, by which strong ground motions are first predicted for

Nobuo Fukuwa; Jun Tobita; Masafumi Mori; Hiroto Takahashi

2009-01-01

109

PEAK HORIZONTAL ACCELERATION AND VELOCITY FROM STRONG MOTION RECORDS INCLUDING RECORDS FROM THE 1979 IMPERIAL VALLEY, CALIFORNIA, EARTHQUAKE  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have taken advantage of the recent increase in strong-motion data at close distances to derive new attenuation relations for peak horizontal acceler- ation and velocity. This new analysis uses a magnitude-independent shape, based on geometrical spreading and anelastic attenuation, for the attenuation curve. An innovation in technique is introduced that decouples the determination of the distance dependence of the

WILLIAM B. JOYNER; DAVID M. BOORE

1981-01-01

110

Observations and stochastic modelling of strong ground motions for the 2011 October 23 Mw 7.1 Van, Turkey, earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2011 October 23 Van earthquake occurred at 13:41 local time in Eastern Turkey with an epicentre at 43.36oE, 38.76oN (Kandilli Observatory Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI)), 16 km north-northeast of the city of Van, killing around 604 people and leaving thousands homeless. This work presents an overview of the main features of the seismic ground shaking during the Van earthquake. We analyse the ground motion characteristics of the mainshock in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV) and spectral accelerations (SA, 5 per cent of critical damping). In order to understand the characteristics of the ground motions induced by the mainshock, we also study the site response of the strong motion stations that recorded the seismic sequence. The lack of seismic recordings in this area imposes major constraints on the computation of reliable seismic hazard estimates for sites in this part of the country. Towards this aim, we have used a stochastic method to generate high frequency ground motion synthetics for the Mw 7.1 Van 2011 earthquake. The source mechanism of the Van event and regional wave propagation parameters are constrained from the available and previous studies. The selected model parameters are then validated against recordings. We also computed the residuals for the ground motion parameters in terms of PGA and PGV at each station and the model parameter bias by averaging the residuals over all the stations. The attenuation of the simulated ground motion parameters is compared with recent global and regional ground motion prediction equations. Finally, since it has been debated whether the earthquake of November 9 was an aftershock of the October 23 earthquake, we examine whether static variation of Coulomb stress could contribute to the observed aftershock triggering during the 2011 Van Lake sequence. Comparison with empirical ground motion prediction illustrated that the observed PGA data decay faster than the global empirical ground motion equations, both at moderate and larger distance; this feature is captured by the AC10 model that is derived from Turkish earthquake database. Faster attenuation of ground motion due to the high attenuation of seismic waves in the Eastern Anatolian plateau is in agreement with our stochastic simulations of strong ground motions of the 2011 October 23 Van earthquake. This highlights the importance of retrieving specific regional seismic parameters for the ground motion predictive equations. The stress redistribution computation indicates that the October sequence had an active role in promoting the November aftershocks, being the Coulomb stress variation positive in the entire region of interest. Furthermore, the Van events enhanced the stress level on the Caldiran fault.

Akinci, Aybige; Antonioli, Andrea

2013-03-01

111

Simulations of Strong Ground Motion in the Los Angeles Basin Using the Spectral-Element Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the spectral-element method (SEM) to simulate strong ground motion in the Los Angeles basin. Our basin velocity model was constructed using sonic log and stacking velocity information provided by oil industry sources. The method includes effects due to attenuation, topography and bathymetry. The basin model is embedded into the regional model of Hauksson (2000). Our mesh honors the bottom part of the 8.5 km deep sedimentary pocket underneath downtown Los Angeles, as well as topography and bathymetry, and the Moho map of Zhu and Kanamori (2000). We double the mesh twice in the vertical direction based upon a conforming doubling `brick'. This allows us to increase the resolution of the SEM calculations near the surface, in low-velocity sediments. We obtain a high-quality mesh based upon a heuristic rule to prevent elements in the doubling regions from becoming too flat. The SEM is implemented on a parallel computer based upon a message-passing algorithm (MPI), and run on a large PC cluster, a so-called Beowulf machine. This allows us to model wave propagation in a large region that includes most of the TriNet stations. Results are shown for two small events (M = 4.2) that can be treated as point sources, the September 2001 Hollywood earthquake, and the September 2002 Yorba Linda event. We use a three-dimensional centroid-moment tensor inversion based upon the SEM and the basin model to determine the mechanisms and locations of these events. Excellent agreement is obtained for the three components of the data down to a period of 2 seconds.

Komatitsch, D.; Liu, Q.; Tromp, J.; Suess, P.; Shaw, J.

2003-04-01

112

Observing Structure and Motion in Molecules with Ultrafast Strong Field and Short Wavelength Laser Radiation  

SciTech Connect

The term "molecular movie" has come to describe efforts to track and record Angstrom-scale coherent atomic and electronic motion in a molecule. The relevant time scales for this range cover several orders of magnitude, from sub-femtosecond motion associated with electron-electron correlations, to 100-fs internal vibrations, to multi-picosecond motion associated with the dispersion and quantum revivals of molecular reorientation. Conventional methods of cinematography do not work well in this ultrafast and ultrasmall regime, but stroboscopic "pump and probe" techniques can reveal this motion with high fidelity. This talk will describe some of the methods and recent progress in exciting and controlling this motion, using both laboratory lasers and the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source x-ray free electron laser, and will further try to relate the date to the goal of molecular movies.

Bucksbaum, Philip H.

2011-04-13

113

Acceleration and volumetric strain generated by the Parkfield 2004 earthquake on the GEOS strong-motion array near Parkfield, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An integrated array of 11 General Earthquake Observation System (GEOS) stations installed near Parkfield, CA provided on scale broad-band, wide-dynamic measurements of acceleration and volumetric strain of the Parkfield earthquake (M 6.0) of September 28, 2004. Three component measurements of acceleration were obtained at each of the stations. Measurements of collocated acceleration and volumetric strain were obtained at four of the stations. Measurements of velocity at most sites were on scale only for the initial P-wave arrival. When considered in the context of the extensive set of strong-motion recordings obtained on more than 40 analog stations by the California Strong-Motion Instrumentation Program (Shakal, et al., 2004 http://www.quake.ca.gov/cisn-edc) and those on the dense array of Spudich, et al, (1988), these recordings provide an unprecedented document of the nature of the near source strong motion generated by a M 6.0 earthquake. The data set reported herein provides the most extensive set of near field broad band wide dynamic range measurements of acceleration and volumetric strain for an earthquake as large as M 6 of which the authors are aware. As a result considerable interest has been expressed in these data. This report is intended to describe the data and facilitate its use to resolve a number of scientific and engineering questions concerning earthquake rupture processes and resultant near field motions and strains. This report provides a description of the array, its scientific objectives and the strong-motion recordings obtained of the main shock. The report provides copies of the uncorrected and corrected data. Copies of the inferred velocities, displacements, and Psuedo velocity response spectra are provided. Digital versions of these recordings are accessible with information available through the internet at several locations: the National Strong-Motion Program web site (http://agram.wr.usgs.gov/), the COSMOS Virtual Data Center Web site (http://www.cosmos-eq.org), and the CISN Engineering and Berkeley data centers (http://www.quake.ca.gov/cisn-edc). They are also accessible together with recordings on the GEOS Strong-motion Array near Parkfield, CA since its installation in 1987 through the USGS GEOS web site ( http://nsmp.wr.usgs.gov/GEOS).

Borcherdt, Rodger D.; Johnston, Malcolm J.S.; Dietel, Christopher; Glassmoyer, Gary; Myren, Doug; Stephens, Christopher

2004-01-01

114

Simulation of a strong ground motion exceeding 4G during the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake, a powerful reverse fault event that occurred on the southern Iwate prefecture Japan (2008/6/14), produced the largest peak ground acceleration recorded to date (4G), at the West Ichinoseki, KiK-net/NIED strong motion station (IWTH25), which is located immediately above the hypocenter. This KiK-net station which is equipped with surface and borehole accelerometers (GL -260m), also recorded very high peak accelerations up to 1G at the borehole level, despite being located in a rock site (Vs ~ 1800m/s). Preliminary analyses of these waveforms show a very strong content of high frequencies (HF). To understand the generation process of this extreme shaking we simulated the three components of ground motion at the IWTH25 borehole and surface levels, by applying a strong motion simulation methodology based on a dynamic model of fault rupture (Pulido and Dalguer 2008, PD08). Following PD08 we investigated the contribution of rupture velocity changes (? Vr) and stress drop (??) across the fault plane to the HF ground motion radiation of the earthquake at the borehole level, and then calculated the non-linear response of the shallow layers to obtain the ground motion at the surface. To calculate the stress drop distribution of the earthquake we apply the methodology of Ripperger and Mai (2004), by using the slip model obtained from an inversion of near-source strong motion recordings (Suzuki et al. 2008), and a 1D velocity model for the Kanto region. The dislocation model of this earthquake is characterized by two patches of large slip, the first one located at the hypocenter and the second at ~7 km south of the hypocenter. Our results for the calculation of stress drop follow a similar pattern, namely a very large stress drop of ~80MPa concentrated at the hypocenter, as well as a large value of ~50MPa for the southern patch. To calculate the HF ground motion we follow PD08 who found that the HF radiation from earthquakes is confined to regions in the fault plane where the product ??? Vr is relatively large. Based on this result we calculate a stochastic distribution of ? Vr values in the ±3.0 km/s range for areas in the fault plane where ?? > 15 MPa, and in the ±0.5 km/s range for the remaining areas. We calculate the ground motion at the IWTH25 station following the methodology of PD08, by using the mapped HF radiation distribution and an average rupture velocity of 2 km/s. Our simulated waveforms incorporate the contribution of the P and S waves to the HF ground motion at the horizontals and vertical component. Our simulation is able to reproduce the overall characteristics of the observed waveform at IWTH25, including the observed ? -2 spectral radiation. Our results show a strong contribution of the P wave radiation pattern to the relative amplitudes of ground motion for the three components at IWTH25. In the present calculation our assumption of ? Vr is entirely ad hoc. Future research includes the calculation of a dynamic model of the earthquake to put physical constraints on the fault rupture process and the simulation of near-source ground motion. ReferencesRipperger, J., and P.M., Mai (2004), Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L18610. Pulido, N., and L.A. Dalguer (2008), Estimation of the high-frequency radiation of the 2000 Tottori (Japan) earthquake based on a dynamic model of fault rupture: Application to the strong ground motion simulation, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 2008 (in review). Suzuki, W., S. Aoi, and H. Sekiguchi (2008), 2008 AGU fall meeting.

Pulido, N.; Aoi, S.; Suzuki, W.

2008-12-01

115

Characteristics of strong motions and damage implications of M S6.5 Ludian earthquake on August 3, 2014  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ludian County of Yunnan Province in southwestern China was struck by an M S6.5 earthquake on August 3, 2014, which was another destructive event following the M S8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, M S7.1 Yushu earthquake in 2010, and M S7.0 Lushan earthquake in 2013. National Strong-Motion Observation Network System of China collected 74 strong motion recordings, which the maximum peak ground acceleration recorded by the 053LLT station in Longtoushan Town was 949 cm/s2 in E-W component. The observed PGAs and spectral ordinates were compared with ground-motion prediction equation in China and the NGA-West2 developed by Pacific Earthquake Engineering Researcher Center. This earthquake is considered as the first case for testing applicability of NGA-West2 in China. Results indicate that the observed PGAs and the 5 % damped pseudo-response spectral accelerations are significantly lower than the predicted ones. The field survey around some typical strong motion stations verified that the earthquake damage was consistent with the official isoseismal by China Earthquake Administration.

Xu, Peibin; Wen, Ruizhi; Wang, Hongwei; Ji, Kun; Ren, Yefei

2015-02-01

116

Strong Motion Simulation of the Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake (2007), Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On July 16th, 2007, the Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake (M6.8) occurred off Niigata Prefecture in Japan, claiming 68 casualties and more than 4,000 injured. The heavily damaged areas were Kariwa Village and Kashiwazaki City of Niigata Prefecture, and a fire broke out in an electrical transformer at the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant (KKNPP). Regarding this earthquake, the several source models have been proposed. Based on the dimensions of the proposed source models, we simulate strong motion in the epicentral area including the KKNPP site by using the fourth order 3-D finite-difference method with staggered-discontinuous-grids, that is, GMS code (Aoi.S and H. Fujiwara, 1999). First, we try to modify the 3-D subsurface structure model of Niigata Prefecture, developed and provided by JNES (Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization). To calibrate this model, we simulate three aftershocks recordings at KKNPP, assuming point sources with the source mechanisms provided by F-net. The shapes of the main portion of the velocity waveform are well reproduced in general. However, regarding the time differences between P-wave and S-wave (i.e., S-P time), the results do not show good match between observed data and calculations. In order to correct the difference in S-P time, we set a horizontal boundary at the depth of 12.5km in the bedrock and assigned different velocity structures for the shallow and deep part of the bedrock. As a result, we can match S-P time of the shallow aftershock. Next, we simulate the main shock recordings using the modified subsurface structure described above. Since the observed data of the main shock shows three distinctive velocity pulses, the initial model that we adopt consists of a three asperities source model from the previous study of Kawabe and Kamae (2008). The following is our calculation procedure. First, the shapes of slip velocity time functions are assumed to be a simple triangle. Then, simulated time histories are convolved with the shapes of the assumed slip velocity time function for each asperity. Finally, time histories of each asperity are overlapped considering the time delay between ruptures. As a result, by multiplying the seismic moment of two asperities (Asperity 1 and 3) by 1.5 and searching appropriate shapes of the slip velocity functions for three asperities, we can reproduce the observation recordings at KKNPP. However, large amplitude of the third velocity pulse in EW component cannot be reproduced. By plotting the particle motions of velocity time histories, we confirm that the third pulse with large amplitude at station KK1 appears in a different direction from the predominant direction seen in the calculated velocities. We will include the other observed sites to our targets and modify the shape of slip velocity time functions. We will also investigate the cause of conspicuous velocity pulse dominantly in the EW component, scrutinizing either from the local subsurface structure or the source process complexity.

Nitta, Y.; Matsushima, S.; Kawase, H.

2010-12-01

117

Ground Motion Simulation for a Large Active Fault System using Empirical Green's Function Method and the Strong Motion Prediction Recipe - a Case Study of the Noubi Fault Zone -  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1995 Hyogo-ken Nambu Earthquake (1995) near Kobe, Japan, spurred research on strong motion prediction. To mitigate damage caused by large earthquakes, a highly precise method of predicting future strong motion waveforms is required. In this study, we applied empirical Green's function method to forward modeling in order to simulate strong ground motion in the Noubi Fault zone and examine issues related to strong motion prediction for large faults. Source models for the scenario earthquakes were constructed using the recipe of strong motion prediction (Irikura and Miyake, 2001; Irikura et al., 2003). To calculate the asperity area ratio of a large fault zone, the results of a scaling model, a scaling model with 22% asperity by area, and a cascade model were compared, and several rupture points and segmentation parameters were examined for certain cases. A small earthquake (Mw: 4.6) that occurred in northern Fukui Prefecture in 2004 were examined as empirical Green's function, and the source spectrum of this small event was found to agree with the omega-square scaling law. The Nukumi, Neodani, and Umehara segments of the 1891 Noubi Earthquake were targeted in the present study. The positions of the asperity area and rupture starting points were based on the horizontal displacement distributions reported by Matsuda (1974) and the fault branching pattern and rupture direction model proposed by Nakata and Goto (1998). Asymmetry in the damage maps for the Noubi Earthquake was then examined. We compared the maximum horizontal velocities for each case that had a different rupture starting point. In the case, rupture started at the center of the Nukumi Fault, while in another case, rupture started on the southeastern edge of the Umehara Fault; the scaling model showed an approximately 2.1-fold difference between these cases at observation point FKI005 of K-Net. This difference is considered to relate to the directivity effect associated with the direction of rupture propagation. Moreover, it was clarified that the horizontal velocities by assuming the cascade model was underestimated more than one standard deviation of empirical relation by Si and Midorikawa (1999). The scaling and cascade models showed an approximately 6.4-fold difference for the case, in which the rupture started along the southeastern edge of the Umehara Fault at observation point GIF020. This difference is significantly large in comparison with the effect of different rupture starting points, and shows that it is important to base scenario earthquake assumptions on active fault datasets before establishing the source characterization model. The distribution map of seismic intensity for the 1891 Noubi Earthquake also suggests that the synthetic waveforms in the southeastern Noubi Fault zone may be underestimated. Our results indicate that outer fault parameters (e.g., earthquake moment) related to the construction of scenario earthquakes influence strong motion prediction, rather than inner fault parameters such as the rupture starting point. Based on these methods, we will predict strong motion for approximately 140 to 150 km of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line.

Kuriyama, M.; Kumamoto, T.; Fujita, M.

2005-12-01

118

Rupture process of the 1999 November 12 Düzce (Turkey) earthquake deduced from strong motion and Global Positioning System measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the strong motion data recorded at near-fault accelerometers combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements to infer the space and time evolution of the Mw= 7.2 1999 November 12 Düzce (Turkey) earthquake. We confirm that the rupture is subshear towards the west whereas it overpassed the shear speed towards the east. The mechanism of the earthquake is predominantly right lateral on a 65° north-dipping fault. The strike-slip we infer represents at least 75% of the total seismic moment. We stress that the use of strong motion data allows us to constrain a strong spatial variation of the slip direction during faulting: to the west of the hypocentral region, the slip is oblique accompanied by a significant normal component. In the central and eastern part of the activated fault the slip is almost pure right lateral. This result is consistent both with the surface offset observations and with the long-term morphology of the fault. Neither strong motion data nor GPS data can resolve the complexity of the eastern termination of the Düzce rupture.

Bouin, M.-P.; Bouchon, M.; Karabulut, H.; Aktar, M.

2004-10-01

119

Modeling of strong ground motion during the 1992 Cairo earthquake in the urban area northern Greater of Cairo, Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1992 Cairo earthquake originated from Dahshour seismic zone at an epicentral distance of about 25 km southwest of Cairo. Regardless of its relatively moderate magnitude (Mb = 5.8), it caused extensive property damage besides injuries and loss of lives. The significant damage of this earthquake was probably associated with amplification of seismic waves due to local site effects. Liquefaction was observed at many sites near the epicenter. There are no records of strong ground motion at the damaged area during this earthquake. The main shock was recorded only by the local Kattamya station (KEG) constructed in limestone rock site at about 46-48 km east of Cairo. In the present work, the strong ground motion during 1992 Cairo earthquake was analyzed and the possible causes of damage and structural failure were discussed. The study area is located at the southern part of Cairo city, holding heavy population and many public structures and strategic buildings. The ground motion parameters in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV), and pseudo-spectral acceleration (PSA) were estimated for each site in the study area and in the KEG site. The site-dependent spectral models together with the stochastic technique were applied for this purpose, using the Fourier amplitude spectrum (FAS) source scaling, attenuation model, and the site amplification functions. The peak ground acceleration of the studied area, comprising 89 sites in northern great of Cairo (Qalyoub city) was calculated. The calculated peak ground acceleration values indicate the sites of high values of peak ground acceleration which are also characterized by high ground motion amplification factors. The ground motion, which is presented in this study, is highly amplified by the soil layer covering the area. Otherwise, the surface layer must be totally removed before construction of the buildings to avoid its large amplification to the ground motion.

Omar, Khaled; Attia, Mohsen; Fergany, El Sayed; Hassoup, Awad; Elkhashab, Hussein

2013-06-01

120

Revelations from a single strong-motion record retreived during the 27 June 1998 Adana (Turkey) earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the 27 June 1998 Adana (Turkey) earthquake, only one strong-motion record was retrieved in the region where the most damage occurred. This single record from the station in Ceyhan, approximately 15 km from the epicenter of that earthquake, exhibits characteristics that are related to the dominant frequencies of the ground and structures. The purpose of this paper is to explain the causes of the damage as inferred from both field observations and the characteristics of a single strong-motion record retrieved from the immediate epicentral area. In the town of Ceyhan there was considerable but selective damage to a significant number of mid-rise (7-12 stories high) buildings. The strong-motion record exhibits dominant frequencies that are typically similar for the mid-rise building structures. This is further supported by spectral ratios derived using Nakamura's method [QR of RTRI, 30 (1989) 25] that facilitates computation of a spectral ratio from a single tri-axial record as the ratio of amplitude spectrum of horizontal component to that of the vertical component [R = H(f)/V(f)]. The correlation between the damage and the characteristics exhibited from the single strong-motion record is remarkable. Although deficient construction practices played a significant role in the extent of damage to the mid-rise buildings, it is clear that site resonance also contributed to the detrimental fate of most of the mid-rise buildings. Therefore, even a single record can be useful to explain the effect of site resonance on building response and performance. Such information can be very useful for developing zonation criteria in similar alluvial valleys. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

Celebi, M.

2000-01-01

121

High frequency strong ground motion modelling in the Catania area associated with the Ibleo-Maltese fault system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid statistical-deterministic approach has been applied to estimate strong ground motion parameters (PGA, spectral ordinates) in South-Eastern Sicily for a M = 7 earthquake. A number of 100 different rupture processes have been simulated along a composite fault system representing two segments of the Ibleo-Maltese fault scarp. Map at regional scale of mean PGA in the 0.5–20 Hz frequency

Aldo Zollo; Antonio Emolo; Luigi Improta

1999-01-01

122

Revelations from a single strong-motion record retrieved during the 27 June 1998 Adana (Turkey) earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 27 June 1998 Adana (Turkey) earthquake, only one strong-motion record was retrieved in the region where the most damage occurred. This single record from the station in Ceyhan, approximately 15km from the epicenter of that earthquake, exhibits characteristics that are related to the dominant frequencies of the ground and structures.The purpose of this paper is to explain the

M Çelebi

2000-01-01

123

Effects of fault dip and slip rake angles on near-source ground motions: Why rupture directivity was minimal in the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We study how the fault dip and slip rake angles affect near-source ground velocities and displacements as faulting transitions from strike-slip motion on a vertical fault to thrust motion on a shallow-dipping fault. Ground motions are computed for five fault geometries with different combinations of fault dip and rake angles and common values for the fault area and the average slip. The nature of the shear-wave directivity is the key factor in determining the size and distribution of the peak velocities and displacements. Strong shear-wave directivity requires that (1) the observer is located in the direction of rupture propagation and (2) the rupture propagates parallel to the direction of the fault slip vector. We show that predominantly along-strike rupture of a thrust fault (geometry similar in the Chi-Chi earthquake) minimizes the area subjected to large-amplitude velocity pulses associated with rupture directivity, because the rupture propagates perpendicular to the slip vector; that is, the rupture propagates in the direction of a node in the shear-wave radiation pattern. In our simulations with a shallow hypocenter, the maximum peak-to-peak horizontal velocities exceed 1.5 m/sec over an area of only 200 km2 for the 30??-dipping fault (geometry similar to the Chi-Chi earthquake), whereas for the 60??- and 75??-dipping faults this velocity is exceeded over an area of 2700 km2 . These simulations indicate that the area subjected to large-amplitude long-period ground motions would be larger for events of the same size as Chi-Chi that have different styles of faulting or a deeper hypocenter.

Aagaard, B.T.; Hall, J.F.; Heaton, T.H.

2004-01-01

124

ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 471, Vol. 43, No. 3, September 2006, pp. 65-74 ESTIMATION OF NEAR-FAULT STRONG GROUND MOTIONS FOR  

E-print Network

ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 471, Vol. 43, No. 3, September 2006, pp. 65 of the recorded strong motions. The spectral differences between small and strong earthquakes are described ground motions of the Northridge (Mw = 6.7) earthquake. It is concluded that the finite-fault effect

Gupta, Vinay Kumar

125

Strong Ground Motion Simulation of December 26th, 2006 Ping-Tung Earthquake Based on Empirical Green's Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ping-Tung earthquake sequence (ML=7.0) occurred at the southwestern offshore of Taiwan on December 26, 2006. This strong earthquake sequence caused many devastating effects at the Heng-Chun area. In the study, we examine the source models of this event using the observed seismograms by CWBSN and Microbs arrays at some stations surrounding the source area. An objective estimation method was used to obtain the parameters N and C which are needed for the empirical Green¡¦s function method by Irikura (1986). This method was called ¡§source spectral ratio fitting method¡¨ which gives estimate of seismic moment ratio between a large and a small event and their corner frequencies by fitting the observed source spectral ratio with the estimated one which obeys the ?-2 model (Miyake et al., 1999). It has an advantage of removing site effects in evaluating those parameters. The best source model of the Ping-Tung mainshock was estimated by comparing the observed waveforms with the synthetics using the empirical Green¡¦s function method.

Lin, C.; Huang, H.

2007-12-01

126

A Web-Based Borehole Strong-motion Data Dissemination Portal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accelerometric and pore pressure data from instrumented boreholes in southern California are producing very interesting observations from a large data set that includes 100's of earthquake observations each month. While the majority of these are very small events, they provide the control data that represents the linear behavior of the site. In addition, the largest motions recorded to date, ~10%g,

J. H. Steidl; S. Seale; H. Ratzesberger; F. Civilini; N. Vaughan

2009-01-01

127

Calculation of broadband time histories of ground motion: Comparison of methods and validation using strong-ground motion from the 1994 Northridge earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This article compares techniques for calculating broadband time histories of ground motion in the near field of a finite fault by comparing synthetics with the strong-motion data set for the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Based on this comparison, a preferred methodology is presented. Ground-motion-simulation techniques are divided into two general methods: kinematic- and composite-fault models. Green's functions of three types are evaluated: stochastic, empirical, and theoretical. A hybrid scheme is found to give the best fit to the Northridge data. Low frequencies ( 1 Hz) are calculated using a composite-fault model with a fractal subevent size distribution and stochastic, bandlimited, white-noise Green's functions. At frequencies below 1 Hz, theoretical elastic-wave-propagation synthetics introduce proper seismic-phase arrivals of body waves and surface waves. The 3D velocity structure more accurately reproduces record durations for the deep sedimentary basin structures found in the Los Angeles region. At frequencies above 1 Hz, scattering effects become important and wave propagation is more accurately represented by stochastic Green's functions. A fractal subevent size distribution for the composite fault model ensures an ??-2 spectral shape over the entire frequency band considered (0.1-20 Hz).

Hartzell, S.; Harmsen, S.; Frankel, A.; Larsen, S.

1999-01-01

128

Equations of motion for natural orbitals of strongly driven two-electron systems  

E-print Network

Natural orbital theory is a computationally useful approach to the few and many-body quantum problem. While natural orbitals are known and applied since many years in electronic structure applications, their potential for time-dependent problems is being investigated only since recently. Correlated two-particle systems are of particular importance because the structure of the two-body reduced density matrix expanded in natural orbitals is known exactly in this case. However, in the time-dependent case the natural orbitals carry time-dependent phases that allow for certain time-dependent gauge transformations of the first kind. Different phase conventions will, in general, lead to different equations of motion for the natural orbitals. A particular phase choice allows us to derive the exact equations of motion for the natural orbitals of any (laser-) driven two-electron system explicitly, i.e., without any dependence on quantities that, in practice, require further approximations. For illustration, we solve the equations of motion for a model helium system. Besides calculating the spin-singlet and spin-triplet ground states, we show that the linear response spectra and the results for resonant Rabi flopping are in excellent agreement with the benchmark results obtained from the exact solution of the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation.

J. Rapp; M. Brics; D. Bauer

2014-10-07

129

Real-time coseismic displacements from tightly-integrated processing of high-rate GNSS and strong motion data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precise point positioning (PPP), which can provide "absolute" coseismic displacements with respect to a global reference frame (defined by the satellite orbits and clocks) with a stand-alone GNSS receiver, is advantageous and being used more and more widely for high-rate GNSS seismology. Following the availability of real-time high-rate GNSS observations and precise satellite orbit and clock products, the interest in the real-time PPP technique has greatly increased to construct displacement waveforms and to invert for source parameters of earthquakes in real time. Furthermore, PPP ambiguity fixing approaches developed in recent years provide an important promise to overcome the accuracy limitation of the traditional PPP float solution and to achieve comparable accuracy with relative/network positioning. The main weaknesses of current GNSS measurements are the lower sampling rates (1~50Hz) and the larger high-frequency noise contribution compared to the seismic sensors. Strong motion sensors are able to sample at very high rates (e.g. 200Hz) and perform very well in the high-frequency range as it is much more sensitive to ground motions than GNSS receiver, especially in the vertical direction. However, the double integration is accompanied by unphysical drifts due to sensor rotation and tilt, hysteresis, and imprecision in the numerical integration process. GNSS and seismic instruments are mutually beneficial for geophysical applications because weaknesses of one observation technique are offset by strengths in the other. In order to take full use of the complementary of GNSS and strong motion sensors, we propose an approach of integrating the strong motion data into the real-time ambiguity-fixed PPP processing. A tightly-integrated filter is developed to estimate coseismic displacements from raw GNSS phase and pseudorange observations and raw strong motion data. The performance of the proposed tightly-integrated approach was demonstrated using the collocated high-rate GNSS and strong motion data collected during the 2010, Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake(Mw 7.2, 4 April, 2010) in Baja California, Mexico. Taking advantage of the greater precision of the accelerometer observations, small-amplitude P-wave arrivals can be detected in the integrated solution. That is not detectable in the GNSS-only approach because of the reduced sensitivity of GNSS especially in vertical component. On the other hand, the seismic-only solution does not show the permanent co-seismic offset correctly, but it can be obtained from the integrated solution exactly. Furthermore, the proposed tightly-integrated algorithm can significantly improve the ability of resolving integer-cycle phase ambiguities in real-time scenarios, which is required to derive displacements with highest accuracy. Based on the integrated results, we detected the P-wave arrival, located the epicenter and estimated the magnitude. The P-wave-based earthquake parameters such as epicenter and origin time can be issued before the arrival of the destructive S-wave. The reliable estimation of the earthquake magnitude is an important contribution for earthquake early warning especially in case of large magnitude earthquakes. Keywords: Real-time high-rate GNSS; strong motion sensor; tight integration; precise point positioning; PPP ambiguity fixing;

Li, Xingxing; Ge, Maorong; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Rongjiang; Klotz, Jürgen; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

2013-04-01

130

Resolution analysis of finite fault source inversion using one- and three-dimensional Green's functions 1. Strong motions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We develop a methodology to perform finite fault source inversions from strong motion data using Green's functions (GFs) calculated for a three-dimensional (3-D) velocity structure. The 3-D GFs are calculated numerically by inserting body forces at each of the strong motion sites and then recording the resulting strains along the target fault surface. Using reciprocity, these GFs can be recombined to represent the ground motion at each site for any (heterogeneous) slip distribution on the fault. The reciprocal formulation significantly reduces the required number of 3-D finite difference computations to at most 3NS, where NS is the number of strong motion sites used in the inversion. Using controlled numerical resolution tests, we have examined the relative importance of accurate GFs for finite fault source inversions which rely on near-source ground motions. These experiments use both 1-D and 3-D GFs in inversions for hypothetical rupture models in order (1) to analyze the ability of the 3-D methodology to resolve trade-offs between complex source phenomena and 3-D path effects, (2) to address the sensitivity of the inversion results to uncertainties in the 3-D velocity structure, and (3) to test the adequacy of the 1-D GF method when propagation effects are known to be three-dimensional. We find that given "data" from a prescribed 3-D Earth structure, the use of well-calibrated 3-D GFs in the inversion provides very good resolution of the assumed slip distribution, thus adequately separating source and 3-D propagation effects. In contrast, using a set of inexact 3-D GFs or a set of hybrid 1-D GFs allows only partial recovery of the slip distribution. These findings suggest that in regions of complex geology the use of well-calibrated 3-D GFs has the potential for increased resolution of the rupture process relative to 1-D GFs. However, realizing this full potential requires that the 3-D velocity model and associated GFs should be carefully validated against the true 3-D Earth structure before performing the inverse problem with actual data. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

Graves, R.W.; Wald, D.J.

2001-01-01

131

Simulation of Earthquake Strong Ground Motion Using the Specific Barrier Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are two key fault parameters that represent length scales and control the intermediate and high frequency content of near-fault ground motion: (1) the barrier interval; and, (2) the length of the cohesive end-zone at the crack tip. The barrier interval controls the rise time and therefore is related to the pulse duration of the near-fault pulses that carry considerable destructive potential for man-made structures. On the other hand, the length of the cohesive end-zone at the crack tip, which is a measure of the effective thickness of the fault gauge, is expected to control the intensity of the radiated near-fault pulses. In the present work we focus on the barrier interval, which is equal to the size of the representative sub-event of a main event. The barrier interval is equal to the diameter of the circular cracks of the equal-size sub-events that compose the main event in the Specific Barrier Model (SBM) proposed by Papageorgiou and Aki (1983). We have recently calibrated the model using the most up-to-date databases of earthquake events representing three tectonic regimes (Halldorsson and Papageorgiou, 2004). Using the parameters of the SBM that were obtained from the above calibration, we proceed to simulate time histories for a number of earthquake events that were well recorded, cover a wide magnitude range (Mw 5.9 - 7.9), and are representative samples of different source mechanisms. Objective measures are used to assess the quality of fit of the simulated time histories to the recorded motions. A key assumption of the SBM is the uniform distribution of the seismic moment released over the fault plane (i.e., all sub-events are of equal size). We assess the bias (if any) introduced to the overall simulation by the above assumption. The overall goal of the exercise is to assess the effectiveness of the SBM to provide time histories of earthquake ground motion that can be used with confidence by earthquake engineers in aseismic design.

Halldorsson, B.; Dong, G.; Mavroeidis, G.; Zhang, F.; Papageorgiou, A.

2004-12-01

132

Strong Erosion-Driven Nongravitational Effects in Orbital Motions of the Kreutz Sungrazing System's Dwarf Comets  

E-print Network

We investigate the relationship among the angular orbital elements --- the longitude of the ascending node, Omega, the inclination, i, and the argument of perihelion, omega --- of dwarf sungrazing comets of the Kreutz system, whose catalogued orbits were derived using a parabolic gravitational approximation. While in a plot of omega against Omega the major and dwarf sungrazers follow a similar law, in a plot of i against Omega they behave differently. The major sungrazers fit a curve of invariable (reference) apsidal orientation, whereas the dwarf comets lie along a curve that makes with it 15 deg. While the perihelion longitude of dwarf sungrazers is statistically constant, the perihelion latitude increases systematically with Omega. A perturbation analysis indicates that this is due to an acceleration normal to the orbit plane. The culprit is neglect of an erosion-driven acceleration in the motions of the dwarf sungrazers, as illustrated by computing, for several test SOHO/STEREO sungrazers, orbital solutio...

Sekanina, Zdenek

2014-01-01

133

Seismic Strong Motion Array Project (SSMAP) to Record Future Large Earthquakes in the Nicoya Peninsula area, Costa Rica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismic strong motion array project (SSMAP) for the Nicoya Peninsula in northwestern Costa Rica is composed of 10 - 13 sites including Geotech A900/A800 accelerographs (three-component), Ref-Teks (three- component velocity), and Kinemetric Episensors. The main objectives of the array are to: 1) record and locate strong subduction zone mainshocks [and foreshocks, "early aftershocks", and preshocks] in Nicoya Peninsula, at the entrance of the Nicoya Gulf, and in the Papagayo Gulf regions of Costa Rica, and 2) record and locate any moderate to strong upper plate earthquakes triggered by a large subduction zone earthquake in the above regions. Our digital accelerograph array has been deployed as part of our ongoing research on large earthquakes in conjunction with the Earthquake and Volcano Observatory (OVSICORI) at the Universidad Nacional in Costa Rica. The country wide seismographic network has been operating continuously since the 1980's, with the first earthquake bulletin published more than 20 years ago, in 1984. The recording of seismicity and strong motion data for large earthquakes along the Middle America Trench (MAT) has been a major research project priority over these years, and this network spans nearly half the time of a "repeat cycle" (~ 50 years) for large (Ms ~ 7.5- 7.7) earthquakes beneath the Nicoya Peninsula, with the last event in 1950. Our long time co- collaborators include the seismology group OVSICORI, with coordination for this project by Dr. Ronnie Quintero and Mr. Juan Segura. The major goal of our project is to contribute unique scientific information pertaining to a large subduction zone earthquake and its related seismic activity when the next large earthquake occurs in Nicoya. We are now collecting a database of strong motion records for moderate sized events to document this last stage prior to the next large earthquake. A recent event (08/18/06; M=4.3) located 20 km northwest of Samara was recorded by two stations (Playa Carrillo and Nicoya) at distances of 25-30 km with maximum acceleration of 0.2g.

Simila, G.; Lafromboise, E.; McNally, K.; Quintereo, R.; Segura, J.

2007-12-01

134

Strong seismic wave scattering beneath Kanto region derived from dense K-NET/KiK-net strong motion network and numerical simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observed seismograms, which consist of the high-frequency body waves through the low-velocity (LV) region at depth of 20-40 km beneath northwestern Chiba in Kanto, show strong peak delay and spindle shape of S waves. By analyzing dense seismic records from K-NET/KiK-net, such spindle-shape S waves are clearly observed in the frequency range of 1-8 Hz. In order to investigate a specific heterogeneous structure to generate such observations, we conduct 3-D finite-difference method (FDM) simulation using realistic heterogeneous models and compare the simulation results with dense strong motion array observations. Our 3-D simulation model is covering the zone 150 km by 64 km in horizontal directions and 75 km in vertical direction, which has been discretized with uniform grid size 0.05 km. We assume a layered background velocity structure, which includes basin structure, crust, mantle and subducting oceanic plate, base on the model proposed by Koketsu et al. (2008). In order to introduce the effect of seismic wave scattering, we assume a stochastic random velocity fluctuation in each layer. Random velocity fluctuations are characterized by exponential-type auto-correlation function (ACF) with correlation distance a = 3 km and rms value of fluctuation e = 0.05 in the upper crust, a = 3 km and e = 0.07 in the lower crust, a = 10 km and e = 0.02 in the mantle. In the subducting oceanic plate, we assume an anisotropic random velocity fluctuation characterized by exponential-type ACF with aH = 10 km in horizontal direction, aZ = 0.5 km in vertical direction and e = 0.02 (e.g., Furumura and Kennett, 2005). In addition, we assume a LV zone at northeastern part of Chiba with depth of 20-40 km (e.g., Matsubara et al., 2004). In the LV zone, random velocity fluctuation characterized by Gaussian-type ACF with a = 1 km and e = 0.07 is superposed on exponential-type ACF with a = 3 km and e = 0.07, in order to modulate the S-wave propagation in the dominant frequency range of spindle-shape S waves. Such large-scale FDM simulations are conducted on the Earth Simulator at JAMSTEC. It is found that the FDM simulation of the model without strong velocity fluctuation cannot explain the characteristics of observed S waves. By introducing strong velocity fluctuation in the LV zone, strong peak delay and spindle-shape S waves observed at central and southern part of Chiba are simulated successfully. In addition, the strong amplitude decrease of S waves in the LV zone due to strong seismic scattering is good corresponding to results based on the tomographic study of Q in Kanto (e.g., Nakamura et al., 2006). Simulation results demonstrated that strong velocity fluctuation in the LV zone plays important role in the peak delay and waveform shape. The LV zone beneath northeastern Chiba is considered as a result of dehydration from oceanic crust of subducted Philippine Sea plate (e.g., Matsubara et al., 2005). Therefore strong small-scale velocity fluctuation in the LV zone may be related with dehydrated water.

Takemura, S.; Yoshimoto, K.

2013-12-01

135

Probing strong-field electron-nuclear dynamics of polyatomic molecules using proton motion  

SciTech Connect

Proton ejection during Coulomb explosion is studied for several structure-related organic molecules (anthracene, anthraquinone, and octahydroanthracene) subjected to 800 nm, 60 fs laser pulses at intensities from 0.50 to 4.0x10{sup 14} W cm{sup -2}. The proton kinetic energy distributions are found to be markedly structure specific. The distributions are bimodal for anthracene and octahydroanthracene and trimodal for anthraquinone. Maximum (cutoff) energies of the distributions range from 50 eV for anthracene to 83 eV for anthraquinone. The low-energy mode ({approx}10 eV) is most pronounced in octahydroanthracene. The dependence of the characteristic features of the distributions on the laser intensity provides insights into molecular specificity of such strong-field phenomena as (i) nonadiabatic charge localization and (ii) field-mediated restructuring of polyatomic molecules polarized by a strong laser field.

Markevitch, Alexei N.; Smith, Stanley M.; Levis, Robert J. [Department of Chemistry, Center for Advanced Photonics Research, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 (United States); Romanov, Dmitri A. [Department of Physics, Center for Advanced Photonics Research, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 (United States)

2007-05-15

136

Source process of the 2007 Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki earthquake derived from near-fault strong motion data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2007 Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki earthquake generated strong ground motions in Kashiwazaki and Kariwa, where the world largest nuclear power plant was in operation. Due to the complexity of the aftershock distribution, activation of the northwest-dipping fault and/or the southeast-dipping fault is proposed. To explore the fault geometry and source process of the earthquake, we performed multi-time window linear waveform inversions for both the fault planes from near-fault strong motion data. A fault plane model of 30 km in length by 24 km in width was set to cover the region of aftershock distribution within 24 h of the mainshock. Both inverted slip models provided moment magnitudes of 6.7 with a small asperity near the rupture starting point, and a large asperity approximately 10 km southwest of the rupture initiation, which is located in the region of relatively sparse aftershock distribution. Both the small and large asperities are located near the intersection between the two conjugate fault plane models, and the asperities of both models have similar radiation patterns. Therefore, the difference of the residuals between the observed and synthetic waveforms for both models was not significant, indicating that it is difficult to conclude which fault is the rupture.

Aoi, Shin; Sekiguchi, Haruko; Morikawa, Nobuyuki; Kunugi, Takashi

2008-11-01

137

Executive Summary of Vision and Options for the Future of the US National Strong-Motion Program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These reports are presented in response to a charge of the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (EHRP) Program Council of the U.S. Geological Survey to 'define the future of the USGS National Strong-Motion Program (NSMP)' (Appendix A). The council requested that a 'Vision Paper' and an 'Options Document' be prepared. Each of these reports is a separate document. The 'Executive Summary' of both reports is presented here under separate cover. The content of the reports and the executive summary is organized to the extent possible according to the main charges of the EHRP Program Council. Detailed evaluation of charges and questions posed by the Council with the benefit of modern GIS tools and the recent deliberations of three national workshops have yielded substantial new insight regarding the status of strong-motion measurement in the US. These reports are intended as an objective evaluation of the nation's need and capability to record the next major earthquake at locations of most significance for public safety.

Committee for the Future of the US National Strong-Motion Program

1997-01-01

138

Three-Dimensional Attenuation Structure of the Kumaon Himalayas, India, Based on Inversion of Strong Motion Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional attenuation structure based on frequency-dependent shear wave quality factor, Q ? ( f), has been determined for the Kumaon region of the Himalayas. An algorithm based on inversion of strong motion data developed by J oshi (Curr Sci 90:581-585, 2006a) and later modified by K umar et al. (Pure Appl Geophys, doi: 10.1007/s00024-013-0658-x, 2013) was used for determination of three-dimensional attenuation coefficients. The input of this algorithm is the spectral acceleration of the S phase of the accelerogram and the outcome is the attenuation coefficient and the source acceleration spectra. A dense network monitoring strong ground motion in the Kumaon region of the Uttarakhand Himalayas has been operating since 2006. This network recorded 287 earthquakes up to July, 2013, of which 18 were used for this work. Shear-wave quality-factors were estimated for frequencies of 1.0, 5.0, and 10.0 Hz for two rectangular blocks of surface of dimensions 85 × 55 and 90 × 30 km2 in the Kumaon region of the Himalayas. Both blocks were divided into 25 three-dimensional blocks of uniform thickness with different Q ? ( f) values. The spatial distribution of frequency-dependent shear-wave quality factors in two different blocks reveal the attenuation properties of the region. The profiles of the contours of shear-wave quality factors observed were comparable with those of major tectonic units present in the region.

Kumar, Parveen; Joshi, A.; Sandeep; Kumar, Ashvini

2015-02-01

139

A Web-Based Borehole Strong-motion Data Dissemination Portal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accelerometric and pore pressure data from instrumented boreholes in southern California are producing very interesting observations from a large data set that includes 100’s of earthquake observations each month. While the majority of these are very small events, they provide the control data that represents the linear behavior of the site. In addition, the largest motions recorded to date, ~10%g, are getting to the regime where nonlinear soil behavior effects become important. In order to make these data more accessible to the seismology and earthquake engineering research community, software development of a web-based data dissemination portal has taken place under the George E. Brown Jr., Network for Earthquake Engineering (NEES) program. This development includes processing and analysis tools, and web-based data dissemination available through the NEES@UCSB website [http://nees.ucsb.edu]. Of interest to the research community are the tools developed to provide search, waveform viewing, and download capabilities for access to data acquired through the various borehole-monitoring programs at UC Santa Barbara. Researchers interested in obtaining data recorded at the various field sites can use the map-based search tool to select a particular station and instrument(s). The user is then provided another map-based interface that allows the user to select events with choice of magnitude, distance, and time period. Once the user has selected an event of interest, the ability to view the data is provided, along with some waveform parameters like peak velocity and acceleration. The records can then be downloaded in a number of common formats, including MSEED, SAC, and an ASCII text-based real-time data viewer (RDV) format. The last format allows the data to be viewed in the NEES RDV tool, a platform independent JAVA program developed to display both real-time streaming data, or playback data that has been downloaded through the web-based event search tool.

Steidl, J. H.; Seale, S.; Ratzesberger, H.; Civilini, F.; Vaughan, N.

2009-12-01

140

Motion of particles of magnetically hard powder in a constant magnetic and strongly nonuniform electromagnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

The breakup process of floccules in the fluid state under the action of a constant magnetic and of strongly nonuniform electromagnetic fields was described and recorded by comparing the magnetic properties of samples pressed from powders, texturized, and prefluidized. Commercial barium ferrite powder was fluidized in a dielectric mold. A vibration magnetometer measured the magnetic properties. To evaluate the role of the resonance response to magnetic properties, a system of magnetic strings was formed and held in an oscillation regime induced by an alternating field with different frequency. It was found from the results of these formations that the magnetic structure of the sample consists of magnetic strings formed predominantly by separate particles and whose magnetic moments are oriented along the direction of the texturizing field. Results are also given for the fluidization of samarium-cobalt and samarium-cobalt-copper alloy powders.

Bitkina, N.S.; Vernigorov, Yu.M.; Ignatov, B.P.; Lemeshko, G.F.

1988-04-01

141

Motion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph was written for the Conference on the New Instructional Materials in Physics held at the University of Washington in summer, 1965. It is intended for use in an introductory course in college physics. It consists of an extensive qualitative discussion of motion followed by a detailed development of the quantitative methods needed to…

Gerhart, James B.; Nussbaum, Rudi H.

142

Motion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic of motion. Contents include: (1) "First Word" (Zach Tobias); (2) "Cosmic Collisions" (Robert Irion); (3) "The Mobile Cell" (Karen E. Kalumuck); (4) "The Paths of Paths" (Steven Vogel); (5) "Fragments" (Pearl Tesler); (6) "Moving Pictures" (Amy Snyder); (7) "Plants on the Go" (Katharine…

Brand, Judith, Ed.

2002-01-01

143

Curved ducts with strong secondary motion - Velocity measurements of developing laminar and turbulent flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two orthogonal components of velocity and associated Reynolds stresses are determined in a square-sectioned, 90 degree bend of 2.3 radius ratio by utilizing laser-Doppler velocimetry for Reynolds numbers of 790 and 40,000. Results show that boundary layers at the bend inlet of 0.25 and 0.15 of the hydraulic diameter create secondary velocity maxima of 0.6 and 0.4 of the bulk flow velocity, respectively. It is concluded that the boundary layer thickness is important to the flow development, mainly in the first half of the bend, especially when it is reduced to 0.15 of the hydraulic diameter. Smaller secondary velocities are found for turbulent flow in an identical duct with a radius ratio of 7.0 than in the strongly curved bend, although their effect is more important to the streamwise flow development because of the smaller pressure gradients. In addition, the detail and accuracy of the measurements make them suitable for evaluation of numerical techniques and turbulence models.

Taylor, A. M. K. P.; Whitelaw, J. H.; Yianneskis, M.

1982-01-01

144

Consistency of GPS and strong-motion records: case study of the Mw9.0 Tohoku-Oki 2011 earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-rate GPS data are today commonly used to supplement seismic data for the Earth surface motions focusing on earthquake characterisation and rupture modelling. Processing of GPS records using Precise Point Positioning (PPP) can provide real-time information of seismic wave propagation, tsunami early-warning and seismic rupture. Most studies have shown differences between the GPS and seismic systems at very long periods (e.g. >100sec) and static displacements. The aim of this study is the assessment of the consistency of GPS and strong-motion records by comparing their respective displacement waveforms for several frequency bands. For this purpose, the records of the GPS (GEONET) and the strong-motion (KiK-net and K-NET) networks corresponding to the Mw9.0 Tohoku 2011 earthquake were analysed. The comparison of the displacement waveforms of collocated (distance<100m) GPS and strong-motion sites show that the consistency between the two datasets depends on the frequency of the excitation. Differences are mainly due to the GPS noise at relatively short-periods (<3-4 s) and the saturation of the strong-motion sensors for relatively long-periods (40-80 s). Furthermore the agreement between the GPS and strong-motion records also depends on the direction of the excitation signal and the distance from the epicentre. In conclusion, velocities and displacements recovered from GPS and strong-motion records are consistent for long-periods (3-100 s), proving that GPS networks can contribute to the real-time estimation of the long-period ground motion map of an earthquake.

Psimoulis, Panos; Houlié, Nicolas; Michel, Clotaire; Meindl, Michael; Rothacher, Markus

2014-05-01

145

Comments on baseline correction of digital strong-motion data: Examples from the 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Residual displacements for large earthquakes can sometimes be determined from recordings on modern digital instruments, but baseline offsets of unknown origin make it difficult in many cases to do so. To recover the residual displacement, we suggest tailoring a correction scheme by studying the character of the velocity obtained by integration of zeroth-order-corrected acceleration and then seeing if the residual displacements are stable when the various parameters in the particular correction scheme are varied. For many seismological and engineering purposes, however, the residual displacement are of lesser importance than ground motions at periods less than about 20 sec. These ground motions are often recoverable with simple baseline correction and low-cut filtering. In this largely empirical study, we illustrate the consequences of various correction schemes, drawing primarily from digital recordings of the 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquake. We show that with simple processing the displacement waveforms for this event are very similar for stations separated by as much as 20 km. We also show that a strong pulse on the transverse component was radiated from the Hector Mine earthquake and propagated with little distortion to distances exceeding 170 km; this pulse leads to large response spectral amplitudes around 10 sec.

Boore, D.M.; Stephens, C.D.; Joyner, W.B.

2002-01-01

146

Fault location and source process of the 2003 Boumerdes, Algeria, earthquake inferred from geodetic and strong motion data.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Boumerdes earthquake occurred on a fault which precise location, offshore the algerian coast, was unknown. Geodetic data consist of GPS measurements, levelling points and coastal uplifts. They are first used to determine the absolute position of the fault. We performed a series of inversions assuming different positions and chose the model giving the smallest misfit. According to this analysis, the fault emerge at about 15 km offshore. Accelerograms are then used to infer the space-time history of rupture on the fault plane using a two-step inversion in the spectral domain. The observed strong motion records are in good agreement with the synthetics for the fault location inferred from geodetic data. The fault plane ruptured for about 16 seconds. The slip distribution on the fault indicates one asperity north-west of the hypocenter with a maximum slip amplitude larger than 2.5 m. Another asperity with slightly smaller slip amplitude is located south-east of the hypocenter. The rupture seems to stop its propagation westward when it encounters the Thenia fault, a structure almost perpendicular to the main fault. We computed the spatial distribution of ground motion predicted by this fault model and compared it with the observed damages.

Semmane, F.; Campillo, M.; Cotton, F.

2004-12-01

147

Strong vortical flows generated by the collective motion of magnetic particle chains rotating in a fluid cell.  

PubMed

Magnetic microparticles, assembled into chains that are actuated with rotating magnetic fields, can be used as microstirrers to promote fluid transport and biochemical reactions in microfluidic systems. We show that, within a certain range of magnetic field rotation frequency, the microstirrers exhibit a coherent collective motion: the rotating magnetic particle chains move throughout the volume of a flat fluid cell and generate very strong (~1 mm s(-1)) and global (9 mm) vortical fluid flows, with many eddy-type substructures that fluctuate continuously in time, resembling turbulent flow. The collective motion makes the microstirrers not only defy gravity, but also move against magnetic field gradients. The induced fluid flow is directly related to the stirring rate and the amount of magnetic particle chains. The observed behavior is caused by the magnetic and hydrodynamic interactions between the magnetic microparticles and the fluid. We utilized the phenomenon of swarming particles to enhance biochemical assays with magnetic capture particles (4000 ?L(-1)) and IgG targets (500 pM). When compared to a reference system of sedimented magnetic capture particles, magnetic actuation leads to both a ~9 times increase in the initial assay kinetics as well as a ~7 times increase of target capture signal after 30 minutes. PMID:25380482

Gao, Yang; Beerens, Jasper; van Reenen, Alexander; Hulsen, Martien A; de Jong, Arthur M; Prins, Menno W J; den Toonder, Jaap M J

2015-01-01

148

Fault location and source process of the Boumerdes, Algeria, earthquake inferred from geodetic and strong motion data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Boumerdes earthquake occurred on a fault whose precise location, offshore the Algerian coast, was unknown. Geodetic data are used to determine the absolute position of the fault. The fault might emerge at about 15 km offshore. Accelerograms are used to infer the space-time history of the rupture using a two-step inversion in the spectral domain. The observed strong motion records agree with the synthetics for the fault location inferred from geodetic data. The fault plane ruptured for about 18 seconds. The slip distribution on the fault indicates one asperity northwest of the hypocenter with maximum slip amplitude about 3 m. This asperity is probably responsible for most of the damage. Another asperity with slightly smaller slip amplitude is located southeast of the hypocenter. The rupture stops its westward propagation close to the Thenia fault, a structure almost perpendicular to the main fault.

Semmane, Fethi; Campillo, Michel; Cotton, Fabrice

2005-01-01

149

Imaging supershear rupture for the 2014 Mw 6.9 Northern Aegean earthquake by backprojection of strong motion waveforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismic source spatiotemporal evolution of the Mw 6.9 event on 24 May 2014 in Northern Aegean is imaged by backprojection of strong motion envelopes. The results indicate that the event ruptured on two different fault segments. In the first one, rupture propagated from the hypocenter westward for ˜20 km. In the second delayed segment to the east, rupture propagated eastward for ˜65 km with a supershear velocity (˜5.5 km/s). At the end of this rupture the largest stacking amplitudes are imaged, associated with possible stopping phases from the abrupt cessation of a fast slip. Low-aftershock seismicity on the supershear segment implies a simple and linear fault geometry there. This is the third large event in the Northern Aegean Trough-Northern Anatolian Fault zones that has ruptured with supershear speed. This characteristic should be taken into account in studying past events and estimating seismic hazard in this area.

Evangelidis, C. P.

2015-01-01

150

Source parameters of the 2013 Lushan, Sichuan, Ms7.0 earthquake and estimation of the near-fault strong ground motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract: The April 20, 2013 Ms 7.0 earthquake in Lushan city, Sichuan province of China occurred as the result of east-west oriented reverse-type motion on a north-south striking fault. The source location suggests the event occurred on the Southern part of Longmenshan fault at a depth of 13km. The Lushan earthquake caused a great of loss of property and 196 deaths. The maximum intensity is up to VIII to IX at Boxing and Lushan city, which are located in the meizoseismal area. In this study, we analyzed the dynamic source process and calculated source spectral parameters, estimated the strong ground motion in the near-fault field based on the Brune's circle model at first. A dynamical composite source model (DCSM) has been developed further to simulate the near-fault strong ground motion with associated fault rupture properties at Boxing and Lushan city, respectively. The results indicate that the frictional undershoot behavior in the dynamic source process of Lushan earthquake, which is actually different from the overshoot activity of the Wenchuan earthquake. Based on the simulated results of the near-fault strong ground motion, described the intensity distribution of the Lushan earthquake field. The simulated intensity indicated that, the maximum intensity value is IX, and region with and above VII almost 16,000km2, which is consistence with observation intensity published online by China Earthquake Administration (CEA) on April 25. Moreover, the numerical modeling developed in this study has great application in the strong ground motion prediction and intensity estimation for the earthquake rescue purpose. In fact, the estimation methods based on the empirical relationship and numerical modeling developed in this study has great application in the strong ground motion prediction for the earthquake source process understand purpose. Keywords: Lushan, Ms7.0 earthquake; near-fault strong ground motion; DCSM; simulated intensity

Meng, L.; Zhou, L.; Liu, J.

2013-12-01

151

Simulation of Strong Ground Motion Based on Conventional Empirical Green s Functions In the Michoacán State, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, we study the state of Michoacán, one of the most important seimogenic zones in Mexico. Three kinds of sources exist in the state, producing tectonic earthquakes, volcanic earthquakes, and events due to local faults in the region. For this reason, it is of vital importance the study of source parameters in the Michoacán state. In this work in particular we applied the simulation of strong ground motions by the conventional empirical Green s functions proposed by Irikura (1986). We installed a temporary network consisting of 6 accelerograph stations across the state, at the following locations: Faro de Brucerías, Aguililla, Apatzingán, Pátzcuaro, Morelia, and Maravatío. The stations form a line that is perpendicular to the coastline and has a total length of 366 km, while the distance between neighboring stations varies from 60 to 80 km. Among all the seismic events recorded at this temporary network, we select 2 events originated along the coastline of Michoacán (May the 2007), with moment magnitudes of 4.3 and 5.1 Mw. In order to calibrate the model, the earthquake of May 31, 2007 (M 5.1) was simulated using the aftershock of May 27 of that year (M 4.3) with satisfactory results, following the same method and considering the ?2 spectral model with constant stress drop. Later, we calculated six scenarios for a postulate earthquake of M 7.4. From the six scenarios the largest peak ground accelerations for each station were, 83 cm/s2 in Faro de Brucerías , 15.4 cm/s2 in Apatzingán, 23 cm/s2 in Pátzcuaro, 3.7 cm/s2 in Morelia and Maravatio con 3.0 cm/s2 . One limitation of this study is that we used relatively small-magnitude earthquakes. This was a consequence of the relatively short operation period of the temporary network, which had to be limited to 3 months. To improve these simulations it is necessary to have more information about rupture processes of the recorded earthquakes. And likewise, information of future earthquakes in the region is needed in order to improve prediction models as the one presented in this work. That information will be useful to minimize uncertainty and to better understand the parameters involved in the strong-motion simulations.

Vazquez Rosas, R.; Aguirre Gonzalez, J. J.; Mijares Arellano, H. H.

2012-12-01

152

Stochastic Finite-Fault Simulations Of Strong Ground Motion For The 2005 Fukuoka Earthquake (Mw6.6)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fukuoka earthquake (Mw6.6) occurred on March 20, 2005 under the sea off Fukuoka city at 10:53 a.m.(JST). The rupture propageted toward Fukuoka city from NW direction and strong ground motion with JMA seismic intensity 6 lower was observed in Fukuoka city. We apply stochastic finite-fault simulation to simulate the acceleration records of the earthquake recorded at 27 strong motion stations of K-NET and KiK-net (NIED), whose epicentral distances range from 21km to 92km. We simulate with concentrating on the frequency range between 1 to 20Hz. We use the code by Motazedian and Atkinson(2005) after a little modification. To incorporate accurate site amplification effects, we employ site amplification data extracted from other event records by Kawase and Matsuo(2004) where they got site amplification by using the spectral separation technique. The fault geometry is set based on the aftershock distribution. Simulations are done for two different source models: One is characterized by its constant stress parameter on the whole fault plane with slip weight randomly distributed, the other is characterized by an asperity where stress parameter and slip wight have higher values than the surrounding background region. We determine unknown parameters such as rupture velocity, stress parameter, and pulsing area by a grid search. Rupture velocity is kept constant on the fault plane for both models. The obtained synthetic Fourier amplitude spectra and time series show overall agreement with the observed. In particular, the fitting of the Fourier amplitude spectra are pretty well, mainly owing to Kawase and Matsuo's work, except 9 stations. In those exceptional stations where rather large discrepancy between observed and synthetic spectra is found, the observed site amplifications differ from those we used in the simulation. These facts show the importance of accurate evaluation of site amplification. We could not find out any significant difference between the time series and Fourier amplitude spectra of two models. It may support the conclusion by Beresnev and Atkinson (1998) that the results of stochastic simulation are not so severly influenced by whether we use randomly distributed slip or use that obtained by source inversion.

Ohshima, M.; Moustafa, S.; Takenaka, H.; Kawase, H.

2006-12-01

153

Combining Broadband, Strong Motion, and other geophysical data in real time data acquisition and processing at the Swiss Seismological Service SED  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Swiss Seismological Service (SED) operates one of the densest seismic broadband networks in Europe with 27 STS2 stations transmitting 24 bit 120sps data in real time. In addition the SED operates a network of 77 strong-motion recorders (65 free-field, 12 on hard rock co-located with broadband sensors). At 16 of the free-field sites and the 12 hard-rock sites Episensor accelerometers and 24 bit digitizers are installed and data is also transmitted in real time, while the other stations are equipped with 1990-era Geosig strong motion sensors, 16 bit A/D converters, and dial-up telephone links. Over the next 10years it is planned to replace those older strong motion stations with Episensors, 24 bit digitizers, and real-time data links, and to install an additional 51 free-field stations of that type. Past experience has shown that the strong motion data is very useful for refining the hypocentral parameters especially for smaller earthquakes, so in future all new strong motion channels will be integrated into the real-time processing.According to the SED open data policy all this data will be freely available e.g. through ORFEUS. Furthermore, new regional experiments in Switzerland (in particular COGEAR, "Coupled seismogenic Geohazards in Alpine Regions") will provide additional data from dense temporary deployments of strong motion stations and real-time GPS, but also from other geophysical methods like geochemical and magnetotelluric measurements with significantly different data types and sampling rates. Apart from the challenges of integrated acquisition and quasi-real-time processing of all that data the provision of efficient access to data streams and station metadata requires new concepts of web-based data visualisation and retrieval implementations (e.g. webmap services).

Clinton, J.; Haslinger, F.; Fäh, D.; Zweifel, P.; Schnabel, O.; Giardini, D.

2009-04-01

154

Rupture Process of the March 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake from Back-Projection of Local Strong-Motion Records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mw 9.0 megathrust earthquake off northeastern Honshu, Japan, in March 2011 had an unexpected size for a region which experienced only few events with magnitude larger than 8.0 in the past millennium. The event originated at crustal depths along a segment of the Pacific slab of the Japanese subduction zone. Large slip deficit and strong interplate coupling have been previously detected there by inland deformation measurements. The pattern of seismicity occurrence and the mechanical coupling between the different sectors of the Japan slab suggest that its morphology and segmentation may be strongly influenced by the presence of landward oceanic fracture zones. The aim of this study is to image the locations of strongly radiating sources and the rupture development during the faulting process. We used strong-motion records from the dense Japanese accelerometer arrays, integrated twice to obtain ground displacement, and filtered in different frequency bands between 0.04 Hz and 2.0 Hz. We applied a move-out and stacking technique to back-project the S-wave displacement amplitudes onto the subducting plate boundary, including the proper correction for geometrical spreading and source radiation pattern. Thus, the resulting images are consistently mapped into the slip distribution during the rupture development. Image resolution and sensitivity to processing parameters is assessed by synthetic tests. Our results show that the great Tohoku earthquake started as a smaller size rupture, slowly propagating upward along the slab segment and triggering the break of a larger size asperity at shallower depths near the trench. In that region also the largest slip has been observed in various studies. For a large amount of its duration, the rupture remained confined in a 100-150 km wide slab stripe, delimited by two Northwest-Southeast trending oceanic fractures. After about a minute, the rupture propagated at relatively high speed toward Southwest, parallel to the trench. The occurrence of large slip amplitudes at shallow depths likely favored the rupture to propagate across contiguous slab segments and contributed to build up a giant size earthquake. The lateral variations in the slab surface geometry may act as geometrical and/or mechanical barriers finally controlling the earthquake rupture nucleation, evolution and arrest.

Maercklin, N.; Festa, G.; Colombelli, S.; Zollo, A.

2011-12-01

155

A teleseismic study of the 2002 Denali fault, Alaska, earthquake and implications for rapid strong-motion estimation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Slip histories for the 2002 M7.9 Denali fault, Alaska, earthquake are derived rapidly from global teleseismic waveform data. In phases, three models improve matching waveform data and recovery of rupture details. In the first model (Phase I), analogous to an automated solution, a simple fault plane is fixed based on the preliminary Harvard Centroid Moment Tensor mechanism and the epicenter provided by the Preliminary Determination of Epicenters. This model is then updated (Phase II) by implementing a more realistic fault geometry inferred from Digital Elevation Model topography and further (Phase III) by using the calibrated P-wave and SH-wave arrival times derived from modeling of the nearby 2002 M6.7 Nenana Mountain earthquake. These models are used to predict the peak ground velocity and the shaking intensity field in the fault vicinity. The procedure to estimate local strong motion could be automated and used for global real-time earthquake shaking and damage assessment. ?? 2004, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

Ji, C.; Helmberger, D.V.; Wald, D.J.

2004-01-01

156

Automatic imaging of earthquake rupture processes by iterative deconvolution and stacking of high-rate GPS and strong motion seismograms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By combining the complementary advantages of conventional network inversion and backprojection methods, we have developed an iterative deconvolution and stacking (IDS) approach for imaging earthquake rupture processes with near-field complete waveform data. This new approach does not need any manual adjustment of the physical (empirical) constraints, such as restricting the rupture time and duration, and smoothing the spatiotemporal slip distribution. Therefore, it has the ability to image complex multiple ruptures automatically. The advantages of the IDS method over traditional linear or nonlinear optimization algorithms are demonstrated by the case studies of the 2008 Wenchuan and 2011 Tohoku earthquakes. For such large earthquakes, the IDS method is considerably more stable and efficient than previous inversion methods. Additionally, the robustness of this method is demonstrated by comprehensive synthetic tests, indicating its potential contribution to tsunami and earthquake early warning and rapid response systems. It is also shown that the IDS method can be used for teleseismic waveform inversions. For the two major earthquakes discussed here, the IDS method can provide, without tuning any physical or empirical constraints, teleseismic rupture models consistent with those derived from the near-field GPS and strong motion data.

Zhang, Yong; Wang, Rongjiang; Zschau, Jochen; Chen, Yun-tai; Parolai, Stefano; Dahm, Torsten

2014-07-01

157

Robust features of the source process for the 2004 Parkfield, California, earthquake from strong-motion seismograms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore a recently developed procedure for kinematic inversion based on an elliptical subfault approximation. In this method, the slip is modelled by a small set of elliptical patches, each ellipse having a Gaussian distribution of slip. We invert near-field strong ground motion for the 2004 September 28 Mw 6.0 Parkfield, California, earthquake. The data set consists of 10 digital three-component 18-s long displacement seismograms. The best model gives a moment of 1.21 × 1018 N m, with slip on two distinct ellipses, one with a high-slip amplitude of 0.91 m located 20 km northwest of the hypocentre. The average rupture speed of the rupture process is ˜2.7 km s-1. We find no slip in the top 5 km. At this depth, a lineation of small aftershocks marks the transition from creeping above to locked below, in the interseismic period. The high-slip patch coincides spatially with the hypocentre of the 1966 Mw6.0 Parkfield, California, earthquake. The larger earthquakes prior to the 2004 Parkfield earthquake and the aftershocks of the 2004 earthquake (Mw > 3) also lie around this high-slip patch, where our model images a sharp slip gradient. This observation suggests the presence of a permanent asperity that breaks during large earthquakes, and has important implications for the slip deficit observed on the Parkfield segment, which is necessary for reliable seismic hazard assessment.

Twardzik, C.; Madariaga, R.; Das, S.; Custódio, S.

2012-12-01

158

Strong ground motion synthesis for a M=7.2 earthquake in the Gulf of Corinth, Greece using Empirical Green`s functions  

SciTech Connect

We synthesize strong ground motion at three sites from a M=7.2 earthquake along the MW-trending Gulf of Cornith seismic zone. We model rupture along an 80 segment of the zone. The entire length of the fault, if activated at one time, can lead to an event comparable to that of the 1995 Kobe earthquake. With the improved digital data now routinely available, it becomes possible to use recordings of small earthquakes as empirical Green`s functions to synthesize potential ground motion for future large earthquakes. We developed a suite of 100 rupture scenarios for the earthquake and computed the commensurate strong ground motion time histories. We synthesized strong ground motion with physics-based solutions of earthquake rupture and applied physical bounds on rupture parameters. The synthesized ground motions obtained are source and site specific. By having a suite of rupture scenarios of hazardous earthquakes for a fixed magnitude and identifying the hazard to a site from the statistical distribution of engineering parameters, we have introduced a probabilistic component to the deterministic hazard calculation. The time histories suggested for engineering design are the ones that most closely match either the average or one standard deviation absolute accelerations response values.

Hutchings, L.; Stavrakakis, G.N.; Ioannidou, E.; Wu, F.T.; Jarpe, S.; Kasameyer, P.

1998-01-01

159

Survey of strong motion earthquake effects on thermal power plants in California with emphasis on piping systems. Volume 1, Main report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1982, there has been a major effort expended to evaluate the susceptibility of nuclear Power plant equipment to failure and significant damage during seismic events. This was done by making use of data on the performance of electrical and mechanical equipment in conventional power plants and other similar industrial facilities during strong motion earthquakes. This report is intended as

Stevenson

1995-01-01

160

Survey of strong motion earthquake effects on thermal power plants in California with emphasis on piping systems. Volume 1, Main report  

SciTech Connect

Since 1982, there has been a major effort expended to evaluate the susceptibility of nuclear Power plant equipment to failure and significant damage during seismic events. This was done by making use of data on the performance of electrical and mechanical equipment in conventional power plants and other similar industrial facilities during strong motion earthquakes. This report is intended as an extension of the seismic experience data collection effort and a compilation of experience data specific to power plant piping and supports designed and constructed US power piping code requirements which have experienced strong motion earthquakes. Eight damaging (Richter Magnitude 7.7 to 5.5) California earthquakes and their effects on 8 power generating facilities in use natural gas and California were reviewed. All of these facilities were visited and evaluated. Seven fossel-fueled (dual use natural gas and oil) and one nuclear fueled plants consisting of a total of 36 individual boiler or reactor units were investigated. Peak horizontal ground accelerations that either had been recorded on site at these facilities or were considered applicable to these power plants on the basis of nearby recordings ranged between 0.20g and 0.5lg with strong motion durations which varied from 3.5 to 15 seconds. Most US nuclear power plants are designed for a safe shutdown earthquake peak ground acceleration equal to 0.20g or less with strong motion durations which vary from 10 to 15 seconds.

Stevenson, J.D. [Stevenson and Associates, Cleveland, OH (United States)

1995-11-01

161

Strong Erosion-Driven Nongravitational Effects in Orbital Motions of the Kreutz Sungrazing System’s Dwarf Comets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the relationships among the angular orbital elements—the longitude of the ascending node ?, the inclination i, and the argument of perihelion ?—of the Kreutz system’s faint, dwarf sungrazers observed only with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/STEREO coronagraphs; their published orbits were derived using a parabolic, purely gravitational approximation. In a plot of i against ? the bright Kreutz sungrazers (such as C/1843 D1, C/1882 R1, C/1963 R1, etc.) fit a curve of fixed apsidal orientation, whereas the dwarf members are distributed along a curve that makes with the apsidal curve an angle of 15°. The dwarf sungrazers’ perihelion longitude is statistically invariable, but their perihelion latitude increases systematically with ?. We find that this trend can be explained by a strong erosion-driven nongravitational acceleration normal to the orbit plane, confirmed for several test dwarf Kreutz sungrazers by orbital solutions with nongravitational terms incorporated directly in the equations of motion on a condition of fixed apsidal orientation. Proceeding in three steps, we first apply Marsden et al.'s standard formalism, solving for the normal acceleration only, and eventually relax additional constraints on the nongravitational law and the acceleration’s radial and transverse components. The resulting nongravitational accelerations on the dwarf sungrazers exceed the maximum for cataloged comets in nearly parabolic orbits by up to three orders of magnitude, topping in exceptional cases the Sun’s gravitational acceleration! A mass-loss model suggests that the dwarf sungrazers’ nuclei fragment copiously and their dimensions diminish rapidly near the Sun, implying the objects’ imminent demise shortly before they reach perihelion.

Sekanina, Zdenek; Kracht, Rainer

2015-03-01

162

High-frequency source imaging of the 2011 October 23 Van (Eastern Turkey) earthquake by backprojection of strong motion waveforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We backproject strong motion waveforms to image the rupture process of the 2011 October 23 Van (Mw 7.1) earthquake. We show that the followed backprojection approach is applicable for studying earthquake sources with a complex and uncertain fault geometry. It is especially suitable for cases where the implementation of conventional source inversion methods is difficult due to incomplete data coverage from local networks. Normalized high frequency (HF, 2-8 Hz) S-waveform envelopes from recordings on local Turkish and Iranian stations are used to scan a pre-defined 3-D source volume over time. The envelopes are forced to focus at the hypocentre by applying the appropriate station corrections, estimated from waveform cross-correlation. We image two distinct sources of HF radiation during the earthquake rupture at depths between 10 and 12 km. The first one, a few seconds after the rupture initiation, is located near the hypocentre. The second, at least 13 km southwestwards, follows 3.5 s later. While a continuous rupture propagation is not clearly imaged, the average rupture speed is 3.5 km s-1. Synthetic tests show that both HF sources could be resolved adequately from this station distribution. Both sources of HF are located at the edge of large slip patches, imaged by seismic and geodetic inversions. The existence of a complex fault geometry, like a pair of en-echelon reverse faults, explains the radiation of HF energy. The first source is attributed to a stopping phase of the eastern subfault or a possible change on a single fault geometry. The second HF source is produced from the abrupt cease of rupture at the shallow part of the upper crust.

Evangelidis, C. P.; Kao, H.

2014-02-01

163

Single-Path Sigma from a Huge Dataset in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground-motion variability, which was used in the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) in computing annual exceedence probability, is composed of random variability (aleatory uncertainty) and model uncertainty (epistemic uncertainty). Finding random variability of ground motions has become an important issue in PSHA, and only the random variability can be used in deriving the annual exceedence probability of ground-motion. Epistemic uncertainty will be put in the logic tree to estimate the total uncertainty of ground-motion. In the present study, we used about 18,859 records from 158 shallow earthquakes (Mw > 3.0, focal depth ? 35 km, each station has at least 20 records) form the Taiwan Strong-Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) network to analyse the random variability of ground-motion. First, a new ground-motion attenuation model was established by using this huge data set. Second, the residuals from the median attenuation were analysed by direct observation on inter-event variability and site-specific variability. Finally, the single-path variability was found by a moving-window method on either single-earthquake residuals or single-station residuals. A variogram method was also used to find minimum variability for intra-event residuals and inter-event residuals, respectively. Results reveal that 90% of the single-path sigma ?SP are ranging from 0.219 to 0.254 (ln unit) and are 58% to 64% smaller than the total sigma (?T =0.601). The single-site sigma (?SS) are also 39%-43% smaller. If we use only random variability (single-path sigma) in PSHA, then the resultant hazard level would be 28% and 25% lower than the traditional one (using total sigma) in 475-year and in 2475-year return period, respectively, in Taipei.

Sung, Chih-Hsuan; Lee, Chyi-Tyi

2014-05-01

164

Rupture process and strong ground motions of the 2007 Niigataken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake -Directivity pulses striking the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant-  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Niigataken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake occurred on July 16, 2007, northwest-off Kashiwazaki in Niigata Prefecture, Japan, causing severe damages of ten people dead, about 1300 injured, about 1000 collapsed houses and major lifelines suspended. In particular, strong ground motions from the earthquake struck the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant (hereafter KKNPP), triggering a fire at an electric transformer and other problems such as leakage of water containing radioactive materials into air and the sea, although the radioactivity levels of the releases are as low as those of the radiation which normal citizens would receive from the natural environment in a year. The source mechanism of this earthquake is a reverse fault, but whether it is the NE-SW strike and NW dip or the SW-NE strike and SE dip are still controversial from the aftershock distribution and geological surveys near the source. Results of the rupture processes inverted by using the GPS and SAR data, tsunami data and teleseismic data so far did not succeed in determining which fault planes moved. Strong ground motions were recorded at about 390 stations by the K-NET of NIED including the stations very close to the source area. There was the KKNPP which is probably one of buildings and facilities closest to the source area. They have their own strong motion network with 22 three-components' accelerographs locating at ground-surface, underground, buildings and basements of reactors. The PGA attenuation-distance relationships made setting the fault plane estimated from the GPS data generally follow the empirical relations in Japan, for example, Fukushima and Tanaka (1990) and Si and Midorikawa (1999), even if either fault plane, SE dip or NW dip, is assumed. However, the strong ground motions in the site of the KKNPP had very large accelerations and velocities more than those expected from the empirical relations. The surface motions there had the PGA of more than 1200 gals and even underground motions at the basements of the reactors locating five stories below the ground had the PGA of 680 gals. We simulated ground motions using the characterized source model (Kamae and Irikura, 1998) with three asperities and the empirical Green's function method (Irikura, 1986). Then, we found that the source model should be a reverse fault with the NE-SW strike and NW dip to explain the strong motion records obtained near the source area. In particular, strong ground motions in the site of the KKNPP had three significant pulses which are generated as directivity pulses in forward direction of rupture propagation. This is the reason why the strong ground motions in the site of the KKNPP had very large accelerations and velocities. The source model is also verified comparing the observed records at the KKNPP with the numerical simulations by the discrete wavenumber method (Bouchon, 1981).

Irikura, K.; Kagawa, T.; Miyakoshi, K.; Kurahashi, S.

2007-12-01

165

Taiwan: country profile.  

PubMed

This discussion of Taiwan focuses on population growth, regions and cities, ethnicity and religion, households and families, housing, education, labor force, income, communication, and sources of information. Taiwan, founded in 1949, took a census in 1980. Its household registration system is efficient and provides population data on a yearly basis. In 1981 the population totaled 18.1 million, an increase of about 20% from the 1971 total of 15 million. Taiwan's population grew 1.9% in 1981, a decline from the 2.2% growth rate of 1971. The birthrate is 23 births/1000 population and the death rate is 5/1000. Taiwan's birthrate is similar to that of China's and both are higher than those of Japan or Hong Kong. Almost 1/3 of Taiwan's population is under 15. Only 4% of the population is aged 65 or over. The entire country is divided into 48 commuting rings associated with specific central cities. The capital city of Taipei and Kaohsiung are special municipalities, and certain offshore islands of Fukien Province are included in population totals. The country is further divided into 5 administrative districts for the household registration system. The Han Chinese constitute 98% of Taiwan's population. Approximately 250,000 aborigines (less than 2% of the population) live in the mountainous central and eastern parts of the island. They are believed to be of Malayan stock. Taiwan's predominant religion is a mixture of Buddhism and Taoism, introduced centuries ago by the original settlers. The family household is composed mainly of family members, including lodgers and hired workers living in the same place under the same household head. Between 1971 and 1980, the number of households in Taiwan increased from 2.6 million to 3.7 million. In 1980, 99% of all households were family households. Average was 4.8 persons for family households and 26.5 persons for nonfamily households. There were 3.7 million housing units in Taiwan in 1980. Taiwan's literacy rate was 86% in 1980, up from 78% in 1970. Men's literacy rates are higher than women's. In June 1982, 6.9 million persons were in Taiwan's labor force, or 58% of all persons aged 15 and over. The largest category of workers in Taiwan are salaried employees and wage earners (47% of all workers in 1980). Taiwan's per capita grossnational product in 1981 was US$2360. Wages are highest in petroleum and coal manufacturing. Taiwan produces a large number of books, newspapers, and magazines for a country of its size. There is no shortage of demographic information in Taiwan. PMID:12279790

Spain, D

1984-03-01

166

The Seismic Strong Motion Array Project (SSMAP) and the September 5, 2012 Mw=7.6 Nicoya, Costa Rica Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic gaps along the subduction zones are locations where large earthquakes have not occurred in a long time. The Cocos plate is subducting beneath the Caribbean plate in Costa Rica, and the Nicoya Peninsula, located in northwestern Costa Rica, has been identified as a seismic gap. The previous major earthquakes in Nicoya occurred on 1853, 1900 and 1950, which indicates about a 50-year recurrence interval for the characteristic earthquake cycle. Since 2006, the seismic strong motion array project (SSMAP) for the Nicoya Peninsula in northwestern Costa Rica has been composed of 10 sites with Geotech A900/A800 accelerographs (three-component) and GPS timing. Our digital accelerographs array has been deployed as part of our ongoing research on large earthquakes, including the potential Nicoya event, in conjunction with the Earthquake and Volcano Observatory (OVSICORI) at the Universidad Nacional in Costa Rica. From 2006 to 2012, 28 events were relocated using the SSMAP and OVSICORI data with moderate magnitudes (4 < Mw< 6.5), and were mainly located in Nicoya Peninsula region. On September 5, 2012, a Mw=7.6 earthquake occurred in the seismic gap and appears to be the expected event based on the 50 years recurrence interval, but was instead 62 years later. The main shock focal mechanism was thrust faulting, propagating downdip, of the Cocos plate in the Middle America trench with strike N54W and dip 20 degrees NE. The mainshock and 15 early aftershocks were relocated by using SSMAP, OVSICORI, and UCSC networks. The final location of the mainshock is 9.671 N and 85.878 W with a depth of 18 km. The maximum accelerations from two A900 stations perpendicular to the trench, Fortuna (distance 112km) and Pedernal (distance 128 km) are: 13.8% and 8.9 % g, respectively. In addition, the October 10 (MW 5.3) and 24(Mw 6.6) aftershocks recorded at Tamarindo (distances 40 km and 70 km, respectively) showed accelerations of 2.4% and 8.2% g; respectively. The mainshock acceleration data from SSMAP, University of Costa Rica, and National Electricity Institute networks were analyzed for a new attenuation relationship: Acceleration = -203 ln(R) + 1110 with M=7.6 and R = hypocentral distance.

Simila, Gerald; Mohammadebrahim, Ehsan; McNally, Karen; Quintero, Ronnie; Segura, Juan

2014-05-01

167

Maternity Leave in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

2010-01-01

168

Application of bounding spectra to seismic design of piping based on the performance of above ground piping in power plants subjected to strong motion earthquakes  

SciTech Connect

This report extends the potential application of Bounding Spectra evaluation procedures, developed as part of the A-46 Unresolved Safety Issue applicable to seismic verification of in-situ electrical and mechanical equipment, to in-situ safety related piping in nuclear power plants. The report presents a summary of earthquake experience data which define the behavior of typical U.S. power plant piping subject to strong motion earthquakes. The report defines those piping system caveats which would assure the seismic adequacy of the piping systems which meet those caveats and whose seismic demand are within the bounding spectra input. Based on the observed behavior of piping in strong motion earthquakes, the report describes the capabilities of the piping system to carry seismic loads as a function of the type of connection (i.e. threaded versus welded). This report also discusses in some detail the basic causes and mechanisms for earthquake damages and failures to power plant piping systems.

Stevenson, J.D. [Stevenson and Associates, Cleveland, OH (United States)

1995-02-01

169

Taiwan Documents Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed and maintained by Y.C. Chi, this site hosts a large collection of full text documents relating to Taiwan's international relations, history, and legal status. These include treaties dating from 1662 to 1978, documents from World War II, Joint Communiques with Japan and the US, Taiwan-related US legislative activity, and UN documents, among others. The site also features two essays by the site author: an executive summary of international agreements affecting Taiwan's status and a discussion on sovereignty. A number of short pieces on non-legal considerations about the status of Taiwan are planned for the near future. While scholars and others involved on either side of the debate on Taiwan's status may not agree with the site author's views, the original full text documents speak for themselves.

Chi, Y.C.

170

INVERSION OF STRONG GROUND MOTION AND TELESEISMIC WAVEFORM DATA FOR THE FAULT RUPTURE HISTORY OF THE 1979 IMPERIAL VALLEY, CALIFORNIA, EARTHQUAKE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A least-squares point-by-point inversion of strong ground motion and tele- seismic body waves is used to infer the fault rupture history of the 1979 Imperial Valley, California, earthquake. The Imperial fault is represented by a plane embedded in a half-space where the elastic properties vary with depth. The inversion yields both the spatial and temporal variations in dislocation on the

STEPHEN H. HARTZELL; THOMAS H. HEATON

1983-01-01

171

Modeling lunar calendar effects in taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three most important Chinese holidays, Chinese New Year, the Dragon- boat Festival, and Mid-Autumn Holiday have dates determined by a lunar calendar and move between two solar months. Consumption, production, and other economic behavior in countries with large Chinese population including Taiwan are strongly affected by these holidays. For example, production accelerates before lunar new year, almost completely stops

Jin-Lung Lin; Tian-Syh Liu

2003-01-01

172

Modeling lunar calendar effects in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three most important Chinese holidays, Chinese New Year, the Dragon- boat Festival, and Mid-Autumn Holiday have dates determined by a lunar calendar and move between two solar months. Consumption, production, and other economic behavior in countries with large Chinese population including Taiwan are strongly affected by these holidays. For example, production accelerates before lunar new year, almost completely stops

Jin-Lung Lin; Tian-Syh Liu

2002-01-01

173

Modeling Lunar Calendar Holiday Effects in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The three most important Chinese holidays, Chinese New Year, the Dragon-boat Festival, and Mid- Autumn Holiday have dates determined by a lunar calendar and move between two solar months. Consumption, production, and other economic behavior in countries with large Chinese population including Taiwan are strongly affected by these holidays. For example, production accelerates be- fore lunar new year, almost

Jin-Lung Lin; Tian-Syh Liu

174

Reconciling strong slab pull and weak plate bending: The plate motion constraint on the strength of mantle slabs  

E-print Network

Keywords: subduction zones plate bending mantle slabs plate tectonics mantle convection rheology Although subducting slabs undergo a bending deformation that resists tectonic plate motions, the magnitude. This gentle bending may ultimately permit plate tectonics on Earth. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Demouchy, Sylvie

175

Distributed system for strong motion data retrieval and archiving : metadata, databases and data exchange within the NA5 framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of the NERIES NA5 activity (http://www.neries-eu.org, Improving Accelerometric Data Access) is the development of common access to equally formatted event based accelerometric data and to the corresponding sheet of strong motion parameters. The core of the NA5 is made of 5 European institutes and the final protocol should permit other European institutes to integrate the NA5 portal. More precisely, the aim of the NA5 distributed data system is (1) to make available the data in a in specific format for the engineering community (i.e., ASCII) and in standard format for the seismological community (i.e. full SEED, SAC) and (2) to retrieve data at an unique portal on seismological and - accelerometric criteria, using relations between seismic sources and recordings and using specific parameters for the engineering community, i.e. site conditions and parameter thresholds (e.g., PGA, Ia, Duration, Sa(T), Sv(T)…). Parametric data as well as the procedures to compute them have been defined, implemented and make avalaible for all the NA5 partners. The final product will be a system based on a distributed '3 tiers' architecture, the three main nodes of which are : (1) the primary data servers of NA5 data providers, who make available waveforms (in ascii format) and the associated parameters and events-records tables, via ftp or http protocols (2) the NA5 portal, which supports metadata databases (events and stations metadata) and the associated user interfaces and webservices (3) the NA5 dataserver, the main function of which is the evaluation of the end-users requests, involving data retrieval, data conversion (sac, ascii and miniseed) and metadata formatting (sac, ascii and seed headers). Both NA5 portal and NA5 dataserver are presently under development, the former at EMSC, the latter at LGIT. Our presentation will point out the main features and resources of the NA5 dataserver : - a database of the instrument response files for the accelerometric channels (coefficient, poles and zeros) called PZ database has been set up, as well as some database maintenance tools. The PZ database is hierarchically structured into three directories : sensor, ana_filter and digitizer. - user requests are materialized by a specific xml structure generated at the portal and pushed to the dataserver via QWID/EIDS (Earthquake Information Distribution System). A NA5 xml request contains all the information (metadata) needed for its evaluation : requested data files matching the user search criteria are described by their URL, their network, site of installation and acquisition channel, the events and hypocentral informations they are linked to, as well as values of the parametric data. - the NA5 server notifies a xml parser, which checks and compiles the structure and store the information into an internal permanent relational metadata database. This database and the PZ directory are linked together by the way of a dedicated table, which contains directories and files names. Thus, the NA5 dataserver database will progressively be filled up by values carried on by NA5 requests. - once a request has been loaded into the database, the NA5 archiver process will then fork into four different sub-processes, each of them calling the internal database to get value(s) for its parameters : (a) get the ascii native waveforms files by downloading their URL if needed, i-e if the data are not already stored in the local cache, convert them into sac binary and miniseed (if needed, ie if miniseed files have not already been generated for this native waveforms files). (b) build the linked seed dataless, if the PZ files for these channels are available. (c) build the headers files (such headers will contain some more specific information about event, site condition and soil classification, max accelaration, aso. ) (d) pack the parametric data before archiving and compressing the result. The archiver process will end by filling up and re-writing the xml request file with updated information (archive URL for download, waveforms found and packed, size, etc.),

Pequegnat, C.; Gueguen, P.; Jacquot, R.

2009-04-01

176

Excitation of Radial Ion Motion in an rf-Only Multipole Ion Guide Immersed in a Strong Magnetic Field Gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiofrequency (rf) multipole ion guides are widely used to transfer ions through the strong magnetic field gradient between\\u000a source and analyzer regions of external source Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometers. Although ion\\u000a transfer as determined solely by the electric field in a multipole ion guide has been thoroughly studied, transfer influenced\\u000a by immersion in a strong magnetic field

Steven C. Beu; Christopher L. Hendrickson; Alan G. Marshall

2011-01-01

177

Strong-motion, site-effects and hazard issues in rebuilding Turkey: In light of the 17 August, 1999 earthquake and its aftershocks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The August 17, 1999 Izmit (Turkey) earthquake (Mw=7.4) will be remembered as one of the largest earthquakes of recent times that affected a large urban environment (U.S. Geological Survey, 1999). The shaking that caused the widespread damage and destruction was recorded only by a handful of accelerographs in the earthquake area operated by different networks. The characteristics of these records show that the recorded peak accelerations, even those from near field stations, are smaller than expected. On the other hand, smaller magnitude aftershocks yielded larger peak accelerations. This is attributed to the sparse networks, which possibly missed recording of larger motions during the main shock. As rebuilding of Turkey starts, strong-motion networks that yield essential data must be enlarged. In addition, attention must be paid to new developments elsewhere, such as earthquake zoning maps, earthquake hazard maps, liquefaction potentials and susceptibility. This paper aims to discuss these issues. Copyright??2000 IAHS.

Celebi, M.; Toprak, S.; Holzer, T.

2000-01-01

178

Kinematic Source Rupture Process of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake, a MW6.9 thrust earthquake in northeast Japan, using Strong Motion Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake (MJMA7.2) on June 14, 2008, is a thrust type inland crustal earthquake, which occurred in northeastern Honshu, Japan. In order to see strong motion generation process of this event, the source rupture process is estimated by the kinematic waveform inversion using strong motion data. Strong motion data of the K-NET and KiK-net stations and Aratozawa Dam are used. These stations are located 3-94 km from the epicenter. Original acceleration time histories are integrated into velocity and band- pass filtered between 0.05 and 1 Hz. For obtaining the detailed source rupture process, appropriate velocity structure model for Green's functions should be used. We estimated one dimensional velocity structure model for each strong motion station by waveform modeling of aftershock records. The elastic wave velocity, density, and Q-values for four sedimentary layers are assumed following previous studies. The thickness of each sedimentary layer depends on the station, which is estimated to fit the observed aftershock's waveforms by the optimization using the genetic algorithm. A uniform layered structure model is assumed for crust and upper mantle below the seismic bedrock. We succeeded to get a reasonable velocity structure model for each station to give a good fit of the main S-wave part in the observation of aftershocks. The source rupture process of the mainshock is estimated by the linear kinematic waveform inversion using multiple time windows (Hartzell and Heaton, 1983). A fault plane model is assumed following the moment tensor solution by F-net, NIED. The strike and dip angle is 209° and 51°, respectively. The rupture starting point is fixed at the hypocenter located by the JMA. The obtained source model shows a large slip area in the shallow portion of the fault plane approximately 6 km southwest of the hypocenter. The rupture of the asperity finishes within about 9 s. This large slip area corresponds to the area with surface break reported by the field survey group (e.g., AIST/GSJ, 2008), which supports the existence of the large slip close to the ground surface. But, most of surface offset found by the field survey are less than 0.5 m whereas the slip amount of the shallow asperity of the source inversion result is 3-4 m. In north of the hypocenter, the estimated slip amount is small. Slip direction is almost pure dip-slip for the entire fault (Northwest side goes up against southeast side). Total seismic moment is 2.6× 1019 Nm (MW 6.9). Acknowledgments: Strong motion data of K-NET and KiK-net operated by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention are used. Strong motion data of Aratozawa Dam obtained by Miyagi prefecture government is also used in the study.

Asano, K.; Iwata, T.

2008-12-01

179

Assessment of Seismic Hazard Potential in Southwestern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As we know southwestern Taiwan is located in the areas where seismic activity is high, and with a densely populated distribution, has at least 9 active faults in this area. Accordingly, it has a very high potential seismic disaster, in the event of large magnitude earthquakes most likely to cause serious damage. Hence, we will have to put in more effort on earthquake disaster prevention in southwestern Taiwan to reduce the probably earthquake disaster. In addition, Liu (2012) analyzed Taiwan high potential seismic disaster areas, also showed that has a higher maximum ground acceleration and velocity values in the southwestern Taiwan. We need to go further to analyze, understand and respond to that. In this study, we estimate the seismic hazard potential in Taiwan based on the form of ShakeMaps. Particularly, the site response factor is incorporated in the present ground motion prediction models. Such prediction models will result in more realistic peak ground motion estimates for assessment of seismic hazard potential. On the other hand, we will also be further combined with fault activity data to analyze the seismic hazard earthquake potential in the southwestern Taiwan. We will use a formula established by Tasi et al, (2001) that relative to the age dependence of human-fatality rates and according to the age distribution of the population in rural area of the Chianan, in order to estimate the number of death when larger earthquakes occurred in the future. Results of this study can be used to understand high earthquake disaster potential regional distribution in the southwestern Taiwan, provide an important database for the site evaluation of critical facilities, help mitigate Taiwan earthquake disaster loss in the future, as well as the critical information for emergency response plan.

Liu, K.

2013-12-01

180

Application of an iterative least-squares waveform inversion of strong-motion and teleseismic records to the 1978 Tabas, Iran, earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An iterative least-squares technique is used to simultaneously invert the strong-motion records and teleseismic P waveforms for the 1978 Tabas, Iran, earthquake to deduce the rupture history. The effects of using different data sets and different parametrizations of the problem (linear versus nonlinear) are considered. A consensus of all the inversion runs indicates a complex, multiple source for the Tabas earthquake, with four main source regions over a fault length of 90 km and an average rupture velocity of 2.5 km/sec. -from Authors

Hartzell, S.; Mendoza, C.

1991-01-01

181

Characterized Fault Model of Scenario Earthquake Caused by the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line Fault Zone in Central Japan and Strong Ground Motion Prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the existing ideas on characterizing complex fault rupture process, we constructed four different characterized fault models for predicting strong motions from the most likely scenario earthquake along the active fault zone of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line in central Japan. The Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion in Japanese government (2001) estimated that the earthquake (8 +/- 0.5) has the total fault length of 112 km with four segments. We assumed that the characterized fault model consisted of two regions: asperity and background (Somerville et al., 1999; Irikura, 2000; Dan et al., 2000). The main differences in the four fault models were 1) how to determine a seismic moment Mo from a fault rupture area S, 2) number of asperities N, 3) how to determine a stress parameter ? , and 4) fmax. We calculated broadband strong motions at three stations near the fault by a hybrid method of the semi-empirical and theoretical approaches. A comparison between the results from the hybrid method and those from empirical attenuation relations showed that the hybrid method using the characterized fault model could evaluate near-fault rupture directivity effects more reliably than the empirical attenuation relations. We also discussed the characterized fault models and the strong motion characteristics. The Mo extrapolated from the empirical Mo-S relation by Somerville et al. (1999) was a half of that determined from the mean value of the Wells and Coppersmith (1994) data. The latter Mo was consistent with that for the 1891 Nobi, Japan, earthquake whose fault length was almost the same as the length of the target earthquake. In addition, the fault model using the latter Mo produced a slip amount of about 6 m on the largest asperity, which was consistent with the displacement of 6 m to 9 m per event obtained from a trench survey. High-frequency strong motions were greatly influenced by the ? for the asperities (188 bars, 246 bars, 108 bars, and 134 bars) and fmax (13.5 Hz and 6 Hz). Irikura (2000) determined the ? based on a circular crack theory on the condition that the combined area of asperities was constant. So, in estimating ? , the evaluation of N became important. Dan et al. (2000) determined the ? based on the empirical relation between Mo and high-frequency level A of acceleration source spectrum. In order to interpret A physically, a further investigation of the relationship between A and N is needed. A more investigation of fmax, especially for M8 inland earthquakes, is also needed. Acknowledgment : During the course of this study, we were indebted to Drs. Mori, Hirata, and Komaru, Earthquake Research Division, Research and Development Bureau, the Ministry of Education, Scince and Technology, Japan.

Sato, T.; Dan, K.; Irikura, K.; Furumura, M.

2001-12-01

182

Strong ground motion generated by controlled blasting experiments and mining induced seismic events recorded underground at deep level mines in South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of simulated rockbursts were conducted underground at deep level gold mines in South Africa in order to estimate the rock mass response when subjected to strong ground motion. The rockbursts were simulated by means of large blasts detonated in solid rock close to the sidewall of a tunnel. The simulated rockbursts involved the design of the seismic source, seismic observations in the near and far field, high-speed video filming, a study of rock mass conditions such as fractures, joints, rock strength etc. Knowledge of the site conditions before and after the simulated rockbursts was also gained. The numerical models used in the design of the simulated rockbursts were calibrated by small blasts taking place at each experimental site. A dense array of shock type accelerometers was installed along the blasting wall to monitor the attenuation of the strong ground motion as a function of the distance from the source. The attenuation of peak particle velocities, was found to be proportional to R^-1.7. Special investigations were carried out to evaluate the mechanism and the magnitude of damage, as well as the support behaviour under excessive dynamic loading. The strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events was studied, as part of this work, not only to characterize the rock mass response, but also to estimate the site effect on the surface of the underground excavations. A stand-alone instrument especially designed for recording strong ground motions was used to create a large database of peak particle velocities measured on stope hangingwalls. A total number of 58 sites located in stopes where the Carbon Leader Reef, Ventersdorp Contact Reef, Vaal Reef and Basal Reef are mined, were monitored. The peak particle velocities were measured at the surface of the excavations to identify the effect of the free surface and the fractures surrounding the underground mining. Based on these measurements the generally accepted velocity criterion of 3 m/s was found to be an adequate value to meet the requirements of support systems during a rockburst. The data recorded on the skin of the excavations were compared to the data recorded by the mine seismic networks to determine the site response, defined as the ratio of the measured peak ground velocity to the peak ground velocity inferred from the mine seismic data. The site response measured at all mines studied was found to be 9 ± 3 times larger on average.

Milev, A.; Selllers, E.; Skorpen, L.; Scheepers, L.; Murphy, S.; Spottiswoode, S. M.

2011-12-01

183

Source Rupture Process for the February 21, 2011, Mw6.1, New Zealand Earthquake and the Characteristics of Near-field Strong Ground Motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The New Zealand Earthquake of February 21, 2011, Mw 6.1 occurred in the South Island, New Zealand with the epicenter at longitude 172.70°E and latitude 43.58°S, and with depth of 5 km. The Mw 6.1 earthquake occurred on an unknown blind fault involving oblique-thrust faulting, which is 9 km away from southern of the Christchurch, the third largest city of New Zealand, with a striking direction from east toward west (United State Geology Survey, USGS, 2011). The earthquake killed at least 163 people and caused a lot of construction damages in Christchurch city. The Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) observed at station Heathcote Valley Primary School (HVSC), which is 1 km away from the epicenter, is up to almost 2.0g. The ground-motion observation suggests that the buried earthquake source generates much higher near-fault ground motion. In this study, we have analyzed the earthquake source spectral parameters based on the strong motion observations, and estimated the near-fault ground motion based on the Brune's circular fault model. The results indicate that the larger ground motion may be caused by a higher dynamic stress drop,??d , or effect stress drop named by Brune, in the major source rupture region. In addition, a dynamical composite source model (DCSM) has been developed to simulate the near-fault strong ground motion with associated fault rupture properties from the kinematic point of view. For comparison purpose, we also conducted the broadband ground motion predictions for the station of HVSC; the synthetic seismogram of time histories produced for this station has good agreement with the observations in the waveforms, peak values and frequency contents, which clearly indicate that the higher dynamic stress drop during the fault rupture may play an important role to the anomalous ground-motion amplification. The preliminary simulated result illustrated in at Station HVSC is that the synthetics seismograms have a realistic appearance in the waveform and time duration to the observations, especially for the vertical component. Synthetics Fourier spectra are reasonably similar to the recordings. The simulated PGA values of vertical and S26W components are consistent with the recorded, and for the S64E component, the PGA derived from our simulation is smaller than that from observation. The resultant Fourier spectra both for the synthetic and observation is much similar with each other for three components of acceleration time histories, except for the vertical component, where the derived spectra from synthetic data is smaller than that resultant from observation when the frequency is above 10 Hz. Both theoretical study and numerical simulation indicate that, for the 2011 Mw 6.1, New Zealand Earthquake, the higher dynamic stress drop during the source rupture process could play an important role to the anomalous ground-motion amplification beside to the other site-related seismic effects. The composite source modeling based on the simple Brune's pulse model could approximately provide us a good insight into earthquake source related rupture processes for a moderate-sized earthquake.

Meng, L.; Shi, B.

2011-12-01

184

Calculating the Probability of Strong Ground Motions Using 3D Seismic Waveform Modeling - SCEC CyberShake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researchers from the SCEC Community Modeling Environment (SCEC/CME) project are utilizing the CyberShake computational platform and a distributed high performance computing environment that includes USC High Performance Computer Center and the NSF TeraGrid facilities to calculate physics-based probabilistic seismic hazard curves for several sites in the Southern California area. Traditionally, probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is conducted using intensity measure relationships based on empirical attenuation relationships. However, a more physics-based approach using waveform modeling could lead to significant improvements in seismic hazard analysis. Members of the SCEC/CME Project have integrated leading-edge PSHA software tools, SCEC-developed geophysical models, validated anelastic wave modeling software, and state-of-the-art computational technologies on the TeraGrid to calculate probabilistic seismic hazard curves using 3D waveform-based modeling. The CyberShake calculations for a single probablistic seismic hazard curve require tens of thousands of CPU hours and multiple terabytes of disk storage. The CyberShake workflows are run on high performance computing systems including multiple TeraGrid sites (currently SDSC and NCSA), and the USC Center for High Performance Computing and Communications. To manage the extensive job scheduling and data requirements, CyberShake utilizes a grid-based scientific workflow system based on the Virtual Data System (VDS), the Pegasus meta-scheduler system, and the Globus toolkit. Probabilistic seismic hazard curves for spectral acceleration at 3.0 seconds have been produced for eleven sites in the Southern California region, including rock and basin sites. At low ground motion levels, there is little difference between the CyberShake and attenuation relationship curves. At higher ground motion (lower probability) levels, the curves are similar for some sites (downtown LA, I-5/SR-14 interchange) but different for others (Whittier Narrows, Santa Ana). We suggest this is due to rupture directivity and basin effects leading to increased ground motion in the CyberShake simulations.

Gupta, N.; Callaghan, S.; Graves, R.; Mehta, G.; Zhao, L.; Deelman, E.; Jordan, T. H.; Kesselman, C.; Okaya, D.; Cui, Y.; Field, E.; Gupta, V.; Vahi, K.; Maechling, P. J.

2006-12-01

185

Rupture history of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan, China, earthquake: Evaluation of separate and joint inversions of geodetic, teleseismic, and strong-motion data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

earthquake. A linear multiple-time-window approach is used to parameterize the rupture. Because of the complexity of the Wenchuan faulting, three separate planes are used to represent the rupturing surfaces. This earthquake clearly demonstrates the strengths and limitations of geodetic, teleseismic, and strong-motion data sets. Geodetic data (static offsets) are valuable for determining the distribution of shallower slip but are insensitive to deeper faulting and reveal nothing about the timing of slip. Teleseismic data in the distance range 30°–90° generally involve no modeling difficulties because of simple ray paths and can distinguish shallow from deep slip. Teleseismic data, however, cannot distinguish between different slip scenarios when multiple fault planes are involved because steep takeoff angles lead to ambiguity in timing. Local strong-motion data, on the other hand, are ideal for determining the direction of rupture from directivity but can easily be over modeled with inaccurate Green’s functions, leading to misinterpretation of the slip distribution. We show that all three data sets are required to give an accurate description of the Wenchuan rupture. The moment is estimated to be approximately 1:0×1021 N · m with the slip characterized by multiple large patches with slips up to 10 m. Rupture initiates on the southern end of the Pengguan fault and proceeds unilaterally to the northeast. Upon reaching the cross-cutting Xiaoyudong fault, rupture of the adjacent Beichuan fault starts at this juncture and proceeds bilaterally to the northeast and southwest.

Hartzell, Stephen; Mendoza, Carlos; Ramírez-Guzmán, Leonardo; Zeng, Yuesha; Mooney, Walter

2013-01-01

186

Rupture propagation image during the Niigataken Chuetsu-oki earthquake in 2007 by an array-backprojection approach using near source strong ground motions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2007 Niigataken Chuetsu-oki earthquake occurred near the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant in Japan, the largest in the world. The strong motions were recorded by seven seismometers installed at the foundation slab (base-mat) of the plant, and exceeded the design level of the ground motion for the plant. The strong-motion observed by the seismographs in and around the plant show high-coherency with three significant pulses. In order to understand the cause of these pulses, the rupture process of the earthquake was estimated using these seismograms. The seismograph network was taken into account as a dense array and semblance-enhanced waveform stacking was performed. By projecting the power of the stacked waveforms on to the fault plane, the asperities that generated significant pulses were successfully separated. The first and third pulses were generated at the hypocenter and the southwest edge of the rupture zone, respectively. The ruptured area expanded to the southwest of the fault plane and terminated offshore from the power plant. The rupture started at the hypocenter and unilaterally propagated toward the southwest.The rupture propagation velocity estimated by the least square method was approximately 2450 m/s. The rupture velocity near the hypocenter appeared to be faster than that of the distant part. This implies a complex rupture process on the fault plane. Our results clearly show that analyses using array data provide an effective way for imaging rupture propagation and determining asperity locations as the source of coherent waves, even in the case of a M7 class earthquake. In addition, even in the case of a thick sedimentary layer, which may mislead results of waveform inversions, or in the case of rupture velocity variations on the fault plane, the back-projection method can be a useful tool to obtain the rupture process.

Honda, R.; Aoi, S.

2008-12-01

187

High-rate GPS seismology for the 2013 ML 6.4 Wanrung, Taiwan earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 31 October 2013 ML 6.4 Wanrung earthquake was well recorded by twenty-five 1-Hz and sixteen 10-Hz GPS receivers and twenty-five seismometers located within the epicentral distance of about 80 km. Precise Point Positioning kinematic solutions estimated by software VADASE, RTKLIB, and GIPSY are used to obtain the co-seismic deformations and dynamic displacements. We used seismograms recorded by broadband seismometers and strong motion accelerometers to verify the capability of high-rate GPS for the detections of the body waves and surface waves generated by a moderate-size earthquake. Results show that the overall standard deviations of the position time series are ~6 mm and ~20 mm in the horizontal and vertical components, respectively after applying spatial filtering. Largest co-seismic displacement derived from high-rate GPS is nearly twenty centimeter at 5 km northeast of the epicenter. S waves and surface waves are successfully detected by motions of 10-Hz GPS and double-integrated accelerometers within the 15 km epicentral distance. We also found that a group of later phases of ~1-2.5 cm peak-to-peak amplitudes with a frequency range of 0.2-0.5 Hz located within the Longitudinal Valley, a suture zone composed of Holocene thick sediment deposits. The 2013 Wanrung, Taiwan earthquake recorded by the high-rate GPS network in Taiwan demonstrates the feasibility of GPS Seismology for a moderate size earthquake at a local scale.

Hung, Huang-Kai; Rau, Ruey-Juin; Colosimo, Gabriele; Benedetti, Elisa; Branzanti, Mara; Crespi, Mattia; Mazzoni, Augusto

2014-05-01

188

Rupture-process images deduced from array back-projection analysis using data of a dense strong ground-motion seismograph network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An M6.5 earthquake occurred beneath Suruga Bay on 11 August 2009. Japanese seismic intensity scale 6- was recorded near the source region. The earthquake on 11 August occurred in the Philippine Sea plate which subducts beneath the Tokai region on the Suruga Trough and the mechanism was estimated as a thrust-type with strike-slip components. The rupture area is within the expected source region of the so-called M8 Tokai earthquake. Although strong ground motions were observed widely around the source area, it is difficult to recover the rupture process by the waveform inversions in detail, because magnitude of the earthquake is not so large and the dominant frequency is outside of suitable range for the waveform inversions. In this study, we estimated the rupture process by performing an array back-projection analysis (e.g., Honda and Aoi, 2009). A strong ground motion seismograph network has been deployed in Hakone caldera about 40 km to the northeast from the source region. The seismograph network was regarded as a dense array. Hereafter, we call the array as HK-net. Resolution of the analysis is affected by the array size. Seismographs of HK-net are distributed extensively in Hakone caldera whose diameter is about 10 km and the site separations in HK-net are less than 1 km. We expected that this array configuration is appropriate for the analysis using the waveforms whose frequency range is higher than 1 Hz. The waveforms are band-pass filtered in the frequency range of 0.5-5Hz and integrated into velocity. We adopted the hypocenter determined by NIED (138.502, 34.805, 21.6km) and took the nodal plane dipping south-eastward as the fault plane on which the hypocenter was located, although aftershocks were also seen to have been distributed on another plane dipping northeastward. Two peaks appeared in strong ground motion records observed in HK-net and this means there are two sources (asperities) on the fault. In order to determine the sources of the pulses, semblance-enhanced waveform stacking was performed. By projecting the power of the stacked waveforms on to the fault plane, two asperities that generated significant pulses were successfully imaged at the hypocenter and the northwestern edge of the fault, respectively. The rupture seems to have started at the hypocenter and propagated unilaterally toward the northwestern edge of the fault. These results agree with the fact that two pulses were observed only at the eastern side of the source region but not observed at the western side, which is reasonable if the directivity effect is taken into account.

Honda, R.; Yukutake, Y.; Tanada, T.; Yoshida, A.

2009-12-01

189

Rupture process of the 2007 Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki earthquake by non-linear joint inversion of strong motion and GPS data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We image the rupture history of the 2007 Niigata-ken Chuestu-oki (Japan) earthquake by a nonlinear joint inversion of strong motion and GPS data, retrieving peak slip velocity, rupture time, rise time and slip direction. The inferred rupture model contains two asperities; a small patch near the nucleation and a larger one located 10 ÷ 15 km to the south-west. The maximum slip ranges between 2.0 and 2.5 m and the total seismic moment is 1.6 × 1019 Nm. The inferred rupture history is characterized by rupture acceleration and directivity effects, which are stable features of the inverted models. These features as well as the source-to-receiver geometry are discussed to interpret the high peak ground motions observed (PGA is 1200 gals) at the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant (KKNPP), situated on the hanging-wall of the causative fault. Despite the evident source effects, predicted PGV underestimates the observed values at KKNPP by nearly a factor of 10.

Cirella, A.; Piatanesi, A.; Tinti, E.; Cocco, M.

2008-08-01

190

Rupture process of the Ms 6.6 Superstition Hills, California, earthquake determined from strong-motion recordings: application of tomographic source inversion  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We analyze strong-motion recordings of the Ms6.6 Superstition Hills earthquake to determine the timing, location, spatial extent, and rupture velocity of the subevents that produced the bulk of the high-frequency (0.5 to 4Hz) seismic energy radiated by this shock. The earthquake can be characterized by three principal subevents, the largest ones occurring about 3 and 10sec after initiation of rupture. Timing relationships between pulses on the seismograms indicate that the three subevents are located within 8km of each other along the northern portion of the Superstition Hills fault. The two largest subevents display different directivity effects. We apply a tomographic source inversion to the integrated accelerograms to determine the slip acceleration on the fault as a function of time and distance, based on a one-dimensional fault model. -from Authors

Frankel, A.; Wennerberg, L.

1989-01-01

191

K-NET and KiK-net strong-motion data of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (M9.0)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 11 March 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake is the largest instrumentally recorded earthquake in Japan to date (M9.0, JMA). The vibration from this devastating earthquake was felt almost all over Japan and severe shaking of JMA seismic intensity of "6 lower" or higher was recorded from Kanto to Tohoku districts, in East Japan. The earthquake generated a huge tsunami, which caused catastrophic damages to the Pacific coast of the Honshu Island, particularly to Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures. The National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) operates two nation-wide strong-motion observation networks K-NET and KiK-net, which succeeded in recording the strong-motion accelerograms at more than one thousand stations almost all over Japan. The earthquake and the associated tsunami directly affected facilities and operation of K-NET and KiK-net. The tsunami damaged 5 stations in Iwate and Miyagi prefectures. The data center of K-NET and KiK-net in Tsukuba, Ibaraki prefecture was also damaged by the strong motion of main shock and major aftershocks, and a blackout lasted for almost 1 day. Tens of communication lines of stations were not available immediately after the earthquake. Some of them had not been available during several weeks or months. In the noon of March 12, electric power of the data center was restored. After a stable electric power supply was secured, we restarted the data center system operations, and subsequently started to retrieve records from the stations. On March 15 we released the first version of K-NET and KiK-net data set of the main shock on our web sites. The data set consisted of accelerograms from 388 stations. We updated the data set three times as retrieval of the records progressed. The latest version was published on July 13. That release consisted of accelerograms from 1212 stations including 19 stations where peak ground accelerations above 1000 gals were recorded. Although we tried to retrieve records by on-site operations at the stations where wiring was unavailable, records of the 2 stations in Fukushima prefecture have not been yet retrieved because the stations are located in an exclusion zone around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Moreover, we lost records of 2 stations close to the coast in Iwate prefecture, since the stations were completely swept away by the tsunami. In this presentation, we will introduce our response to the emergency situation of data retrieval, publishing data, and system operation of K-NET and KiK-net after the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Strong-motion data of K-NET and KiK-net are available on the following web sites (http://www.k-net.bosai.go.jp/, http://www.kik.bosai.go.jp/ )

Kunugi, T.; Suzuki, W.; Aoi, S.; Nakamura, H.; Pulido Hernandez, N. E.; Morikawa, N.; Fujiwara, H.

2011-12-01

192

FAmily planning in Taiwan.  

PubMed

At the turn of the century, Taiwan's population was increasing slowly, then later grew during a period of high fertility after the end of World War II and the accordance of independence in 1946. This growth in fertility came together with increasing life expectancy and a general desire by couples to have families comprised of 5-6 children. Taiwan was therefore poised to experience a major population explosion. In this context, a family planning program was established in the country which has since evolved into one of the world's most successful such programs. By 1990, the preferred family size was 2-3 children and of couples which already had 2 children, 70% of those without any sons were nonetheless practicing contraception. While in 1965, no married women used contraception until they had some children, by 1990, 27% of married women without children used contraception. Increasing age at marriage has been an important factor in Taiwan's declining fertility, with the average age at marriage increasing from 20 years in the 1950s to approximately 27 in the 1970s. Few mothers, however, want only one child. The fertility trends observed in Taiwan have been made possible through the provision of contraception, which used to be universally free, but which is now provided free to only people of low income or the disabled. Oral contraception, condoms, and IUDs are used, although 30% of couples depend upon sterilization. PMID:9741982

Trewinnard, K

1998-07-01

193

Popular Music in Taiwan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the recent concern over the imbalanced international flow of cultural products into Taiwan--such as films, television programs, and news from developed to developing nations--as it has fed the apprehension that imported popular music may have socialized Taiwanese audiences with alien values and ethics. (JD)

Wang, Georgette

1986-01-01

194

New Taiwan macrolichens  

Microsoft Academic Search

[New to Taiwan: Baeomyces rufus, Candelaria concolor, Cladonia glauca, C. incrassata, C. phyllopoda, C. strepsilis, C. subsquamosa, C. umbricola, Dibaeis baeomyces, D. pulogensis, D. sorediata, Dirinaria aegialita, D. confluens, Ephebe lanata, Heterodermia microphylla, H. verrucifera, Hyperphyscia adglutinata, H. cochlearis, H. granulata, Hypotrachyna rockii, Leioderma sorediatum, Leptogium austroamericanum, L. burnetiae, L. corticola, L. denticulatum, L. laceroides, L. marginellum, L. phyllocarpum, L.

A Aptroot; L B Sparrius; M-J Lai

2002-01-01

195

Comparison of shear-wave slowness profiles at 10 strong-motion sites from noninvasive SASW measurements and measurements made in boreholes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The spectral-analysis-of-surface-waves (SASW) method is a relatively new in situ method for determining shear-wave slownesses. All measurements are made on the ground surface, making it much less costly than methods that require boreholes. The SASW method uses a number of active sources (ranging from a commercial Vibroseis truck to a small handheld hammer for the study conducted here) and different receiver spacings to map a curve of apparent phase velocity versus frequency. With the simplifying assumption that the phase velocities correspond to fundamental mode surface waves, forward modeling yields an estimate of the sub-surface shear-wave slownesses. To establish the reliability of this indirect technique, we conducted a blind evaluation of the SASW method. SASW testing was performed at 10 strong-motion stations at which borehole seismic measurements were previously or subsequently made; if previously made, the borehole results were not used for the interpretation of the SASW data, and vice-versa. Comparisons of the shear-wave slownesses from the SASW and borehole measurements are generally very good. The differences in predicted ground-motion amplifications are less than about 15% for most frequencies. In addition, both methods gave the same NEHRP site classification for seven of the sites. For the other three sites the average velocities from the downhole measurements were only 5-13 m/sec larger than the velocity defining the class C/D boundary. This study demonstrates that in many situations the SASW method can provide subsurface information suitable for site response predictions.

Brown, L.T.; Boore, D.M.; Stokoe, K.H., II

2002-01-01

196

Deformation and seismicity of Taiwan  

PubMed Central

14C-dated Holocene coastal uplift, conventional and satellite geodetic measurements, and coseismic and aseismic fault slip reveal the pattern of distributed deformation at Taiwan resulting from convergence between the Philippine Sea plate and Eurasia; as in other subduction orogenic settings, the locus of strain release and accumulation is strongly influenced by changes in fault geometry across strike. Uplift evidence from the islands of Lutao and Lanhsu is consistent with progressive oblique collision between the Luzon arc and the Chinese continental margin. In the Coastal Range, geodetic and seismic records show that shortening is taken up serially by discontinuous slip on imbricate faults. The geodetic data point to net extension across the Central Range, but deformed Holocene shorelines in the Hengchun Peninsula at its southern extremity suggest that the extension is a superficial effect partly caused by blind reverse faulting. The fastest shortening rates indicated by geodesy are recorded on the Longitudinal Valley fault and across the Chukou fault within the fold-and-thrust belt. In the former, the strain is dissipated mainly as aseismic reverse and strike-slip displacement. In contrast, the fold-and-thrust belt has witnessed five earthquakes with magnitudes of 6.5 or above in the 20th century, including the 1999.9.21 Chi-Chi earthquake (magnitude ? 7.6) on a branch of the Chukou fault. The neotectonic and geodetic data for Taiwan as a whole suggest that the fold-and-thrust belt will continue to host the majority of great earthquakes on the island. PMID:11016964

Vita-Finzi, Claudio

2000-01-01

197

Three-dimensional crustal structure influences on wave propagation and generation of strong ground motion in the greater San Francisco Bay region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent development of three-dimensional finite-difference codes allows simulation of earthquakes using realistic three-dimensional earth models. These and other developments have shifted emphasis in seismology from earthquake prediction to estimation of location and magnitude of damage in future earthquakes. The accurate calculation of ground motions for future large earthquakes depends upon detailed knowledge of three-dimensional (3D) geologic structure and the earthquake source process, as well as sufficient computational resources. Knowledge of subsurface geologic structure in the San Francisco Bay Area is quite good relative to many areas, and this knowledge has been incorporated into a 3D velocity model of the Bay Area. With access to a 3D finite-difference code (E3D) developed by Shawn Larsen at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and use of super-computing resources at Livermore, we are able to complete calculations for simulations of a number of San Francisco Bay Area earthquakes. These include a small 1993 Rodgers Creek event recorded at Berkeley Seismological Laboratory, the 1989 Loma Prieta event recorded on the U.S. Geological Survey and Calif. Div. of Mines and Geology network of strong motion stations, and a number of small South Bay events (including the 8/12/98 San Juan Bautista EQ) recorded on a temporary USGS/UCB/PASSCAL Santa Clara array. In each of these cases, comparison of synthetic results (synthetic seismograms and plots of maximum horizontal ground velocity) from E3D to recorded data from the event gives an excellent opportunity to both judge the usefulness and the constraints necessary in using finite-difference modeling and the validity of the velocity model as it is now constructed. Results show that 3D finite-difference modeling produces waveforms that are often quite comparable to recorded data, and that fit the data considerably better than synthetics waveforms derived with a 1D velocity model. It is also possible to explore the sensitivity of the, synthetics to the major geologic structures in the velocity model, such as pronounced lateral velocity contrasts across the major strike-slip faults and extensive basins of alluvial velocities. Understanding the effects of such long wavelength structure is especially important when considering that most earthquakes locate on or close to faults' velocity contrasts, and often also near basins. For example, in simulations of the Loma Prieta earthquake, it is apparent that the refraction of energy by the San Andreas Fault serves to reduce ground motions at stations located along the San Francisco Peninsula, and the Quaternary and Tertiary alluvial basins of the San Francisco Bay Area are found to amplify and extend the duration of ground motions in the Santa Clara Valley, Livermore Valley and San Pablo Bay. In conclusion, it appears that the 3D model as it is currently defined accurately describes the spatial variation of peak ground velocity in the f < 0.5 Hz band, which suggests that this model may be used to estimate ground motions for future earthquake scenarios.

Stidham, Christiane Wilson

198

Winston H. Hsu National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan  

E-print Network

1 Winston H. Hsu National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan ICME 2009 Panel ­ What will multimedia interfaces ­ speech, touch, video, image, etc. For example, double-sided multi-touch input [Shen & Chu, CHI 2009] 5 2 push up gestureDouble-sided multi-touch input enables more possible manipulation methods

Hsu, Winston H.

199

Taiwan’s Private Sector Labour Market Prior to 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Excerpt] Analysis of the inter-industry earnings differentials revealed that these differentials were quite small by international standards, and indeed, that earnings were rising at roughly the same rate in every sector of the labour market in Taiwan. Wage differentials in Taiwan's private sector are generally in line with the economy as a whole; quite small by international standards, with real

Gary S Fields

2007-01-01

200

Taiwan Nantou County earthquake 0327 Taiwan Nantou County earthquake  

E-print Network

Taiwan Nantou County earthquake 20130327 1 #12;0327 Taiwan Nantou County earthquake Source, Intensity 5 #12;I II III IV V VI VII Intensity Shake map of the March 27 Earthquake The peak ground and Technology Center for Disaster Reduction (NCDR) #12;Earthquake Response and Evacuation are a Part of Students

201

Practical Applications of Low Cost Seismic Network for Producing Quick Shaking Map in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two major earthquakes of ML greater than 6.0 occurred in Taiwan in the first half of 2013. The vibrantly shakings brought landslides, falling rocks and casualties. This paper presents a seismic network developed by National Taiwan University (NTU) with 401 Micro-ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) accelerators. The network recorded high quality strong motion signals of the two events and produced delicate shaking maps within one minute after the earthquake occurrence. The high shaking regions of the intensity map produced by the NTU system precisely indicate the locations of damages and casualties. Equipping with the dense array of MEMS accelerometers, the NTU system is able to accommodate 10% signals loss from part of the seismic stations and maintains its normal functions for producing shaking maps. The system also has the potential to identify the direction of rupture which is one of the key indices to estimate possible damages. The low cost MEMS accelerator array shows its potential in real-time earthquake shaking map generation and damage avoidance.

Wu, Yih-Min

2014-05-01

202

Environmental and occupational skin diseases in Taiwan.  

PubMed

This presentation focuses on the four most important skin diseases in Taiwan thought to be of environmental and/or occupational origin. The majority of work-related dermatoses are contact dermatitis patients. Among occupational contact dermatitis patients, 58.5% involved irritant and 41.5%, allergic dermatitis. Electronics, hairdressing, medical practice, and construction were the most important occupations causing contact dermatitis. An endemic occurrence of chronic arsenism causing hyperpigmentation, keratosis, and cancer has been reported in Taiwan. Arsenical skin cancers present as multiple lesions at different disease stages. The skin cancers are usually found in non-sun-exposed areas. UVB exerts an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of arsenical cancers; this may explain its non-sun-exposed nature. An outbreak of premalignant and malignant skin lesions was reported among paraquat manufacturers in 1985. The skin lesions were mainly distributed over the sun-exposed areas. Photodamage and photocarcinogenesis revealed a strong association with exposure to bipyridines among paraquat manufacturers. In 1979, a mass poisoning occurred in Taiwan from cooking oil contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Over 60% of patients were in grades O-II by the Japanese classification. The blood PCB levels of the Taiwanese patients were found to be higher than those of the Yusho subjects. PMID:11770720

Yu, H S; Lee, C H; Jee, S H; Ho, C K; Guo, Y L

2001-11-01

203

Space programs in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taiwan's current and future space programs are briefly introduced in this paper. The National Space Organization (NSPO) in Taiwan has successfully carried out three satellite programs (FORMOSAT-1, 2, &3) since its establishment in 1991. FORMOSAT-1 is a scientific satellite performing three scientific experiments for measuring the density, velocity and temperature of ionospheric plasmas, taking the ocean color image, and conducting Ka-band communication experiments. Equipped with a 2m ground resolution remote sensing instrument, FORMOSAT-2 operates in a sun-synchronous orbit with revisit time equal to one day. This unique feature of the daily revisit capability is significantly useful for post disaster assessment and environmental monitoring. FORMOSAT-2 also carries a scientific payload "Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL)". ISUAL provides the world's first long-term satellite observations on the lighting phenomenon in the earth's upper atmosphere. FORMOSAT-3 is a constellation of six micro-satellites to collect atmospheric and ionospheric data for weather prediction and for climate, ionosphere, and geodesy research. FORMOSAT-3 has demonstrated the ability to significantly increase the accuracy of weather forecasting by utilizing the GPS Radio Occultation (GPS-RO) technique. Currently, NSPO is pursuing the follow-on space missions of FORMOSAT-5 and FORMOSAT-7. FORMOSAT-5 will be the first to utilize a CMOS detector on a high-resolution earth-observation camera. FORMOSAT-7 is a joint mission of Taiwan/US to deploy a 12-satellite constellation operational system to provide dense and timely GNSS RO data to the global communities for real-time weather forecast as well as space science research.

Lee, Lou-Chuang; Chang, Guey-Shin; Ting, Nan-Hong

2013-10-01

204

ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 468, Vol. 43, No. 1-2, March-June 2006, pp. 11-29 ANALYSIS OF STRONG MOTION DATA OF THE UTTARKASHI  

E-print Network

ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 468, Vol. 43, No. 1-2, March-June 2006, pp. 11-29 ANALYSIS OF STRONG MOTION DATA OF THE UTTARKASHI EARTHQUAKE OF 20TH OCTOBER 1991 AND THE CHAMOLI EARTHQUAKE of two major earthquakes in the Garhwal Himalayas, namely the 1991 Uttarkashi Earthquake and the 1999

Gupta, Vinay Kumar

205

ARRA-funded VS30 measurements using multi-technique approach at strong-motion stations in California and central-eastern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Funded by the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), we conducted geophysical site characterizations at 191 strong-motion stations: 187 in California and 4 in the Central-Eastern United States (CEUS). The geophysical methods used at each site included passive and active surface-wave and body-wave techniques. Multiple techniques were used at most sites, with the goal of robustly determining VS (shear-wave velocity) profiles and VS30 (the time-averaged shear-wave velocity in the upper 30 meters depth). These techniques included: horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR), two-dimensional (2-D) array microtremor (AM), refraction microtremor (ReMi™), spectral analysis of surface wave (SASW), multi-channel analysis of surface waves (Rayleigh wave: MASRW; and Love wave: MASLW), and compressional- and shear-wave refraction. Of the selected sites, 47 percent have crystalline, volcanic, or sedimentary rock at the surface or at relatively shallow depth, and 53 percent are of Quaternary sediments located in either rural or urban environments. Calculated values of VS30 span almost the full range of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) Site Classes, from D (stiff soils) to B (rock). The NEHRP Site Classes based on VS30 range from being consistent with the Class expected from analysis of surficial geology, to being one or two Site Classes below expected. In a few cases where differences between the observed and expected Site Class occurred, it was the consequence of inaccurate or coarse geologic mapping, as well as considerable degradation of the near-surface rock. Additionally, several sites mapped as rock have Site Class D (stiff soil) velocities, which is due to the extensive weathering of the surficial rock.

Yong, Alan; Martin, Antony; Stokoe, Kenneth; Diehl, John

2013-01-01

206

Near Source Rupture Modeling of the February 27, 2010 Mw 8,8 Maule Earthquake using cGPS and Strong Motion Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Maule earthquake of February 27, 2010 occurred in Central Chile along a gap well identified since the early 90’s. The 2010 event not only broke, as expected, the area of the 1835 event (Mw 8.5), but it propagated further South, breaking the rupture area of the May 21, 1960 earthquake (Mw 7.9), and further North overlapping the December 1, 1928 event rupture zone (Mw 7.8). The rupture models obtained immediately after the earthquake using teleseismic data, clearly show two main patches of slip: a larger one to the North and a smaller one to the South. However several details of the rupture process are still unclear, and deserve investigation using near source data. The Maule earthquake was recorded by a number of cGPS stations as well as by a few 24 bit accelerometers situated in the Northern part of the rupture. In this work, we model the rupture process using 1 Hz cGPS and near-source strong motion data, both recorded in Chile and Argentina. In the El Roble site, where an accelerometer and a cGPS are co-located, we observe a good fit between the 1 Hz cGPS and the integrated accelerograms for traces filtered below 0.1 Hz. Because of a strong directivity effect, the records located in the North direction have a duration of only 60 s. Whereas for the Argentina and central valley GPS stations, the duration is much longer and the two pulses coming from the different slip patches are clearly visible. The observed delay of 23 s between the cGPS signals recorded at the sites of Constitution and Conception led us to hypothesize that the low-frequency hypocenter is located about 30 km south with respect to the teleseismic hypocenter determined by USGS. In particular it is close to the area where the foreshocks were recorded between 2009 and January 2010. Once the hypocenter is relocated we fit the observed cGPS records using a simple slip model characterized by two slip patches. The good station coverage in the north makes easy to model the northern part of the fracture; at this preliminary stage we model the static displacement using a patch of 160x90 km with an average slip of 12 m located between Constitution and Conviento Viejo. Unfortunately, the lack of observation in the southern part, where the only available record is the cGPS signal in Conception, makes difficult to model the second patch.

Lancieri, M.; Vigny, C.; Ruiz, S.; Madariaga, R. I.; Buforn, E.

2010-12-01

207

B values and ??-?? seismic source models: Implications for tectonic stress variations along active crustal fault zones and the estimation of high-frequency strong ground motion  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this study the tectonic stress along active crustal fault zones is taken to be of the form ??(y) + ????p(x, y), where ??(y) is the average tectonic stress at depth y and ???? p(x, y) is a seismologically observable, essentially random function of both fault plane coordinates; the stress differences arising in the course of crustal faulting are derived from ????p(x, y). Empirically known frequency of occurrence statistics, moment-magnitude relationships, and the constancy of earthquake stress drops may be used to infer that the number of earthquakes N of dimension ???r is of the form N ?? 1/r2 and that the spectral composition of ????p(x, y) is of the form |????p(k)| ?? l/k2, where ????p(k) is the two-dimensional Fourier transform of ????p(x, y) expressed in radial wave number k. The y = 2 model of the far-field shear wave displacement spectrum is consistent with the spectral composition |????p(K)| ?? l/k2, provided that the number of contributions to the spectral representation of the radiated field at frequency f goes as (k/ko), consistent with the quasi-static frequency of occurrence relation N ?? 1/r2; K o is a reference wave number associated with the reciprocal source dimension. Separately, a variety of seismologic observations suggests that the ?? = 2 model is the one generally, although certainly not always, applicable to the high-frequency spectral decay of the far-field radiation of earthquakes. In this framework, then, b values near 1, the general validity of the y = 2 model, and the constancy of earthquake stress drops independent of size are all related to the average spectral composition of ???? p(x, y), |????p(k)| ?? l/k2. Should one of these change as a result of premonitory effects leading to failure, as has been specifically proposed for b values, it seems likely that one or all of the other characteristics will change as well from their normative values. Irrespective of these associations, the far-field, high-frequency shear radiation for the y = 2 model in the presence of anelastic attenuation may be interpreted as band-limited, finite duration white noise in acceleration. Its rms value, arms, is given by the expression arme = 0.85[21/2(2??)2/106] (????/pR)(f max/f0)1/2, where ???? is the earthquake stress drop, p is density, R is hypocentral distance, fo is the spectral corner frequency, and fmax is determined by R and specific attenuation 1/Q. For several reasons, one of which is that it may be estimated in the absence of empirically defined ground motion correlations, a rms holds considerable promise as a measure of high-frequency strong ground motion for engineering purposes. Copyright ?? 1979 by the American Geophysical Union.

Hanks, T.C.

1979-01-01

208

Rock mass response to strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events and blasting observed at the surface of the excavations in deep level gold mines in South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events was studied to characterize the rock mass response and to estimate the site effect on the surface of the underground excavations. A stand-alone instruments, especially designed for recording strong ground motions, were installed underground at a number of deep level gold mines in South Africa. The instruments were recording data at the surface of the stope hangingwalls. A maximum value of 3 m/s was measured. Therefore data were compared to the data recorded in the solid rock by the mine seismic networks to determine the site response. The site response was defined as the ratio of the peak ground velocity measured at the surface of the excavations to the peak ground velocity inferred from the mine seismic data measured in the solid rocks. The site response measured at all mines studied was found to be 9 ± 3 times larger on average. A number of simulated rockbursts were conducted underground in order to estimate the rock mass response when subjected to extreme ground motion and derive the attenuation factors in near field. The rockbursts were simulated by means of large blasts detonated in solid rock close to the sidewall of a tunnel. The numerical models used in the design of the simulated rockbursts were calibrated by small blasts taking place at each experimental site. A dense array of shock type accelerometers was installed along the blasting wall to monitor the attenuation of the strong ground motion as a function of the distance from the source. The attenuation of the ground motion was found to be proportional to the distance from the source following R^-1.1 & R^-1.7 for compact rock and R^-3.1 & R^-3.4 for more fractured rock close to the surface of the tunnel. In addition the ground motion was compared to the quasi-static deformations taking place around the underground excavations. The quasi-static deformations were measured by means of strain, tilt and closure. A good correspondence between the quasi-static deformations and seismic ground motion was found. During the blasting time and the subsequent seismic events the strain, tilt and closure show a rapid increase. Similar increase was observed during the strong seismic event. The deformations associated with a strong seismic event were described as 'fast' seismic events. Much of quasi-static deformations, however, occurred independently of the seismic events and was described as 'slow' or aseismic events.

Milev, Alexander; Durrheim, Ray; Ogasawara, Hiroshi

2014-05-01

209

Numerical studies on Heavy Rainfall Events over Northern Taiwan in Mei-Yu Season  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two unusual heavy rainfall events occurred in northern Taiwan from late evening of 11 June to the early morning of 12 June 2012 and late evening of 2 June to the early morning of 3 June 1984. In a few hours, more than 400 mm rainfall were recorded over northwestern Taiwan in these two events. The mechanisms for the commencement and maintenance of this localized heavy rainfall events over northern Taiwan are investigated using the NCEP global grid data, satellite imageries, radar reflectivities, and simulations from the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. These events occurred under favorable large-scale environment that included: upper-level divergence; low-level high equivalent potential temperature; low level of free convection (LFC); and subsynoptic-scale ascending motion over the northern Taiwan Strait and northern Taiwan. In the late night of 2 June, the main heavy rainfall area is simulated to the southeast of the low-level windshift line associated with a trough axis, which is located in the southeastern China coast. The simulated heavy rainfall area moves eastward toward northeastern Taiwan Strait and the northwestern coast of Taiwan as the windshift line continues to propagate eastward. The heavy convective rainfall is enhanced in the eastern Taiwan Strait by orographic blocking where the prevailing southwesterly wind within the Taiwan Strait converges with the orographically deflected flow with a southerly wind component off the western/northwestern Taiwan coast. As the simulated convective area continues to move toward northern Taiwan, it intensifies in a localized low-level convergence area over the northeastern Taiwan Strait and northwestern coast of Taiwan where a barrier jet along the coast converges with the northwesterly winds behind the surface front. Furthermore, in the early morning of 3 June, the simulated rainfall is heavier where the barrier jet encounters the leading edge of the cold pool caused by rain evaporative cooling. As the convective systems drift inland, the orographic lifting of the pre-frontal southwesterly flow helps to produce higher simulated rainfall intensity in the southern slopes of the Taipei Basin. The simulated daily accumulated rainfall over the Taipei Basin and northwestern coast of Taiwan is about 200 and 400 mm, respectively, about 50 mm less than observed. In an experiment without Taiwan's topography (the NT run), the simulated rainfall intensity over the northern Taiwan Strait and the northwestern coast of Taiwan is much less. In contrast to the control run, despite the presence of favorable large-scale settings, no convective systems move to the northern part of Taiwan from the northern Taiwan Strait in the NT run without heavy rainfall simulated over northern Taiwan. Two events will be comparatively investigated by WRF on the formation and maintainence of heavy rainfall in Mai-Yu season.

Lin, P.; Chen, C.

2013-12-01

210

Gravity features of the mud diapirs off southwest Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both the overpressure and buoyancy phenomena are generally used to account for the formation of submarine mud diapirs. According to the distribution of the mud diapirs and structural features, the compressive stress should play an important role on the formation of the mud diapirs in the offshore area of southwest Taiwan. Onland Taiwan, the Tainan and Chungchou anticlinal structures (associated with mud diapirs) reveal positive gravity anomalies. The mud diapirs off SW Taiwan are considered to be more active than onshore diapirs. However, the gravity nature of the submarine mud diapirs is not clear. In 2012 and 2013, we have collected shipboard gravity data by using R/V Ocean Researcher I in the offshore area of southwest Taiwan. Several NW-SE trending gravity profiles show a sharp drop across the Kaoping Canyon. By removing the gravimetric effect from the water-sediment interface, we find that the density contrasts of the mud diapirs with respect to the surrounding strata are generally positive. The results seem conflict with the buoyant force that triggers the upward motion of the mud diapirs. In this study, we will show some possible mechanisms to explain the gravity nature of the submarine mud diapirs.

Doo, W.; Hsu, S.; Huang, Y.; Chen, S.

2013-12-01

211

Subsurface imaging, TAIGER experiments and tectonic models of Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismicity, deformation rates and associated erosion in the Taiwan region clearly demonstrate that plate tectonic and orogenic activities are at a high level. Major geologic units can be neatly placed in the plate tectonic context, albeit critical mapping in specific areas is still needed, but the key processes involved in the building of the island remain under discussion. Of the two plates in the vicinity of Taiwan, the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) is oceanic in its origin while the Eurasian Plate (EUP) is comprised partly of the Asian continental lithosphere and partly of the transitional lithosphere of the South China Sea basin. It is unanimously agreed that the collision of PSP and EU is the cause of the Taiwan orogeny, but several models of the underlying geological processes have been proposed, each with its own evolutionary history and implied subsurface tectonics. TAIGER (TAiwan Integrated GEodynamics Research) crustal- and mantle-imaging experiments recently made possible a new round of testing and elucidation. The new seismic tomography resolved structures under and offshore of Taiwan to a depth of about 200 km. In the upper mantle, the steeply east-dipping high velocity anomalies from southern to central Taiwan are clear, but only the extreme southern part is associated with seismicity; toward the north the seismicity disappears. The crustal root under the Central Range is strongly asymmetrical; using 7.5 km/s as a guide, the steep west-dipping face on the east stands in sharp contrast to a gradual east-dipping face on the west. A smaller root exists under the Coastal Range or slightly to the east of it. Between these two roots lies a well delineated high velocity rise spanning the length from Hualien to Taitung. The 3-D variations in crustal and mantle structures parallel to the trend of the island are closely correlated with the plate tectonic framework of Taiwan. The crust is thickest in the central Taiwan collision zone, and although it thins toward the south, the crust is over 30 km thick over the subduction in the south; in northern Taiwan, the northward subducting PSP collides with Taiwan and the crust thins under northern Taiwan where the subducting indenter reaches 50 km in depth. The low Vp/Vs ratio of around 1.6 at a mid-crustal depth of 25 km in the Central Range indicates that current temperatures could exceed 700 °C. The remarkable thickening of the crust under the Central Range, its rapid uplift without significant seismicity, its deep exhumation and its thermal state contribute to make it the core of orogenic activities on Taiwan Island. The expanded network during the TAIGER deployment captured broadband seismic data yielding enhanced S-splitting results with mainly SKS/SKKS data. The polarization directions of the fast S-waves follow very closely the structural trends of the island, supporting the concept of a vertically coherent Taiwan orogeny in the outer few hundred kilometers of the Earth.

Wu, Francis T.; Kuo-Chen, H.; McIntosh, K. D.

2014-08-01

212

Progress and Prospect of Physics Research and Education in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Started about two decades ago, the global trend of shifting industrial manufacture power from western developed countries toward developing countries in Asia has in turn become the impetus in building up physical science and research in these areas. A very good example is the remarkable progress of physical research and education in Taiwan, in terms of quantity and quality. The continuous elevation of Taiwan's high education into graduate level plus the government's strong commitment to research and development on a level of 2.62 % GDP have led to an impressive physics program with an annual budget ˜32 million USD from National Science Council in supporting 568 PIs. The investigation scope encompasses high energy and astrophysics, nano and condensed matter, and semiconductor, optoelectronic physics, etc. The former is vigorously conducted via international collaborative efforts of LHC, KEK, ALMA, Pan-STARRS, etc. The latter is driven by vital Taiwan high tech industry mostly semiconductor IC and optoelectronics flourished during this period. The early trend of outflows of BS physics majors to western world for advanced studies has reversed dramatically. Nearly 80% of the BS students continue their MS and PhD degrees in Taiwan, attracted by lucrative job markets of high tech industry. In addition, healthy inflow of high-quality science manpower of well trained PhDs and senior scholars returning to homeland has strengthened the competitiveness. Overall, the physics community in Taiwan is thriving. The annual Physical Society meeting is expanding at a rate of 6%, reaching ˜1800 attendants and 1200 papers, and dedicated to promotions of female physicists and students. The publication quantity of Taiwan in top journals of PRs and PRL is ranked among top 20^th for all fields of physics, and ranked the 6^th in APL. Clearly Taiwan has now emerged as a strong power in applied science, not limited by its population size. Concerted efforts on scientific exchanges are being taken to connect to international societies. The bright outlook of physical science and its vital power in Taiwan is anticipated to provide a stimulus to benefit South East Asia, and have far-reaching impacts on China and worldwide.

Raynien Kwo, J.

2010-03-01

213

Korean restaurant business plan in Taiwan  

E-print Network

Taiwan's food and beverage business has been one of the main drivers of the country's economic growth for the past several years. As Taiwan becomes more prosperous and grows beyond the traditional OEM/ODM businesses, ...

Chen, Kai Wei Kevin

2013-01-01

214

Comparisons between extension systems in Taiwan and USA ; and an aquaculture development plan for Taiwan  

E-print Network

History Organization Structure Program Building CONCLUSION REFERENCES 10 11 12 16 17 19 Part II AN AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT PLAN FOR TAIWAN INTRODUCTION CURRENT STATUS 21 21 DEVELOPMENT DIRECTION FUTURE TENDENCY IMPEDIMENTS AND RECOMMENDED... of Taiwan 13 Part II AN AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT PLAN FOR TAIWAN Fig. 1 The distribution of the four main categories of aquaculture in Taiwan 23 Table 1 The stage of development of seed production techniques for the major aquaculture species of Taiwan 29...

Chu, Tah-Wei

1986-01-01

215

The Handy Guide for Foreigners in Taiwan  

E-print Network

Traditional Chinese Medicine 78 Drug Safety 80 Medical Tourism 80 87 Employment and Investment Work Permits for Overseas Chinese and Foreign Students 92 Working in Taiwan: Rights and Obligations 92 Labor Protection 95 Studying in Taiwan 100 Scholarship Opportunities in Taiwan 102 Scholarships and Grants 103 Studying Chinese

216

Status of underwater technology in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taiwan is bounded by the Taiwan Strait, South China Sea, East China Sea and Pacific Ocean. It has been well developed for research in the field of marine science and technology for decades. However, the research of underwater technology is a new subject for challenge recently in Taiwan. In this paper, the status of current research related underwater technology in

Y. N. Chen

2004-01-01

217

Surface waves in the western Taiwan coastal plain from an aftershock of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Significant surface waves were recorded in the western coastal plain (WCP) of Taiwan during the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake and its series of aftershocks. We study in detail the surface waves produced by one aftershock (20 September 1999, 18hr 03m 41.16sec, M 6.2) in this paper. We take the Chelungpu-Chukou fault to be the eastern edge of the WCP because it marks a distinct lateral contrast in seismic wave velocities in the upper few kilometers of the surface. For many records from stations within the WCP, body waves and surface waves separate well in both the time domain and the period domain. Long-period (e.g., >2 sec) ground motions in the plain are dominated by surface waves. Significant prograde Rayleigh wave particle motions were observed in the WCP. The observed peak ground velocities are about 3-5 times larger than standard predictions in the central and western part of the plain. Observed response spectra at 3 sec, 4 sec, and 5 sec at the center of the plain can be 15 times larger than standard predictions and 10 times larger than the predictions of Joyner (2000) based on surface wave data from the Los Angeles basin. The strong surface waves were probably generated at the boundary of the WCP and then propagated toward the west, largely along radial directions relative to the epicenter. The geometry of the boundary may have had a slight effect on propagation directions of surface waves. Group velocities of fundamental mode Rayleigh and Love waves are estimated using the multiple filter analysis (MFA) technique and are refined with phase matched filtering (PMF). Group velocities of fundamental mode surface waves range from about 0.7 km/sec to 1.5 km/sec for the phases at periods from 3 sec to 10 sec. One important observation from this study is that the strongest surface waves were recorded in the center of the plain. The specific location of the strongest motions depends largely on the period of surface waves rather than on specific site conditions or plain structures. Accordingly, we conjecture that surface waves could be generated in a wide area close to boundaries of low-velocity sedimentary wave guides. In the case studied in this article the area can be as wide as 30 km (from the Chelungpu fault to the center of the plain). Surface waves converted by P and S waves at different locations would overlap each other and add constructively along their propagation paths. As a result, the surface waves would get stronger and stronger. Beyond a certain distance to the boundary, no more surface waves would be generated. Consequently, no more local surface waves would be superimposed into the invasive surface waves, and the surface waves would tend to decay in amplitude with distance.

Wang, G.-Q.; Tang, G.-Q.; Boore, D.M.; Van Ness, Burbach, G.; Jackson, C.R.; Zhou, X.-Y.; Lin, Q.-L.

2006-01-01

218

Camera Motion Style Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

When depicting both virtual and physical worlds, the viewer's impression of presence in these worlds is strongly linked to camera motion. Plausible and artist-controlled camera movement can substantially increase scene immersion. While physical camera motion exhibits subtle details of position, rotation, and acceleration, these details are often missing for virtual camera motion. In this work, we analyze camera movement using

Christian Kurz; Tobias Ritschel; Elmar Eisemann; T. Thorma?hlen; Hans-Peter Seidel

2010-01-01

219

Black monazite from Taiwan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two forms of detrital monazite are known in offshore bars in southwestern Taiwan: a yellow-green to colorless form and an unusual but abundant pelletlike form, generally black but also colored gray or brown. These black pellets, which are about 160 by 200 microns in size, are composed of fine-grained monazite crystals from 2 to 20 microns in size. The pellets are associated with highly variable amounts of discrete grains of detrital quartz, rutile, amphibole, tourmaline, and other minerals. Intergrown with the monazite are quartz, a cerium oxide mineral, chlorite, sulfides, and other minerals. Opaqueness of the pelletlike monazite is due principally to the cryptocrystalline nature of part of the monazite; only a small part of the opaqueness can be attributed to opaque inclusions. The black pelletlike monazite lacks thorium and has a high content of europium. In this respect, as in color, shape, size, and inclusions, the pelletlike monazite differs from the yellow-green detrital monazite. Despite the fact that they occur together in the littoral placers, they appear to have had different origins. The yellow-green monazite originated as an accessory mineral in plutonic rocks and has accumulated at the coast through erosion and transport. The origin of the pelletlike monazite is as yet unknown, but it is here inferred that it originated in unconsolidated coastal plain sediments through migration of cerium from the detrital monazite during weathering, and of the intermediate weight mobile rare earths from clay minerals during diagenesis. Possibly these pelletlike grains are detrital particles formed through erosion and transport from originally larger aggregates cemented by diagenetic monazite.

Matzko, J.J.; Overstreet, W.C.

1977-01-01

220

Strategic planning of developing automatic optical inspection (AOI) technologies in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most domestic hi-tech industries in Taiwan, the automatic optical inspection (AOI) equipment is mostly imported. In view of the required specifications, AOI consists of the integration of mechanical-electrical-optical-information technologies. In the past two decades, traditional industries have lost their competitiveness due to the low profit rate. It is possible to promote a new AOI industry in Taiwan through the integration of its strong background in mechatronic technology in positioning stages with the optical image processing techniques. The market requirements are huge not only in domestic need but also in global need. This is the main reason to promote the AOI research for the coming years in Taiwan. Focused industrial applications will be in IC, PCB, LCD, communication, and MEMS parts. This paper will analyze the domestic and global AOI equipment market, summarize the necessary fish bone technology diagrams, survey the actual industrial needs, and propose the strategic plan to be promoted in Taiwan.

Fan, K. C.; Hsu, C.

2005-01-01

221

Strong Libraries, Strong Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article talks about the first-ever Texas Conference on School Libraries on April 6, 2005 that was attended by one hundred thirty-five school administrators and trustees. The miniconference, entitled Strong Libraries, Strong Scores, was held at the Austin Hilton, Austin, Texas during the Texas Library Association's Annual Conference and was…

Gray, Carlyn

2006-01-01

222

International Benchmarking with the Best Universities: Policy and Practice in Mainland China and Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With a strong conviction to enhance their global competitiveness, governments across different parts of the world have tried various means to promote the ranking of their universities in the global university leagues. With a strong determination to do better in such global ranking exercises, universities in mainland China and Taiwan have attempted…

Mok, Ka Ho; Chan, Ying

2008-01-01

223

Wild Animal Injury in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taiwan's varied landforms contribute to its abundant wild life species. Despite the decreasing num- ber of wild animals caused by the cultivation of forest zone and over hunting on the island, cases of wild animal bite are still reported each year. The focus of care for these cases includes wound care, tetanus immunization, and human-animal communicable diseases prevention and treatment.

Yu-Ching Chen; Tzong-Luen Wang

2004-01-01

224

Taiwan position on nano EHS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In light of the importance of nanotechnology-related environmental, health and safety (EHS) issues, we have set up a common platform to study its potential impacts on environment, health and safety by coordinating research efforts from different agencies in Taiwan. The purpose is to understand and manage the potential risks of nanotechnology. It is more important to look for a mechanism

Tsing-Tang Song; En-yu Pan

2010-01-01

225

Numerical earthquake model of the 31 October 2013 Ruisui, Taiwan, earthquake: Source rupture process and seismic wave propagation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We build a numerical earthquake model, including numerical source and wave propagation models, to understand the rupture process and the ground motion time history of the 2013 ML 6.4 Ruisui earthquake in Taiwan. This moderately large event was located in the Longitudinal Valley, a suture zone of the Philippine Sea Plate and the Eurasia Plate. A joint source inversion analysis by using teleseismic body wave, GPS coseismic displacement and near field ground motion data was performed first. The inversion results derived from a western dipping fault plane indicate that the slip occurred in depths between 10 and 20 km. The rupture propagated from south to north and two asperities were resolved. The largest one was located approximately 15 km north of the epicenter with a maximum slip about 1 m. A 3D seismic wave propagation simulation based on the spectral-element method was then carried out by using the inverted source model. A strong rupture directivity effect in the northern area of the Longitudinal Valley was found, which was due to the northward rupture process. Forward synthetic waveforms could explain most of the near-field ground motion data for frequencies between 0.05 and 0.2 Hz. This numerical earthquake model not only helps us confirm the detailed rupture processes on the Central Range Fault but also gives contribution to regional seismic hazard mitigation for future large earthquakes.

Lee, Shiann-Jong; Huang, Hsin-Hua; Shyu, J. Bruce H.; Yeh, Te-Yang; Lin, Tzu-Chi

2014-12-01

226

Seismic Safety Margins Research Program, Phase I. Project II: seismic input. Compilation, assessment and expansion of the strong earthquake ground motion data base  

SciTech Connect

A catalog has been prepared which contains information for: (1) world-wide, ground-motion accelerograms, (2) the accelerograph sites where these records were obtained, and (3) the seismological parameters of the causative earthquakes. The catalog is limited to data for those accelerograms which have been digitized and published. In addition, the quality and completeness of these data are assessed. This catalog is unique because it is the only publication which contains comprehensive information on the recording conditions of all known digitized accelerograms. However, information for many accelerograms is missing. Although some literature may have been overlooked, most of the missing data has not been published. Nevertheless, the catalog provides a convenient reference and useful tool for earthquake engineering research and applications.

Crouse, C B; Hileman, J A; Turner, B E; Martin, G R

1980-04-01

227

Plate Boundary Observatory in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The island of Taiwan is situated in the plate boundary zone between the Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plates. The Philippine Sea plate is subducting northwestward underneath the Eurasian plate along the Ryukyu Trench in the north, while the Eurasian plate underthrusts the Philippine Sea plate along the Manila Trench in the south. Taking advantage of the extremely high strain rate in the Taiwan area, an integrated National Science Council project, Plate Boundary Observatory in Taiwan (PBOT), was initiated following the idea of US PBO. The scientific goal of PBOT is to observe the crustal deformation on various temporal and spatial scales in the Taiwan plate boundary zone employing available state of the art techniques for measuring crustal strain. The techniques include seismology, Global Positioning System (GPS), Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), borehole strainmeter, and earthquake geology. They are complementary to each other and form a complete spectrum of measuring various periods of crustal strain. The process of crustal deformation is generally quite slow. To obtain a reliable result, we usually need to persist in the observations for several years or even decades. Thus the PBOT should be a long-term project. In the first phase of 3 years period from 2003 to 2006, we will focus on the two areas, i.e. the plate suture zone in the Longitudinal Valley area and the western Taiwan where the higher seismic hazard is expected. A five-year national program, entitled ­Program for Earthquake and Active-fault Research (PEAR)­" was initiated after the disastrous 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw 7.6). As part of the PEAR, a dense continuous GPS array consisting of 150 new and about 50 pre-existing stations will be completed in the Taiwan area by the end of 2005 through a joint effort by the Central Weather Bureau and the Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica. The 50 new stations are going to be evenly distributed around the Taiwan Island. The other 100 stations will be densely deployed near the major active faults and potential earthquake source areas. The enormous continuous GPS data collected by the array will give us the unprecedented opportunity to study the crustal deformation in Taiwan. The near real time spatial and temporal variations of crustal strain can be realized and their correlation with seismic activity will be studied. Using GPS data from the dense array, the slow slip events related to fault-creep and subduction may be detected. In the event of a major earthquake, the continuous GPS array provides the precise measurements of preseismic, coseismic, and postseismic deformations. It may shed light on the process of strain accumulation and energy release through an earthquake cycle. The present-day fault-slip rates of major active faults in Taiwan will be estimated. These results provide the important information for seismic risk analysis and lead to the effective reduction of earthquake disaster

Yu, S.; Tsai, C.

2003-12-01

228

Multiskilling in the hotel industry in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-skilling for front-line managers in hotels in Taiwan is the main focus of this thesis. The literature suggests that multi-skilling addresses two industrial problems in Taiwan; the shortage of qualified workers and the high turnover rate of staff in the 5-star hotel industry. Both factors have negatively impacted on the productivity and performance of 5-star hotels in Taiwan, as a

Li-Cheng Chen

2010-01-01

229

Genotoxic Klebsiella pneumoniae in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Background Colibactin is a nonribosomal peptide-polyketide synthesized by multi-enzyme complexes encoded by the pks gene cluster. Colibactin-producing Escherichia coli have been demonstrated to induce host DNA damage and promote colorectal cancer (CRC) development. In Taiwan, the occurrence of pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) has been suggested to correlate with an increasing risk of CRC, and Klebsiella pneumoniae is the predominant PLA pathogen in Taiwan Methodology/Principal Findings At the asn tRNA loci of the newly sequenced K. pneumoniae 1084 genome, we identified a 208-kb genomic island, KPHPI208, of which a module identical to the E. coli pks colibactin gene cluster was recognized. KPHPI208 consists of eight modules, including the colibactin module and the modules predicted to be involved in integration, conjugation, yersiniabactin production, microcin production, and unknown functions. Transient infection of BALB/c normal liver cells with K. pneumoniae 1084 increased the phosphorylation of histone H2AX, indicating the induction of host DNA damage. Colibactin was required for the genotoxicity of K. pneumoniae 1084, as it was diminished by deletion of clbA gene and restored to the wild type level by trans-complementation with a clbA coding plasmid. Besides, BALB/c mice infected with K. pneumoniae 1084 exhibited enhanced DNA damage in the liver parenchymal cells when compared to the isogenic clbA deletion mutant. By PCR detection, the prevalence of pks-positive K. pneumoniae in Taiwan is 25.6%, which is higher than that reported in Europe (3.5%), and is significantly correlated with K1 type, which predominantly accounted for PLA in Taiwan. Conclusions Our knowledge regarding how bacteria contribute to carcinogenesis has just begun. The identification of genotoxic K. pneumoniae and its genetic components will facilitate future studies to elucidate the molecular basis underlying the link between K. pneumoniae, PLA, and CRC. PMID:24852749

Lai, Yi-Chyi; Lin, Ann-Chi; Chiang, Ming-Ko; Dai, Yu-Han; Hsu, Chih-Chieh; Lu, Min-Chi; Liau, Chun-Yi; Chen, Ying-Tsong

2014-01-01

230

Occupational Neurotoxic Diseases in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Occupational neurotoxic diseases have become increasingly common in Taiwan due to industrialization. Over the past 40 years, Taiwan has transformed from an agricultural society to an industrial society. The most common neurotoxic diseases also changed from organophosphate poisoning to heavy metal intoxication, and then to organic solvent and semiconductor agent poisoning. The nervous system is particularly vulnerable to toxic agents because of its high metabolic rate. Neurological manifestations may be transient or permanent, and may range from cognitive dysfunction, cerebellar ataxia, Parkinsonism, sensorimotor neuropathy and autonomic dysfunction to neuromuscular junction disorders. This study attempts to provide a review of the major outbreaks of occupational neurotoxins from 1968 to 2012. A total of 16 occupational neurotoxins, including organophosphates, toxic gases, heavy metals, organic solvents, and other toxic chemicals, were reviewed. Peer-reviewed articles related to the electrophysiology, neuroimaging, treatment and long-term follow up of these neurotoxic diseases were also obtained. The heavy metals involved consisted of lead, manganese, organic tin, mercury, arsenic, and thallium. The organic solvents included n-hexane, toluene, mixed solvents and carbon disulfide. Toxic gases such as carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide were also included, along with toxic chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, tetramethylammonium hydroxide, organophosphates, and dimethylamine borane. In addition we attempted to correlate these events to the timeline of industrial development in Taiwan. By researching this topic, the hope is that it may help other developing countries to improve industrial hygiene and promote occupational safety and health care during the process of industrialization. PMID:23251841

Liu, Chi-Hung; Huang, Chu-Yun

2012-01-01

231

Holographic Screening Length on Parallel Motion of Quark-Antiquark Pair in Four Dimensional Strongly Coupled = 4 super-Yang-Mills plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the screening length of a quark-antiquark pair moving in a strongly coupled hot plasma of = 4 super-Yang-Mills using AdS/CFT correspondence where the background metric is five dimensional AdS black hole. We take the string solution as such the separation length L of quark-antiquark pair is parallel to the string velocity v. The screening length and the bound energy are computed numerically using Mathematica. We find that the plots are bounded from below by some functions that are related to the momentum flow of the drag force configuration Pc. We compare the result by computing the screening length in the quark-antiquark reference frame by boosting the AdS black hole.

Nata Atmaja, Ardian

2014-10-01

232

Shear Wave Structure of Umbria and Marche, Italy, Strong Motion Seismometer Sites Affected by the 1997-98 Umbria-Marche, Italy, Earthquake Sequence  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A long sequence of earthquakes, eight with magnitudes between 5 and 6, struck the Umbria and Marche regions of central Italy between September 26, 1997 and July 1998. The earthquake swarm caused severe structural damage, particularly to masonry buildings, and resulted in the loss of twelve lives and about 150 injuries. The source of the events was a single seismogenic structure that consists of several faults with a prevailing northwest-southeast strike and crosses the Umbria-Marche border. The focal mechanism of the largest shocks indicates that the events were the product of shallow extensional normal faulting along a NE-SW extension perpendicular to the trend of the Apennines. The network of analog seismometer stations in the Umbria and Marche regions recorded motions of the main September and October 1997 events and a dense array of mobile digital stations, installed since September 29, recorded most of the swarm. The permanent national network Rete Accelerometrica Nazionale (RAN) is administered and maintained by Dipartimento delle Protezione Civile (DPC: Civil Protection Department); the temporary array was managed by Servizio Sismico Nazionale (SSN) in cooperation with small agencies and Universities. ENEA, the operator of many seismometer stations in Umbria, is the public Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment. Many of the temporary and permanent stations in the Italian seismic network have little or no characterization of seismic velocities. In this study, we investigated 17 Italian sites using an active-source approach that employs low frequency harmonic waves to measure the dispersive nature of surface waves in the ground. We used the Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW) approach, coupled with an array of harmonic-wave electro-mechanical sources that are driven in-phase to excite the ground. An inversion algorithm using a non-linear least-squares best-fit method is used to compute shear wave velocities for up to 100 meters of the soil column. A draft report was published in the summer of 2008, followed by a comment period, lengthy discussions with Italian colleagues, and improved knowledge of the subsurface at the sites from soil logs. Four of the sites were reprocessed in order to correct issues with phase unwrapping of the field dispersion curves that complicated the velocity profile calculations at the lowest velocity sites. This report presents the final results from the reprocessing effort.

Kayen, Robert; Scasserra, Giuseppe; Stewart, Jonathan P.; Lanzo, Giuseppe

2008-01-01

233

Professor tetsuo nozoe and taiwan.  

PubMed

Note from the Editor: From the earliest moments in the planning of the publication of the Nozoe Autograph Books, I had hoped to obtain an essay written by someone who had known and both studied under and performed research with Tetsuo Nozoe from his days in Formosa, then Taiwan. But that was a faint hope, as Nozoe left Taiwan for Sendai in early May 1948, more than 66 years ago! Anyone who would have been with Nozoe in Taiwan would be 90 years old! For months, I put out many "feelers" and then, quite unexpectedly, I heard from Professor Tien-Yau Luh, NTU Chair Professor in the Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University. He wrote, "In the beginning, I was wondering if your letter was actually addressed to me or my colleagues who bear the last name LIU. Nevertheless, I did make an introductory remark before the Nozoe award lecture held in Taipei last July/August at the ISNA meeting. Concerning the short essay on Professor Nozoe in Taiwan, I have contacted a retired professor who worked in Nozoe's laboratory at the Taihoku and NTU in the 1940s for help. He kindly agreed to orally describe the "history" of the period, and I shall be happy to edit it, to form an essay for your project." A miracle! And with Professor Luh's assistance, we now present a very special essay by Professor Tung-Bin Lo that meets-even exceeds-our hopes. At every stage of the design and production of the Nozoe Autograph Books project, we have readily received the assistance, support and contributions of enthusiastic scientists and friends of Tetsuo Nozoe from around the world. With this issue of The Chemical Record, the 15th consecutive issue of the journal, the publication of every page of the Nozoe Autograph Books-all 1179 pages-is completed. Together with 19 specially invited essays, including Professor Lo's that follows, we have produced a wonderful, historically important collection that is now archivally safe. And we have a surprise! As described in more detail in another essay accompanying this issue written by Brian Johnson and myself, there will be a 16th segment of the Nozoe Autograph Books. We shall be collecting autographs for a volume to be given to Tohoku University in honor of Professor Nozoe and to celebrate his and his friends' achievements in science. I hope you will join us and sign the book, just as Professors Luh and Lo have joined us in making this project ever more robust and unique. ?-Jeffrey I. Seeman ?Guest Editor ?University of Richmond ?Richmond, Virginia 23173, USA ?E-mail: jseeman@richmond.edu. PMID:25597491

Lo, Tung-Bin

2015-02-01

234

Active back thrust in the eastern Taiwan suture revealed by the 2013 Rueisuei earthquake: Evidence for a doubly vergent orogenic wedge?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid exhumation of 3-10 mm/yr of the Taiwan metamorphic range is often explained as the unroofing of the retrowedge of a doubly vergent mountain belt. Yet, to date, the Central Range fault forming the boundary of the retrowedge has displayed no definitive evidence for recent seismic activity and no unambiguous geomorphic expression over much of the fault. The 2013 M6.4 Rueisuei reverse-faulting earthquake nucleated at the eastern boundary of the retrowedge and appears to illuminate the west dipping Central Range fault. We estimate the fault geometry and coseismic slip distribution using a uniform stress drop slip inversion and surface displacements derived from GPS and strong-motion data. We identify a ~42° dipping blind reverse fault, consistent with the previously proposed buried Central Range fault beneath the highly active Longitudinal Valley fault. This earthquake may be the first indication that rapid exhumation and uplift occur along a distinct fault structure bounding the eastern margin of the Taiwan retrowedge.

Chuang, Ray Y.; Johnson, Kaj M.; Kuo, Yu-Ting; Wu, Yih-Min; Chang, Chien-Hsin; Kuo, Long-Chen

2014-05-01

235

Epidemiology of hospitalized burns patients in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies based on either single hospital data or sampling of specific groups of hospitalized burns victims in Taiwan have provided only minimal epidemiological information. The study is designed to provide additional data on the epidemiology of hospitalized burns patients in Taiwan. Data were obtained from the Burn Injury Information System (BIIS), which brings together information supplied by 34 contracted

Wu-Chien Chien; Lu Pai; Chao-Cheng Lin; Heng-Chang Chen

2003-01-01

236

ACADEMIA SINICA Taiwan International Graduate Program  

E-print Network

ACADEMIA SINICA Taiwan International Graduate Program http://tigp.sinica.edu.tw ACADEMIA SINICAA Nano Science and Technology Program Taiwan International Graduate Program (TIGP) Academia Sinica has will offer Ph.D. programs in only selected disciplines to be agreed upon between Academia Sinica

237

The development of higher education in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taiwan had been ruled by Japan for fifty-one years before the end of World War II. The island's higher education was established during that period, mainly to support Japan's policies of colonization and expansion. When Taiwan was restored to China in 1945, the Japanese system of education was replaced by that of modern China, which followed the American prototype after

Wen-Hsing Wu; Shun-Fen Chen; Chen-Tsou Wu

1989-01-01

238

Active tectonics of frontal thrust, southwestern Taiwan orogenic belt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thrust belts are characterized by great earthquakes, crustal shortening deformation, and extraordinary topographic relief and represent a fundamental manifestation of deformation in active orogenic belt. During the Quaternary period, Taiwan Orogen in arc-continent collisional convergent settings occurs as a result of the active thin-skin thrust belt which is displayed in the Western Foothills, western Taiwan. The Western Foothills represent a zone of ongoing convergence which shortening occurs in response to the thrusts westward movement. Recent geodetic studies indicate present shortening rates of ca. 40 mm/yr within the Western Foothills, southwestern Taiwan. It suggested high rates of deformation and is often considered to behave as a strong deformation within the southwestern Taiwan. In the study area is a ongoing deformation front which is dominated by a NE-SW trending structure fabric that consist of three active thrust faults. The geomorphic expression, which preserves a young surface features, is made up of five topographic and structural provinces of the Western Foothills, Chungchou Marine Terrace, Dawan Lowland, Tainan Tableland, and Chianan Coastal Plain from east to west which province due to the tectonic deformation were created during the late Pleistocene, that have been subsequently deformed by a major thrust of the Tainan fault and three imbricated faults of the Lungchuan, Meilin, and Chungchou faults. In this study we first use continuously cored boreholes to reconstruct the depositional architecture and 14C dating of the Holocene sediments, result of this analysis is able to assess the uplift rate and activity. The long-term vertical deformation rate of the Chianan Coastal Plain, Tainan Tableland, Dawan Lowland, Chungchou Marine Terrace, and Western Foothills was about -6 to 0, 0 to 5, -2 to 1, 1 to 4, and 6 to 7 mm/yr, respectively.

Chen, W.; Chou, F.; Yang, C.; Yang, H.

2009-04-01

239

Internationalization or Commodification? A Case Study of Internationalization Practices in Taiwan's Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how commodification and consumerism have sharpened the discourse of internationalization in Taiwan's higher education. Given the strong sense of crisis in the less prestigious universities, this article argues that internationalization is only a means to survive instead of a pursuit of excellence to these universities. This…

Chen, Dorothy I-ru; Lo, William Yat Wai

2013-01-01

240

Taiwan's Responses to Globalisation: Internationalisation and Questing for World Class Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, Taiwan has demonstrated strong policy change to counteract the potential threats brought upon by globalisation such as the opening of the higher education market to a foreign trade partner and increasing competition from neighbouring countries. In light of these challenges, the Taiwanese government launched a series of…

Song, Mei-Mei; Tai, Hsiou-Hsia

2007-01-01

241

Slip history and dynamic implications of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We investigate the rupture process of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake using extensive near-source observations, including three-component velocity waveforms at 36 strong motion stations and 119 GPS measurements. A three-plane fault geometry derived from our previous inversion using only static data [Ji et al., 2001] is applied. The slip amplitude, rake angle, rupture initiation time, and risetime function are inverted simultaneously with a recently developed finite fault inverse method that combines a wavelet transform approach with a simulated annealing algorithm [Ji et al., 2002b]. The inversion results are validated by the forward prediction of an independent data set, the teleseismic P and SH ground velocities, with notable agreement. The results show that the total seismic moment release of this earthquake is 2.7 ?? 1020 N m and that most of the slip occured in a triangular-shaped asperity involving two fault segments, which is consistent with our previous static inversion. The rupture front propagates with an average rupture velocity of ???2.0 km s-1, and the average slip duration (risetime) is 7.2 s. Several interesting observations related to the temporal evolution of the Chi-Chi earthquake are also investigated, including (1) the strong effect of the sinuous fault plane of the Chelungpu fault on spatial and temporal variations in slip history, (2) the intersection of fault 1 and fault 2 not being a strong impediment to the rupture propagation, and (3 the observation that the peak slip velocity near the surface is, in general, higher than on the deeper portion of the fault plane, as predicted by dynamic modeling.

Ji, C.; Helmberger, D.V.; Wald, D.J.; Ma, K.-F.

2003-01-01

242

Dust Activity during Winter Time in East Asia and Snowfall Obervations and Simulations in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taiwan has relatively frequent snowfall in mountain during winter among regions of the same latitude. The phenomenon is contributed by Taiwan's unique topography - high and steep mountains, and geographical location - sitting on the route the continental polar air mass travels from its birthplace to the ocean, contribute to this phenomenon. Snow occurence, in addition to the freezing-point temperature, when two requirements are met: sufficient vapor and the condensation nuclei in the air. This study pursues the causes of the snowfall activity in Taiwan, the relations between the East Asian dust aerosol and the snowfall activity in Taiwan, and the impacts the climate changes have on the snowfall activity in Taiwan. In this study, Yushan snowfall activity from 1995~2011 and related atmosphere circulations were examined using SYNOP data, NCEP/DOE reanalysis atmospheric data, the observations of the Central Weather Bureau's Yushan Weather Station and the Taiwan Air Quality Monitoring Network of the Environment Protect Administration, Executive Yuan. To provide a quantitative measure of snowfall events and dust activity, a snowfall activity index (SAI) and the DAI Index by Yu et al. (2010) were defined. The time series of yearly SAI and DAI show that East Asian dust storm activity and Taiwan snowfall marked interannual variations during 1995 ~ 2011. For active years such as 2008, 2010, and 2011, SAI was hundreds of times larger than that for inactive years such as 1996, 1999 and 2003; and DAI in active years such as 2001 and 2002 was several tens of times larger than that in inactive years such as 1997 and 2003. In active years when the EAT (East Asian Trough) was shifted eastward, the strength of WPH (West Pacific High) increased in the south and an anticyclone thus occurred. This anticyclone introduced anomalous southwesterly flows along the southeastern coast of mainland China and over Taiwan, resulting in a wetter-than-normal atmosphere in support of snowfall. Oppositely, for inactive years, drier-than-normal atmosphere appeared and consequently sluggish snowfall seasons followed. A SVD (singular value decomposition) analysis of the Asian synoptic circulation indicated that the connection between the pressure dipoles and the position of EAT is strong in 1998, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2010, and 2011. It significantly affects both of the snowfall and dust activities. In summary, snowfall active years usually occurred when the East Asian dust storm was inactive. Nevertheless, the snowfall activity increased in Taiwan if there was dust event and the dust aerosol successfully transported to Taiwan. This finding is also demonstrated in the model simulation of this study.

Tsai, L.

2013-12-01

243

The possible impact of an alcohol welfare surcharge on consumption of alcoholic beverages in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Background The abuse of alcoholic beverages leads to numerous negative consequences in Taiwan, as around the world. Alcohol abuse not only contributes to cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes and cancer, but it is also an underlying cause of many other serious problems, such as traffic accidents, lost productivity, and domestic violence. International leaders in health policy are increasingly using taxation as an effective tool with which to lower alcohol consumption. In this study, we assessed how consumption patterns in Taiwan would be affected by levying a welfare surcharge on alcoholic beverages of 20%, 40% or 60% in accordance with the current excise tax. We also assessed the medical savings Taiwan would experience if consumption of alcoholic beverages were to decrease and how much additional revenue a welfare surcharge would generate. Methods We estimated the elasticity of four types of alcoholic beverages (beer, wine, whisky and brandy) using the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) Demand Model. Specifically, we estimated alcohol’s price elasticity by analyzing the sales prices and time statistics of these products from 1974 to 2009. Results Alcoholic beverages in Taiwan have the following price elasticities: beer (?0.820), wine (?0.955), whisky (?0.587), brandy (?0.958). A welfare surcharge tax of 40% in accordance with the excise tax would decrease overall consumption of beer, wine, whisky and brandy between 16.24% and 16.42%. It would also generate New Taiwan Dollar (NT$) revenues of 5.782 billion to 5.993 billion. Savings in medical costs would range from NT$871.07 million to NT$897.46 million annually. Conclusions A social and welfare surcharge of 40% on alcoholic beverages in Taiwan would successfully lower consumption rates, decrease medical costs, and generate revenue that could be used to educate consumers and further decrease consumption rates. Consequently, we strongly recommend that such a tax be imposed in Taiwan. PMID:24010885

2013-01-01

244

Three-Dimensional Tectonic Model of Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We built a three-dimensional model of the interactions of the Eurasian plate (EUP) the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) and the collisional orogen, in and around Taiwan. The model is based on the results of comprehensive, milt-prong TAIGER experiments on land and at sea as well as other existing data. The clockwise rotating PSP moves NWW at ~8 cm/year relative to the Taiwan Strait. Under northern Taiwan the northward subducting PSP terminates near the edge of eastern Taiwan and collides with EUP at in increasing depth toward the north. Mountain building due to collision of EUP and PSP tapers off where the PSP goes below about 60 km. The PSP in the asthenosphere continues to advance NWW-ward. In central Taiwan PSP and EUP collide fully, lithosphere against lithosphere in the upper 60 km or so, leading to significant thickening of the crust to about 55 km on the Central Range side and about 35 km on the Coastal Range/Arc side. In between these "roots" a high velocity rise is found. Although a clear, steep dipping high velocity zone under Central Taiwan is detected, it is found not to be associated with seismicity. In southern Taiwan, mountains form over well-defined, seismically active subduction zone. The upper mantle high velocity anomaly appears to be continues with that under central Taiwan, but here an inclined seismic zone is found. In this area the Luzon Arc has not yet encountered the continental shelf - thus arc-continental collision has not yet occurred. The orogeny here may involve inversion of the subducted South China Sea lithosphere, rifted Eurasian continent, and/or escape of continental material from central Taiwan. GPS and Leveling data reflect well the 3-D plate collision model.

Wu, Francis; Kuo-Chen, Hao; McIntosh, kirk

2014-05-01

245

Health risk assessment for residents exposed to atmospheric diesel exhaust particles in southern region of Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence shows a strong association among air pollution, oxidative stress (OS), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage, and diseases. Recent studies indicated that the aging, human neurodegenerative diseases and cancers resulted from mitochondrial dysfunction and OS. The purpose of this study is to provide a probabilistic risk assessment model to quantify the atmospheric diesel exhaust particles (DEP)-induced pre-cancer biomarker response and cancer incidence risk for residents in south Taiwan. We conducted entirely monthly particulate matter sampling data at five sites in Kaohsiung of south Taiwan in the period 2002-2003. Three findings were found: (i) the DEP dose estimates and cancer risk quantification had heterogeneously spatiotemporal difference in south Taiwan, (ii) the pre-cancer DNA damage biomarker and cancer incidence estimates had a positive yet insignificant association, and (iii) all the estimates of cancer incidence in south Taiwan populations fell within and slight lower than the values from previous cancer epidemiological investigations. In this study, we successfully assessed the tumor incidence for residents posed by DEP exposure in south Taiwan compared with the epidemiological approach. Our approach provides a unique way for assessing human health risk for residences exposed to atmospheric DEP depending on specific combinations of local and regional conditions. Our work implicates the importance of incorporating both environmental and health risk impacts into models of air pollution exposure to guide adaptive mitigation strategies.

Chio, Chia-Pin; Liao, Chung-Min; Tsai, Ying-I.; Cheng, Man-Ting; Chou, Wei-Chun

2014-03-01

246

Predictive Distribution of Hynobiid Salamanders in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pei-Fen Lee, Kuang-Yang Lue, and Shan-Huah Wu (2006) Predictive distribution of hynobiid salamanders in Taiwan. Zoological Studies 45(2): 244-254. The distribution patterns of hynobiid salamanders in Taiwan, based on species and species complex, i.e., Hynobius arisanensis, the H. formosanus-sonani complex, and Hynobius sp. 1 (an undescribed species), were studied using a wildlife distribution database and an environmental factor database with

Pei-Fen Lee; Kuang-Yang Lue; Shan-Huah Wu

2006-01-01

247

Corrections in Taiwan (Republic of China)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the correctional system in Taiwan. It includes the current policy, organizational structure, rehabilitation programs, and up-to-date crime and prison statistics. The focus is to highlight some of the differences between U.S. and Taiwanese correctional systems. For example, the administration of all prisons in Taiwan is under the centralized authority of the Ministry of Justice; prison guards do

LEE-JAN JAN

1988-01-01

248

Antimicrobial Resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae, Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taiwan has one of the highest levels of antibiotic-resistant pneumococcus in the world. Pneumococcal iso- lates not susceptible to penicillin first appeared in Taiwan in 1986; in 1995 an increase in the prevalence of nonsusceptibility to penicillins, extended-spectrum cephalosporins, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and macrolides as well as multidrug resistance began to be recognized. With the persistence of antibiotic selective pressure, resistance in

Po-Ren Hsueh; Kwen-Tay Luh

2002-01-01

249

Peak ground motion predictions in India: an appraisal for rock sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proper selection and ranking of Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs) is critical for successful logic-tree implementation in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. The present study explores this issue in predicting peak ground accelerations at the rock sites in India. Macroseismic intensity data complemented with limited strong ground-motion recordings are used for the purpose. The findings corroborate the possible conformity between the GMPEs developed for tectonically active shallow crust across the globe. On the other hand, the relevant GMPEs in the intraplate regions cluster into two different groups with the equations of lower ranks catering to higher ground motions. The earthquakes in the subduction zones have significant regional implications. However, affinity in the ground-motion attenuations between the major interface events ( M W > 7.4) in Andaman-Nicobar, Japan and Cascadia, respectively, is noted. This can be also observed for the intraslab events in the Hindukush and Taiwan respectively. Overall, we do not observe any significant advantage with the equations developed using the regional data. These findings are expected to be useful in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis across the study region.

Nath, Sankar Kumar; Thingbaijam, Kiran Kumar Singh

2011-04-01

250

Early Austronesians: Into and Out Of Taiwan  

PubMed Central

A Taiwan origin for the expansion of the Austronesian languages and their speakers is well supported by linguistic and archaeological evidence. However, human genetic evidence is more controversial. Until now, there had been no ancient skeletal evidence of a potential Austronesian-speaking ancestor prior to the Taiwan Neolithic ?6,000 years ago, and genetic studies have largely ignored the role of genetic diversity within Taiwan as well as the origins of Formosans. We address these issues via analysis of a complete mitochondrial DNA genome sequence of an ?8,000-year-old skeleton from Liang Island (located between China and Taiwan) and 550 mtDNA genome sequences from 8 aboriginal (highland) Formosan and 4 other Taiwanese groups. We show that the Liangdao Man mtDNA sequence is closest to Formosans, provides a link to southern China, and has the most ancestral haplogroup E sequence found among extant Austronesian speakers. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis allows us to reconstruct a history of early Austronesians arriving in Taiwan in the north ?6,000 years ago, spreading rapidly to the south, and leaving Taiwan ?4,000 years ago to spread throughout Island Southeast Asia, Madagascar, and Oceania. PMID:24607387

Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Chen, Chung-Yu; Fu, Qiaomei; Delfin, Frederick; Li, Mingkun; Chiu, Hung-Lin; Stoneking, Mark; Ko, Ying-Chin

2014-01-01

251

Instrumental intensity distribution for the Hector Mine, California, and the Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquakes: Comparison of two methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compare two methods of seismic-intensity estimation from ground-motion records for the two recent strong earthquakes: the 1999 (M 7.1) Hector Mine, California, and the 1999 (M 7.6) Chi-Chi, Taiwan. The first technique utilizes the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and velocity (PGV), and it is used for rapid generation of the instrumental intensity map in California. The other method is based on the revised relationships between intensity and Fourier amplitude spectrum (FAS). The results of using the methods are compared with independently observed data and between the estimations from the records. For the case of the Hector Mine earthquake, the calculated intensities in general agree with the observed values. For the case of the Chi-Chi earthquake, the areas of maximum calculated intensity correspond to the areas of the greatest damage and highest number of fatalities. However, the FAS method producees higher-intensity values than those of the peak amplitude method. The specific features of ground-motion excitation during the large, shallow, thrust earthquake may be considered a reason for the discrepancy. The use of PGA and PGV is simple; however, the use of FAS provides a natural consideration of site amplification by means of generalized or site-specific spectral ratios. Because the calculation of seismic-intensity maps requires rapid processing of data from a large network, it is very practical to generate a "first-order" map from the recorded peak motions. Then, a "second-order" map may be compiled using an amplitude-spectra method on the basis of available records and numerical modeling of the site-dependent spectra for the regions of sparse station spacing.

Sokolov, V.; Wald, D.J.

2002-01-01

252

Seeing Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explore your own straight-line motion using a motion sensor to generate distance versus time graphs of your own motion. Learn how changes in speed and direction affect the graph, and gain an understanding of how motion can be represented on a graph.

2012-07-19

253

Taiwan International Graduate Program --Molecular and Biological Agricultural Sciences Introduction  

E-print Network

Taiwan International Graduate Program -- Molecular and Biological Agricultural Sciences and Microbial Biology, the Institute of Cellular and Organismic Biology, and the Institute of Molecular Biology in specialized areas of agricultural biology. The Taiwan International Graduate Program (TIGP) in Molecular

254

Chinese Teenagers Perceptions of and Attitudes toward Taiwan Mandarin   

E-print Network

This dissertation is a language attitude study which has Taiwan Mandarin as its main concern. The study is based on a pilot study, which suggests Chinese people’s attitudes toward Hong Kong and Taiwan Mandarin related ...

Juan, Yu-Tien

2011-11-23

255

Numerical modelling of ground motion in the Taipei Basin: basin and source effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Taipei basin in northern Taiwan is located in a high seismicity region and was affected by several earthquakes in the past (ML = 7.3 on 1909 April 15; ML = 6.8 on 1986 November 15; the Chi-Chi ML = 7.3 earthquake on 1999 September 21 and ML = 6.8 on 2002 March 31). The main characteristic of the Taipei basin is its complex shape with a deep western and shallow eastern part. The uppermost Sungshan formation with its low shear wave velocities (90-200ms-1) is also a distinct feature of the basin. Based on the large data base of earthquake records obtained from the Taiwan Strong Motion Instrumentation Program network, many studies on ground motion within the Taipei basin exist. However, the influence of the various subsurface structures on the observed ground motions as well as the variability of ground motion with respect to earthquake location is not fully understood. We apply a 3-D finite-difference method to simulate wave propagation up to 1Hz for a small earthquake close to the basin in order to resolve these open questions. By varying source and structural parameters, we explore the variability of ground motion. Our study includes a subsurface model that is based on recent studies on the basin structure and on the crustal structure of Taiwan. From our simulations we find a good fit between simulated and observed waveforms and peak ground accelerations for the considered small earthquake near the basin. We also explore the influence of fault plane orientation, hypocentre location, deep basin structure and soft soil surface layers of the Sungshan formation by varying the subsurface structure and earthquake position. Our studies reveal that the basin structure produces an amplification factor of about 4 compared to hard rock conditions. Additionally, the soft soil Sungshan formation produce amplification of a factor of 2. This results in a maximum amplification of the basin structure of about 8, which is in good comparison with amplification values larger than 5 found from the analysis of observed earthquakes. These values clearly exceed the amplification values of about 2-3 obtained when applying standard 1-D site effect analysis. Our simulations for different earthquake positions show that ground motion depends strongly on earthquake location and fault orientation. Therefore, the application of average values of spectral amplification obtained from the analysis of recorded data from distant earthquakes with different azimuths and fault planes may significantly underestimate future ground motions of possible earthquakes on known faults close to the Taipei basin. The simulation of a small earthquake near the Taipei basin presented in this study will help to set up adequate simulation parameters for a possible large earthquake close to the Taipei basin. Such a simulation of a scenario earthquake close to the Taipei basin would allow to significantly improve hazard assessment as no observations of strong earthquakes in the vicinity of the basin exist.

Miksat, J.; Wen, K.-L.; Wenzel, F.; Sokolov, V.; Chen, C.-T.

2010-12-01

256

What University Governance Can Taiwan Learn from the United States?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to changes from centralization to marketization, Taiwan's university governance must increase its effectiveness. The purpose of this paper was to introduce trends in and issues of Taiwan's university governance, describe university governance in the United States, and draw implications that Taiwan's university governance needs to learn from…

Lee, Lung-Sheng; Land, Ming H.

2010-01-01

257

The evolution of commercial banking and financial markets in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past five decades, Taiwan has achieved rapid economic development. Correspondingly, Taiwan’s financial system has been gradually transformed from a controlled system into a liberalized one, from a state banking system into a private banking one, and from an inward investment system into an outward investment one. In the financial market, the interest rate and foreign exchange rate have

Tzong-shian Yu

1999-01-01

258

Language Shift and Language Accommodation across Family Generations in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored language shift and accommodation among bilingual Mandarin and Tai-gi (also called Hokkien, Holo, Tai-gu, Taiwan Min, Taiwanese) families in Taiwan. From the 1940s until the 1980s the Chinese Nationalist Party (KMT) on Taiwan promoted Mandarin Chinese. Recent years have witnessed a shift in policy: since 2001 elementary schools…

Sandel, Todd L.; Chao, Wen-Yu; Liang, Chung-Hui

2006-01-01

259

Ending martial law in Taiwan: Implications and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

pending upon one's perspective) in Taiwan ended after thirty-eight years in force. The move was proclaimed an important one by the Western media. In Taiwan it was also viewed with considerable salience, though for different reasons. Clearly it had significant symbolic meaning, if not real importance, in terms of the nation's politics. Taiwan had been under what is termed martial

John F. Copper

1988-01-01

260

Taiwan's energy and environmental policies: Past, present and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taiwan's current economic success is partly the result of nearly half a century of careful government planning. However, the dramatic rise in the prosperity of this relatively small island has produced an almost proportional decline in Taiwan's natural-environment endowment. A critique of past energy policies, with respect to transportation, is presented, with a look ahead to Taiwan's environmental challenges. Transport

T. J. Price; S. D. Probert

1995-01-01

261

Geography of suicide in Taiwan: spatial patterning and socioeconomic correlates.  

PubMed

In industrialised Western nations suicide rates tend to be high in inner city areas and socially fragmented neighbourhoods. Few studies have investigated spatial variations in suicide in non-Western settings. We estimated smoothed standardised mortality ratios (1999-2007) for suicide for each of the 358 Taiwanese districts (median population aged 15+: 27,000) and investigated their associations with area characteristics using Bayesian hierarchical models. The geographic distribution of suicide was similar in men and women; young people showed the greatest spatial variation in rates. Rates were highest in East Taiwan, a mostly mountainous rural area. There was no evidence of above average rates in large cities. Spatial patterns of method-specific suicide rates varied markedly, with solids/liquids poisonings showing the greatest geographic variation and hangings the least. Factors most strongly associated with area suicide rates were median household income, population density and lone-parent households. Spatial patterning of suicide in Taiwan differed from that observed in Western nations. Suicide prevention strategies should take into account unique local patterns. PMID:21292534

Chang, Shu-Sen; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Wheeler, Benedict W; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Lin, Jin-Jia; Gunnell, David

2011-03-01

262

Clinical competency in child maltreatment for community nurses in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine aspects of competency in child abuse among community nurses in Taiwan. A sample of 650 community nurses were recruited from public health centres (PHC) and outpatient clinics in Southern Taiwan. A structured questionnaire with five subscales, knowledge, skills, empowerment, team collaboration and self-reflection was developed and used for data collection. A total of 588 questionnaires were returned and used for analysis. Nearly 20% of community nurses reported having an acquaintance with a maltreatment history. Only 4.6% had experience of reporting a case of child abuse. Most nurses reported strong skills and abilities (empowerment, team collaboration and self-reflection). Outpatient clinic nurses scored higher in four subscales than the PHC nurses. Nurses who had a history as a victim or had reporting experience claimed better clinical competency. Unfortunately, community nurses had limited knowledge in child abuse. The findings support the development of continuing education programmes on child abuse for community nurses. PMID:25759198

Chen, Yi-Wen; Huang, Joh-Jong; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Feng, Jui-Ying

2015-03-01

263

The impact of energy pricing policy on Taiwan`s economy: A simulation of CGE model  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to simulate the impacts of energy pricing policy on Taiwan`s economy. Based on a CGE model and utilizing empirical data from the 1989 input-output table, energy balance table and the national income report of Taiwan, this paper simulates a single energy price shock, witch is a 1 percent increase in one energy commodity, and examines two real cases of energy price adjustment, on February 16 and August 10, 1994 (a decrease of about 3 percent and an increase of about 3 percent in oil and gas prices). The simulation results are then interpreted. Finally, the conclusion and suggestions for further research are presented.

Bor, Y.J.

1995-12-31

264

Motion Sickness  

MedlinePLUS

... alone. Motion sickness, whether on boats or in planes, cars or amusement rides, can strike anyone. 290229 ... alone. Motion sickness, whether on boats or in planes, cars or amusement rides, can strike anyone. Those ...

265

Hospital material management in Taiwan: a survey.  

PubMed

The new insurance policy that began in 1995 for all people in Taiwan and severe competition within the health care industry are some of the pressing issues forcing hospitals to improve their operational efficiency. A primary productivity improvement for hospitals is the reduction of the cost of material management because the materiel function on average controls 30-40 percent of the operating dollars in a Taiwan hospital. In this article, a fuzzy clustering method is used to classify the different types of materiel management systems within Taiwan hospitals. Inventory turnover rates and fill rates are compared among those different types of systems by using multivariate analysis of variance. The results show that the differences in both inventory turnover rates and fill rates are statistically significant among different material management systems. PMID:10178552

Huarng, F

1998-05-01

266

A seismicity burst following the 2010 M6.4 Jiashian earthquake -implications1 for short-term seismic hazards in southern Taiwan2  

E-print Network

1 A seismicity burst following the 2010 M6.4 Jiashian earthquake - implications1 stress change; ground12 motion prediction equation; probabilistic seismic hazard assessment; Taiwan.13 14 15 #12;2 Abstract. Following the 4 March 2010 Mw 6.4 Jiashian earthquake

Wu, Yih-Min

267

A seismicity burst following the 2010 M 6.4 Jiashian earthquake implications for short-term seismic hazards in southern Taiwan  

E-print Network

A seismicity burst following the 2010 M 6.4 Jiashian earthquake ­ implications for short Smoothing Kernel function Coulomb stress change Ground motion prediction equation Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment Taiwan a b s t r a c t Following the 4 March 2010 MW 6.4 Jiashian earthquake

Wu, Yih-Min

268

Phylogenetic and molecular dating analysis of Taiwan Blue Pheasant (Lophura swinhoii).  

PubMed

The Swinhoe's Pheasant (Lophura swinhoii) is an endemic and most endangered species to Taiwan, China. It belongs to the genus Lophura, family Phasianidae. To further investigate the evolutionary history of L. swinhoii, we determined its complete mitochondrial genome and reconstructed a single, robust phylogenetic tree. Our results showed that L. swinhoii is clustered with Lophura nycthemera and forms a sister group of Lophura ignita. The genus Lophura is strongly supported as the sister taxon of the genus Crossoptilon. The molecular clock analysis showed that the genetic divergence of L. swinhoii occurred in 2.71 (1.31-4.22) Mya. The most common ancestor of L. swinhoii might have migrated from mainland of South East Asia to Taiwan Island by the land bridge at 2.71 Mya ago. Taiwan Island is separated from the mainland by the sea (Taiwan Strait) and formed a separate island at around 2.5 Mya because of the transgression and regression. Therefore, geographical isolation and climate change may accelerate the evolution of L. swinhoii. In this study, we propose a biogeographic hypothesis for speciation of the L. swinhoii based on known events of the geographic and geological history of South East Asia and southeast China, which would benefit the understanding of evolutionary history of L. swinhoii as well as other galliform birds. PMID:24508942

Jiang, Lichun; Wang, Gaochao; Peng, Rui; Peng, Quekun; Zou, Fangdong

2014-04-10

269

Application of fuzzy theory and PROMETHEE technique to evaluate suitable ecotechnology method: A case study in Shihmen Reservoir Watershed, Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increase in industrial development and improper land uses, Taiwan has faced the extinction crisis and is seeing the signs of nature, revenge in the forms of frequent landslides, floods, and debris flows in recent years. The government has strongly promoted the concept of ecotechnology in the hope of maintaining the ecosystem and its integrity. However, the application of

Wen-Chieh Chou; Wen-Tzu Lin; Chao-Yuan Lin

2007-01-01

270

Strong Decoherence  

E-print Network

We introduce a condition for the strong decoherence of a set of alternative histories of a closed quantum-mechanical system such as the universe. The condition applies, for a pure initial state, to sets of homogeneous histories that are chains of projections, generally branch-dependent. Strong decoherence implies the consistency of probability sum rules but not every set of consistent or even medium decoherent histories is strongly decoherent. Two conditions characterize a strongly decoherent set of histories: (1) At any time the operators that effectively commute with generalized records of history up to that moment provide the pool from which -- with suitable adjustment for elapsed time -- the chains of projections extending history to the future may be drawn. (2) Under the adjustment process, generalized record operators acting on the initial state of the universe are approximately unchanged. This expresses the permanence of generalized records. The strong decoherence conditions (1) and (2) guarantee what we call ``permanence of the past'' -- in particular the continued decoherence of past alternatives as the chains of projections are extended into the future. Strong decoherence is an idealization capturing in a general way this and other aspects of realistic physical mechanisms that destroy interference, as we illustrate in a simple model. We discuss the connection between the reduced density matrices that have often been used to characterize mechanisms of decoherence and the more general notion of strong decoherence. The relation between strong decoherence and a measure of classicality is briefly described.

Murray Gell-Mann; James B. Hartle

1995-11-23

271

Strong Decoherence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a condition for the strong decoherence of a set of alternative histories of a closed quantum-mechanical system such as the universe. The condition applies, for a pure initial state, to sets of homogeneous histories that are chains of projections, generally branch-dependent. Strong decoherence implies the consistency of probability sum rules but not every set of consistent or even

Murray Gell-Mann; James B. Hartle

1995-01-01

272

Strong decoherence  

E-print Network

We introduce a condition for the strong decoherence of a set of alternative histories of a closed quantum-mechanical system such as the universe. The condition applies, for a pure initial state, to sets of homogeneous histories that are chains of projections, generally branch-dependent. Strong decoherence implies the consistency of probability sum rules but not every set of consistent or even medium decoherent histories is strongly decoherent. Two conditions characterize a strongly decoherent set of histories: (1) At any time the operators that effectively commute with generalized records of history up to that moment provide the pool from which --- with suitable adjustment for elapsed time --- the chains of projections extending history to the future may be drawn. (2) Under the adjustment process, generalized record operators acting on the initial state of the universe are approximately unchanged. This expresses the permanence of generalized records. The strong decoherence conditions (1) and (2) guarantee wha...

Gell-Mann, Murray; Gell-Mann, Murray; Hartle, James B

1997-01-01

273

Plate motion  

SciTech Connect

The motion of tectonic plates on the earth is characterized in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Topics addressed include the NUVEL-1 global model of current plate motions, diffuse plate boundaries and the oceanic lithosphere, the relation between plate motions and distributed deformations, accelerations and the steadiness of plate motions, the distribution of current Pacific-North America motion across western North America and its margin, plate reconstructions and their uncertainties, hotspots, and plate dynamics. A comprehensive bibliography is provided. 126 refs.

Gordon, R.G. (USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States))

1991-01-01

274

A body-weight-based method to estimate inorganic arsenic body burden through tilapia consumption in Taiwan.  

PubMed

In the present study, a stage-classified exposure model is developed to better characterize long-term arsenic (As) accumulation of both genders of children, adolescents, and adults through tilapia consumption in Taiwan. Ingestion rate as well as elimination rate of As are treated dynamically and are used to parameterize the stage-classified accumulation model. Model simulations are carried out to produce temporal changes of As body burden of the residents who consume tilapia from blackfoot disease (BFD)-endemic area in three major cities in Taiwan. The model presented here can be served as a strong framework for refining human health risk assessments through fish consumption. PMID:18297225

Chen, B-C; Liao, C-M

2008-03-01

275

Collision Tectonics of Taiwan and TAIGER Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By any measure of tectonic activity Taiwan can be described as vigorous. The results from abundant permanent GPS station network on the island show that the convergence of the Philippine Sea and Eurasian plate near Taiwan is about 80 mm/yr and much of the island is sustaining a compressional strain rate in excess of 2 ppm per year in and a dilatational strain of more than 1 ppm per year along the northeastern shore and in a significant portion of the Central Range. Judging from ample thermochronometric data now available on the island it is clear that the rapid uplifting has been ongoing for the last million years. The high seismicity in Taiwan defines parts of the plate tectonic environment and the1999 M7.6 thrust faulting event in central Taiwan and the 2006 M7.1 normal faulting event offshore of Hengchun Peninsula show the variations from subduction to collision from south to north. For longer time scale the Geology of Taiwan shows clearly the accretion of the arc onto the continental shelf. Several tectonic models of Taiwan have been proposed on the basis of available data and tectonic concepts. The implications of these models on the collisional tectonics do not always agree. To resolve them and to build a more comprehensive model of Taiwan detailed information regarding the crust and upper mantle is particularly needed. The TAIGER (TAiwan Integrated GEodynamic Research) program mounts several major field experiments and aims to fill the gap of information. Through active and passive seismic experiments we wish to obtain multi-scale crustal and upper mantle seismic images not only under the island but also around Taiwan for the purpose of defining plate geometry and the configuration of crust and mantle boundaries. The imaging will also target key components in proposed models. For example, the subduction of the Eurasian plate is often included; can we image it as a high velocity anomaly even though it is not seismically active? What is its geometry? At the same time the broadband instruments on land and at ocean floor, mainly to the east and south of Taiwan, will record earthquakes. The passive seismological data will provide a refined map of where the earthquakes, whether interplate or intraplate, are occurring and the plate kinematics. To assess the material properties and the ambient temperature field conductivity profiles from magnetotellurics and laboratory petrophysics have been largely completed. Land broadband seismic stations have been in operation now for six months to more than a year and analysis has begun. A test explosion in Central Taiwan was carried out in October 2006. By early November 2007 broadband OBS deployment should be complete. Three land-based active source profiles and a CDP line across the main boundary between the Foothills and Central Range are scheduled for February/March of 2008. In our preparation to digest this large amount of information and to construct more comprehensive tectonic models we have begun to conduct complete numerical geodynamic experiments, incorporating geometry, ambient conditions, rheological properties of rocks, plate velocities, etc. These experiments, initially only two- dimensional, will allow us to explore the range of initial models that can arrive at an end state that resembles the observations.

Wu, F. T.; Lavier, L. L.; Taiger Teams, U.

2007-12-01

276

Initiation and runaway process of Tsaoling landslide, triggered by the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake, as studied by high-velocity friction experiments (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-velocity friction experiments in the last two decades have demonstrated dramatic weakening of simulated faults at seismic slip rates on the order of 1 m/s (e.g., Di Toro et al., 2011, Nature). Similar experiments revealed very low friction of landslide materials (0.05-0.2 in friction coefficient) that can cause catastrophic landslides with velocity exceeding even 10 m/s (e.g., Miyamoto et al. (2009) on the 1999 Tsaoling landslide in Taiwan; Yano et al. (2009) on the 1999 Jiufengershan landslide in Taiwan,; Ferri et al. (2010, 2011) on the 1963 Vaiont landslide in Italy; Kuo et al. (2011) on the 2009 Hsiaolin landslide in Taiwan). Those studies strongly suggest that there are common processes operative in fault zones and along slip surfaces of catastrophic landslides along bedding planes, fractures or joints. As for catastrophic landslides triggered by an earthquake, an important issue to be addressed is how a landslide initiates during seismic ground motion. Thus we have studied the initiation and runaway process of the Tsaoling landslide by idealizing the initial landslide movement during seismic ground motion as an oscillating accelerating/decelerating motion. Tsaoling landslide is the largest landslide among those triggered by the Chi-Chi earthquake with its volume of about 130 Mm3. The landslide took place along very planar bedding planes of the porous Pliocene sedimentary rocks (mostly siltstone and sandstone), with a dip angle of 14 degree. A seismic record at a station about 500 m away from the landslide and a witness of a survivor who slid on top of the landslide mass indicate that the average speed of the landslide reached 20~40 m/s. A simple analysis of sliding block indicates that the kinetic friction has to be 0.05~0.15 to produce such a high-velocity. Moreover, Tang et al. (2009, Eng. Geol.) analyzed landslide motion with the discrete element method and showed that the landslide mass must have slid nearly as an intact mass, without much disaggregation, in order to prevent the complete mixing of broken-up pieces that would have given no chance for survival. This work partly justifies our experimental approach for understanding the Tsaoling landslide. We performed a series of oscillatory slip experiments on the crushed siltstone gouge at a normal stress of 3 MPa that corresponds to the overburden pressure at the base of about 150-meter thick landslide mass, using a rotary-shear low to high-velocity friction apparatus at Hiroshima University. The slip rate was increased linearly to the maximum velocity of 0.33-1.3 m/s and was decreased linearly to zero with oscillation frequencies ranging 0.3-1.2 Hz. Results indicate that the accelerating and decelerating motions cause weakening and strengthening, respectively, at each oscillation cycle and that the gouge undergoes overall weakening with the repeated oscillation cycles. The overall weakening of the gouge depends on the maximum velocity, but not on the oscillation frequency. When the maximum velocity is 1.0 and 1.3 m/s, the friction coefficient decreases from about 0.8 to below 0.25 (or friction angle of 14 degree) after a few to several oscillations to initiate a runaway sliding of the landslide mass and the friction coefficient reduces to 0.1-0.2. Our results are consistent with the delayed onset and the high speed of the Tsaoling landslide. Our experiments will provide a way of evaluating the potential danger for earthquake-induced catastrophic landslides.

Togo, T.; Shimamoto, T.; Dong, J.; Lee, C.

2013-12-01

277

The Strong Has Strong Biases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The revised and renamed Strong Campbell Interest Inventory (SCII) is examined to determine if the occupational and sex biases present in the older Strong Vocational Interest Blank (SVIB) were eliminated. It is concluded that an occupational bias (favoring professional rather than blue-collar occupations) still exists in the SCII, although there is…

Pezzoli, Jean A.

278

CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUND MOTION RESPONSE SPECTRA FROM RECENT LARGE EARTHQUAKES AND THEIR COMPARISON WITH IEEE STANDARD 693  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined ground motion response spectra from the recent large earthquakes in California, Japan, Turkey and Taiwan. We have studied the distance, site, and magnitude effect on ground motion response spectra and compared these spectra with the required response spectrum (RRS) specified by the IEEE Standard 693, \\

F. Su; J. G. Anderson; Y. Zeng

279

Women's Aspirations for Graduate Education in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates female undergraduates' aspirations for master's and doctoral degree programs in Taiwan's universalized and stratified higher education system. It considers the potential effects of economic prospects, parental attitudes, and gender values. First, graduate education is perceived as a means to enhance one's comparative…

Lin, Meng-Jie

2011-01-01

280

Air Quality at Night Markets in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Taiwan, there are more than 300 night markets and they have attracted more and more visitors in recent years. Air quality in night markets has become a public concern. To characterize the current air quality in night markets, four major night markets in Kaohsiung were selected for this study. The results of this study showed that the mean carbon

Ping Zhao; Chi-Chi Lin; Adriana Gutierrez; Jennifer Logue; Mitchell Small; Darrell Stern; Jason Maranche; Allen Robinson; Krish Vijayaraghavan; Christian Seigneur; Rochelle Bronson; Shu-Yun Chen; Prakash Karamchandani; Justin Walters; John Jansen; Jo Brandmeyer; Eladio Knipping; John Kominsky; Jonathan Thornburg; Glenn Shaul; William Barrett; Fred Hall; James Konz; Jozef Pacyna; Kyrre Sundseth; Elisabeth Pacyna; Wojciech Jozewicz; John Munthe; Mohammed Belhaj; Stefan Astrom; Shannon Capps; Yongtao Hu; Armistead Russell; Gayle Hagler; Eben Thoma; Richard Baldauf; Yu-Kuang Zhao; Wen-Pei Sung; Tzai-Tang Tsai; Hsien-Jung Wang; Jaron Hansen; Woods III; Brittney Bates; Jared Clark; Roman Kuprov; Puspak Mukherjee; Jacolin Murray; Michael Simmons; Mark Waite; Norman Eatough; Delbert Eatough; Russell Long; Brett Grover; Patricia Krecl; Christer Johansson; Johan Strom

2010-01-01

281

Notes on Alien Bromus Grasses in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bromus carinatus Hook. & Arn., Bromus hordeaceus L., Bromus pubescens Muhl. ex Willd. and Bromus secalinus L. were recently found at middle elevations of southern and central Taiwan, respectively. We present taxonomic treatments, distribution map, and line-drawings of these introduced alien brome grasses.

Ming-Jer Jung; Chang-Sheng Kuoh

2006-01-01

282

Sustainability of Higher Education Institutions in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide the rationale and context for recent national policy and funded initiatives to support sustainability developments within higher education in Taiwan, including practical and educational aspects. Concrete examples and specific outcomes are reviewed, to produce a profile across the higher education…

Su, H. Jenny; Chang, Tzu-chau

2010-01-01

283

No Aboriginal Students left Behind in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The project is motivated by Taiwan's huge gap of educational levels between the aborigines and the Hans. The low achievement of aboriginal students lies in factors related to problems in finance, health, and cultural difference, which contribute to their sense of self-deprecation. The purpose of the project is to provide early intervention and…

Wu, Sue-Jen; Hartzler-Miller, Cynthia

2005-01-01

284

Language Skills and Status Attainment in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the importance of language underlying the stratification process in Taiwan within the context of globalization. Specifically, I ask if one's language skills may serve as a key to getting ahead. The Taiwanese government has imposed Mandarin as the official language since 1945 and introduced English courses into compulsory…

Tsai, Shu-Ling

2010-01-01

285

The Workforce Education and Development in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Workforce education and development (WED) can be broadly defined as those formal, informal and nonformal activities that prepare people for work. In Taiwan, it includes technological and vocational education (TVE), human resource development (HRD), public vocational training and adult education. In order to promote information exchanges and…

Lee, Lung-Sheng

2012-01-01

286

Internet Addiction among High Schoolers in Taiwan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid measurement for the identification of Internet addictive high school students. There were 615 subjects selected by a stratified sampling from the population of Taiwanese 10th to 12th graders. The final version of the Internet Addiction Scale for Taiwan High Schoolers (IAST) contained 20…

Lin, Sunny S. J.; Tsai, Chin-Chung

287

Characteristics analysis of fictitious companies in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The value-added business tax in Taiwan features with convenient tax audit and without double taxation. A company could reduce its payable annual income tax by take off the expenses of business transactions. For example: the invoices of the spending of business machines for producing goods could be used to reduce the income tax of a company. However, there is a

Chih-Chin; Sha-Chin

2011-01-01

288

Talent Identification and Development in Taiwan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rapid development of special education for the gifted in Taiwan from 1962 until the present is summarized. The comprehensive system of gifted education, using either the special class or the pull-out is described, along with identification procedures that are based on multi-assessment and use a step-by-step screening process. (Contains…

Wu, Wu-Tien

2000-01-01

289

Language Policy and Group Identification in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Taiwan is a multicultural and multilingual society. Generally speaking, Taiwanese residents fall into one of four ethnic groups. Each ethnic group has a different cultural context and a preferred language. Therefore, one's use of language may reveal his/her identification with an ethnic group, and language policy implementation may imply the power…

Liu, Ruey-Ying

2012-01-01

290

Current Status of Antimicrobial Resistance in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

While some trends in antimicrobial resistance rates are universal, others appear to be unique for specific regions. In Taiwan, the strikingly high prevalence of resistance to macrolides and streptogramin in clinical isolates of gram-positive bacteria correlates with the widespread use of these agents in the medical and farming communities, respectively. The relatively low rate of enterococci that are resistant to

Po-Ren Hsueh; Cheng-Yi Liu; Kwen-Tay Luh

2002-01-01

291

The gravitational extension in the Central Range of Taiwan induced by the instability of intrinsic buoyancy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The active Taiwan orogen is situated in the tectonic convergence between the Philippine Sea plate and Eurasian passive margin. The thick crust under the Central Range of Taiwan was demonstrated by the results from the TAIGER project during 2004-2009. The results show that the deepest moho (~60 km thickness) is located at the eastern flank of the Central Range, while the averaged crust thickness is over 50 km beneath the whole mountain ranges from south to north. Physically the thickened crust provides an excess of the gravitational potential energy (GPE) with respect to the vicinity, implying that the Central Range itself behaves intrinsic extension stress environment. However, due to limited geophysical information such a phenomenon was not well evaluated and not considered to be one of the important factors for the Taiwan mountain building process. In this study, we calculate the GPE of the whole Taiwan region from recent Vp tomography via seismic velocity-rock density empirical relationship. From the catalogue of the earthquake focal mechanisms of Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology (BATS), a quite number of extensional earthquakes are distributed in the 10-40 km deep in and around the Central Range, where the crustal potential energy is distinctively higher. Besides, the principal axes of these extensional earthquakes are mainly normal to the large gradient of crust ?GPE at the edge of Central Range. Accordingly, we conclude that the Central Range is undergoing the mountain building by the strong plate collision; meanwhile it is also bearing the gravitationally instable extension due to inherent buoyant thickening crust.

Lo, C.; Kuo-Chen, H.; Hsu, S.

2013-12-01

292

78 FR 20890 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-583-841] Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...the antidumping duty order on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) from Taiwan. The period of review...Duty Administrative Review: Polyvinyl Alcohol from Taiwan; 2010-2012'' dated...

2013-04-08

293

78 FR 39256 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2012-2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-583-841] Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Rescission of Antidumping...the antidumping duty order on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) from Taiwan for the period March...CCPC to the Department, ``Polyvinyl Alcohol from Taiwan: Withdrawal of...

2013-07-01

294

78 FR 17637 - Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-583-833] Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Preliminary Results...the antidumping duty order on polyester staple fiber (PSF) from Taiwan. The period...Duty Administrative Review: Polyester Staple Fiber from Taiwan'' dated...

2013-03-22

295

76 FR 58040 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...826; Second Review] Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan Determination...antidumping duty orders on certain polyester staple fiber from Korea and Taiwan would be likely...September 2011), entitled Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan:...

2011-09-19

296

78 FR 38938 - Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-583-833] Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping...the antidumping duty order on polyester staple fiber (PSF) from Taiwan. The period...1\\ See Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Preliminary...

2013-06-28

297

75 FR 22842 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam Determinations...material injury by reason of imports from Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam of PRCBs that...by Commerce that imports of PRCBs from Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam were being...

2010-04-30

298

77 FR 17027 - Certain Stilbenic Optical Brightening Agents From Taiwan: Final Determination of Sales at Less...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-583-848] Certain Stilbenic Optical Brightening Agents From Taiwan: Final...determined that imports of certain stilbenic optical brightening agents (stilbenic OBAs...OBAs from Taiwan. See Certain Stilbenic Optical Brightening Agents From Taiwan:...

2012-03-23

299

78 FR 72629 - Certain Stilbenic Optical Brightening Agents From Taiwan: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-583-848] Certain Stilbenic Optical Brightening Agents From Taiwan: Rescission...antidumping duty order on certain stilbenic optical brightening agents (OBAs) from Taiwan...the Department, ``Certain Stilbenic Optical Brightening Agents from Taiwan:...

2013-12-03

300

75 FR 67110 - Forged Stainless Steel Flanges From India and Taiwan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Forged Stainless Steel Flanges From India and Taiwan AGENCY: United States International...on forged stainless steel flanges from India and Taiwan...on forged stainless steel flanges from India and Taiwan would be likely to lead to...

2010-11-01

301

Motion Simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Visitors to StenniSphere can feel the motion of a ride to Mars with a ride on StenniSphere's full motion simulator. The simulator is the only attraction at StenniSphere for which there is a charge. Adult rides are $4 and children ride for $3. Group discounts are also available.

2000-01-01

302

Influenza in Taiwan: seasonality and vaccine strain match.  

PubMed

This article explores seasonality, epidemiology and dominant epidemic strains of influenza in Taiwan. Surveillance in Taiwan demonstrates that influenza is a disease which occurs throughout the year but has peak activity in winter. Due to the high mutability of influenza virus, effective vaccination is the best strategy for protection. Although the World Health Organization-recommended vaccine compositions usually matched with around 77% of circulating strains worldwide, the rate of matching in Taiwan has been markedly lower than this. Between 1997 and 2004 in Taiwan, the match rates were 82% for H1N1, 53% for H3N2, and 47% for influenza B virus. Furthermore, some world epidemic strains appeared earlier in Taiwan than in other countries. In view of Taiwan's proximity to southern China, which is thought to be the epicenter of influenza epidemics, vigilant surveillance and the development of regional strategies for the selection and manufacture of vaccine strains to improve influenza prevention are urgent requirements. PMID:16118670

Hsieh, Yu-Chia; Chen, Hour-Young; Yen, Jer-Jea; Liu, Ding-Ping; Chang, Luan-Yin; Lu, Chun-Yi; Shao, Pei-Lan; Lee, Chin-Yun; Huang, Li-Min

2005-08-01

303

Development of Taiwan’s strategies for regulating nanotechnology-based pharmaceuticals harmonized with international considerations  

PubMed Central

Nanotechnology offers potential in pharmaceuticals and biomedical developments for improving drug delivery systems, medical imaging, diagnosis, cancer therapy, and regenerative medicine. Although there is no international regulation or legislation specifically for nanomedicine, it is agreed worldwide that considerably more attention should be paid to the quality, safety, and efficacy of nanotechnology-based drugs. The US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency have provided several draft regulatory guidance and reflection papers to assist the development of nanomedicines. To cope with the impact of nanotechnology and to foster its pharmaceutical applications and development in Taiwan, this article reviews the trends of regulating nanotechnology-based pharmaceuticals in the international community and proposes strategies for Taiwan’s regulation harmonized with international considerations. The draft regulatory measures include a chemistry, manufacturing, and controls (CMC) review checklist and guidance for CMC review of liposomal products. These have been submitted for discussion among an expert committee, with membership comprised of multidisciplinary academia, research institutions, the pharmaceutical industry, and regulators, and are currently approaching final consensus. Once a consensus is reached, these mechanisms will be recommended to the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration for jurisdiction and may be initiated as the starting point for regulating nanotechnology-based pharmaceuticals in Taiwan. PMID:25342901

Guo, Jiun-Wen; Lee, Yu-Hsuan; Huang, Hsiau-Wen; Tzou, Mei-Chyun; Wang, Ying-Jan; Tsai, Jui-Chen

2014-01-01

304

Assessment of wind characteristics and wind turbine characteristics in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind characteristics and wind turbine characteristics in Taiwan have been thoughtfully analyzed based on a long-term measured data source (1961–1999) of hourly mean wind speed at 25 meteorological stations across Taiwan. A two-stage procedure for estimating wind resource is proposed. The yearly wind speed distribution and wind power density for the entire Taiwan is firstly evaluated to provide annually spatial

Tsang-Jung Chang; Yu-Ting Wu; Hua-Yi Hsu; Chia-Ren Chu; Chun-Min Liao

2003-01-01

305

Tourism climate and thermal comfort in Sun Moon Lake, Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioclimate conditions at Sun Moon Lake, one of Taiwan’s most popular tourist destinations, are presented. Existing tourism-related\\u000a climate is typically based on mean monthly conditions of air temperature and precipitation and excludes the thermal perception\\u000a of tourists. This study presents a relatively more detailed analysis of tourism climate by using a modified thermal comfort\\u000a range for both Taiwan and Western\\/Middle

Tzu-Ping Lin; Andreas Matzarakis

2008-01-01

306

Gastric Cancer Mortality and Drinking Water Qualities in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The possible association between the risk of gastric cancer and nitrate and hardness in drinking water from municipal supplies\\u000a was investigated in a matched case-control study in Taiwan. Data on gastric cancer deaths among eligible residents in Taiwan\\u000a from 1987 through 1991 (6,766 cases) were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department\\u000a of Health.

C.-Y. Yang; H.-F. Chiu; J.-F. Chiu; M.-F. Cheng; W.-Y. Kao

1997-01-01

307

Social Relationships and Inflammatory Markers: An Analysis of Taiwan and the U.S.  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the association between two aspects of social relationships and six inflammatory markers in Taiwan and the U.S. These two countries share similar levels of current life expectancy, but exhibit important differences in social structure. The data comprised population based samples from Taiwan (aged 53+; n = 962) and the U.S. (aged 35-86; n = 990) collected between 2003 and 2009. Circulating levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and soluble forms of intercellular adhesion molecule 1, E-selectin, and IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) were measured in fasting blood samples. A social integration score was based on marital status, contact with family and friends, church attendance, and other social participation. A perceived social support index was based on questions regarding the availability of care and support from family and friends. Linear regression models tested the association between these two measures and each inflammatory marker controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, obesity, medication use, and baseline health status. After adjusting for potential confounders, social integration had a significant but weak inverse association with CRP in Taiwan. Perceived social support was significant in two of 12 models, and the coefficient was positive (i.e., higher support was associated with higher CRP and sIL-6R in the U.S.). We found no evidence that the coefficients for social relationship measures varied by sex or age. Our results yielded limited evidence of a weak association between two dimensions of social relationships and six inflammatory markers in Taiwan and the U.S. Given that the literature suggests a strong link between social relationships and mortality, and that inflammation plays an important role in the leading causes of death, we had expected to find consistent and moderately strong associations between social relationships and inflammatory markers. The small effect sizes and lack of robustness across markers were surprising. PMID:22483707

Glei, Dana A.; Goldman, Noreen; Ryff, Carol D.; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Weinstein, Maxine

2012-01-01

308

Carbon dioxide sorption/ desorption characteristics of coals in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological sequestration of CO2 into depleted oil reservoir, saline aquifer or unmineable coal seam is now being actively investigated for the purpose of reducing greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. Understanding the physical, chemical, and thermodynamic phenomena occurred with CO2 injection is very important in marking a reliable prediction of sequestration. This study examined the feasibility of carbon dioxide sequestration into unmineable coal seams in Taiwan. A total of 20 Miocene-aged coal samples from Western Foothill Belt, NW Taiwan, were collected. The stratigraphy include Mushan, Shihti, and Nanchuang Formation from bottom up. Proximate and petrographic analyses include maceral composition, Vitrinite reflectance were also measured. Carbon dioxide adsorption isotherms were analyzed at 35 degrees Celsius and up to 800 psi, by using a gravimetric ad/desorption apparatus. Isotherms were then fitted with a modified Langmuir Isotherm model by using Langmuir Pressure and Langmuir Volume so the model can be applied to supercritical conditions. According to the result of adsorption experiment, the pressure and temperature were quite significant. The gas storage capacity of CO2 was about 400 600 scf/ton at pressure up to 800 psi. Comparing the results of adsorption capacity with Proximate analysis and vitrinite reflectance, the Langmuir Volume shows a strong positive correlation with fixed carbon and vitrinite content. Furthermore, Adsorption capacity is closely related to micropores which were also rank and maceral dependent. It is noticed that the observed coal pore structures were affected by rank, and then exhibit have different diffusion rate of CO2.Finally, images under SEM were evaluated to understand the pathways of gas sorption.

Chien-Hung, Hsiao; Loung-Yie, Tsai

2013-04-01

309

Bidirectional motion estimation via vector propagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-complexity vector propagation (VP) algorithm is introduced for the estimation of bidirectional motion vector fields in image sequences. The proposed VP algorithm exploits the strong correlation between forward and backward motion vector fields in image sequences. The performance of the VP algorithm is compared to that of a bidirectional multiresolution block-matching (MRBM) motion estimation (ME) algorithm. Computer simulation results

Showbhik Kalra; Man-Nang Chong

1998-01-01

310

Exploring topographic steady-state in Taiwan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed as both an introduction to GIS and an exploration of topographic steady-state. Students analyze DEMs from Taiwan to extract topographic profiles across the range. They reconstruct a series of datasets presented in Stolar et al., (2007), showing the progression of the range to steady-state as a space-for-time substitution from south to north. Students are expected to relate their observations from the topography to theoretical concepts discussed in class including accretion and uplift, steady-state, and critical wedge theory. An extension involves developing a simple numerical model in Excel of a mountain range as it progresses to topographic steady-state landscape, allowing students to investigate the rise of a mountain range to steady-state both from Taiwan data and from their numerical model.

Karen Gran

311

Molluscan fauna of Gueishan Island, Taiwan.  

PubMed

This dataset records the occurrence and inventory of molluscan fauna on Gueishan Island, the only active volcanic island in Taiwan, based on the literature survey and field investigation conducted between 2011 and 2012. The literature review involved seven studies published from 1934 to 2003, which collectively reported 112 species from 61 genera and 37 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. Through our field investigation, we identified 34 species from 28 genera and 23 families. Fourteen of these species were new records on Gueishan Island: Liolophura japonica, Lottia luchuana, Nerita costata, Nerita rumphii, Diplommatina suganikeiensis, Littoraria undulata, Solenomphala taiwanensis, Assiminea sp., Siphonaria laciniosa, Laevapex nipponica, Carychium hachijoensis, Succinea erythrophana, Zaptyx crassilamellata, and Allopeas pyrgula. In Total, there are 126 species from 71 genera and 45 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. These data have been published through GBIF [http://taibif.org.tw/ipt/resource.do?r=gueishan_island] and integrated into the Taiwan Malacofauna Database (http://shell.sinica.edu.tw/). PMID:23717182

Huang, Chih-Wei; Hsiung, Ta-Wei; Lin, Si-Min; Wu, Wen-Lung

2013-01-01

312

Lineage-specific late pleistocene expansion of an endemic subtropical gossamer-wing damselfly, Euphaea formosa, in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Background Pleistocene glacial oscillations have significantly affected the historical population dynamics of temperate taxa. However, the general effects of recent climatic changes on the evolutionary history and genetic structure of extant subtropical species remain poorly understood. In the present study, phylogeographic and historical demographic analyses based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences were used. The aim was to investigate whether Pleistocene climatic cycles, paleo-drainages or mountain vicariance of Taiwan shaped the evolutionary diversification of a subtropical gossamer-wing damselfly, Euphaea formosa. Results E. formosa populations originated in the middle Pleistocene period (0.3 Mya) and consisted of two evolutionarily independent lineages. It is likely that they derived from the Pleistocene paleo-drainages of northern and southern Minjiang, or alternatively by divergence within Taiwan. The ancestral North-central lineage colonized northwestern Taiwan first and maintained a slowly growing population throughout much of the early to middle Pleistocene period. The ancestral widespread lineage reached central-southern Taiwan and experienced a spatial and demographic expansion into eastern Taiwan. This expansion began approximately 30,000 years ago in the Holocene interglacial period. The ancestral southern expansion into eastern Taiwan indicates that the central mountain range (CMR) formed a barrier to east-west expansion. However, E. formosa populations in the three major biogeographic regions (East, South, and North-Central) exhibit no significant genetic partitions, suggesting that river drainages and mountains did not form strong geographical barriers against gene flow among extant populations. Conclusions The present study implies that the antiquity of E. formosa's colonization is associated with its high dispersal ability and larval tolerance to the late Pleistocene dry grasslands. The effect of late Pleistocene climatic changes on the subtropical damselfly's historical demography is lineage-specific, depending predominantly on its colonization history and geography. It is proposed that the Riss and Würm glaciations in the late Pleistocene period had a greater impact on the evolutionary diversification of subtropical insular species than the last glacial maximum (LGM). PMID:21486452

2011-01-01

313

Terrorism in Taiwan, Republic of China.  

PubMed

The Republic of China on the island of Taiwan has experienced at least 20 terrorist events since 1979, including 13 aircraft hijackings and five bombings. Factors responsible for the relatively small burden of terrorism on Taiwan in the past include tight military control over political dissent until 1987, a warming relationship with the People's Republic of China in the 1990s, political inclusion of major internal cultural groups, geographic isolation, and a lack of other significant international enemies. Nevertheless, today Taiwan faces a new prospect of terrorism by adversaries of the United States and its allies and by an international paradigm shift in the types of weapons used by terrorists. National emergency management has been enhanced significantly since the Ji Ji earthquake in 1999, including the assignment of lead government agencies to the planning and preparedness for specific types of terrorist events involving nuclear, biological, and/or chemical releases. Other significant improvements at the operations level, include the establishment of two national disaster medical assistance teams, four urban search and rescue teams, 13 local disaster medical assistance teams, and eight chemical emergency response hospitals. Future challenges include improving the coordination of inter-agency response at the national level and the quantity and quality of local disaster response assets. PMID:15074495

Tsai, Ming-Che; Chuang, Chia-Chang; Arnold, Jeffrey; Lee, Mau-Hwa; Hsu, Sun-Chieh; Chi, Chih-Hsien

2003-01-01

314

Spatial dependency of tuberculosis incidence in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) disease can be caused by either recent transmission from infectious patients or reactivation of remote latent infection. Spatial dependency (correlation between nearby geographic areas) in tuberculosis incidence is a signature for chains of recent transmission with geographic diffusion. To understand the contribution of recent transmission in the TB endemic in Taiwan, where reactivation has been assumed to be the predominant mode of pathogenesis, we used spatial regression analysis to examine whether there was spatial dependency between the TB incidence in each township and in its neighbors. A total of 90,661 TB cases from 349 townships in 2003-2008 were included in this analysis. After adjusting for the effects of confounding socioeconomic variables, including the percentages of aboriginals and average household income, the results show that the spatial lag parameter remains positively significant (0.43, p<0.001), which indicates that the TB incidences of neighboring townships had an effect on the TB incidence in each township. Townships with substantial spatial spillover effects were mainly located in the northern, western and eastern parts of Taiwan. Spatial dependency implies that recent transmission plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of TB in Taiwan. Therefore, in addition to the current focus on improving the cure rate under directly observed therapy programs, more resource need to be allocated to active case finding in order to break the chain of transmission. PMID:23226371

Ng, In-Chan; Wen, Tzai-Hung; Wang, Jann-Yuan; Fang, Chi-Tai

2012-01-01

315

OBS development and data analysis in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1991 there have been various types of ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) deployed in the waters around Taiwan with different scientific goals. A few years of experiences taught us that many aspects of the instruments can be improved without too much effort. These include extension of deployment time, extension of the recording bandwidth of a short period OBS, and more flexibly to accommodate scientific demands without instrumental overhaul. Scientists will not burden themselves by these tasks, and sending back the instrument to original manufactory for modifications is usually impractical budget-wise, in timeline, and for mission goals. It is thus necessary to develop a sustainable OBS program in Taiwan. Academia Sinica has been collaborating with Taiwan Ocean Research Institute (TORI) and National Sun Yat-sen University (NSYSU) to build a new short-period OBS which has passed a series of tests and have been deployed in the Okinawa trough, Bashi channel, east Korea offshore and on service in Huatung basin. This paper describes the design goal of this OBS, component specification, and reports the preliminary analyses of data and the future directions of instrument development. Keywords: Ocean bottom seismometer, OBS

Lin, C.; Wang, C.; Chen, P.; Chang, H.; Jang, J.; Kuo, B.

2012-12-01

316

Education of biomedical engineering in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Biomedical Engineers (BME) play an important role in medical and healthcare society. Well educational programs are important to support the healthcare systems including hospitals, long term care organizations, manufacture industries of medical devices/instrumentations/systems, and sales/services companies of medical devices/instrumentations/system. In past 30 more years, biomedical engineering society has accumulated thousands people hold a biomedical engineering degree, and work as a biomedical engineer in Taiwan. Most of BME students can be trained in biomedical engineering departments with at least one of specialties in bioelectronics, bio-information, biomaterials or biomechanics. Students are required to have internship trainings in related institutions out of campus for 320 hours before graduating. Almost all the biomedical engineering departments are certified by IEET (Institute of Engineering Education Taiwan), and met the IEET requirement in which required mathematics and fundamental engineering courses. For BMEs after graduation, Taiwanese Society of Biomedical Engineering (TSBME) provides many continue-learning programs and certificates for all members who expect to hold the certification as a professional credit in his working place. In current status, many engineering departments in university are continuously asked to provide joint programs with BME department to train much better quality students. BME is one of growing fields in Taiwan. PMID:25571153

Kang-Ping Lin; Tsair Kao; Jia-Jung Wang; Mei-Jung Chen; Fong-Chin Su

2014-08-01

317

Taiwan Takes Another Step Towards Independence?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On Saturday, the Republic of China elected Chen Shui-bian (pronounced chen shway-bien) as president. The leader of the opposition's Democratic Progressive Party, Chen had called for Taiwan's independence from China, which had responded to such rhetoric with threats of invasion were Chen to be elected. Thus far, no invasion is imminent, but an olive branch from Chen in the form of a request for immediate talks was rejected by Chinese President Jiang Zemin. Zemin has made Chen's acceptance of eventual reunification with China (known as the "one China" policy) a precondition of any further discussion. Meanwhile, the Taiwan stock market fell sharply, losing three percent in morning trading yesterday. Supporters of the Nationalist Party, which had been in power for the last half century, and whose candidate, Lee Teng-hui, came in a dismal third in the election, stormed the Nationalist Party headquarters Sunday demanding Lee's immediate resignation. Concerned about destabilization as a result of Chen's election, the White House prepared to have National Security Advisor Sandy Berger join Ambassador Richard Holbrooke in Beijing to urge patience on China's part while the State Department sought another official -- possibly former Democratic representative Lee Hamilton -- to send to Taiwan to counsel similar caution.

Charbonneau, David D.

318

Animating Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson challenges students to apply their knowledge of object motion by animating sequences of hand-rendered pictures that model a set of physical conditions. The challenges include animating the orbital motion of planets and satellites, the effects of gravity on a falling body, and motions of objects in inertial (moving) frames of reference. The lesson was created by a high school physics teacher to help learners build quantitative reasoning skills in preparation for understanding kinematics. Editor's Note: Modeling is a powerful way for students to relate the math formula to the physical process under study. This lesson allows learners to develop hand-crafted "flipbook" models of motion before they advance to computer modeling. In each challenge, data is provided so the animations can be computationally accurate.

Ted Latham

319

Fault Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations provides elementary examples of fault motion intended for simple demonstrations. Examples include dip-slip faults (normal and reverse), strike-slip faults, and oblique-slip faults.

320

Wave Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Carl Nave at Georgia State University presents a discussion of wave motion. The site explains the velocity of idealized ocean waves and details the measurement of large waves aboard the USS Ramapo.

Carl R. (Rod) Nave

321

Separate presentation of additional accelerating motion does not enhance visually induced self-motion perception.  

PubMed

It has been repeatedly reported that visual stimuli containing ajittering/oscillating motion component can induce self-motion perception more strongly than a pure radial expansion pattern. A psychophysical experiment with 11 observers revealed that the additional accelerating components of the visual motion have to be convoluted with the motion of the main-axis to facilitate self-motion perception; additional motion presented in an isolated fashion impairs the perception of self-motion. These results are inconsistent with a simple hypothesis about the perceptual mechanism underlying the advantage of jitter/oscillation, which assumes that the accelerating component induces an additional self-motion independently of the main motion at the first stage, and then the two self-motions induced by the main motion and the additional component become integrated. PMID:23964479

Nakamura, Shinji

2013-01-01

322

Collaborative Taiwan-USA Seismic Onshore-Offshore Imaging of Arc-Continent Collision under Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates converge for over 2500 km along the east Asian continental margin. For nearly four-fifths of its northwestern boundary, the young Philippine Sea plate routinely subducts to the west under continental Eurasia as is marked by the Ryukyu island arc. However, the western Philippine Sea plate contains the Luzon island arc that is formed by eastward subduction of the South China Sea portion of the Eurasian plate. The island of Taiwan marks the location where (1) subduction reversal takes place and (2) impingement of the island arc with the continental Eurasian plate. The ongoing orogeny of Taiwan involves a complex interaction often considered the type example of arc-continent collision. Tectonic models to explain how this collision occurs and produces associated mountain building, of which Taiwan's is one of the fastest rising in the world, range from thin-skinned to lithospheric-scale end-members. In the thin skinned model, subduction of continental Eurasian mantle and lower crust is separated from a deforming crustal wedge by a plate boundary decollement. In the latter, deformation of crust and mantle occurs within a vertically contiguous system, with progressive thickening of continental mantle beneath the core of the mountain belt. The 3D geophysical signatures are fundamentally different between these models. The Taiwan Integrated Geodynamics Research (TAIGER) project is a joint USA-Taiwan program that has carried out several types of seismological studies in Taiwan. TAIGER carried out an onshore-offshore seismic experiment across and around Taiwan during March-June 2009. A 2D portable land array was deployed for 2+ months across Taiwan and contained 280 Taiwan and PASSCAL three-component recorders. Airgun sources were provided by the USA R/V Langseth which carried out 7000+ km MCS profiles (see McIntosh et al., this session). In addition, 3200 regional and local earthquakes occurred and were recorded during the land deployment. The combination of airgun shiptracks and land stations present a possible 19,600 station receiver gathers. Data extraction was carried out at the Taiwan Earthquake Center data center; archived airgun and earthquake gathers represent 2.9 Tbytes of data. Quality of onshore-offshore data vary with ship distance from island coastline, land station siting of urban and mountain environments, day versus night recording, and seafloor geology enabling source transmission. Pg, PmP, PiP, and Sg phases are cleary visible. We present these phases in airgun and earthquake data plots and preliminary interpretations of Taiwan velocity structure. These data will address scientific questions including: Does continental subduction play an important role in arc-continent collision? Is the mass of incoming continental crust balanced by crustal thickening and erosion? How does such an orogen evolve over time?

Okaya, D. A.; Wang, C.; Kuo, Y. N.; Yen, H.; Huang, B.; Liang, W.; Shih, M.; Wen, S.; Wu, F. T.

2009-12-01

323

Clausal-Packaging of Path of Motion in the Second Language Acquisition of Russian and Spanish  

E-print Network

Clausal-Packaging of Path of Motion in the Second Language Acquisition of Russian and Spanish Kawai on Russian and Spanish majors' second language acquisition in Taiwan. Based on oral narrative data, the study. However, in the acquisition of Spanish, learners' native language does not hold strength; Spanish majors

324

JOINT-DECISION ADAPTIVE CLUTTER FILTER AND MOTION-TRACKING ADAPTIVE PERSISTENCE FOR  

E-print Network

]-[2]. By utilizing the Doppler effect, ultrasound color Doppler processing can derive the velocity of blood flowJOINT-DECISION ADAPTIVE CLUTTER FILTER AND MOTION-TRACKING ADAPTIVE PERSISTENCE FOR COLOR DOPPLER, Taiwan, R.O.C. ABSTRACT Color Doppler processing is one of the most important utility in the ultrasound

Hung, Shih-Hao

325

Gravity flows associated with flood events and carbon burial: Taiwan as instructional source area.  

PubMed

Taiwan's unique setting allows it to release disproportionately large quantities of fluvial sediment into diverse dispersal systems around the island. Earthquakes, lithology, topography, cyclone-induced rainfall, and human disturbance play major roles in the catchment dynamics. Deep landslides dominate the sediment-removal process on land, giving fluvial sediment distinct geochemical signals. Extreme conditions in river runoff, sediment load, nearshore waves and currents, and the formation of gravity flows during typhoon events can be observed within short distances. Segregation of fresh biomass and clastic sediment occurs during the marine transport process, yet turbidity currents in the Gaoping Submarine Canyon carry woody debris. Strong currents in the slope and back-arc basin of the Okinawa Trough disperse fine-grained sediments rapidly and widely. Temporal deposition and remobilization may occur when the shallow Taiwan Strait acts as a receptacle. Taiwan can therefore serve as a demonstration of the episodic aspect of the source-to-sink pathway to both the coastal and deep-ocean environments. PMID:22809183

Liu, James T; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Huh, Chih-An; Hung, Chin-Chang

2013-01-01

326

The cause of the 2008 cold disaster in the Taiwan Strait  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The offshore branch of the China Coastal Current in the Taiwan Strait normally makes a U-turn north of the Zhangyun Ridge. In early 2008, the current continued straight and carried water as cold as 14 °C toward Penghu Island, causing damage to the local aquaculture and coral reef ecosystem. This study investigates the mechanism behind this intrusion of cold water using available data and a three-dimensional model. The model results show that the 2008 intrusion can be divided into three stages. At the beginning of February, the offshore branch of the China Coastal Current formed a U-shape in the Taiwan Strait; the branch moved cold water from the western strait to the central strait when the offshore geostrophic current, which is related to the southward sea level and density gradients, overcame the onshore Ekman transport caused by the northeasterly monsoon. In the second stage, in mid-February, strong northeasterly winds intensified the southwest current in the Taiwan Strait and resulted in abnormal transport of the cold water from the central strait to Penghu Island. Finally, at the end of February, the warm northeast current was re-established due to weakened wind, and the cold water gradually retreated to the north. The second processes occurred immediately after the first, resulting in the unique intrusion of cold water.

Liao, Enhui; Jiang, Yuwu; Li, Li; Hong, Huasheng; Yan, Xiaohai

2013-02-01

327

Cumulative co-seismic displacement and comparison with GPS observations in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The island of Taiwan owes its existence to the collision of the Eurasian plate and the Philippine Sea plate. The strong seismicity can produce permanent displacement field which can be observed by GPS. Both seismological and GPS networks have been fully established in Taiwan for years. In this paper, we will study the earthquake-induced relative movements, including the amplitude and pattern, and determine how much cumulative co-seismic displacement can contribute to the observed GPS signals as long-term 'trends', by comparing the two sets of data. The co-seismic displacement is calculated by adopting the elastic dislocation theory on a spherical Earth as derived by Sun and Okubo. For the GPS observations, we will remove the seasonal and tidal effects by the least square method and the common-mode errors by the empirical orthogonal function technique. The comparison results show that the earthquake-induced displacements account only for a tiny fraction of the GPS signals, implying that the majority of the displacements in Taiwan during the studied period of 1995-2013 (which includes the largest 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake), both horizontal and vertical, are caused aseismically. The comparison also reveals some interesting details about the pattern and behavior of the displacement fields.

Xu, C.; Chao, B. F.; Sun, W.

2013-12-01

328

Sources of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in rainwater at a subtropical islet offshore northern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollutants derived from long-range transport and local emission impact significantly of heavy metal compositions in rainwater and aerosols. To identify their sources and relative contributions in rainwater, 47 monthly rainwater samples from January 1998 to December 2001, collected at Peng Chia Yu (PCY), a non-residential islet offshore Taiwan, were analyzed for heavy metals (i.e. Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) and Pb isotopic compositions. The dissolved metals concentrations of Al, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Ba, and Pb in PCY rains are high in spring and winter, but low in summer. This can be understood in terms of pollutant source changes due to wind direction shifted seasonally. The average EF crust and EF seawater values calculated for Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb are far greater than 1500, suggesting their strong anthropogenic sources, also supported by the PCA results. The pollutants derived from long-range transport are the predominated heavy metals sources during the winter monsoon season, whereas local traffic emissions play the most important role during the summer monsoon period. Unique Pb isotopic fingerprints, similar to those of iron ore sinter dusts and oil combustion dusts from Shanghai and the traffic emissions from Taiwan were identified in PCY rainwater. A mixing model based on three typical end-member Pb isotopic compositions derived from Taiwan and China was applied to evaluate the pollutant sources variations.

Cheng, Miao-Ching; You, Chen-Feng; Lin, Fei-Jan; Huang, Kuo-Fang; Chung, Chuan-Hsiung

2011-02-01

329

Non-ergodic probabilistic seismic hazard analysis and spatial simulation of variation in ground motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two problems in the spatial statistics of ground motions are addressed. For the first problem, a method is developed for probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) without the ergodic assumption accounting for the impacts on both the median and aleatory standard deviation of the ground-motion model. Impacts of the removal of the ergodic assumption on both the intra-event and inter-event residuals are addressed. A strong motion data set from Taiwan with multiple recordings at each site and multiple earthquakes within small regions are used to quantify the separation of the aleatory variability from the systematic source, path, and site effects. Systematic site effects are accommodated by scale factors at each site. Systematic source and path effects are more complicated because they are spatially correlated. Models of the spatial covariance functions of the systematic source and path effects of the Taiwan data set are developed to capture the spatial correlation of the systematic effects and are then used to generate stochastic spatial simulations of the spatial correlations of the path and source effects for applications to other regions. Example hazard calculations show that there can be up to a factor of four increase in epistemic uncertainty of the hazard when the ergodic assumption is removed if there is no site-specific data. The method developed here to remove the ergodic assumption provides a framework that shows the benefits of installing instrumentation to record site-specific data and using analytical models of the path-specific wave propagation and site-specific site response effects to estimate source-, path-, and site-specific ground motions models to reduce the epistemic uncertainty in the systematic effects. For the second problem, synthetic seismograms computed from simulated earthquakes using Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory 2D/3D elastic finite-difference wave propagation code, E3D, (Larsen and Shulz, 1994) were used to evaluate if the observed spatial variation of the very high frequency (> 10 Hz) ground motion over short distances (< 50 meters) can be explained by scattering and multi-pathing of elastic waves in two-dimensional and three-dimensional random media. The effects of the autocorrelation function and correlation length of the velocity media, media mean and standard deviation in velocity, source location, half-space velocity model versus layered velocity model, multiple sources, and two-dimensional versus three-dimensional random media are addressed. These simulated wave forms are used to compare the spatial variation of the simulated ground motions from stations with spacings of 10 meters to 50 meters and frequencies less than 30 Hz to the spatial variation from an empirical coherency function. For station spacings less than 50 meters, the simulated ground-motions, on average, significantly over-estimate the spatial coherence in the ground motion. These results suggest that spatial variation in ground motion at short separations, which are important for structures with large rigid foundations, such as nuclear power plants, cannot be adequately explained through the use of simulations computed in a scattering media using a 3D finite-difference wave propagation code. The approach of using numerical simulations in place of empirical coherency functions is not ready for engineering applications.

Walling, Melanie Anne

330

Anti-money laundering activities of financial institutions in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the history, content and shortcomings of the 2003 Money Laundering Control Act of Taiwan, with two case studies involving money laundering (by the Yeh brother and Mr Chen, and by Mr Tzeng). Begins with the history of money laundering since Taiwan opened its financial markets in 1980, culminating in the 1996 Money Laundering Control Act, which was the first

Ma Yu-Feng

2004-01-01

331

Input-Process-Output of Hotel Training in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Training is generally considered the important part in the hotel industry. The purpose of this study is to examine the training input, training process and training output in international tourist hotels in Taiwan. The research samples included five human resource managers, 61 department managers, 62 trainers and 497 trainees of the five selected hotels in Taiwan during April and May

Hsin-Hsiu Chang; Grace C. L. Chien

2012-01-01

332

Input-Process-Output of Hotel Training in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Training is generally considered the important part in the hotel industry. The purpose of this study is to examine the training input, training process and training output in international tourist hotels in Taiwan. The research samples included five human resource managers, 61 department managers, 62 trainers and 497 trainees of the five selected hotels in Taiwan during April and May

Hsin-Hsiu Chang; Grace C. L. Chien

2011-01-01

333

The Past, Present, and Future of Career Counseling in Taiwan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of career counseling in Taiwan during the last 40 years suggests priorities for future development. Although many of the basic constructs of career counseling are used in Taiwan, cultural differences are also apparent. The future presents many conflicts between Western and Asian values, traditional or modern demands, and self or…

Chang, Doris H. F.

2002-01-01

334

Springtime Aerosol Observations at Dongsha Atoll,Taiwan  

E-print Network

, and Peng Xian-Lynch · Advanced Light Source program, including Kevin Perry #12;Background · Role? · The (Multi-Partner) Seven SouthEast Asian Studies (7 SEAS) Mission: A Program to Study Pollution the transport of smoke and pollution from Indochina to Taiwan, led by National Central Univ of Taiwan ­ Dongsha

Pierce, Jeffrey

335

GIS Adoption among Senior High School Geography Teachers in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the adoption of geographic information system (GIS) knowledge and skills through in-service training for high school geography teachers in Taiwan. Through statistical analysis of primary data collected from a census of Taiwan's high school geography teachers, it explores what motivates these teachers to undertake GIS…

Lay, Jinn-Guey; Chen, Yu-Wen; Chi, Yu-Lin

2013-01-01

336

Counseling Psychology Licensure in Taiwan: Development, Challenges, and Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development and consequences of licensure for counseling psychologists in Taiwan are presented to promote cross-cultural awareness surrounding issues in the counseling psychology profession. The national licensure statute for counseling psychologists in Taiwan was established by the Taiwanese Legislature in 2001. While the licensing system…

Wang, Li-fei; Kwan, Kwong-Liem K.; Huang, Su-Fei

2011-01-01

337

Kindergarten Teachers' Experience with Reporting Child Abuse in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The objectives were to examine factors associated with reporting child abuse among kindergarten teachers in Taiwan based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Method: A stratified quota sampling technique was used to randomly select kindergarten teachers in Taiwan. The Child Abuse Intention Report Scale, which includes demographics,…

Feng, Jui-Ying; Huang, Tzu-Yi; Wang, Chi-Jen

2010-01-01

338

Pet Trade as Sources of Introduced Bird Species in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pet trade has dominated in contributing to exotic bird introductions into Taiwan. At least 290 exotic species of pet birds have been imported to Taiwan since 1994, of which 93 species have escaped from captivity and become introduced species, and 28 species have been found to breed in the wild. An estimated 32.1% of overall escaping rate was significantly higher

Bao-Sen Shieh; Ya-Hui Lin; Tsung-Wei Lee; Chia-Chieh Chang; Kuan-Tzou Cheng

2006-01-01

339

Potential Analysis on Taiwan Agricultural Products Entering the International Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study probes into the trade exchange of Taiwan 's agricultural products, through structural analys is, to recognize the transformation of the import structur e of Taiwanese agricultural products; and analyzes the export potential of Taiwan's agricultural products by rela tive advantages of import and export values. The re search findings are generalized below: analysis on the trade change of

Meng-Long Shih

340

A Re-Examination of the Suicide Rates in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the suicide rates of 23 cities and counties in Taiwan from 1983 to 2001. We found that a combination of economic and social variables can significantly account for the tremendous variations in suicide rates across Taiwan's cities and counties over the last two decades. The level of income per capita in a region appears as the…

Chuang, Hwei-Lin; Huang, Wei-Chiao

2007-01-01

341

Climate change between different decadal in Taiwan's cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the recent reports show global warming is very obviously. Taiwan is a small island on the earth there is also affected by global warming. In this study, our purpose is to find out the major factors that affect the climate change in Taiwan's cities. Some primary results have been given. First, we have more investigation about the weather variation

Hong-Yang Tseng; Tian-Yow Shyu

2011-01-01

342

Testing Endogenous Growth in South Korea and Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluate the endogenous growth hypothesis using sectoral data for South Korea and Taiwan. Our empirical work relies on a direct measure of the variety of products from each sector which can serve as intermediate inputs or as final goods. We test whether changes in the variety of these inputs, for Taiwan relative to Korea, are correlated with the growth

Robert C. Feenstra; Dorsati Madani; Tzu-Han Yang; Chi-Yuan Liang; Tzu-Han

1997-01-01

343

Notes on Grasses (Poaceae) for the Flora of Taiwan (II)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poa compressa L., P. pratensis L., and P. trivialis L. were recently naturalized in the central part of Taiwan. The existence of P. acroleuca Steud. in Taiwan was confirmed by examining the specimens deposited in HAST, NCKU, TNM, TNU, and TAI. We treated these four bluegrasses with corresponding descriptions, illustrations, and distribution maps.

Ming-Jer Jung; Robert J. Soreng; Chang-Sheng Kuoh

2006-01-01

344

RMB Internationalization.What is in for Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along with the steady pace of RMB internationalization, this paper proposes Taiwan as a potentialcandidate to become the next RMB offshore center. We review the main drivers behind Hong Kong’s success and set the reasons why Taiwan could follow such steps. First, Taiwan’s economic ties with China are substantial both in trade and FDI and they are set to be

Alicia Garcia-Herrero; Yingyi Tsai; Xia Le

2012-01-01

345

Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates causing liver abscess in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Klebsiella pneumoniae has been the leading cause of pyogenic liver abscess in Taiwan during the period from 1985 to 1999, which is different from other countries. The present study investigated the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibilities of 51 K. pneumoniae isolates collected from blood cultures of patients with liver abscess in Taiwan during the period from 1993–1997, and typed by pulsed-field

Shan-Chwen Chang; Chi-Tai Fang; Po-Ren Hsueh; Yee-Chun Chen; Kwen-Tay Luh

2000-01-01

346

RCEC, Academia Sinica, Taiwan, ROC Recruiting a Postdoctoral Research Fellow  

E-print Network

RCEC, Academia Sinica, Taiwan, ROC Recruiting a Postdoctoral Research Fellow [Project and Salary It will be at Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan by May 31st , 2012 to Ms. Julia Wen, C/O Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica ; 128

347

OUTBREAK OF SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME IN SOUTHERN TAIWAN, 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the epidemiologic features of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in southern Taiwan in 2003. According to the official files of reported cases of SARS from February 21 to June 19, 2003, there were 586 cases in southern Taiwan. Symptom onset occurred between February 21 and June 19 in reported cases, between March 13 and May

SHENG-NAN LU; DONALD DAH-SHYONG JIANG; JIEN-WEI LIU; MENG-CHIH LIN; CHAO-LONG CHEN; IH-JEN SU; SHUN-SHENG CHEN

2005-01-01

348

Small and Medium Enterprise for Women Entrepreneurs in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women represent about 40% of the total labor force in Taiwan. The majority of women employment is concentrated in manufacturing and service sector such as commerce and social or personal community work. Small and medium enterprises in Taiwan accounted for 97.8% of the total enterprises and employed about 78% of the total work force. Small and medium enterprises have played

Saikou E. Sanyang; Wen-Chi Huang

2008-01-01

349

The impact of workplace violence on nurses in South Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of workplace violence (WPV) committed by patients and their family members against healthcare workers in south Taiwan. WPV incident questionnaires were completed by 205 nurses from a medical facility in south Taiwan. Sixty-two percent of the nurses reported experiencing WPV. The majority of the cases consisted of verbal abuse including

Yu-Hua Lin; Hsueh-Erh Liu

2005-01-01

350

International Collaborative Development: Curriculum and Instructional Change in Taiwan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined an international educational partnership between Florida International University and Taiwan's Fu-Hsing school that emphasized curriculum and instructional change to improve educational quality in Taiwan. Collaborators from the institutions developed criteria for teaching effectiveness and established an evaluation system for…

Lee, Phoebe Po

351

A Case Study of Undergraduate Course Syllabi in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education in Taiwan has been influenced by U.S. and Western practices, and syllabi represent one means to verify this. However, limited research exists in Taiwan on course syllabi and on similarities of syllabi with practices in other countries. In the U.S. as the paradigm shifted from teaching to learning and to the learning-centered…

Tung, Yao-Tsu

2010-01-01

352

Intercultural Training for US Business Expatriates in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study aims to explore the intercultural training needs for US business expatriates on assignment in Taiwan. The study assesses Taiwan culture-specific training needs of US expatriates from the perspectives of both US expatriates and their Taiwanese colleagues and compares the perceived importance of these intercultural training needs…

Chien, Tien-Chen; McLean, Gary N.

2011-01-01

353

Current Trends in Aerospace Engineering Education on Taiwan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A proposal for current trends in Aerospace Engineering Education on Taiwan has been drawn from the suggestions made after a national conference of "Workshop on Aerospace Engineering Education Reform." This workshop was held in January 18-20, 1998, at the Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan,…

Hsieh, Sheng-Jii

354

Taiwan High Speed Rail Keeping passenger safety at the forefront  

E-print Network

've succeeded in building an intelligent transportation system designed to meet the growing demand for safeTaiwan High Speed Rail Keeping passenger safety at the forefront Overview The Need Taiwan High of addressing the demanding maintenance requirements of high-speed rail transpor The Solution THSRC employed IBM

355

Research on English Teaching and Learning: Taiwan (2004-2009)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyzes research in second/foreign language teaching and learning conducted in Taiwan over the period 2004-2009. Representative articles published in local refereed journals and conference proceedings--not readily accessible outside Taiwan--are reviewed to reflect current trends in English teaching and learning. The main themes…

Chen, Suchiao; Tsai, Yachin

2012-01-01

356

Negotiating for Change: Women's Movements and Education Reform in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dramatic changes during the past 20 years in Taiwan offer a good example of how gender policy in education is facilitated by a combination of interrelated economic, political and social forces. Taiwan's policy on gender education emerged from the interaction of state, education, academic and non-academic feminist positions in reforms. This…

Lee, Shu-Ching

2011-01-01

357

Humoral and cellular immune response after measles vaccination in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measles immunoglobulin G (IgG) seroepidemiologic studies have been widely used to monitor the effectiveness of measles immunization programs in Taiwan. However, studies about cellular immunity against the measles virus have been lacking. This study surveyed cellular immunity after measles, mumps and rubella combined vaccine (MMR) immunization in Taiwan. Seventy six people between 1 and 80 years of age were enrolled.

Chou-Lang Huang; Yao-Hsu Yang; Li-Chieh Wang; Yu-Tsan Lin; Yu-Yuan Tsai; Bor-Luen Chiang

358

Scale and scope economies of international tourist hotels in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the survey data of Taiwan's international tourist hotels in 2000, this paper applies Zellner's seemingly unrelated regression technique to a simultaneous system of a translog multi-product cost function and its corresponding factor share equations to investigate the extents of scale and scope economies of Taiwan's international tourist hotels. The empirical results show that product-specific scale economies exist for

Chih-Chiang Weng; Kuo-Liang Wang

2004-01-01

359

Scale and scope economies of international tourist hotels in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the survey data of Taiwan's international tourist hotels in 2000, this paper applies Zellner's seemingly unrelated regression technique to a simultaneous system of a translog multi-product cost function and its corresponding factor share equations to investigate the extents of scale and scope economies of Taiwan's international tourist hotels. The empirical results show that product-specific scale economies exist for

Chih-Chiang Weng; Kuo-Liang Wang

2006-01-01

360

TAIWAN: The little dragon of the China Sea  

SciTech Connect

A review of the political and economic factors affecting the energy policy of Taiwan is presented in the article. The focus is primarily on nuclear power. Installed electric capacity, power generation, and forecasted energy supply is tabulated for primary energy sources. Major features of the six commercial nuclear power plants in Taiwan are listed.

NONE

1996-12-01

361

A Study of Neutral-Tone Syllables in Taiwan Mandarin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation studies the realization of the rhythm of Taiwan Mandarin and focuses on the quality of its unstressed (neutral-tone) syllables. Taiwan Mandarin (TM) is often described as more syllable-timed than Standard Mandarin (SM). In TM, the unstressed syllables occur less frequently. The quality of the unstressed (neutral-tone) syllables…

Huang, Karen

2012-01-01

362

Information technology and relationship management: a case study of Taiwan’s small manufacturing firm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of small businesses to the main source of employment and income in many countries and areas is a well-known fact. Therefore, the effect of the implementation of electronic functions on small businesses becomes a critical issue not only on the practices but also on academic research. In Taiwan, 90% of business is small business and the number of

Shu-hsien Liao; Yea-wen Chem; Feng-hao Liu; Wei-bang Liao

2004-01-01

363

Millennial-scale variability in vegetation records from the East Asian Islands: Taiwan, Japan and Sakhalin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution pollen records from Taiwan, Japan and Sakhalin document regional vegetation changes during Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) cycles during the last glacial. During the period from the cold phase (GS 18/19) to warm phase (D-O 19), the biome shift from temperate conifer forest to cold/cool conifer forest in Japan and from subtropical forest to temperate deciduous/conifer forest in Taiwan. The vegetation in D-O 17, cool mixed forest in central Japan, temperate deciduous broadleaf forest in western Japan and subtropical forest in Taiwan, indicates warm condition but not wet in all area. These vegetation changes lead to biome shift from MIS (Marine Isotope Stage) 4 to MIS 3. The abundance of Cryptomeria japonica and Fagus crenata in D-O 12 and D-O 8 indicates wet conditions brought by the strong summer monsoon through the Islands and high snowfall brought by the inflow of the Tsushima Warm Current into the Sea of Japan. The registration of other D-O warming events in MIS 3, although reflected by shifts in the abundance of key species, is not sufficient to produce changes in biomes. Development of cold deciduous forest in HS (Heinrich events) 1 in Sakhalin, Hokkaido and central Japan was conspicuous and was much larger than that in YD. Vegetation response in YD was small scale and within the same biome in the East Asian Islands. In D-O 1 at the termination of the last glacial, the same taxa that developed in the early Holocene, cold evergreen needleleaf trees in northern region, temperate deciduous broadleaf trees in central and western Japan, and warm-temperate evergreen trees in Taiwan, increased.

Takahara, Hikaru; Igarashi, Yaeko; Hayashi, Ryoma; Kumon, Fujio; Liew, Ping-Mei; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Kawai, Sayuri; Oba, Tadamichi; Irino, Tomohisa

2010-10-01

364

Genetic and antigenic analysis of betanodaviruses isolated from aquatic organisms in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Viral nervous necrosis (VNN) is a worldwide disease among marine fishes. In Taiwan, NNN disease was first identified in 2 species of hatchery-reared grouper, Epinephelus fuscogutatus and E. akaaya in 1994. Since then, increasing mortalities have occurred among groupers Epinephelus spp., and also among European eels Anguilla anguilla L., yellow-wax pompano Trachinotus falcatus, firespot snapper Lutaanus erythropterus B., barramundi Lates calcarifer, cobias Rachycentron canadum, humpback groupers Cromileptes altivelis and Chinese catfish Parasilurus asotus. In the present study, samples were collected from affected fishes and processed for reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR amplification and virus isolation in cell culture. Infected cells (GF-1 cell line) exhibited cytopathic-effect characteristics of grouper nervous necrosis virus (GNNV). A RT-PCR product of approximately 830 bp was amplified from the brain homogenate of tested samples and sequenced. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the amplified RT-PCR products from all isolates were strongly homologous (> 97 %) with the corresponding region of the published sequence of red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNVV). Therefore, all Taiwan NNV (nervous necrosis virus) isolates studied in this report belong to the RGNNV genotype. We used 5 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against GNNV to analyze the antigenic relationship of Taiwan NNV isolates and striped jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV). The results of neutralization tests revealed that all Taiwan NNV isolates were closely related, but antigenically different from SJNNV in 3 neutralizing epitopes. To our knowledge, this is the first description of NNV infection in European eels, yellow-wax pompano, firespot snapper, cobia and Chinese catfish, and the first reported instance of natural NNV infection in freshwater fishes causing high mortality. PMID:13677508

Chi, S C; Shieh, J R; Lin, S J

2003-08-01

365

Performance assessment methodology and preliminary results for low-level radioactive waste disposal in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Taiwan's Institute for Nuclear Energy Research (INER) have teamed together to evaluate several candidate sites for Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) disposal in Taiwan. Taiwan currently has three nuclear power plants, with another under construction. Taiwan also has a research reactor, as well as medical and industrial wastes to contend with. Eventually the reactors will be

Bill Walter Arnold; Fu-lin Chang; Patrick D. Mattie; Robert G. Knowlton; W-S Chuang; L-M Chi; Hong-Nian Jow; Norman C. Tien; Clifford Kuofei Ho

2006-01-01

366

The Sweet and the Bitter of Drips: Modernity, Postcoloniality, and Coffee Culture in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the history of coffee culture in Taiwan to highlight the complexities of the colonization and globalization of East Asia. Coffee is a not only drinkable commodity but it also carries unique cultural codes in postcolonial Taiwan. The authors recognize that local life and Western culture are entangled on this island, as a consequence of Taiwan’s colonial legacy

Yi-Ping Shih; Cheng-Heng Chang

2010-01-01

367

Attributes of Leaves on Reproductive Shoots of Taiwan Sassafras (Sassafras randaiense (Hay.) Rehder) at Chilan Shan, Northeastern Taiwan1  

Microsoft Academic Search

?Abstract? The objective of this study was ,to investigate the dynamic nature of size and greenness,of leaves ,on the reproductive shoots of ,Taiwan sassafras (Sassafras randaiense (Hay.) Rehder) during a growing season at Chilan-Shan of northeastern Taiwan. Five trees, each under 1.

Jing-hui Lin; Biing T. Guan

2003-01-01

368

A revision of the genus Amamiclytus Ohbayashi from Taiwan and the Ryukyu Islands (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The clytine genus Amamiclytus Ohbayashi, 1964, from Taiwan and the Ryukyu Islands is revised. Seven species and one subspecies are recognized as follows: Amamiclytus nobuoi nobuoi Ohbayashi, 1964, (Amami Islands); Amamiclytus nobuoi akusekianus Niisato, 2005, (Tokara Islands); Amamiclytus subnitidus Holzschuh, 1984, (Taiwan); Amamiclytus setiger sp. n. (Taiwan), Amamiclytus nubilus sp. n. (Taiwan), Amamiclytus juni sp. n. (Taiwan), Amamiclytus yulongi sp. n. (Taiwan) and Amamiclytus hirtipes (Matsushita, 1940), comb. n. (Taiwan). All of them are described or redescribed and a key to species is presented. The generic features of Amamiclytus, including male and female genitalia from these taxa, are presented. The systematic position of Amamiclytus within the tribe Clytini is discussed. PMID:21998509

Niisato, Tatsuya; Han, Chang-do

2011-01-01

369

Malaria control and eradication in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

An intensive programme of residual spraying with DDT carried out over a period of 5 years in Taiwan has reduced malaria morbidity to a very low level. Since 1955, the goal has been complete eradication. Some foci of transmission and/or infection remain, however, and although no resistance problems have been encountered, the principal vector, A. minimus minimus, is still widely distributed. An elaborate surveillance organization is now in the process of creation, with the object of detecting and eliminating all residual foci of transmission and preventing the importation of fresh cases. It is hoped to complete eradication in another 3-5 years. PMID:13596886

1958-01-01

370

Intrusion of the Pearl River plume into the main channel of the Taiwan Strait in summer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Penghu Channel is the main channel connecting the East and South China Seas, two of the largest marginal seas in the world. Located in the southeast of Taiwan Strait, the Penghu Channel is usually covered by the high salinity water from the South China Sea and the Kuroshio. However, we observed abnormal low-salinity water in the Penghu Channel during a cruise through the southern Taiwan Strait and northern South China Sea in August 2008. We argue that the normalized alkalinity is a good indicator for the identification of a river plume as it is not affected by rainwater. Using satellite-derived water transparency and chlorophyll images and field-measured alkalinity, the source of this low salinity water was found to be the intrusion of the Pearl River plume. A significant phytoplankton bloom across the entire Taiwan Strait occurred with the intrusion event. The intrusion was not a unique event, as we also found a strong jet-shaped Pearl River plume intruding into the Penghu Channel in the summer of 2009 from cloud-free satellite-derived images. Time series satellite data reveal that the Pearl River plume intrudes into the Penghu Channel in the summer of most years. Multiple data analysis and modeling simulation indicate that a large river discharge and strong southwesterly winds on the shelf may be responsible for the significant intrusion of the Pearl River plume into the Penghu Channel in summer. As the Pearl River plume has a high nutrient and dissolved inorganic carbon content, combined with the strong northward flows through the Penghu Channel, such intrusions may contribute to the nutrient dynamics and carbon budget of the East and northern South China Seas.

Bai, Yan; Huang, Ting-Hsuan; He, Xianqiang; Wang, Shu-Lun; Hsin, Yi-Chia; Wu, Chau-Ron; Zhai, Weidong; Lui, Hon-Kit; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur

2015-01-01

371

The differences in clay minerals between the northern and southern Chelungpu fault, Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1999, we obtained a detailed data about motion of fault from the Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake. The motion represents the high frequency of acceleration and small slip distance in southern part, and low frequency of acceleration and large slip distance in the northern part. Those differences in the fault motion between the southern and northern parts are coincidence with occurrences of deformation textures of rocks which were sampled by drilling of shallow parts (a few hundreds meter) of the fault in 2000. In the southern core, a relatively strong deformation structure is preserved in total, and gouge containing fragments of pseudotachylytes and ultracataclasites is observed at the Chi-Chi- earthquake fault, which indicates that the main deformation mechanisms for the southern part of the fault was brittle. On the other hands, in the northern part, sand layer with much amount of water is found at the Chi-Chi- earthquake fault zone, and no breakage of sand grain is observed, which suggests that the deformation mechanism for northern part is independent particulate flow. The purpose of this study is to reveal the differences in clay minerals between the southern and northern part of the Chi-Chi earthquake fault. And then, we discuss about rock-fluid interaction and frictional heating characterized in seismogenic fault system. We analyzed clay minerals by X-ray diffract meter (XRD) after classification of rock types such as sandstone, alteration of sandstone and mudstone, breccia, and gouge. 1.33 micron meter of grains are obtained. Oriented sample was made. XRD analysis was conducted under following condition; 35kV, 15mA, 1 degree per minute of scan rate, and 0.02 degree of scan step. Range of 2 theta was from 2 degree to 35 degree. At first, air-dried condition of samples was measured. After that, ethylene glycol solvated samples were measured. The result represents that all samples contain smectite, illite, chlorite. No difference in components of clay mineral is observed between the southern and northern site. We focused on Chlorite which is contained in all analyzed samples. Total number of iron and magnesium (Y value), or asymmetry of iron between silicate layer and hydroxide layer (D value) is affected by pH of fluid when the chlorite is precipitated. In the northern site, Y value increases and D value decrease in gouge relatively to that in other rocks. On the other hand, in southern site, Y value decreases and D value increases in gouge which is located just at the Chi-Chi earthquake fault. This result suggests that pH of fluid differed at the time of fault activities. One of the possibilities of this cause is radical reaction. The differences of deformation mechanisms between the southern site and northern may be affected by whether radical reaction occurred or not at the time of chlorite precipitation. Other characteristic in clay mineral is smectite consumption. Illite% to smectite of host rock represents about 96% in average. Whereas, some gouge samples have no smectite. Smectite-illite transition is mainly affected by temperature. Treated samples are about 15cm in size. Therefore, this smectite consumption may be due to localized heating, which may be frictional heating. Temperature loggings after 1.5 year from the Chi-Chi- earthquake represent temperature anomalies both in the northern and southern site. If those temperature anomalies are due to frictional heating, localized increment in temperature is about a few tens degrees Celsius in the order. This temperature rise can not consume smectite to transit to illite from 96% to under 1%. Therefore, the smectite consumption may be integrated result of repetition of frictional heating in seismic history.

Hashimoto, Y.

2004-12-01

372

Brownian Motion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the phenomenon of Brownian motion, which serves as a mathematical model for random processes. Topics addressed include kinetic theory, Einstein's theory, particle displacement, and others. Points out that observations of the random course of a particle suspended in fluid led to the first accurate measurement of atomic mass. (DH)

Lavenda, Bernard H.

1985-01-01

373

Spring Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Lang Moore and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purposes of this module are to investigate a mathematical model for spring motion and to study the effect of increased damping. This is one within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Moore, Lang

374

Molluscan fauna of Gueishan Island, Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Abstract This dataset records the occurrence and inventory of molluscan fauna on Gueishan Island, the only active volcanic island in Taiwan, based on the literature survey and field investigation conducted between 2011 and 2012. The literature review involved seven studies published from 1934 to 2003, which collectively reported 112 species from 61 genera and 37 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. Through our field investigation, we identified 34 species from 28 genera and 23 families. Fourteen of these species were new records on Gueishan Island: Liolophura japonica, Lottia luchuana, Nerita costata, Nerita rumphii, Diplommatina suganikeiensis, Littoraria undulata, Solenomphala taiwanensis, Assiminea sp., Siphonaria laciniosa, Laevapex nipponica, Carychium hachijoensis, Succinea erythrophana, Zaptyx crassilamellata, and Allopeas pyrgula. In Total, there are 126 species from 71 genera and 45 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. These data have been published through GBIF [http://taibif.org.tw/ipt/resource.do?r=gueishan_island] and integrated into the Taiwan Malacofauna Database (http://shell.sinica.edu.tw/). PMID:23717182

Huang, Chih-Wei; Hsiung, Ta-Wei; Lin, Si-Min; Wu, Wen-Lung

2013-01-01

375

Flower drinking and masculinity in Taiwan.  

PubMed

This study explores the role of the hostess club culture in the creation and maintenance of masculinity in Taiwan. The article focuses on flower drinking (the consumption of alcohol in bars, often integrated with prostitution), which is a common practice in Taiwan. Data were obtained from 58 in-depth interviews with men from a variety of occupations and social backgrounds (mean age = 38.50, SD = 11.00) and 73 questionnaires administered to soldiers (mean age = 21.00, SD = 1.10). Findings indicated that demonstration of skill at flower drinking and facility with the related social etiquette are important channels for male bonding that were central to the mid- to upper-class participants' professional development. Flower drinking also provided a method of discriminating men from other men through their choices of why and where to go and how to behave while there. Specific ways that Taiwanese masculinity differs from Western and from Japanese masculinity, and support for the continuing relevance of the traditional Confucian ideal of masculinity, wen-wu, are discussed. PMID:19763998

Bedford, Olwen; Hwang, Shu-Ling

2011-01-01

376

Dermatoses in cement workers in southern Taiwan.  

PubMed

Construction workers are known to have occupational dermatoses. The prevalence of such dermatoses was unknown in Taiwanese construction workers. The objective of this study was to determine the work exposure, prevalence of skin manifestations, and sensitivity to common contact allergens in cement workers of southern Taiwan. A total of 1147 current regular cement workers were telephone-interviewed about skin problems during the past 12 months, work exposure, and personal protection. Among those interviewed, 166 were examined and patch tested with common contact allergens. A high % of cement workers reported skin problems in the past 12 months. More men (13.9%) reported skin problems possibly related to work than women (5.4%). Prevalence was associated with lower use of gloves, duration of work as cement worker, and more time in jobs involving direct manual handling of cement, especially tiling. A high % of dermatitis was noted in the 166 workers examined, which correlated with reported skin problems. On patch testing, construction workers had a high frequency of sensitivity to chromate. Sensitivity to chromate or cobalt was associated with reported skin problems, or dorsal hand dermatitis on examination. These workers' dermatitis was under-diagnosed and inadequately managed. It is concluded that cement workers in southern Taiwan had a high prevalence of skin problems related to cement use. Protective measures, work practice, and physician education should be improved to prevent or manage such problems. PMID:9928797

Guo, Y L; Wang, B J; Yeh, K C; Wang, J C; Kao, H H; Wang, M T; Shih, H C; Chen, C J

1999-01-01

377

Topographic characteristics of the submarine Taiwan orogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A complete digital elevation and bathymetry model of Taiwan provides the opportunity to characterize the topography of an emerging mountain belt. The orogen appears to form a continuous wedge of constant slope extending from the subaerial peaks to the submarine basin. We compare submarine channel systems from the east coast of Taiwan with their subaerial counterparts and document a number of fundamental similarities between the two environments. The submarine channel systems form a dendritic network with distinct hillslopes and channels. There is minimal sediment input from the subaerial landscape and sea level changes are insignificant, suggesting that the submarine topography is sculpted by offshore processes alone. We implement a range of geomorphic criteria, widely applied to subaerial digital elevation models, and explore the erosional processes responsible for sculpting the submarine and subaerial environments. The headwaters of the submarine channels have steep, straight slopes and a low slope-area scaling exponent, reminiscent of subaerial headwaters that are dominated by bedrock landslides. The main trunk streams offshore have concave-up longitudinal profiles, extensive knickpoints, and a slope-area scaling exponent similar in form to the onshore fluvial domain. We compare the driving mechanisms of the likely offshore erosional processes, primarily debris flows and turbidity currents, with subaerial fluvial incision. The results have important implications for reading the geomorphic signals of the submarine and subaerial landscapes, for understanding the links between the onshore and offshore environments, and, more widely, for focusing the future research of the submarine slope.

Ramsey, L. A.; Hovius, N.; Lague, D.; Liu, C.-S.

2006-06-01

378

Fetal Exposure to Environmental Neurotoxins in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) are recognized neurotoxins in children that particularly affect neurodevelopment and intellectual performance. Based on the hypothesis that the fetal basis of adult disease is fetal toxic exposure that results in adverse outcomes in adulthood, we explored the concentrations of key neurotoxins (i.e., Hg, Pb, Cd, and As) in meconium to identify the risk factors associated with these concentrations. From January 2007 to December 2009, 545 mother-infant pairs were recruited. The geometric mean concentrations of Pb and As in the meconium of babies of foreign-born mothers (22.9 and 38.1 µg/kg dry weight, respectively) were significantly greater than those of babies of Taiwan-born mothers (17.5 and 33.0 µg/kg dry weight, respectively). Maternal age (?30 y), maternal education, use of traditional Chinese herbs during pregnancy, and fish cutlet consumption (?3 meals/wk) were risk factors associated with concentrations of key prenatal neurotoxins. The Taiwan government should focus more attention on providing intervention programs for immigrant mothers to help protect the health of unborn babies. Further investigation on how multiple neurotoxins influence prenatal neurodevelopment is warranted. PMID:25299345

Jiang, Chuen-Bin; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Fan, Chun-Hua; Chien, Ling-Chu

2014-01-01

379

Munidopsis lauensis Baba & de Saint Laurent, 1992 (Decapoda, Anomura, Munidopsidae), a newly recorded squat lobster from a cold seep in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The squat lobster, Munidopsis lauensis Baba & de Saint Laurent, 1992, is recorded from Taiwan for the first time. This species was previously known only from deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the South-West Pacific but it was now found at a deep-sea cold seep site off southwestern Taiwan. The identity of the Taiwanese material is confirmed by comparison of sequences from the barcoding gene COI. Munidopsis lauensis can be easily separated from other congeners in Taiwanese waters by the eyes bearing a strong mesiodorsal spine and a small mesioventral spine, smooth carapace, fingers of the cheliped distally spooned and fixed finger without a denticulate carina on the distolateral margin. The discovery of this species in Taiwan increases the Munidopsis fauna of the island to 38 species. A color photograph and line drawings illustrating distinctive characters are provided for the Taiwanese material. PMID:25112740

Lin, Chia-Wei; Tsuchida, Shinji; Lin, Saulwood; Berndt, Christian; Chan, Tin-Yam

2013-01-01

380

Analysis of flow at the gate of Taiwan Strait  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A field survey with ship-borne acoustic Doppler current profiler was carried out across the Penghu Channel, the gate of Taiwan Strait, from 17 to 20 of May 1999. A new method of least-squares interpolation is used to separate the mean flow from tidal currents. The technique uses Gaussian interpolation functions with local support which also take into consideration the anisotropic nature of the flow structure. Optimal solution is obtained by determining the tradeoff between the misfit and the model order. The analysis indicates that the currents in the Penghu Channel are essentially barotropic and characterized by strong semidiurnal tides and mean flow. The along-channel averaged tidal velocity amplitudes are 1.2 m s-1 and 0.32 m s-1 for semidiurnal and diurnal tides, respectively. The mean current is uniform with an average northward velocity of 0.73 m s-1. The total transport is about 1.6 Sv, which represents a significant mass and material flux into the East China Sea.

Wang, Yu-Huai; Chiao, Ling-Yun; Lwiza, Kamazima M. M.; Wang, Dong-Ping

2004-02-01

381

Cool Season Paleotemperatures at Tree Line in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taiwan has over 200 mountains whose peaks exceed 3,000 meters in elevation. Despite straddling the Tropic of Cancer, the higher peaks have snow and freezing temperatures every winter. Trees growing above 3,500 meters show clear temperature variation, even producing frost rings. Yet unlike temperate tree-line species, with their warm season temperature signal, trees growing at Taiwan's tree line show sensitivity to cool season temperatures. Juniperus squamata growing above 3,500 meters in central Taiwan have ring width time series that commonly exceed 600 years. Presented are the first dendroclimatological analyses from Taiwanese Juniperus squamata.

Wright, W. E.; Chan, M.

2011-12-01

382

Records of new and rare elasmobranchs from Taiwan.  

PubMed

Five new records of elasmobranchs collected from eastern Taiwan fish markets, Da-xi and Cheng-gong, are presented. Samples were caught by deepsea longliners and bottom trawlers which operate in northeastern waters off Taiwan between 2004 and 2012. These five new species records include the smalltooth sandtiger, Odontaspis ferox (Risso, 1810) (Lamniformes: Odontaspididae), salamander shark, Parmaturus pilosus Garman, 1906 (Carcharhiniformes: Scyliorhinidae), leadhued skate Notoraja tobitukai (Hiyama, 1940) (Rajiformes: Arhynchobatidae), giant skate Dipturus gigas (Ishiyama, 1958) (Rajiformes: Rajidae), and the pelagic stingray Pteroplatytrygon violacea (Bonaparte, 1832) (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae), Diagnostic characteristics for each species are given and a key to the genera Parmaturus and Dipturus from Taiwan is presented. PMID:25229118

Hsu, Hua Hsun; Joung, Shoou Jeng; Ebert, David A; Lin, Chia Yen

2013-01-01

383

Imaging the subsurface of Taiwan using ambient noise tomography and full waveform inversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arc-continent collision is a process that over millions of years built most of the existing continents. Continental crust is thought to remain on the surface during these plate interactions, and its mass loss is accounted for by shortening. Remnants and clues about the mechanics of this process are available on the surface of Earth, but to understand the mechanics one must probe the subsurface of modern day arc-continent collisions. Taiwan is such an example: it is the result of a complex, actively deforming tectonic boundary between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea plates. This seismically active location provides an excellent venue for seismically imaging processes related to arc-continent collision, which is what the TAIGER (TAiwan Integrated GEodynamics Research) project was created to accomplish. In this thesis, data collected by the TAIGER deployment, supplemented by observations from the permanent BATS (Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology) network, is used to create a 3D elastic wave velocity model of the crust and upper mantle beneath Taiwan. This model addresses an outstanding question about arc-continent interactions using the tectonic structure of Taiwan: do arc-continent collisions involve the consumption of continental crust? Ambient noise tomography techniques create a 3D Vs model by using continuous ambient noise, which is whitened and cross-correlated between stations to construct empirical Green's functions of Rayleigh waves. The correlations are graded by the signal to noise ratio prior to recovering group and phase velocities of the fundamental mode for periods between 6 and 30 seconds. The results are combined to generate a 3D Vs model from which a Vp model is calculated using a constant Vp/Vs ratio of 1.7. This model, combined with the arrival time model of Kuo-Chen et al. (2012), is used as a starting model for full waveform inversion of teleseismic body and surface waves using the 2.5D technique of Roecker et al. (2010). The results of this study show strong evidence for continental subduction in the southern part of the island. Throughout the entire island, lower shear wave speeds indicate that the crust thickens below the Coastal Mountain Range, forming a root up to ~50 km depth and extending to 90 km depth in the southern part of the island. The west half of the island is generally characterized by a thinner crust and the slowest shear wave speeds in the model. Continental subduction is not inferred from the resulting model of the northern part of the island, where the crustal root is ~60km deep; however, some low-velocity mantle structures are present.

Rodzianko, Anastasia

384

Morphologic and Process Transformation at a Barrier Island of Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waisanding Barrier, the largest barrier island off the southwestern coast of Taiwan, has undergone morphologic and process transformation in recent decades. Based on the analysis of historical maps and aerial photographs, the island has migrated both southward and eastward (or landward). The shoreline at the northwest tip of the island has a retreat rate at 65 m/year, and the shoreline at the southern end migrates at a speed of 88 m/year southeastward. The overall land area has shrunken. Topographic profile surveys also show the great reduction of dune fields and the dune heights. This is mainly due to the starvation of sand sources. Three main processes have been proposed to explain the island migration: (1) the southward- dominant longshore drift; (2) the overwash process; and (3) the prevailing southward aeolian sand transport. Choushui river, the largest river in Taiwan, is the major sediment source for the Waisanding Barrier. Improvement constructions and illegal sand/gravel mining of the river may reduce large amounts of sediments that reach the shore. An artificial industrial park project located at the south of Choushui river mouth may also play an important role in blocking and preventing some of the southward longshore sand transport from reaching Waisanding Barrier. A permanent loss of sand to a submarine channel at the southern end had probably worsened the sediment storage of the barrier island. The strong wind transport during winter and the overwash process during spring high tides or stormy conditions may reduce the foredune and overall elevation of the island. This landform modification may result in the increase of overwash frequencies that move more sand landward and lower the elevation. As the results, the original back shore and dune field area are developed into a wide sandy tidal flat with many shallow tidal creeks formed during rising high tide stages. Because of all the landform changes in recent decades, the barrier island may undergo the transformation from a mixed energy wave-dominant environment to a mixed energy tide-dominant environment. If it follows the evolution trends, the barrier island may finally disappear when it reach the truly tide-dominated coastal environments suggested by Davis and Hayes.

Lin, T.

2006-12-01

385

Kepler Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This java applet displays Kepler's three laws of planetary motion in action. Users can select which of the three laws they wish to be animated and alter the initial conditions, observing how orbital paths and velocities change. Kepler derived his three laws after years of study on data that he inherited from his mentor, Tycho Brahe. Instructions on how to use the animation are provided, and a list of links to other related sites is included.

Fu-Kwun Hwang

2004-10-27

386

High frequency waves guided by the subducted plates underneath Taiwan and their association with seismic intensity anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy from seismic events traveling up a subduction zone reveal large-amplitude, high-frequency signal with sustained long coda. In Japan, such seismic waves guided by the high wave velocity and high Q plate lead to surprisingly large intensity in the forearc area, even if the events are not felt near the epicenter. Seismic events with guided wave characteristics can explain the anomalous ground shaking, and provide useful information on the plate configuration. Taiwan, situated at the plate boundary zone between the Eurasian plate (EP) and the Philippine Sea plates (PSP), exhibits a unique interaction between the EP and PSP. In northeast Taiwan, the PSP subducts beneath the rifted Eurasian plate margin along the Ryukyu Trench, whereas in southwest Taiwan the Eurasian plate subducts underneath PSP. The anomalous seismic intensity from intermediate-depth earthquakes should happen in Taiwan, if the subducted plates are acting as an efficient waveguide for high-frequency seismic waves. Here we investigate the possible relationship between anomalous PGA patterns and the trapping effect of the high frequency signal in the PSP/EP. M>5 earthquakes along the subducted PSP reveal depth dependent waveguide behavior, confirming an association with a wave guide effect in the subducting slab rather than localized site amplification effects. Comparison of the PGA patterns and the seismic characteristics suggests that the abnormal intensity from intermediate-depth events is likely to be a result of excitation of high-frequency signals while propagating along the PSP. The events in EP show an extension of stronger seismic intensity and faster propagation speed along the Longitudinal Valley. This poses the question whether such an elongation of the intensity contours is associated with a fold of the Eurasian plate crust underneath eastern Taiwan. If so, we expect the guided waves to be observed at stations along the east coast or on the eastern flank of Central Range. The seismic waveform characteristics, however, reveal partial guiding across the southern portion of Taiwan and along the east coast, suggesting some of the high frequency energy may couple into the crust due to either long travel distance or thick plate. By detection and quantification of the subduction zone guided waves, the geometry, thickness, velocity gradient, and heterogeneities of the plates can be further inferred through 2D and 3D finite-difference modeling and comparison with other well-established subduction zones. Additionally, knowledge of waveguide characteristics and modeled parameters that fit the observations are critical inputs to connecting with the seismic intensity anomalies for ground motion and earthquake hazard estimation.

Chen, K. H.; Kennett, B. L.; Furumura, T.

2011-12-01

387

)'. TAIWAN 1 RELIGION Recomposition desfaits religieux et pratiques de sant  

E-print Network

r ~ )'. TAIWAN 1 RELIGION Recomposition desfaits religieux et pratiques de santé Les « nouvelles religions» dans la société taiwanaise EVELYNEMICOLLIER L ESphénomènesde recomposition des faits reli- par, influences,air, substance» ; gongsignifie «exer- approche ethnologique des «nouvelles religions» cice

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

388

The Problems of Land Consolidation: A Case Study of Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problems of agricultural land consolidation, as illustrated by Taiwan's first 10-year land reform phase, include fragmentation of holdings, cost of consolidation, corruption and maladministration by government officials, and timing of operations. (AV)

Williams, Jack F.

1976-01-01

389

National Taiwan University 2011 Summer+ Dates: August 1st  

E-print Network

) + Exploring Taiwan (3 credits) Housing: Provided by BOT ShuiYuan Dormitory, offering single rooms within.edu.tw Manager, Study Abroad Programs Tel: 886233662007#225 Office of International Affairs, NTU Detailed

Wu, Yih-Min

390

76 FR 5205 - Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings from Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings from Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand AGENCY: United...butt-weld pipe fittings from Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand...butt-weld pipe fittings from Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand would be...

2011-01-28

391

75 FR 34097 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Extension of the Final Results of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-583-833] Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Extension of the Final...antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from Taiwan. See Certain Polyester Staple Fiber from Taiwan: Preliminary Results...

2010-06-16

392

The first archaic Homo from Taiwan.  

PubMed

Recent studies of an increasing number of hominin fossils highlight regional and chronological diversities of archaic Homo in the Pleistocene of eastern Asia. However, such a realization is still based on limited geographical occurrences mainly from Indonesia, China and Russian Altai. Here we describe a newly discovered archaic Homo mandible from Taiwan (Penghu 1), which further increases the diversity of Pleistocene Asian hominins. Penghu 1 revealed an unexpectedly late survival (younger than 450 but most likely 190-10 thousand years ago) of robust, apparently primitive dentognathic morphology in the periphery of the continent, which is unknown among the penecontemporaneous fossil records from other regions of Asia except for the mid-Middle Pleistocene Homo from Hexian, Eastern China. Such patterns of geographic trait distribution cannot be simply explained by clinal geographic variation of Homo erectus between northern China and Java, and suggests survival of multiple evolutionary lineages among archaic hominins before the arrival of modern humans in the region. PMID:25625212

Chang, Chun-Hsiang; Kaifu, Yousuke; Takai, Masanaru; Kono, Reiko T; Grün, Rainer; Matsu'ura, Shuji; Kinsley, Les; Lin, Liang-Kong

2015-01-01

393

The first archaic Homo from Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Recent studies of an increasing number of hominin fossils highlight regional and chronological diversities of archaic Homo in the Pleistocene of eastern Asia. However, such a realization is still based on limited geographical occurrences mainly from Indonesia, China and Russian Altai. Here we describe a newly discovered archaic Homo mandible from Taiwan (Penghu 1), which further increases the diversity of Pleistocene Asian hominins. Penghu 1 revealed an unexpectedly late survival (younger than 450 but most likely 190–10 thousand years ago) of robust, apparently primitive dentognathic morphology in the periphery of the continent, which is unknown among the penecontemporaneous fossil records from other regions of Asia except for the mid-Middle Pleistocene Homo from Hexian, Eastern China. Such patterns of geographic trait distribution cannot be simply explained by clinal geographic variation of Homo erectus between northern China and Java, and suggests survival of multiple evolutionary lineages among archaic hominins before the arrival of modern humans in the region. PMID:25625212

Chang, Chun-Hsiang; Kaifu, Yousuke; Takai, Masanaru; Kono, Reiko T.; Grün, Rainer; Matsu’ura, Shuji; Kinsley, Les; Lin, Liang-Kong

2015-01-01

394

[Medicine in Taiwan, during the period of Dutch occupation].  

PubMed

During the 38 years of Dutch occupation, by dispatching doctors from the East Indie Company to Taiwan, working at the trading institution for clinical purpose, the Dutchman achieved its missionary and ruling aims. This paper analyses the causes of the Dutch not being able to root on Taiwan. Comparison is made on the medicines between the periods of Dutch occupation and the period of Japanese closed-door policy. PMID:11639348

Ha, H; Gao, T

1994-01-01

395

Constellation Challenges and Contributions of Taiwan Weather Monitoring Satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

National Space Organization (NSPO) of Taiwan in the past ten years has successfully launched three different types of satellites. The latest one is FORMOSAT- 3\\/COSMIC, a joint Taiwan-US project, which was successfully launched on April 15, 2006. The FORMOSAT-3 is a constellation of 6 satellites and each satellite is equipped with GPS Occultation Receiver (GOX), Tri-Band Beacon (TBB), and Tiny

Chen-Joe Fong; N. Yen; V. Chu; E. Yang; Cheng-Yung Huang; Shao-Shing Chen; Yuei-An Liou; S. Chi

2008-01-01

396

Geodynamics of the Taiwan arc-arc collision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hsu and Sibuet (1995), on the basis of an overview of the satellite-derived marine gravity anomalies, postulated that the Ryukyu subduction zone extended before the formation of Taiwan a few hundreds kilometres south of its present-day termination, and that Taiwan resulted from an arc-arc collision rather than from an arc-continent collision.An analysis of the structure and timing of rifting in

Jean-Claude Sibuet; Shu-Kun Hsu

1997-01-01

397

Application of INCSEA principles to the Taiwan Strait.  

SciTech Connect

The waters surrounding Taiwan are important international waterways. In addition to merchant ships of every nation, the warships of the United States, Japan, Russia, and China may appear in these waters. No hostility is expected between Taiwan and the United States, Japan, or Russia; however, Taiwan and China have a tense relationship, and both sides face a potential for naval incidents. As Taiwan and China expand their naval capability, the International Maritime Organization Convention for the lnternational Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea may not be sufficient to prevent naval incidents, any of which might develop into conflict or war. Therefore, China and Taiwan need to develop maritime confidence building measures (CBMs) that could reduce the chance of naval incidents and strengthen mutual trust and confidence. Among the variety of maritime CBM concepts for military purposes, the most successful and effective measure has been the 1972 U.S.-Soviet Union Agreement on the Prevention of Incidents On and Over the High Seas (INCSEA). The success of the agreement demonstrates that CBMs represent a workable alternative to traditional arms controls. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a concrete approach to the constraint of naval activities between China and Taiwan to reduce accidents and misunderstandings. This paper outlines the categories and characteristics of incidents at sea. Next, the author identifies the successful factors of the U.S.-Soviet INCSEA and applies the INCSEA concept to the Taiwan Strait. Finally, the author develops a framework of options and a step-by-step approach for establishing an INCSEA between Taiwan and China.

Wen-Chung, Chai (Taiwan Navy, Taiwan)

2003-06-01

398

Motion Control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While this site is considered a news source, it is perhaps best used as an educational reference for mechanical engineering topics. A very interesting section called Brushing Up is periodically updated with a new article describing one of the "core principles governing physics and the laws of motion." Fun with Fundamentals is another feature geared mainly for high school students. Here, a challenging problem is proposed, and the user must solve it. The solution to the problem is given in the following issue. Lastly, Design Basics discusses several concepts, such as motors, fluid power, and gears.

399

Influence of the Arctic Oscillation on the TC activity around Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study discovered that strong positive correlations exist between the frequency of tropical cyclones (TC) during the summer around Taiwan and the Arctic Oscillation (AO) during the preceding March to May period. In positive AO years, during the preceding spring to summer period, anomalous cyclone and anomalous anticyclone were strongly developed at low and middle latitudes, respectively. Because of such a distribution of pressure system, in Taiwan, Korea, and Japan during the positive AO years, anomalous southeasterlies, which play the role of anomalous steering flows in transferring TCs to these regions, were strengthened. On the other hand, in southern China and the Indochina Peninsula during the positive AO years, anomalous northwesterlies, which prevent the transfer of TCs to these regions, were strengthened. Moreover, such a distribution of pressure system strengthening during the positive AO years led TCs to occur, move, and recurve more eastward in the western North Pacific in positive AO years as compared with the negative AO years. Contrarily, during the negative AO years, TCs showed the tendency to pass over the South China Sea from the Philippines and move west toward southern China and the Indochina Peninsula. Eventually, the intensity of TCs in these years was lower than that of TCs in positive AO years due to the topographic effects from a high TC passage frequency in mainland China.

Choi, Ki-Seon; Cha, Yu-Mi; Kang, Sung-Dae; Kim, Hae-Dong; Kim, Baek-Jo

2014-05-01

400

[Glocalization: the outlook for Taiwan evidence based health care].  

PubMed

Public attention to evidence-based health care (EBHC) has increased significantly in recent years. Key problems related to applying EBHC in current healthcare practice include the timely update of up-to-date knowledge and skills and the methodology used to implement EBHC in clinical settings. EBHC has been introduced to the Taiwan healthcare system for the past two decades. The annual EBM (Evidence based medicine) National Competition is a unique and important EBHC activity in Taiwan. EBHC has been promoted widely in medicine, nursing, pharmacy, public health and other professions, and EBHC-related organizations such as the Taiwan Evidence Based Medicine Association (TEBMA), and Taiwan Evidence Based Nursing Association (TEBNA), have increased in number and grown in membership. In addition to domestic developments, Taiwan is also actively involved in global organizations, such as the Cochrane Collaboration, East Asian Cochrane Alliance (EACA), and the International Society for Evidence Based Health Care (ISEHC). In Taiwan, most medical professionals work cooperatively to promote EBHC, which facilitates the gradual improvement of healthcare quality. PMID:25464951

Chen, Chiehfeng

2014-12-01

401

Human Freshwater Demand for Economic Activity and Ecosystems in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Freshwater is necessary to economic activity, and humans depend on goods and services generated by water-dependent ecosystems. However, national freshwater management usually focuses on direct use of domestic freshwater. With an increasing scarcity of freshwater, attention has turned to two indirect uses of freshwater by humans. The first indirect use is freshwater used by foreign countries when producing products for export. The second use is freshwater required by local ecosystems: human survival and development depend on goods and services generated in these ecosystems. This work adopted Taiwan as a case study. In addition to two widely recognized ecosystem freshwater demands, evapotranspiration and reversed river flow, this study suggests that freshwater is a constituent of some abiotic components, such as groundwater in aquifers, because excessive withdrawal has already caused significant land subsidence in Taiwan. Moreover, the estimated results show that Taiwan’s net imports of freshwater through trade amounts to approximately 25% of its total freshwater use for economic production. Integrating industrial policy, trade policy, and national freshwater management is a useful approach for developing strategies to limit the growing use of freshwater in Taiwan. Policy implications are then developed by further analyzing withdrawal sources of freshwater (domestic and foreign) for supporting economic production in Taiwan and identifying the factors (domestic final demand and export) driving freshwater-intensive products.

Ferng, Jiun-Jiun

2007-12-01

402

A Preliminary Neotectonic Map of Taiwan, and its Implications for Future Destructive Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The disastrous effects of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan demonstrated an urgent need for better knowledge of potential earthquake sources of the island. Toward this end, we have prepared a neotectonic map of Taiwan. The map and supplementary materials are based upon structural and geomorphic expression of active faults and folds both in the field and on shade-relief maps prepared from a 40-meter resolution DEM, augmented by geodetic and seismologic data. We divide Taiwan into 10 distinct neotectonic domains. Each contains characteristic active structures. Extension dominates only two domains -- the Ilan and Taipei domains, at the northern end of the island, above the subducting Philippine Sea plate. Despite modest geodetic rates, the Taipei Domain is of particular relevance to seismic safety, because the capital, Taipei City, sits on the hanging wall block of the principal structure, the Shanchiao normal fault. Immediately south is the Hsinchu Domain. Reverse and dextral faults there accumulate strain at modest rates. The concentration of high-tech industry in this region is proceeding without much consideration of the earthquake or rupture potential of these structures. Further south, the Chelungpu fault (source of the 1999 earthquake) and its western neighbor, the Changhua fault, are the principal components of the Taichung Domain. These structures die out to the north through a complex 20-km-wide transition belt into the Miaoli Domain, which consists of closely spaced folds and reverse faults. The destructive 1935 earthquake was caused by ruptures of a dextral accommodation structure in this transition zone and a back thrust in the Miaoli Domain. Blind thrust faulting characterizes the Chiayi Domain, south of the Taichung Domain. Although an abrupt GPS velocity gradient exists across the trace of the principal surface fault in this domain, that gradient most likely reflects the underlying ductile-brittle transition of the blind thrust, rather than the potential for future rupture of the exposed, inactive Chukou fault. At the southern end of Taiwan, accretion of forearc-basin and volcanic-arc rocks is beginning across two domains separated by the Central Range. On the west is the Kaohsiung Domain, across which strike-slip and reverse faults are accommodating E-W shortening and southward extrusion at rapid rates. In the western half of the domain, a complex belt of strike-slip and reverse faults associates with the climbing of the Manila Trench up the continental slope and onto the shelf. In the eastern half of the domain, rapid sinking of the Pingtung Plain between two left-lateral reverse faults may reflect the foundering oceanic crust of the forearc. Active accretion of the Coastal Range in eastern Taiwan occurs in distinct southern (Taitung) and northern (Hualien) domains. Rapid accretion in the Taitung Domain manifests itself as folding, faulting, and geodetic gradients on both sides of the arc-forearc suture, the Longitudinal Valley. The oblique component of accretion appears as large components of both sinistral and dip-slip motion on the Longitudinal Valley fault. To the north, accretion has nearly ceased; structures and geodetic measurements there suggest the predominance of sinistal deformation. Our neotectonic map of Taiwan is our initial attempt to define the fundamental kinematic context of active deformation there. We hope that this will assist in ongoing attempts to design geodetic, geophysical, paleoseismic and other research projects.

Shyu, J. H.; Sieh, K.; Chen, Y.; Lee, C.; Wang, Y.; Ota, Y.; Lee, J.; Sung, Q.; Rubin, C.

2001-12-01

403

Ground motion input in seismic evaluation studies  

SciTech Connect

This report documents research pertaining to conservatism and variability in seismic risk estimates. Specifically, it examines whether or not artificial motions produce unrealistic evaluation demands, i.e., demands significantly inconsistent with those expected from real earthquake motions. To study these issues, two types of artificial motions are considered: (a) motions with smooth response spectra, and (b) motions with realistic variations in spectral amplitude across vibration frequency. For both types of artificial motion, time histories are generated to match target spectral shapes. For comparison, empirical motions representative of those that might result from strong earthquakes in the Eastern U.S. are also considered. The study findings suggest that artificial motions resulting from typical simulation approaches (aimed at matching a given target spectrum) are generally adequate and appropriate in representing the peak-response demands that may be induced in linear structures and equipment responding to real earthquake motions. Also, given similar input Fourier energies at high-frequencies, levels of input Fourier energy at low frequencies observed for artificial motions are substantially similar to those levels noted in real earthquake motions. In addition, the study reveals specific problems resulting from the application of Western U.S. type motions for seismic evaluation of Eastern U.S. nuclear power plants.

Sewell, R.T.; Wu, S.C.

1996-07-01

404

The application of InSAR for crustal deformation and land subsidence in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply InSAR technique between August 1995 and November 2001 for crustal deformation in central Taiwan. We utilize 2-pass and 3-pass methods to obtain interferograms from 12 ERS SAR images in central Taiwan. The result of D-InSAR (Differential-InSAR) reveals land subsidence and earthquake deformation in our study area. The critical land subsidence region was located in the mouth of Choshui River and Erhlin River. After comparing with the distribution of aquaculture in Changh