These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Strong ground motion simulation of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake from a realistic three-dimensional source and  

E-print Network

Strong ground motion simulation of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake from a realistic three model in a full waveform three-dimensional wave propagation study. The strong ground motion records Plain is found to generate significantly amplified ground motions. In the Central Range, the shaking

Ma, Kuo-Fong

2

STRONG GROUND MOTION SOURCE SCALING AND ATTENUATION MODELS FOR EARTHQUAKES LOCATED IN DIFFERENT SOURCE ZONES IN TAIWAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ground-motion database collected recently in Taiwan was used for evaluation of strong ground motion models. The database contains more then 2800 acceleration records from M > 3.0 - 3.5 earthquakes occurred in 1993-2004. The records were obtained at rock (class B) sites located in the northern and eastern parts of Taiwan. Parameters of attenuation models (geometrical spreading and anelastic

Vladimir Sokolov; Chin-Hsiung Loh; Wen-Yu Jean

3

Some Observations on Colocated and Closely Spaced Strong Ground-Motion Records of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The digital accelerograph network,installed in Taiwan produced a rich set of records from the 20 September 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake (Mw 7.6). Teledyne Geotech model A-800 and A-900A* digital accelerographs were colocated at 22 stations that recorded this event. Comparisons of the amplitudes, frequency content, and baseline offsets show that records from several of the A-800 accelero- graphs are

Guo-quan Wang; David M. Boore; Heiner Igel; Xi-yuan Zhou

2003-01-01

4

GROUND MOTION ASSESSMENT BASED ON WEAK MOTION DATA IN TAIWAN Ground Motion Assessment Based on Weak Motion Data in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we characterize the scaling of the ground motions for frequencies ranging between 0.25 and 5 Hz, obtaining results for seismic attenuation, geometrical spreading, and source parameters in Taiwan. We regressed this large number of weak-motion data in order to characterize the regional propagation and the absolute source scaling. Stochastic simulations are generated for finite-fault ruptures using the obtained parameters to predict the absolute peaks of the ground acceleration and velocity for several magnitude and distance range, as well as beyond the magnitude range of the weak-motion data set on which they are calculated. The predictions are then compared with recorded strong motion data and empirical ground motion prediction equation obtained for the study region. We showed that our regional parameters, obtained from independent weak-motion database, may be applied for evaluation of ground motion parameters for earthquakes of magnitude up to 7.6.

Akinci, A.; D'Amico, S.; Malagnini, L.

2010-12-01

5

Site response variation due to the existence of near-field cracks based on strong motion records in the Shi-Wen river valley, southern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Site effect analysis has been applied to investigate soil classification, alluvium depth, and fracture detection, although the majority of previous studies have typically focused only on the response of large-scale single structures. In contrast, we investigated the site effect for small-scale cracks using a case study in southern Taiwan to provide a means of monitoring slope stability or foundation integrity in situ using only an accelerometer. We adopted both the reference site and horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio methods. We obtained seismographs associated with the typhoon-related development of a crack set (52?m long, 5?m deep) in a steep slope and compared the resonance frequency between two conditions (with and without cracks). Moreover, we divided the seismic waves into P, S, and coda waves and examined the seismic source effect. Our results demonstrate that frequencies of 14.5?17.5?Hz are most sensitive to these cracks, particularly for the E?W component of the P-waves, which coincides with the crack’s strike. Peak ground acceleration, which is controlled by seismic moment and attenuated distance, is another important factor determining the resonance results. Our results demonstrate that the ratio of temporal seismic waves can be used to detect the existence of nearby subsurface cracks.

Wu, Chi-Shin; Yu, Teng-To; Peng, Wen-Fei; Yeh, Yeoin-Tein; Lin, Sih-Siao

2014-10-01

6

Coseismic Fault Slip Rupture from the Joint Inversion of Teleseismic, Local Strong-Motion and CGPS Related to the 2010 Jia-Shian Earthquake in Southwestern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jia-Shian earthquake (Mw=6.3) occurred on 04th March 2010 in the southwestern Taiwan. We used the waveforms of teleseismics to identify the strike, dip and rake of focal mechanism are 311/33/37. Furthermore, we explored the strike, dip and rake are 316/40/44 on the first pulse of the teleseismic P wave. We also took account of the Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) data for the coseismic offset. The maximum horizontal and vertical (uplift) of coseismic offsets at the surface are 29.8mm± 1.0mm and 30.6mm± 5.1mm, respectively at station GS51. Moreover, the space and time distribution of slip during the coseismic rupture was modeled by the joint inversion, which includes the CGPS coseismic offset, the teleseismic, and near field seismic records. We identified the faults geometry and reconstructed the rupture process of coseismic faults slip. The initial rupture was generated on the northwest - southeast trending fault and propagated to the northeast - southwest trending structure after 5 s of main shock. Their strike, dip and rake are 311/33/37 and 020/25/108, respectively. The average slip of rupture was 20.1 cm, with the maximum slip of 50.4 cm. The rupture of the seismic moment was 4.0 × 10 ^ 25 dyne-cm in 30 s of duration time.The slip rupture constrained the synthetic data quite well, especially for the CGPS coseismic offset. We inferred the Jia-Shian earthquake took place on blind fault and the northeast - southwest trending structure was activated following the rupture on main northwest - southeast trending fault.

Lin, Kuan-Chuan; Delouis, Bertrand; Hu, Jyr-Ching; Nocquet, Jean-Mathieu; Mozziconacci, Laetitia; Bethoux, Nicole

2013-04-01

7

Earthquake Scaling and Development of Ground Motion Prediction for Earthquake Hazard Mitigation in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For earthquake hazard mitigation toward risk management, integration study from development of source model to ground motion prediction is crucial. The simulation for high frequency component ( > 1 Hz) of strong ground motions in the near field was not well resolved due to the insufficient resolution in velocity structure. Using the small events as Green's functions (i.e. empirical Green's function (EGF) method) can resolve the problem of lack of precise velocity structure to replace the path effect evaluation. If the EGF is not available, a stochastic Green's function (SGF) method can be employed. Through characterizing the slip models derived from the waveform inversion, we directly extract the parameters needed for the ground motion prediction in the EGF method or the SGF method. The slip models had been investigated from Taiwan dense strong motion and global teleseismic data. In addition, the low frequency ( < 1 Hz) can obtained numerically by the Frequency-Wavenumber (FK) method. Thus, broadband frequency strong ground motion can be calculated by a hybrid method that combining a deterministic FK method for the low frequency simulation and the EGF or SGF method for high frequency simulation. Characterizing the definitive source parameters from the empirical scaling study can provide directly to the ground motion simulation. To give the ground motion prediction for a scenario earthquake, we compiled the earthquake scaling relationship from the inverted finite-fault models of moderate to large earthquakes in Taiwan. The studies show the significant involvement of the seismogenic depth to the development of rupture width. In addition to that, several earthquakes from blind fault show distinct large stress drop, which yield regional high PGA. According to the developing scaling relationship and the possible high stress drops for earthquake from blind faults, we further deploy the hybrid method mentioned above to give the simulation of the strong motion in displacement, velocity and acceleration. We now give this exercise to the high stress drop event, and the events, which might have potential seismic hazard to a specific site to give further estimation on seismic hazard evaluation.

Ma, K.; Yen, Y.

2011-12-01

8

Stochastic Finite-Fault Modeling of Ground Motions from the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, Earthquake: Application to Rock and Soil Sites with Implications for Nonlinear Site Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stochastic method for simulating strong ground motions from finite faults is applied to the records of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake. The method involves discretization of the fault plane into smaller subfaults, each of which is assigned an x2 spectrum. The contributions from all subfaults are empirically atten- uated to the observation site and summed to produce the synthetic

Zafeiria Roumelioti; Igor A. Beresnev

2003-01-01

9

Tilts in strong-ground motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most instruments used in seismological practice to record ground motion are pendulum seismographs, velocigraphs or accelerographs. In most cases it is assumed that seismic instruments are only sensitive to the translational motion of the instrument's base. In this study the full equation of pendulum motion including the inputs of rotations and tilts is considered. It is shown that tilting the accelerograph's base can severely impact its response to the ground motion. The method of tilt evaluation using uncorrected strong-motion accelerograms was first suggested by Graizer (1989), and later tested in a number of laboratory experiments with different strong-motion instruments. The method is based on the difference in the tilt sensitivity of the horizontal and vertical pendulums. The method was applied to a number of strongest records of the Mw 6.7 Northridge earthquake of 1994. Examples are shown when relatively large tilts of up to a few degrees occurred during strong earthquake ground motion. Residual tilt extracted from the strong-motion record at the Pacoima Dam Upper Left Abutment reached 3.1 degrees in N45E direction, and was a result of local earthquake induced tilting due to high amplitude shaking. This value is in agreement with the residual tilt measured using electronic level a few days after the earthquake. The method was applied to the building records from the Northridge earthquake. According to the estimates, residual tilt reached 2.6 degrees on the ground floor of the 12-story Hotel in Ventura. Processing of most of the strongest records of the Northridge earthquake shows that tilts, if happened, were within the error of the method, or less than about 0.5 degree.

Graizer, V.

2006-12-01

10

National Strong-Motion Program Data Sets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Geological Survey National Strong-Motion Program (NSMP) Data Sets Web site contains three informative and helpful digital data compilations. These include the Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms of North and Central American Earthquakes 1933-1986, which is a collection of 1,477 three-component station recordings from nearly 500 earthquakes. The second is the National Strong-Motion Network (NSMN) Accelerograms data set that has time series data recorded by NSMN stations for selected earthquakes since 1989. Lastly, there is the General Earthquake Observation System (GEOS) Accelerograms, which has recordings collected by the NSMP GEOS project for aftershock studies, long-term deployments, and short-term experiments. Each can easily be accessed via the main site and contain updated information from as recently as an April 22, 2003 California event.

11

Empirical prediction of strong ground motion  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1982, we published equations for the prediction of various measures of ground motion as a function of earthquake magnitude, distance from the earthquake rupture, and site geology. Many more strong-motion recordings have been obtained since we published our equations. The predictions of the ground motions from our published equations are in reasonable agreement with the peak accelerations from the new data. The increased number of data, however, allow us to refine our predictions for some regions of magnitude and distance space, and perhaps for other variables.

Boore, David M.; Joyner, William B.

1993-01-01

12

The Italian Strong Motion Network (RAN)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A network for the strong motion monitoring of the territory allows recording data that provide an excellent opportunity to study the source, path, and site effects on the ground motions, specifically in near source area, for updating seismic hazard map and consequently construction codes and earthquake resistant design. Strong motion data also help to increase the effective preparation and response to seismic emergencies and the ability of a community to quickly recover from the damages of an earthquake contributes to lower the seismic risk usually measured in term of casualties and economic losses. The Italian network for monitoring the strong movement of the national territory (RAN) is the result of a fruitful cooperation over the last 16 years between the Italian government, the regions and local authorities and now counts more than 500 stations. Over the years, as a priority the DPC has focused mainly on the expansion of the network in terms of the number of measurement points and technological improvement of instrumentation as well as the data transmission system. A data acquisition centre was implemented in which the Antelope software collects, processes and archives, automatically, the data of the RAN and of the external strong motion networks that contribute to the database of the RAN. Recently the DPC has dedicated specific resources to improve the response of the network, in particular, in case of emergency. The efficiency of the network on a daily basis is not less than 95% and temporary networks were installed in the epicentral area within 24 hours after the earthquake and connected to the data acquisition centre in Rome. A fast seismic data analysis is essential to provide useful information to Authorities which make decisions immediately after a strong earthquake occurrence. During a strong earthquake, the modern accelerometers are the only instruments which can provide near source high-quality data that are important both for scientific and for civil protection purposes. Automatic and fast techniques have been developed by the University of Trieste for the automatic real-time strong motion data analysis. These techniques have been installed and customized in the data acquisition centre of the Department of Civil Protection of Italy (DPC) to process the quasi real-time data of the Italian Strong Motion Network (RAN) and to exploit information from RAN stations during seismic emergences for Civil protection purposes. RAN counts more than 500 stations covering all the Italian territory. Two local networks, the Friuli Venezia Giulia Accelerometric Network (RAF), located in NE Italy, and the Irpinia Seismic Network (ISNet), contribute their data into the RAN data acquisition system. The performance of the network and of the fast automatic strong motion data analysis during the Emilia 2012 sequence is analyzed.

Costa, Giovanni; Ammirati, Alfredo; de Nardis, Rita; Filippi, Luisa; Gallo, Antonella; Lavecchia, Giusy; Sirignano, Sebastiano; Zambonelli, Elisa; Nicoletti, Mario

2014-05-01

13

Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships  

SciTech Connect

Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ``strong motion duration`` has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions.

Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A. [EQE International, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Kennedy, R.P. [RPK Structural Mechanics Consulting, Yorba Linda, CA (United States)

1992-06-01

14

Next Generation Attenuation of Ground Motions in Ilan, Taiwan: Establishment and Analysis of Attenuation Relations for Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and Peak Ground Velocity (PGV)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An evaluation of seismic hazards requires an estimate of the expected ground motion at the site of interest. The most common means of estimating this ground motion in engineering practice is the use of an attenuation relation. A number of developments have arisen recently to suggest that a new generation of attenuation relationships is warranted. The project named Next Generation Attenuation of Ground Motions (NGA) Project was developed by Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) in response to a core objective: reducing uncertainty in earthquake ground motion estimation. This objective reflects recognition from industry sponsors that improvements in earthquake ground motion estimation will result in significant cost savings and will result in improved system performance in the event of a large earthquake. The Central Weather Bureau has implemented the Taiwan Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) to collect high-quality instrumental recordings of strong earthquake shaking.It is necessary for us to study the strong ground motion characteristics at the Ilan area of northeastern Taiwan. Further analyses using a good quality data base that includes 486 events and 4172 recordings of magnitude greater than 4.0 are required to derive the next generation attenuation of ground motion in Ilan area. In addition, Liu and Tsai (2007) used a catalog of more than 1840 shallow earthquakes with homogenized Mw magnitude ranging from 5.0 to 8.2 in 1900-2007 to estimate the seismic hazard potential in Taiwan. As a result, the PGA and PGV contour patterns of maximum ground motion show that Ilan Plain has high values of 0.2g and 80cm/sec with respect to MMI intensity VII and IX, respectively. Furthermore, from the mean ground motion and the seismic intensity rate analyses, they show that a high annul probability of MMI > VI greater than 35 percents are located at the Chianan area of western Taiwan and Ilan Plain in northeastern Taiwan. However, these results was estimated by used attenuation relationship of Taiwan which conducted by Liu and Tsai (2005). Hence, Next Generation Attenuation of Ground Motions (NGA) of Ilan Plain must be developed as soon as possible, in order to provide more important information for the site evaluation of critical facilities in those relatively high earthquake hazard potential regions and will be helpful for the plan of land-using.

Liu, K.

2009-12-01

15

Measuring Mid and Near-Field Rotational Ground Motions in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large rotational motions (about 200 micro-radians) excited by the 1999 Chi-Chi (Mw=7.6), Taiwan, earthquake were inferred from a dense accelerometer array 6 km from the northern end of the fault where large surface slips were observed (Huang, 2003). In December, 2000, C. C. Liu and B. S. Huang began measuring rotation motions using a PVC-5 transducer (0.2V\\/rad\\/sec) and a GyroChip

B. S. Huang; C. C. Liu; C. R. Lin; C. F. Wu; W. H. Lee

2006-01-01

16

A STUDY ON THE DURATION OF STRONG EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple definition of the duration of strong earthquake ground motion based on the mean-square integral of motion has been presented. It is closely related to that part of the strong motion which contributes significantly to the seismic energy as recorded at a point and to the related spectral amplitudes. Correlations have been established between the duration of strong-motion acceleration,

MI D. TRIFUNAC; A. G. BRADY

1975-01-01

17

Towards Integrated Marmara Strong Motion Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Istanbul has a 65% chance of having a magnitude 7 or above earthquake within the next 30 years. As part of the preparations for the future earthquake, strong motion networks have been installed in and around Istanbul. The Marmara Strong Motion Network, operated by the Department of Earthquake Engineering of Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute, encompasses permanent systems outlined below. It is envisaged that the networks will be run by a single entity responsible for technical management and maintanence, as well as for data management, archiving and dissemination through dedicated web-based interfaces. • Istanbul Earthquake Rapid Response and Early Warning System - IERREWS (one hundred 18-bit accelerometers for rapid response; ten 24-bit accelerometers for early warning) • IGDA? Gas Shutoff Network (100 accelerometers to be installed in 2010 and integrated with IERREWS) • Structural Monitoring Arrays - Fatih Sultan Mehmet Suspension Bridge (1200m-long suspension bridge across the Bosphorus, five 3-component accelerometers + GPS sensors) - Hagia Sophia Array (1500-year-old historical edifice, 9 accelerometers) - Süleymaniye Mosque Array (450-year-old historical edifice,9 accelerometers) - Fatih Mosque Array (237-year-old historical edifice, 9 accelerometers) - Kanyon Building Array (high-rise office building, 5 accelerometers) - Isbank Tower Array (high-rise office building, 5 accelerometers) - ENRON Array (power generation facility, 4 acelerometers) - Mihrimah Sultan Mosque Array (450-year-old historical edifice,9 accelerometers + tiltmeters, to be installed in 2009) - Sultanahmet Mosque Array, (390-year-old historical edifice, 9 accelerometers + tiltmeters, to be installed in 2009) • Special Arrays - Atakoy Vertical Array (four 3-component accelerometers at 25, 50, 75, and 150 m depths) - Marmara Tube Tunnel (1400 m long submerged tunnel, 128 ch. accelerometric data, 24 ch. strain data, to be installed in 2010) - Air-Force Academy Array (72 ch. dense accelerometric array to be installed in 2010) - Gemlik Array (a dense basin array of 8 stations, to be installed in 2010) The objectives of these systems and networks are: (1) to produce rapid earthquake intensity, damage and loss assessment information after an earthquake (in the case of IERREWS), (2) to monitor conditions of structural systems, (3) to develop real-time data processing, analysis, and damage detection and location tools (in the case of structural networks) after an extreme event, (4) to assess spatial properties of strong ground motion and ground strain, and to characterise basin response (in the case of special arrays), (5) to investigate site response and wave propagation (in the case of vertical array). Ground motion data obtained from these strong motion networks have and are being used for investigations of attenuation, spatial variation (coherence), simulation benchmarking, source modeling, site response, seismic microzonation, system identification and structural model verification and structural health control. In addition to the systems and networks outlined above there are two temporary networks: KIMNET - a dense urban noise and microtremor network consisting of 50 broadband stations expected to be operational in mid 2009, and SOSEWIN - a 20-station, self-organizing structural integrated array at Ataköy in Istanbul.

Durukal, E.; Erdik, M.; Safak, E.; Ansal, A.; Ozel, O.; Alcik, H.; Mert, A.; Kafadar, N.; Korkmaz, A.; Kurtulus, A.

2009-04-01

18

Measurement, characterization, and prediction of strong ground motion  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A number of predictive relationships derived from regression analysis of strong-motion data are available for horizontal peak acceleration, velocity, and response spectral values. Theoretical prediction of ground motion calls for stochastic source models because source heterogeneities control the amplitude of ground motion at most, if not all, frequencies of engineering interest. Theoretical methods have been developed for estimation of ground-motion parameters and simulation of ground-motion time series. These methods are particularly helpful for regions such, as eastern North America where strong-motion data are sparse. The authors survey the field, first reviewing developments in ground-motion measurement and data processing. The authors then consider the choice of parameters for characterizing strong ground motion and describe the wave-types involved in strong ground motion and the factors affecting ground-motion amplitudes. They conclude by describing methods for predicting ground motion.

Joyner, William; Boore, David M.

1988-01-01

19

Parallel simulation of strong ground motions during recent and historical  

E-print Network

Parallel simulation of strong ground motions during recent and historical damaging earthquakes such as the Earth Simulator supercomputer and the deployment of dense networks of strong ground motion instruments; Seismic wave; Strong ground motion 1. Introduction The Tokyo metropolitan area is located in a very

Furumura, Takashi

20

Strong Motion Seismograph Based On MEMS Accelerometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MEMS strong motion seismograph we developed used the modularization method to design its software and hardware.It can fit various needs in different application situation.The hardware of the instrument is composed of a MEMS accelerometer,a control processor system,a data-storage system,a wired real-time data transmission system by IP network,a wireless data transmission module by 3G broadband,a GPS calibration module and power supply system with a large-volumn lithium battery in it. Among it,the seismograph's sensor adopted a three-axis with 14-bit high resolution and digital output MEMS accelerometer.Its noise level just reach about 99?g/?Hz and ×2g to ×8g dynamically selectable full-scale.Its output data rates from 1.56Hz to 800Hz. Its maximum current consumption is merely 165?A,and the device is so small that it is available in a 3mm×3mm×1mm QFN package. Furthermore,there is access to both low pass filtered data as well as high pass filtered data,which minimizes the data analysis required for earthquake signal detection. So,the data post-processing can be simplified. Controlling process system adopts a 32-bit low power consumption embedded ARM9 processor-S3C2440 and is based on the Linux operation system.The processor's operating clock at 400MHz.The controlling system's main memory is a 64MB SDRAM with a 256MB flash-memory.Besides,an external high-capacity SD card data memory can be easily added.So the system can meet the requirements for data acquisition,data processing,data transmission,data storage,and so on. Both wired and wireless network can satisfy remote real-time monitoring, data transmission,system maintenance,status monitoring or updating software.Linux was embedded and multi-layer designed conception was used.The code, including sensor hardware driver,the data acquisition,earthquake setting out and so on,was written on medium layer.The hardware driver consist of IIC-Bus interface driver, IO driver and asynchronous notification driver. The application program layer mainly concludes: earthquake parameter module, local database managing module, data transmission module, remote monitoring, FTP service and so on. The application layer adopted multi-thread process. The whole strong motion seismograph was encapsulated in a small aluminum box, which size is 80mm×120mm×55mm. The inner battery can work continuesly more than 24 hours. The MEMS accelerograph uses modular design for its software part and hardware part. It has remote software update function and can meet the following needs: a) Auto picking up the earthquake event; saving the data on wave-event files and hours files; It may be used for monitoring strong earthquake, explosion, bridge and house health. b) Auto calculate the earthquake parameters, and transferring those parameters by 3G wireless broadband network. This kind of seismograph has characteristics of low cost, easy installation. They can be concentrated in the urban region or areas need to specially care. We can set up a ground motion parameters quick report sensor network while large earthquake break out. Then high-resolution-fine shake-map can be easily produced for the need of emergency rescue. c) By loading P-wave detection program modules, it can be used for earthquake early warning for large earthquakes; d) Can easily construct a high-density layout seismic monitoring network owning remote control and modern intelligent earthquake sensor.

Teng, Y.; Hu, X.

2013-12-01

21

Investigating possible regional dependence in strong ground motions  

E-print Network

Investigating possible regional dependence in strong ground motions John Douglas, Ph.D. Earthquake.douglas@hi.is. On teaching leave from BRGM, Orléans, France. Abstract It is common practice to use ground-motion models dependence of ground motions on geographical region, i.e., are me- dian ground motions in the (target) region

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

22

Nonstationary Stochastic Simulation of Strong Ground-Motion Time Histories  

E-print Network

Nonstationary Stochastic Simulation of Strong Ground-Motion Time Histories: Application, nonstationarity and ground-motion variability). Time-domain simulations are derived from the signal spectrogram and depend on few ground-motion parameters: Arias intensity, significant relative duration and central

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

23

Database for Earthquake Strong Motion Studies in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an Italian database of strong ground motion recordings and databanks delineating conditions at the instrument sites and characteristics of the seismic sources. The strong motion database consists of 247 corrected recordings from 89 earthquakes and 101 recording stations. Uncorrected recordings were drawn from public web sites and processed on a record-by-record basis using a procedure utilized in the

Giuseppe Scasserra; Jonathan P. Stewart; Robert E. Kayen; Giuseppe Lanzo

2009-01-01

24

Towards an integrated European strong motion data distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent decades have seen a significant increase in the quality and quantity of strong motion data collected in Europe, as dense and often real-time and continuously monitored broadband strong motion networks have been constructed in many nations. There has been a concurrent increase in demand for access to strong motion data not only from researchers for engineering and seismological studies, but also from civil authorities and seismic networks for the rapid assessment of ground motion and shaking intensity following significant earthquakes (e.g. ShakeMaps). Aside from a few notable exceptions on the national scale, databases providing access to strong motion data has not appeared to keep pace with these developments. In the framework of the EC infrastructure project NERA (2010 - 2014), that integrates key research infrastructures in Europe for monitoring earthquakes and assessing their hazard and risk, the network activity NA3 deals with the networking of acceleration networks and SM data. Within the NA3 activity two infrastructures are being constructed: i) a Rapid Response Strong Motion (RRSM) database, that following a strong event, automatically parameterises all available on-scale waveform data within the European Integrated waveform Data Archives (EIDA) and makes the waveforms easily available to the seismological community within minutes of an event; and ii) a European Strong Motion (ESM) database of accelerometric records, with associated metadata relevant to earthquake engineering and seismology research communities, using standard, manual processing that reflects the state of the art and research needs in these fields. These two separate repositories form the core infrastructures being built to distribute strong motion data in Europe in order to guarantee rapid and long-term availability of high quality waveform data to both the international scientific community and the hazard mitigation communities. These infrastructures will provide the access to strong motion data in an eventual EPOS seismological service. A working group on Strong Motion data is being created at ORFEUS in 2013. This body, consisting of experts in strong motion data collection, processing and research from across Europe, will provide the umbrella organisation that will 1) have the political clout to negotiate data sharing agreements with strong motion data providers and 2) manage the software during a transition from the end of NERA to the EPOS community. We expect the community providing data to the RRSM and ESM will gradually grow, under the supervision of ORFEUS, and eventually include strong motion data from networks from all European countries that can have an open data policy.

Luzi, Lucia; Clinton, John; Cauzzi, Carlo; Puglia, Rodolfo; Michelini, Alberto; Van Eck, Torild; Sleeman, Reinhoud; Akkar, Sinan

2013-04-01

25

Effects of Realistic Surface Topography on Seismic Ground Motion in the Yangminshan Region of Taiwan Based Upon  

E-print Network

-element method to simulate three-dimensional (3D) seismic-wave propagation in the Yangminshan region in Taiwan, incorporating the effects of realistic topography. A smoothed topographic map is employed beneath the modelEffects of Realistic Surface Topography on Seismic Ground Motion in the Yangminshan Region

Komatitsch, Dimitri

26

Strong Ground Motion from the Michoacan, Mexico, Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The network of strong motion accelerographs in Mexico includes instruments that were installed, under an international cooperative research program, in sites selected for the high potential of a large earthquake. The 19 September 1985 earthquake (magnitude 8.1) occurred in a seismic gap where an earthquake was expected. As a result, there is an excellent description of the ground motions that

J. G. Anderson; P. Bodin; J. N. Brune; J. Prince; S. K. Singh; R. Quaas; M. Onate

1986-01-01

27

Phase derivatives and simulation of strong ground motions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Phase derivatives can be used to compute instantaneous frequency and envelope delay (also known as group delay). Envelope delay, in the guise of phase differences, has been used by engineers in the simulation of strong ground motion, particularly as a way of controlling the duration of motion. Simulations using the stochastic method, in which duration is a simple function of source duration and a path-dependent duration, possess envelope delay properties similar to those from simulations based on phase differences. Envelope delay provides a way of extending the standard stochastic method to produce nonstationary frequency content, as produced by ground motions containing surface waves.

Boore, D.M.

2003-01-01

28

Optimum strong-motion array geometry for source inversion - II  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Optimum strong-motion array geometry for source inversions is determined for each of three types of earthquake faults: strike-slip, dip-slip and offshore subduction thrust. It is found that the complete Green's function is capable of stabilizing the accuracy of an inversion solution obtained using theoretical seismograms, regardless of the differences in array configuration. The optimum strong-motion array for a strike-slip fault is characterized by stations well distributed in azimuth, while the optimum array for a dip-slip event has stations arranged in a grid-shaped form. -from Author

Iida, M.

1990-01-01

29

Processing of strong-motion accelerograms: Needs, options and consequences  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recordings from strong-motion accelerographs are of fundamental importance in earthquake engineering, forming the basis for all characterizations of ground shaking employed for seismic design. The recordings, particularly those from analog instruments, invariably contain noise that can mask and distort the ground-motion signal at both high and low frequencies. For any application of recorded accelerograms in engineering seismology or earthquake engineering, it is important to identify the presence of this noise in the digitized time-history and its influence on the parameters that are to be derived from the records. If the parameters of interest are affected by noise then appropriate processing needs to be applied to the records, although it must be accepted from the outset that it is generally not possible to recover the actual ground motion over a wide range of frequencies. There are many schemes available for processing strong-motion data and it is important to be aware of the merits and pitfalls associated with each option. Equally important is to appreciate the effects of the procedures on the records in order to avoid errors in the interpretation and use of the results. Options for processing strong-motion accelerograms are presented, discussed and evaluated from the perspective of engineering application. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Boore, D.M.; Bommer, J.J.

2005-01-01

30

A simple model for strong ground motions and response spectra  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A simple model for the description of strong ground motions is introduced. The model shows that response spectra can be estimated by using only four parameters of the ground motion, the RMS acceleration, effective duration and two corner frequencies that characterize the effective frequency band of the motion. The model is windowed band-limited white noise, and is developed by studying the properties of two functions, cumulative squared acceleration in the time domain, and cumulative squared amplitude spectrum in the frequency domain. Applying the methods of random vibration theory, the model leads to a simple analytical expression for the response spectra. The accuracy of the model is checked by using the ground motion recordings from the aftershock sequences of two different earthquakes and simulated accelerograms. The results show that the model gives a satisfactory estimate of the response spectra.

Safak, Erdal; Mueller, Charles; Boatwright, John

1988-01-01

31

Contemporary Strong-motion Network in Southwestern Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contemporary digital strong-motion instruments, designed by the Geological Survey of Canada, have recently replaced the traditional analogue network in southwestern Canada. The newly designed and built three-component accelerometers are inexpensive to both produce and operate, and provide data retrieval and basic maintenance via the internet. Continuous 0.1-42~Hz data streams of acceleration, velocity and displacement are computed in real-time by the instrument's embedded computer. Upon detection of an event, peak ground motion values are reported to the data centre. The majority of strong-motion instruments are installed in greater Vancouver and Victoria, key areas of vulnerability as they lie in one of the most seismically active and populous areas of the country. One of the focusses of the network design is to study the response of the thick sediments of the Fraser River delta. Instruments are deployed in the urban regions on sites which vary from bedrock to more than 300~m of sediment, and may experience basin-edge effects associated with the delta. Upgrading and densification of the strong motion network in southwest BC will allow for accurate maps showing instrumental intensity to be produced within minutes of a serious earthquake, providing emergency services and city workers with the means to respond efficiently. Prior to such an event, records of smaller events can illuminate areas of high risk and aid in urban planning.

Bird, A. L.; Rosenberger, A.; Cassidy, J.; Onur, T.; Rogers, G.

2003-12-01

32

Strong motion observations and recordings from the great Wenchuan Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Strong Motion Observation Network System (NSMONS) of China is briefly introduced in this paper. The NSMONS consists\\u000a of permanent free-field stations, special observation arrays, mobile observatories and a network management system. During\\u000a the Wenchuan Earthquake, over 1,400 components of acceleration records were obtained from 460 permanent free-field stations\\u000a and three arrays for topographical effect and structural response observation

Xiaojun Li; Zhenghua Zhou; Haiyin Yu; Ruizhi Wen; Dawei Lu; Moh Huang; Yongnian Zhou; Jianwen Cu

2008-01-01

33

Enhancement of the national strong-motion network in Turkey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two arrays comprising 20 strong-motion sensors were established in western Turkey. The 14 stations of BYTNet follow a N-S trending line about 65 km in length, normal to strands of the North Anatolian fault that runs between the cities of Bursa and Yalova. Here the dominant character of the potential fault movement is a right-lateral transform slip. The DATNet array, comprising a total of eight stations, is arranged along a 110-km-long E-W trending direction along the Menderes River valley between Denizli and Aydin. (Two stations in this array were incorporated from the existing Turkish national strong-motion network.) This is an extensional tectonic environment, and the network mornitors potential large normal-faulting earthquakes on the faults in the valley. The installation of the arrays was supported by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) under its Science for Peace Program. Maintenance and calibration is performed by the General Directorate of Disaster Affairs (GDDA) according to a protocol between Middle East Technical University (METU) and GDDA. Many young engineers and scientists have been trained in network operation and evaluation during the course of the project, and an international workshop dealing with strong-motion instrumentation has been organized as part of the project activities.

Gulkan, P.; Ceken, U.; Colakoglu, Z.; Ugras, T.; Kuru, T.; Apak, A.; Anderson, J.G.; Sucuoglu, H.; Celebi, M.; Akkar, D.S.; Yazgan, U.; Denizlioglu, A.Z.

2007-01-01

34

Explosion source strong ground motions in the Mississippi embayment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two strong-motion arrays were deployed for the October 2002 Embayment Seismic Excitation Experiment to study the spatial variation of strong ground motions in the deep, unconsolidated sediments of the Mississippi embayment because there are no comparable strong-motion data from natural earthquakes in the area. Each linear array consisted of eight three-component K2 accelerographs spaced 15 m apart situated 1.2 and 2.5 kin from 2268-kg and 1134-kg borehole explosion sources, respectively. The array data show distinct body-wave and surface-wave arrivals that propagate within the thick, unconsolidated sedimentary column, the high-velocity basement rocks, and small-scale structure near the surface. Time-domain coherence of body-wave and surface-wave arrivals is computed for acceleration, velocity, and displacement time windows. Coherence is high for relatively low-frequency verticalcomponent Rayleigh waves and high-frequency P waves propagating across the array. Prominent high-frequency PS conversions seen on radial components, a proxy for the direct S wave from earthquake sources, lose coherence quickly over the 105-m length of the array. Transverse component signals are least coherent for any ground motion and appear to be highly scattered. Horizontal phase velocity is computed by using the ratio of particle velocity to estimates of the strain based on a plane-wave-propagation model. The resulting time-dependent phase-velocity map is a useful way to infer the propagation mechanisms of individual seismic phases and time windows of three-component waveforms. Displacement gradient analysis is a complementary technique for processing general spatial-array data to obtain horizontal slowness information.

Langston, C.A.; Bodin, P.; Powell, C.; Withers, M.; Horton, S.; Mooney, W.

2006-01-01

35

Can mobile phones used in strong motion seismology?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) accelerometers are electromechanical devices able to measure static or dynamic accelerations. In the 1990s MEMS accelerometers revolutionized the automotive-airbag system industry and are currently widely used in laptops, game controllers and mobile phones. Nowadays MEMS accelerometers seems provide adequate sensitivity, noise level and dynamic range to be applicable to earthquake strong motion acquisition. The current use of 3 axes MEMS accelerometers in mobile phone maybe provide a new means to easy increase the number of observations when a strong earthquake occurs. However, before utilize the signals recorded by a mobile phone equipped with a 3 axes MEMS accelerometer for any scientific porpoise, it is fundamental to verify that the signal collected provide reliable records of ground motion. For this reason we have investigated the suitability of the iPhone 5 mobile phone (one of the most popular mobile phone in the world) for strong motion acquisition. It is provided by several MEMS devise like a three-axis gyroscope, a three-axis electronic compass and a the LIS331DLH three-axis accelerometer. The LIS331DLH sensor is a low-cost high performance three axes linear accelerometer, with 16 bit digital output, produced by STMicroelectronics Inc. We have tested the LIS331DLH MEMS accelerometer using a vibrating table and the EpiSensor FBA ES-T as reference sensor. In our experiments the reference sensor was rigidly co-mounted with the LIS331DHL MEMS sensor on the vibrating table. We assessment the MEMS accelerometer in the frequency range 0.2-20 Hz, typical range of interesting in strong motion seismology and earthquake engineering. We generate both constant and damped sine waves with central frequency starting from 0.2 Hz until 20 Hz with step of 0.2 Hz. For each frequency analyzed we generate sine waves with mean amplitude 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1600 mg0. For damped sine waves we generate waveforms with initial amplitude of 2 g0. Our tests show as, in the frequency and amplitude range analyzed (0.2-20 Hz, 10-2000 mg0), the LIS331DLH MEMS accelerometer have excellent frequency and phase response, comparable with that of some standard FBA accelerometer used in strong motion seismology. However, we found that the signal recorded by the LIS331DLH MEMS accelerometer slightly underestimates the real acceleration (of about 2.5%). This suggests that may be important to calibrate a MEMS sensor before using it in scientific applications. A drawback of the LIS331DLH MEMS accelerometer is its low sensitivity. This is an important limitation of all the low cost MEMS accelerometers; therefore nowadays they are desirable to use only in strong motion seismology. However, the rapid development of this technology will lead in the coming years to the development of high sensitivity and low noise digital MEMS sensors that may be replace the current seismic accelerometer used in seismology. Actually, the real main advantage of these sensors is their common use in the mobile phones.

D'Alessandro, Antonino; D'Anna, Giuseppe

2013-04-01

36

Database for earthquake strong motion studies in Italy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We describe an Italian database of strong ground motion recordings and databanks delineating conditions at the instrument sites and characteristics of the seismic sources. The strong motion database consists of 247 corrected recordings from 89 earthquakes and 101 recording stations. Uncorrected recordings were drawn from public web sites and processed on a record-by-record basis using a procedure utilized in the Next-Generation Attenuation (NGA) project to remove instrument resonances, minimize noise effects through low- and high-pass filtering, and baseline correction. The number of available uncorrected recordings was reduced by 52% (mostly because of s-triggers) to arrive at the 247 recordings in the database. The site databank includes for every recording site the surface geology, a measurement or estimate of average shear wave velocity in the upper 30 m (Vs30), and information on instrument housing. Of the 89 sites, 39 have on-site velocity measurements (17 of which were performed as part of this study using SASW techniques). For remaining sites, we estimate Vs30 based on measurements on similar geologic conditions where available. Where no local velocity measurements are available, correlations with surface geology are used. Source parameters are drawn from databanks maintained (and recently updated) by Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and include hypocenter location and magnitude for small events (M< ??? 5.5) and finite source parameters for larger events. ?? 2009 A.S. Elnashai & N.N. Ambraseys.

Scasserra, G.; Stewart, J.P.; Kayen, R.E.; Lanzo, G.

2009-01-01

37

Magnitude estimation using the covered areas of strong ground motion in earthquake early warning  

E-print Network

Click Here for Full Article Magnitude estimation using the covered areas of strong ground motion are used to predict the strong ground motions at more distant target areas. In onsite warning, the initial Pwave motion is used to predict the ground motions of later arriving S and surface waves that commonly

Wu, Yih-Min

38

Site response and attenuation analyses using strong motion and short-period data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Site amplification and seismic attenuation are analyzed in this study using strong ground motion records and short period records. Site amplification factors at instrumented free-field sites are inferred from recorded motions using: (1) Generalized Inversion of S-waves; (2) the H/V method (i.e., the ratio of the spectral amplitudes of the horizontal and vertical components of motion); (3) Coda-wave Inversion; (4) the Standard Spectral Ratio method; and (5) the Coda Normalization method. The site amplification factors inferred from the above methods are compared to each other. The amplification factors obtained from the Generalized Inversion are validated by the other four methods. The correlation of site amplification to site condition is also analyzed and the results demonstrate that site amplification appears to be stronger for the geologically younger (and thus softer) sediments, and the site classification in conformance with UBC provisions provides smaller scatter than the classification based on geological formation. The site amplification factors for the different site classes of the NEHRP classification (i.e., site class C, D and E), which is important for engineering application, are provided and compared with the values proposed by Borcherdt (1994) and adopted in the 1997 UBC and 2003 IBC design codes. The agreement between the site amplification obtained in this study and those proposed by Borcherdt (1994) and adopted by the design codes is good. The nonlinearity of site amplification, resulting from the intensity of ground motion, is clearly identified at selected station where this is feasible. The intrinsic and scattering attenuation are analyzed at stations SML and TYC using the Multiple Lapse Time Window (MLTW) method. The total attenuation is derived from the intrinsic and scattering attenuation. The coda attenuation is analyzed for 14 stations from coda decay curves using linear regression. The S-wave attenuation is analyzed using the coda normalization method at the stations SML and TYC. The coda attenuation estimated from the coda decay curves is close to the intrinsic attenuation. The intrinsic attenuation is the dominant component in the total attenuation. The total attenuation, estimated using the MLTW method, closely agrees with the results from the Coda Normalization Method. The scattering coefficient is estimated to be 3--8 x 10 -3km-1, consistent with estimates of this parameter for other tectonically active regions (see figure 3.10 in Sato and Fehler, 1998). The data sets used in this study are collected from a strong motion network and a short period network in Taiwan province, China. The strong motion data set contains: (1) 2751 motions recorded at 407 stations from 33 aftershocks ranging from ML = 4.11--6.80 and depths from 1.05km to 21.28km, following 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake; and (2) 410 motions recorded at 410 stations from the main event of 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. The short period data set contains 5499 records recorded by 71 stations instrumented with the Teledyne S-13 seismometers. The 108 events have a magnitude ranging from ML = 2.90--4.97, and depths from 2.21km to 30.82km; these events occurred over a period of time from 2000 to 2003.

Zhang, Fangyin

39

Another Look at Strong Ground Motion Accelerations and Stress Drop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between earthquake stress drop and ground motion acceleration is central to seismic hazard analysis. We revisit measurements of root-mean-square (RMS) acceleration, arms, using KikNet accelerometer data from Japan. We directly measure RMS and peak acceleration, and estimate both apparent stress and corner frequencies using the empirical Green’s function (eGf) coda method of Baltay et al. [2010]. We predict armsfrom corner frequency and stress drop following McGuire and Hanks [1980] to compare with measurements. The theoretical relationship does a good job of predicting observed arms. We use four earthquake sequences in Japan to investigate the source parameters and accelerations: the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi earthquake; the off-Kamaishi repeating sequence; and the 2004 and 2007 Niigata events. In each data set, we choose events that are nearly co-located so that the path term to any station is constant. Small events are used as empirical Green’s functions to correct for propagation effects. For all sequences, we find that the apparent stress averages ~1 MPa for most events. Corner frequencies are consistent with Mo-1/3 scaling. We find the ratio of stress drop and apparent stress to be 5, consistent with the theoretical derivation of Singh and Ordaz [1994], using a Brune [1970] spectra. armsis theoretically proportional to stress drop and the inverse square root of the corner frequency. We show that this calculation can be used as a proxy for armsobservations from strong motion records, using recent data from the four earthquake sequences mentioned above. Even for the Iwate-Miyagi mainshock, which experienced over 4 g’s of acceleration, we find that apparent stress, stress drop and corner frequency follow expected scaling laws and support self-similarity.

Baltay, A.; Prieto, G.; Ide, S.; Hanks, T. C.; Beroza, G. C.

2010-12-01

40

Dynamic rupture scenarios for strong ground motion prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous rupture models provide physically reasonable rupture processes under presumed fault geometry and stress field. We propose that dynamic rupture models based on geological or geomorphological data are used as earthquake scenarios for strong ground motion prediction. We apply our method to possible sources of earthquake occurring on the Uemachi fault systems. The Uemachi fault system runs just underneath the western part of Osaka plain, extends about 45 km, and dips 60 degrees to the east. We model the fault geometry from the surface traces and the shape of the Osaka basin-floor. The stress condition is presumed based on slip distributions on the fault. Spatially varied cumulative slip distribution along the strike of the Uemachi fault system was obtained by reflection surveys, borehole data, etc. The borehole data at a site along the fault showed that the vertical slip on the earth's surface due to the last event was between 1.6 to 2.4 m (Sugiyama et al., 2003). Combining these data, we presume an prototype of the slip distribution along strike. The slip distribution along dip is modeled through simulations of spontaneous ruptures under vertically depth-dependent stress conditions to realize spontaneously stopping rupture near the bottom of the seismogeneic zone. Onto this large-scale heterogeneous slip distribution model, we add fractal heterogeneities in small-scale created from different random numbers. These slip distributions are converted to the distributions of static stress drop. For each stress drop model, some hypocenter locations are assumed. We calculate dynamic rupture processes by the finite-difference method (Kase, 2010), assuming the slip-weakening friction law. Rupture area and rupture time on each point depend on stress model and hypocenter location. Based on these rupture scenarios, we simulate lower frequency components of ground motion by the finite-difference method (Pitarka, 1999) excluding the shallow sediment above the engineering basement. Higher frequency components are computed by the stochastic Green's function method (Onishi and Horike, 2000). Effects of the shallow alluvium layers are calculated by 1D multi-reflection theory considering nonlinear effect by equivalent linear technique using a computer code DYNEQ (Yoshida and Suetomi, 1996).

Kase, Y.; Sekiguchi, H.

2011-12-01

41

Effect of tilt on strong motion data processing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the near-field of an earthquake the effects of the rotational components of ground motion may not be negligible compared to the effects of translational motions. Analyses of the equations of motion of horizontal and vertical pendulums show that horizontal sensors are sensitive not only to translational motion but also to tilts. Ignoring this tilt sensitivity may produce unreliable results, especially in calculations of permanent displacements and long-period calculations. In contrast to horizontal sensors, vertical sensors do not have these limitations, since they are less sensitive to tilts. In general, only six-component systems measuring rotations and accelerations, or three-component systems similar to systems used in inertial navigation assuring purely translational motion of accelerometers can be used to calculate residual displacements. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Graizer, V.M.

2005-01-01

42

Magnitude determination using strong ground motion attenuation in earthquake early warning  

E-print Network

Click Here for Full Article Magnitude determination using strong ground motion attenuation Systems) acceleration sensor could be widely used for ground motion monitoring purposes. Thus, we propose to predict the ground motions of the later S and surface waves (which commonly have higher amplitudes

Wu, Yih-Min

43

MODELING STRONG SEISMIC GROUND MOTION: 3D LOADING PATH VS WAVEFIELD POLARIZATION  

E-print Network

MODELING STRONG SEISMIC GROUND MOTION: 3D LOADING PATH VS WAVEFIELD POLARIZATION Maria Paola seismic ground motion Corresponding author: Maria Paola Santisi d'Avila Université Pierre et Marie Curie is one of the dominant factors controlling the variation in ground motion and determination of the site

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

44

Investigating strong ground motion variability using analysis of variance and two-way-fit plots  

E-print Network

Investigating strong ground motion variability using analysis of variance and two-way-fit plots of unmodelled site and source effects on the observed variation in ground motions is presented. The method consists of analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the computed residuals with respect to an empirical ground-motion

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

45

Coherence, Strain, and Phase Velocity of Strong Ground Motions in the Mississippi Charles A. Langston  

E-print Network

1 Coherence, Strain, and Phase Velocity of Strong Ground Motions in the Mississippi Embayment ground motions in the deep, unconsolidated Mississippi embayment sediments since there are no comparable coherent for any ground motion and appear to be highly scattered. Horizontal phase velocity is computed

Langston, Charles A.

46

Paper No. SSMSA STRONG SEISMIC MOTIONS ESTIMATED FROM  

E-print Network

and stress-strain hysteretic loops are computed all along the soil column. The octahedral stress, the strain through shear modulus reduction and increase of damping for increasing strain levels. The effect on the 1-directional shear wave propagation in a "1D" soil column considering one motion component only ("1C"). Conversely

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

47

Control of Strong Motion by the Upper 30 Meters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local site effects have an enormous influence on the character of ground motions. Currently, soil categories and site factors used in building codes for seismic design are generally based on, or at least correlated with, the seismic velocity of the surface layer. We note, however, that the upper 30 m (a typical depth of investigation) would almost never represent more

John G. Anderson; Yajie Lee; Yuehua Zeng; Steven Day

1996-01-01

48

Comparisons of ground motions from five aftershocks of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake with empirical predictions largely based on data from California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The observed ground motions from five large aftershocks of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake are compared with predictions from four equations based primarily on data from California. The four equations for active tectonic regions are those developed by Abrahamson and Silva (1997), Boore et al. (1997), Campbell (1997, 2001), and Sadigh et al. (1997). Comparisons are made for horizontal-component peak ground accelerations and 5%-damped pseudoacceleration response spectra at periods between 0.02 sec and 5 sec. The observed motions are in reasonable agreement with the predictions, particularly for distances from 10 to 30 km. This is in marked contrast to the motions from the Chi-Chi mainshock, which are much lower than the predicted motions for periods less than about 1 sec. The results indicate that the low motions in the mainshock are not due to unusual, localized absorption of seismic energy, because waves from the mainshock and the aftershocks generally traverse the same section of the crust and are recorded at the same stations. The aftershock motions at distances of 30-60 km are somewhat lower than the predictions (but not nearly by as small a factor as those for the mainshock), suggesting that the ground motion attenuates more rapidly in this region of Taiwan than it does in the areas we compare with it. We provide equations for the regional attenuation of response spectra, which show increasing decay of motion with distance for decreasing oscillator periods. This observational study also demonstrates that ground motions have large earthquake-location-dependent variability for a specific site. This variability reduces the accuracy with which an earthquake-specific prediction of site response can be predicted. Online Material: PGAs and PSAs from the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake and five aftershocks.

Wang, G.-Q.; Boore, D.M.; Igel, H.; Zhou, X.-Y.

2004-01-01

49

Equations for the estimation of strong ground motions from shallow crustal earthquakes using data from Europe and the  

E-print Network

Equations for the estimation of strong ground motions from shallow crustal earthquakes using data of horizontal ground motions Keywords: Strong ground motion estimation, attenuation relations, Europe, Middle equations for the estimation of horizontal strong ground motions caused by shal- low crustal earthquakes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

50

Equations for the estimation of strong ground motions from shallow crustal earthquakes using data from Europe and the  

E-print Network

Equations for the estimation of strong ground motions from shallow crustal earthquakes using data of vertical ground motions Keywords: Strong ground motion estimation, attenuation relations, Europe, Middle equations for the estimation of vertical strong ground motions caused by shallow crustal earthquakes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

51

SISMA (Site of Italian Strong Motion Accelerograms): a Web-Database of Ground Motion Recordings for Engineering Applications  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes a new website called SISMA, i.e. Site of Italian Strong Motion Accelerograms, which is an Internet portal intended to provide natural records for use in engineering applications for dynamic analyses of structural and geotechnical systems. SISMA contains 247 three-component corrected motions recorded at 101 stations from 89 earthquakes that occurred in Italy in the period 1972-2002. The database of strong motion accelerograms was developed in the framework of a joint project between Sapienza University of Rome and University of California at Los Angeles (USA) and is described elsewhere. Acceleration histories and pseudo-acceleration response spectra (5% damping) are available for download from the website. Recordings can be located using simple search parameters related to seismic source and the recording station (e.g., magnitude, V{sub s30}, etc) as well as ground motion characteristics (e.g. peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, peak ground displacement, Arias intensity, etc.)

Scasserra, Giuseppe; Lanzo, Giuseppe; D'Elia, Beniamino [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Strutturale e Geotecnica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Via A. Gramsci 53, 00197, Rome (Italy); Stewart, Jonathan P. [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, 5371 Boelter Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

2008-07-08

52

Site Characterization of Italian Strong Motion Recording Stations  

SciTech Connect

A dataset of site conditions at 101 Italian ground motion stations with recorded motions has been compiled that includes geologic characteristics and seismic velocities. Geologic characterization is derived principally from local geologic investigations by ENEL that include detailed mapping and cross sections. For sites lacking such detailed geologic characterization, the geology maps of the by Servizio Geologico d'Italia are used. Seismic velocities are extracted from the literature and the files of consulting engineers, geologists and public agencies for 33 sites. Data sources utilized include post earthquake site investigations (Friuli and Irpinia events), microzonation studies, and miscellaneous investigations performed by researchers or consulting engineers/geologists. Additional seismic velocities are measured by the authors using the controlled source spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) method for 18 sites that recorded the 1997-1998 Umbria Marche earthquake sequence. The compiled velocity measurements provide data for 51 of the 101 sites. For the remaining sites, the average seismic velocity in the upper 30 m (V{sub s30}) is estimated using a hybrid approach. For young Quaternary alluvium, V{sub s30} an existing empirical relationship for California sites by Wills and Clahan (2006) is used, which we justify by validating this relationship against Italian data. For Tertiary Limestone and Italian Mesozoic rocks, empirical estimates of V{sub s30} are developed using the available data. This work is also presented in Scasserra et al. (2008: JEE, in review)

Scasserra, Giuseppe; Lanzo, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Strutturale e Geotecnica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Via A. Gramsci 53, 00197, Rome (Italy); Stewart, Jonathan P. [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, 5731 Boelter Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Kayen, Robert E. [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California (United States)

2008-07-08

53

Synthetic strong ground motions for engineering design utilizing empirical Green`s functions  

SciTech Connect

We present a methodology for developing realistic synthetic strong ground motions for specific sites from specific earthquakes. We analyzed the possible ground motion resulting from a M = 7.25 earthquake that ruptures 82 km of the Hayward fault for a site 1.4 km from the fault in the eastern San Francisco Bay area. We developed a suite of 100 rupture scenarios for the Hayward fault earthquake and computed the corresponding strong ground motion time histories. We synthesized strong ground motion with physics-based solutions of earthquake rupture and applied physical bounds on rupture parameters. By having a suite of rupture scenarios of hazardous earthquakes for a fixed magnitude and identifying the hazard to the site from the statistical distribution of engineering parameters, we introduce a probabilistic component into the deterministic hazard calculation. Engineering parameters of synthesized ground motions agree with those recorded from the 1995 Kobe, Japan and the 1992 Landers, California earthquakes at similar distances and site geologies.

Hutchings, L.J.; Jarpe, S.P.; Kasameyer, P.W.; Foxall, W.

1996-04-11

54

Rapid Temporal Changes of Fault Zone Site Response Associated With Strong Ground Motion  

E-print Network

Angeles, CA 90089-0740, USA Abstract We systematically analyze temporal changes in fault zone (FZ) site and Düzce earthquake sequences. The study involves primarily comparisons of strong motion seismic data earthquakes. We also apply this method to the weak motion records generated by the 36 repeating earthquake

Black, Robert X.

55

What Can Strong-Motion Data Tell Us about Slip-Weakening Fault-Friction Laws?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the resolution of parameters, such as strength excess, ry ro, and slip-weakening distance, dc, related to fault-constitutive properties, that may be obtained from the analysis of strong-ground motions. We show that wave- form inversion of a synthetic strong-motion-data set from a hypothetical M 6.5 event resembling the 1979 Imperial Valley earthquake cannot uniquely resolve both strength excess and

Mariagiovanna Guatteri; Paul Spudich

2000-01-01

56

Strong Earthquake Motion Estimates for the UCSB Campus, and Related Response of the Engineering 1 Building  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the second report on the UC\\/CLC Campus Earthquake Program (CEP), concerning the estimation of exposure of the U.C. Santa Barbara campus to strong earthquake motions (Phase 2 study). The main results of Phase 1 are summarized in the current report. This document describes the studies which resulted in site-specific strong motion estimates for the Engineering I site, and

R. Archuleta; F. Bonilla; M. Doroudian; A. Elgamal; F. Hueze

2000-01-01

57

Estimation of strong ground motions from hypothetical earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone, Pacific Northwest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Strong ground motions are estimated for the Pacific Northwest assuming that large shallow earthquakes, similar to those experienced in southern Chile, southwestern Japan, and Colombia, may also occur on the Cascadia subduction zone. Fifty-six strong motion recordings for twenty-five subduction earthquakes of Ms???7.0 are used to estimate the response spectra that may result from earthquakes Mw<81/4. Large variations in observed ground motion levels are noted for a given site distance and earthquake magnitude. When compared with motions that have been observed in the western United States, large subduction zone earthquakes produce relatively large ground motions at surprisingly large distances. An earthquake similar to the 22 May 1960 Chilean earthquake (Mw 9.5) is the largest event that is considered to be plausible for the Cascadia subduction zone. This event has a moment which is two orders of magnitude larger than the largest earthquake for which we have strong motion records. The empirical Green's function technique is used to synthesize strong ground motions for such giant earthquakes. Observed teleseismic P-waveforms from giant earthquakes are also modeled using the empirical Green's function technique in order to constrain model parameters. The teleseismic modeling in the period range of 1.0 to 50 sec strongly suggests that fewer Green's functions should be randomly summed than is required to match the long-period moments of giant earthquakes. It appears that a large portion of the moment associated with giant earthquakes occurs at very long periods that are outside the frequency band of interest for strong ground motions. Nevertheless, the occurrence of a giant earthquake in the Pacific Northwest may produce quite strong shaking over a very large region. ?? 1989 Birkha??user Verlag.

Heaton, T.H.; Hartzell, S.H.

1989-01-01

58

Laser induced molecular motion in strong nonresonant laser fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical dipole force from a singe focussed laser beam was used to study the role of laser-induced molecular alignment on the centre-of-mass motion of carbon disulphide molecules in a molecular beam. The translational, rotational and vibrational temperatures of the carbon disulphide molecules were measured to be 3.4pm0.2 K, 35pm10 K and 250pm14 K respectively. The velocity of the beam was measured to be 542pm22 m s. {-1}. Time-of-flight mass spectroscopy was used to measure the acceleration and deceleration of the molecules. Maximum velocity changes of 7.5 m s. {-1} and 10 m s. {-1} were recorded for linearly and circularly polarised light respectively. These results showed that the dipole force, digamma alpha bigtriangledown [alpha_e_f_f(I)I(r)], where alpha_e_f_f is the effective polarisability and determined through laser-induced alignment, can be modified by changing the laser polarisation. For linearly and circularly polarised light, a 12% difference in effective polarisability was measured to produce a 20% difference in dipole force. The dipole force from a single focussed laser beam produces a molecular optical lens and the downstream density of the molecular focus was probed by measuring the ion signal for both laser polarisations. The focal lengths for linearly and circularly polarised light were found to be separated by 100 mu m. By altering the laser polarisation from linearly through elliptically to circularly polarised light, the focal length of the molecular optical lens could be smoothly altered over the 100 mu m focal range. The role of the effective polarisability of each rotational state was also studied numerically. Separate rotational states were found to significantly alter the focal properties of a molecular optical lens. In carbon disulphide, higher rotational states (J > 10), exhibit less molecular alignment and when occupied, the focal length of the molecular optical lens for these states was increased by 60 % compared to the ground state.

Purcell, S. M.

59

Application of horizontal-to-vertical (H\\/V) Fourier spectral ratio for analysis of site effect on rock (NEHRP-class B) sites in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency-dependent amplification for rock (NEHRP-class B) sites was studied using earthquake ground-motion database collected in Taiwan during implementation of the Taiwan Strong Motion Instrumentation Program. The database used includes several hundred records from earthquakes of ML 4.0–7.3 occurred between 1993 and 2004. The characteristics of amplification were evaluated using the well-known technique of horizontal-to-vertical Fourier spectral ratio (H\\/V) of

Vladimir Yu. Sokolov; Chin-Hsiung Loh; Wen-Yu Jean

2007-01-01

60

A comparison of observations of ground response to weak and strong ground motion at Coalinga, California  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of the response to earthquake motion of an unsaturated soil in Coalinga, California, indicate that this response is linear, within the limits of random errors, for frequencies below 10 Hz and for accelerations up to 0.7 g. The response of the soil site relative to a bedrock site was determined by dividing the amplitude spectrum of the soil site ground motion for a given event by the amplitude spectrum of the bedrock site ground motion for the same event. The relative response of this pair of sites to 23 regional and small local earthquakes is the same in the 1- to 10-Hz band as the response to seven strong motion events, within a random error of a factor of 1.3 At 10 to 11 Hz, the relative response to strong motion is significantly reduced by as much as a factor of 2 from the relative response to the 23 regional and small local earthquakes at the 95 per cent confidence level, suggesting the possibility of nonlinear response. The response of the soil site is a factor of 2 to 3 times larger than that of the bedrock site. The variation in the spectral ratios for strong motion events and for regional and small local events about their respective averages has a standard deviation of about a factor of 2.

Jarpe, S.P. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Cramer, C.H.; Tucker, B.E.; Shakal, A.F. (California Division of Mines, Sacramento, CA (United States))

1988-04-01

61

ANALYSIS OF STRONG-MOTION EARTHQUAKE RECORDS FROM A WELL-INSTRUMENTED EARTH DAM.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Strong-motion records from Long Valley Dam during the Mammoth Lakes earthquake sequence of May 1980 are analyzed to determine the main features of the dam's motions. The dam was instrumented with 22 accelerometers on its embankment and in the immediate vicinity, and more than 60 high-quality, long-duration accelerograms were recorded for the three largest earthquakes of the sequence. Free-field responses are compared with embankment responses to help establish the amplification of the structural motions and to identify modes of vibration of the structure.

Fedock, Joseph J.

1986-01-01

62

LETTER Earth Planets Space, 57, 191196, 2005 Simulation of strong ground motions caused by the 2004 off the Kii peninsula  

E-print Network

LETTER Earth Planets Space, 57, 191­196, 2005 Simulation of strong ground motions caused November 30, 2004; Revised February 28, 2005; Accepted March 1, 2005) Strong ground motions caused reproduction of the ground motions caused by the mainshock, including site amplification effects

Furumura, Takashi

63

Strong Motion Instrumentation of Seismically-Strengthened Port Structures in California by CSMIP  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP) has instrumented five port structures. Instrumentation of two more port structures is underway and another one is in planning. Two of the port structures have been seismically strengthened. The primary goals of the strong motion instrumentation are to obtain strong earthquake shaking data for verifying seismic analysis procedures and strengthening schemes, and for post-earthquake evaluations of port structures. The wharves instrumented by CSMIP were recommended by the Strong Motion Instrumentation Advisory Committee, a committee of the California Seismic Safety Commission. Extensive instrumentation of a wharf is difficult and would be impossible without the cooperation of the owners and the involvement of the design engineers. The instrumentation plan for a wharf is developed through study of the retrofit plans of the wharf, and the strong-motion sensors are installed at locations where specific instrumentation objectives can be achieved and access is possible. Some sensor locations have to be planned during design; otherwise they are not possible to install after construction. This paper summarizes the two seismically-strengthened wharves and discusses the instrumentation schemes and objectives. ?? 2009 ASCE.

Huang, M.J.; Shakal, A.F.

2009-01-01

64

Strong Earthquake Motion Estimates for the UCSB Campus, and Related Response of the Engineering 1 Building  

SciTech Connect

This is the second report on the UC/CLC Campus Earthquake Program (CEP), concerning the estimation of exposure of the U.C. Santa Barbara campus to strong earthquake motions (Phase 2 study). The main results of Phase 1 are summarized in the current report. This document describes the studies which resulted in site-specific strong motion estimates for the Engineering I site, and discusses the potential impact of these motions on the building. The main elements of Phase 2 are: (1) determining that a M 6.8 earthquake on the North Channel-Pitas Point (NCPP) fault is the largest threat to the campus. Its recurrence interval is estimated at 350 to 525 years; (2) recording earthquakes from that fault on March 23, 1998 (M 3.2) and May 14, 1999 (M 3.2) at the new UCSB seismic station; (3) using these recordings as empirical Green's functions (EGF) in scenario earthquake simulations which provided strong motion estimates (seismic syntheses) at a depth of 74 m under the Engineering I site; 240 such simulations were performed, each with the same seismic moment, but giving a broad range of motions that were analyzed for their mean and standard deviation; (4) laboratory testing, at U.C. Berkeley and U.C. Los Angeles, of soil samples obtained from drilling at the UCSB station site, to determine their response to earthquake-type loading; (5) performing nonlinear soil dynamic calculations, using the soil properties determined in-situ and in the laboratory, to calculate the surface strong motions resulting from the seismic syntheses at depth; (6) comparing these CEP-generated strong motion estimates to acceleration spectra based on the application of state-of-practice methods - the IBC 2000 code, UBC 97 code and Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA), this comparison will be used to formulate design-basis spectra for future buildings and retrofits at UCSB; and (7) comparing the response of the Engineering I building to the CEP ground motion estimates and to the design-basis earthquake (DBE) motions used for its retrofit. Because of the new, site-specific approach which the CEP studies represent, an extensive effort of validation is documented on several fronts: (1) validation of the EGF methodology used in the seismic syntheses of strong motion at depth; (2) validation of the soil profile used for the Engineering I site; (3) validation of the 1-D vertical seismic wave propagation assumption at the UCSB site; and (4) validation of the nonlinear soil models used to obtain strong motions at the surface. The ever-growing database of strong earthquake records clearly demonstrates the potential for great variability of ground motions from site to site in a given earthquake. These variations are only reflected in a coarse way in the state-of-the-practice Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analyses, which are rather generic. They are not either described by the simplified design spectra of the Building codes (UBC 97, IBC 2000). These shortcomings provide a strong justification for augmenting the state-of-the-practice estimates with site- specific studies such as done by the Campus Earthquake Program.

Archuleta, R.; Bonilla, F.; Doroudian, M.; Elgamal, A.; Hueze, F.

2000-06-06

65

New Hybridized Surface Wave Approach for Geotechnical Modeling of Shear Wave Velocity at Strong Motion Recording Stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong motion recording (SMR) networks often have little or no shear wave velocity measurements at stations where characterization of site amplification and site period effects is needed. Using the active Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW) method, and passive H/V microtremor method we have investigated nearly two hundred SMR sites in California, Alaska, Japan, Australia, China and Taiwan. We are conducting these studies, in part, to develop a new hybridized method of site characterization that utilizes a parallel array of harmonic-wave sources for active-source SASW, and a single long period seismometer for passive-source microtremor measurement. Surface wave methods excel in their ability to non-invasively and rapidly characterize the variation of ground stiffness properties with depth below the surface. These methods are lightweight, inexpensive to deploy, and time-efficient. They have been shown to produce accurate and deep soil stiffness profiles. By placing and wiring shakers in a large parallel circuit, either side-by-side on the ground or in a trailer-mounted array, a strong in-phase harmonic wave can be produced. The effect of arraying many sources in parallel is to increase the amplitude of waves received at far-away spaced seismometers at low frequencies so as to extend the longest wavelengths of the captured dispersion curve. The USGS system for profiling uses this concept by arraying between two and eight electro-mechanical harmonic-wave shakers. With large parallel arrays of vibrators, a dynamic force in excess of 1000 lb can be produced to vibrate the ground and produce surface waves. We adjust the harmonic wave through a swept-sine procedure to profile surface wave dispersion down to a frequency of 1 Hz and out to surface wave-wavelengths of 200-1000 meters, depending on the site stiffness. The parallel-array SASW procedure is augmented using H/V microtremor data collected with the active source turned off. Passive array microtremor data reveal the natural and resonance characteristics of the ground by capturing persistent natural vibrations. These microtremors are the result of the interaction of surface waves arriving from distant sources and the stiffness structure of the site under investigation. As such, these resonance effects are effective in constraining the layer thicknesses of the SASW shear wave velocity structure and aid in determining the depth of the deepest layer. Together, the hybridized SASW and H/V procedure provides a complete data set for modeling the geotechnical aspects of ground amplification of earthquake motions. Data from these investigations are available at http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/geotech.

Kayen, R.; Carkin, B.; Minasian, D.

2006-12-01

66

Strong motion recordings of the 2008/12/23 earthquake in Northern Italy: another case of very weak motion?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On December 23 2008 an earthquake of magnitude ML=5.1 (INGV) Mw=5.4 (INGV-Harvard Global CMT) occurred in northern Italy close to the cities of Parma and Reggio Emilia. The earthquake, with a macroseismic intensity of VI MCS, caused a very slight damage (some tens of unusable buildings and some hundreds of damaged buildings), substantially lower than the damage estimated by the loss simulation scenario currently used by the Italian Civil Protection. Due to the recent upgrading of the Italian strong motion network (RAN), the event has been recorded by a great number of accelerometers (the largest ever obtained in Italy for a single shock): 21 digital and 8 analog instruments with epicentral distances ranging from 16 to 140 km. The comparison of recorded PGA, PGV, Arias intensity, and spectral values with several widely used Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs) showed much lower ground motion values respect to the empirical predictions (a factor ranging from 4 to 2). A first explanation of the strong differences, in damage and ground motion, between actual data and predictions could be, at a first sight, attributed to the rather high focal depth of 27 km. However, even the adoption of GMPEs accounting for depth of the source and using hypocentral distance (Berge et al 2003, Pousse et al 2005), does not predict large differences in motions, especially at distances larger than 30 km where most of the data are concentrated and where the effect of depth on source-to-site distance is small. At the same time the adoption of the most recent GMPEs (Ambraseys et al 2005, Akkar & bommer 2007) taking into account the different magnitude scaling and the faster attenuation of small magnitudes through magnitude-dependent attenuation, does not show a better agreement with the recorded data. The real reasons of the above mentioned discrepancies need to be further investigated, however a possible explanation could be a low source rupture velocity, likewise the 2002 Molise earthquake that also generated very weak motions. Another explanation comes from the fact that the moment magnitude estimated by the INGV network on the basis of body-waves instead of surface-waves used by Harvard CMT, is 4.9 and not 5.4, providing a much better fit of recorded ground motions with GMPEs.

Sabetta, F.; Zambonelli, E.

2009-04-01

67

Simulation of strong earthquake motion by explosions — experiments at the Lyaur testing range in Tajikistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strong motion data of 10 controlled explosion experiments conducted in 1977 at the Lyaur testing range in the Republic of Tajikistan are revisited. The explosions were detonated in arrays, with time delay between detonation of array lines. Ground accelerations, as large as ?1.6g, were recorded at 4 sites by SMA-1 accelerographs. The records were recently digitized and processed with modern

S. Kh. Negmatullaev; M. I. Todorovska; M. D. Trifunac

1999-01-01

68

STRONG MOTION DATA PROCESSING AND RECORDING AT UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA  

E-print Network

California Los Angeles, CA 90089-2531 URL: www.usc.edu/dept/civil_eng/Earthquake_eng/ ABSTRACT A brief review of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, which in 1994 experienced the Northridge earthquake--a moderate size is presented of the Los Angeles and Vicinity Strong Motion Network operated by the University of Southern

Southern California, University of

69

Kinematic analysis of strong motion P and SV waves from the sterling event  

Microsoft Academic Search

P and SV velocity waveforms from the Sterling explosion of December 3, 1966, are analyzed from a point of view often taken in earthquake source studies. The detonation occurred in the cavity excavated by the Salmon explosion within the Tatum salt dome, Mississippii, Velocity recordings taken from nearby borehole strong motion instruments show the occurrence of significant SV energy (Perret,

Charles A. Langston

1983-01-01

70

A composite source model for computing realistic synthetic strong ground motions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A composite source model is presented for convolution with synthetic Green's functions, in order to synthesize strong ground motions due to a complex rupture process of a large earthquake. Subevents with a power-law distribution of sizes are located randomly on the fault. Each subevent radiates a displacement pulse with the shape of a Brune's pulse in the far field, at

Yuehua Zeng; John G. Anderson; Guang Yu

1994-01-01

71

ON THE CORRELATION OF SEISMIC INTENSITY SCALES WITH THE PEAKS OF RECORDED STRONG .GROUND MOTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correlations of the recorded peak acceleration, velocity and displacement, and the Modified Mercalli intensity have been carried out for 57 earthquakes and 187 strong-motion accelerograms recorded in the Western United States. Correlations of peak acceleration with intensity, characterized by the data scatter exceeding one order of magnitude, have lead to average peak accelerations which are higher than those reported by

M. D. TRIFUNAC; A. G. BRADY

1975-01-01

72

Turkey Flat Site Effects Test Area The Turkey-Flat strong motion "blind"  

E-print Network

Turkey Flat Site Effects Test Area B B' A A' C C' The Turkey-Flat strong motion "blind" prediction Geological Survey Turkey Flat, USA Site Effects Test Area: "Blind" Test of Predicted Ground Response of a Shallow Stiff-Soil Site to the September 28, 2004 M6.0 Parkfield Earthquake Turkey Flat Working Group Stay

Oprsal, Ivo

73

THE EMILIA THRUST EARTHQUAKE OF 20 MAY 2012 (NORTHERN ITALY): STRONG MOTION AND GEOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS  

E-print Network

1 THE EMILIA THRUST EARTHQUAKE OF 20 MAY 2012 (NORTHERN ITALY): STRONG MOTION AND GEOLOGICAL INTRODUCTION On 20 May 2012, at 02:03:53 (UTC), Northern Italy was struck by an earthquake of magnitude Ml 5 with Ml 4.8. Eleven events with magnitude 4.0 Ml 4.5, plus several other minor earthquakes, occurred

Fleskes, Joe

74

Far-field analysis of effects of unilateral rupturing fault on the space correlation of strong ground motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the assumption that seismic source is simplified as linear rupture fault with finite length, this paper qualitatively studies\\u000a the seismic source effects on space correlation of strong ground motion. Based on expanding expression of Fourier spectrum\\u000a of strong ground motion with space coordinate variables, this paper also gives a expression of describing correlation of strong\\u000a ground motion field. According

Xing Jin; Chao Chen; Ming-Yu Zhang

2000-01-01

75

Comparison of damping in buildings under low-amplitude and strong motions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of damping values and other dynamic characteristics of five buildings using strong-motion and low-amplitude (ambient vibration) data. The strong-motion dynamic characteristics of five buildings within the San Francisco Bay area are extracted from recordings of the 17 October 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (LPE). Ambient vibration response characteristics for the same five buildings were inferred using data collected in 1990 following LPE. Additional earthquake data other than LPE for one building and ambient vibration data collected before LPE for two other buildings provide additional confirmation of the results obtained. For each building, the percentages of critical damping and the corresponding fundamental periods determined from low-amplitude test data are appreciably lower than those determined from strong-motion recordings. These differences are attributed mainly to soil-structure interaction and other non-linear behavior affecting the structures during strong shaking. Significant contribution of radiation damping to the effective damping of a specific building is discussed in detail.

Celebi, M.

1996-01-01

76

STRONG GROUND MOTION IN THE VERY NEAR FIELD AS AN EXAMPLE OF THE 2008 IWATE-MIYAGI EARTHQUAKE  

E-print Network

STRONG GROUND MOTION IN THE VERY NEAR FIELD AS AN EXAMPLE OF THE 2008 IWATE-MIYAGI EARTHQUAKE AOCHI de Recherches Géologiques et Minières, Orléans, France (h.aochi@brgm.fr) The extreme ground motion standard construction code is applied. Such extreme ground motion is identified by a PGV (Peak Vround

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

77

Testing the validity of simulated strong ground motion from the dynamic rupture of a finite fault, by using empirical equations  

E-print Network

Testing the validity of simulated strong ground motion from the dynamic rupture of a finite fault of the ground motions estimated by combining a boundary integral equation method to simulate dynamic rupture. The validation exercise is conducted by comparing the calculated ground motions at about 100 hypothetical

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

78

44444444 00000000 EE-21C, Topic 2: Strong Ground Motion, Engineering Seismology, Earthquake Hazard and Risk Assessment  

E-print Network

TTT222 44444444 00000000 EE-21C, Topic 2: Strong Ground Motion, Engineering Seismology, Earthquake IN GROUND MOTION ESTIMATION John Douglas1 , Hideo Aochi2 , Peter Suhadolc3 , Giovanni Costa4 1 ARN/RIS, BRGM of empirical ground motion estimation equations through the incorporation of crustal structure is assessed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

79

Investigations on Strong Ground Motion of the Wenchuan Earthquake of 12 May 2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strong ground motion records of Wenchuan earthquake of 12 May 2008 contain rich physical information although only very few of them have been revealed. This talk will present our recent studies on the strong ground motion of this earthquake. First, since Wenchuan earthquake occurred in a transition region between the basin and plateau, erosion and river incision result in a rough morphology with steep topographic slopes, which provide the geo-morphological setting prone to landslides during a strong earthquake, as reported after the Wenchuan earthquake. To understand how this rough topography affecting the seismic hazard, we simulated the strong ground motion caused by the earthquake, incorporating three-dimensional (3D) earth structure, finite-fault rupture, and realistic surface topography by using the recently developed Curved-Grid FDM (Zhang & Chen, 2006,2012) which can adequately deal with arbitrarily rough topography. The simulated ground motions reveal that the fault rupture and basin structure control the overall pattern of the peak ground shaking. Rough topography above the rupture fault causes wave scattering, resulting in significantly larger peak ground motion on the apex of topographic relief than in the valley. Topography and scattering also reduce the wave energy in the forward direction of fault rupture but increase the PGV in other parts of the basin. These results suggest the need for a localized hazard assessment in places of rough topography that takes the topographic effects into account. Secondly, we measured the fmax from strong ground motion records of the main-shock, and found that fmax values presented a V-shaped distribution along the ruptured fault. The minimal fmax value is recorded at the 051PXZ station which is near the epicenter, and fmax increases as the distance deviates farther from the station. The maximal fmax is recorded at the most northern station with respect to the epicenter. According to the relation between fmax and size of cohesive zone (Papageorgiou and Aki,1983), such a V-shaped fmax distribution implies that the cohesive zone distribution along the ruptured fault presents a rhombus shape.

Chen, X.; Zhang, W.; Zhu, G.

2012-12-01

80

Dense Strong Motion Seismograph Networks in Canada: Opportunities and Applications. (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong motion monitoring has undergone a revolution in Canada in recent years. Most analogue, non-communicating instruments have been replaced with modern, smart digital instruments that provide information in real-time. These new instruments have on-board computing capabilities and can serve multiple purposes when connected in networks with fast Internet based telemetry. As of 2010, the Geological Survey of Canada operates 110 strong motion instruments (Internet Acclerometers or IA=s) across Canada, most of which are deployed in or near the urban centres of high seismic hazard in southwest British Columbia. Partner organisations operate an additional 70 strong motion instruments monitoring critical infrastructure in western Canada. These instruments and data serve multiple purposes: 1. They help to fill the still sparse data-base of strong ground motions required for seismic engineering and hazard and risk assessment in general. 2. Recordings of small, moderate (and large) earthquakes can be utilised for earthquake site response studies - mapping the variation in shaking across urban areas and the effects of surface geology, sedimentary basins, and topography. 3. They contribute to the development of real-time warning systems. 4. They contribute to situational awareness after a major earthquake (e.g., shaking maps). 5. Their data can be integrated with structural monitoring systems to aide in the rapid assessment of critical infrastructure and life lines in the aftermath of a large earthquake. These applications require a sufficiently high density of stations in a high earthquake risk area and as well a new type of smart instrument which can provide a tailored parameter set describing the nature and severity of earthquake ground motion in real time and in a form suitable as input for engineering models. The real time transmittal of data into easily accessible displays can facilitate post earthquake response and inspection, and can enable emergency funding agencies to focus recovery efforts. Here, we provide an overview of how the strong motion network in the high-risk region of southwest British Columbia operates and present some examples of new opportunities and applications.

Cassidy, J. F.; Rosenberger, A.; Rogers, G. C.; Huffman, S.

2010-12-01

81

Chapter A. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Strong Ground Motion  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Strong ground motion generated by the Loma Prieta, Calif., earthquake (MS~7.1) of October 17, 1989, resulted in at least 63 deaths, more than 3,757 injuries, and damage estimated to exceed $5.9 billion. Strong ground motion severely damaged critical lifelines (freeway overpasses, bridges, and pipelines), caused severe damage to poorly constructed buildings, and induced a significant number of ground failures associated with liquefaction and landsliding. It also caused a significant proportion of the damage and loss of life at distances as far as 100 km from the epicenter. Consequently, understanding the characteristics of the strong ground motion associated with the earthquake is fundamental to understanding the earthquake's devastating impact on society. The papers assembled in this chapter address this problem. Damage to vulnerable structures from the earthquake varied substantially with the distance from the causative fault and the type of underlying geologic deposits. Most of the damage and loss of life occurred in areas underlain by 'soft soil'. Quantifying these effects is important for understanding the tragic concentrations of damage in such areas as Santa Cruz and the Marina and Embarcadero Districts of San Francisco, and the failures of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge and the Interstate Highway 880 overpass. Most importantly, understanding these effects is a necessary prerequisite for improving mitigation measures for larger earthquakes likely to occur much closer to densely urbanized areas in the San Francisco Bay region. The earthquake generated an especially important data set for understanding variations in the severity of strong ground motion. Instrumental strong-motion recordings were obtained at 131 sites located from about 6 to 175 km from the rupture zone. This set of recordings, the largest yet collected for an event of this size, was obtained from sites on various geologic deposits, including a unique set on 'soft soil' deposits (artificial fill and bay mud). These exceptional ground-motion data are used by the authors of the papers in this chapter to infer radiation characteristics of the earthquake source, identify dominant propagation characteristics of the Earth?s crust, quantify amplification characteristics of near-surface geologic deposits, develop general amplification factors for site-dependent building-code provisions, and revise earthquake-hazard assessments for the San Francisco Bay region. Interpretations of additional data recorded in well-instrumented buildings, dams, and freeway overpasses are provided in other chapters of this report.

Borcherdt, Roger D.

1994-01-01

82

Vision for the Future of the US National Strong-Motion Program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This document provides the requested vision for the future of the National Strong-Motion Program operated by the US Geological Survey. Options for operation of the program are presented in a companion document. Each of the three major charges of the EHRP, program council pertaining to the vision document is addressed here. The 'Vision Summary' through a series of answers to specific questions is intended to provide a complete synopsis of the committees response to program council charges. The Vision for the Future of the NSMP is presented as section III of the Summary. Analysis and detailed discussion supporting the answers in the summary are presented as sections organized according to the charges of the program council. The mission for the program is adopted from that developed at the national workshop entitled 'Research Needs for Strong Motion Data to Support Earthquake Engineering' sponsored by the National Science Foundation.

Committee for the Future of the US National Strong-Motion Program

1997-01-01

83

Before and after retrofit - response of a building during ambient and strong motions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper presents results obtained from ambient vibration and strong-motion responses of a thirteen-story, moment-resisting steel framed Santa Clara County Office Building (SCCOB) before being retrofitted by visco-elastic dampers and from ambient vibration response following the retrofit. Understanding the cumulative structural and site characteristics that affect the response of SCCOB before and after the retrofit is important in assessing earthquake hazards to other similar buildings and decision making in retrofitting them. The results emphasize the need to better evaluate structural and site characteristics in developing earthquake resisting designs that avoid resonating effects. Various studies of the strong-motion response records from the SCCOB during the 24 April 1984 (MHE) Morgan Hill (MS = 6.1), the 31 March 1986 (MLE) Mt. Lewis (MS = 6.1) and the 17 October 1989 (LPE) Loma Prieta (MS = 7.1) earthquakes show that the dynamic characteristics of the building are such that it (a) resonated (b) responded with a beating effect due to close-coupling of its translational and torsional frequencies, and (c) had a long-duration response due to low-damping. During each of these earthquakes, there was considerable contents damage and the occupants felt the rigorous vibration of the building. Ambient tests of SCCOB performed following LPE showed that both translational and torsional periods of the building are smaller than those derived from strong motions. Ambient tests performed following the retrofit of the building with visco-elastic dampers show that the structural fundamental mode frequency of the building has increased. The increased frequency implies a stiffer structure. Strong-motion response of the building during future earthquakes will ultimately validate the effectiveness of the retrofit method.This paper presents results obtained from ambient vibration and strong-motion responses of a thirteen-story, moment-resisting steel framed Santa Clara County Office Building (SCCOB) before being retrofitted by visco-elastic dampers and from ambient vibration response following the retrofit. Understanding the cumulative structural and site characteristics that affect the response of SCCOB before and after the retrofit is important in assessing earthquake hazards to other similar buildings and decision making in retrofitting them. The results emphasize the need to better evaluate structural and site characteristics in developing earthquake resisting designs that avoid resonating effects. Various studies of the strong-motion response records from the SCCOB during the 24 April 1984 (MHE) Morgan Hill (Ms = 6.1), the 31 March 1986 (MLE) Mt. Lewis (Ms = 6.1) and the 17 October 1989(LPE) Loma Prieta (Ms = 7.1) earthquakes show that the dynamic characteristics of the building are such that it (a) resonated (b) responded with a beating effect due to close-coupling of its translational and torsional frequencies, and (c) had a long-duration response due to low-damping. During each of these earthquakes, there was considerable contents damage and the occupants felt the rigorous vibration of the building. Ambient tests of SCCOB performed following LPE showed that both translational and torsional periods of the building are smaller than those derived from strong motions. Ambient tests performed following the retrofit of the building with visco-elastic dampers show that the structural fundamental mode frequency of the building has increased. The increased frequency implies a stiffer structure. Strong-motion response of the building during future earthquakes will ultimately validate the effectiveness of the retrofit method.

Celebi, M.; Liu, H.-P.

1998-01-01

84

STRONG-MOTION INSTRUMENTATION OF STRUCTURES IN CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA AND ELSEWHERE.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Instrumentation of structures is part of earthquake hazard mitigation program of many institutions, including the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The USGS Strong-Motion Instrumentation of Structures Program is designed to complement other programs and to implement its own, within budget and other constraints. This paper reviews the overall national effort, cites examples of structures implemented and describes progress made to date. A recent example of instrumentation of an eight-story building in Charleston, South Carolina is documented.

Celebi, M.; Maley, R.

1986-01-01

85

Strong-Motion Networks in Romania and Their Efficient Use in the Structural Engineering Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Created in 1967 for strong motion recording, the seismic network of the National Institute for Building Research, INCERC,\\u000a is, at present, the largest in Romania, consisting of almost 100 instruments, distributed all over the country. Other seismic\\u000a networks operating in Romania are the network of the National Institute for Earth Physics, INFP, and the network of the National\\u000a Center for

I. G. Craifaleanu; I. S. Borcia; I. C. Praun

86

RUPTURE MODEL OF THE 1989 LOMA PRIETA EARTHQUAKE FROM THE INVERSION OF STRONG-MOTION AND BROADBAND TELESEISMIC DATA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used 24 broadband teleseismic and 48 components of local strong-motion velocity records of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake in a formal inversion to determine the temporal and spatial distribution of slip. Separate inversions of the teleseismic data (periods of 3 to 30 sec) or strong-motion data (periods of 1 to 5 sec) result in similar models. The data

DAVID J. WALD; DONALD V. HELMBERGER; THOMAS H. HEATON

87

A strong-motion network in Northern Italy (RAIS): data acquisition and processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The necessity of a dense network in Northern Italy started from the lack of available data after the occurrence of the 24th November 2004, Ml 5.2, Salò earthquake. Since 2006 many efforts have been made by the INGV (Italian National Institute for Geophysics and Volcanology), department of Milano-Pavia (hereinafter INGV MI-PV), to improve the strong-motion monitoring of the Northern Italy regions. At the end of 2007, the RAIS (Strong-Motion Network in Northern Italy) included 19 stations equipped with Kinemetrics Episensor FBA ES-T coupled with 5 20-bits Lennartz Mars88/MC and 14 24-bits Reftek 130-01 seismic recorders. In this step, we achieved the goal to reduce the average inter-distances between strong-motion stations, installed in the area under study, from about 40 km to 15 km. In this period the GSM-modem connection between the INGV MI-PV acquisition center and the remote stations was used. Starting to 2008, in order to assure real-time recordings, with the aim to integrate RAIS data in the calculation of the Italian ground-shaking maps, the main activity was devoted to update the data acquisition of the RAIS strong-motion network. Moreover a phase that will lead to replace the original recorders with 24-bits GAIA2 systems (directly produced by INGV-CNT laboratory, Rome) has been starting. Today 11 out of the 22 stations are already equipped by GAIA2 and their original GSM-modem acquisition system were already replaced with real-time connections, based on TCP/IP or Wi-Fi links. All real time stations storage data using the MiniSEED format. The management and data exchange are assured by the SEED-Link and Earthworm packages. The metadata dissemination is achieved through the website, where the computed strong motion parameters, together the amplification functions, for each recording station are available for each recorded events. The waveforms, for earthquake with local magnitude higher than 3.0 are now collected in the ITalian ACcelerometric Archive (http://itaca.mi.ingv.it).

Augliera, Paolo; Ezio, D'alema; Simone, Marzorati; Marco, Massa

2010-05-01

88

The near-source strong-motion accelerograms recorded by an experimental array in Tangshan, China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A joint research project on strong-motion earthquake studies between the People's Republic of China and the United States is in progress. As a part of this project, an experimental strong-motion array, consisting of twelve Kinemetrics PDR-1 Digital Event Recorders, was deployed in the meizoseismal area of the Ms = 7.8 Tangshan earthquake of July 28, 1976. These instruments have automatic gain ranging, a specified dynamic range of 102 dB, a 2.5 s pre-event memory, programmable triggering, and are equipped with TCG-1B Time Code Generators with a stability of 3 parts in 107 over a range of 0-50??C. In 2 y of operation beginning July, 1982 a total of 603 near-source 3-component accelerograms were gathered from 243 earthquakes of magnitude ML = 1.2-5.3. Most of these accelerograms have recorded the initial P-wave. The configuration of the experimental array and a representative set of near-source strong-motion accelerograms are presented in this paper. The set of accelerograms exhibited were obtained during the ML = 5.3 Lulong earthquake of October 19, 1982, when digital event recorders were triggered. The epicentral distances ranged from 4 to 41 km and the corresponding range of peak horizontal accelerations was 0.232g to 0.009g. A preliminary analysis of the data indicates that compared to motions in the western United States, the peak acceleration attenuates much more rapidly in the Tangshan area. The scaling of peak acceleration with magnitude, however, is similar in the two regions. Data at more distant sites are needed to confirm the more rapid attenuation. ?? 1985.

Peng, K.; Xie, L.; Li, S.; Boore, D.M.; Iwan, W.D.; Teng, T.L.

1985-01-01

89

Addressing earthquake strong ground motion issues at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

In the course of reassessing seismic hazards at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), several key issues have been raised concerning the effects of the earthquake source and site geology on potential strong ground motions that might be generated by a large earthquake. The design earthquake for the INEL is an approximate moment magnitude (M{sub w}) 7 event that may occur on the southern portion of the Lemhi fault, a Basin and Range normal fault that is located on the northwestern boundary of the eastern Snake River Plain and the INEL, within 10 to 27km of several major facilities. Because the locations of these facilities place them at close distances to a large earthquake and generally along strike of the causative fault, the effects of source rupture dynamics (e.g., directivity) could be critical in enhancing potential ground shaking at the INEL. An additional source issue that has been addressed is the value of stress drop to use in ground motions predictions. In terms of site geology, it has been questioned whether the interbedded volcanic stratigraphy beneath the ESRP and the INEL attenuates ground motions to a greater degree than a typical rock site in the western US. These three issues have been investigated employing a stochastic ground motion methodology which incorporates the Band-Limited-White-Noise source model for both a point source and finite fault, random vibration theory and an equivalent linear approach to model soil response.

Wong, I.G. [Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Oakland, CA (United States); Silva, W.J.; Stark, C.L. [Pacific Engineering & Analysis, El Cerrito, CA (United States); Jackson, S.; Smith, R.P. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1991-12-31

90

The Bishkek vertical array (BIVA): acquiring strong motion data in Kyrgyzstan and first results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from a vertical array of accelerometers that was recently installed in Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan) with the long-term aim of recording strong motion data. Taking advantage of recordings of a Mb 4.7 earthquake that occurred 40 km from the array site during the installation phase, we provide results of some preliminary data analysis. First, estimates of the S-wave velocity and Qs structure are deduced by the inversion of the deconvolved wavefield between the sensors in the borehole. Furthermore, the application of the nonstationary ray decomposition Kinoshita (Earth Planets Space 61:1297-1312, 2009) allowed at least three reflectors in the shallow velocity structure below the array to be identified. The complex nature of the wavefield (with up-going, down-going waves, and converted phases) due to the coarse, unconsolidated subsoil structure is highlighted by means of numerical simulations of ground motion.

Parolai, S.; Bindi, D.; Ullah, S.; Orunbaev, S.; Usupaev, S.; Moldobekov, B.; Echtler, H.

2013-04-01

91

The SCEC Broadband Platform: A Collaborative Open-Source Software Package for Strong Ground Motion Simulation and Validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Broadband Platform is a collaborative software development project involving SCEC researchers, graduate students, and the SCEC Community Modeling Environment. The SCEC Broadband Platform is open-source scientific software that can generate broadband (0-100Hz) ground motions for earthquakes, integrating complex scientific modules that implement rupture generation, low and high-frequency seismogram synthesis, non-linear site effects calculation, and visualization into a software system that supports easy on-demand computation of seismograms. The Broadband Platform operates in two primary modes: validation simulations and scenario simulations. In validation mode, the Broadband Platform runs earthquake rupture and wave propagation modeling software to calculate seismograms of a historical earthquake for which observed strong ground motion data is available. Also in validation mode, the Broadband Platform calculates a number of goodness of fit measurements that quantify how well the model-based broadband seismograms match the observed seismograms for a certain event. Based on these results, the Platform can be used to tune and validate different numerical modeling techniques. During the past year, we have modified the software to enable the addition of a large number of historical events, and we are now adding validation simulation inputs and observational data for 23 historical events covering the Eastern and Western United States, Japan, Taiwan, Turkey, and Italy. In scenario mode, the Broadband Platform can run simulations for hypothetical (scenario) earthquakes. In this mode, users input an earthquake description, a list of station names and locations, and a 1D velocity model for their region of interest, and the Broadband Platform software then calculates ground motions for the specified stations. By establishing an interface between scientific modules with a common set of input and output files, the Broadband Platform facilitates the addition of new scientific methods, which are written by earth scientists in a number of languages such as C, C++, Fortran, and Python. The Broadband Platform's modular design also supports the reuse of existing software modules as building blocks to create new scientific methods. Additionally, the Platform implements a wrapper around each scientific module, converting input and output files to and from the specific formats required (or produced) by individual scientific codes. Working in close collaboration with scientists and research engineers, the SCEC software development group continues to add new capabilities to the Broadband Platform and to release new versions as open-source scientific software distributions that can be compiled and run on many Linux computer systems. Our latest release includes the addition of 3 new simulation methods and several new data products, such as map and distance-based goodness of fit plots. Finally, as the number and complexity of scenarios simulated using the Broadband Platform increase, we have added batching utilities to substantially improve support for running large-scale simulations on computing clusters.

Silva, F.; Maechling, P. J.; Goulet, C.; Somerville, P.; Jordan, T. H.

2013-12-01

92

Modelling Strong Ground Motions for Subduction Events in the Wellington Region, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is a part of the “It’s Our Fault” programme, whose goal is to make Wellington, New Zealand, a more resilient city regarding earthquake hazards. We are working on defining ground motions from large plate boundary earthquakes at specified locations in the Wellington region in terms of response spectra and acceleration time histories. These motions will provide input for risk modelling for a potential major earthquake additional to those associated with the active faults of the region. Broadband waveforms are modelled applying the hybrid technique combining deterministic and stochastic approaches. We follow the proposed recipe by Irikura et al. (2004) to predict strong ground motions. We validated Irikura’s code and recipe using the strong motion dataset from the 2003 Mw 7.2 Fiordland earthquake, with both empirical and stochastic Green’s functions. The method was satisfactorily tested using an intraslab rupture and a record from a nearby aftershock as the empirical Green’s function (EGF). Although the event generated many aftershocks, it was difficult to find small events with 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the mainshock, recorded at a well distributed set of stations, with a rupture mechanism close enough to the mainshock. The alternative to using EGF is the stochastic Green’s functions (SGF) approach. We chose the Motazedian and Atkinson (2005) method for its assumption of a finite fault source model (instead of a point source). This assumption is closer to reality for Green’s functions in our case study where events have magnitudes greater than 5, and distances less than 200 km. We are now applying this method to a source scenario representing a locked interface underneath Wellington. A range of rupture scenarios will be modelled with varying hypocentre location, asperity locations, and overall rupture area. Finally, recent advances in detailed modelling of the Wellington basin geology will allow us to include site effects in our studies.

Francois-Holden, C.; Zhao, J.

2010-12-01

93

Translational motion of two interacting bubbles in a strong acoustic field.  

PubMed

Using the Lagrangian formalism, equations of radial and translational motions of two coupled spherical gas bubbles have been derived up to terms of third order in the inverse distance between the bubbles. The equations of radial pulsations were then modified, for the purpose of allowing for effects of liquid compressibility, using Keller-Miksis' approach, and the equations of translation were added by viscous forces in the form of the Levich drag. This model was then used in a numerical investigation of the translational motion of two small, driven well below resonance, bubbles in strong acoustic fields with pressure amplitudes exceeding 1 bar. It has been found that, if the forcing is strong enough, the bubbles form a bound pair with a steady spacing rather than collide and coalesce, as classical Bjerknes theory predicts. Moreover, the viscous forces cause skewness in the system, which results in self-propulsion of the bubble pair. The latter travels as a unit along the center line in a direction that is determined by the ratio of the initial bubble radii. The results obtained are of immediate interest for understanding and modeling collective bubble phenomena in strong fields, such as acoustic cavitation streamers. PMID:11497693

Doinikov, A A

2001-08-01

94

Characterization of Italian strong-motion recording sites for a new soil classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This works is carried out in the framework of the project S4 “Italian strong-motion database” funded by the Italian Civil Protection, whose aims include the evaluation of the seismic response of accelerometric stations and explore new soil parameters to be used for site classification scheme. Actually, the site classification of the national accelerometric network is mainly based on geological information, since only for few stations detailed geophysical/geotechnical information are available. From the Italian strong motion data set, we developed ground motion prediction equations (GrMPEs) in which the sites are subdivided into three classes based on geology and deposit thickness. We found that the dominant component of variance is related to the inter-station component, suggesting that alternative classification criteria should be adopted in order to reduce the inter-station variability. To evaluate the effectiveness of the average shear wave velocity of the topmost 30m as parameter to classify the soils, we collected about 50 Italian sites, where measures of Vs30 were available, together with a relevant number of seismic recordings. Furthermore, we planned to determinate shear wave velocity profiles at about other 50 accelerometer stations through the active and passive surface wave methods. In this analysis we also considered data from stations in the area of the recently occurred Mw 6.3 Abruzzo earthquake. In particular, the S-wave velocity profile for the village of Onna, that was severely damaged during the earthquake, was included to the data set. We calculated the site response using empirical techniques and simplified theoretical models. Moreover we compared the observed strong motion parameters to those from seismic provisions or from GrMPEs and evaluated the residuals. In many cases the inefficiency of the Vs30 classification was evident, especially for those sites located on deep sedimentary basins. The results confirm that additional parameters, such as depth of the soil deposit, average shear wave velocity down to bedrock depth, the resonance period, other than Vs30 should be provided for a correct determination of the expected ground motion.

Pacor, F.; Luzi, L.; Bindi, D.; Parolai, S.; Picozzi, M.; Pilz, M.; Mucciarelli, M.; Gallipoli, M.; Paolucci, R.

2009-12-01

95

Strong Ground Motion Simulation of the 2011 Honshu, Japan, Earthquake Using Empirical Green's Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mw 9.0 Honshu earthquake of March 11, 2011 is the largest earthquake ever recorded in Japan, and is among the 5 largest earthquakes recorded worldwide. It has been followed by a series of powerful aftershocks, with 31 events of magnitude larger than 6 in three days. It generated huge tsunami waves in the Pacific. The death toll as of April 2, 2011 exceeded 12,157 largely due to the tsunami whose amplitude overwhelmed coastal defences. In this study, we simulate the near-field strong ground motions of this earthquake by using empirical Green's function (EGF) method (Irikura, 1988) .Slip-distribution inversion results from USGS, ERI, etc. showed that there were two large asperities on the fault plane. According to these results, we selected two aftershocks whose source mechanisms were similar with the two asperities as the EGFs. Considering the epicenter distance of all selected stations is less than the fault dimension of the 2011 Honshu Earthquake, we did not estimate the parameter of EGF (C and N) by the source spectral fitting method, but directly applied the scaling relation (Somerville et al., 1999) to estimate the size of strong motion generation area (SMGA) in the rupture area of the main-shock, and then use the genetic algorithm (GA) to get the best values of the parameter of C (related the stress drop) and the source rise-time by fitting the envelope of the synthetic broadband waveforms with that of the observed records. Based on the source model, we simulated the near-field strong ground motions. Our result shows that most of the syntheti waveforms agreed well with the observed records in the frequency range from 0.5 Hz to 10 Hz. Our result also shows that the source rise-time we obtained is smaller than the extrapolation of the scaling law proposed by Somerville et al. (1999).

Yao, X.; Zhang, W.

2011-12-01

96

BulletinoftheSeismologicalSocietyofAmerica,Vol 73,No 6,pp 1553-1583,December1983 INVERSION OF STRONG GROUND MOTION AND TELESEISMIC  

E-print Network

OF STRONG GROUND MOTION AND TELESEISMIC WAVEFORM DATA FOR THE FAULT RUPTURE HISTORY OF THE 1979 IMPERIAL-by-point inversion of strong ground motion and tele- seismic body waves is used to infer the fault rupture history the strong ground motions alone, the teleseismic body waves alone, and simultaneously the strong ground

Greer, Julia R.

97

Earthquake Strong Ground Motion Scenario at the 2008 Olympic Games Sites, Beijing, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historic earthquake record indicates mediate to strong earthquakes have been frequently hit greater Beijing metropolitan area where is going to host the 2008 summer Olympic Games. For the readiness preparation of emergency response to the earthquake shaking for a mega event in a mega city like Beijing in summer 2008, this paper tries to construct the strong ground motion scenario at a number of gymnasium sites for the 2008 Olympic Games. During the last 500 years (the Ming and Qing Dynasties) in which the historic earthquake record are thorough and complete, there are at least 12 earthquake events with the maximum intensity of VI or greater occurred within 100 km radius centered at the Tiananmen Square, the center of Beijing City. Numerical simulation of the seismic wave propagation and surface strong ground motion is carried out by the pseudospectral time domain methods with viscoelastic material properties. To improve the modeling efficiency and accuracy, a multi-scale approach is adapted: the seismic wave propagation originated from an earthquake rupture source is first simulated by a model with larger physical domain with coarser grids. Then the wavefield at a given plane is taken as the source input for the small-scale, fine grid model for the strong ground motion study at the sites. The earthquake source rupture scenario is based on two particular historic earthquake events: One is the Great 1679 Sanhe-Pinggu Earthquake (M~8, Maximum Intensity XI at the epicenter and Intensity VIII in city center)) whose epicenter is about 60 km ENE of the city center. The other one is the 1730 Haidian Earthquake (M~6, Maximum Intensity IX at the epicenter and Intensity VIII in city center) with the epicentral distance less than 20 km away from the city center in the NW Haidian District. The exist of the thick Tertiary-Quaternary sediments (maximum thickness ~ 2 km) in Beijing area plays a critical role on estimating the surface ground motion at the Olympic Games sites, which are most located north of the city center.

Liu, L.; Rohrbach, E. A.; Chen, Q.; Chen, Y.

2006-12-01

98

The Quake-Catcher Network: Improving Earthquake Strong Motion Observations Through Community Engagement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) involves the community in strong motion data collection by utilizing volunteer computing techniques and low-cost MEMS accelerometers. Volunteer computing provides a mechanism to expand strong-motion seismology with minimal infrastructure costs, while promoting community participation in science. Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) triaxial accelerometers can be attached to a desktop computer via USB and are internal to many laptops. Preliminary shake table tests show the MEMS accelerometers can record high-quality seismic data with instrument response similar to research-grade strong-motion sensors. QCN began distributing sensors and software to K-12 schools and the general public in April 2008 and has grown to roughly 1500 stations worldwide. We also recently tested whether sensors could be quickly deployed as part of a Rapid Aftershock Mobilization Program (RAMP) following the 2010 M8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake. Volunteers are recruited through media reports, web-based sensor request forms, as well as social networking sites. Using data collected to date, we examine whether a distributed sensing network can provide valuable seismic data for earthquake detection and characterization while promoting community participation in earthquake science. We utilize client-side triggering algorithms to determine when significant ground shaking occurs and this metadata is sent to the main QCN server. On average, trigger metadata are received within 1-10 seconds from the observation of a trigger; the larger data latencies are correlated with greater server-station distances. When triggers are detected, we determine if the triggers correlate to others in the network using spatial and temporal clustering of incoming trigger information. If a minimum number of triggers are detected then a QCN-event is declared and an initial earthquake location and magnitude is estimated. Initial analysis suggests that the estimated locations and magnitudes are similar to those reported in regional and global catalogs. As the network expands, it will become increasingly important to provide volunteers access to the data they collect, both to encourage continued participation in the network and to improve community engagement in scientific discourse related to seismic hazard. In the future, we hope to provide access to both images and raw data from seismograms in formats accessible to the general public through existing seismic data archives (e.g. IRIS, SCSN) and/or through the QCN project website. While encouraging community participation in seismic data collection, we can extend the capabilities of existing seismic networks to rapidly detect and characterize strong motion events. In addition, the dense waveform observations may provide high-resolution ground shaking information to improve source imaging and seismic risk assessment.

Cochran, E. S.; Lawrence, J. F.; Christensen, C. M.; Chung, A. I.; Neighbors, C.; Saltzman, J.

2010-12-01

99

Strong ground motions of the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake: modeling and scenario simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On April 6, 2009 a Mw 6.3 earthquake struck the L'Aquila city, one of the largest urban centers in the Abruzzo region (Central Italy), causing a large number of casualties and damage in the town and surrounding villages. The earthquake has been recorded by several digital stations of the Italian Strong-Motion Network. The collected records represent a unique dataset in Italy in terms of number and quality of records, azimuthal coverage and presence of near-fault recordings. Soon after the earthquake the damage in the epicentral area was also assessed providing macroseismic intensity estimates, in MCS scale, for 314 localities (I ?5). Despite the moderate magnitude of the L'Aquila earthquake, the strong-motion and macroseismic data in the vicinity of the fault depict a large variability of the observed shaking and damage. In this study we present broadband (0.1 - 10 Hz) ground motion simulations of the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake to be used for engineering purposes in the region. We utilize Hybrid Integral-Composite (HIC, Gallovi? and Brokešová, 2007) approach based on a k-square kinematic rupture model, combining low-frequency coherent and high-frequency incoherent source radiation and providing omega-squared source spectral decay. We first model the recorded seismograms in order to calibrate source parameters and to assess the capabilities of the broadband simulation model. To this end, position and slip amount of the two main asperities, the largest asperity time delay and the rupture velocity distribution on the fault is constrained, based on the low-frequency slip inversion result. Synthetic Green's functions are calculated in a 1D-layered crustal model including 1D soil profiles to account for site-specific response (where available). The goodness-of-fit is evaluated in time (peak values and duration) and frequency domains (elastic and inelastic response spectra) and shows a remarkable agreement between observed and simulated data at most of the stations. The results show that not only the local site effects improve the modeling results, but also that the spatial broadband ground-motion variability is to large extent controlled by the rupture kinematics revealed by the low-frequency inversion. We simulate the ground motion at a grid of sites and compared the observed macroseismic intensity distribution with that obtained applying ground-motion to intensity conversion equations to the synthetic data. We find that the spectral ordinates at periods larger than 2s are well correlated with the macroseismic intensity pattern observed in the epicentral area. Finally, we compare the synthetic ground-motion parameters with estimates from several empirical ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs). The comparison highlights potential drawbacks in using GMPEs to validate simulated motions and/or when used for engineering purposes.

Gallovi?, F.; Ameri, G.; Pacor, F.

2012-04-01

100

Modelling strong seismic ground motion: three-dimensional loading path versus wavefield polarization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic waves due to strong earthquakes propagating in surficial soil layers may both reduce soil stiffness and increase the energy dissipation into the soil. To investigate seismic wave amplification in such cases, past studies have been devoted to one-directional shear wave propagation in a soil column (1D-propagation) considering one motion component only (1C-polarization). Three independent purely 1C computations may be performed ('1D-1C' approach) and directly superimposed in the case of weak motions (linear behaviour). This research aims at studying local site effects by considering seismic wave propagation in a 1-D soil profile accounting for the influence of the 3-D loading path and non-linear hysteretic behaviour of the soil. In the proposed '1D-3C' approach, the three components (3C-polarization) of the incident wave are simultaneously propagated into a horizontal multilayered soil. A 3-D non-linear constitutive relation for the soil is implemented in the framework of the Finite Element Method in the time domain. The complex rheology of soils is modelled by mean of a multisurface cyclic plasticity model of the Masing-Prandtl-Ishlinskii-Iwan type. The great advantage of this choice is that the only data needed to describe the model is the modulus reduction curve. A parametric study is carried out to characterize the changes in the seismic motion of the surficial layers due to both incident wavefield properties and soil non-linearities. The numerical simulations show a seismic response depending on several parameters such as polarization of seismic waves, material elastic and dynamic properties, as well as on the impedance contrast between layers and frequency content and oscillatory character of the input motion. The 3-D loading path due to the 3C-polarization leads to multi-axial stress interaction that reduces soil strength and increases non-linear effects. The non-linear behaviour of the soil may have beneficial or detrimental effects on the seismic response at the free surface, depending on the energy dissipation rate. Free surface time histories, stress-strain hysteresis loops and in-depth profiles of octahedral stress and strain are estimated for each soil column. The combination of three separate 1D-1C non-linear analyses is compared to the proposed 1D-3C approach, evidencing the influence of the 3C-polarization and the 3-D loading path on strong seismic motions.

Santisi d'Avila, Maria Paola; Lenti, Luca; Semblat, Jean-François

2012-09-01

101

The Geophysical Database Management System in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geophysical Database Management System (GDMS) is an integrated and web-based open data service which has been developed by the Central Weather Bureau (CWB), Taiwan, R.O.C. since 2005. This service went online on Aug. 1, 2008. The GDMS provides six types of geophysical data acquired from the Short-period Seismographic System, Broadband Seismographic System, Free-field Strong-motion Station, Strong-motion Building Array, Global Positioning System, and Groundwater Observation System. When utilizing the GDMS website, users can download seismic event data and continuous geophysical data. At present, many researchers have accessed this public platform to obtain geophysical data. Clearly, the establishment of GDMS is a significant improvement in data sorting for interested researchers. The geophysical monitoring network in CWB. (a) The Short-period Seismographic System. (b) The Broadband Seismographic System. (c) The Free-field Strong-motion Seismographic System. (d) The Strong-motion Building Array. (e) The Global Positioning System. (f) The Groundwater Observation System.

Pu, H.; Shin, T.; Chang, C.; Leu, P.

2013-12-01

102

Strong ground motion estimation in the Sea of Marmara region (Turkey) based on a scenario earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform a broadband frequency bedrock strong ground motion simulation in the Marmara Sea region (Turkey), based on several fault rupture scenarios and a source asperity model. The technique combines a deterministic simulation of seismic wave propagation at low frequencies with a semi-stochastic procedure for the high frequencies. To model the high frequencies, we applied a frequency-dependent radiation pattern model, which efficiently removes the effective dependence of the pattern coefficient on the azimuth and take-off angle as the frequency increases. The earthquake scenarios considered consist of the rupture of the closest segments of the North Anatolian Fault System to the city of Istanbul. Our scenario earthquakes involve the rupture of the entire North Anatolian Fault beneath the Sea of Marmara, namely the combined rupture of the Central Marmara Fault and North Boundary Fault segments. We defined three fault rupture scenarios based on the location of the hypocenter, selecting a preferred hypocentral location near a fault bend for each case. We analysed the effect of location of the asperity, within the Central Marmara Fault, on the subsequent ground motion, as well as the influence of anelasticity on the high-frequency attenuation characteristics. The fault and asperity parameters for each scenario were determined from empirical scalings and from results of kinematic and dynamic models of fault rupture. We calculated the resulting time series and spectra for ground motion at Istanbul and evaluated the sensitivity of the predictions to choice of model parameters. The location of the hypocenter is thus shown to be a critical parameter for determining the worst scenario earthquake at Istanbul. We also found that anelasticity has a significant effect on the regional attenuation of peak ground accelerations. Our simulated ground motions result in large values of acceleration response spectra at long periods, which could be critical for building damage at Istanbul during an actual earthquake.

Pulido, Nelson; Ojeda, Anibal; Atakan, Kuvvet; Kubo, Tetsuo

2004-10-01

103

ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 427, Vol. 39, No. 4, December 2002, pp. 273-310 EMPIRICAL SCALING OF STRONG EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION  

E-print Network

-310 EMPIRICAL SCALING OF STRONG EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION - PART III: SYNTHETIC STRONG MOTION V.W. Lee Civil ground motions. In this work, we will review the only complete and comprehensive family of papers which) that the nonstationarity of ground motion can influence structural response significantly. This prompted the development

Gupta, Vinay Kumar

104

Cooling to the Ground State of Axial Motion for One Atom Strongly Coupled to an Optical Cavity  

E-print Network

Localization to the ground state of axial motion is demonstrated for a single, trapped atom strongly coupled to the field of a high finesse optical resonator. The axial atomic motion is cooled by way of coherent Raman transitions on the red vibrational sideband. An efficient state detection scheme enabled by strong coupling in cavity QED is used to record the Raman spectrum, from which the state of atomic motion is inferred. We find that the lowest vibrational level of the axial potential with zero-point energy 13uK is occupied with probability P0~0.95.

A. D. Boozer; A. Boca; R. Miller; T. E. Northup; H. J. Kimble

2006-06-13

105

Broadband strong motion simulation in layered half-space using stochastic Green's function technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stochastic Green’s function method, which simulates one component of the far-field S-waves from an extended fault plane at high frequencies (Kamae et al., J Struct Constr Eng Trans AIJ, 430:1 9, 1991), is extended to simulate the three components of the full waveform in layered half-spaces for broadband frequency range. The method firstly computes ground motions from small earthquakes, which correspond to the ruptures of sub-faults on a fault plane of a large earthquake, and secondly constructs the strong motions of the large earthquake by superposing the small ground motions using the empirical Green’s function technique (e.g., Irikura, Proc 7th Japan Earthq Eng Symp, 151 156, 1986). The broadband stochastic omega-square model is proposed as the moment rate functions of the small earthquakes, in which random and zero phases are used at higher and lower frequencies, respectively. The zero phases are introduced to simulate a smooth ramp function of the moment function with the duration of 1/fc s (fc: the corner frequency) and to reproduce coherent strong motions at low frequencies (i.e., the directivity pulse). As for the radiation coefficients, the theoretical values of double couple sources for lower frequencies and the theoretical isotropic values for the P-, SV-, and SH-waves (Onishi and Horike, J Struct Constr Eng Trans AIJ, 586:37 44, 2004) for high frequencies are used. The proposed method uses the theoretical Green’s functions of layered half-spaces instead of the far-field S-waves, which reproduce the complete waves including the direct and reflected P- and S-waves and surface waves at broadband frequencies. Finally, the proposed method is applied to the 1994 Northridge earthquake, and results show excellent agreement with the observation records at broadband frequencies. At the same time, the method still needs improvements especially because it underestimates the high-frequency vertical components in the near fault range. Nonetheless, the method will be useful for modeling high frequency contributions in the hybrid methods, which use stochastic and deterministic methods for high and low frequencies, respectively (e.g., the stochastic Green’s function method + finite difference methods; Kamae et al., Bull Seism Soc Am, 88:357 367, 1998; Pitarka et al., Bull Seism Soc Am 90:566 586, 2000), because it reproduces the full waveforms in layered media including not only random characteristics at higher frequencies but also theoretical and deterministic coherencies at lower frequencies.

Hisada, Y.

2008-04-01

106

Site effects in Avcilar, West of Istanbul, Turkey, from strong- and weak-motion data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Approximately 1000 people were killed in the collapse of buildings in Istanbul, Turkey, during the 17 August 1999 I??zmit earthquake, whose epicenter was roughly 90 km east of the city. Most of the fatalities and damage occurred in the suburb of Avcilar that is 20 km further west of the epicenter than the city proper. To investigate this pattern of damage, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI), deployed portable digital seismographs at seven free-field sites in western Istanbul, to record aftershocks during the period from 24 August to 2 September. The primary objective of this deployment was to study the site effects by comparing the aftershock ground motions recorded at sites inside and outside the damaged area, and to correlate site effects with the distribution of the damaged buildings. In addition to using weak-motion data, mainshock and aftershock acceleration records from the KOERI permanent strong-motion array were also used in estimating the site effects. Site effects were estimated using S waves from both types of records. For the weak-motion data set, 22 events were selected according to the criteria of signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ratio) and the number of stations recording the same event. The magnitudes of these events ranged from 3.0 to 5.2. The acceleration data set consisted of 12 events with magnitudes ranging from 4.3 to 5.8 and included two mainshock events. Results show that the amplifying frequency band is, in general, less than 4 Hz, and the physical properties of the geologic materials are capable of amplifying the motions by a factor of 5-10. In this frequency band, there is a good agreement among the spectral ratios obtained from the two mainshocks and their aftershocks. The damage pattern for the 17 August I??zmit earthquake is determined by several factors. However, our study suggests that the site effects in Avcilar played an important role in contributing to the damage.

Ozel, O.; Cranswick, E.; Meremonte, M.; Erdik, M.; Safak, E.

2002-01-01

107

Bulletin of the SeismologicalSociety of America. Vol. 67, No. 2, pp. 315-330. April 1977 A STUDY OF THE STRONG GROUND MOTION OF THE BORREGO  

E-print Network

OF THE STRONG GROUND MOTION OF THE BORREGO MOUNTAIN, CALIFORNIA, EARTHQUAKE BY THOMASH. HEATONAND DONALD V). INTRODUCTION Understanding the nature of strong ground motion is a problem of importance to both seismologists is becoming increasingly important. In most previous wave-form modeling of strong ground motion, researchers

Greer, Julia R.

108

Calibration of strong motion models for Central America region and its use in seismic hazard assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a study aimed at choosing the more suitable strong-motion models for seismic hazard analysis in the Central America (CA) Region. After a careful revision of the state of the art, different models developed for subduction and volcanic crustal zones, in tectonic environment similar to those of CA, were selected. These models were calibrated with accelerograms recorded in Costa Rica, Nicaragua and El Salvador. The peak ground acceleration PGA and Spectral Acceleration SA (T) derived from the records were compared with the ones predicted by the models in similar conditions of magnitude, distance and soil. The type of magnitude (Ms, Mb, MW), distance (Rhyp, Rrup, etc) and ground motion parameter (maximum horizontal component, geometrical mean, etc ) was taken into account in the comparison with the real data. As results of the analysis, the models which present a best fit with the local data were identified. These models have been applied for carrying out seismic hazard analysis in the region, in the frame of the RESIS II project financed by the Norwegian Foreign Department and also by the Spanish project SISMOCAES. The methodology followed is based on the direct comparison between PGA and SA 5 % damped response values extracted from actual records with the corresponding acceleration values predicted by the selected ground-motion models for similar magnitude, distance and soil conditions. Residuals between observed and predicted values for PGA, and SA (1sec) are calculated and plotted as a function of distance and magnitude, analyzing their deviation from the mean value. Besides and most important, a statistical analysis of the normalized residuals was carry out using the criteria proposed by Scherbaum et al. (2004), which consists in categorizing ground motion models based in a likelihood parameter that reflects the goodness-of-fit of the median values as well as the shape of the underlying distribution of ground motion residuals. Considering the results of the both analysis the conclusions can be drawn in the following paragraphs. Analyses of residuals show that in some cases the best adjustments of PGA and SA values do not always favor the same equation. Consequently, the following equations that present reasonable adjustments for both parameters are finally selected: Schmidt (2010) and Zhao et al (2006) for shallow crustal sources; Schmidt (2010), Zhao et al (2006), Youngs et al. (1997) and Lin & Lee (2008) for subduction interface and Schmidt (2010), Youngs et al (1997), Zhao et al (2006) and Garcia et al (2005) for inslab subduction sources. Finally, to improve the development of proper models of attenuation of the region, it is recommended to the governmental and private institutions, to support the implementation of permanent strong ground motion networks in all Central America countries, especially in Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama, including free field stations. In case of Costa Rica and El Salvador to strengthen the networks that already they operate.

Climent, A.; Benito, M. B.; Piedra, R.; Lindholm, C.; Gaspar-Escribano, J.

2013-05-01

109

Modelling strong seismic ground motion: three-dimensional loading path versus wavefield polarization  

E-print Network

Seismic waves due to strong earthquakes propagating in surficial soil layers may both reduce soil stiffness and increase the energy dissipation into the soil. To investigate seismic wave amplification in such cases, past studies have been devoted to one-directional shear wave propagation in a soil column (1D-propagation) considering one motion component only (1C-polarization). Three independent purely 1C computations may be performed ('1D-1C' approach) and directly superimposed in the case of weak motions (linear behaviour). This research aims at studying local site effects by considering seismic wave propagation in a 1-D soil profile accounting for the influence of the 3-D loading path and non-linear hysteretic behaviour of the soil. In the proposed '1D-3C' approach, the three components (3C-polarization) of the incident wave are simultaneously propagated into a horizontal multilayered soil. A 3-D non-linear constitutive relation for the soil is implemented in the framework of the Finite Element Method in th...

D'Avila, Maria Paola Santisi; Semblat, Jean-François

2013-01-01

110

Attenuation Tomography Based on Strong Motion Data: Case Study of Central Honshu Region, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional frequency dependent S-wave quality factor (Q?(f)) value for the central Honshu region of Japan has been determined in this paper using an algorithm based on inversion of strong motion data. The method of inversion for determination of three-dimensional attenuation coefficients is proposed by H ashida and S himazaki (J Phys Earth. 32, 299-316, 1984) and has been used and modified by J oshi (Curr Sci. 90, 581-585, 2006; Nat Hazards. 43, 129-146, 2007) and J oshi et al. (J. Seismol. 14, 247-272, 2010). Twenty-one earthquakes digitally recorded on strong motion stations of Kik-net network have been used in this work. The magnitude of these earthquake ranges from 3.1 to 4.2 and depth ranging from 5 to 20 km, respectively. The borehole data having high signal to noise ratio and minimum site effect is used in the present work. The attenuation structure is determined by dividing the entire area into twenty-five three-dimensional blocks of uniform thickness having different frequency-dependent shear wave quality factor. Shear wave quality factor values have been determined at frequencies of 2.5, 7.0 and 10 Hz from record in a rectangular grid defined by 35.4°N to 36.4°N and 137.2°E to 138.2°E. The obtained attenuation structure is compared with the available geological features in the region and comparison shows that the obtained structure is capable of resolving important tectonic features present in the area. The proposed attenuation structure is compared with the probabilistic seismic hazard map of the region and shows that it bears some remarkable similarity in the patterns seen in seismic hazard map.

Kumar, Parveen; Joshi, A.; Verma, O. P.

2013-12-01

111

Source process of the 2010 Chilean earthquake using strong-motion and geodetic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the detailed source process of the Maule earthquake (Mw 8.8) of the 27 February 2010 that occurred in Central Chile using regional seismic and geodetic data. The Concepción - Consitución region has been identified as one of the major seismic gap of Chile. In this region the last large earthquake occurred in 1835, and the seismogenic zone of the plate interface was fully coupled. We studied if the slip deficit accumulated since 1835 was released during the 2010 event by determining the slip distribution of the mainshock. Accurate recordings of strong motion near earthquakes source are crucial to provide valuable information on source processes, allowing detailed mapping of the rupture in space and time. The seismological available observations are the near-source accelerograms recorded in Chile, data come from the stations operated by the Sismological Service of DGF (U. de Chile). However the data coverage remains poor to the south of the rupture, we then use in addition to accelerometric data, high-rate cGPS to invert for the displacement distribution. These data are from the network installed within the framework of the French-Chilean collaboration and have in addition the advantage to directly record displacement including static offset, and are then complementary to existing strong motion networks for recording near-source and regional ground motions. We also constrain our inverted models as solutions compatible with teleseismic data and a systematic comparison with inverted geodetic models is also performed in order to converge towards a well-constrained seismo-geodetic compatible source. Our low frequency inversion provides a relatively smooth image of the rupture history. The mainshock start in the region of Cauquenes and propagated bilaterally, filling the Concepción - Consitución gap. To the south the rupture stopped in the northern extension of the rupture zone of the 1960 mega earthquake (Mw 9.5). The rupture propagated northward overlapping the 1928 rupture zone (Mw 7.6). This clearly shows evidences that rupture length and coseismic slip vary between successive earthquake cycles in the same segment of the subduction zone.

Peyrat, S.; Socquet, A.; Vigny, C.; Ruiz, S.; Aranda, C.

2010-12-01

112

Shallow velocity structure and Poisson's ratio at the Tarzana, California, strong-motion accelerometer site  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 17 January 1994, Northridge, California, earthquake produced strong ground shaking at the Cedar Hills Nursery (referred to here as the Tarzana site) within the city of Tarzana, California, approximately 6 km from the epicenter of the mainshock. Although the Tarzana site is on a hill and is a rock site, accelerations of approximately 1.78 g horizontally and 1.2 g vertically at the Tarzana site are among the highest ever instrumentally recorded for an earthquake. To investigate possible site effects at the Tarzana site, we used explosive-source seismic refraction data to determine the shallow (<70 m) P- and S-wave velocity structure. Our seismic velocity models for the Tarzana site indicate that the local velocity structure may have contributed significantly to the observed shaking. P-wave velocities range from 0.9 to 1.65 km/sec, and S-wave velocities range from 0.20 and 0.6 km/sec for the upper 70 m. We also found evidence for a local S-wave low-velocity zone (LVZ) beneath the top of the hill. The LVZ underlies a CDMG strong-motion recording site at depths between 25 and 60 m below ground surface (BGS). Our velocity model is consistent with the near-surface (<30 m) P- and S-wave velocities and Poisson's ratios measured in a nearby (<30 m) borehole. High Poisson's ratios (0.477 to 0.494) and S-wave attenuation within the LVZ suggest that the LVZ may be composed of highly saturated shales of the Modelo Formation. Because the lateral dimensions of the LVZ approximately correspond to the areas of strongest shaking, we suggest that the highly saturated zone may have contributed to localized strong shaking. Rock sites are generally considered to be ideal locations for site response in urban areas; however, localized, highly saturated rock sites may be a hazard in urban areas that requires further investigation.

Catchings, R.D.; Lee, W.H.K.

1996-01-01

113

Strong ground motions from an Mj 6.1 inland crustal earthquake in Hokkaido, Japan: the 2004 Rumoi earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An inland crustal earthquake (Mj 6.1) occurred on December 14, 2004 in the northern part of Hokkaido, Japan. A large ground acceleration of 1127 cm/s2 and a large pseudo-velocity response of over 100 cm/s were recorded at the nearest strong-motion station, HKD020, about 10 km from the hypocenter. This large ground motion is considered to be attributable to the source effect and the site effect. The site effect is investigated using the traditional spectral ratio technique and the theoretical evaluation based on the subsurface structure model. The results imply that the site effect has an insignificant effect on the large ground motion at HKD020. The source effect is investigated by constructing the source model that explains the broad-band strong-motion records at four stations around the epicenter using the empirical Green's function method. The estimated source model satisfies the empirical relationship between the strong motion generation areas and the seismic moment for inland crustal earthquakes. The high-frequency level of the acceleration source spectrum is also consistent with the empirical relationship. These results suggest that this earthquake is a normal crustal event and that the large ground motion at HKD020 is mainly attributable to the source effect, short distance from the strong motion generation area and the forward directivity effect. Finally, the temporal change of the site response at HKD020 is examined using long duration records including the main shock and several aftershocks. The site response based on the S-wave horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio method shows the nonlinearity for the main shock and an aftershock occurring about 20 s after the main shock. However, the site response shows linearity for other later aftershocks. This site response change is attributed to the difference in ground motion amplitude.

Maeda, T.; Sasatani, T.

2009-06-01

114

Strong ground motions from an Mj 6.1 inland crustal earthquake in Hokkaido, Japan: the 2004 Rumoi earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inland crustal earthquake (Mj 6.1) occurred on December 14, 2004 in the northern part of Hokkaido, Japan. A large ground acceleration of 1127 cm\\/s2 and a large pseudo-velocity response of over 100 cm\\/s were recorded at the nearest strong-motion station, HKD020, about 10 km from the hypocenter. This large ground motion is considered to be attributable to the source

T. Maeda; T. Sasatani

2009-01-01

115

ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 506, Vol. 46, No. 3-4, Sept.-Dec. 2009, pp. 125132 SIMULATION OF STRONG GROUND MOTIONS OF WENCHUAN  

E-print Network

­132 SIMULATION OF STRONG GROUND MOTIONS OF WENCHUAN EARTHQUAKE BY STOCHASTIC FINITE-FAULT METHOD Guoxin Wang Finite Faults Method in Ground Motion Synthesizing", Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration and Hanging Wall Effect in Near Field Strong Ground Motion Simulation", Acta Seismologica Sinica, Vol. 16, No

Gupta, Vinay Kumar

116

Bulletinof the Seismological Society of America. Vol.68,No.1,pp.31-48.February1978 PREDICTABILITY OF STRONG GROUND MOTION IN THE IMPERIAL  

E-print Network

OF STRONG GROUND MOTION IN THE IMPERIAL VALLEY: MODELING THE M4.9, NOVEMBER 4, 1976 BRAWLEY EARTHQUAKE to model the first 25 sec of tangential ground motion. It appears that the effects of velocity structure suited for wave-form modeling studies of strong ground motion from local earthquakes. In this paper, we

Greer, Julia R.

117

Survey of strong motion earthquake effects on thermal power plants in California with emphasis on piping systems. Volume 2, Appendices  

SciTech Connect

Volume 2 of the ``Survey of Strong Motion Earthquake Effects on Thermal Power Plants in California with Emphasis on Piping Systems`` contains Appendices which detail the detail design and seismic response of several power plants subjected to strong motion earthquakes. The particular plants considered include the Ormond Beach, Long Beach and Seal Beach, Burbank, El Centro, Glendale, Humboldt Bay, Kem Valley, Pasadena and Valley power plants. Included is a typical power plant piping specification and photographs of typical power plant piping specification and photographs of typical piping and support installations for the plants surveyed. Detailed piping support spacing data are also included.

Stevenson, J.D. [Stevenson and Associates, Cleveland, OH (United States)

1995-11-01

118

New Ground Motion Prediction Equations Spanning Weak and Strong Motion Levels Georgia Cua, Swiss Seismological Service, ETH Zurich, Schaffmattstrasse 30, CH-8093, Switzerland, georgia.cua@sed.ethz.ch  

E-print Network

New Ground Motion Prediction Equations Spanning Weak and Strong Motion Levels Georgia Cua, Swiss of ground motion prediction equations for horizontal peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV), and peak displace- ment (PGD, high-pass filtered at 3 sec) derived from ground motion records up

Greer, Julia R.

119

An evaluation of the strong ground motion recorded during the May 1, 2003 Bingo??l Turkey, earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An important record of ground motion from a M6.4 earthquake occurring on May 1, 2003, at epicentral and fault distances of about 12 and 9km, respectively, was obtained at a station near the city of Bingo??l, Turkey. The maximum peak ground values of 0.55 g and 36 cm/s are among the largest ground-motion amplitudes recorded in Turkey. From simulations and comparisons with ground motions from other earthquakes of comparable magnitude, we conclude that the ground motion over a range of frequencies is unusually high. Site response may be responsible for the elevated ground motion, as suggested from analysis of numerous aftershock recordings from the same station. The mainshock motions have some interesting seismological features, including ramps between the P-and S-wave that are probably due to near- and intermediate-field elastic motions and strong polarisation oriented at about 39 degrees to the fault (and therefore not in the fault-normal direction). Simulations of motions from an extended rupture explain these features. The N10E component shows a high-amplitude spectral acceleration at a period of 0.15 seconds resulting in a site specific design spectrum that significantly overestimates the actual strength and displacement demands of the record. The pulse signal in the N10E component affects the inelastic spectral displacement and increases the inelastic displacement demand with respect to elastic demand for very long periods. ?? Imperial College Press.

Akkar, S.; Boore, D.M.; Gulkan, P.

2005-01-01

120

Strong ground motion synthesis along the Sanyi-Tungshih-Puli seismic zone using empirical Green`s functions  

SciTech Connect

We synthesize strong ground motion from a M=7.25 earthquake along the NW-trending Sanyi-Tungshih-Puli seismic zone. This trend extends from Houlong to Taichung and forms a nearly continuous 78 km long seismic zone identified by the occurrence of M<5 events. It extends from a shallow depth all the way down to about 40 km. The entire length of the fault, if activated at one time, can lead to an event comparable to that the 1995 Kobe earthquake. With the improved digital CWBSN data now provided routinely by CWBSN, it becomes possible to use these data as empirical Green`s functions to synthesize potential ground motion for future large earthquakes. We developed a suite of 100 rupture scenarios for the earthquake and computed the commensurate strong ground motion time histories. We synthesized strong ground motion with physics-based solutions of earthquake rupture and applied physical bounds on rupture parameters. the synthesized ground motions obtained for a fixed magnitude and identifying the hazard to a site from the statistical distribution of engineering parameters, we have introduced a probabilistic component to the deterministic hazard calculation, The time histories suggested for engineering design are the ones that most closely match either the average or one standard deviation absolute acceleration response values.

Hutchings, L.; Foxall, W.; Kasameyer, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Wu, F.T. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Rau, R.-J. [Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Inst. of Earth Sciences; Jarpe, S. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Inst. for Crustal Studies

1997-01-01

121

Kepler Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, from the National Taiwan Normal University, provides a demonstration of Kepler's laws of planetary motion. The site offers a description of all three laws and a brief history of Johann Kepler and his discoveries. The applet can be adjusted to display several different variables of planetary motion to simulate each law effectively.

Hwang, Fu-Kwun

2008-10-28

122

Source parameters of the 2007 Noto Hanto earthquake sequence derived from strong motion records at temporary and permanent stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large crustal earthquake, the 2007 Noto Hanto earthquake, occurred west off the Noto peninsula in Ishikawa prefecture, Japan, on March 25, 2007. We started temporary strong motion observation at five sites within the aftershock area from about 13 h after the main shock occurrence. We first applied the spectral inversion method to S-wave strong ground motion records at the temporary and permanent stations. We obtained source specta of the main shock and aftershocks, Q s (quality factor for S-wave) values ( Q s = 34.5 f 0.95) and site responses at 22 sites. We then estimated a source model of the main shock using the empirical Green's function method. The source model consists of three strong motion generation areas and well explains the observed records. Finally, we examined the consistency of the main-shock source models estimated from the above two analyses. The high-frequency level of the acceleration source spectrum based on the main-shock source model is consistent with the source spectrum estimated from the spectral inversion. The combined area of strong motion generation areas is approximately half of the value expected by the empirical relationship, and the high-frequency level of acceleration source spectrum is approximately 2.5 times larger than the empirical relationship for shallow inland and inter-plate earthquakes.

Maeda, Takahiro; Ichiyanagi, Masayoshi; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Honda, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Teruhiro; Kasahara, Minoru; Sasatani, Tsutomu

2008-10-01

123

Design of a low-cost servo-actuated shaking table for simulating ground motions with strong vertical component  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article proposes a new set of configurationsfor the construction of a low cost servo-actuatedshake table with a wide range simulation ability, especially regarding ground motions with strong vertical components up to 3.86g and 1.62m acceleration and stroke respectively. Designing decision and challenges faced during the process are also presented.

Tsolakis, Efstratios

2014-10-01

124

PEAK HORIZONTAL ACCELERATION AND VELOCITY FROM STRONG MOTION RECORDS INCLUDING RECORDS FROM THE 1979 IMPERIAL VALLEY, CALIFORNIA, EARTHQUAKE  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have taken advantage of the recent increase in strong-motion data at close distances to derive new attenuation relations for peak horizontal acceler- ation and velocity. This new analysis uses a magnitude-independent shape, based on geometrical spreading and anelastic attenuation, for the attenuation curve. An innovation in technique is introduced that decouples the determination of the distance dependence of the

WILLIAM B. JOYNER; DAVID M. BOORE

1981-01-01

125

Simulation of Ground Motion from Strong Earthquakes of Kamchatka Region (1992-1993) at Rock and Soil Sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To estimate the parameters of ground motion in future strong earthquakes, characteristics of radiation and propagation of seismic waves in the Kamchatka region were studied. Regional parameters of radiation and propagation of seismic waves were estimated by comparing simulations of earthquake records with data recorded by stations of the Kamchatka Strong Motion Network. Acceleration time histories of strong earthquakes ( M w = 6.8-7.5, depths 45-55 km) that occurred near the eastern coast of Kamchatka in 1992-1993 were simulated at rock and soil stations located at epicentral distances of 67-195 km. In these calculations, the source spectra and the estimates of frequency-dependent attenuation and geometrical spreading obtained earlier for Kamchatka were used. The local seismic-wave amplification was estimated based on shallow geophysical site investigations and deep crustal seismic explorations, and parameters defining the shapes of the waveforms, the duration, etc. were selected, showing the best-fit to the observations. The estimated parameters of radiation and propagation of seismic waves describe all the studied earthquakes well. Based on the waveforms of the acceleration time histories, models of slip distribution over the fault planes were constructed for the studied earthquakes. Station PET can be considered as a reference rock station having the minimum site effects. The intensity of ground motion at the other studied stations was higher than at PET due to the soil response or other effects, primarily topographic ones. At soil stations INS, AER, and DCH the parameters of soil profiles (homogeneous pyroclastic deposits) were estimated, and nonlinear models of their behavior in the strong motion were constructed. The obtained parameters of radiation and propagation of seismic waves and models of soil behavior can be used for forecasting ground motion in future strong earthquakes in Kamchatka.

Pavlenko, O. V.

2013-04-01

126

Effects of fault dip and slip rake angles on near-source ground motions: Why rupture directivity was minimal in the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We study how the fault dip and slip rake angles affect near-source ground velocities and displacements as faulting transitions from strike-slip motion on a vertical fault to thrust motion on a shallow-dipping fault. Ground motions are computed for five fault geometries with different combinations of fault dip and rake angles and common values for the fault area and the average slip. The nature of the shear-wave directivity is the key factor in determining the size and distribution of the peak velocities and displacements. Strong shear-wave directivity requires that (1) the observer is located in the direction of rupture propagation and (2) the rupture propagates parallel to the direction of the fault slip vector. We show that predominantly along-strike rupture of a thrust fault (geometry similar in the Chi-Chi earthquake) minimizes the area subjected to large-amplitude velocity pulses associated with rupture directivity, because the rupture propagates perpendicular to the slip vector; that is, the rupture propagates in the direction of a node in the shear-wave radiation pattern. In our simulations with a shallow hypocenter, the maximum peak-to-peak horizontal velocities exceed 1.5 m/sec over an area of only 200 km2 for the 30??-dipping fault (geometry similar to the Chi-Chi earthquake), whereas for the 60??- and 75??-dipping faults this velocity is exceeded over an area of 2700 km2 . These simulations indicate that the area subjected to large-amplitude long-period ground motions would be larger for events of the same size as Chi-Chi that have different styles of faulting or a deeper hypocenter.

Aagaard, B.T.; Hall, J.F.; Heaton, T.H.

2004-01-01

127

Acceleration and volumetric strain generated by the Parkfield 2004 earthquake on the GEOS strong-motion array near Parkfield, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An integrated array of 11 General Earthquake Observation System (GEOS) stations installed near Parkfield, CA provided on scale broad-band, wide-dynamic measurements of acceleration and volumetric strain of the Parkfield earthquake (M 6.0) of September 28, 2004. Three component measurements of acceleration were obtained at each of the stations. Measurements of collocated acceleration and volumetric strain were obtained at four of the stations. Measurements of velocity at most sites were on scale only for the initial P-wave arrival. When considered in the context of the extensive set of strong-motion recordings obtained on more than 40 analog stations by the California Strong-Motion Instrumentation Program (Shakal, et al., 2004 http://www.quake.ca.gov/cisn-edc) and those on the dense array of Spudich, et al, (1988), these recordings provide an unprecedented document of the nature of the near source strong motion generated by a M 6.0 earthquake. The data set reported herein provides the most extensive set of near field broad band wide dynamic range measurements of acceleration and volumetric strain for an earthquake as large as M 6 of which the authors are aware. As a result considerable interest has been expressed in these data. This report is intended to describe the data and facilitate its use to resolve a number of scientific and engineering questions concerning earthquake rupture processes and resultant near field motions and strains. This report provides a description of the array, its scientific objectives and the strong-motion recordings obtained of the main shock. The report provides copies of the uncorrected and corrected data. Copies of the inferred velocities, displacements, and Psuedo velocity response spectra are provided. Digital versions of these recordings are accessible with information available through the internet at several locations: the National Strong-Motion Program web site (http://agram.wr.usgs.gov/), the COSMOS Virtual Data Center Web site (http://www.cosmos-eq.org), and the CISN Engineering and Berkeley data centers (http://www.quake.ca.gov/cisn-edc). They are also accessible together with recordings on the GEOS Strong-motion Array near Parkfield, CA since its installation in 1987 through the USGS GEOS web site ( http://nsmp.wr.usgs.gov/GEOS).

Borcherdt, Rodger D.; Johnston, Malcolm J.S.; Dietel, Christopher; Glassmoyer, Gary; Myren, Doug; Stephens, Christopher

2004-01-01

128

Observing Structure and Motion in Molecules with Ultrafast Strong Field and Short Wavelength Laser Radiation  

SciTech Connect

The term "molecular movie" has come to describe efforts to track and record Angstrom-scale coherent atomic and electronic motion in a molecule. The relevant time scales for this range cover several orders of magnitude, from sub-femtosecond motion associated with electron-electron correlations, to 100-fs internal vibrations, to multi-picosecond motion associated with the dispersion and quantum revivals of molecular reorientation. Conventional methods of cinematography do not work well in this ultrafast and ultrasmall regime, but stroboscopic "pump and probe" techniques can reveal this motion with high fidelity. This talk will describe some of the methods and recent progress in exciting and controlling this motion, using both laboratory lasers and the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source x-ray free electron laser, and will further try to relate the date to the goal of molecular movies.

Bucksbaum, Philip H.

2011-04-13

129

Strong Motion Simulation of the Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake (2007), Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On July 16th, 2007, the Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake (M6.8) occurred off Niigata Prefecture in Japan, claiming 68 casualties and more than 4,000 injured. The heavily damaged areas were Kariwa Village and Kashiwazaki City of Niigata Prefecture, and a fire broke out in an electrical transformer at the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant (KKNPP). Regarding this earthquake, the several source models have been proposed. Based on the dimensions of the proposed source models, we simulate strong motion in the epicentral area including the KKNPP site by using the fourth order 3-D finite-difference method with staggered-discontinuous-grids, that is, GMS code (Aoi.S and H. Fujiwara, 1999). First, we try to modify the 3-D subsurface structure model of Niigata Prefecture, developed and provided by JNES (Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization). To calibrate this model, we simulate three aftershocks recordings at KKNPP, assuming point sources with the source mechanisms provided by F-net. The shapes of the main portion of the velocity waveform are well reproduced in general. However, regarding the time differences between P-wave and S-wave (i.e., S-P time), the results do not show good match between observed data and calculations. In order to correct the difference in S-P time, we set a horizontal boundary at the depth of 12.5km in the bedrock and assigned different velocity structures for the shallow and deep part of the bedrock. As a result, we can match S-P time of the shallow aftershock. Next, we simulate the main shock recordings using the modified subsurface structure described above. Since the observed data of the main shock shows three distinctive velocity pulses, the initial model that we adopt consists of a three asperities source model from the previous study of Kawabe and Kamae (2008). The following is our calculation procedure. First, the shapes of slip velocity time functions are assumed to be a simple triangle. Then, simulated time histories are convolved with the shapes of the assumed slip velocity time function for each asperity. Finally, time histories of each asperity are overlapped considering the time delay between ruptures. As a result, by multiplying the seismic moment of two asperities (Asperity 1 and 3) by 1.5 and searching appropriate shapes of the slip velocity functions for three asperities, we can reproduce the observation recordings at KKNPP. However, large amplitude of the third velocity pulse in EW component cannot be reproduced. By plotting the particle motions of velocity time histories, we confirm that the third pulse with large amplitude at station KK1 appears in a different direction from the predominant direction seen in the calculated velocities. We will include the other observed sites to our targets and modify the shape of slip velocity time functions. We will also investigate the cause of conspicuous velocity pulse dominantly in the EW component, scrutinizing either from the local subsurface structure or the source process complexity.

Nitta, Y.; Matsushima, S.; Kawase, H.

2010-12-01

130

Uncertainties in Strong Ground-Motion Prediction with Finite-Fault Synthetic Seismograms: An Application to the 1984 M 5.7 Gubbio,  

E-print Network

Uncertainties in Strong Ground-Motion Prediction with Finite-Fault Synthetic Seismograms: first to quantify the capability of the methods to reproduce the observed ground-motion parameters in the kinematic model affects the variability of different ground-motion pa- rameters in different ways has

Cerveny, Vlastislav

131

Slip history of the 2003 San Simeon earthquake constrained by combining 1-Hz GPS, strong motion, and teleseismic data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The slip history of the 2003 San Simeon earthquake is constrained by combining strong motion and teleseismic data, along with GPS static offsets and 1-Hz GPS observations. Comparisons of a 1-Hz GPS time series and a co-located strong motion data are in very good agreement, demonstrating a new application of GPS. The inversion results for this event indicate that the rupture initiated at a depth of 8.5 km and propagated southeastwards with a speed ???3.0 km/sec, with rake vectors forming a fan structure around the hypocenter. We obtained a peak slip of 2.8 m and total seismic moment of 6.2 ?? 1018 Nm. We interpret the slip distribution as indicating that the hanging wall rotates relative to the footwall around the hypocenter, in a sense that appears consistent with the shape of the mapped fault trace. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

Ji, C.; Larson, K.M.; Tan, Y.; Hudnut, K.W.; Choi, K.

2004-01-01

132

Peak horizontal acceleration and velocity from strong-motion records including records from the 1979 imperial valley, California, earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We have taken advantage of the recent increase in strong-motion data at close distances to derive new attenuation relations for peak horizontal acceleration and velocity. This new analysis uses a magnitude-independent shape, based on geometrical spreading and anelastic attenuation, for the attenuation curve. An innovation in technique is introduced that decouples the determination of the distance dependence of the data from the magnitude dependence.

Joyner, William B.; Boore, David M.

1981-01-01

133

Revelations from a single strong-motion record retreived during the 27 June 1998 Adana (Turkey) earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the 27 June 1998 Adana (Turkey) earthquake, only one strong-motion record was retrieved in the region where the most damage occurred. This single record from the station in Ceyhan, approximately 15 km from the epicenter of that earthquake, exhibits characteristics that are related to the dominant frequencies of the ground and structures. The purpose of this paper is to explain the causes of the damage as inferred from both field observations and the characteristics of a single strong-motion record retrieved from the immediate epicentral area. In the town of Ceyhan there was considerable but selective damage to a significant number of mid-rise (7-12 stories high) buildings. The strong-motion record exhibits dominant frequencies that are typically similar for the mid-rise building structures. This is further supported by spectral ratios derived using Nakamura's method [QR of RTRI, 30 (1989) 25] that facilitates computation of a spectral ratio from a single tri-axial record as the ratio of amplitude spectrum of horizontal component to that of the vertical component [R = H(f)/V(f)]. The correlation between the damage and the characteristics exhibited from the single strong-motion record is remarkable. Although deficient construction practices played a significant role in the extent of damage to the mid-rise buildings, it is clear that site resonance also contributed to the detrimental fate of most of the mid-rise buildings. Therefore, even a single record can be useful to explain the effect of site resonance on building response and performance. Such information can be very useful for developing zonation criteria in similar alluvial valleys. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

Celebi, M.

2000-01-01

134

Structural health monitoring of an existing 8-story building using strong motion observation data and structural design data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Target building is an 8-story steel encased reinforced concrete building which was constructed in 1998. In this structural health monitoring system, strong motion observation data is used and accelerometers were installed just after the completion of construction at 1st story, 2nd story, 5th story and 8th story. By use of system identification using ARX model, natural frequency, damping ratio and

Koichi Morita; Masaomi Teshigawara

2006-01-01

135

Strong motion envelope modelling of the source of the Chamoli earthquake of March 28, 1999 in the Garhwal Himalaya, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Garhwal Himalaya has been rocked by two major earthquakes in the span of just eight years, viz. Uttarkashi earthquake of 20th Oct, 1991 and Chamoli earthquake of 28th March, 1999. Chamoli earthquake of March 28, 1999 was recorded at 11 different stations of a strong motion array installed in the epicentral region. The maximum peak ground acceleration (353 cm\\/s2) was

A. Joshi

2001-01-01

136

The influence of critical Moho reflections on strong ground motions recorded in San Francisco and Oakland during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amplitudes of strong ground motions from the Loma Prieta earthquake recorded in the San Francisco and Oakland areas exceeded the levels predicted by standard empirical attenuation relations. Preliminary analysis of accelerograms having known trigger times strongly suggests that the elevation of ground motion amplitudes in the distance range of approximately 40 to 100 km was due to critical reflections

Paul Somerville; Joanne Yoshimura

1990-01-01

137

EMPIRICAL EVALUATION OF SITE EFFECTS BY MEANS OF H\\/V SPECTRAL RATIOS AT THE LOCATIONS OF STRONG MOTION ACCELEROMETERS IN ISRAEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acceleration data from local and regional earthquakes is of prime importance in evaluating the seismic hazard. Consequently, strong motion accelerometers are currently installed at more than 60 locations in Israel. We have explored the possibility of site amplification effects at 10 sites where local earthquakes triggered strong motion accelerometers by integrating empirical and analytical estimations. Implementing H\\/V spectral ratio techniques

Y. ZASLAVSKY; A. SHAPIRA; J. LEONOV

2003-01-01

138

ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 471, Vol. 43, No. 3, September 2006, pp. 65-74 ESTIMATION OF NEAR-FAULT STRONG GROUND MOTIONS FOR  

E-print Network

ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 471, Vol. 43, No. 3, September 2006, pp. 65 of the recorded strong motions. The spectral differences between small and strong earthquakes are described ground motions of the Northridge (Mw = 6.7) earthquake. It is concluded that the finite-fault effect

Gupta, Vinay Kumar

139

Equation of motion for relativistic compact binaries with the strong field point particle limit: Third post-Newtonian order  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An equation of motion for relativistic compact binaries is derived through the third post-Newtonian (3PN) approximation of general relativity. The strong field point-particle limit and multipole expansion of the stars are used to solve iteratively the harmonically relaxed Einstein equations. We take into account the Lorentz contraction on the multipole moments defined in our previous works. We then derive a 3PN acceleration of the binary orbital motion of the two spherical compact stars based on a surface integral approach which is a direct consequence of local energy momentum conservation. Our resulting equation of motion admits a conserved energy (neglecting the 2.5PN radiation reaction effect), is Lorentz invariant, and is unambiguous: there exist no undetermined parameters reported in the previous works. We shall show that our 3PN equation of motion agrees physically with the Blanchet-Faye 3PN equation of motion if ?=-1987/3080, where ? is the parameter which is undetermined within their framework. This value of ? is consistent with the result of Damour, Jaranowski, and Schäfer, who first completed a 3PN iteration of the ADM Hamiltonian in the ADMTT gauge using dimensional regularization.

Itoh, Yousuke

2004-03-01

140

Frequency-dependent sites amplifications evaluated from well-logging data in central Taiwan  

E-print Network

Frequency-dependent sites amplifications evaluated from well-logging data in central Taiwan Ming from well-logging data in central Taiwan, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L21302, doi:10.1029/2005GL023527. 1-motion stations in central Taiwan from borehole data are evaluated. Results show that the amplifications increase

Ma, Kuo-Fong

141

Strong Ground Motion in the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake:1 a 1Directional -3Component Modeling2  

E-print Network

) by propagating 3C signals recorded at rock outcrops, during the 2011 Tohoku34 earthquake. Computed surface ground motions are compared to the Tohoku earthquake records35 at alluvial sites and the reliability of the 1D-3C response.50 The recent records of the 9 Mw 11 March 2011 Tohoku earthquake, in Japan, allow to51 understand

Boyer, Edmond

142

Acceleration Response of Rigid and Flexible Nonstructural Components in Building Subjected to Strong Ground Motions.  

E-print Network

??A formulation is presented for estimating the maximum horizontal acceleration of nonstructural components attached to the floor system of multistory structures subjected to strong earthquake… (more)

Shoemaker, Jared

2010-01-01

143

Strong ground motion simulation during the November 1759 Earthquake along Serghaya Fault in the metropolitan of Damascus, Syria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismic hazard potential for metropolitan of Damascus, Syria is mainly controlled by earthquakes along Serghaya Fault which is a branch of Dead Sea Fault System. In this study, strong ground motion due to the November 1759 Earthquake along the fault of Serghaya was estimated with a numerical simulation technique. In the simulation, the Kostrov-like slip-velocity function was used as an input to the discrete wave number method to simulate the strong ground motions in a broadband frequency range. In order to model the incoherent rupture propagation which can excite large high-frequency waves, random numbers are added to arrival time of circular rupture front. MMI intensities calculated from the synthetic ground motions are compared with the observed values by Ambraseys and Barazangi (J Geophys Res 94:4007-4013, 1989). The calculated intensities are in good agreement with the observed ones at the most sites that validate appropriateness of the proposed source model. The PGA and PGV in the eastern region of Damascus city are higher than those in the western region due to the effects of local site amplification. The simulated high-frequency (1.0-6.0 Hz) ground motions for the sites in the Damascus city are higher than the design requirements defined by the Syrian building code. Furthermore, the simulated high-frequency ground motions for sites in the focal region are bigger than the design requirements in the case of the near-fault factors and are not considered. That demonstrates the appropriateness of considering the near-fault factors for a site near the focal region as introduced by the new building code.

Zaineh, Hussam Eldein; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Dhakal, Yadab Prasad; Dakkak, Rawaa; Daoud, Mohamad

2013-10-01

144

Calculation of broadband time histories of ground motion: Comparison of methods and validation using strong-ground motion from the 1994 Northridge earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This article compares techniques for calculating broadband time histories of ground motion in the near field of a finite fault by comparing synthetics with the strong-motion data set for the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Based on this comparison, a preferred methodology is presented. Ground-motion-simulation techniques are divided into two general methods: kinematic- and composite-fault models. Green's functions of three types are evaluated: stochastic, empirical, and theoretical. A hybrid scheme is found to give the best fit to the Northridge data. Low frequencies ( 1 Hz) are calculated using a composite-fault model with a fractal subevent size distribution and stochastic, bandlimited, white-noise Green's functions. At frequencies below 1 Hz, theoretical elastic-wave-propagation synthetics introduce proper seismic-phase arrivals of body waves and surface waves. The 3D velocity structure more accurately reproduces record durations for the deep sedimentary basin structures found in the Los Angeles region. At frequencies above 1 Hz, scattering effects become important and wave propagation is more accurately represented by stochastic Green's functions. A fractal subevent size distribution for the composite fault model ensures an ??-2 spectral shape over the entire frequency band considered (0.1-20 Hz).

Hartzell, S.; Harmsen, S.; Frankel, A.; Larsen, S.

1999-01-01

145

Modeling Strong Ground Motion in the Wellington Metropolitan Area, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wellington Metropolitan Area, New Zealand, about 35 km by 10 km, is crossed by the southernmost segment of the Wellington fault, striking roughly in the northeast-southwest direction. Numerical modeling of M 6.7 earth- quakes due to ruptures on this fault, intended to characterize the 3D effects of the region's main geological features on the ground motion, are performed by

Rafael Benites; Kim B. Olsen

2005-01-01

146

Source model for generating strong ground motions during the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A source model for generating strong ground motions during the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (Mw 9.0) is estimated from a comparison of the observed records of the mainshock and synthetic motions, based on the characterized source model using the empirical Green's function method. The characterized source model consists of several strong-motion-generation-areas (SMGAs) with high slip velocity superimposed upon the larger rupture area of the earthquake. The final source model has five SMGAs with different sizes, using a trial and error approach. SMGA 1 is located west of the hypocenter in the source region of Southern Sanriku-oki and SMGA 2 in that of the Middle Sanriku-oki, north of the hypocenter. SMGA 3, SMGA 4, and SMGA 5 are located near the down-dip edge of the mainshock source fault, ranging from offshore Miyagi to offshore Ibaraki prefectures. The delay times from the origin time are 15.6 sec at SMGA 1, 66.4 sec at SMGA 2, 68.4 sec at SMGA 3, 109.7 sec at SMGA 4 and 118.2 sec at SMGA 5. The probabilities of earthquake occurrence in these source regions including the five SMGAs have been estimated by the Earthquake Research Committee at less than 7% to 99% with magnitude about 6.9 to 7.5, individually, except the source region of the Middle Sanriku-oki.

Kurahashi, S.; Irikura, K.

2011-07-01

147

Equations of motion for natural orbitals of strongly driven two-electron systems  

E-print Network

Natural orbital theory is a computationally useful approach to the few and many-body quantum problem. While natural orbitals are known and applied since many years in electronic structure applications, their potential for time-dependent problems is being investigated only since recently. Correlated two-particle systems are of particular importance because the structure of the two-body reduced density matrix expanded in natural orbitals is known exactly in this case. However, in the time-dependent case the natural orbitals carry time-dependent phases that allow for certain time-dependent gauge transformations of the first kind. Different phase conventions will, in general, lead to different equations of motion for the natural orbitals. A particular phase choice allows us to derive the exact equations of motion for the natural orbitals of any (laser-) driven two-electron system explicitly, i.e., without any dependence on quantities that, in practice, require further approximations. For illustration, we solve the equations of motion for a model helium system. Besides calculating the spin-singlet and spin-triplet ground states, we show that the linear response spectra and the results for resonant Rabi flopping are in excellent agreement with the benchmark results obtained from the exact solution of the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation.

J. Rapp; M. Brics; D. Bauer

2014-10-07

148

Equations of motion for natural orbitals of strongly driven two-electron systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural orbital theory is a computationally useful approach to the few- and many-body quantum problems. While natural orbitals have been known and applied for many years in electronic structure applications, their potential for time-dependent problems started being investigated only recently. Correlated two-particle systems are of particular importance because the structure of the two-body reduced density matrix expanded in natural orbitals is known exactly in this case. However, in the time-dependent case the natural orbitals carry time-dependent phases that allow for certain time-dependent gauge transformations of the first kind. Different phase conventions will, in general, lead to different equations of motion for the natural orbitals. A particular phase choice allows us to derive the exact equations of motion for the natural orbitals of any (laser-) driven two-electron system explicitly, i.e., without any dependence on quantities that, in practice, require further approximations. For illustration, we solve the equations of motion for a model helium system. Besides calculating the spin-singlet and spin-triplet ground states, we show that the linear response spectra and the results for resonant Rabi flopping are in excellent agreement with the benchmark results obtained from the exact solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation.

Rapp, J.; Brics, M.; Bauer, D.

2014-07-01

149

Illusory movement of stationary stimuli in the visual periphery: evidence for a strong centrifugal prior in motion processing.  

PubMed

Visual input is remarkably diverse. Certain sensory inputs are more probable than others, mirroring statistical regularities of the visual environment. The visual system exploits many of these regularities, resulting, on average, in better inferences about visual stimuli. However, by incorporating prior knowledge into perceptual decisions, visual processing can also result in perceptions that do not match sensory inputs. Such perceptual biases can often reveal unique insights into underlying mechanisms and computations. For example, a prior assumption that objects move slowly can explain a wide range of motion phenomena. The prior on slow speed is usually rationalized by its match with visual input, which typically includes stationary or slow moving objects. However, this only holds for foveal and parafoveal stimulation. The visual periphery tends to be exposed to faster motions, which are biased toward centrifugal directions. Thus, if prior assumptions derive from experience, peripheral motion processing should be biased toward centrifugal speeds. Here, in experiments with human participants, we support this hypothesis and report a novel visual illusion where stationary objects in the visual periphery are perceived as moving centrifugally, while objects moving as fast as 7°/s toward fovea are perceived as stationary. These behavioral results were quantitatively explained by a Bayesian observer that has a strong centrifugal prior. This prior is consistent with both the prevalence of centrifugal motions in the visual periphery and a centrifugal bias of direction tuning in cortical area MT, supporting the notion that visual processing mirrors its input statistics. PMID:23467358

Zhang, Ruyuan; Kwon, Oh-Sang; Tadin, Duje

2013-03-01

150

Theoretical design and field deployment of a dense strong motion instrument network for the Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dense network of strong motion seismometers is being developed in order to investigate the complexities of the upper crustal rupture process and propagation of major seismogenic sources such as the Alpine Fault and strands of the Marlborough Fault System defining the South Island sector of the Australia-Pacific plate boundary zone. The proposed network is designed as a dense array of approximately 20 accelerographs using the University of Canterbury 12-bit CUSP instrument, now nearing development completion. It will be deployed straddling the Alpine Fault in the central West Coast region of the South Island, and coverage will extend across the region at the Alpine-Hope Fault junction also. The array layout is being designed utilizing the frequency-analysis MUSIC method (Multiple Signal Characterization) developed by Goldstein and Archuleta (1991a&b). Synthetic strong-motion records were computed using an empirical Green's function synthetic seismogram program EMPSYN (Hutchings, 1987). The process of finding an optimal network configuration is dependent on the geometry of the array (study of the frequency analysis performance of the modelled earthquake data for various proposed array configurations), and on the instrument site conditions (geology, communications, accessibility, isolation etc). References Goldstein, P. and R. J. Archuleta (1991a). "Deterministic frequency-wavenumber methods and direct measurements of rupture propagation during earthquakes using a dense array; data analysis." Journal of Geophysical Research, B, Solid Earth and Planets 96(4): 6187-6198. Goldstein, P. and R. J. Archuleta (1991b). "Deterministic frequency-wavenumber methods and direct measurements of rupture propagation during earthquakes using a dense array; theory and methods." Journal of Geophysical Research, B, Solid Earth and Planets 96(4): 6173-6185. Hutchings, L. J. (1987). "Modelling strong earthquake ground motion with empirical Green's function", Ph.D. thesis, Department of Geological Sciences, State University of New York, Binghamton.

Francois, C.; Berril, J.; Pettinga, J.

2003-04-01

151

Structure and dynamics of an imidazoline nitroxide side chain with strongly hindered internal motion in proteins.  

PubMed

A disulfide-linked imidazoline nitroxide side chain (V1) has a similar and highly constrained internal motion at diverse topological sites in a protein, unlike that for the disulfide-linked pyrroline nitroxide side chain (R1) widely used in site directed spin labeling EPR. Crystal structures of V1 at two positions in a helix of T4 Lysozyme and quantum mechanical calculations suggest the source of the constraints as intra-side chain interactions of the disulfide sulfur atoms with both the protein backbone and the 3-nitrogen in the imidazoline ring. These interactions apparently limit the conformation of the side chain to one of only three possible rotamers, two of which are observed in the crystal structure. An inter-spin distance measurement in frozen solution using double electron-electron resonance (DEER) gives a value essentially identical to that determined from the crystal structure of the protein containing two copies of V1, indicating that lattice forces do not dictate the rotamers observed. Collectively, the results suggest the possibility of predetermining a unique rotamer of V1 in helical structures. In general, the reduced rotameric space of V1 compared to R1 should simplify interpretation of inter-spin distance information in terms of protein structure, while the highly constrained internal motion is expected to extend the dynamic range for characterizing large amplitude nanosecond backbone fluctuations. PMID:23694751

Toledo Warshaviak, Dora; Khramtsov, Valery V; Cascio, Duilio; Altenbach, Christian; Hubbell, Wayne L

2013-07-01

152

Strong motion simulation at Abu Zenima city, Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake hazard assessments are an important task for the design of earthquake resistant structures and insurance industry. Such assessments get more importance when the site of interest is located near an active earthquake zone. Such situation is present for the location of Abu Zenima city. The city is characterized by the presence of industrial and Maritime platform in addition to other Oil production facilities. These industrial facilities motivated the present work. The simulated earthquake ground motion time histories are conducted using stochastic technique. The magnitude used for simulation is obtained using both probabilistic and deterministic approaches. An analysis using both approaches shows that moderate earthquakes in the vicinity of the site could have the largest effects on the area. Thus an earthquake of magnitude 4.5 at a distance of 21 km is chosen as design earthquake. The simulated ground motions are presented in terms of acceleration, velocity, and displacement time histories. In addition the response spectra are also presented that may be used for engineering purposes.

Khalil, Amin Esmail

2013-06-01

153

Particle acceleration by a wave in a strong magnetic field - Regular and stochastic motion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A general theory for the acceleration of a charged particle by a coherent wave of arbitrary polarization, propagation angle, and phase velocity in the presence of a uniform and strong magnetic field is presented. It is shown that the Hamiltonian surfaces are topologically open for waves with parallel phase velocity, equal to or larger than the speed of light. The trapping width is found to be a strong function of the index of refraction (N), and for N = 1 the trapping width increases as a function of the harmonic number. A novel mechanism for coherently accelerating particles to unlimited energies is presented.

Karimabadi, H.; Akimoto, K.; Omidi, N.; Menyuk, C. R.

1990-01-01

154

Strong correlation of atomic thermal motion in the first coordination shell of a Cu-Zr metallic glass  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate a strong correlation of atomic thermal motions in the first coordination shell of Cu{sub 50}Zr{sub 50} metallic glass using molecular dynamics simulations, which explains directly the small thermal expansion coefficient calculated by the first maxima of pair correlation functions. The vibrational anisotropy in the glass is found to be even higher than in crystalline copper. The parallel-perpendicular anisotropy gradually decreases upon heating. The anisotropy in Zr-Zr is the strongest bonds among all the interatomic bonds, which is also very stable near the glass transition at 700 K. Structurally, the anisotropy can be correlated to Cu-centered (0 2 8 1) clusters.

Zhang, Y.; Mattern, N. [IFW Dresden, Institut fuer Komplexe Materialien, Helmholtzstrasse 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)] [IFW Dresden, Institut fuer Komplexe Materialien, Helmholtzstrasse 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Eckert, J. [IFW Dresden, Institut fuer Komplexe Materialien, Helmholtzstrasse 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany) [IFW Dresden, Institut fuer Komplexe Materialien, Helmholtzstrasse 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Institut fuer Werkstoffwissenschaft, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

2013-02-25

155

Strong motion characteristics of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake observed by K-NET and KiK-net  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tohoku-Oki earthquake was the largest earthquake occurred in and around Japan since the recorded history. This magnitude 9.0 megathrust earthquake initiated approximately 100 km off-shore Miyagi prefecture and the rupture extended 400 - 500 km along the subducting Pacific plate. Due to the large ground motions and tsunami associated by this event, more than twenty thousands people were killed or missing and more than 220 thousands houses and buildings were totally or partially destroyed. The Tohoku-Oki earthquake was the first M9-class earthquake that is closely recorded by a dense seismograph network. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of the strong motions and the source process revealed by those data. The ground motions were recorded at more than 1200 K-NET and KiK-net stations. The peak ground accelerations (PGA) exceeded 1g at 20 sites and the largest PGA, 2933 gals, was observed at the K-NET Tsukidate station (MYG004). We estimated the precise spatial distribution of seismic intensity from the observed data considering the near-surface amplification, and found that roughly twenty million people were exposed to a shaking larger than JMA seismic intensity 5+ (>MMI 7). Huge numbers of large aftershocks and triggered earthquakes including M7-class crustal and intraslab earthquakes have been recorded. Those earthquakes occurred not only in the source area but also several hundreds kilometers away. Some of them were located much nearer to the populated urban areas than the main shock and human fatalities as well as severe building damages were caused by large ground shakings. The observed waveforms from the main shock are very complex; depending on the region, accelerograms show one to three conspicuous and long-duration phases as well as several phases with smaller amplitudes and shorter durations. A paste-up of accelerograms in Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures ordered by latitude from north displays an initial strong seismic phase first observed at Miyagi stations and then propagating towards the north and south. A subsequent phase uniformly delayed by approximately 40 s is also clearly observed in the paste-up. In the southern region, Ibaraki and Chiba prefectures, only one distinct phase is observed. Fault rupture process inverted by a multi-time window analysis using the strong-motion waveforms is characterized by one large slip area with maximum slip of 48 m which extends from the area near the hypocenter toward the shallow part of the fault plane, far off the coast of Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures (Suzuki et al., 2011, AGU fall meeting). Though the distribution of the total slip is simple, the feature of the rupture progression is very complicated. The duration and the timing of the slip have a large spatial variety within the fault. The fault slip near the coast off Miyagi prefecture, which is small compared to the peak fault slip, had a large contribution to the observed strong motions in Miyagi and Iwate prefectures. The complicated relationship between the rupture model derived using long period strong motions and the features of the observed acceleration waveforms suggests a frequency dependency of the seismic wave radiation and source process.

Aoi, S.; Kunugi, T.; Suzuki, W.; Morikawa, N.; Nakamura, H.; Pulido Hernandez, N. E.; Fujiwara, H.

2011-12-01

156

Site-dependent spectra from the 1999 Turkey earthquakes considering different sets of strong-motion data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade extensive strong-motion measurements were carried out by the reconnaissance team of the German TaskForce for Earthquakes. Aftershocks were recorded by a mesh of temporarily installed strong-motion recorders during the field surveys to Turkey in 1998 (Adana/Ceyhan), 1999 (Izmit/Kocaeli and Duezce/Bolu) and 2002 (Sultandagi/Afyon). Particularly the two missions in 1999 provided a unique and comprehensive database of recorded aftershocks at sites where building damage occurred. In addition, post-earthquake investigations were initiated around the provinces Adana and Kocaeli in October 2000 to gain more insight into the effect of local site conditions. Therefore, microtremors were recorded at sites of the previously installed strong-motion accelerographs and locations of evident concentration or remarkable scatter of building damage. By applying H/V-spectral ratio method on microtremor data, a classification of the recording sites (into soft soil, stiff soil, rock-type conditions) was performed. For the derivation of attenuation laws different databases were applied. In addition to the aftershock records of the strong-motion stations of German TaskForce for Earthquakes (Schwarz et al., 2002), a small dataset of main- and aftershocks from the 1999 Turkey earthquakes provided by the Kandilli Observatory (KOERI, 2002) and the General Directorate of Disaster Affairs (AFET) could be implied. The magnitude-distance composition of both datasets are quite different in terms of the covered magnitude and distance range. While the dataset of the German TaskForce mainly consists of small magnitude aftershocks (at the present state of elaboration: Ml <= 4.9) being recorded in epicentral distances Re < 70 km, the KOERI dataset is featured by larger magnitudes (Ml = 4.8-7.2) and by a distance range of about 10--250 km. The aftershock database of German TaskForce consists of 538 triaxial acceleration records (rock 53, stiff 52, soft 433), while that of KOERI comprises 145 triaxial acceleration records (rock 6, stiff 36, soft 103). On this basis, three sets of strong motion records were investigated by an one-step as well as a two-step regression analysis (similar to the approach by Ambraseys et al., 1996). Furthermore, parametric studies with respect to the lower bounds of magnitude and source depth were performed. Results indicate that the composition of the dataset and in particular the decision on the lower bound magnitude significantly determine the qualitative spectrum shape. In comparison to the spectra determined by Ambraseys et al. (1996) attenuation functions, the recorded data lead to significant lower accelerations for the borizontal as well as for the vertical components. Furthermore, no significant differences between data from soft and stiff soil recording sites can be observed, supporting the authors opinion that the severity of ground motion during earthquakes is less responsible for the high extent of building damage than the vulnerability of the building stock (which seem to be quite different for one particular building type in dependence on the date of construction). Therefore more attention should be attributed to the investigation of the building inventory.

Schwarz, J.; Ende, C.; Habenberger, J.; Lang, D. H.

2003-04-01

157

Strong Erosion-Driven Nongravitational Effects in Orbital Motions of the Kreutz Sungrazing System's Dwarf Comets  

E-print Network

We investigate the relationship among the angular orbital elements --- the longitude of the ascending node, Omega, the inclination, i, and the argument of perihelion, omega --- of dwarf sungrazing comets of the Kreutz system, whose catalogued orbits were derived using a parabolic gravitational approximation. While in a plot of omega against Omega the major and dwarf sungrazers follow a similar law, in a plot of i against Omega they behave differently. The major sungrazers fit a curve of invariable (reference) apsidal orientation, whereas the dwarf comets lie along a curve that makes with it 15 deg. While the perihelion longitude of dwarf sungrazers is statistically constant, the perihelion latitude increases systematically with Omega. A perturbation analysis indicates that this is due to an acceleration normal to the orbit plane. The culprit is neglect of an erosion-driven acceleration in the motions of the dwarf sungrazers, as illustrated by computing, for several test SOHO/STEREO sungrazers, orbital solutio...

Sekanina, Zdenek

2014-01-01

158

Seismic Strong Motion Array Project (SSMAP) to Record Future Large Earthquakes in the Nicoya Peninsula area, Costa Rica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismic strong motion array project (SSMAP) for the Nicoya Peninsula in northwestern Costa Rica is composed of 10 13 sites including Geotech A900/A800 accelerographs (three-component), Ref-Teks (three- component velocity), and Kinemetric Episensors. The main objectives of the array are to: 1) record and locate strong subduction zone mainshocks [and foreshocks, "early aftershocks", and preshocks] in Nicoya Peninsula, at the entrance of the Nicoya Gulf, and in the Papagayo Gulf regions of Costa Rica, and 2) record and locate any moderate to strong upper plate earthquakes triggered by a large subduction zone earthquake in the above regions. Our digital accelerograph array has been deployed as part of our ongoing research on large earthquakes in conjunction with the Earthquake and Volcano Observatory (OVSICORI) at the Universidad Nacional in Costa Rica. The country wide seismographic network has been operating continuously since the 1980's, with the first earthquake bulletin published more than 20 years ago, in 1984. The recording of seismicity and strong motion data for large earthquakes along the Middle America Trench (MAT) has been a major research project priority over these years, and this network spans nearly half the time of a "repeat cycle" (50 years) for large (Ms 7.5- 7.7) earthquakes beneath the Nicoya Peninsula, with the last event in 1950. Our long time co-collaborators include the seismology group OVSICORI, with coordination for this project by Dr. Ronnie Quintero and Mr. Juan Segura. Numerous international investigators are also studying this region with GPS and seismic stations (US, Japan, Germany, Switzerland, etc.). Also, there are various strong motion instruments operated by local engineers, for building purposes and mainly concentrated in the population centers of the Central Valley. The major goal of our project is to contribute unique scientific information pertaining to a large subduction zone earthquake and its related seismic activity when the next large earthquake occurs in Nicoya. A centralized data base will be created within the main seismic network files at OVSICORI, with various local personnel working in teams that will be responsible to collect data within 3 days following a large mainshock.

Simila, G.; McNally, K.; Quintero, R.; Segura, J.

2006-12-01

159

Seismic Strong Motion Array Project (SSMAP) to Record Future Large Earthquakes in the Nicoya Peninsula area, Costa Rica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismic strong motion array project (SSMAP) for the Nicoya Peninsula in northwestern Costa Rica is composed of 10 - 13 sites including Geotech A900/A800 accelerographs (three-component), Ref-Teks (three- component velocity), and Kinemetric Episensors. The main objectives of the array are to: 1) record and locate strong subduction zone mainshocks [and foreshocks, "early aftershocks", and preshocks] in Nicoya Peninsula, at the entrance of the Nicoya Gulf, and in the Papagayo Gulf regions of Costa Rica, and 2) record and locate any moderate to strong upper plate earthquakes triggered by a large subduction zone earthquake in the above regions. Our digital accelerograph array has been deployed as part of our ongoing research on large earthquakes in conjunction with the Earthquake and Volcano Observatory (OVSICORI) at the Universidad Nacional in Costa Rica. The country wide seismographic network has been operating continuously since the 1980's, with the first earthquake bulletin published more than 20 years ago, in 1984. The recording of seismicity and strong motion data for large earthquakes along the Middle America Trench (MAT) has been a major research project priority over these years, and this network spans nearly half the time of a "repeat cycle" (~ 50 years) for large (Ms ~ 7.5- 7.7) earthquakes beneath the Nicoya Peninsula, with the last event in 1950. Our long time co- collaborators include the seismology group OVSICORI, with coordination for this project by Dr. Ronnie Quintero and Mr. Juan Segura. The major goal of our project is to contribute unique scientific information pertaining to a large subduction zone earthquake and its related seismic activity when the next large earthquake occurs in Nicoya. We are now collecting a database of strong motion records for moderate sized events to document this last stage prior to the next large earthquake. A recent event (08/18/06; M=4.3) located 20 km northwest of Samara was recorded by two stations (Playa Carrillo and Nicoya) at distances of 25-30 km with maximum acceleration of 0.2g.

Simila, G.; Lafromboise, E.; McNally, K.; Quintereo, R.; Segura, J.

2007-12-01

160

Executive Summary of Vision and Options for the Future of the US National Strong-Motion Program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These reports are presented in response to a charge of the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (EHRP) Program Council of the U.S. Geological Survey to 'define the future of the USGS National Strong-Motion Program (NSMP)' (Appendix A). The council requested that a 'Vision Paper' and an 'Options Document' be prepared. Each of these reports is a separate document. The 'Executive Summary' of both reports is presented here under separate cover. The content of the reports and the executive summary is organized to the extent possible according to the main charges of the EHRP Program Council. Detailed evaluation of charges and questions posed by the Council with the benefit of modern GIS tools and the recent deliberations of three national workshops have yielded substantial new insight regarding the status of strong-motion measurement in the US. These reports are intended as an objective evaluation of the nation's need and capability to record the next major earthquake at locations of most significance for public safety.

Committee for the Future of the US National Strong-Motion Program

1997-01-01

161

Three-Dimensional Attenuation Structure of the Kumaon Himalayas, India, Based on Inversion of Strong Motion Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional attenuation structure based on frequency-dependent shear wave quality factor, Q ? ( f), has been determined for the Kumaon region of the Himalayas. An algorithm based on inversion of strong motion data developed by J oshi (Curr Sci 90:581-585, 2006a) and later modified by K umar et al. (Pure Appl Geophys, doi: 10.1007/s00024-013-0658-x, 2013) was used for determination of three-dimensional attenuation coefficients. The input of this algorithm is the spectral acceleration of the S phase of the accelerogram and the outcome is the attenuation coefficient and the source acceleration spectra. A dense network monitoring strong ground motion in the Kumaon region of the Uttarakhand Himalayas has been operating since 2006. This network recorded 287 earthquakes up to July, 2013, of which 18 were used for this work. Shear-wave quality-factors were estimated for frequencies of 1.0, 5.0, and 10.0 Hz for two rectangular blocks of surface of dimensions 85 × 55 and 90 × 30 km2 in the Kumaon region of the Himalayas. Both blocks were divided into 25 three-dimensional blocks of uniform thickness with different Q ? ( f) values. The spatial distribution of frequency-dependent shear-wave quality factors in two different blocks reveal the attenuation properties of the region. The profiles of the contours of shear-wave quality factors observed were comparable with those of major tectonic units present in the region.

Kumar, Parveen; Joshi, A.; Sandeep; Kumar, Ashvini

2015-02-01

162

Improvement of earthquake locations with the Marine Cable Hosted Observatory (MACHO) offshore NE Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to improve the locating capability for offshore earthquakes and tsunamis monitored off northeastern Taiwan, a cable-based ocean bottom seismographic observatory named "Marine Cable Hosted Observatory" (MACHO) was constructed and began operation at the end of 2011. The installed instruments of the observatory include a broadband seismometer, a strong-motion seismometer and a pressure gauge. In addition, various scientific instruments could be deployed for other purposes as well. At present, the seismic data are transmitted in real-time via a fiber cable, and integrated into the current inland seismographic network in Taiwan. The ocean bottom station has contributed to provide high quality seismic data already. According to observations from January 2012 to June 2013, there were a total of 15,168 earthquakes recorded by the system. By using the data from the ocean bottom station, the number of relocated earthquakes with an azimuth gap less than 180 degrees substantially increase about 34 %. Meanwhile, the root-mean-square of the time residual, the error in epicenter, and the error in depth of the earthquake locations decrease. Therefore, the implementation of MACHO has the advantage of extending the coverage of existing the Taiwan seismic network to the offshore, providing more accurate and real-time seismic data for offshore earthquakes monitoring. The results show that MACHO is crucial and necessary for monitoring seismic activities in northeastern Taiwan.

Hsiao, Nai-Chi; Lin, Tzu-Wei; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Kuo, Kai-Wei; Shin, Tzay-Chyn; Leu, Peih-Lin

2014-09-01

163

Motion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph was written for the Conference on the New Instructional Materials in Physics held at the University of Washington in summer, 1965. It is intended for use in an introductory course in college physics. It consists of an extensive qualitative discussion of motion followed by a detailed development of the quantitative methods needed to…

Gerhart, James B.; Nussbaum, Rudi H.

164

Tide-surge Interaction Intensified by the Taiwan Strait  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Taiwan Strait is a long and wide shelf-channel where the hydrodynamics is extremely complex, being characterized by strong tides, and where storm surges frequently occur during the typhoon season. Obvious oscillations due to tide-surge interaction were observed by tide gauges along the northern Fujian coast, the west bank of the Taiwan Strait, during Typhoon Dan (1999). Numerical experiments indicate

Wen-Zhou Zhang; Fengyan Shi; Hua-Sheng Hong; Shao-Ping Shang; James T. Kirby

2010-01-01

165

Modeling Strong Ground Motions of the 2004 Mw 6.3 Les Saintes Earthquake Using Hybrid Green's Functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A semi-empirical approach is presented to simulate the strong ground motion recordings of the Mw 6.3 Les Saintes earthquake that occurred on November 21th, 2004, near the Guadeloupe Island. This study is based on a kinematic fractal k-2 composite source model where subevents are generated using a fractal distribution of sizes. Assuming a constant rupture velocity, each elementary source is described as a crack-type slip model that starts radiating when the rupture front reaches a nucleation point located inside the crack. Each subevent is set up with a scale-dependent rise-time. In order to better control the rupture directivity effect, a size-dependent nucleation region is defined inside the crack surface in which the nucleation point is randomly located. The synthetics follow a ?2 acceleration spectrum shape. Taking advantage of records available for several small earthquakes, the kinematic rupture model is combined with these recordings, which are used as empirical Green's function (EGF). The procedure consists to model a hybrid Green's function (HGF) combining the synthetic low-frequency and the empirical high-frequency Green's functions with appropriate delay times due to the S-wave travel time propagation. A discrete version of seismic source representation theorem is used, and synthetic seismograms are then computed convolving each slip-velocity function with the corresponding HGF. A new hybrid Green's function computation is proposed to use at each station several EGFs coming from various sources near the assumed fault plane. This allows to better sample the high-frequency content radiated from the fault to the receiver. Synthetic strong ground motions reproduce quite well the observed main shock waveforms.

Ruiz-Paredes, J. A.; Bengoubou-Valérius, M.; Bouin, M.; Bernard, P.

2011-12-01

166

The design and performance of a low-cost strong-motion sensor using the ICS-3028 micromachined accelerometer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The severity of earthquake ground shaking varies tremendously over very short distances (Figures 1a-c). Within a distance of as little as 1 km from the nearest station, one knows little more than what can be obtained from an attenuation relation, given only distance from the fault rupture and the geology of the site. For example, if some station measures 0.5 g peak ground acceleration (PGA), then at a distance of 1 km from that site, under otherwise identical conditions, the shaking has one chance in three of being under 0.36 g or over 0.70 g, based on the curve shown in Figures la, c. Similarly, pseudovelocity (PSV) response spectra have a 5% chance of differing by 2? at 1 km distance (Figure 1 b). This variance can be the difference between moderate and severe damage. Hence, there are critical needs, both in emergency response and in mitigation (prediction of shaking strength, building codes, structural engineering), to sample ground shaking densely enough to identify individual neighborhoods suffering localized, strong shaking. These needs imply a spatially dense network of strong-motion seismographs, probably numbering thousands of sites in an urban region the size of the San Francisco Bay Area, California (Figure 1 c). It has not been economically feasible to field that many instruments, since existing ones cost many thousands of dollars apiece. For example, there are currently just a few dozen digital free-field instruments in the Bay Area. This paper is one step toward a solution to this conundrum. I demonstrate that a recently developed class of accelerometers, those constructed from silicon by 'micromachining' (a process similar to integrated circuit fabrication), is now capable of resolving ground motion with the necessary accuracy while greatly lowering both acquisition and maintenance costs.

Evans, J.R.

1998-01-01

167

Kinematic inversion of Maule 2010, Chile and Tohoku 2011, Japan earthquakes using cGPS and Strong Motion data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Maule 2010 Mw 8.8 Chile and Tohoku 2011 Mw 9.0 earthquakes were recorded by continuous GPS (cGPS) and Strong Motion (SM) instruments, with good resolution at low and high frequencies, respectively. The dual behavior of low and high frequencies during large earthquakes is an important issue in seismic hazard because the highest seismic intensities are associated mainly with high frequency waves, while low frequency waves are associated with tsunami generation and the largest coseismic displacements. Previous works proposed that most of the low frequency waves were generated in the shallow part of the contact, while that high frequency waves were released in the deeper zone of the plate interface. We made kinematic inversions in different frequency bands using cGPS and SM to study the seismic ruptures and their frequency behavior. The AXITRA spectral code was used to simulate wave propagation in a flat layered medium. We used two approaches to model the source: elliptical patches and fixed rectangular mesh. Both models fit more than 90% of the variance. Our inversions for Tohoku earthquake show low frequency energy released in the shallow part of the interface and high frequency release in its deeper part, similar to findings in previous works. For Maule, on the other hand, we propose that the main high frequency source was located in the northern part of the rupture, not necessarily in the deeper contact zone that could not be broken during this earthquake. We think that high frequency is concentrated in the boundaries of the rupture caused by the arrest of the rupture propagation. The Maule rupture had a direction of propagation mainly from south to north generating a concentration of high frequency waves in small zones of the northern edge of the rupture. The Tohoku earthquake had a direction of propagation mainly from shallow depth to the deeper part of the plate interface generating more high frequency waves in small zones of the deeper edges. The Maule 2010 earthquake was recorded by several SM that previously recorded the Valparaiso 1985 Mw 8.0 earthquake. The Japanese strong motion networks have recorded several Mw ~ 8.0 earthquakes, like the Tokachi-oki 2003 earthquake. The comparison of SM of both mega-earthquakes with Mw ~ 8.0 earthquakes shows remarkable similarities: similar peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, duration of strong motion and high frequency spectrum. These similarities confirm our previous conclusions that high frequency are released by small zones where rupture is stopped by seismic barriers. Finally, the dual frequency behavior of seismic ruptures explains why at high frequencies the seismic intensities for mega-earthquakes are similar to those of Mw ~ 8.0 earthquakes and why for low frequency the seismic hazard of mega-earthquakes is higher generating larger tsunami propagation and coseismic displacements.

Ruiz, S.; Madariaga, R.

2012-04-01

168

Site correction of stochastic simulation in southwestern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peak ground acceleration (PGA) of a disastrous earthquake, is concerned both in civil engineering and seismology study. Presently, the ground motion prediction equation is widely used for PGA estimation study by engineers. However, the local site effect is another important factor participates in strong motion prediction. For example, in 1985 the Mexico City, 400km far from the epicenter, suffered massive damage due to the seismic wave amplification from the local alluvial layers. (Anderson et al., 1986) In past studies, the use of stochastic method had been done and showed well performance on the simulation of ground-motion at rock site (Beresnev and Atkinson, 1998a ; Roumelioti and Beresnev, 2003). In this study, the site correction was conducted by the empirical transfer function compared with the rock site response from stochastic point-source (Boore, 2005) and finite-fault (Boore, 2009) methods. The error between the simulated and observed Fourier spectrum and PGA are calculated. Further we compared the estimated PGA to the result calculated from ground motion prediction equation. The earthquake data used in this study is recorded by Taiwan Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) from 1991 to 2012; the study area is located at south-western Taiwan. The empirical transfer function was generated by calculating the spectrum ratio between alluvial site and rock site (Borcheret, 1970). Due to the lack of reference rock site station in this area, the rock site ground motion was generated through stochastic point-source model instead. Several target events were then chosen for stochastic point-source simulating to the halfspace. Then, the empirical transfer function for each station was multiplied to the simulated halfspace response. Finally, we focused on two target events: the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw=7.6) and the 2010 Jiashian earthquake (Mw=6.4). Considering the large event may contain with complex rupture mechanism, the asperity and delay time for each sub-fault is to be concerned. Both the stochastic point-source and the finite-fault model were used to check the result of our correction.

Lun Huang, Cong; Wen, Kuo Liang; Huang, Jyun Yan

2014-05-01

169

Combining Broadband, Strong Motion, and other geophysical data in real time data acquisition and processing at the Swiss Seismological Service SED  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Swiss Seismological Service (SED) operates one of the densest seismic broadband networks in Europe with 27 STS2 stations transmitting 24 bit 120sps data in real time. In addition the SED operates a network of 77 strong-motion recorders (65 free-field, 12 on hard rock co-located with broadband sensors). At 16 of the free-field sites and the 12 hard-rock sites Episensor accelerometers and 24 bit digitizers are installed and data is also transmitted in real time, while the other stations are equipped with 1990-era Geosig strong motion sensors, 16 bit A/D converters, and dial-up telephone links. Over the next 10years it is planned to replace those older strong motion stations with Episensors, 24 bit digitizers, and real-time data links, and to install an additional 51 free-field stations of that type. Past experience has shown that the strong motion data is very useful for refining the hypocentral parameters especially for smaller earthquakes, so in future all new strong motion channels will be integrated into the real-time processing.According to the SED open data policy all this data will be freely available e.g. through ORFEUS. Furthermore, new regional experiments in Switzerland (in particular COGEAR, "Coupled seismogenic Geohazards in Alpine Regions") will provide additional data from dense temporary deployments of strong motion stations and real-time GPS, but also from other geophysical methods like geochemical and magnetotelluric measurements with significantly different data types and sampling rates. Apart from the challenges of integrated acquisition and quasi-real-time processing of all that data the provision of efficient access to data streams and station metadata requires new concepts of web-based data visualisation and retrieval implementations (e.g. webmap services).

Clinton, J.; Haslinger, F.; Fäh, D.; Zweifel, P.; Schnabel, O.; Giardini, D.

2009-04-01

170

Maternity Leave in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

2010-01-01

171

A teleseismic study of the 2002 Denali fault, Alaska, earthquake and implications for rapid strong-motion estimation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Slip histories for the 2002 M7.9 Denali fault, Alaska, earthquake are derived rapidly from global teleseismic waveform data. In phases, three models improve matching waveform data and recovery of rupture details. In the first model (Phase I), analogous to an automated solution, a simple fault plane is fixed based on the preliminary Harvard Centroid Moment Tensor mechanism and the epicenter provided by the Preliminary Determination of Epicenters. This model is then updated (Phase II) by implementing a more realistic fault geometry inferred from Digital Elevation Model topography and further (Phase III) by using the calibrated P-wave and SH-wave arrival times derived from modeling of the nearby 2002 M6.7 Nenana Mountain earthquake. These models are used to predict the peak ground velocity and the shaking intensity field in the fault vicinity. The procedure to estimate local strong motion could be automated and used for global real-time earthquake shaking and damage assessment. ?? 2004, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

Ji, C.; Helmberger, D.V.; Wald, D.J.

2004-01-01

172

Automatic imaging of earthquake rupture processes by iterative deconvolution and stacking of high-rate GPS and strong motion seismograms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

combining the complementary advantages of conventional network inversion and backprojection methods, we have developed an iterative deconvolution and stacking (IDS) approach for imaging earthquake rupture processes with near-field complete waveform data. This new approach does not need any manual adjustment of the physical (empirical) constraints, such as restricting the rupture time and duration, and smoothing the spatiotemporal slip distribution. Therefore, it has the ability to image complex multiple ruptures automatically. The advantages of the IDS method over traditional linear or nonlinear optimization algorithms are demonstrated by the case studies of the 2008 Wenchuan and 2011 Tohoku earthquakes. For such large earthquakes, the IDS method is considerably more stable and efficient than previous inversion methods. Additionally, the robustness of this method is demonstrated by comprehensive synthetic tests, indicating its potential contribution to tsunami and earthquake early warning and rapid response systems. It is also shown that the IDS method can be used for teleseismic waveform inversions. For the two major earthquakes discussed here, the IDS method can provide, without tuning any physical or empirical constraints, teleseismic rupture models consistent with those derived from the near-field GPS and strong motion data.

Zhang, Yong; Wang, Rongjiang; Zschau, Jochen; Chen, Yun-tai; Parolai, Stefano; Dahm, Torsten

2014-07-01

173

Structural health monitoring of an existing 8-story building using strong motion observation data and structural design data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Target building is an 8-story steel encased reinforced concrete building which was constructed in 1998. In this structural health monitoring system, strong motion observation data is used and accelerometers were installed just after the completion of construction at 1st story, 2nd story, 5th story and 8th story. By use of system identification using ARX model, natural frequency, damping ratio and participation function are calculated, and concentrated equivalent story stiffness can be also determined by using Moore and Penrose generalized inverse matrix. From the identification results, natural frequency and concentrated equivalent story stiffness tend to decrease by the aging. Especially, just after the completion of construction and after a large earthquake, changes of natural frequency and concentrated equivalent story stiffness are very remarkable. From the point of amplitude dependence, natural frequency and concentrated equivalent story stiffness tend to change more by equivalent velocity of input energy than by peak ground acceleration. Analytical frame model is constructed from the structural design documents and concentrated equivalent story load-displacement relationships are obtained by carrying out push-over analysis. By the comparison between analytical and identified concentrated equivalent story stiffness, the structural conditions is estimated. From the identification results, a model using stick-slip elements is proposed. Natural frequency and story stiffness described by this model are consistent with identified results.

Morita, Koichi; Teshigawara, Masaomi

2006-03-01

174

Modeling lunar calendar effects in taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three most important Chinese holidays, Chinese New Year, the Dragon- boat Festival, and Mid-Autumn Holiday have dates determined by a lunar calendar and move between two solar months. Consumption, production, and other economic behavior in countries with large Chinese population including Taiwan are strongly affected by these holidays. For example, production accelerates before lunar new year, almost completely stops

Jin-Lung Lin; Tian-Syh Liu

2003-01-01

175

Modeling Lunar Calendar Holiday Effects in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The three most important Chinese holidays, Chinese New Year, the Dragon-boat Festival, and Mid- Autumn Holiday have dates determined by a lunar calendar and move between two solar months. Consumption, production, and other economic behavior in countries with large Chinese population including Taiwan are strongly affected by these holidays. For example, production accelerates be- fore lunar new year, almost

Jin-Lung Lin; Tian-Syh Liu

176

Modeling lunar calendar effects in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three most important Chinese holidays, Chinese New Year, the Dragon- boat Festival, and Mid-Autumn Holiday have dates determined by a lunar calendar and move between two solar months. Consumption, production, and other economic behavior in countries with large Chinese population including Taiwan are strongly affected by these holidays. For example, production accelerates before lunar new year, almost completely stops

Jin-Lung Lin; Tian-Syh Liu

2002-01-01

177

Strong ground motion synthesis for a M=7.2 earthquake in the Gulf of Corinth, Greece using Empirical Green`s functions  

SciTech Connect

We synthesize strong ground motion at three sites from a M=7.2 earthquake along the MW-trending Gulf of Cornith seismic zone. We model rupture along an 80 segment of the zone. The entire length of the fault, if activated at one time, can lead to an event comparable to that of the 1995 Kobe earthquake. With the improved digital data now routinely available, it becomes possible to use recordings of small earthquakes as empirical Green`s functions to synthesize potential ground motion for future large earthquakes. We developed a suite of 100 rupture scenarios for the earthquake and computed the commensurate strong ground motion time histories. We synthesized strong ground motion with physics-based solutions of earthquake rupture and applied physical bounds on rupture parameters. The synthesized ground motions obtained are source and site specific. By having a suite of rupture scenarios of hazardous earthquakes for a fixed magnitude and identifying the hazard to a site from the statistical distribution of engineering parameters, we have introduced a probabilistic component to the deterministic hazard calculation. The time histories suggested for engineering design are the ones that most closely match either the average or one standard deviation absolute accelerations response values.

Hutchings, L.; Stavrakakis, G.N.; Ioannidou, E.; Wu, F.T.; Jarpe, S.; Kasameyer, P.

1998-01-01

178

Damage Investigation of Surroundings of the Seismic Stations in the 2009 Suruga Bay Earthquake and Correspondence of Damage to Bulidings with Strong Ground Motions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out damage investigation around the seismic stations where high JMA seismic intensity scales were recorded in the 2009 Suruga Bay Earthquake. We found some minor damage such as small damage to the wall or damaged roof tiles, but heavy damage to buildings was not found around all the seismic stations. However, we found many wooden houses with damaged roof tiles. We investigated the correspondence of strong ground motions with damage to buildings. Very short period below 0.5 sec. was dominated in most strong ground motions and the 1-2 sec. response which has close relationship with heavy damage to buildings was small, therefore, heavy damage to buildings was not found in spite of high JMA seismic intensity scale. We gathered quantitative data of damaged roof tiles and investigated relationship between the period region of strong ground motions and damaged roof tiles. We found that the period of about 0.5sec. of strong ground motions had close correlation with damage to roof tiles.

Sakai, Yuki; Akamatsu, Katsuyuki; Kanda, Kazuhiro; Miyamoto, Takashi

179

PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF THE PEAKS OF STRONG EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION--DEPENDENCE OF PEAKS ON EARTHQUAKE MAGNITUDE, EPICENTRAL DISTANCE, AND RECORDING SITE CONDITIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of peak amplitudes of strong earthquake ground motion have been carried out with the emphasis on their dependence on earthquake magnitude, epicen- tral distance, and geological conditions at the recording site. Approximate empirical scaling functions have been developed which, for a selected confidence level, yield an estimate of an upper bound of peak accelerations, velocities, and displacements. The parameters

M. D. TRIFUNAC

1976-01-01

180

Source rupture process of the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake determined by joint inversion of teleseismic body wave and strong ground motion data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatio-temporal slip distribution of the 2003 Tokachi-oki, Japan, earthquake was estimated from teleseismic body wave and strong ground motion data. To perform stable inversion, we applied smoothing constraints to the slip distribution with respect to time and space, and determined the optimal weights of constraints using an optimized Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC). We found that the rupture propagates

Yuji Yagi

2004-01-01

181

Survey of strong motion earthquake effects on thermal power plants in California with emphasis on piping systems. Volume 1, Main report  

SciTech Connect

Since 1982, there has been a major effort expended to evaluate the susceptibility of nuclear Power plant equipment to failure and significant damage during seismic events. This was done by making use of data on the performance of electrical and mechanical equipment in conventional power plants and other similar industrial facilities during strong motion earthquakes. This report is intended as an extension of the seismic experience data collection effort and a compilation of experience data specific to power plant piping and supports designed and constructed US power piping code requirements which have experienced strong motion earthquakes. Eight damaging (Richter Magnitude 7.7 to 5.5) California earthquakes and their effects on 8 power generating facilities in use natural gas and California were reviewed. All of these facilities were visited and evaluated. Seven fossel-fueled (dual use natural gas and oil) and one nuclear fueled plants consisting of a total of 36 individual boiler or reactor units were investigated. Peak horizontal ground accelerations that either had been recorded on site at these facilities or were considered applicable to these power plants on the basis of nearby recordings ranged between 0.20g and 0.5lg with strong motion durations which varied from 3.5 to 15 seconds. Most US nuclear power plants are designed for a safe shutdown earthquake peak ground acceleration equal to 0.20g or less with strong motion durations which vary from 10 to 15 seconds.

Stevenson, J.D. [Stevenson and Associates, Cleveland, OH (United States)

1995-11-01

182

Predicting strong motion parameters for the Chamoli earthquake of 28 th March, 1999, Garhwal Himalaya, India, from simplified finite fault model  

Microsoft Academic Search

State of Uttaranchal in the northern part of India in the Garhwal Himalaya was hit by the Chamoli earthquake on 28th March, 1999 (GMT). This earthquake was recorded on a strong motion array installed in this region. The maximum peak ground acceleration of 353 cm\\/sec2 was recorded at an accelerograph located at the Gopeshwar station at an approximate epicentral distance

A. Joshi

2003-01-01

183

Strong motion envelope modelling of the source of the Chamoli earthquake of March 28, 1999 in the Garhwal Himalaya, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Garhwal Himalaya has been rocked by two major earthquakes in the span of just eight years, viz. Uttarkashi earthquake of 20th Oct, 1991 and Chamoli earthquake of 28th March, 1999. Chamoli earthquake of March 28, 1999 was recorded at 11 different stations of a strong motion array installed in the epicentral region. The maximum peak ground acceleration (353 cm/s2) was recorded at an accelerograph located at Gopeshwar. The data from eleven stations has been used for comparison with the simulated acceleration envelopes due to a model of the rupture responsible for this earthquake. For simulation of acceleration envelope the method of Midorikawa (1993) has been modified for its applicability to Himalayan region. This method has earlier been used by Joshi and Patel (1997) and Joshi (1999) for the studyof Uttarkashi earthquake of 20th Oct, 1991. The same method has been used for study of Chamoli earthquake. Layered earth crust has been introduced in place of homogeneous one in this method. The model of rupture is placed at a depth of 12 km below the Munsiari thrust for modelling Chamoli earthquake. Peak ground acceleration was calculated from simulated acceleration envelope using layered as well as homogeneous earth crust. For the rupture placed in a layered crust model peak ground acceleration of order 312 cm/s2 was simulated at Gopeshwar which is quite close to actually recorded value. The comparison of peak ground acceleration values in terms of root mean square error at eleven stations suggests that the root mean square error is reduced by inclusion of a layered earth crust in place of homogeneous earth crust.

Joshi, A.

184

A new prototype system for earthquake early warning in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake early warning (EEW) system has already been developed and tested in Taiwan for more than ten years. With the implementation of a real-time strong-motion network by the Central Weather Bureau (CWB), a virtual sub-network (VSN) system based on regional early warning approach was utilized at the first attempt. In order to shorten the processing time, seismic waveforms in a 10-sec time window starting from the first P-wave arrival time at the nearest station are used to determine the hypocenter and earthquake magnitude which is dubbed ML10. Since 2001, this EEW system has responded to a total of 255 events with magnitude greater than 4.5 occurred inland or off the coast of Taiwan. The system is capable of issuing an earthquake report within 20 sec of its occurrence with good magnitude estimations for events up to magnitude 6.5. This will provide early warning for metropolitan areas located 70 km away from the epicentre. In the latest development, a new prototype EEW system based on P-wave method was developed. Instead of ML10, we adopt the “Pd magnitude”, MPd, as our magnitude indicator in the new system. Pd is defined as the peak amplitude of the initial P-wave displacement. In the previous studies, by analyzing the Pd attenuation relationship with earthquake magnitudes, Pd was proved to be a good magnitude estimator for EEW purpose. Therefore, we adopt the Pd magnitude in developing our next generation EEW system. The new system is designed and constructed based on the Central Weather Bureau Seismographic Network (CWBSN). The CWBSN is a real-time seismographic network with more than one hundred digital telemetered seismic stations distributed over the entire Taiwan. Currently, there are three types of seismic instruments installed at the stations, either co-site or separately installed, including short-period seismographs, accelerometers, and broadband instruments. For the need of integral data processing, we use the Earthworm system as a common platform to integrate all real-time signals. In the process, strong-motion and broadband signals are used for automatic P-wave arrival time and Pd determination. However, short-period signals are only used for P-wave arrival time picking. This new system is still under development and being improved, with the hope of replacing the current operational EEW system in the future.

Hsiao, N.; Wu, Y.; Chen, D.; Kuo, K.; Shin, T.

2009-12-01

185

Rupture process and strong ground motions of the 2007 Niigataken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake -Directivity pulses striking the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant-  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Niigataken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake occurred on July 16, 2007, northwest-off Kashiwazaki in Niigata Prefecture, Japan, causing severe damages of ten people dead, about 1300 injured, about 1000 collapsed houses and major lifelines suspended. In particular, strong ground motions from the earthquake struck the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant (hereafter KKNPP), triggering a fire at an electric transformer and other problems such as leakage of water containing radioactive materials into air and the sea, although the radioactivity levels of the releases are as low as those of the radiation which normal citizens would receive from the natural environment in a year. The source mechanism of this earthquake is a reverse fault, but whether it is the NE-SW strike and NW dip or the SW-NE strike and SE dip are still controversial from the aftershock distribution and geological surveys near the source. Results of the rupture processes inverted by using the GPS and SAR data, tsunami data and teleseismic data so far did not succeed in determining which fault planes moved. Strong ground motions were recorded at about 390 stations by the K-NET of NIED including the stations very close to the source area. There was the KKNPP which is probably one of buildings and facilities closest to the source area. They have their own strong motion network with 22 three-components' accelerographs locating at ground-surface, underground, buildings and basements of reactors. The PGA attenuation-distance relationships made setting the fault plane estimated from the GPS data generally follow the empirical relations in Japan, for example, Fukushima and Tanaka (1990) and Si and Midorikawa (1999), even if either fault plane, SE dip or NW dip, is assumed. However, the strong ground motions in the site of the KKNPP had very large accelerations and velocities more than those expected from the empirical relations. The surface motions there had the PGA of more than 1200 gals and even underground motions at the basements of the reactors locating five stories below the ground had the PGA of 680 gals. We simulated ground motions using the characterized source model (Kamae and Irikura, 1998) with three asperities and the empirical Green's function method (Irikura, 1986). Then, we found that the source model should be a reverse fault with the NE-SW strike and NW dip to explain the strong motion records obtained near the source area. In particular, strong ground motions in the site of the KKNPP had three significant pulses which are generated as directivity pulses in forward direction of rupture propagation. This is the reason why the strong ground motions in the site of the KKNPP had very large accelerations and velocities. The source model is also verified comparing the observed records at the KKNPP with the numerical simulations by the discrete wavenumber method (Bouchon, 1981).

Irikura, K.; Kagawa, T.; Miyakoshi, K.; Kurahashi, S.

2007-12-01

186

Rigorous noise test and calibration check of strong-motion instrumentation at the Conrad Observatory in Austria.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the European InterregIV Italy/Austria project: "HAREIA - Historical and Recent Earthquakes in Italy and Austria" the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) and Mathematic and Geosciences Department of University of Trieste (DMG) are upgrading the transfrontier seismic network of South-Eastern Alps with new 12 accelerometric stations to enhance the strong motion instrument density near the Austria/Italy border. Various public institutions of the provinces Alto Adige (Bolzano Province), Veneto (ARPAV) and Friuli Venezia Giulia (Regional Civil Defense) in Italy and in the Austrian province of Tyrol are involved in the project. The site selection was carried out to improve the present local network geometry thus meeting the needs of public Institutions in the involved regions. In Tyrol and Alto Adige some strategic buildings (hospitals and public buildings) have been selected, whereas in Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia the sites are in the free field, mainly located near villages. The instruments will be installed in an innovative box, designed by ZAMG, that provides electric and water isolation. The common choice regarding the instrument selection has been the new Kinemetrics Basalt ® accelerograph to guarantee homogeneity with the already installed instrumentation and compatibility with the software already in use at the different seismic institutions in the area. Prior to deployment the equipment was tested at the Conrad Observatory and a common set-up has been devised. The Conrad Observatory, seismically particularly quiet, permits to analyze both the sensor and the acquisition system noise. The instruments were connected to the network and the data sent in real-time to the ZAMG data center in Vienna and the DMG data center in Trieste. The data have been collected in the database and analyzed using signal processing modules PQLX and Matlab. The data analysis of the recordings at the ultra-quiet Conrad Observatory pointed out some differences in the seismic response of the 12 instruments, mainly within the tolerance stated by the factory, and an optimization of a few sensors can be carried out in order to guarantee compatible high quality measurements.

Steiner, R.; Costa, G.; Lenhardt, W.; Horn, N.; Suhadolc, P.

2012-04-01

187

The Seismic Strong Motion Array Project (SSMAP) and the September 5, 2012 Mw=7.6 Nicoya, Costa Rica Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic gaps along the subduction zones are locations where large earthquakes have not occurred in a long time. The Cocos plate is subducting beneath the Caribbean plate in Costa Rica, and the Nicoya Peninsula, located in northwestern Costa Rica, has been identified as a seismic gap. The previous major earthquakes in Nicoya occurred on 1853, 1900 and 1950, which indicates about a 50-year recurrence interval for the characteristic earthquake cycle. Since 2006, the seismic strong motion array project (SSMAP) for the Nicoya Peninsula in northwestern Costa Rica has been composed of 10 sites with Geotech A900/A800 accelerographs (three-component) and GPS timing. Our digital accelerographs array has been deployed as part of our ongoing research on large earthquakes, including the potential Nicoya event, in conjunction with the Earthquake and Volcano Observatory (OVSICORI) at the Universidad Nacional in Costa Rica. From 2006 to 2012, 28 events were relocated using the SSMAP and OVSICORI data with moderate magnitudes (4 < Mw< 6.5), and were mainly located in Nicoya Peninsula region. On September 5, 2012, a Mw=7.6 earthquake occurred in the seismic gap and appears to be the expected event based on the 50 years recurrence interval, but was instead 62 years later. The main shock focal mechanism was thrust faulting, propagating downdip, of the Cocos plate in the Middle America trench with strike N54W and dip 20 degrees NE. The mainshock and 15 early aftershocks were relocated by using SSMAP, OVSICORI, and UCSC networks. The final location of the mainshock is 9.671 N and 85.878 W with a depth of 18 km. The maximum accelerations from two A900 stations perpendicular to the trench, Fortuna (distance 112km) and Pedernal (distance 128 km) are: 13.8% and 8.9 % g, respectively. In addition, the October 10 (MW 5.3) and 24(Mw 6.6) aftershocks recorded at Tamarindo (distances 40 km and 70 km, respectively) showed accelerations of 2.4% and 8.2% g; respectively. The mainshock acceleration data from SSMAP, University of Costa Rica, and National Electricity Institute networks were analyzed for a new attenuation relationship: Acceleration = -203 ln(R) + 1110 with M=7.6 and R = hypocentral distance.

Simila, Gerald; Mohammadebrahim, Ehsan; McNally, Karen; Quintero, Ronnie; Segura, Juan

2014-05-01

188

Time Dependent Fluid Occurrence Offshore Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time Dependent Fluid Occurrence Offshore Taiwan Liwen Chenab, Wu-Cheng Chia, Char-Shine Liuc (mma@earth.sinica.edu.tw)(wchi@gate.sinica.edu.tw) ; aInstitute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan bInstitute of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan ; cInstitute of Oceanography, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan Earthquake-induced groundwater flows have been observed recently. Such fluid flow might temporarily change the temperature field in the crust. Here we used seismically detected gas hydrate under seafloor to study the temperature fields at a few hundred meters subbottom depth before, and after the 2006 Henchuan earthquake (Mw7.0). We used the hydrate-related bottom-simulating-reflector (BSR) in seismic profiles to study the effects of gas/fluid migration on the BSR attributes. We have conducted two seismic experiments before and after the earthquake across the same transects near the hypocenter of the earthquake using similar air gun arrays and streamers. By analyzing this unique dataset, we found enhanced BSR reflectivity in average after the earthquake (~0.03), but the Sea-floor reflectivity is very similar (~0.5). We also found changed amplitudes versus offset (AVO) in the dataset (the gradient of reflection coefficient versus the angles was ~-0.34). We interpret these results as a consequence of earthquake-induced gas and fluid migration, bringing the gases underneath the BSR, thus the enhanced reflection coefficients. Next we will explore new methods to use the BSR as a flow meter. Using time-dependent seismic attribute analyses across transects before and after a large earthquake, we found strong evidences of earthquake-related fluid migrations and possibly associated temperature perturbations. This is among the first studies to document such feature in the offshore region.

Chen, L.

2010-12-01

189

Application of bounding spectra to seismic design of piping based on the performance of above ground piping in power plants subjected to strong motion earthquakes  

SciTech Connect

This report extends the potential application of Bounding Spectra evaluation procedures, developed as part of the A-46 Unresolved Safety Issue applicable to seismic verification of in-situ electrical and mechanical equipment, to in-situ safety related piping in nuclear power plants. The report presents a summary of earthquake experience data which define the behavior of typical U.S. power plant piping subject to strong motion earthquakes. The report defines those piping system caveats which would assure the seismic adequacy of the piping systems which meet those caveats and whose seismic demand are within the bounding spectra input. Based on the observed behavior of piping in strong motion earthquakes, the report describes the capabilities of the piping system to carry seismic loads as a function of the type of connection (i.e. threaded versus welded). This report also discusses in some detail the basic causes and mechanisms for earthquake damages and failures to power plant piping systems.

Stevenson, J.D. [Stevenson and Associates, Cleveland, OH (United States)

1995-02-01

190

INVERSION OF STRONG GROUND MOTION AND TELESEISMIC WAVEFORM DATA FOR THE FAULT RUPTURE HISTORY OF THE 1979 IMPERIAL VALLEY, CALIFORNIA, EARTHQUAKE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A least-squares point-by-point inversion of strong ground motion and tele- seismic body waves is used to infer the fault rupture history of the 1979 Imperial Valley, California, earthquake. The Imperial fault is represented by a plane embedded in a half-space where the elastic properties vary with depth. The inversion yields both the spatial and temporal variations in dislocation on the

STEPHEN H. HARTZELL; THOMAS H. HEATON

1983-01-01

191

Field survey around strong motion stations and its implications on the seismic intensity in the Lushan earthquake on April 20, 2013  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The M s7.0 Lushan earthquake on April 20, 2013 is another destructive event in China since the M s8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 and M s7.1 Yushu earthquake in 2010. A large number of strong motion recordings were accumulated by the National Strong Motion Observation Network System of China. The maximum peak ground acceleration (PGA) at Station 51BXD in Baoxing Country is recorded as -1,005.3 cm/s2, which is even larger than the maximum one in the Wenchuan earthquake. A field survey around three typical strong motion stations confirms that the earthquake damage is consistent with the issued map of macroseismic intensity. For the oscillation period 0.3-1.0 s which is the common natural period range of the Chinese civil building, a comparison shows that the observed response spectrums are considerably smaller than the designed values in the Chinese code and this could be one of the reasons that the macroseismic intensity is lower than what we expected despite the high amplitude of PGAs. The Housner spectral intensities from 16 stations are also basically correlated with their macroseismic intensities, and the empirical distribution of spectral intensities from Lushan and Wenchuan Earthquakes under the Chinese scale is almost identical with those under the European scale.

Ren, Yefei; Ji, Kun; Wen, Ruizhi; Huang, Xutao

2013-08-01

192

Predicting strong motion parameters for the Chamoli earthquake of 28th March, 1999, Garhwal Himalaya, India, from simplified finite fault model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

State of Uttaranchal in the northern part of India in the Garhwal Himalaya was hit by the Chamoli earthquake on 28th March, 1999 (GMT). This earthquake was recorded on a strong motion array installed in this region. The maximum peak ground acceleration of 353 cm/sec2 was recorded at an accelerograph located at the Gopeshwar station at an approximate epicentral distance of 14 km. The simplified method of Midorikawa (1993) has been used to model finite fault responsible for causing the Chamoli earthquake. This method is based on the Empirical Green's Function (EGF) technique of Irikura (1986).Modifications in this method have been made to include layered earth model and transmission effects at each boundary by Joshi (2001). Rupture causing the Chamoli earthquake is placed in two structural models of the earth in this work: one is a homogeneous half space and other is the multi layered earth model. Comparison in terms of root mean square error (RMSE) is made between the simulated and actual strong motion parameters like peak acceleration and duration. It is seen that the introduction of multi layered earth system in this simplified technique is capable of significantly reducing the RMSE in observed and predicted strong motion parameters and defining the attenuation rate for peak ground acceleration of this earthquake.

Joshi, A.

193

Strong ground motion simulation for the Mw6.6 Lushan Earthquake, Sichuan, China, base on the inverted and synthetic slip models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As we know, the estimation of slip distributions on the fault surface is one of the most important issues for the source inversion of earthquake fault rupturing process. The characteristics of slip distribution on the mainfault play an important role to control strong ground motion pattern. Wang et al., and Zhang et al., published the fast inversion for the rupturing process soon after the 20 April 2013 Lushan, Ya'an earthquake in Sichuan, China. A large amount of works has suggested that variable slip models derived from longer-period ground motion recording are relevant for the prediction of higher-frequency ground motions. The k square model and crack model are well known to describe the slip distribution on the rupture surface. In this study, first we synthesize two forward models: the value of maximum slip, fault dimension, corner wave number derived from Wang model is used to constrain the production of k square model; also, the value of maximum slip, the dimension of asperities from Wang model is used to produce the crack model. Calculation shows that the value of corner wave number of these two synthetic slip models and the inverted models are much the same, and these four slip models are then used to simulate the ground motions for the Lushan earthquake base on the stochastic finite-fault method. Furthermore, a stochastic slip model is also employed for the simulation of strong ground motion for the Lushan event. The simulated results characterized by PGA and PGV show that the source models base on the inverted and synthetic slip distributions could capture most of the basic features of the ground motion. Moreover, the simulated MMI distributions reflect the obvious rupture directivity effect and the influence of the shallow velocity structure well. While the simulation of stochastic slip model is apparently higher than observed MMI. In addition, our simulation result shows that the higher-frequency ground is strongly sensitive to the degree of slip roughness, therefore, we suggest that, for a realistic ground motion simulations due to future earthquake, it is imperative to properly estimate the slip roughness distribution.

Shen, W.; Zhong, Q.; Shi, B.

2013-12-01

194

Marquee lights on a theater sign can generate a strong, unambiguous percept of motion, from the timing of lights  

E-print Network

of its successive barks. However, it is not clear whether auditory attention can affect an ambiguous that an attention-based mo- tion mechanism in the auditory domain does exist. Dem- onstrating such an attention 2008 Psychonomic Society, Inc. Auditory and visual attention-based apparent motion share functional

195

Shear-wave velocity characterization of the USGS Hawaiian strong-motion network on the Island of Hawaii and development of an NEHRP site-class map  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To assess the level and nature of ground shaking in Hawaii for the purposes of earthquake hazard mitigation and seismic design, empirical groundmotion prediction models are desired. To develop such empirical relationships, knowledge of the subsurface site conditions beneath strong-motion stations is critical. Thus, as a first step to develop ground-motion prediction models for Hawaii, spectralanalysis-of-surface-waves (SASW) profiling was performed at the 22 free-field U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) strong-motion sites on the Big Island to obtain shear-wave velocity (VS) data. Nineteen of these stations recorded the 2006 Kiholo Bay moment magnitude (M) 6.7 earthquake, and 17 stations recorded the triggered M 6.0 Mahukona earthquake. VS profiling was performed to reach depths of more than 100 ft. Most of the USGS stations are situated on sites underlain by basalt, based on surficial geologic maps. However, the sites have varying degrees of weathering and soil development. The remaining strong-motion stations are located on alluvium or volcanic ash. VS30 (average VS in the top 30 m) values for the stations on basalt ranged from 906 to 1908 ft/s [National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site classes C and D], because most sites were covered with soil of variable thickness. Based on these data, an NEHRP site-class map was developed for the Big Island. These new VS data will be a significant input into an update of the USGS statewide hazard maps and to the operation of ShakeMap on the island of Hawaii.

Wong, I.G.; Stokoe, K.H., II; Cox, B.R.; Yuan, J.; Knudsen, K.-L.; Terra, F.; Okubo, P.; Lin, Y.-C.

2011-01-01

196

Strong seismic motions estimated from a one direction-three components ("1d-3c") approach, application to the city of rome, italy  

E-print Network

Strong seismic motions in soils generally lead to both a stiffness reduction and an increase of the energy dissipation in the surficial layers. In order to study such phenomena, several nonlinear constitutive models were proposed and were generally implemented for 1D soil columns. However, one of the main difficulties of complex rheologies is the large number of parameters needed to describe the model. In this sense, the multi-surface cyclic plasticity approach, developed by Iwan in 1967 but linked to Prandtl or Preisach theoretical work, is an interesting choice: the only data needed is the modulus reduction curve. Past studies have generally implemented such models for one-directional shear wave propagation in a "1D" soil column considering one motion component only ("1C"). Conversely, this work aims at studying strong motion amplification by considering seismic wave propagation in a "1D" soil column accounting for the influence of the 3D loading path on the nonlinear behavior of each soil layer. In the "1D...

D'Avila, Maria Paola Santisi; Semblat, Jean-François; Gandomzadeh, Ali; Martino, Salvatore; Bonilla, Luis Fabian

2014-01-01

197

Distributed system for strong motion data retrieval and archiving : metadata, databases and data exchange within the NA5 framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of the NERIES NA5 activity (http://www.neries-eu.org, Improving Accelerometric Data Access) is the development of common access to equally formatted event based accelerometric data and to the corresponding sheet of strong motion parameters. The core of the NA5 is made of 5 European institutes and the final protocol should permit other European institutes to integrate the NA5 portal. More precisely, the aim of the NA5 distributed data system is (1) to make available the data in a in specific format for the engineering community (i.e., ASCII) and in standard format for the seismological community (i.e. full SEED, SAC) and (2) to retrieve data at an unique portal on seismological and - accelerometric criteria, using relations between seismic sources and recordings and using specific parameters for the engineering community, i.e. site conditions and parameter thresholds (e.g., PGA, Ia, Duration, Sa(T), Sv(T)…). Parametric data as well as the procedures to compute them have been defined, implemented and make avalaible for all the NA5 partners. The final product will be a system based on a distributed '3 tiers' architecture, the three main nodes of which are : (1) the primary data servers of NA5 data providers, who make available waveforms (in ascii format) and the associated parameters and events-records tables, via ftp or http protocols (2) the NA5 portal, which supports metadata databases (events and stations metadata) and the associated user interfaces and webservices (3) the NA5 dataserver, the main function of which is the evaluation of the end-users requests, involving data retrieval, data conversion (sac, ascii and miniseed) and metadata formatting (sac, ascii and seed headers). Both NA5 portal and NA5 dataserver are presently under development, the former at EMSC, the latter at LGIT. Our presentation will point out the main features and resources of the NA5 dataserver : - a database of the instrument response files for the accelerometric channels (coefficient, poles and zeros) called PZ database has been set up, as well as some database maintenance tools. The PZ database is hierarchically structured into three directories : sensor, ana_filter and digitizer. - user requests are materialized by a specific xml structure generated at the portal and pushed to the dataserver via QWID/EIDS (Earthquake Information Distribution System). A NA5 xml request contains all the information (metadata) needed for its evaluation : requested data files matching the user search criteria are described by their URL, their network, site of installation and acquisition channel, the events and hypocentral informations they are linked to, as well as values of the parametric data. - the NA5 server notifies a xml parser, which checks and compiles the structure and store the information into an internal permanent relational metadata database. This database and the PZ directory are linked together by the way of a dedicated table, which contains directories and files names. Thus, the NA5 dataserver database will progressively be filled up by values carried on by NA5 requests. - once a request has been loaded into the database, the NA5 archiver process will then fork into four different sub-processes, each of them calling the internal database to get value(s) for its parameters : (a) get the ascii native waveforms files by downloading their URL if needed, i-e if the data are not already stored in the local cache, convert them into sac binary and miniseed (if needed, ie if miniseed files have not already been generated for this native waveforms files). (b) build the linked seed dataless, if the PZ files for these channels are available. (c) build the headers files (such headers will contain some more specific information about event, site condition and soil classification, max accelaration, aso. ) (d) pack the parametric data before archiving and compressing the result. The archiver process will end by filling up and re-writing the xml request file with updated information (archive URL for download, waveforms found and packed, size, etc.),

Pequegnat, C.; Gueguen, P.; Jacquot, R.

2009-04-01

198

New Taiwan macrolichens  

Microsoft Academic Search

[New to Taiwan: Baeomyces rufus, Candelaria concolor, Cladonia glauca, C. incrassata, C. phyllopoda, C. strepsilis, C. subsquamosa, C. umbricola, Dibaeis baeomyces, D. pulogensis, D. sorediata, Dirinaria aegialita, D. confluens, Ephebe lanata, Heterodermia microphylla, H. verrucifera, Hyperphyscia adglutinata, H. cochlearis, H. granulata, Hypotrachyna rockii, Leioderma sorediatum, Leptogium austroamericanum, L. burnetiae, L. corticola, L. denticulatum, L. laceroides, L. marginellum, L. phyllocarpum, L.

A Aptroot; L B Sparrius; M-J Lai

2002-01-01

199

Country Profiles, Taiwan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A profile of Taiwan is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

Keeny, S. M.; And Others

200

Strong-motion, site-effects and hazard issues in rebuilding Turkey: In light of the 17 August, 1999 earthquake and its aftershocks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The August 17, 1999 Izmit (Turkey) earthquake (Mw=7.4) will be remembered as one of the largest earthquakes of recent times that affected a large urban environment (U.S. Geological Survey, 1999). The shaking that caused the widespread damage and destruction was recorded only by a handful of accelerographs in the earthquake area operated by different networks. The characteristics of these records show that the recorded peak accelerations, even those from near field stations, are smaller than expected. On the other hand, smaller magnitude aftershocks yielded larger peak accelerations. This is attributed to the sparse networks, which possibly missed recording of larger motions during the main shock. As rebuilding of Turkey starts, strong-motion networks that yield essential data must be enlarged. In addition, attention must be paid to new developments elsewhere, such as earthquake zoning maps, earthquake hazard maps, liquefaction potentials and susceptibility. This paper aims to discuss these issues. Copyright??2000 IAHS.

Celebi, M.; Toprak, S.; Holzer, T.

2000-01-01

201

English speakers attend more strongly than Spanish speakers to manner of motion when classifying novel objects and events.  

PubMed

Three experiments provide evidence that the conceptualization of moving objects and events is influenced by one's native language, consistent with linguistic relativity theory. Monolingual English speakers and bilingual Spanish/English speakers tested in an English-speaking context performed better than monolingual Spanish speakers and bilingual Spanish/English speakers tested in a Spanish-speaking context at sorting novel, animated objects and events into categories on the basis of manner of motion, an attribute that is prominently marked in English but not in Spanish. In contrast, English and Spanish speakers performed similarly at classifying on the basis of path, an attribute that is prominently marked in both languages. Similar results were obtained regardless of whether categories were labeled by novel words or numbered, suggesting that an English-speaking tendency to focus on manner of motion is a general phenomenon and not limited to word learning. Effects of age of acquisition of English were also observed on the performance of bilinguals, with early bilinguals performing similarly in the 2 language contexts and later bilinguals showing greater contextual variation. PMID:20853990

Kersten, Alan W; Meissner, Christian A; Lechuga, Julia; Schwartz, Bennett L; Albrechtsen, Justin S; Iglesias, Adam

2010-11-01

202

The Impact of an Antiamphetamine Law on Juvenile Delinquency in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In October 1990, Taiwan changed its criminal code on amphetamines, making possession and use of such substances a punishable act. Strong government intervention against amphetamines-related offenses supported by an uncritical general public has created an increasing criminal population. This article focuses on how the newly enacted antiamphetamines law affects the extent and nature ofjuvenile delinquency in Taiwan. Data arefrom the

Bohsiu Wu

1996-01-01

203

Application of an iterative least-squares waveform inversion of strong-motion and teleseismic records to the 1978 Tabas, Iran, earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An iterative least-squares technique is used to simultaneously invert the strong-motion records and teleseismic P waveforms for the 1978 Tabas, Iran, earthquake to deduce the rupture history. The effects of using different data sets and different parametrizations of the problem (linear versus nonlinear) are considered. A consensus of all the inversion runs indicates a complex, multiple source for the Tabas earthquake, with four main source regions over a fault length of 90 km and an average rupture velocity of 2.5 km/sec. -from Authors

Hartzell, S.; Mendoza, C.

1991-01-01

204

Source Rupture Process for the February 21, 2011, Mw6.1, New Zealand Earthquake and the Characteristics of Near-field Strong Ground Motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The New Zealand Earthquake of February 21, 2011, Mw 6.1 occurred in the South Island, New Zealand with the epicenter at longitude 172.70°E and latitude 43.58°S, and with depth of 5 km. The Mw 6.1 earthquake occurred on an unknown blind fault involving oblique-thrust faulting, which is 9 km away from southern of the Christchurch, the third largest city of New Zealand, with a striking direction from east toward west (United State Geology Survey, USGS, 2011). The earthquake killed at least 163 people and caused a lot of construction damages in Christchurch city. The Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) observed at station Heathcote Valley Primary School (HVSC), which is 1 km away from the epicenter, is up to almost 2.0g. The ground-motion observation suggests that the buried earthquake source generates much higher near-fault ground motion. In this study, we have analyzed the earthquake source spectral parameters based on the strong motion observations, and estimated the near-fault ground motion based on the Brune's circular fault model. The results indicate that the larger ground motion may be caused by a higher dynamic stress drop,??d , or effect stress drop named by Brune, in the major source rupture region. In addition, a dynamical composite source model (DCSM) has been developed to simulate the near-fault strong ground motion with associated fault rupture properties from the kinematic point of view. For comparison purpose, we also conducted the broadband ground motion predictions for the station of HVSC; the synthetic seismogram of time histories produced for this station has good agreement with the observations in the waveforms, peak values and frequency contents, which clearly indicate that the higher dynamic stress drop during the fault rupture may play an important role to the anomalous ground-motion amplification. The preliminary simulated result illustrated in at Station HVSC is that the synthetics seismograms have a realistic appearance in the waveform and time duration to the observations, especially for the vertical component. Synthetics Fourier spectra are reasonably similar to the recordings. The simulated PGA values of vertical and S26W components are consistent with the recorded, and for the S64E component, the PGA derived from our simulation is smaller than that from observation. The resultant Fourier spectra both for the synthetic and observation is much similar with each other for three components of acceleration time histories, except for the vertical component, where the derived spectra from synthetic data is smaller than that resultant from observation when the frequency is above 10 Hz. Both theoretical study and numerical simulation indicate that, for the 2011 Mw 6.1, New Zealand Earthquake, the higher dynamic stress drop during the source rupture process could play an important role to the anomalous ground-motion amplification beside to the other site-related seismic effects. The composite source modeling based on the simple Brune's pulse model could approximately provide us a good insight into earthquake source related rupture processes for a moderate-sized earthquake.

Meng, L.; Shi, B.

2011-12-01

205

Impax Taiwan Recruiting1 2009 6 FDA  

E-print Network

at Impax Laboratories (USA) located at San Francisco Bay Area Learning about international regulatory (Taiwan) offers the following opportunities: International pharmaceutical business experience Training salary and benefit package #12;Impax Taiwan Recruiting2 Impax Laboratories (Taiwan), Inc., a wholly

Wu, Yih-Min

206

76 FR 13660 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-1088 (Final)] Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan Determination On...reason of imports from Taiwan of polyvinyl alcohol, provided for under subheading...by Commerce that imports of polyvinyl alcohol from Taiwan were being...

2011-03-14

207

THE FERRARA ARC THRUST EARTHQUAKES OF MAY-JUNE 2012 (NORTHERN ITALY): STRONG-MOTION AND GEOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS  

E-print Network

1 THE FERRARA ARC THRUST EARTHQUAKES OF MAY-JUNE 2012 (NORTHERN ITALY): STRONG by an earthquake of magnitude Ml5.8 (lat 44.851 long 11.086), located nearly 12 km WSW-ward of the 20 May Ml5 earthquakes, were released few kilometers westward of the epicentral area of the 20 May event. The aftershocks

Fleskes, Joe

208

Toward broadband simulation for predicting ground motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the recent developments of seismology and earthquake engineering, one of the most important issues is how to predict strong ground motion for future large earthquakes based on past experiences and observations. Following the numerical recipe (Irikura, 2010), we simulate the synthetic motion by constructing characterized source models. In this study, we try to apply three different approaches to reach broadband waveform prediction. The first approach is the hybrid method (Kamae, 1998) based on stochastic method to simulate high-frequency (>1Hz) ground motion proposed by Boore (1983). The low frequency (<1Hz) ground motion is calculated based upon spectral element method (SEM). In the second approach, we try to simulate the high frequency ground motion by considering spectral element method only. In this approach, we try to raise the simulated frequency up to 3Hz. The third approach considers the low frequency waveforms calculated by SEM. Through the spectrum ratio determined between synthetic and observations, we correct the SEM synthetics to obtain high frequency signals. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of these three approaches to the ground motion prediction of the 2010 Jiashian earthquake (M6.4) in Taiwan.

Chang, Y.; Lee, S.; Chiao, L.

2011-12-01

209

Estimation of Strong Ground Motion from a Great Earthquake Mw 8.5 in Central Seismic Gap Region, Himalaya (India) Using Empirical Green's Function Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study ground motions for a Mw 8.5 scenario earthquake are estimated at 13 sites in Kumaun-Garhwal region using the empirical Green's function technique. The recordings of 1991 Uttarkashi earthquake of Mw 6.8 at these sites are used as an element earthquake. A heterogeneous source model consisting of two asperities is considered for simulating the ground motions. The entire central seismic gap (CSG) can expect acceleration in excess of 100 cm/s2 with NW portion in excess of 400 cm/s2 and SE between 100 and 200 cm/s2. The central portion can expect peak ground acceleration (PGA) between 200 and 400 cm/s2. It has been observed from simulation of strong ground motion that sites located near the rupture initiation point can expect accelerations in excess of 1 g. In the present analysis, Bhatwari and Uttarkashi can expect ground accelerations in excess of 1 g. The estimates of the PGA are compared with earlier studies in the same region using different methodologies and it was found that the results are comparable. This has put constrains on the expected PGAs in this region. The obtained PGA values can be used in identifying the vulnerable areas in the central Himalaya, thereby facilitating the planning, design and construction of new structures and strengthening of the existing structures in the region.

Sharma, Babita; Chopra, Sumer; Sutar, Anup Kumar; Bansal, B. K.

2013-12-01

210

Rupture history of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan, China, earthquake: Evaluation of separate and joint inversions of geodetic, teleseismic, and strong-motion data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

earthquake. A linear multiple-time-window approach is used to parameterize the rupture. Because of the complexity of the Wenchuan faulting, three separate planes are used to represent the rupturing surfaces. This earthquake clearly demonstrates the strengths and limitations of geodetic, teleseismic, and strong-motion data sets. Geodetic data (static offsets) are valuable for determining the distribution of shallower slip but are insensitive to deeper faulting and reveal nothing about the timing of slip. Teleseismic data in the distance range 30°–90° generally involve no modeling difficulties because of simple ray paths and can distinguish shallow from deep slip. Teleseismic data, however, cannot distinguish between different slip scenarios when multiple fault planes are involved because steep takeoff angles lead to ambiguity in timing. Local strong-motion data, on the other hand, are ideal for determining the direction of rupture from directivity but can easily be over modeled with inaccurate Green’s functions, leading to misinterpretation of the slip distribution. We show that all three data sets are required to give an accurate description of the Wenchuan rupture. The moment is estimated to be approximately 1:0×1021 N · m with the slip characterized by multiple large patches with slips up to 10 m. Rupture initiates on the southern end of the Pengguan fault and proceeds unilaterally to the northeast. Upon reaching the cross-cutting Xiaoyudong fault, rupture of the adjacent Beichuan fault starts at this juncture and proceeds bilaterally to the northeast and southwest.

Hartzell, Stephen; Mendoza, Carlos; Ramírez-Guzmán, Leonardo; Zeng, Yuesha; Mooney, Walter

2013-01-01

211

An initial model of seismic microzonation of Sikkim Himalaya through thematic mapping and GIS integration of geological and strong motion features^*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic microzonation and hazard mapping was undertaken in the Sikkim Himalaya with local site conditions and strong ground motion attributes incorporated into a geographic information system. A strong motion network in Sikkim consisting of 9 digital accelerographs recorded more than 100 events during 1998-2002, of which 72 events are selected with signal-to-noise ratios ?3 for the estimation of site response (SR), peak ground acceleration (PGA) and resonance frequency (RF) at all stations. With these data and inputs from IRS-1C LISS III digital data, topo-sheets, geographical boundary of the State of Sikkim, surface geological maps, soil taxonomy map at 1:50,000 scale and seismic refraction profiles, the seismological and geological thematic maps, namely, SR, PGA, RF, lithology, soil class, slope, drainage, and landslide layers were generated. The geological and seismological layers are assigned normalized weights and feature ranks following a pair-wise comparison hierarchical approach and later integrated through GIS to create the microzonation map of the region. The overall SR, PGA and resonance frequency show an increasing trend in a NW-SE direction, peaking at Singtam in the lesser Himalaya. Six major hazard zones are demarcated with different percentages of probability index values in the geological, seismological hazard and microzonation maps. The maximum risk is attached to a probability greater than 78% in the Singtam and adjoining area. These maps offer generally better spatial representation of seismic hazards including site-specific analysis as a first level microzonation attempt.

Nath, Sankar Kumar

2005-05-01

212

Space program in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Space Program Office (NSPO) was established in 1991 to execute the space program in Taiwan. The first fifteen-year space program (1991-2006) consists of setting up infrastructure and carrying out three satellite programs (ROCSAT-1, ROCSAT-2 and ROCSAT-3). For the second fifteen-year program (2004-2018), NSPO will execute five major missions that include remote sensing satellites, broadband communication satellite, micro-satellites, international

L.-C. Lee

2004-01-01

213

Maternity Leave in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk versus formula. We found that the time when mothers returned to work coincided with the duration of guaranteed leave. In particular, mothers with a labor pension plan resumed work significantly earlier than mothers with no pension plan, and mothers with no pension plan returned to work significantly later than those with pension plans. The short leave of absence guaranteed under existing policies translated into mothers spending less time with their children and being more likely to exclusively use formula by 6 months after birth. In contrast, mothers who resumed work later than 6 months after birth were more likely to have not worked before birth or to have quit their jobs during pregnancy. Implications and recommendations for parental leave policy in Taiwan are discussed. PMID:21603074

Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

2011-01-01

214

Taiwan Nantou County earthquake 0327 Taiwan Nantou County earthquake  

E-print Network

Taiwan Nantou County earthquake 20130327 1 #12;0327 Taiwan Nantou County earthquake Source, Intensity 5 #12;I II III IV V VI VII Intensity Shake map of the March 27 Earthquake The peak ground and Technology Center for Disaster Reduction (NCDR) #12;Earthquake Response and Evacuation are a Part of Students

215

Rupture-process images deduced from array back-projection analysis using data of a dense strong ground-motion seismograph network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An M6.5 earthquake occurred beneath Suruga Bay on 11 August 2009. Japanese seismic intensity scale 6- was recorded near the source region. The earthquake on 11 August occurred in the Philippine Sea plate which subducts beneath the Tokai region on the Suruga Trough and the mechanism was estimated as a thrust-type with strike-slip components. The rupture area is within the expected source region of the so-called M8 Tokai earthquake. Although strong ground motions were observed widely around the source area, it is difficult to recover the rupture process by the waveform inversions in detail, because magnitude of the earthquake is not so large and the dominant frequency is outside of suitable range for the waveform inversions. In this study, we estimated the rupture process by performing an array back-projection analysis (e.g., Honda and Aoi, 2009). A strong ground motion seismograph network has been deployed in Hakone caldera about 40 km to the northeast from the source region. The seismograph network was regarded as a dense array. Hereafter, we call the array as HK-net. Resolution of the analysis is affected by the array size. Seismographs of HK-net are distributed extensively in Hakone caldera whose diameter is about 10 km and the site separations in HK-net are less than 1 km. We expected that this array configuration is appropriate for the analysis using the waveforms whose frequency range is higher than 1 Hz. The waveforms are band-pass filtered in the frequency range of 0.5-5Hz and integrated into velocity. We adopted the hypocenter determined by NIED (138.502, 34.805, 21.6km) and took the nodal plane dipping south-eastward as the fault plane on which the hypocenter was located, although aftershocks were also seen to have been distributed on another plane dipping northeastward. Two peaks appeared in strong ground motion records observed in HK-net and this means there are two sources (asperities) on the fault. In order to determine the sources of the pulses, semblance-enhanced waveform stacking was performed. By projecting the power of the stacked waveforms on to the fault plane, two asperities that generated significant pulses were successfully imaged at the hypocenter and the northwestern edge of the fault, respectively. The rupture seems to have started at the hypocenter and propagated unilaterally toward the northwestern edge of the fault. These results agree with the fact that two pulses were observed only at the eastern side of the source region but not observed at the western side, which is reasonable if the directivity effect is taken into account.

Honda, R.; Yukutake, Y.; Tanada, T.; Yoshida, A.

2009-12-01

216

Rupture process and wave radiation characteristics of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki mega-thrust earthquake examined using the strong-motion data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake is the first M9 earthquake that has been recorded by the dense strong-motion networks in the near-fault region. The strong-motion waveforms obtained by the two nation-wide networks, K-NET and KiK-net operated by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Aoi et al., 2011, Kunugi et al., 2011, this meeting), can provide the detailed information about the source of the mega-thrust earthquake. As a first step to elucidating the generation mechanism of this devastating earthquake that caused the severe ground shaking and catastrophic tsunami, we derive the rupture process using the relatively low-frequency (0.01-0.125 Hz) strong-motion data. We performed the multi-time-window linear waveform inversion analysis. The derived slip model has one prominent large slip area extending from the area around the hypocenter to the shallow part of the fault plane along the trench axis. This shallow large slip area is located far off southern Iwate, Miyagi, and northern Fukushima prefectures, where the tsunami damage was huge. The rupture of this area started 60 s after the initial break with a long duration of 40 s. This rupture event radiated the seismic waves rich in very low-frequency content. The deep portion of the fault between the hypocenter and the coast of Miyagi prefecture experienced the two down-dip rupture events in 20-50 s and 60-100 s, which largely contributed to the waveform synthesis at the stations to the west of the central part of the fault plane although the slip there is relatively small compared to the shallow slip area along the trench axis. Particularly, the second rupture event makes a significant contribution to the phase with largest amplitude. The shallow large slip also contributes to this largest amplitude phase. The former and latter make contribution in relatively high and low frequency ranges, respectively. Rupture after 100 s propagated in the southern part of the fault and generated the distinct phase observed in the southern stations. We also examine the frequency dependency of the wave radiation process considering the features of the observed acceleration waveforms.

Suzuki, W.; Aoi, S.; Sekiguchi, H.; Kunugi, T.

2011-12-01

217

A New Simplified Source Model to Explain Strong Ground Motions from a Mega-Thrust Earthquake - Application to the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake (Mw9.0) -  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new simplified source model is proposed to explain strong ground motions from a mega-thrust earthquake. The proposed model is simpler, and involves less model parameters, than the conventional characterized source model, which itself is a simplified expression of actual earthquake source. In the proposed model, the spacio-temporal distribution of slip within a subevent is not modeled. Instead, the source spectrum associated with the rupture of a subevent is modeled and it is assumed to follow the omega-square model. By multiplying the source spectrum with the path effect and the site amplification factor, the Fourier amplitude at a target site can be obtained. Then, combining it with Fourier phase characteristics of a smaller event, the time history of strong ground motions from the subevent can be calculated. Finally, by summing up contributions from the subevents, strong ground motions from the entire rupture can be obtained. The source model consists of six parameters for each subevent, namely, longitude, latitude, depth, rupture time, seismic moment and corner frequency of the subevent. Finite size of the subevent can be taken into account in the model, because the corner frequency of the subevent is included in the model, which is inversely proportional to the length of the subevent. Thus, the proposed model is referred to as the 'pseudo point-source model'. To examine the applicability of the model, a pseudo point-source model was developed for the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. The model comprises nine subevents, located off Miyagi Prefecture through Ibaraki Prefecture. The velocity waveforms (0.2-1 Hz), the velocity envelopes (0.2-10 Hz) and the Fourier spectra (0.2-10 Hz) at 15 sites calculated with the pseudo point-source model agree well with the observed ones, indicating the applicability of the model. Then the results were compared with the results of a super-asperity (SPGA) model of the same earthquake (Nozu, 2012, AGU), which can be considered as an example of characterized source models. Although the pseudo point-source model involves much less model parameters than the super-asperity model, the errors associated with the former model were comparable to those for the latter model for velocity waveforms and envelopes. Furthermore, the errors associated with the former model were much smaller than those for the latter model for Fourier spectra. These evidences indicate the usefulness of the pseudo point-source model. Comparison of the observed (black) and synthetic (red) Fourier spectra. The spectra are the composition of two horizontal components and smoothed with a Parzen window with a band width of 0.05 Hz.

Nozu, A.

2013-12-01

218

Herbal Medicine Research in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of all the countries in the world, why did you choose Taiwan to pursue your study? It is a question that I (comments of the first author) have answered a thousand times. My first visit to a laboratory at National Taiwan University opened my eyes to the possibilities of herbal medicine research, especially in the area of veterinary medicine. It

Krishna Kaphle; Leang-Shin Wu; Nai-Yen Jack Yang; Jen-Hsou Lin

2006-01-01

219

Smoking behaviour in Taiwan, 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To examine smoking behaviours in Taiwan and compare those behaviours to those in the USA. Methods: Using the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) of Taiwan (2001), a survey of over 20 000 participants, frequencies were calculated for smoking, ex-smoking, quantity smoked, and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Breakdowns by age, sex, and socioeconomic status were also calculated. Results:

C-P Wen; D T Levy; T Yuan Cheng; C C Hsu; S P Tsai

2010-01-01

220

K-NET and KiK-net strong-motion data of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (M9.0)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 11 March 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake is the largest instrumentally recorded earthquake in Japan to date (M9.0, JMA). The vibration from this devastating earthquake was felt almost all over Japan and severe shaking of JMA seismic intensity of "6 lower" or higher was recorded from Kanto to Tohoku districts, in East Japan. The earthquake generated a huge tsunami, which caused catastrophic damages to the Pacific coast of the Honshu Island, particularly to Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures. The National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) operates two nation-wide strong-motion observation networks K-NET and KiK-net, which succeeded in recording the strong-motion accelerograms at more than one thousand stations almost all over Japan. The earthquake and the associated tsunami directly affected facilities and operation of K-NET and KiK-net. The tsunami damaged 5 stations in Iwate and Miyagi prefectures. The data center of K-NET and KiK-net in Tsukuba, Ibaraki prefecture was also damaged by the strong motion of main shock and major aftershocks, and a blackout lasted for almost 1 day. Tens of communication lines of stations were not available immediately after the earthquake. Some of them had not been available during several weeks or months. In the noon of March 12, electric power of the data center was restored. After a stable electric power supply was secured, we restarted the data center system operations, and subsequently started to retrieve records from the stations. On March 15 we released the first version of K-NET and KiK-net data set of the main shock on our web sites. The data set consisted of accelerograms from 388 stations. We updated the data set three times as retrieval of the records progressed. The latest version was published on July 13. That release consisted of accelerograms from 1212 stations including 19 stations where peak ground accelerations above 1000 gals were recorded. Although we tried to retrieve records by on-site operations at the stations where wiring was unavailable, records of the 2 stations in Fukushima prefecture have not been yet retrieved because the stations are located in an exclusion zone around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Moreover, we lost records of 2 stations close to the coast in Iwate prefecture, since the stations were completely swept away by the tsunami. In this presentation, we will introduce our response to the emergency situation of data retrieval, publishing data, and system operation of K-NET and KiK-net after the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Strong-motion data of K-NET and KiK-net are available on the following web sites (http://www.k-net.bosai.go.jp/, http://www.kik.bosai.go.jp/ )

Kunugi, T.; Suzuki, W.; Aoi, S.; Nakamura, H.; Pulido Hernandez, N. E.; Morikawa, N.; Fujiwara, H.

2011-12-01

221

Detailed Slip Distribution and Fault Geometry of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku, Northeast Japan (MW 6.9) Earthquake Directly Obtained from Strong Motion Records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earthquake source fault has generally three-dimensionally complex structure including fault bending and branching as it has been revealed by detailed aftershock relocation studies, seismic velocity structure exploration, and surface fault trace observations. The detailed fault geometry should be also important to quantitatively understand strong motion generation from the source because both the heterogeneous spatiotemporal slip progression and the fault geometry might affect the near-source ground motions. Most of conventional kinematic source inversion techniques using seismic and geodetic data in the last three decades usually solve the slip amount on one or plural prescribed source fault planes. As mentioned above it is not easy for kinematic source inversions to assign appropriate fault structure in advance because the complex aftershock distribution with fault bending and branching does not often show the clear planar fault image. Therefore it is required to develope an innovative method to directely estimate the source fault geometry with spatiotemporal slip distribution from waveform data itself. We have been developing a new kinematic source inversion technique which let us estimate the slip distribution on the unknown fault geometry (e.g., Asano and Iwata, 2009, AGUFM). We extended the conventional multiple time-window linear waveform inversion method (Hartzell and Heaton, 1983) by including additional unknown model parameters defining the fault geometry. We applied this inversion method to the data set of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake (MW 6.9), which was an inland crustal earthquake occurring in fold mountain area. The station-dependent one-dimensional velocity structure models are given to each strong motion station to improve the resolution of the source inversion (Asano and Iwata, 2009 BSSA). We have also tested the resolvability of our source inversion scheme for several synthetic cases. The waveform fitting is reasonably improved by this three-dimensional fault model compared to the solution of the single planar fault model. The inversion result shows that the strike angle in the vicinity of asperity is almost similar to the point-source MT solution. The dip angles at shallower portion of the fault tend to be smaller than the MT solution, and the strike angle in the northern part of the fault is estimated to be rotated northwestward. These features look consistent with aftershock distribution and surface rupture offsets. We will also discuss the relationship between the rupture pattern and the source fault geometry with help from other geophysical information.

Asano, K.; Iwata, T.

2010-12-01

222

Numerical studies on Heavy Rainfall Events over Northern Taiwan in Mei-Yu Season  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two unusual heavy rainfall events occurred in northern Taiwan from late evening of 11 June to the early morning of 12 June 2012 and late evening of 2 June to the early morning of 3 June 1984. In a few hours, more than 400 mm rainfall were recorded over northwestern Taiwan in these two events. The mechanisms for the commencement and maintenance of this localized heavy rainfall events over northern Taiwan are investigated using the NCEP global grid data, satellite imageries, radar reflectivities, and simulations from the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. These events occurred under favorable large-scale environment that included: upper-level divergence; low-level high equivalent potential temperature; low level of free convection (LFC); and subsynoptic-scale ascending motion over the northern Taiwan Strait and northern Taiwan. In the late night of 2 June, the main heavy rainfall area is simulated to the southeast of the low-level windshift line associated with a trough axis, which is located in the southeastern China coast. The simulated heavy rainfall area moves eastward toward northeastern Taiwan Strait and the northwestern coast of Taiwan as the windshift line continues to propagate eastward. The heavy convective rainfall is enhanced in the eastern Taiwan Strait by orographic blocking where the prevailing southwesterly wind within the Taiwan Strait converges with the orographically deflected flow with a southerly wind component off the western/northwestern Taiwan coast. As the simulated convective area continues to move toward northern Taiwan, it intensifies in a localized low-level convergence area over the northeastern Taiwan Strait and northwestern coast of Taiwan where a barrier jet along the coast converges with the northwesterly winds behind the surface front. Furthermore, in the early morning of 3 June, the simulated rainfall is heavier where the barrier jet encounters the leading edge of the cold pool caused by rain evaporative cooling. As the convective systems drift inland, the orographic lifting of the pre-frontal southwesterly flow helps to produce higher simulated rainfall intensity in the southern slopes of the Taipei Basin. The simulated daily accumulated rainfall over the Taipei Basin and northwestern coast of Taiwan is about 200 and 400 mm, respectively, about 50 mm less than observed. In an experiment without Taiwan's topography (the NT run), the simulated rainfall intensity over the northern Taiwan Strait and the northwestern coast of Taiwan is much less. In contrast to the control run, despite the presence of favorable large-scale settings, no convective systems move to the northern part of Taiwan from the northern Taiwan Strait in the NT run without heavy rainfall simulated over northern Taiwan. Two events will be comparatively investigated by WRF on the formation and maintainence of heavy rainfall in Mai-Yu season.

Lin, P.; Chen, C.

2013-12-01

223

Progress and Prospect of Physics Research and Education in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Started about two decades ago, the global trend of shifting industrial manufacture power from western developed countries toward developing countries in Asia has in turn become the impetus in building up physical science and research in these areas. A very good example is the remarkable progress of physical research and education in Taiwan, in terms of quantity and quality. The continuous elevation of Taiwan's high education into graduate level plus the government's strong commitment to research and development on a level of 2.62 % GDP have led to an impressive physics program with an annual budget ˜32 million USD from National Science Council in supporting 568 PIs. The investigation scope encompasses high energy and astrophysics, nano and condensed matter, and semiconductor, optoelectronic physics, etc. The former is vigorously conducted via international collaborative efforts of LHC, KEK, ALMA, Pan-STARRS, etc. The latter is driven by vital Taiwan high tech industry mostly semiconductor IC and optoelectronics flourished during this period. The early trend of outflows of BS physics majors to western world for advanced studies has reversed dramatically. Nearly 80% of the BS students continue their MS and PhD degrees in Taiwan, attracted by lucrative job markets of high tech industry. In addition, healthy inflow of high-quality science manpower of well trained PhDs and senior scholars returning to homeland has strengthened the competitiveness. Overall, the physics community in Taiwan is thriving. The annual Physical Society meeting is expanding at a rate of 6%, reaching ˜1800 attendants and 1200 papers, and dedicated to promotions of female physicists and students. The publication quantity of Taiwan in top journals of PRs and PRL is ranked among top 20^th for all fields of physics, and ranked the 6^th in APL. Clearly Taiwan has now emerged as a strong power in applied science, not limited by its population size. Concerted efforts on scientific exchanges are being taken to connect to international societies. The bright outlook of physical science and its vital power in Taiwan is anticipated to provide a stimulus to benefit South East Asia, and have far-reaching impacts on China and worldwide.

Raynien Kwo, J.

2010-03-01

224

A seismic hazard scenario in the Sikkim Himalaya from seismotectonics, spectral amplification, source parameterization, and spectral attenuation laws using strong motion seismometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a seismic hazard map of the Indian Himalayan State of Sikkim, lying between Nepal and Bhutan Himalaya, in terms of horizontal peak ground accelerations with 10% exceedance probability over the next 50 years. These figures, the first for the region, were calculated through a stepwise process based on (1) an estimation of the maximum credible earthquake (MCE) from the seismicity of the region and Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program considerations and (2) four seismotectonic parameters abstracted from accelerograms recorded at nine stations of the Sikkim Strong Motion Array, specifically installed for this study. The latter include (1) the frequency-dependent power law for the shear wave quality factor, QS, (2) the site response function at each station using receiver function analysis and generalized inversion, (3) source parameterization of various events recorded by the array and application of the resulting relationships between M0 and MW, and corner frequency, fc and MW to simulate spectral accelerations due to higher-magnitude events corresponding to the estimated MCE, and (4) abstraction of regional as well as site specific local spectral attenuation laws at different geometrically central frequencies in low-, moderate-, and high-frequency bands.

Nath, Sankar Kumar; Vyas, Madhav; Pal, Indrajit; Sengupta, Probal

2005-01-01

225

Rupture Process of the 23 October 2011 Mw7.1 Van Earthquake in Eastern Turkey by Joint Inversion of Teleseismic, GPS and Strong-Motion Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 23 October 2011, a strong earthquake (Mw = 7.1) struck the Van (Eastern Turkey) region and its surrounding areas at 10:41:22 UTC (hereafter referred to as the Van earthquake), causing severe damage to the source region. Several studies have been carried out on the focal mechanism, seismic moment, focal depth and rupture model of this earthquake. However, there are still significant differences in the moment release, focal depth and slip asperities among these models. Since most of these models only used a single data set to investigate the source parameters, the reliability of these results is still a concern. In order to make clear the uncertainties and provide a reliable detailed rupture model for the mainshock, we investigated the rupture process of the Van earthquake by a joint inversion of teleseismic broadband seismograms, near-field static GPS displacement records and strong-motion data. The inversion results indicate that the mainshock was dominated by a thrust slip with a small part of a left-lateral strike-slip component below the hypocenter. The rupture initiated at a focal depth of 16 km and propagated to the surface with a relatively low average rupture velocity of ~1.8 km/s, suggesting that the major energy of the earthquake was released in a long-period band, which is the main reason why the seismic moments inverted by a long period or static signals are higher than those obtained by short-period data. Most of the slip occurred around the hypocenter with a maximum slip of more than 3.3 m, and the associated static stress drop was ~3 MPa. The total seismic moment of the whole fault was 5.76 × 1019 N·m, and most energy was released in the first 20 s, which is in the variation range of the released rupture models. The major slip was concentrated at deeper depth and extended to a depth of around 25 km. Meanwhile, the surface rupture was quite small, which explains why only weak ruptures were observed at the surface although caused by such a strong earthquake.

Liu, Chengli; Zheng, Yong; Xiong, Xiong; Wang, Rongjiang

2014-12-01

226

ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 468, Vol. 43, No. 1-2, March-June 2006, pp. 11-29 ANALYSIS OF STRONG MOTION DATA OF THE UTTARKASHI  

E-print Network

ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 468, Vol. 43, No. 1-2, March-June 2006, pp. 11-29 ANALYSIS OF STRONG MOTION DATA OF THE UTTARKASHI EARTHQUAKE OF 20TH OCTOBER 1991 AND THE CHAMOLI EARTHQUAKE of two major earthquakes in the Garhwal Himalayas, namely the 1991 Uttarkashi Earthquake and the 1999

Gupta, Vinay Kumar

227

Joint inversion of seismic and geodetic data for the source of the 2010 March 4, Mw 6.3 Jia-Shian, SW Taiwan, earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2010 March 4, Jia-Shian (Mw 6.3) earthquake in SW Taiwan caused moderate damage and no surface rupture was observed, reflecting a deep source that is relatively rare in western Taiwan. We develop finite-source models using a combination of seismic waveform (strong motion and broadband), Global Positioning System (GPS) and synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) data to understand the rupture process and slip distribution of this event. The rupture centroid source depth is 19 km based on a series of moment tensor solution tests with improved 1-D Green's functions. The preferred fault model strikes 322° and dips 27° to the NE and the mainshock is a thrust event with a small left-lateral component. The finite-source model shows a primary slip asperity that is about 20 km in diameter at a depth range from 22 to 13 km, with peak slip of 42.5 cm, a total scalar seismic moment of 3.25 × 1018 N m (Mw 6.34) and with an average static stress drop of 0.24 MPa. The rupture velocity of this event is faster than the mid-crustal shear wave velocity in Taiwan, which suggests the possibility of a supershear event which has not been previously observed in Taiwan. Systematic resolution and sensitivity tests are performed to confirm the slip distribution, rupture velocity, the choice of weighting and smoothing for the joint inversions, and the consistency of the slip distribution. The first 24 hours of aftershocks appeared along the upper periphery of the main coseismic slip asperity. Both the mainshock and aftershocks are located in a transition zone where the depth of seismicity and an inferred regional basal décollement increases from central to southern Taiwan. The difference between the current orientation of plate convergence in Taiwan (120º) and the P axis of this event (052º) and nearby measurements of recent crustal strain directions (050° to 080°), as well as the relatively low static stress drop, suggest that the Jia-Shian event involves the reactivation of a deep and weak pre-existing NW-SE geological structure.

Huang, Mong-Han; Dreger, Douglas; Bürgmann, Roland; Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Hashimoto, Manabu

2013-06-01

228

Taiwan's second remote sensing satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FORMOSAT-2 is Taiwan's first remote sensing satellite (RSS). It was launched on 20 May 2004 with five-year mission life and a very unique mission orbit at 891 km altitude. This orbit gives FORMOSAT-2 the daily revisit feature and the capability of imaging the Arctic and Antarctic regions due to the high enough altitude. For more than three years, FORMOSAT-2 has performed outstanding jobs and its global effectiveness is evidenced in many fields such as public education in Taiwan, Earth science and ecological niche research, preservation of the world heritages, contribution to the International Charter: space and major disasters, observation of suspected North Korea and Iranian nuclear facilities, and scientific observation of the atmospheric transient luminous events (TLEs). In order to continue the provision of earth observation images from space, the National Space Organization (NSPO) of Taiwan started to work on the second RSS from 2005. This second RSS will also be Taiwan's first indigenous satellite. Both the bus platform and remote sensing instrument (RSI) shall be designed and manufactured by NSPO and the Instrument Technology Research Center (ITRC) under the supervision of the National Applied Research Laboratories (NARL). Its onboard computer (OBC) shall use Taiwan's indigenous LEON-3 central processing unit (CPU). In order to achieve cost effective design, the commercial off the shelf (COTS) components shall be widely used. NSPO shall impose the up-screening/qualification and validation/verification processes to ensure their normal functions for proper operations in the severe space environments.

Chern, Jeng-Shing; Ling, Jer; Weng, Shui-Lin

2008-12-01

229

The Handy Guide for Foreigners in Taiwan  

E-print Network

Traditional Chinese Medicine 78 Drug Safety 80 Medical Tourism 80 87 Employment and Investment Work Permits for Overseas Chinese and Foreign Students 92 Working in Taiwan: Rights and Obligations 92 Labor Protection 95 Studying in Taiwan 100 Scholarship Opportunities in Taiwan 102 Scholarships and Grants 103 Studying Chinese

230

Climate Change Impacts on Hydrology in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impacts of climate change on streamflows and groundwater recharge were evaluated for Taiwan. Rainfall unevenly distributes in a year in Taiwan Island, which May through October is a wet season and contains 67% and 90% of annual rainfall for North and South Taiwan, respectively. Increasing of frequencies of both flood and drought has been observed in recent years, which

C. Tung

2002-01-01

231

Professional Counseling in Taiwan: Past to Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of the recent introduction of a licensure law, professional counseling has grown rapidly in Taiwan after decades of slow development. The authors provide a historical review of the development of professional counseling in Taiwan and discuss the current status and future trajectory of professional counseling in Taiwan.

Guo, Yuh-Jen; Wang, Shu-Ching; Combs, Don C.; Lin, Yi-Chun; Johnson, Veronica

2013-01-01

232

Source process and slip model of 2005 Dahuiyeh-Zarand earthquake (Iran) using inversion of near-field strong motion data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 2005 February 22, the Dahuiyeh-Zarand earthquake, Mw 6.5, struck one of the most seismically active regions in south-central Iran, east of Zarand City in Kerman province, causing more than 500 fatalities. The causative fault of the 2005 Dahuiyeh-Zarand earthquake, a reverse fault, striking nearly EW and dipping to the north, was located within a mountainous region and therefore more difficult to identify compared to the range-bounded faults. Its identification, after the 2005 event, is very important for both the estimation of seismic hazard as well as for the damage and fatality functions. We have inverted six three-component near-field strong motion waveforms to obtain the complete earthquake rupture history and slip distribution. Accelerograms are bandpass filtered with 0.2-1.0 Hz, and a length of 15-17 s of the waveforms is inverted. The lack of absolute timing has been successfully overcome by estimating, from the velocity model of the region, the propagation of P and S waves from the epicentre to the stations. The final fault slip model and the estimated source parameters are able to explain the observed waveforms. The rupture is found to be bilateral with a maximum slip of 2.4 m concentrated on two asperities in the west and east sides of the nucleation point at depths of 6-12 km. The western asperity is located to the east of Zarand City and beneath the Dahuiyeh village, which might explain why the Dahuiyeh village was totally destroyed by this earthquake.

Rouhollahi, R.; Ghayamghamian, M. R.; Yaminifard, F.; Suhadolc, P.; Tatar, M.

2012-04-01

233

ARRA-funded VS30 measurements using multi-technique approach at strong-motion stations in California and central-eastern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Funded by the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), we conducted geophysical site characterizations at 191 strong-motion stations: 187 in California and 4 in the Central-Eastern United States (CEUS). The geophysical methods used at each site included passive and active surface-wave and body-wave techniques. Multiple techniques were used at most sites, with the goal of robustly determining VS (shear-wave velocity) profiles and VS30 (the time-averaged shear-wave velocity in the upper 30 meters depth). These techniques included: horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR), two-dimensional (2-D) array microtremor (AM), refraction microtremor (ReMi™), spectral analysis of surface wave (SASW), multi-channel analysis of surface waves (Rayleigh wave: MASRW; and Love wave: MASLW), and compressional- and shear-wave refraction. Of the selected sites, 47 percent have crystalline, volcanic, or sedimentary rock at the surface or at relatively shallow depth, and 53 percent are of Quaternary sediments located in either rural or urban environments. Calculated values of VS30 span almost the full range of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) Site Classes, from D (stiff soils) to B (rock). The NEHRP Site Classes based on VS30 range from being consistent with the Class expected from analysis of surficial geology, to being one or two Site Classes below expected. In a few cases where differences between the observed and expected Site Class occurred, it was the consequence of inaccurate or coarse geologic mapping, as well as considerable degradation of the near-surface rock. Additionally, several sites mapped as rock have Site Class D (stiff soil) velocities, which is due to the extensive weathering of the surficial rock.

Yong, Alan; Martin, Antony; Stokoe, Kenneth; Diehl, John

2013-01-01

234

Simultaneous Estimation of Earthquake Source Parameters and Site Response from Inversion of Strong Motion Network Data in Kachchh Seismic Zone, Gujarat, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inversion of horizontal components of S-wave spectral data in the frequency range 0.1-10.0 Hz has been carried out to estimate simultaneously the source spectra of 38 aftershocks (Mw 2.93-5.32) of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake (Mw 7.7) and site response at 18 strong motion sites in the Kachchh Seismic Zone, Gujarat, India. The spatial variation of site response (SR) in the region has been studied by averaging the SR values obtained from the inversion in two frequency bands; 0.2-1.8 Hz and 3.0-7.0 Hz, respectively. In 0.2-1.8 Hz frequency band, the high SR values are observed in the southern part of the Kachchh Mainland Fault that had suffered extensively during the 2001 Bhuj Earthquake. However, for 3.0-7.0 Hz band, the area of Jurassic and Quaternary Formations show predominantly high SR. The source spectral data obtained from the inversion were used to estimate various source parameters namely, the seismic moment, stress drop, corner frequency and radius of source rupture by using an iterative least squares inversion approach based on the Marquardt-Levenberg algorithm. It has been observed that the seismic moment and radius of rupture from 38 aftershocks vary between 3.1x10^{13} to 2.0x10^{17} Nm and 226 to 889 m, respectively. The stress drop values from these aftershocks are found to vary from 0.11 to 7.44 MPa. A significant scatter of stress drop values has been noticed in case of larger aftershocks while for smaller magnitude events, it varies proportionally with the seismic moment. The regression analysis between seismic moment and radius of rupture indicates a break in linear scaling around 10^{15.3} Nm. The seismic moment of these aftershocks found to be proportional to the corner frequency, which is consistent for earthquakes with such short rupture length.

Dutta, U.; Mandal, P.

2010-12-01

235

Motion Graph & Motion Retargeting motion capture  

E-print Network

display MoCap database motion 10 Motion Graph Motion Graph skeleton skin Motion Retargeting skeleton skeleton skin model skeleton project Motion Graph Motion Retargeting 2 Related Work MotionMotion Graph & Motion Retargeting R02944001 Abstract motion capture project Motion Graph

Ouhyoung, Ming

236

Connectivity of the Taiwan, Cheju, and Korea straits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insight into the circulation of the East China Sea and origin of the Tsushima Current are investigated through direct, concurrent measurements of velocities through the Taiwan, Cheju, and Korea Straits. Current data are obtained from six bottom-mounted acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) arrayed along a section spanning the Korea Strait, a single bottom-moored ADCP in the Cheju Strait, and four bottom-moored ADCPs along a section spanning the Taiwan Strait. Mass transports are computed for the October-December, 1999 time period. In addition, temperature and salt transports are examined in conjunction with climatological values of temperature and salinity. Average volume transport is 0.14 Sverdrups (Sv) through the Taiwan Strait, 0.59 Sv for the Cheju Strait, and 3.17 Sv for the Korea Strait. Salt and temperature transport through the Korea Strait and into the Japan/East Sea are 110.48×10 6 kg/s and 0.24×10 15 watts (W), respectively. Heat loss in the East China Sea is approximately 200 W/ m2. Winds affect the transports in each of the straits. Most noticeable wind effects are observed in the Taiwan Strait where strong north wind events force flow into the South China Sea. The main source for the Tsushima Current and its flow into the Japan/East Sea is clearly the Kuroshio for fall, 1999.

Teague, W. J.; Jacobs, G. A.; Ko, D. S.; Tang, T. Y.; Chang, K.-I.; Suk, M.-S.

2003-01-01

237

Surface waves in the western Taiwan coastal plain from an aftershock of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Significant surface waves were recorded in the western coastal plain (WCP) of Taiwan during the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake and its series of aftershocks. We study in detail the surface waves produced by one aftershock (20 September 1999, 18hr 03m 41.16sec, M 6.2) in this paper. We take the Chelungpu-Chukou fault to be the eastern edge of the WCP because it marks a distinct lateral contrast in seismic wave velocities in the upper few kilometers of the surface. For many records from stations within the WCP, body waves and surface waves separate well in both the time domain and the period domain. Long-period (e.g., >2 sec) ground motions in the plain are dominated by surface waves. Significant prograde Rayleigh wave particle motions were observed in the WCP. The observed peak ground velocities are about 3-5 times larger than standard predictions in the central and western part of the plain. Observed response spectra at 3 sec, 4 sec, and 5 sec at the center of the plain can be 15 times larger than standard predictions and 10 times larger than the predictions of Joyner (2000) based on surface wave data from the Los Angeles basin. The strong surface waves were probably generated at the boundary of the WCP and then propagated toward the west, largely along radial directions relative to the epicenter. The geometry of the boundary may have had a slight effect on propagation directions of surface waves. Group velocities of fundamental mode Rayleigh and Love waves are estimated using the multiple filter analysis (MFA) technique and are refined with phase matched filtering (PMF). Group velocities of fundamental mode surface waves range from about 0.7 km/sec to 1.5 km/sec for the phases at periods from 3 sec to 10 sec. One important observation from this study is that the strongest surface waves were recorded in the center of the plain. The specific location of the strongest motions depends largely on the period of surface waves rather than on specific site conditions or plain structures. Accordingly, we conjecture that surface waves could be generated in a wide area close to boundaries of low-velocity sedimentary wave guides. In the case studied in this article the area can be as wide as 30 km (from the Chelungpu fault to the center of the plain). Surface waves converted by P and S waves at different locations would overlap each other and add constructively along their propagation paths. As a result, the surface waves would get stronger and stronger. Beyond a certain distance to the boundary, no more surface waves would be generated. Consequently, no more local surface waves would be superimposed into the invasive surface waves, and the surface waves would tend to decay in amplitude with distance.

Wang, G.-Q.; Tang, G.-Q.; Boore, D.M.; Van Ness, Burbach, G.; Jackson, C.R.; Zhou, X.-Y.; Lin, Q.-L.

2006-01-01

238

B values and ??-?? seismic source models: Implications for tectonic stress variations along active crustal fault zones and the estimation of high-frequency strong ground motion  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this study the tectonic stress along active crustal fault zones is taken to be of the form ??(y) + ????p(x, y), where ??(y) is the average tectonic stress at depth y and ???? p(x, y) is a seismologically observable, essentially random function of both fault plane coordinates; the stress differences arising in the course of crustal faulting are derived from ????p(x, y). Empirically known frequency of occurrence statistics, moment-magnitude relationships, and the constancy of earthquake stress drops may be used to infer that the number of earthquakes N of dimension ???r is of the form N ?? 1/r2 and that the spectral composition of ????p(x, y) is of the form |????p(k)| ?? l/k2, where ????p(k) is the two-dimensional Fourier transform of ????p(x, y) expressed in radial wave number k. The y = 2 model of the far-field shear wave displacement spectrum is consistent with the spectral composition |????p(K)| ?? l/k2, provided that the number of contributions to the spectral representation of the radiated field at frequency f goes as (k/ko), consistent with the quasi-static frequency of occurrence relation N ?? 1/r2; K o is a reference wave number associated with the reciprocal source dimension. Separately, a variety of seismologic observations suggests that the ?? = 2 model is the one generally, although certainly not always, applicable to the high-frequency spectral decay of the far-field radiation of earthquakes. In this framework, then, b values near 1, the general validity of the y = 2 model, and the constancy of earthquake stress drops independent of size are all related to the average spectral composition of ???? p(x, y), |????p(k)| ?? l/k2. Should one of these change as a result of premonitory effects leading to failure, as has been specifically proposed for b values, it seems likely that one or all of the other characteristics will change as well from their normative values. Irrespective of these associations, the far-field, high-frequency shear radiation for the y = 2 model in the presence of anelastic attenuation may be interpreted as band-limited, finite duration white noise in acceleration. Its rms value, arms, is given by the expression arme = 0.85[21/2(2??)2/106] (????/pR)(f max/f0)1/2, where ???? is the earthquake stress drop, p is density, R is hypocentral distance, fo is the spectral corner frequency, and fmax is determined by R and specific attenuation 1/Q. For several reasons, one of which is that it may be estimated in the absence of empirically defined ground motion correlations, a rms holds considerable promise as a measure of high-frequency strong ground motion for engineering purposes. Copyright ?? 1979 by the American Geophysical Union.

Hanks, T.C.

1979-01-01

239

On the similarity of strong ground motions from a deep-focus earthquake (01/01/2012, Mj7.0) and the 2011 Tohoku earthquake - possible effects of specific propagation path  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 1st January, 2012, there was a deep-focus earthquake (Mj7.0) at the depth of 397km close to the Izu-Ogasawara Trench, south of Japan. It is well known that, for such a deep-focus earthquake, anomalous seismic intensity distribution is obtained because of the propagation of seismic waves through the high-Q subducting plate (in this case, The Pacific plate). According to our analysis, such a specific propagation path may have significant effects, not only for intensity distribution but also for the characteristics of strong ground motions. For this earthquake, records of ground motions were obtained at permanent strong motion stations in a wide area. We focused on the records in the Kanto region, where largest ground motions were observed. We analyzed the Fourier phase characteristics of the records, using the method of substituting the Fourier phase characteristics of the records with those from other earthquakes at the same station [Nozu and Irikura, 2008; Wakai and Nozu, 2012]. It was surprising to find that the Fourier phase characteristics of the deep-focus event were similar to those of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. In the past study, such similarities were observed for two or more closely-located earthquakes, because, for the closely-located earthquakes, the path and site effects are shared between the two events [Nozu and Irikura, 2008; Wakai and Nozu, 2012]. However, for the current earthquake pair, the earthquakes are not closely-located at all. Our interpretation is as follows. In this case, seismic waves radiated from the deep-focus event can propagate with little attenuation through the Pacific plate until they approach to the plate boundary close to the Kanto region. Then they can propagate through the landside plate, toward the observation sites, being affected by the existence of the sedimentary basin. By the way, the seismic waves from the Tohoku earthquake also propagate from the plate boundary to the observation sites, being affected by the sedimentary basin. The sedimentary basin has similar effects for the two events because the incident angles are similar. This should be the reason why strong ground motions from the two events are so similar. Thus, we concluded that the specific propagation path for the deep-focus event contributed to the similarity of strong ground motions of the two events. The permanent strong-motion stations (black triangles), the rupture starting point of the 2011 mainshock by JMA (red star), epicentres of a deep-focus events (blue star), the SPGAs of the 2011 main shock (orange cross and circle) [Nozu, 2011] .

Wakai, A.; Nozu, A.

2013-12-01

240

Joint Inversion of Seismic and Geodetic Data for the Source of the 4th March 2010 MW 6.3 Jia-Shian, SW Taiwan, Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 4th March 2010 Jia-Shian (MW 6.3) earthquake occurred in SW Taiwan and caused moderate damage. According to the Central Weather Bureau (CWB) report, this event is located at a depth of ~23 km under the Central Range. No fault related surface rupture was observed, reflecting an unusually deep source that is relatively rare in west Taiwan. The coseismic GPS measurements show a fan shape pattern with azimuths from SW to NW. The highest observed horizontal displacement is 3.67 cm in the direction of N80°W and is about 20 km far away from the epicenter. We develop finite-source models using a combination of Global Positioning System (GPS), synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR), and seismic strong motion waveform data to understand the rupture process of this event. The preferred model shows a primary slip patch that is about 20 km in diameter with a peak slip of 25.1 cm and total scalar seismic moment of 1.96 × 1018 N m (MW 6.13). This fault geometry is N38°W in strike and 27° dipping to NE. The majority of slip is between 8 and 14 cm located to the NW of the hypocenter, which is very close to the northern end of the active Chi-Shan Fault (CSF) and the high angle reverse Chao-Chou Fault (CCF). Our moment tensor solution using data from the Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology (BATS) shows a NW-striking and east dipping thrust with a left-lateral strike-slip component to the focal mechanism, which is close to the current direction of plate motion in Taiwan. The main shock mechanism and the aftershock distribution have different orientations, neither of which is similar to NS or NE-SW trending Chi-Shan and Chao-Chou surface faults. The aftershock sequence extends nearly 25 km into western Foothills striking EW when close to the epicenter but in a NW direction farther west from the epicenter. The different directions from the main shock to the aftershock distribution may imply different fault planes being ruptured during coseismic and postseismic periods. In addition, the focal mechanisms of aftershocks show two strikes and two senses of motions: one is close to the main shock and another is in a more E-W direction with a larger left-lateral strike-slip component. Both agree well with the orientations of the aftershock sequence. The primary east-dipping detachment of Taiwan is generally at the depths of 10-15 km in the north-central Taiwan but becomes deeper in the south, which is very close to the Jia-Shian earthquake hypocenter. As the result, the main shock might locate right above the detachment and then transferred the stress westward. This stress change might induce a series of aftershocks, and then illuminated a pre-existing fault. Hence, the stress changes from this event could enhance or decrease the regional Coulomb stress level to the nearby faults, which could be an important indicator of potential earthquake hazards in SW Taiwan.

Huang, M.; Dreger, D. S.; Burgmann, R.; Suppe, J.; Hashimoto, M.

2010-12-01

241

Preventing Juvenile Delinquency in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The people and government of Taiwan have made special efforts to curb the increasing juvenile delinquency of recent years. This report provides the most current statistics concerning juvenile delinquency, and describes the prevention programs administered by the different branches of the government and other organizations. Based on cultural tradition, the programs are mostly primary prevention directed at the general population

LEE-JAN JAN

1986-01-01

242

Aviation Safety Council Taipei, Taiwan  

E-print Network

Aviation Safety Council Taipei, Taiwan GE 536 Occurrence Investigation Report Runway Overrun During.5.2 Training and Rating Records of Pilots................................... 8 1.5.2.1 CM-1.5.5 Pilots' Activities in 72 hours prior to the Accident ................ 10 1.5.5.1 CM-1

Ladkin, Peter B.

243

Reconstructing Transition Knowledge in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Taking a post-colonial stand and using school to work transition as an example, the author re-examines the special education discourses in Taiwan and attempts to construct alternate understandings of transition from sociological and cultural perspectives. A review of past transition literature and a survey of the educational background of the…

Cheng, Chen-chen

2012-01-01

244

A Comprehensive View Of Taiwan Orogeny From TAIGER Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arc-continent collision is one of the basic mechanisms for building continental masses. Taiwan is young and very active. Based on known geology a multi-disciplinary geophysical experiment was designed to image the orogeny in action. Logistics for R/V Langseth, OBS and PASSCAL instruments was complex; nevertheless the field works were completed within the project period. The resulting dataset allows us to map the structures of the shallow crust and the upper mantle. The amount of data gathered is large; some key observations and current interpretations are: (I) Observation: Crustal roots on both Eurasian and Philippine Sea plates, with a high velocity rise in between. Interpretation: Deformation throughout lithosphere on both sides of the initial suture; shortening of lithosphere near plate boundary produce high velocity rise. (II) Observation: Upper mantle high velocity anomaly coincides with a steep east-dippping Wadati-Benioff seismicity in southern Taiwan; the anomaly continues part of the way to central Taiwan but it is aseismic; under northern Taiwan the anomaly is very weak and disorganized. Interpretation: Active subduction in the south (up to 22.8°N) and may be eclogitization in the lower crust and delamination in central Taiwan. (III) Observation: Low Vp/Vs, low resistivity in the core of Central Range. Interp: dry, felsic rocks at relatively high temper (up to 750OC). (IV) Obs: Strong SKS splitting (~2 sec) with trend-parallel fast axis. Interp: Shearing throughout uppermost mantle. Preliminary 2-D geodynamic modeling produces the primary observed features from simple initial model of an arc impinging on continental margin.

Wu, F. T.; Kuochen, H.; McIntosh, K. D.; Okaya, D. A.; Lavier, L. L.

2012-12-01

245

High-Resolution Source Imaging of the 2007 Niigataken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake From Dense Strong-Motion Networks: Focus on the First 5 Seconds of the Rupture Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2007 Niigataken Chuetsu-oki earthquake (Mw6.6) occurred on 16 July 2007 (JST) in the western offshore of Niigata Prefecture, Japan, which strongly shook the near-source area and was recorded with dense strong- motion observation networks. Although no station was in the source region because this earthquake occurred in offshore, many strong-motion stations recorded the seismic motion near the source region. The local strong- motion records of this earthquake have a remarkable feature: the records show several seconds of small but increasing amplitude arrival ("initial rupture phase") followed by the onset of the main energy release ("main rupture phase"). In this study we get from these records the high resolution image of the source process during the five seconds after the rupture initiation of this earthquake. To investigate source rupture process, waveform inversions are now popular, but these source inversion methods do not have so high resolution. Recently another approach with high resolution, the back-projection method (e.g., Ishii et al., 2005; Yamamoto and Takenaka, 2006) was exploited, which images earthquake rupture directly from dense network data. The back- projection method is useful to teleseismic array data of an earthquake with very large dimension such as the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake (Mw9.3), as mentioned by Ishii et al. (2005, Nature). The back-projection method was also adapted for analyzing local strong-motion records of a middle earthquake, the 2005 Fukuoka earthquake (Mw 6.6), by Yamamoto and Takenaka (2006, AGU Fall Meeting). Their imaging technique is useful to middle to large earthquakes. Here we applied their technique to near-source strong-motion records of the 2007 Chuetsu-oki earthquake. We used P-wave portion of UD motion records and derived the following detailed process during the five seconds after the rupture initiation: The rupture plane is a NW-dipping one which is one of the P-nodal planes in the focal mechanism solution. The rupture mainly propagated toward the direction of Kashiwazaki City (around N200E). The main rupture (breaking of the asperity) began at a position of 4 km apart and southwest above the original hypocenter at 2.1 seconds after the origin time. The asperity distributed toward the direction of Kashiwazaki City on the fault plane. This spatial configuration suggests that the rupture front then swept the asperity upward and to the southwest, so that Kashiwazaki City directly suffered the strong effects of the forward rupture directivity ("killer pulse"). (Acknowledgements) We used the strong-motion records supplied by the National Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED; K-NET, KiK-net, F-net), and the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). This study are patially supported by "Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Metropolitan Tokyo Area".

Takenaka, H.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamasaki, H.

2007-12-01

246

Multiskilling in the hotel industry in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-skilling for front-line managers in hotels in Taiwan is the main focus of this thesis. The literature suggests that multi-skilling addresses two industrial problems in Taiwan; the shortage of qualified workers and the high turnover rate of staff in the 5-star hotel industry. Both factors have negatively impacted on the productivity and performance of 5-star hotels in Taiwan, as a

Li-Cheng Chen

2010-01-01

247

Genotoxic Klebsiella pneumoniae in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Background Colibactin is a nonribosomal peptide-polyketide synthesized by multi-enzyme complexes encoded by the pks gene cluster. Colibactin-producing Escherichia coli have been demonstrated to induce host DNA damage and promote colorectal cancer (CRC) development. In Taiwan, the occurrence of pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) has been suggested to correlate with an increasing risk of CRC, and Klebsiella pneumoniae is the predominant PLA pathogen in Taiwan Methodology/Principal Findings At the asn tRNA loci of the newly sequenced K. pneumoniae 1084 genome, we identified a 208-kb genomic island, KPHPI208, of which a module identical to the E. coli pks colibactin gene cluster was recognized. KPHPI208 consists of eight modules, including the colibactin module and the modules predicted to be involved in integration, conjugation, yersiniabactin production, microcin production, and unknown functions. Transient infection of BALB/c normal liver cells with K. pneumoniae 1084 increased the phosphorylation of histone H2AX, indicating the induction of host DNA damage. Colibactin was required for the genotoxicity of K. pneumoniae 1084, as it was diminished by deletion of clbA gene and restored to the wild type level by trans-complementation with a clbA coding plasmid. Besides, BALB/c mice infected with K. pneumoniae 1084 exhibited enhanced DNA damage in the liver parenchymal cells when compared to the isogenic clbA deletion mutant. By PCR detection, the prevalence of pks-positive K. pneumoniae in Taiwan is 25.6%, which is higher than that reported in Europe (3.5%), and is significantly correlated with K1 type, which predominantly accounted for PLA in Taiwan. Conclusions Our knowledge regarding how bacteria contribute to carcinogenesis has just begun. The identification of genotoxic K. pneumoniae and its genetic components will facilitate future studies to elucidate the molecular basis underlying the link between K. pneumoniae, PLA, and CRC. PMID:24852749

Lai, Yi-Chyi; Lin, Ann-Chi; Chiang, Ming-Ko; Dai, Yu-Han; Hsu, Chih-Chieh; Lu, Min-Chi; Liau, Chun-Yi; Chen, Ying-Tsong

2014-01-01

248

Occupational neurotoxic diseases in taiwan.  

PubMed

Occupational neurotoxic diseases have become increasingly common in Taiwan due to industrialization. Over the past 40 years, Taiwan has transformed from an agricultural society to an industrial society. The most common neurotoxic diseases also changed from organophosphate poisoning to heavy metal intoxication, and then to organic solvent and semiconductor agent poisoning. The nervous system is particularly vulnerable to toxic agents because of its high metabolic rate. Neurological manifestations may be transient or permanent, and may range from cognitive dysfunction, cerebellar ataxia, Parkinsonism, sensorimotor neuropathy and autonomic dysfunction to neuromuscular junction disorders. This study attempts to provide a review of the major outbreaks of occupational neurotoxins from 1968 to 2012. A total of 16 occupational neurotoxins, including organophosphates, toxic gases, heavy metals, organic solvents, and other toxic chemicals, were reviewed. Peer-reviewed articles related to the electrophysiology, neuroimaging, treatment and long-term follow up of these neurotoxic diseases were also obtained. The heavy metals involved consisted of lead, manganese, organic tin, mercury, arsenic, and thallium. The organic solvents included n-hexane, toluene, mixed solvents and carbon disulfide. Toxic gases such as carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide were also included, along with toxic chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, tetramethylammonium hydroxide, organophosphates, and dimethylamine borane. In addition we attempted to correlate these events to the timeline of industrial development in Taiwan. By researching this topic, the hope is that it may help other developing countries to improve industrial hygiene and promote occupational safety and health care during the process of industrialization. PMID:23251841

Liu, Chi-Hung; Huang, Chu-Yun; Huang, Chin-Chang

2012-12-01

249

Occupational Neurotoxic Diseases in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Occupational neurotoxic diseases have become increasingly common in Taiwan due to industrialization. Over the past 40 years, Taiwan has transformed from an agricultural society to an industrial society. The most common neurotoxic diseases also changed from organophosphate poisoning to heavy metal intoxication, and then to organic solvent and semiconductor agent poisoning. The nervous system is particularly vulnerable to toxic agents because of its high metabolic rate. Neurological manifestations may be transient or permanent, and may range from cognitive dysfunction, cerebellar ataxia, Parkinsonism, sensorimotor neuropathy and autonomic dysfunction to neuromuscular junction disorders. This study attempts to provide a review of the major outbreaks of occupational neurotoxins from 1968 to 2012. A total of 16 occupational neurotoxins, including organophosphates, toxic gases, heavy metals, organic solvents, and other toxic chemicals, were reviewed. Peer-reviewed articles related to the electrophysiology, neuroimaging, treatment and long-term follow up of these neurotoxic diseases were also obtained. The heavy metals involved consisted of lead, manganese, organic tin, mercury, arsenic, and thallium. The organic solvents included n-hexane, toluene, mixed solvents and carbon disulfide. Toxic gases such as carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide were also included, along with toxic chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, tetramethylammonium hydroxide, organophosphates, and dimethylamine borane. In addition we attempted to correlate these events to the timeline of industrial development in Taiwan. By researching this topic, the hope is that it may help other developing countries to improve industrial hygiene and promote occupational safety and health care during the process of industrialization. PMID:23251841

Liu, Chi-Hung; Huang, Chu-Yun

2012-01-01

250

Broadband strong motion simulation coupling K-2 kinematic source model with empirical Green's functions: application to the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform 'blind' broadband ground-motion simulations using empirical Green's functions (EGF) summed up according to a k-2 kinematic source model. Source parameters (roughness degree of slip heterogeneity, nucleation point, rupture velocity) are defined as a priori random variables, so as to compute the expected median and variability of the ground-motion. The method is used to predict ground-motion of the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake (Mw = 6.3), one of the best recorded events in Europe. A large database of aftershocks is available, providing a large number of potential EGFs. Moreover the main shock and the aftershocks have been recorded at various distances from the epicenter, and hence simulations have been performed both in near-field and far-field conditions. We first selected aftershocks in the magnitude range 3.5 - 3.7, located approximately on the fault plane of the main shock, with a similar focal mechanism and with a high signal to noise ratio (> 3) in the frequency range of interest (0.2 Hz to 20 Hz). All these aftershocks (~15) can be considered as 'good' candidates for EGF ground-motion prediction. We then analyze how the choice of the EGF affect the simulation results. We also show that the use of several EGF distributed over the fault plane significantly improves the results in comparison to predictions performed using a single EGF, especially for the near source stations. Finally we analyze how different degree of a priori knowledge on the source parameters (fixed low frequency slip distribution, roughness degree of slip heterogeneity, rupture velocity, nucleation point) may affect the simulations. Comparison between synthetics and real data are shown in terms of Fourier amplitude spectra and response spectra.

Del Gaudio, Sergio; Causse, Mathieu; Festa, Gaetano

2014-05-01

251

Evolution of Pharmacy Education in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmacy education in Taiwan began in 1950s after the government moved from mainland China to Taiwan. It started with a 4-year university program. After a period of chaos from 1966 to 1999, all pharmacy education programs are 4 to 5 years at the university level after year 2000. These programs have to cover drug research and development, community pharmacy, hospital

Li-Jiuan Shen; Fe-Lin Lin Wu; Yunn-Fang Ho; Chen Liu

252

Ethnic Inequalities and Educational Attainment in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors examine educational stratification in Taiwan against the background of an ethnically based political economy. They investigate how educational attainment is related to ethnicity and other background factors, such as parental class and education, and if these relationships changed over time as Taiwan became a more…

Jao, Jui-Chang; McKeever, Matthew

2006-01-01

253

Announcement 2014 NCTU Taiwan Elite Internship Program  

E-print Network

th Nov., 2014; students who would like to finish the internship in 2015 should leave after 13 th Jan., 2015) D. Mark your application package as "Application for 2014 NCTU Taiwan Elite Internship ProgramAnnouncement 2014 NCTU Taiwan Elite Internship Program National Chiao Tung University (NCTU

Kuehnlenz, Kolja

254

Applying environmental externalities to US Clean Coal Technologies for Taiwan  

SciTech Connect

During the period 1971 to 1980, electricity consumption in Taiwan increased remarkably at an average rate of 12.2% per year. Despite experiencing a record low in 1982 and 1983, electricity demand returned to double digit growth, reaching 11.6% and 10.2% in 1987 and 1988, respectively, due to a strong economic recovery. In 1988, 71.6 TWh of electricity was produced, 21.1 TWh of which was from coal-fired units (29%). The electricity demand for Taiwan is expected to continue to grow at a very rapid rate during the 1990--2006 time frame. The average load is expected to grow at an annual rate of 5.6% while the peak load is projected to increase at an annual rate of 6.0%. All new coal-fired power plants are expected to comply with government regulations on S0{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particulate emissions. Taper reports that all of its proposed coal-fired units will be equipped with modern flue gas emission reduction devices, such as electrostatic precipitators or baghouse filters, flue gas desulfurization and deco{sub x} devices, to reduce the pollutants to their minimum practical levels. New coal-based generation requirements in the sizes needed in Taiwan create an opportunity for several of the Cats currently under demonstration in the United States. Options to be considered are described.

Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

1992-01-01

255

Applying environmental externalities to US Clean Coal Technologies for Taiwan  

SciTech Connect

During the period 1971 to 1980, electricity consumption in Taiwan increased remarkably at an average rate of 12.2% per year. Despite experiencing a record low in 1982 and 1983, electricity demand returned to double digit growth, reaching 11.6% and 10.2% in 1987 and 1988, respectively, due to a strong economic recovery. In 1988, 71.6 TWh of electricity was produced, 21.1 TWh of which was from coal-fired units (29%). The electricity demand for Taiwan is expected to continue to grow at a very rapid rate during the 1990--2006 time frame. The average load is expected to grow at an annual rate of 5.6% while the peak load is projected to increase at an annual rate of 6.0%. All new coal-fired power plants are expected to comply with government regulations on S0{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particulate emissions. Taper reports that all of its proposed coal-fired units will be equipped with modern flue gas emission reduction devices, such as electrostatic precipitators or baghouse filters, flue gas desulfurization and deco{sub x} devices, to reduce the pollutants to their minimum practical levels. New coal-based generation requirements in the sizes needed in Taiwan create an opportunity for several of the Cats currently under demonstration in the United States. Options to be considered are described.

Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

1992-09-01

256

Taiwan Earthquake Damage Index Sin Mei Nga* and Masataka Andob a* Department of Geology, Chinese Culture University, No. 55, Hwa-Kang Road, Yang-Ming-Shan, Taipei 11114, Taiwan b Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, 128, Sec2, Academia Road, Nangang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan * Corresponding author. Tel.: +886 (02) 28 61 05 11 ext.26133 fax: +886 (02) 28 61 49 59 E-mail: wsw2@ulive.pccu.edu.tw or sin_mei_josephine_ng@hotmail.com  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taking advantage of a previous study and twelve-year, free-field strong motion data in Taiwan, a preliminary, five-level earthquake damage index is newly proposed: I-No (no damage), II-Very Light, III-Light, IV-Moderate, and V-Heavy. For index I, PGA and PGV are, respectively, <62.5 gal and <11 cm/s. Likewise, for index II, PGA is ?62.5 and ?187.5 gal; but, PGV is ?11 and ?35 cm/s. Similarly, PGA is ?187.5 and ?325 gal; but, PGV is ?35 and ?55 cm/s for index III. The corresponding PGA and PGV, for index IV, are ?325 and ?450 gal and ?55 and ?75 cm/s. Finally, for index V, PGA and PGV are respectively >450 gal and >75 cm/s. Ten damaging seismic events in the past twelve years are redefined using this new earthquake damage index, with the devastating Chi-Chi earthquake and one non-damaging event as reference earthquakes. This newly proposed index depicts seismic hazard of these earthquakes with higher accuracy when compared to the existing intensity scale in Taiwan region. For further analysis, Japan earthquakes are also plotted as references.

Ng, S.

2012-12-01

257

Clandestine labor migration to Taiwan.  

PubMed

"Illegal migration to Taiwan is a recent phenomenon but with a rapid rate of increase. Most illegal foreign workers enter on visitor's visas and overstay. This paper's detailed analysis of official data reveals that Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia and Thailand are the major sources, providing a stock of mostly male workers numbering around 40,000. Sociodemographic and attitudinal changes among Taiwanese workers coupled with labor shortages in low-skilled jobs are pressuring the Taiwanese government to formulate plans for a systematic importation of foreign labor." PMID:12285774

Tsay, C

1992-01-01

258

Analyzing Strain to Create a Regional Deformation Model of Northern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Global Positioning System (GPS) network is used to calculate the strain and rotations at the intersection of an arc-continent collision and retreating trench in northern Taiwan. The island of Taiwan forms as Eurasia collides obliquely with the Philippine Sea plate (PSP), resulting in substantial along-strike extension throughout the island. In northern Taiwan, the PSP is also subducting towards the northwest beneath Eurasia and the associated Ryukyu trench is rolling back, forming the Okinawa Trough. GPS velocities were collected over a ten-year period (1995-2005) from 125 stations (Rau et al., 2008) and were inverted to calculate the 2D velocity gradient tensors (Allmendinger, Cardozo and Fisher, 2012). In northwest Taiwan, although the GPS velocities relative to the Penghu Island are low, volumetric strains are negative and generally show N-S shortening. Areas of E-W shortening and extension also occur, however. The GPS data suggests a heterogeneous deformation field consistent with the occurrence of thrust (e.g., Hukou fault), strike slip, and oblique slip normal faults (e.g., Nankan and Schanciao) in northwest Taiwan. In northeast Taiwan, GPS velocities show an increase in magnitude from north to south as well as a change from NE trending velocities to SE trending velocities. Volumetric strains are generally positive, indicating extension, which is consistent with spreading in the Okinawa Trough as it propagates into the Ilan Plain. Spreading in the Okinawa Trough and rotation from NE to SE velocities reflect rollback of the Ryukyu Trench. Therefore, northern Taiwan exhibits N-S shortening in the west and rotation and extrusion in the east. This complex deformation pattern is similar to larger continental collision areas such as the extrusion and rotation of China associated with the northward motion of India and the Mediterranean-Middle Eastern extrusion and rotation associated with the northward motion of Arabia. Allmendinger, R.W., Cardozo, N., Fisher, D.M. (2012), Structural Geology Algorithms: Vectors and Tensors, Cambridge University Press, New York, N.Y. Cardozo, N., and Allmendinger, R. W. (2009), SSPX: A program to compute strain from displacement/velocity data, Computers & Geosciences, 35,1343-1357. Rau, R.-J., Ching, K.-E., Hu, J.-C., and Lee, J.-C. (2008), Crustal deformation and block kinematics in transition from collision to subduction: Global positioning system measurements in northern Taiwan, 1995-2005, J. Geophys. Res., 113, B09404, doi: 10.1029/2007JB005414.

VanderLeest, R. A.; Byrne, T. B.; Rau, R.

2012-12-01

259

Can landslide-prone slope response to strong shaking be inferred from weak motion data? First answer from 2009 L'Aquila earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complexity of factors controlling the dynamic response of marginally stable slopes and the scarcity of direct ground motion recordings acquired on landslide-prone areas make it difficult to evaluate the role of site response in seismic landslide triggering. A long term accelerometric monitoring, conducted at a tectonically and geomorphologically active site of Abruzzo in Central Italy (Caramanico Terme) has provided interesting evidence of amplification with a pronounced directional character parallel to the local slope direction on a landslide consisting of colluvial deposits overlying mudstone substratum. However, until 2008, these observations were based only on recordings of events of low to moderate magnitude. The 6.3 Mw earthquake that on 6 April 2009 hit L'Aquila, 60 km from Caramanico, allowed to test whether these previous findings hold true also for the landslide site response at higher shaking levels. The comparison of the 2009 mainshock recordings of the accelerometric station located on the landslide (CAR2) to those from two nearby stations, one sited on soft soils similar to landslide substratum (CAR1) and the other on colluvial material (CAR5), showed relative amplifications (in terms of peak horizontal acceleration PHA) very close to the average values estimated from smaller events (about 1.5 and 1.0 relatively to CAR1 and CAR5, respectively). The similarity of PHA observed on colluvium, regardless of its involvement in landsliding, confirmed that, in terms of total shaking energy, the main factor controlling amplification is the impedance contrast between colluvium and mudstone substratum. The comparison between the station on landslide and a reference station on rock (CAR4) showed a relative amplification increasing with magnitude, probably because of the stronger response of the rock site to the higher frequencies prevailing in wavetrains coming from nearby small sources. This suggests that in such cases amplification assessments based on weak motion data can lead to considerable underestimates. On the other hand, the landslide site response directivity showed similar properties for the entire range of the observed magnitudes (1.4 - 6.3). It is possible that in the near field source effects modify the ratio between directional maximum and minimum of shaking energy, without, however, significantly altering the orientation of shaking maxima. In terms of spectral properties, directivity of major peaks in horizontal to spectral ratios (HVSR) was the same at any magnitude, even though at higher magnitudes spectral ratio amplitudes tend to decrease at higher frequencies and increase at lower ones. However the comparison of HVSR with standard spectral ratios (SSR) between the station on landslide and the reference site on rock indicated that the inferences on resonance frequencies derived from single station seismic weak motion measurements (like HVSR) could be unreliable under the complex conditions of a landslide-prone slope. It appears that more reliable indications can be derived from ambient noise measurement acquired with velocimetric instruments. Thus, overall, weak motion recordings proved to provide useful information on landslide site response characteristics, especially having a dataset sufficiently differentiated in terms of azimuth location, distance, energy and source characteristics. However, the extrapolation of inferences based on recordings of small magnitude events to stronger earthquake scenarios requires some caution.

Del Gaudio, Vincenzo; Wasowski, Janusz

2010-05-01

260

Seismic Safety Margins Research Program, Phase I. Project II: seismic input. Compilation, assessment and expansion of the strong earthquake ground motion data base  

SciTech Connect

A catalog has been prepared which contains information for: (1) world-wide, ground-motion accelerograms, (2) the accelerograph sites where these records were obtained, and (3) the seismological parameters of the causative earthquakes. The catalog is limited to data for those accelerograms which have been digitized and published. In addition, the quality and completeness of these data are assessed. This catalog is unique because it is the only publication which contains comprehensive information on the recording conditions of all known digitized accelerograms. However, information for many accelerograms is missing. Although some literature may have been overlooked, most of the missing data has not been published. Nevertheless, the catalog provides a convenient reference and useful tool for earthquake engineering research and applications.

Crouse, C B; Hileman, J A; Turner, B E; Martin, G R

1980-04-01

261

Emerging regulatory regionalism in university governance: a comparative study of China and Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well aware of the growing importance of the global university ranking exercises, many governments in East Asia have introduced different strategies to benchmark with leading universities in order to enhance the global competitiveness of their universities. With strong determination to do better in such global ranking exercises, universities in Mainland China and Taiwan have attempted to restructure their university systems

Ka Ho Mok

2010-01-01

262

Taiwan's Responses to Globalisation: Internationalisation and Questing for World Class Universities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, Taiwan has demonstrated strong policy change to counteract the potential threats brought upon by globalisation such as the opening of the higher education market to a foreign trade partner and increasing competition from neighbouring countries. In light of these challenges, the Taiwanese government launched a series of unprecedented mega-sized initiatives in the hope of enhancing the quality

Mei-Mei Song; Hsiou-Hsia Tai

2007-01-01

263

Magnetotelluric Imaging of an Arc-Continent Collision Beneath Central Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arc-continent collisions are a fundamental part of the plate tectonic cycle and play an important role in mountain building and the growth of continents. Studying this process in ancient orogens is often hindered by tectonic overprinting and poorly resolved synorogenic plate kinematics and tectonic settings. The Taiwan arc-continent collision between the Luzon arc and the Eurasian continental margin is one of the most active arc-continent collisions in the world. The current plate motions and surface geology are well understood, making Taiwan an ideal location for geophysical investigations of this important tectonic process. The Taiwan Integrated Geodynamical Research (TAIGER) project was initiated in 2004 to image the lithospheric structure beneath Taiwan. The project includes the acquisition of both active and passive seismic data plus detailed magnetotellurics (MT) surveys. MT is a passive geophysical technique which records time variations of natural electromagnetic fields at the surface of the Earth and can determine the subsurface resistivity. This parameter can be used to constrain lithospheric composition and strength. Over the fall of 2006 and spring of 2007, 82 long-period MT soundings were acquired in Taiwan. The fieldwork was accomplished by collaboration between the University of Alberta and National Central University of Taiwan. In fall 2007, collection of additional broadband MT will complement these data. The long-period data were processed using robust techniques and remotely referenced with a station on the PengHu islands (~100km from the nearest site) to reduce the influence of cultural noise. The conductive Taiwan strait separating PengHu from the mainland acts as an effective attenuator of cultural EM fields. Two closely spaced parallel transects across central Taiwan are formed by 46 of these stations with a nominal spacing of 5km. Dimensionality analysis of these transects using the McNeice-Jones tensor decomposition algorithm reveal local 3-D effects in some data. However, an overall regional 2-D strike direction is defined that is parallel to the coastline of Taiwan. Regularized 2-D inversions of these transects image conductive sedimentary rocks in the western foreland basin and an east dipping mid-crustal conductor beneath the fold-and-thrust belt. A sharp boundary is observed between the western sedimentary rocks and the more resistive slates and metamorphic rocks to the east in the Central Range. This boundary coincides with a conductor rising from the mid-crust that may be related to interconnected fluids.

Bertrand, E. A.; Unsworth, M. J.; Chiang, C.; Chen, C.; Turkoglu, E.; Hsu, H.; Hill, G. J.

2007-12-01

264

Efficient tracking of cyclic human motion by component motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of techniques are presented for Bayesian tracking of cyclic human motion based on decomposing a complex cyclic motion into component motions. Phases of the component motions are defined and two different mechanisms for coupling the phases are described: importance sampling and an observation model. The intensity of coupling is adaptively adjusted during tracking such that strong coupling is

Cheng Chang; Rashid Ansari; Ashfaq Khokhar

2004-01-01

265

Marine Educational and Research Cruise in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During April 2009, we conducted a seismic and ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) cruise as part of the Taiwan mountain building process study, called the TAIGER. The seismic is shot by the US Columbia University’s research vessel Langseth and the OBSs, including Taiwan, French and American OBSs, are carried out by a Taiwanese student training ship, called Yu-Yin (means to educate the young people) No. 2. Both ships take a big number of research scientists and technical staff (15-25 people) to conduct the seismic and OBS survey. In addition, the Yu-Yin No. 2 ship hosts a total of 25 students, both MS and PhD graduate students, from Taiwan, France and USA. The student group consists of 13 from the National Taiwan Ocean University (Taiwan), 1 from the National Central University (Taiwan), 9 from the Montpellier University (France) and 2 from the New York State University. Nearly all the French and American students are on their very first trip to Taiwan. The research activities will be reported in the T25 Tectonophysics Section. This paper only deals with the educational events. The cruise includes two parts: the first mainly to deploy the OBSs and the second to retrieve the OBSs back to the ship. In addition, the French group arranges a field geological trip onshore Taiwan to put into their hands of the actions of Taiwan mountain building processes. The marine educational courses are filled in the daily ship time at 4 hours per day. As a result, we believe that we have achieved the followings: (1) mix the students and encourage a lovely study environment, (2) mix the teachers and enhance their teaching spectrum, (3) stay in a live and work together boat, allowing more and wider culture exchange. In the future, we certainly will use every possible opportunity to promote more Marine Educational and Research Cruises.

Lee, C.; Lallemand, S.; Wu, F. T.

2009-12-01

266

A model for the termination of the Ryukyu subduction zone against Taiwan: A junction of collision, subduction/separation, and subduction boundaries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The NW moving Philippine Sea plate (PSP) collides with the Eurasian plate (EUP) in the vicinity of Taiwan, and at the same time, it subducts toward the north along SW Ryukyu. The Ryukyu subduction zone terminates against eastern Taiwan. While the Ryukyu Trench is a linear bathym??trie low about 100 km east of Taiwan, closer to Taiwan, it cannot be clearly identified bathymetrically owing to the deformation related to the collision, making the location of the intersection of the Ryukyu with Taiwan difficult to decipher. We propose a model for this complex of boundaries on the basis of seismicity and 3-D velocity structures. In this model the intersection is placed at the latitude of about 23.7??N, placing the northern part of the Coastal Range on EUP. As PSP gets deeper along the subduction zone it collides with EUP on the Taiwan side only where they are in direct contact. Thus, the Eurasian plate on the Taiwan side is being pushed and compressed by the NW moving Philippine Sea plate, at increasing depth toward the north. Offshore of northeastern Taiwan the wedge-shaped EUP on top of the Ryukyu subducting plate is connected to the EUP on the Ryukyu side and coupled to the NW moving PSP by friction at the plate interface. The two sides of the EUP above the western end of the subduction zone are not subjected to the same forces, and a difference in motions can be expected. The deformation of Taiwan as revealed by continuous GPS measurements, geodetic movement along the east coast of Taiwan, and the formation of the Hoping Basin can be understood in terms of the proposed model. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

Wu, F.T.; Liang, W.-T.; Lee, J.-C.; Benz, H.; Villasenor, A.

2009-01-01

267

Health risk assessment for residents exposed to atmospheric diesel exhaust particles in southern region of Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence shows a strong association among air pollution, oxidative stress (OS), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage, and diseases. Recent studies indicated that the aging, human neurodegenerative diseases and cancers resulted from mitochondrial dysfunction and OS. The purpose of this study is to provide a probabilistic risk assessment model to quantify the atmospheric diesel exhaust particles (DEP)-induced pre-cancer biomarker response and cancer incidence risk for residents in south Taiwan. We conducted entirely monthly particulate matter sampling data at five sites in Kaohsiung of south Taiwan in the period 2002-2003. Three findings were found: (i) the DEP dose estimates and cancer risk quantification had heterogeneously spatiotemporal difference in south Taiwan, (ii) the pre-cancer DNA damage biomarker and cancer incidence estimates had a positive yet insignificant association, and (iii) all the estimates of cancer incidence in south Taiwan populations fell within and slight lower than the values from previous cancer epidemiological investigations. In this study, we successfully assessed the tumor incidence for residents posed by DEP exposure in south Taiwan compared with the epidemiological approach. Our approach provides a unique way for assessing human health risk for residences exposed to atmospheric DEP depending on specific combinations of local and regional conditions. Our work implicates the importance of incorporating both environmental and health risk impacts into models of air pollution exposure to guide adaptive mitigation strategies.

Chio, Chia-Pin; Liao, Chung-Min; Tsai, Ying-I.; Cheng, Man-Ting; Chou, Wei-Chun

2014-03-01

268

Microsoft Research Asia JapanTaiwan Academic Forum May 17, 2010 at National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan  

E-print Network

· Venue ­ Socrates Chamber , GIS Convention Center B1, National Taiwan University () No.85, Sec. 4:30­10:00 Keynote: Microsoft Research Cloud Research Overview Dr. WeiYing Ma, Assistant Managing Director

Ouhyoung, Ming

269

75 FR 23667 - Antidumping Duty Orders: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Indonesia, Taiwan, and the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Duty Orders: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Indonesia, Taiwan, and the Socialist...duty orders on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from Indonesia, Taiwan, and...Taiwan. See Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Taiwan: Final Determination of...

2010-05-04

270

Holographic Screening Length on Parallel Motion of Quark-Antiquark Pair in Four Dimensional Strongly Coupled = 4 super-Yang-Mills plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the screening length of a quark-antiquark pair moving in a strongly coupled hot plasma of = 4 super-Yang-Mills using AdS/CFT correspondence where the background metric is five dimensional AdS black hole. We take the string solution as such the separation length L of quark-antiquark pair is parallel to the string velocity v. The screening length and the bound energy are computed numerically using Mathematica. We find that the plots are bounded from below by some functions that are related to the momentum flow of the drag force configuration Pc. We compare the result by computing the screening length in the quark-antiquark reference frame by boosting the AdS black hole.

Nata Atmaja, Ardian

2014-10-01

271

[The medical autonomy of elderly in Taiwan].  

PubMed

The elderly population is increasing rapidly in Taiwan. With the average life expectancy on the rise, the elderly have become major consumers of healthcare products and services. Factors that influence respect for autonomy, a core value of medical ethics, may be related to family, society, and the medical culture. Especially in patients who are already elderly, aging causes declines in physical, mental and societal capacities. Practicing a respect for patient autonomy is particularly challenging for healthcare professionals in Taiwan due the unique culture background of elderly Taiwanese patients. This article reviews and integrates the literature related to the issue of patient autonomy and elaborates on medical decision-making among elderly patients in Taiwan in the contexts of: the disadvantages faced by the elderly, the background of Chinese culture, and the current medical decision-making environment. A few suggestions are proposed to help preserve the medical-decision-making autonomy of elderly patients in Taiwan. PMID:25271030

Chen, Kai-Li; Chen, Ching-Huey

2014-10-01

272

Shear Wave Structure of Umbria and Marche, Italy, Strong Motion Seismometer Sites Affected by the 1997-98 Umbria-Marche, Italy, Earthquake Sequence  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A long sequence of earthquakes, eight with magnitudes between 5 and 6, struck the Umbria and Marche regions of central Italy between September 26, 1997 and July 1998. The earthquake swarm caused severe structural damage, particularly to masonry buildings, and resulted in the loss of twelve lives and about 150 injuries. The source of the events was a single seismogenic structure that consists of several faults with a prevailing northwest-southeast strike and crosses the Umbria-Marche border. The focal mechanism of the largest shocks indicates that the events were the product of shallow extensional normal faulting along a NE-SW extension perpendicular to the trend of the Apennines. The network of analog seismometer stations in the Umbria and Marche regions recorded motions of the main September and October 1997 events and a dense array of mobile digital stations, installed since September 29, recorded most of the swarm. The permanent national network Rete Accelerometrica Nazionale (RAN) is administered and maintained by Dipartimento delle Protezione Civile (DPC: Civil Protection Department); the temporary array was managed by Servizio Sismico Nazionale (SSN) in cooperation with small agencies and Universities. ENEA, the operator of many seismometer stations in Umbria, is the public Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment. Many of the temporary and permanent stations in the Italian seismic network have little or no characterization of seismic velocities. In this study, we investigated 17 Italian sites using an active-source approach that employs low frequency harmonic waves to measure the dispersive nature of surface waves in the ground. We used the Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW) approach, coupled with an array of harmonic-wave electro-mechanical sources that are driven in-phase to excite the ground. An inversion algorithm using a non-linear least-squares best-fit method is used to compute shear wave velocities for up to 100 meters of the soil column. A draft report was published in the summer of 2008, followed by a comment period, lengthy discussions with Italian colleagues, and improved knowledge of the subsurface at the sites from soil logs. Four of the sites were reprocessed in order to correct issues with phase unwrapping of the field dispersion curves that complicated the velocity profile calculations at the lowest velocity sites. This report presents the final results from the reprocessing effort.

Kayen, Robert; Scasserra, Giuseppe; Stewart, Jonathan P.; Lanzo, Giuseppe

2008-01-01

273

Rapid Source Characterization of the 2011 Tohoku-oki Earthquake with Real-Time GPS and Strong Motion Data: Implications for Tsunami Warning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saturation of seismometers in the near field and problems with the double integration of accelerometer data into displacements degrades rapid magnitude estimation and source characterization for large earthquakes. Although Japan possesses the most advanced earthquake and tsunami early warning system in the world, it took about 20 minutes using teleseismic waves from distant seismic networks to determine that the 11 March 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake was an Mw 9.0 event - earlier estimates based on local seismic networks ranged from M7.2 to M8.0. We present a seismogeodetic network model that can estimate on-the-fly the full dynamic range and spectrum of seismic motions for large earthquakes using observations starting in the near field. Replaying local Japanese data in a simulated real-time mode from 785 GPS stations and 190 accelerometers during the Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that an accurate centroid moment tensor solution to ascertain the type of earthquake, immediately followed by a finite fault slip model could have been obtained in about 3 minutes, providing more accurate and timely warnings of the severity of the impending tsunami and assisting first responders with evacuation and recovery efforts. The seismogeodetic network model is sufficiently accurate to detect P wave arrivals in the near field for large events, leading to improved earthquake early warning (EEW) methodologies that predict the arrival and intensity of S waves. Using a maximum P wave amplitude scaling relationship from displacements estimated for 175 stations during three historical large earthquakes including Tohoku-oki, we demonstrate that an accurate first estimate of magnitude may be able to be obtained within a few seconds of P wave arrival at a handful of stations closest to the epicentre. Furthermore we use the rapid slip inversion to model the ensuing tsunami, we will show comparisons between the predicted waveforms and those measured by DART buoys, near shore tide gauges and other geophysical instruments to demonstrate that the model is robust enough to produce reasonable predictions of tsunami intensity,

Melgar, D.; Crowell, B. W.; Bock, Y.

2012-12-01

274

AMERICA AT THE TAIWAN STRAIT: FIVE SCENARIOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degrees of freedom for national U.S. policy in the Taiwan Strait can be parsed by estimating the future likelihoods and time order of uncertain events—such as Taiwan independence, Chinese liberalization, truce, a Chinese attack, and U.S. choices —and not just by applying the standard paradigms of interna- tional relations theory (e.g., realist, liberal, constructivist). Ordered time scenarios can explore all

Lynn T. White

275

Predictive Distribution of Hynobiid Salamanders in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pei-Fen Lee, Kuang-Yang Lue, and Shan-Huah Wu (2006) Predictive distribution of hynobiid salamanders in Taiwan. Zoological Studies 45(2): 244-254. The distribution patterns of hynobiid salamanders in Taiwan, based on species and species complex, i.e., Hynobius arisanensis, the H. formosanus-sonani complex, and Hynobius sp. 1 (an undescribed species), were studied using a wildlife distribution database and an environmental factor database with

Pei-Fen Lee; Kuang-Yang Lue; Shan-Huah Wu

2006-01-01

276

Early Austronesians: Into and Out Of Taiwan  

PubMed Central

A Taiwan origin for the expansion of the Austronesian languages and their speakers is well supported by linguistic and archaeological evidence. However, human genetic evidence is more controversial. Until now, there had been no ancient skeletal evidence of a potential Austronesian-speaking ancestor prior to the Taiwan Neolithic ?6,000 years ago, and genetic studies have largely ignored the role of genetic diversity within Taiwan as well as the origins of Formosans. We address these issues via analysis of a complete mitochondrial DNA genome sequence of an ?8,000-year-old skeleton from Liang Island (located between China and Taiwan) and 550 mtDNA genome sequences from 8 aboriginal (highland) Formosan and 4 other Taiwanese groups. We show that the Liangdao Man mtDNA sequence is closest to Formosans, provides a link to southern China, and has the most ancestral haplogroup E sequence found among extant Austronesian speakers. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis allows us to reconstruct a history of early Austronesians arriving in Taiwan in the north ?6,000 years ago, spreading rapidly to the south, and leaving Taiwan ?4,000 years ago to spread throughout Island Southeast Asia, Madagascar, and Oceania. PMID:24607387

Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Chen, Chung-Yu; Fu, Qiaomei; Delfin, Frederick; Li, Mingkun; Chiu, Hung-Lin; Stoneking, Mark; Ko, Ying-Chin

2014-01-01

277

Temporal variations of Seismic Velocities after the 2006 Mw6.1 Taitung Earthquake in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impulse response (Green’s function) of a diffusive medium retrieved from cross-correlation of ambient noise at two stations has become widely used in monitoring small temporal changes of subsurface seismic velocities associated with earthquake and volcanic activities. Eastern Taiwan is a seismically very active region resulting from oblique collision between the Eurasian plate under the Philippine Sea plate. A Mw 6.1 shallow earthquake struck eastern Taiwan near Taitung in the southern Longitudinal Valley fault and caused significant coseismic deformation. To detect potential variations in subsurface seismic velocities associated with internal strain change before and after the quake, we construct the Green’s functions from auto-correlation of continuous, one-day long seismic noise on the vertical component in the two months before and after the quake, recorded by seven short-period stations of Central Weather Bureau (CWB) within less than 50 km from the epicenter. Before computing autocorrelation functions (ACF) in frequent domain at each station two months before and after the quake, we employ the time-domain normalization to eliminate earthquake-related signals. A three-order Butterworth band-pass filter between 2 and 8 Hz is then applied to the retrieved ACFs. The spectra of some ACFs within 2-8 Hz show very narrow band-limited resonant peaks which are further removed by a band-stop filter. All the filtered autocorrelation functions with waveform correlation coefficients greater than 0.5 are stacked to obtain reference Green’s function (RGF). We compare the time shift of each daily-long autocorrelation function between 2 and 15-s lapse times with the corresponding RGF. The station TWG, located ~6 km apart from the epicenter on the southern part of the rupture zone yields a clear step-wise time shift after the quake, which corresponds to the increase in seismic velocity by about 1.66% assuming the velocity change in the medium is uniform. The station TTN located on the Taitung city, ~15 km southeast to the epicenter show a slightly decrease by -0.06%. We will further investigate the cause of temporal seismic velocity change by comparing our result with the coseismic displacement measured by GPS and leveling, strong motion records, and volumetric strain perturbations near the rupture zone.

Yu, T.; Hung, S.

2010-12-01

278

New Dryinidae from Sulawesi and Taiwan (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following new species of Dryinidae are described: Anteon heppneri and martiale from Taiwan; Anteon cerberum, flaccum and subdignum; Thaumatodryinus noyesi; Dryinus alboniger and mansus from Sulawesi. The male of Lonchodryinus sinensis Olmi is described from Taiwan.

M. Olmi

1992-01-01

279

Taiwan International Graduate Program --Molecular and Biological Agricultural Sciences Introduction  

E-print Network

Taiwan International Graduate Program -- Molecular and Biological Agricultural Sciences and Microbial Biology, the Institute of Cellular and Organismic Biology, and the Institute of Molecular Biology in specialized areas of agricultural biology. The Taiwan International Graduate Program (TIGP) in Molecular

280

Management of scrap computer recycling in Taiwan.  

PubMed

It is estimated that approximately 300,000 scrap personal computers are generated each year in Taiwan [S.-L. Chang, A Study on the Scrap Computer Treatment Cost, Environment Protection Administration of Taiwan, December 1998 (in Chinese)]. The disposal of such a huge number of scrap computers presents a difficult task for the island due to the scarcity of landfills and incineration facilities available locally. Also, the hazardous materials contained (i.e., phosphor coatings of cathode ray tubes (CRTs), batteries, polychlorinated biphenyl capacitors, mercury-containing parts, liquid crystal display, high-lead content CRT funnel glass, and plastic containing flame-retardant bromine, etc.) in the scrap computers may seriously pollute the environment if they are not properly disposed of. Therefore, the EPA of Taiwan declared scrap personal computers the producer's recycling responsibility as of July 1997. Under this decree, the manufacturers, importers and sellers of personal computers have to properly recover and recycle the scrapped computers which they originally sell. On June 1, 1998, a producer responsibility recycling program for scrap computers was officially implemented in Taiwan. Under this program, consumers can bring their unwanted personal computers to the designated collection points and receive reward money. Currently, only six computer items are mandated to be recycled in this recycling program. They are notebooks, monitors, hard disks, power supplies, printed circuit boards and main frame shells. This article outlines the current scrap computer recycling system in Taiwan. PMID:10751692

Lee, C H; Chang, S L; Wang, K M; Wen, L C

2000-04-28

281

Language Shift and Language Accommodation across Family Generations in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored language shift and accommodation among bilingual Mandarin and Tai-gi (also called Hokkien, Holo, Tai-gu, Taiwan Min, Taiwanese) families in Taiwan. From the 1940s until the 1980s the Chinese Nationalist Party (KMT) on Taiwan promoted Mandarin Chinese. Recent years have witnessed a shift in policy: since 2001 elementary schools…

Sandel, Todd L.; Chao, Wen-Yu; Liang, Chung-Hui

2006-01-01

282

Super Typhoon Halong off Taiwan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On July 14, 2002, Super Typhoon Halong was east of Taiwan (left edge) in the western Pacific Ocean. At the time this image was taken the storm was a Category 4 hurricane, with maximum sustained winds of 115 knots (132 miles per hour), but as recently as July 12, winds were at 135 knots (155 miles per hour). Halong has moved northwards and pounded Okinawa, Japan, with heavy rain and high winds, just days after tropical Storm Chataan hit the country, creating flooding and killing several people. The storm is expected to be a continuing threat on Monday and Tuesday. This image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite on July 14, 2002. Please note that the high-resolution scene provided here is 500 meters per pixel. For a copy of the scene at the sensor's fullest resolution, visit the MODIS Rapid Response Image Gallery. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

283

Characteristics of Long-Period (3 to 10 s) Strong Ground Motions Observed in and around the Los Angeles Basin during the Mw7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake of April 4, 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examined the characteristics of long-period strong ground motions within a period range of 3 to 10 s in and around the Los Angeles (LA) basin during the Mw7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake. The contour map of the observed peak ground velocity (PGV) values clearly shows that the LA basin significantly amplifies the long-period motions. The largest PGV values observed within the LA basin range from 0.1 to 0.12 m/s, though the basin is around 350 km away from the epicenter. These largest PGV values were recorded at seven stations in the central part, and one station in the western part of the basin. The Fourier acceleration spectra of records from these eight stations are predominant at the periods of 6 to 8 s with the corresponding peak values of 1 to 1.4 m/s. The ratio of Fourier amplitudes with respect to a reference site (STG station of the Southern California Seismic Network, located on hard rock in the southeast edge of the LA basin) show that the spectral amplitudes at these eight stations are 5 to 13 times larger than those at the reference site within a wide period range, 5.5 to 9 s. To understand how the spatial variation of amplification for the long-period motions is related to the basin underground structure, we plotted contours of the amplification factors at 3, 5, 7 and 10 s spectral periods with respect to the reference site (i.e. STG station) onto several different maps, where depths to different S-wave velocities (Vs) are also depicted using the latest SCEC Community Velocity Model (CVM-H 6.2). Comparison of amplification contours with the basin model indicates that for the 10 s spectral period, the largest amplification occurs in the central part of the LA basin where the depth to the Vs of 3.2 km/s reaches to the maximum, 9.5 km. For the 3, 5 and 7 s spectral periods, the amplification becomes larger in almost the same area as the 10 s case (the central part of the LA basin) and also in the San Gabriel valley, where the depth to the Vs of 1.5 km/s reaches to the maximum, 3.7 km. Although the depth to bedrock (Vs > 3.2 km/s) is shallower (3.6 to 4 km) in the San Gabriel valley than the LA basin, the large amplification is due to the thick soft sediments (Vs < 1.5 km/s). This suggests importance of precise seismic velocity profiles at both shallow- and deep-part of sedimentary basins for a more accurate prediction of long-period strong ground motions.

Hatayama, K.; Kalkan, E.

2010-12-01

284

Phylogenetic and molecular dating analysis of Taiwan Blue Pheasant (Lophura swinhoii).  

PubMed

The Swinhoe's Pheasant (Lophura swinhoii) is an endemic and most endangered species to Taiwan, China. It belongs to the genus Lophura, family Phasianidae. To further investigate the evolutionary history of L. swinhoii, we determined its complete mitochondrial genome and reconstructed a single, robust phylogenetic tree. Our results showed that L. swinhoii is clustered with Lophura nycthemera and forms a sister group of Lophura ignita. The genus Lophura is strongly supported as the sister taxon of the genus Crossoptilon. The molecular clock analysis showed that the genetic divergence of L. swinhoii occurred in 2.71 (1.31-4.22) Mya. The most common ancestor of L. swinhoii might have migrated from mainland of South East Asia to Taiwan Island by the land bridge at 2.71 Mya ago. Taiwan Island is separated from the mainland by the sea (Taiwan Strait) and formed a separate island at around 2.5 Mya because of the transgression and regression. Therefore, geographical isolation and climate change may accelerate the evolution of L. swinhoii. In this study, we propose a biogeographic hypothesis for speciation of the L. swinhoii based on known events of the geographic and geological history of South East Asia and southeast China, which would benefit the understanding of evolutionary history of L. swinhoii as well as other galliform birds. PMID:24508942

Jiang, Lichun; Wang, Gaochao; Peng, Rui; Peng, Quekun; Zou, Fangdong

2014-04-10

285

Antioxidant Properties of Extracts from Medicinal Plants Popularly Used in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined antioxidant activities of twenty-six medicinal herbal extracts that have been popularly used as folk medicines in Taiwan. The results of scavenging DPPH radical activity show that, among the 26 tested medicinal plants, Ludwigia octovalvis, Vitis thunbergii, Rubus parvifolius, Lindernia anagallis, and Zanthoxylum nitidum exhibited strong activities and their IC50 values for DPPH radicals were 4.6, 24, 27,

Lie-Fen Shyur; Jieh-Hen Tsung; Je-Hsin Chen; Chih-Yang Chiu; Chiu-Ping Lo

286

Mud budget imbalance in the Taiwan Strait receiving high input of fluvial sediments from mountainous rivers  

E-print Network

rivers draining through Taiwan, where has the highest sediment yield on the global surface. However in the Taiwan Strait, where receives sediments discharged from the largest river, Choshuei, in Taiwan Taiwan. Keywords: mud, river, sediment, sedimentation rate, Taiwan Strait #12;3 1. Introduction Fine

Lin, Andrew Tien-Shun

287

ACADEMIA SINICA Taiwan International Graduate Program  

E-print Network

Nano Science and Technology Program Taiwan International Graduate Program (TIGP) Academia Sinica has universities are involved in various programs TIGP Program on"Nano Science and Technology" Within this context, the graduate program on"Nano Science and Technology"is designed to offer specific training and research

288

Women's Aspirations for Graduate Education in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates female undergraduates' aspirations for master's and doctoral degree programs in Taiwan's universalized and stratified higher education system. It considers the potential effects of economic prospects, parental attitudes, and gender values. First, graduate education is perceived as a means to enhance one's comparative…

Lin, Meng-Jie

2011-01-01

289

An Inquiry into Teacher Concerns in Taiwan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study identified concerns of teachers in Taiwan and contrasted concerns of these teachers with the 56 concerns which comprise the Teacher Concerns Checklist (TCC), Form B, developed in the United States. A total of 294 teachers (155 preservice teachers and 139 inservice teachers) completed a Chinese version of the Survey of Teacher Concerns.…

Chen, Yih-fen; Reeves, Carolyn

290

The Workforce Education and Development in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Workforce education and development (WED) can be broadly defined as those formal, informal and nonformal activities that prepare people for work. In Taiwan, it includes technological and vocational education (TVE), human resource development (HRD), public vocational training and adult education. In order to promote information exchanges and…

Lee, Lung-Sheng

2012-01-01

291

Sustainability of Higher Education Institutions in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide the rationale and context for recent national policy and funded initiatives to support sustainability developments within higher education in Taiwan, including practical and educational aspects. Concrete examples and specific outcomes are reviewed, to produce a profile across the higher education…

Su, H. Jenny; Chang, Tzu-chau

2010-01-01

292

/ iGroup Taiwan ebrary ..............................................................................................................3  

E-print Network

A B C #12; APP 1. Apple iPhone, iPad, Android 2. ebrary 3. Apple App Store / Google Play ebrary/ebrary/id493652464 Android https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ebrary iGroup Taiwan 104 72 8 TEL ........................................................................................................................11 APP

Chen, Sheng-Wei

293

No Aboriginal Students left Behind in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The project is motivated by Taiwan's huge gap of educational levels between the aborigines and the Hans. The low achievement of aboriginal students lies in factors related to problems in finance, health, and cultural difference, which contribute to their sense of self-deprecation. The purpose of the project is to provide early intervention and…

Wu, Sue-Jen; Hartzler-Miller, Cynthia

2005-01-01

294

The Quality of Life in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The AsiaBarometer survey of 1,006 respondents shows that in Taiwan, people have access to modern utilities and digital media, signs of materialistic achievement, and yet are more concerned with physical security and financial safety than with personal growth. Regardless of their demographic backgrounds and value priorities, the Taiwanese, like…

Yao, Grace; Cheng, Yen-Pi; Cheng, Chiao-Pi

2009-01-01

295

Thermochronometry and Exhumational Steady State in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New apatite and zircon fission track results from the Taiwan arc-continent collision are consistent with southward propagation of a double-sided orogen that progressively grows in size until achieving topographic steady state (SS), then exhumational SS, a condition that reflects a long term balance between rock uplift and exhumation. Because the orientation of the Asian continental margin is oblique to the plate boundary represented by the Luzon Arc, observations distributed from south to north in Taiwan address the evolution of orogeny from the pre-collision subduction south of Taiwan to the mature, deeply eroded collision zone in northern Taiwan. The collision initiated in northern Taiwan at 5 to 6 Ma and is propagating to the southwest at a rate estimated at between 50 and 90 mm/yr. This space-time equivalence provides an opportunity to measure rates of processes such as deformation, erosion and exhumation as they evolve from a juvenile to a mature stage. If an orogen is in exhumational SS, the surface distribution of reset ages from thermochronometers remains steady in time. Furthermore, the spatial pattern of reset age zones relative to the orogen boundaries and each other reflects kinematic characteristics such as point of accretion and depth of tectonic burial in the orogen. Published and newly acquired ZFT ages in the north of the eastern Central Range of Taiwan are consistently less than 5 Ma and many are less than 2 Ma. This region of reset ages extends west to about the crest of the range and south to within 75 km of the southern tip of the island, where ages rapidly increase to become greater than the depositional age. New AFT ages also define a region with reset ages which extends further south and west than the reset ZFT age zone. The unreset ZFT and AFT ages in southern Taiwan are consistent with the recent emergence of the mountain belt and pre-SS conditions for both topography and exhumation. The N-S width of this unreset zone gives an estimate of erosion rate of between 4 and 6 mm/yr. Our results imply that exhumational SS for AFT is achieved in 1 to 2 My and exhumational SS for ZFT is achieved in 2 to 4 My. This pattern deviates somewhat from the ideal in response to local structures associated with the thrust-belt, slate-belt boundary and the Hsuehshan Range popup structure.

Willett, S. D.; Fisher, D.; Fuller, C.

2002-12-01

296

Motion Commotion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn why and how motion occurs and what governs changes in motion, as described by Newton's three laws of motion. They gain hands-on experience with the concepts of forces, changes in motion, and action and reaction. In an associated literacy activity, students design a behavioral survey and learn basic protocol for primary research, survey design and report writing.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

297

Seeing Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explore your own straight-line motion using a motion sensor to generate distance versus time graphs of your own motion. Learn how changes in speed and direction affect the graph, and gain an understanding of how motion can be represented on a graph.

2012-07-19

298

Initiation and runaway process of Tsaoling landslide, triggered by the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake, as studied by high-velocity friction experiments (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-velocity friction experiments in the last two decades have demonstrated dramatic weakening of simulated faults at seismic slip rates on the order of 1 m/s (e.g., Di Toro et al., 2011, Nature). Similar experiments revealed very low friction of landslide materials (0.05-0.2 in friction coefficient) that can cause catastrophic landslides with velocity exceeding even 10 m/s (e.g., Miyamoto et al. (2009) on the 1999 Tsaoling landslide in Taiwan; Yano et al. (2009) on the 1999 Jiufengershan landslide in Taiwan,; Ferri et al. (2010, 2011) on the 1963 Vaiont landslide in Italy; Kuo et al. (2011) on the 2009 Hsiaolin landslide in Taiwan). Those studies strongly suggest that there are common processes operative in fault zones and along slip surfaces of catastrophic landslides along bedding planes, fractures or joints. As for catastrophic landslides triggered by an earthquake, an important issue to be addressed is how a landslide initiates during seismic ground motion. Thus we have studied the initiation and runaway process of the Tsaoling landslide by idealizing the initial landslide movement during seismic ground motion as an oscillating accelerating/decelerating motion. Tsaoling landslide is the largest landslide among those triggered by the Chi-Chi earthquake with its volume of about 130 Mm3. The landslide took place along very planar bedding planes of the porous Pliocene sedimentary rocks (mostly siltstone and sandstone), with a dip angle of 14 degree. A seismic record at a station about 500 m away from the landslide and a witness of a survivor who slid on top of the landslide mass indicate that the average speed of the landslide reached 20~40 m/s. A simple analysis of sliding block indicates that the kinetic friction has to be 0.05~0.15 to produce such a high-velocity. Moreover, Tang et al. (2009, Eng. Geol.) analyzed landslide motion with the discrete element method and showed that the landslide mass must have slid nearly as an intact mass, without much disaggregation, in order to prevent the complete mixing of broken-up pieces that would have given no chance for survival. This work partly justifies our experimental approach for understanding the Tsaoling landslide. We performed a series of oscillatory slip experiments on the crushed siltstone gouge at a normal stress of 3 MPa that corresponds to the overburden pressure at the base of about 150-meter thick landslide mass, using a rotary-shear low to high-velocity friction apparatus at Hiroshima University. The slip rate was increased linearly to the maximum velocity of 0.33-1.3 m/s and was decreased linearly to zero with oscillation frequencies ranging 0.3-1.2 Hz. Results indicate that the accelerating and decelerating motions cause weakening and strengthening, respectively, at each oscillation cycle and that the gouge undergoes overall weakening with the repeated oscillation cycles. The overall weakening of the gouge depends on the maximum velocity, but not on the oscillation frequency. When the maximum velocity is 1.0 and 1.3 m/s, the friction coefficient decreases from about 0.8 to below 0.25 (or friction angle of 14 degree) after a few to several oscillations to initiate a runaway sliding of the landslide mass and the friction coefficient reduces to 0.1-0.2. Our results are consistent with the delayed onset and the high speed of the Tsaoling landslide. Our experiments will provide a way of evaluating the potential danger for earthquake-induced catastrophic landslides.

Togo, T.; Shimamoto, T.; Dong, J.; Lee, C.

2013-12-01

299

75 FR 14569 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Taiwan: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-583-843] Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Taiwan: Final Determination of Sales...imports of polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from Taiwan are being, or are...Taiwan. See Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Taiwan: Preliminary...

2010-03-26

300

Orientation-Independent Measures of Ground Motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geometric mean of the response spectra for two orthogonal hori- zontal components of motion, commonly used as the response variable in predictions of strong ground motion, depends on the orientation of the sensors as installed in the field. This means that the measure of ground-motion intensity could differ for the same actual ground motion. This dependence on sensor orientation

David M. Boore; Jennie Watson-Lamprey; Norman A. Abrahamson

2006-01-01

301

75 FR 67110 - Forged Stainless Steel Flanges From India and Taiwan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Forged Stainless Steel Flanges From India and Taiwan AGENCY: United States International...on forged stainless steel flanges from India and Taiwan...on forged stainless steel flanges from India and Taiwan would be likely to lead to...

2010-11-01

302

76 FR 50495 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan Determinations...stainless steel plate from Belgium, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan would be likely...stainless steel plate from Belgium, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan. \\3\\...

2011-08-15

303

78 FR 20890 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-583-841] Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...the antidumping duty order on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) from Taiwan. The period of review...Duty Administrative Review: Polyvinyl Alcohol from Taiwan; 2010-2012'' dated...

2013-04-08

304

78 FR 39256 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2012-2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-583-841] Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Rescission of Antidumping...the antidumping duty order on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) from Taiwan for the period March...CCPC to the Department, ``Polyvinyl Alcohol from Taiwan: Withdrawal of...

2013-07-01

305

68 FR 8925 - Certain Stainless Steel Plate from Belgium, Canada, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Belgium, Canada, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan; Notice of Final...Belgium, Canada, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...Belgium, Canada, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan, Invs. Nos....

2003-02-26

306

Modeling the impact of climate variability on diarrhea-associated diseases in Taiwan (1996-2007).  

PubMed

Diarrhea is an important public health problem in Taiwan. Climatic changes and an increase in extreme weather events (extreme heat, drought or rainfalls) have been strongly linked to the incidence of diarrhea-associated disease. This study investigated and quantified the relationship between climate variations and diarrhea-associated morbidity in subtropical Taiwan. Specifically, this study analyzed the local climatic variables and the number of diarrhea-associated infection cases from 1996 to 2007. This study applied a climate variation-guided Poisson regression model to predict the dynamics of diarrhea-associated morbidity. The proposed model allows for climate factors (relative humidity, maximum temperature and the numbers of extreme rainfall), autoregression, long-term trends and seasonality, and a lag-time effect. Results indicated that the maximum temperature and extreme rainfall days were strongly related to diarrhea-associated morbidity. The impact of maximum temperature on diarrhea-associated morbidity appeared primarily among children (0-14years) and older adults (40-64years), and had less of an effect on adults (15-39years). Otherwise, relative humidity and extreme rainfall days significantly contributed to the diarrhea-associated morbidity in adult. This suggested that children and older adults were the most susceptible to diarrhea-associated morbidity caused by climatic variation. Because climatic variation contributed to diarrhea morbidity in Taiwan, it is necessary to develop an early warning system based on the climatic variation information for disease control management. PMID:20947136

Chou, Wei-Chun; Wu, Jiunn-Lin; Wang, Yu-Chun; Huang, Hsin; Sung, Fung-Chang; Chuang, Chun-Yu

2010-12-01

307

A Re-Examination of the Suicide Rates in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the suicide rates of 23 cities and counties in Taiwan from 1983 to 2001. We found that a combination of\\u000a economic and social variables can significantly account for the tremendous variations in suicide rates across Taiwan’s cities\\u000a and counties over the last two decades. The level of income per capita in a region appears as the most

Hwei-Lin Chuang; Wei-Chiao Huang

2007-01-01

308

A Study on Performance Evaluation for Taiwan Pharmaceutical Company Diversification Strategy.  

E-print Network

??The business model of Taiwan local pharmaceutical company is different from original pharmaceutical company. Taiwan local pharmaceutical company gets major profits by selling generic products.… (more)

Chiang, Yi-Chen

2013-01-01

309

Strong Decoherence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a condition for the strong decoherence of a set of alternative histories of a closed quantum-mechanical system such as the universe. The condition applies, for a pure initial state, to sets of homogeneous histories that are chains of projections, generally branch-dependent. Strong decoherence implies the consistency of probability sum rules but not every set of consistent or even

Murray Gell-Mann; James B. Hartle

1995-01-01

310

Development of genetic counseling services in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Taiwan is an emerging industrial country in subtropical Asia with a population of 23 million. There were around 200,000 newborns in 2011. Delayed first marriage, low birth rate, and rapid aging are major demographic issues. Genetic counseling services were established following the rapid introduction of genetic technology and enactment of relevant laws and regulations. Ultrasound was first used in 1968 to examine pregnant women. The first amniotic fluid laboratory was founded in 1981 to identify chromosomal abnormalities. In 1984, the Genetic Health Act was legislated for prevention and control of genetic disorders, and the metabolic disorder screen project was launched. National Health Insurance with overall coverage of prenatal examinations was established in 1995. A master-level genetic counseling program was launched in 2003 and by 2011 has graduated eighty students. Two professional societies have been formed to certify genetic counselors, and 66 professionals have been certified. In summary, genetic counseling services in Taiwan are continuously improving. PMID:23595168

Chien, Shu; Su, Pen-Hua; Chen, Suh-Jen

2013-12-01

311

Molluscan fauna of Gueishan Island, Taiwan.  

PubMed

This dataset records the occurrence and inventory of molluscan fauna on Gueishan Island, the only active volcanic island in Taiwan, based on the literature survey and field investigation conducted between 2011 and 2012. The literature review involved seven studies published from 1934 to 2003, which collectively reported 112 species from 61 genera and 37 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. Through our field investigation, we identified 34 species from 28 genera and 23 families. Fourteen of these species were new records on Gueishan Island: Liolophura japonica, Lottia luchuana, Nerita costata, Nerita rumphii, Diplommatina suganikeiensis, Littoraria undulata, Solenomphala taiwanensis, Assiminea sp., Siphonaria laciniosa, Laevapex nipponica, Carychium hachijoensis, Succinea erythrophana, Zaptyx crassilamellata, and Allopeas pyrgula. In Total, there are 126 species from 71 genera and 45 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. These data have been published through GBIF [http://taibif.org.tw/ipt/resource.do?r=gueishan_island] and integrated into the Taiwan Malacofauna Database (http://shell.sinica.edu.tw/). PMID:23717182

Huang, Chih-Wei; Hsiung, Ta-Wei; Lin, Si-Min; Wu, Wen-Lung

2013-01-01

312

Exploring topographic steady-state in Taiwan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed as both an introduction to GIS and an exploration of topographic steady-state. Students analyze DEMs from Taiwan to extract topographic profiles across the range. They reconstruct a series of datasets presented in Stolar et al., (2007), showing the progression of the range to steady-state as a space-for-time substitution from south to north. Students are expected to relate their observations from the topography to theoretical concepts discussed in class including accretion and uplift, steady-state, and critical wedge theory. An extension involves developing a simple numerical model in Excel of a mountain range as it progresses to topographic steady-state landscape, allowing students to investigate the rise of a mountain range to steady-state both from Taiwan data and from their numerical model.

Gran, Karen

313

Strong decoherence  

E-print Network

We introduce a condition for the strong decoherence of a set of alternative histories of a closed quantum-mechanical system such as the universe. The condition applies, for a pure initial state, to sets of homogeneous histories that are chains of projections, generally branch-dependent. Strong decoherence implies the consistency of probability sum rules but not every set of consistent or even medium decoherent histories is strongly decoherent. Two conditions characterize a strongly decoherent set of histories: (1) At any time the operators that effectively commute with generalized records of history up to that moment provide the pool from which --- with suitable adjustment for elapsed time --- the chains of projections extending history to the future may be drawn. (2) Under the adjustment process, generalized record operators acting on the initial state of the universe are approximately unchanged. This expresses the permanence of generalized records. The strong decoherence conditions (1) and (2) guarantee wha...

Gell-Mann, Murray; Gell-Mann, Murray; Hartle, James B

1997-01-01

314

How earthquake position influences the H\\/V ratios from TSMIP data in the Taipei basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taiwan is located on the circum-Pacific seismic belt. Consequently, the seismicity in the Taiwan area is very high. Taipei, the capital of Taiwan, is located in the Taipei basin with thick and soft deposits, which caused significant earthquake damage due to site amplifications. Earthquakes are well recorded by the very dense TSMIP (Taiwan Strong Motion Instrumentation Program) strong-motion network. The

C.-T. Chen; K.-L. Wen; J. Miksat; V. Sokolov; F. Wenzel

2009-01-01

315

The safety concerns of spent-fuel pool reracking in Taiwan`s Maanshan Nuclear Power Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taiwan`s Maanshan Nuclear Power Station (MNPS) consists of two pressurized water reactors [2,775 MW(thermal)]. The reracking method has received licensing approval and has been successfully implemented by the Taiwan Power Company for MNPS to increase the spent-fuel storage capacity of each unit from 746 to 2,160 fuel assemblies. MNPS is the only nuclear power station in the world that can

1997-01-01

316

Taiwan Takes Another Step Towards Independence?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On Saturday, the Republic of China elected Chen Shui-bian (pronounced chen shway-bien) as president. The leader of the opposition's Democratic Progressive Party, Chen had called for Taiwan's independence from China, which had responded to such rhetoric with threats of invasion were Chen to be elected. Thus far, no invasion is imminent, but an olive branch from Chen in the form of a request for immediate talks was rejected by Chinese President Jiang Zemin. Zemin has made Chen's acceptance of eventual reunification with China (known as the "one China" policy) a precondition of any further discussion. Meanwhile, the Taiwan stock market fell sharply, losing three percent in morning trading yesterday. Supporters of the Nationalist Party, which had been in power for the last half century, and whose candidate, Lee Teng-hui, came in a dismal third in the election, stormed the Nationalist Party headquarters Sunday demanding Lee's immediate resignation. Concerned about destabilization as a result of Chen's election, the White House prepared to have National Security Advisor Sandy Berger join Ambassador Richard Holbrooke in Beijing to urge patience on China's part while the State Department sought another official -- possibly former Democratic representative Lee Hamilton -- to send to Taiwan to counsel similar caution.

Charbonneau, David D.

317

Spatial Dependency of Tuberculosis Incidence in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) disease can be caused by either recent transmission from infectious patients or reactivation of remote latent infection. Spatial dependency (correlation between nearby geographic areas) in tuberculosis incidence is a signature for chains of recent transmission with geographic diffusion. To understand the contribution of recent transmission in the TB endemic in Taiwan, where reactivation has been assumed to be the predominant mode of pathogenesis, we used spatial regression analysis to examine whether there was spatial dependency between the TB incidence in each township and in its neighbors. A total of 90,661 TB cases from 349 townships in 2003–2008 were included in this analysis. After adjusting for the effects of confounding socioeconomic variables, including the percentages of aboriginals and average household income, the results show that the spatial lag parameter remains positively significant (0.43, p<0.001), which indicates that the TB incidences of neighboring townships had an effect on the TB incidence in each township. Townships with substantial spatial spillover effects were mainly located in the northern, western and eastern parts of Taiwan. Spatial dependency implies that recent transmission plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of TB in Taiwan. Therefore, in addition to the current focus on improving the cure rate under directly observed therapy programs, more resource need to be allocated to active case finding in order to break the chain of transmission. PMID:23226371

Ng, In-Chan; Wen, Tzai-Hung; Wang, Jann-Yuan; Fang, Chi-Tai

2012-01-01

318

Clinical manifestations of taeniasis in Taiwan aborigines.  

PubMed

From 1974 to 1989, a total of 24,500 aborigines at 67 villages in ten mountainous districts/towns in Taiwan were examined for the Taiwan Taenia infection and 12% were found to be infected. In order to define the clinical manifestations of taeniasis caused by the Taiwan Taenia, 1661 aborigines in ten mountainous districts were surveyed. The overall clinical rate was 76%. The clinical rate was highest among Atayal aborigines (81%), followed by Bunun (66%) and Yami (61%) aborgines and lowest among Ami aborigines (40%). Among 1153 infected people, 10% had passed gravid segments in the faeces for less than 1 year, 24% for 1-3 years, 17% for 4-5 years, 23% for 6-10 years, 16% for 11-20 years, 7% for 21-30 years, and 3% over 30 years. Twenty-six occurrences of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms were reported by 1258 infected persons. Passing proglottides in the faeces (95%) was the most frequent sign, followed by pruritus ani (77%), nausea (46%), abdominal pain (45%), dizziness (42%), increased appetite (30%), headache (26%), etc. PMID:1640085

Fan, P C; Chung, W C; Lin, C Y; Chan, C H

1992-06-01

319

The Status of the Taiwan Photon Source  

SciTech Connect

NSRRC has been operating a 1.5 GeV synchrotron light source, the Taiwan Light Source (TLS), for over 15 years and has established a large user community. For the future development of synchrotron radiation research in Taiwan, a feasibility study report to construct a 3.0 GeV low-emittance storage ring, the Taiwan Photon Source (TPS), was issued in July 2005. The government approval of the TPS project was obtained in December 2007 and the machine will be built at current site of NSRRC. The project has progressed steadily since and reached several major milestones now: the architect firm has finished the site plan and civil design, the accelerator design has been fixed, and purchase of long-lead items begins its course. The TPS storage ring has a circumference of 518.4 meters with a concentric booster of 496.8 meters. The storage ring adopted a 24-cell double-bend structure with a 1.6 nm-rad natural emittance. There are six 12-m and eighteen 7-m ID straights. For user research, five new beamlines have been selected for the Phase I operations: the micro protein crystallography, the materials sub-micron diffraction, the inelastic soft x-ray scattering, the coherent x-ray scattering, and the nano probe beamlines. The civil construction is getting ready to start. The commissioning of the TPS storage ring is targeted for 2013.

Kuo, C. C.; Wang, J. P.; Chen, J. R.; Hsu, K. T.; Wang, C.; Yang, Y. W.; Luo, G. H.; Chen, C. T.; Liang, K. S. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China)

2010-06-23

320

OBS development and data analysis in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1991 there have been various types of ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) deployed in the waters around Taiwan with different scientific goals. A few years of experiences taught us that many aspects of the instruments can be improved without too much effort. These include extension of deployment time, extension of the recording bandwidth of a short period OBS, and more flexibly to accommodate scientific demands without instrumental overhaul. Scientists will not burden themselves by these tasks, and sending back the instrument to original manufactory for modifications is usually impractical budget-wise, in timeline, and for mission goals. It is thus necessary to develop a sustainable OBS program in Taiwan. Academia Sinica has been collaborating with Taiwan Ocean Research Institute (TORI) and National Sun Yat-sen University (NSYSU) to build a new short-period OBS which has passed a series of tests and have been deployed in the Okinawa trough, Bashi channel, east Korea offshore and on service in Huatung basin. This paper describes the design goal of this OBS, component specification, and reports the preliminary analyses of data and the future directions of instrument development. Keywords: Ocean bottom seismometer, OBS

Lin, C.; Wang, C.; Chen, P.; Chang, H.; Jang, J.; Kuo, B.

2012-12-01

321

Plate motion  

SciTech Connect

The motion of tectonic plates on the earth is characterized in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Topics addressed include the NUVEL-1 global model of current plate motions, diffuse plate boundaries and the oceanic lithosphere, the relation between plate motions and distributed deformations, accelerations and the steadiness of plate motions, the distribution of current Pacific-North America motion across western North America and its margin, plate reconstructions and their uncertainties, hotspots, and plate dynamics. A comprehensive bibliography is provided. 126 refs.

Gordon, R.G. (USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States))

1991-01-01

322

Toward real-time regional earthquake simulation of Taiwan earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a Real-time Online earthquake Simulation system (ROS) to simulate regional earthquakes in Taiwan. The ROS uses a centroid moment tensor solution of seismic events from a Real-time Moment Tensor monitoring system (RMT), which provides all the point source parameters including the event origin time, hypocentral location, moment magnitude and focal mechanism within 2 minutes after the occurrence of an earthquake. Then, all of the source parameters are automatically forwarded to the ROS to perform an earthquake simulation, which is based on a spectral-element method (SEM). We have improved SEM mesh quality by introducing a thin high-resolution mesh layer near the surface to accommodate steep and rapidly varying topography. The mesh for the shallow sedimentary basin is adjusted to reflect its complex geometry and sharp lateral velocity contrasts. The grid resolution at the surface is about 545 m, which is sufficient to resolve topography and tomography data for simulations accurate up to 1.0 Hz. The ROS is also an infrastructural service, making online earthquake simulation feasible. Users can conduct their own earthquake simulation by providing a set of source parameters through the ROS webpage. For visualization, a ShakeMovie and ShakeMap are produced during the simulation. The time needed for one event is roughly 3 minutes for a 70 sec ground motion simulation. The ROS is operated online at the Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica (http://ros.earth.sinica.edu.tw/). Our long-term goal for the ROS system is to contribute to public earth science outreach and to realize seismic ground motion prediction in real-time.

Lee, S.; Liu, Q.; Tromp, J.; Komatitsch, D.; Liang, W.; Huang, B.

2013-12-01

323

The Catalytic Role of Aspartate in a Short Strong Hydrogen Bond of the Asp274  

E-print Network

The Catalytic Role of Aspartate in a Short Strong Hydrogen Bond of the Asp274 ­His32 Catalytic Dyad Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C from32 dyad, where a short strong hydrogen bond (SSHB) was shown to exist based on NMR criteria

Tsai, Ming-Daw

324

A Study of Neutral-Tone Syllables in Taiwan Mandarin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation studies the realization of the rhythm of Taiwan Mandarin and focuses on the quality of its unstressed (neutral-tone) syllables. Taiwan Mandarin (TM) is often described as more syllable-timed than Standard Mandarin (SM). In TM, the unstressed syllables occur less frequently. The quality of the unstressed (neutral-tone) syllables…

Huang, Karen

2012-01-01

325

Discovering land transaction relations from land deeds of Taiwan............................................................................................................................................................  

E-print Network

Discovering land transaction relations from land deeds of Taiwan ....................................................................................................................................... Abstract Land deeds were the only proof of ownership in pre-1900 Taiwan. They are indispensable library that contains almost 40,000 land deeds. The deeds in our collection range over 250 years

Chu, Hao-hua

326

The performance of state-owned enterprises in taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reviewed the performance of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) in Taiwan. Focusing on the relationship between SOEs and national economic activities and private enterprises, the study revealed some mixed findings regarding the SOEs’ performance. On the one hand, Taiwan's SOEs have contributed to the state's management of economic activities, including assisting in the continuous economic growth, in the transformation and

Kuo-Tsai Liou

1994-01-01

327

Current Trends in Aerospace Engineering Education on Taiwan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A proposal for current trends in Aerospace Engineering Education on Taiwan has been drawn from the suggestions made after a national conference of "Workshop on Aerospace Engineering Education Reform." This workshop was held in January 18-20, 1998, at the Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan,…

Hsieh, Sheng-Jii

328

Taiwan's Yacht Industry: A Tale of Two Entrepreneurial Firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the evolution of Taiwan's yacht industry in general, and in particular we focus on two entrepreneurial firms, the Horizon Yacht Company and the Jade Yacht Company. Our purposes are two-fold. First, most research studies on Taiwan's economic success are based on the neoclassical economic model, which uses a proportional input-output production function, and emphasizes aggregate data to

Ho-Don Yan

2008-01-01

329

A Re-Examination of the Suicide Rates in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the suicide rates of 23 cities and counties in Taiwan from 1983 to 2001. We found that a combination of economic and social variables can significantly account for the tremendous variations in suicide rates across Taiwan's cities and counties over the last two decades. The level of income per capita in a region appears as the…

Chuang, Hwei-Lin; Huang, Wei-Chiao

2007-01-01

330

GIS Adoption among Senior High School Geography Teachers in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the adoption of geographic information system (GIS) knowledge and skills through in-service training for high school geography teachers in Taiwan. Through statistical analysis of primary data collected from a census of Taiwan's high school geography teachers, it explores what motivates these teachers to undertake GIS…

Lay, Jinn-Guey; Chen, Yu-Wen; Chi, Yu-Lin

2013-01-01

331

Tourists' Perception of Authenticity in Indigenous Souvenirs in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study contributes to a body of knowledge concerning tourists' perception of authenticity for indigenous souvenirs in Taiwan. Researchers evaluated, designed, and produced souvenir cups chosen to represent Taiwan's indigenous Paiwan culture. Markers, designs, and materials were researched and selected in order to examine tourists' perceptions of authenticity. Tourists were asked to evaluate the cups and to explain their perceived

Philip Feifan Xie; Tsung-Chiung Wu; Hui-Wen Hsieh

2012-01-01

332

Springtime Aerosol Observations at Dongsha Atoll,Taiwan  

E-print Network

, and Peng Xian-Lynch · Advanced Light Source program, including Kevin Perry #12;Background · Role? · The (Multi-Partner) Seven SouthEast Asian Studies (7 SEAS) Mission: A Program to Study Pollution the transport of smoke and pollution from Indochina to Taiwan, led by National Central Univ of Taiwan ­ Dongsha

Pierce, Jeffrey

333

The Buddha and the Computer: Career Guidance in Taiwan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Career decision making in Taiwan was examined in the context of a society undergoing dynamic change as modern entrepreneurial values are accommodated in a cherished traditional culture. Especially during the past 20 years, the economy of Taiwan has changed from agriculture to technology. At the same time, the educational needs of students have…

Katz, Martin R.

334

Potential Analysis on Taiwan Agricultural Products Entering the International Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study probes into the trade exchange of Taiwan 's agricultural products, through structural analys is, to recognize the transformation of the import structur e of Taiwanese agricultural products; and analyzes the export potential of Taiwan's agricultural products by rela tive advantages of import and export values. The re search findings are generalized below: analysis on the trade change of

Meng-Long Shih

335

Sedation for Refractory Symptoms of Terminal Cancer Patients in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed sedation in terminal cancer patients in terms of three characteristics: frequency; relationship to intractable symptoms; and the extent to which medical staff, family, and patients found sedation to be ethically acceptable and efficacious. Two hundred seventy-six consecutive patients, who were admitted to the palliative care unit of National Taiwan University Hospital in Taiwan between August 1998 and

Tai-Yuan Chiu; Wen-Yu Hu; Bee-Horng Lue; Shao-Yi Cheng; Ching-Yu Chen

2001-01-01

336

Counseling Psychology Licensure in Taiwan: Development, Challenges, and Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development and consequences of licensure for counseling psychologists in Taiwan are presented to promote cross-cultural awareness surrounding issues in the counseling psychology profession. The national licensure statute for counseling psychologists in Taiwan was established by the Taiwanese Legislature in 2001. While the licensing system…

Wang, Li-fei; Kwan, Kwong-Liem K.; Huang, Su-Fei

2011-01-01

337

Taiwan High Speed Rail Keeping passenger safety at the forefront  

E-print Network

Taiwan High Speed Rail Keeping passenger safety at the forefront Overview The Need Taiwan High Speed Rail Corporation (THSRC) needed a highly reliable, cost- effective and proactive means of addressing the demanding maintenance requirements of high-speed rail transpor The Solution THSRC employed IBM

338

Exploring the Factors Affecting Hotel Outsourcing in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies were conducted to examine factors affecting hotel outsourcing in Taiwan. In study 1, interviews with senior hotel managers were analyzed to explore the factors determining a hotel's outsourcing of different services. The results of the questionnaire survey used in study 2 indicated that the current and desired percentages of outsourcing for international tourist hotels in Taiwan were very

Chin-Sheng Wan; Allan Yen-Lun Su

2010-01-01

339

Cybercrime & Cybercriminals: An Overview of the Taiwan Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the increasing number of cybercrime cases in Taiwan and examines the demographic characteristics of those responsible for this criminal activity. The report is based upon data taken from the Criminal Investigation Bureau of Taiwan's cybercrime database over the interval of 1999 through 2004. The paper defines cybercrime, analyses cybercrime case statistics and examines profiles of cybercrime suspects'

Chichao Lu; Wenyuan Jen; Weiping Chang; Shihchieh Chou

2006-01-01

340

Relationship between the frequency of tropical cyclones in Taiwan and the Pacific/North American pattern  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frequency of tropical cyclones (TCs) in Taiwan during June to October (JJASO) is found to have a strong negative correlation with the Pacific/North American (PNA) pattern in the preceding April. In the negative PNA phase, the anomalous cyclonic and the anomalous anticyclonic circulations are intensified at low latitudes and midlatitudes from East Asia to the North Atlantic, respectively, from April to JJASO. Particularly in East Asia, the anomalous southeasterly that converges between the anomalous anticyclone to the east of Japan and the anomalous cyclone to the east of Taiwan plays a decisive role in moving TCs not only to Taiwan, but also to the midlatitude coastal regions of East Asia as a result of the steering flow. In addition, a southwestward extension of a western North Pacific (WNP) high during the positive PNA phase also contributed to a frequent movement of TCs to southern China without traveling north toward the midlatitude regions of East Asia. Due to the difference in the typical tracks of the TC in the WNP according to the PNA phase, the intensity of the TC in the negative PNA phase is stronger than that in the positive PNA phase.

Choi, Ki-Seon; Moon, Il-Ju

341

The cause of the 2008 cold disaster in the Taiwan Strait  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The offshore branch of the China Coastal Current in the Taiwan Strait normally makes a U-turn north of the Zhangyun Ridge. In early 2008, the current continued straight and carried water as cold as 14 °C toward Penghu Island, causing damage to the local aquaculture and coral reef ecosystem. This study investigates the mechanism behind this intrusion of cold water using available data and a three-dimensional model. The model results show that the 2008 intrusion can be divided into three stages. At the beginning of February, the offshore branch of the China Coastal Current formed a U-shape in the Taiwan Strait; the branch moved cold water from the western strait to the central strait when the offshore geostrophic current, which is related to the southward sea level and density gradients, overcame the onshore Ekman transport caused by the northeasterly monsoon. In the second stage, in mid-February, strong northeasterly winds intensified the southwest current in the Taiwan Strait and resulted in abnormal transport of the cold water from the central strait to Penghu Island. Finally, at the end of February, the warm northeast current was re-established due to weakened wind, and the cold water gradually retreated to the north. The second processes occurred immediately after the first, resulting in the unique intrusion of cold water.

Liao, Enhui; Jiang, Yuwu; Li, Li; Hong, Huasheng; Yan, Xiaohai

2013-02-01

342

Sources of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in rainwater at a subtropical islet offshore northern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollutants derived from long-range transport and local emission impact significantly of heavy metal compositions in rainwater and aerosols. To identify their sources and relative contributions in rainwater, 47 monthly rainwater samples from January 1998 to December 2001, collected at Peng Chia Yu (PCY), a non-residential islet offshore Taiwan, were analyzed for heavy metals (i.e. Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) and Pb isotopic compositions. The dissolved metals concentrations of Al, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Ba, and Pb in PCY rains are high in spring and winter, but low in summer. This can be understood in terms of pollutant source changes due to wind direction shifted seasonally. The average EF crust and EF seawater values calculated for Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb are far greater than 1500, suggesting their strong anthropogenic sources, also supported by the PCA results. The pollutants derived from long-range transport are the predominated heavy metals sources during the winter monsoon season, whereas local traffic emissions play the most important role during the summer monsoon period. Unique Pb isotopic fingerprints, similar to those of iron ore sinter dusts and oil combustion dusts from Shanghai and the traffic emissions from Taiwan were identified in PCY rainwater. A mixing model based on three typical end-member Pb isotopic compositions derived from Taiwan and China was applied to evaluate the pollutant sources variations.

Cheng, Miao-Ching; You, Chen-Feng; Lin, Fei-Jan; Huang, Kuo-Fang; Chung, Chuan-Hsiung

2011-02-01

343

Gravity flows associated with flood events and carbon burial: Taiwan as instructional source area.  

PubMed

Taiwan's unique setting allows it to release disproportionately large quantities of fluvial sediment into diverse dispersal systems around the island. Earthquakes, lithology, topography, cyclone-induced rainfall, and human disturbance play major roles in the catchment dynamics. Deep landslides dominate the sediment-removal process on land, giving fluvial sediment distinct geochemical signals. Extreme conditions in river runoff, sediment load, nearshore waves and currents, and the formation of gravity flows during typhoon events can be observed within short distances. Segregation of fresh biomass and clastic sediment occurs during the marine transport process, yet turbidity currents in the Gaoping Submarine Canyon carry woody debris. Strong currents in the slope and back-arc basin of the Okinawa Trough disperse fine-grained sediments rapidly and widely. Temporal deposition and remobilization may occur when the shallow Taiwan Strait acts as a receptacle. Taiwan can therefore serve as a demonstration of the episodic aspect of the source-to-sink pathway to both the coastal and deep-ocean environments. PMID:22809183

Liu, James T; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Huh, Chih-An; Hung, Chin-Chang

2013-01-01

344

Information technology and relationship management: a case study of Taiwan’s small manufacturing firm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of small businesses to the main source of employment and income in many countries and areas is a well-known fact. Therefore, the effect of the implementation of electronic functions on small businesses becomes a critical issue not only on the practices but also on academic research. In Taiwan, 90% of business is small business and the number of

Shu-hsien Liao; Yea-wen Chem; Feng-hao Liu; Wei-bang Liao

2004-01-01

345

Study of Magnetic Susceptibility Anisotropy Across The Northern Transect of Taiwan Mountain Belt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) can be regarded as a useful tool for understanding the variation of finite strain pattern of regional deformation. By analyzing the directions and magnitudes of magnetic susceptibility ellipsoids across the northern Taiwan, the strain pattern and tectonic features of early deformation event of arc-continental collision of Taiwan can be investigated. Previous study suggested that metamorphic temperature overprint postdated the regional deformation across the northern Taiwan. In order to evaluate the interrelationship between maximum temperature and deformation during mountain building, we collected oriented samples of low-grade metamorphic rocks along the Northern Cross-Island Highway. In addition to the strain pattern inferred from the study of magnetic susceptibility anisotropy, experiments of natural remanent magnetization, hysteresis loop, and temperature-function magnetic susceptibility were also conducted. By these experiments, we can investigate the type and size of magnetic carriers and also can evaluate the factors of influencing magnetic parameters of AMS. Furthermore, the meaning of strain pattern deduced from AMS can be inspected. Current results show that in general K1 orientation of magnetic ellipsoids indicates northwest and southeast compression, which is consistent with plate convergence direction. Both deformation intensity and anisotropy increase from the west to east with abnormally strong intensity and oblate strain in the footwalls of major faults. The results are slightly different from the maximum temperature profile, which increases eastward and becomes almost constant temperature after cleavage development. These observations provide insights into evaluating the evolution of tectonometamorphism and exhumation process of northern Taiwan. To decipher the meaning of differences between metamorphism and deformation, integrated analysis of magnetic parameters and temperature should be carried out.

Peng, X.; Yeh, E.; Lee, T.; Aubourg, C. T.; Chen, C.; Lin, S.; Chen, C.; Chou, Y.

2013-12-01

346

Resolving the crustal seismic anisotropy of Taiwan using ambient seismic noises  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct 3D isotropic/anisotropic crustal models of Taiwan using ambient seismic noises. We have collected an unprecedented data amount for the noise tomography in Taiwan using continuous data from island-wide broad-band and short-period networks and the temporary arrays deployed by the TAIGER (TAiwan Integrated GEodynamics Research) project. In our earlier works, we have derived 2D maps of azimuthal anisotropy in the period range from 4 to 20 seconds using this data set. In particular, the effects of irregular azimuthal path distribution are carefully examined and the influences of topography on surface wave dispersion are evaluated using SEM (spectral element method) and removed from data prior to the inversion. In these maps, the pattern of azimuthal anisotropy gradually varies with increasing periods, from convergence-perpendicular striking NNE-SSW trend at shorter periods to near convergence-parallel E-W trend at longer periods, suggesting that there is a strong depth dependence of seismic anisotropy in Taiwan, and the transition depth is likely at the lower crust. In the current study, we develop 3D models of anisotropy, aiming to further investigate the depth distribution of the observed anisotropy. Instead of the commonly used two-step inversion in the construction of 3D models using surface waves, we derive the 3D model in one step using a wavelet-based multi-scale inversion technique, by which both the horizontal spatial localization and non-stationary model smoothing are assured and there is no need to invoke additional smoothness regularization. We present the results, compare them with other early studies, and discuss the tectonic implications.

Huang, T.; Chen, Y.; Gung, Y.; Chiao, L.; Liang, W.; Lee, S.

2013-12-01

347

Attributes of Leaves on Reproductive Shoots of Taiwan Sassafras (Sassafras randaiense (Hay.) Rehder) at Chilan Shan, Northeastern Taiwan1  

Microsoft Academic Search

?Abstract? The objective of this study was ,to investigate the dynamic nature of size and greenness,of leaves ,on the reproductive shoots of ,Taiwan sassafras (Sassafras randaiense (Hay.) Rehder) during a growing season at Chilan-Shan of northeastern Taiwan. Five trees, each under 1.

Jing-hui Lin; Biing T. Guan

2003-01-01

348

Magical Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students watch video clips from the October Sky and Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone movies to see examples of projectile motion. Then they explore the relationships between displacement, velocity and acceleration, and calculate simple projectile motion. The objective of this activity is to articulate concepts related to force and motion through direct immersive interaction based on "The Science Behind Harry Potter" theme. Students' interest is piqued by the use of popular culture in the classroom.

2014-09-18

349

A revision of the genus Amamiclytus Ohbayashi from Taiwan and the Ryukyu Islands (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The clytine genus Amamiclytus Ohbayashi, 1964, from Taiwan and the Ryukyu Islands is revised. Seven species and one subspecies are recognized as follows: Amamiclytus nobuoi nobuoi Ohbayashi, 1964, (Amami Islands); Amamiclytus nobuoi akusekianus Niisato, 2005, (Tokara Islands); Amamiclytus subnitidus Holzschuh, 1984, (Taiwan); Amamiclytus setiger sp. n. (Taiwan), Amamiclytus nubilus sp. n. (Taiwan), Amamiclytus juni sp. n. (Taiwan), Amamiclytus yulongi sp. n. (Taiwan) and Amamiclytus hirtipes (Matsushita, 1940), comb. n. (Taiwan). All of them are described or redescribed and a key to species is presented. The generic features of Amamiclytus, including male and female genitalia from these taxa, are presented. The systematic position of Amamiclytus within the tribe Clytini is discussed. PMID:21998509

Niisato, Tatsuya; Han, Chang-do

2011-01-01

350

Malaria control and eradication in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

An intensive programme of residual spraying with DDT carried out over a period of 5 years in Taiwan has reduced malaria morbidity to a very low level. Since 1955, the goal has been complete eradication. Some foci of transmission and/or infection remain, however, and although no resistance problems have been encountered, the principal vector, A. minimus minimus, is still widely distributed. An elaborate surveillance organization is now in the process of creation, with the object of detecting and eliminating all residual foci of transmission and preventing the importation of fresh cases. It is hoped to complete eradication in another 3-5 years. PMID:13596886

1958-01-01

351

Intrusion of the Pearl River plume into the main channel of the Taiwan Strait in summer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Penghu Channel is the main channel connecting the East and South China Seas, two of the largest marginal seas in the world. Located in the southeast of Taiwan Strait, the Penghu Channel is usually covered by the high salinity water from the South China Sea and the Kuroshio. However, we observed abnormal low-salinity water in the Penghu Channel during a cruise through the southern Taiwan Strait and northern South China Sea in August 2008. We argue that the normalized alkalinity is a good indicator for the identification of a river plume as it is not affected by rainwater. Using satellite-derived water transparency and chlorophyll images and field-measured alkalinity, the source of this low salinity water was found to be the intrusion of the Pearl River plume. A significant phytoplankton bloom across the entire Taiwan Strait occurred with the intrusion event. The intrusion was not a unique event, as we also found a strong jet-shaped Pearl River plume intruding into the Penghu Channel in the summer of 2009 from cloud-free satellite-derived images. Time series satellite data reveal that the Pearl River plume intrudes into the Penghu Channel in the summer of most years. Multiple data analysis and modeling simulation indicate that a large river discharge and strong southwesterly winds on the shelf may be responsible for the significant intrusion of the Pearl River plume into the Penghu Channel in summer. As the Pearl River plume has a high nutrient and dissolved inorganic carbon content, combined with the strong northward flows through the Penghu Channel, such intrusions may contribute to the nutrient dynamics and carbon budget of the East and northern South China Seas.

Bai, Yan; Huang, Ting-Hsuan; He, Xianqiang; Wang, Shu-Lun; Hsin, Yi-Chia; Wu, Chau-Ron; Zhai, Weidong; Lui, Hon-Kit; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur

2015-01-01

352

The sea bottom temperature offshore southwestern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sea bottom temperature (SBT) is important to apply to the heat flow estimation by BSR. Also the SBT may response the fluid migration near subsurface. Here we present 150 measurements of SBT offshore southwestern Taiwan where abundant gas hydrates has been evaluated. The SBT data were acquired by the heat probe with high resolution up to 0.0001°C. Thermal gradients were determined from several temperature sensors installed in different depth in the heat probe and then the SBT could be calculated by extrapolation. The results show that the SBT are between 2.23 and 10.14°C in water depth within the range of 409 to 3248 meters. Basically, the SBT is inversely hyperbolic proportional to the water depth for those 132 measurements the water depth are shallower than 2650 meters. The product of SBT and water depth has an average of 4419 m-°C and a standard deviation of 402 m-°C. However the SBT of others 18 measurements in the deep water region are scattered without any significant trend. Some measurements near mud diapirs in the shallow water have high anomaly SBT. It is suggested that the fluid from deep underground may migrate along the fractures or faults related to the movements of the mud volume.; The sea bottom temperature offshore southwestern Taiwan

Chiang, H.; Shyu, C.; Peng, Y.; Chang, H.; Chen, S.; Chung, S.; Wang, Y.

2012-12-01

353

Fetal Exposure to Environmental Neurotoxins in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) are recognized neurotoxins in children that particularly affect neurodevelopment and intellectual performance. Based on the hypothesis that the fetal basis of adult disease is fetal toxic exposure that results in adverse outcomes in adulthood, we explored the concentrations of key neurotoxins (i.e., Hg, Pb, Cd, and As) in meconium to identify the risk factors associated with these concentrations. From January 2007 to December 2009, 545 mother-infant pairs were recruited. The geometric mean concentrations of Pb and As in the meconium of babies of foreign-born mothers (22.9 and 38.1 µg/kg dry weight, respectively) were significantly greater than those of babies of Taiwan-born mothers (17.5 and 33.0 µg/kg dry weight, respectively). Maternal age (?30 y), maternal education, use of traditional Chinese herbs during pregnancy, and fish cutlet consumption (?3 meals/wk) were risk factors associated with concentrations of key prenatal neurotoxins. The Taiwan government should focus more attention on providing intervention programs for immigrant mothers to help protect the health of unborn babies. Further investigation on how multiple neurotoxins influence prenatal neurodevelopment is warranted. PMID:25299345

Jiang, Chuen-Bin; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Fan, Chun-Hua; Chien, Ling-Chu

2014-01-01

354

Epidemiology of pediatric burn in southern Taiwan.  

PubMed

A 5-year retrospective review of 157 pediatric patients admitted to burn center of Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital (Kaohsiung, Taiwan) was undertaken to identify the incidence, mechanism, and agents of pediatric burn. The highest incidence of pediatric burn was in children aged 1-6 years (57.3%), followed by age group 6-14 years (31.8%). Scald burn (75.2%) made up the major cause of this injury and was dominant in each age group compared to non-scald burn. The kitchen/dining area (57.3%) and living room (29.9%) accounted for the most frequent places where pediatric burns occurred. Among the agents of scald burn, hot drink (49.2%) and soup (32.2%) were the two leading causes. There were more pediatric burns reported in colder seasons (38.2% and 33.1% in winter and fall respectively) and during dining time (19.7% in 11 a.m.-1 p.m. and 35.0% in 5 p.m.-8 p.m.). The results of this report may be closely related to special culinary habits (use of chafing-dish and making hot tea) in the south of Taiwan. PMID:15683690

Lin, Tsai-Ming; Wang, Kai-Hung; Lai, Cheng-Sheng; Lin, Sin-Daw

2005-03-01

355

Molluscan fauna of Gueishan Island, Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Abstract This dataset records the occurrence and inventory of molluscan fauna on Gueishan Island, the only active volcanic island in Taiwan, based on the literature survey and field investigation conducted between 2011 and 2012. The literature review involved seven studies published from 1934 to 2003, which collectively reported 112 species from 61 genera and 37 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. Through our field investigation, we identified 34 species from 28 genera and 23 families. Fourteen of these species were new records on Gueishan Island: Liolophura japonica, Lottia luchuana, Nerita costata, Nerita rumphii, Diplommatina suganikeiensis, Littoraria undulata, Solenomphala taiwanensis, Assiminea sp., Siphonaria laciniosa, Laevapex nipponica, Carychium hachijoensis, Succinea erythrophana, Zaptyx crassilamellata, and Allopeas pyrgula. In Total, there are 126 species from 71 genera and 45 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. These data have been published through GBIF [http://taibif.org.tw/ipt/resource.do?r=gueishan_island] and integrated into the Taiwan Malacofauna Database (http://shell.sinica.edu.tw/). PMID:23717182

Huang, Chih-Wei; Hsiung, Ta-Wei; Lin, Si-Min; Wu, Wen-Lung

2013-01-01

356

Flower drinking and masculinity in Taiwan.  

PubMed

This study explores the role of the hostess club culture in the creation and maintenance of masculinity in Taiwan. The article focuses on flower drinking (the consumption of alcohol in bars, often integrated with prostitution), which is a common practice in Taiwan. Data were obtained from 58 in-depth interviews with men from a variety of occupations and social backgrounds (mean age = 38.50, SD = 11.00) and 73 questionnaires administered to soldiers (mean age = 21.00, SD = 1.10). Findings indicated that demonstration of skill at flower drinking and facility with the related social etiquette are important channels for male bonding that were central to the mid- to upper-class participants' professional development. Flower drinking also provided a method of discriminating men from other men through their choices of why and where to go and how to behave while there. Specific ways that Taiwanese masculinity differs from Western and from Japanese masculinity, and support for the continuing relevance of the traditional Confucian ideal of masculinity, wen-wu, are discussed. PMID:19763998

Bedford, Olwen; Hwang, Shu-Ling

2011-01-01

357

The differences in clay minerals between the northern and southern Chelungpu fault, Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1999, we obtained a detailed data about motion of fault from the Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake. The motion represents the high frequency of acceleration and small slip distance in southern part, and low frequency of acceleration and large slip distance in the northern part. Those differences in the fault motion between the southern and northern parts are coincidence with occurrences of deformation textures of rocks which were sampled by drilling of shallow parts (a few hundreds meter) of the fault in 2000. In the southern core, a relatively strong deformation structure is preserved in total, and gouge containing fragments of pseudotachylytes and ultracataclasites is observed at the Chi-Chi- earthquake fault, which indicates that the main deformation mechanisms for the southern part of the fault was brittle. On the other hands, in the northern part, sand layer with much amount of water is found at the Chi-Chi- earthquake fault zone, and no breakage of sand grain is observed, which suggests that the deformation mechanism for northern part is independent particulate flow. The purpose of this study is to reveal the differences in clay minerals between the southern and northern part of the Chi-Chi earthquake fault. And then, we discuss about rock-fluid interaction and frictional heating characterized in seismogenic fault system. We analyzed clay minerals by X-ray diffract meter (XRD) after classification of rock types such as sandstone, alteration of sandstone and mudstone, breccia, and gouge. 1.33 micron meter of grains are obtained. Oriented sample was made. XRD analysis was conducted under following condition; 35kV, 15mA, 1 degree per minute of scan rate, and 0.02 degree of scan step. Range of 2 theta was from 2 degree to 35 degree. At first, air-dried condition of samples was measured. After that, ethylene glycol solvated samples were measured. The result represents that all samples contain smectite, illite, chlorite. No difference in components of clay mineral is observed between the southern and northern site. We focused on Chlorite which is contained in all analyzed samples. Total number of iron and magnesium (Y value), or asymmetry of iron between silicate layer and hydroxide layer (D value) is affected by pH of fluid when the chlorite is precipitated. In the northern site, Y value increases and D value decrease in gouge relatively to that in other rocks. On the other hand, in southern site, Y value decreases and D value increases in gouge which is located just at the Chi-Chi earthquake fault. This result suggests that pH of fluid differed at the time of fault activities. One of the possibilities of this cause is radical reaction. The differences of deformation mechanisms between the southern site and northern may be affected by whether radical reaction occurred or not at the time of chlorite precipitation. Other characteristic in clay mineral is smectite consumption. Illite% to smectite of host rock represents about 96% in average. Whereas, some gouge samples have no smectite. Smectite-illite transition is mainly affected by temperature. Treated samples are about 15cm in size. Therefore, this smectite consumption may be due to localized heating, which may be frictional heating. Temperature loggings after 1.5 year from the Chi-Chi- earthquake represent temperature anomalies both in the northern and southern site. If those temperature anomalies are due to frictional heating, localized increment in temperature is about a few tens degrees Celsius in the order. This temperature rise can not consume smectite to transit to illite from 96% to under 1%. Therefore, the smectite consumption may be integrated result of repetition of frictional heating in seismic history.

Hashimoto, Y.

2004-12-01

358

Munidopsis lauensis Baba & de Saint Laurent, 1992 (Decapoda, Anomura, Munidopsidae), a newly recorded squat lobster from a cold seep in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The squat lobster, Munidopsis lauensis Baba & de Saint Laurent, 1992, is recorded from Taiwan for the first time. This species was previously known only from deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the South-West Pacific but it was now found at a deep-sea cold seep site off southwestern Taiwan. The identity of the Taiwanese material is confirmed by comparison of sequences from the barcoding gene COI. Munidopsis lauensis can be easily separated from other congeners in Taiwanese waters by the eyes bearing a strong mesiodorsal spine and a small mesioventral spine, smooth carapace, fingers of the cheliped distally spooned and fixed finger without a denticulate carina on the distolateral margin. The discovery of this species in Taiwan increases the Munidopsis fauna of the island to 38 species. A color photograph and line drawings illustrating distinctive characters are provided for the Taiwanese material. PMID:25112740

Lin, Chia-Wei; Tsuchida, Shinji; Lin, Saulwood; Berndt, Christian; Chan, Tin-Yam

2013-01-01

359

Comparisons between extension systems in Taiwan and USA ; and an aquaculture development plan for Taiwan  

E-print Network

problems. 4. Feed Aspects The rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry in Taiwan is partly due to the development of efficient formulated feeds. At present, the major aquaculture formulated feeds include eel's powder feed and pelleted feed for tiger... ) Tiger shrimp (~pen eus monodon) Kuruma shrimp (P. )m t ) Sand shrimp ()~t auajg) Freshwater prawn (NNE b ht ~b* lt) Mangrove crab (~Sc 1 Small abalone ( HiLL i t~ diversicolor) Hard clam ( M~tl lusoria) Japanese oyster (Crassostrea ~i...

Chu, Tah-Wei

1986-01-01

360

Fault Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations provides elementary examples of fault motion intended for simple demonstrations. Examples include dip-slip faults (normal and reverse), strike-slip faults, and oblique-slip faults.

361

Projectile Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page asks you to consider a projectile thrown at some angle as having the motion of two similar projectiles, one that travels upward with a constant downward acceleration and one that travels horizontally at constant velocity.

Wolfgang Christian

362

Wave Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Carl Nave at Georgia State University presents a discussion of wave motion. The site explains the velocity of idealized ocean waves and details the measurement of large waves aboard the USS Ramapo.

Carl R. (Rod) Nave

363

Motion Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows how to effectively combine a sampling-based method primarily designed for multiple query motion planning (Probabilistic Roadmap Method - PRM) with sampling-based tree methods primarily designed for single query motion planning (Expansive Space Trees, Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees, and others) in a novel planning framework that can be efficiently parallelized. Our planner not only achiev es a smooth spectrum

Lydia E. Kavraki; Steven M. Lavalle

2008-01-01

364

Motorcycle pollution control in Taiwan, Republic of China  

SciTech Connect

The Taiwan EPA has developed a comprehensive approach to motor vehicle pollution control. Building on its early adoption of US `83 standards for light duty vehicles (starting July 1, 1990) it recently moved to US `87 requirements, which include the 0.2 gram per mile particulate standard, as of July 1, 1995. Heavy duty diesel particulate standards almost as stringent as US `90, 6.0 grams per brake horsepower hour NO{sub x} and 0.7 particulate, using the US transient test procedure, went into effect on July 1, 1993. It is intended that US`94 standards, 5.0 NO{sub x} and 0.25 particulate, will be adopted soon. Clearly the most distinctive feature of the Taiwan program, however, is its motorcycle control effort, reflecting the fact that motorcycles dominate the vehicle fleet and are a substantial source of emissions. This paper will summarize Taiwan`s extensive efforts to address this problem.

Chen, H.W.; Hsiao, H.C.; Walsh, M.P.

1998-12-31

365

Implementation of Taiwan's Semiconductor Equipment Evaluation and Qualification (SEEQ) project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the issues developed in the planning of the upcoming Taiwan Semiconductor Equipment Evaluation and Qualification (SEEQ) project. Details about its background, motive, advantage and difficulty are depicted.

J. C. Wang; K. H. Ke; P. Y. Wang

2002-01-01

366

Paths toward hepatitis B immunization in South Korea and Taiwan  

PubMed Central

South Korea and Taiwan have had similar experiences of economic development in the post-war era. The two societies have also successfully overcome the threat of liver cancer by using mass hepatitis B vaccinations. However, to reach their current states, they followed different directions, and experienced differing effects on their national health governance systems. In South Korea, vaccine production occurred prior to effectively introducing immunization programs. In contrast, Taiwan established an effective immunization program first. However, industrialization of vaccines against hepatitis B has failed. Taiwan has to import vaccines for domestic use. This article provides a contextual overview on the different methods South Korea and Taiwan have used to arrive at their modern status of hepatitis B immunization. PMID:23858397

2013-01-01

367

The Danger of Catholic Education--Taiwan Style.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a personal account of the experiences of an American nun while teaching at Fu Jen Catholic University in Taiwan. Explains the Taiwanese educational system and the role of Catholic education within it. (CBC)

Boudreau, Rose Michele

1985-01-01

368

69 FR 47416 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Canada, South Africa and Taiwan; Notice of Expedited Sunset...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Steel Plate in Coils From Canada, South Africa and Taiwan; Notice of Expedited...steel plate in coils from Canada, South Africa, and Taiwan; final results...from Canada, Taiwan, and South Africa pursuant to section 751(c)...

2004-08-05

369

NRAO Welcomes Taiwan as a New North American ALMA Partner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) has announced a formal agreement enabling Taiwanese astronomers to participate in the North American component of the international ALMA partnership, alongside American and Canadian astronomers. Taiwan's efforts will be led by the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA). ALMA, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, is the most ambitious ground-based astronomical observatory in history. Currently under construction in Chile’s Atacama Desert at an altitude of 16,500 feet, it promises to revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planets, stars, and galaxies when it begins full science operations early in the next decade. The agreement, signed by the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office and the American Institute in Taiwan, provides for approximately $20 million in ALMA construction funding through the National Science Council (NSC), Taiwan’s equivalent to the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and Canada's National Research Council (NRC), which have jointly funded North America's existing contribution to the international ALMA project. Activities under the agreement will include joint research projects, development projects, collaboration on construction, support of observatory operations and other forms of cooperation. Access to ALMA observing time will be shared, as will membership on advisory committees. “Taiwan is a world-class center for submillimeter-wavelength astronomical research, and we’re delighted that the ALMA project and all its future users will benefit from the resources and expertise that Taiwan’s deepening participation brings to this great, global endeavor,” said Dr. Fred Lo, NRAO's director. This new agreement increases and diversifies Taiwan’s Academia Sinica investment in ALMA beyond the levels achieved through its participation in the East Asian component of the ALMA partnership, which is led by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. The agreement mirrors previous ones affording Taiwan astronomers enhanced access to NRAO’s US-based research facilities. “ALMA will be one of the greatest ground-based observatories of the coming decade, and we look forward eagerly to working alongside our colleagues at the NRAO, and with the other ALMA partners, to make ALMA even more successful,” said Dr. Paul Ho, ASIAA’s director. The ALMA Project is a partnership between the scientific communities of East Asia, Europe and North America with Chile. ALMA is funded in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada and the National Science Council of Taiwan. ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, which is operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

2008-12-01

370

The first archaic Homo from Taiwan.  

PubMed

Recent studies of an increasing number of hominin fossils highlight regional and chronological diversities of archaic Homo in the Pleistocene of eastern Asia. However, such a realization is still based on limited geographical occurrences mainly from Indonesia, China and Russian Altai. Here we describe a newly discovered archaic Homo mandible from Taiwan (Penghu 1), which further increases the diversity of Pleistocene Asian hominins. Penghu 1 revealed an unexpectedly late survival (younger than 450 but most likely 190-10 thousand years ago) of robust, apparently primitive dentognathic morphology in the periphery of the continent, which is unknown among the penecontemporaneous fossil records from other regions of Asia except for the mid-Middle Pleistocene Homo from Hexian, Eastern China. Such patterns of geographic trait distribution cannot be simply explained by clinal geographic variation of Homo erectus between northern China and Java, and suggests survival of multiple evolutionary lineages among archaic hominins before the arrival of modern humans in the region. PMID:25625212

Chang, Chun-Hsiang; Kaifu, Yousuke; Takai, Masanaru; Kono, Reiko T; Grün, Rainer; Matsu'ura, Shuji; Kinsley, Les; Lin, Liang-Kong

2015-01-01

371

The first archaic Homo from Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Recent studies of an increasing number of hominin fossils highlight regional and chronological diversities of archaic Homo in the Pleistocene of eastern Asia. However, such a realization is still based on limited geographical occurrences mainly from Indonesia, China and Russian Altai. Here we describe a newly discovered archaic Homo mandible from Taiwan (Penghu 1), which further increases the diversity of Pleistocene Asian hominins. Penghu 1 revealed an unexpectedly late survival (younger than 450 but most likely 190–10 thousand years ago) of robust, apparently primitive dentognathic morphology in the periphery of the continent, which is unknown among the penecontemporaneous fossil records from other regions of Asia except for the mid-Middle Pleistocene Homo from Hexian, Eastern China. Such patterns of geographic trait distribution cannot be simply explained by clinal geographic variation of Homo erectus between northern China and Java, and suggests survival of multiple evolutionary lineages among archaic hominins before the arrival of modern humans in the region. PMID:25625212

Chang, Chun-Hsiang; Kaifu, Yousuke; Takai, Masanaru; Kono, Reiko T.; Grün, Rainer; Matsu’ura, Shuji; Kinsley, Les; Lin, Liang-Kong

2015-01-01

372

Application of INCSEA principles to the Taiwan Strait.  

SciTech Connect

The waters surrounding Taiwan are important international waterways. In addition to merchant ships of every nation, the warships of the United States, Japan, Russia, and China may appear in these waters. No hostility is expected between Taiwan and the United States, Japan, or Russia; however, Taiwan and China have a tense relationship, and both sides face a potential for naval incidents. As Taiwan and China expand their naval capability, the International Maritime Organization Convention for the lnternational Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea may not be sufficient to prevent naval incidents, any of which might develop into conflict or war. Therefore, China and Taiwan need to develop maritime confidence building measures (CBMs) that could reduce the chance of naval incidents and strengthen mutual trust and confidence. Among the variety of maritime CBM concepts for military purposes, the most successful and effective measure has been the 1972 U.S.-Soviet Union Agreement on the Prevention of Incidents On and Over the High Seas (INCSEA). The success of the agreement demonstrates that CBMs represent a workable alternative to traditional arms controls. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a concrete approach to the constraint of naval activities between China and Taiwan to reduce accidents and misunderstandings. This paper outlines the categories and characteristics of incidents at sea. Next, the author identifies the successful factors of the U.S.-Soviet INCSEA and applies the INCSEA concept to the Taiwan Strait. Finally, the author develops a framework of options and a step-by-step approach for establishing an INCSEA between Taiwan and China.

Wen-Chung, Chai (Taiwan Navy, Taiwan)

2003-06-01

373

Four anthropometric indices and cardiovascular risk factors in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationships between four anthropometric measurements and cardiovascular risk factors in Taiwan.DESIGN: The data was collected from four nationwide health screen centers in Taiwan from 1998 to 1999.SUBJECTS: A total of 38 556 subjects: 18 280 men and 20 276 women, mean age=37.0±11.1 y. None had any known major systemic diseases or were currently on medication.MEASUREMENTS: Individual

K-C Huang; W-Y Lin; L-T Lee; C-Y Chen; H Lo; H-H Hsia; I-L Liu; W-Y Shau; R-S Lin; Kuo-Chin Huang

2002-01-01

374

Cybercrime in Taiwan - An Analysis of Suspect Records  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper explores the increasing number of cybercrime cases in Taiwan and examines the demographic characteristics of the\\u000a criminals responsible for the criminal activity. The report is based upon data taken from the Criminal Investigation Bureau\\u000a of Taiwan cybercrime database over the interval of 1999 through 2004. The paper defines cybercrime, addresses cybercrime case\\u000a statistics and examines profiles of the

Wenyuan Jen; Weiping Chang; Shihchieh Chou

2006-01-01

375

Kinematic simulations of the rainfall-triggered Shiaolin debris avalanche, southern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Taiwan Island, caused of situated on an active orogenic belt possesses high seismicity and high relief, and situated on the most common trajectory of typhoons in northwest Pacific Ocean, is then frequent been struck by the natural hazards. Among the natural hazards, landslides in one of the most frequent disasters in Taiwan. Typhoon Morakot attacked Taiwan on August 7-9, 2009. During these days, the rainfall near Shiaolin village in southern Taiwan exceeded 1800mm almost equals to the annual precipitation, and caused serious disasters. The hills behind Shiaolin village were collapsed, buried the village, and create a landslide dam. Moreover, more than four hundred villagers were buried alive. In this study, both the Digital Terrain Model (DTMs) before and after landslide is been integrates to estimate the volume of the slid materials, the zone of initiation, the zone of accumulation, the shape of the deposit and the impact area. Meanwhile, the seismometer record at neighboring regions is also been included. Finally, by using 3D Distinct Element Method (DEM) Partical Flow Code (PFC3D) software, taking into account different material property, different parameters and the pore water pressure, etc., the kinematic processes of the debris flow in Shiaolin is been analyzed. In order to taking into account the effect of the pore water pressure, the ball elements are thus subject to gradient-perpendicular buoyancy. Each group of parameters both tested with and without pore water pressure. The consequence shows that the pore water pressure plays an essential factor to triggered landslides. Several groups of parameters reveals the best-fit result, by comparing the shape of the accumulation with the reality, indicating the friction coefficient should as low as 0.1. The friction coefficient of the surface of separation determines the shape and the region of the deposits. According to the numerical simulation, the process of the landslide is been explored. The total duration of the landslide process is about 160 seconds. 27 seconds after landslide been triggered, the flow front hits the 590 Highland behind the Shiaolin village, and then changes the direction of motion and split into two runout courses. About 57 seconds after initiation, the debris flow struck the Shiaolin village. Within 10 seconds, part of the Shiaolin village was been buried and swept. 70 seconds after the landslide, the debris surge flows across the Chishan River, reach the opposite side of the river and forming the landslide dam. The results of the snapshots coincide with the broad band seismometer record and the near surface magnetic survey data. The analysis provides not only the kinematic process but also the mechanics of the landslide, and may serve to landslide hazard mitigation as well.

Huang, M.-J.; Chiang, Y.-L.; Chang*, K.-J.

2012-04-01

376

Influence of the Arctic Oscillation on the TC activity around Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study discovered that strong positive correlations exist between the frequency of tropical cyclones (TC) during the summer around Taiwan and the Arctic Oscillation (AO) during the preceding March to May period. In positive AO years, during the preceding spring to summer period, anomalous cyclone and anomalous anticyclone were strongly developed at low and middle latitudes, respectively. Because of such a distribution of pressure system, in Taiwan, Korea, and Japan during the positive AO years, anomalous southeasterlies, which play the role of anomalous steering flows in transferring TCs to these regions, were strengthened. On the other hand, in southern China and the Indochina Peninsula during the positive AO years, anomalous northwesterlies, which prevent the transfer of TCs to these regions, were strengthened. Moreover, such a distribution of pressure system strengthening during the positive AO years led TCs to occur, move, and recurve more eastward in the western North Pacific in positive AO years as compared with the negative AO years. Contrarily, during the negative AO years, TCs showed the tendency to pass over the South China Sea from the Philippines and move west toward southern China and the Indochina Peninsula. Eventually, the intensity of TCs in these years was lower than that of TCs in positive AO years due to the topographic effects from a high TC passage frequency in mainland China.

Choi, Ki-Seon; Cha, Yu-Mi; Kang, Sung-Dae; Kim, Hae-Dong; Kim, Baek-Jo

2014-05-01

377

Ground motion directionality in the 20102011 Canterbury earthquakes  

E-print Network

Ground motion directionality in the 2010­2011 Canterbury earthquakes Brendon A. Bradley1 of ground motions in the Christchurch urban area during the 2010­2011 Canterbury, New Zealand earthquakes. A dataset of ground motions recorded at 20 strong motion stations over 10 different earthquake events

Baker, Jack W.

378

Origins and founder effects on the Japanese masked palm civet Paguma larvata (Viverridae, Carnivora), revealed from a comparison with its molecular phylogeography in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The source areas of the Japanese populations of the masked palm civet Paguma larvata (Viverridae, Carnivora), an alien species in Japan, have not been identified. In the present study, to reveal their origins and genetic features, we determined the full mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b sequences (1,140 base-pairs) of a total of 206 individuals of P. larvata from the Honshu and Shikoku islands of Japan (186 animals) and Taiwan (20 animals), and investigated their molecular phylogeography and the genetic relationships between populations in these countries. We found that each animal from Japan exhibited one of four haplotypes (JA1, JA2, JA4, and JA5), and that JA1 and JA4 were more frequent in eastern Honshu and Shikoku-central Honshu, respectively. By contrast, six haplotypes consisting of four new types (TW1, TW2, TW3, and TW4) and the previously reported two types (JA1 and JA4) were identified from 20 animals from native populations in Taiwan. Within Taiwan, one haplotype set (JA1, TW1, and TW2) was distributed in the western region, while a second (JA4, TW3, and TW4) was found in the eastern region; these regions are separated by high mountain ranges. Our comparison of haplotype distributions strongly demonstrated that the eastern Japanese populations originated from animals of western Taiwan, and that the western Japanese populations originated from those of eastern Taiwan. In addition, the lower genetic variability and particular distribution patterns of haplotypes in Japan showed founder effects, which may have resulted from multiple introductions of P. larvata to Japan from Taiwan. PMID:20528157

Masuda, Ryuichi; Lin, Liang-Kong; Pei, Kurtis Jai-Chyi; Chen, Yen-Jean; Chang, Shih-Wei; Kaneko, Yayoi; Yamazaki, Koji; Anezaki, Tomoko; Yachimori, Shuuji; Oshida, Tatsuo

2010-06-01

379

Characteristics and management of infectious industrial waste in Taiwan  

SciTech Connect

Infectious industrial waste management in Taiwan is based on the specific waste production unit. In other countries, management is based simply on whether the producer may lead to infectious disease. Thus, Taiwan has a more detailed classification of infectious waste. The advantage of this classification is that it is easy to identify the sources, while the disadvantage lies in the fact that it is not flexible and hence increases cost. This study presents an overview of current management practices for handling infectious industrial waste in Taiwan, and addresses the current waste disposal methods. The number of small clinics in Taiwan increased from 18,183 to 18,877 between 2003 and 2005. Analysis of the data between 2003 and 2005 showed that the majority of medical waste was general industrial waste, which accounted for 76.9%-79.4% of total medical waste. Infectious industrial waste accounted for 19.3%-21.9% of total medical waste. After the SARS event in Taiwan, the amount of infectious waste reached 19,350 tons in 2004, an increase over the previous year of 4000 tons. Waste minimization was a common consideration for all types of waste treatment. In this study, we summarize the percentage of plastic waste in flammable infectious industrial waste generated by medical units, which, in Taiwan was about 30%. The EPA and Taiwan Department of Health have actively promoted different recycling and waste reduction measures. However, the wide adoption of disposable materials made recycling and waste reduction difficult for some hospitals. It has been suggested that enhancing the education of and promoting communication between medical units and recycling industries must be implemented to prevent recyclable waste from entering the incinerator.

Huang, M.-C. [Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, No. 2, Jhuoyue Road, Nanzih District, Nanzih, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: u9315915@ccms.nkfust.edu.tw; Lin, Jim Juimin [Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, No. 2, Jhuoyue Road, Nanzih District, Nanzih, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China)

2008-11-15

380

Recycling and reuse of industrial wastes in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Eighteen million metric tons of industrial wastes are produced every year in Taiwan. In order to properly handle the industrial wastes, the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (Taiwan EPA) has set up strategic programs that include establishment of storage, treatment, and final disposal systems, establishment of a management center for industrial wastes, and promotion of recycling and reuse of industrial wastes. The Taiwan EPA has been actively promoting the recycling and reuse of industrial wastes over the years. In July 1995 the Taiwan EPA amended and promulgated the Criteria for the Industrial Waste Storage, Collection and Processing Facility, July, 1995 that added articles related to general industrial waste recycling and reuse. In June 1996 the Taiwan EPA promulgated the Non-listed General Industrial Waste Reuse Application Procedures, June, 1996, followed by the Regulations Governing the Permitting of Hazardous Industrial Waste Reuse, June 1996, setting up a full regulatory framework for governing industrial waste reuse. To broaden the recycling and reuse of general industrial wastes, the Taiwan EPA has listed 14 industrial waste items for recycling and reuse, including waste paper, waste iron, coal ash, tempered high furnace bricks (cinder), high furnace bricks (cinder), furnace transfer bricks (cinder), sweetening dregs, wood (whole/part), glass (whole/part), bleaching earth, ceramics (pottery, brick, tile and cast sand), individual metal scraps (copper, zinc, aluminum and tin), distillery grain (dregs) and plastics. As of June 1999, 99 applications for reuse of industrial wastes had been approved with 1.97 million metric tons of industrial wastes being reused. PMID:11150138

Wei, M S; Huang, K H

2001-01-01

381

Lead content in human scalp hair of rural and urban residents in Taiwan  

SciTech Connect

In the last three decades, vehicular traffic has increased drastically in Taiwan, from 50 thousand registered motor vehicles in 1967 to over 5 million at present. Although the lead content of leaded gasoline produced in Taiwan was reduced from 0.56 g/L to 0.12 g/L between 1982 and 1988, half of these vehicles still use leaded gasoline. It is one of the major sources of lead contamination in the ambient air and dust in the city. The suitability of hair analysis as a means of screening for heavy metal exposure and heavy-metal poisoning is well documented. Numerous investigations worldwide have shown that hair lead concentrations are strongly correlated with the lead concentrations of other organs in the body. Hair presents an advantage from the sampling point of view because it is easily obtained, stored and analyzed. It also concentrates more lead per unit weight than any other tissue or body fluid. It has been estimated that for healthy persons, the lead concentration in hair may be 2-5 times higher than that in bone, 10-50 times than that of blood and from 100-500 times higher than in urine. The determination of trace elements in human scalp hair has become an accepted adjuvant to the more traditional blood and urine analyses for identifying systemic heavy metal intoxication. In this study, the concentrations of lead were measured in hair from an urban and a rural population in Taiwan. The levels and distributions of lead between rural and urban residents were compared. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Cheng, P.C.; Saito, S.; Kojima, Y. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)] [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)

1996-12-01

382

The development and prospects of the end-of-life vehicle recycling system in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Automobiles usually contain toxic substances, such as lubricants, acid solutions and coolants. Therefore, inappropriate handling of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) will result in environmental pollution. ELV parts, which include metallic and non-metallic substances, are increasingly gaining recycling value due to the recent global shortage of raw materials. Hence, the establishment of a proper recycling system for ELVs will not only reduce the impact on the environment during the recycling process, but it will also facilitate the effective reuse of recycled resources. Prior to 1994, the recycling of ELVs in Taiwan was performed by related operators in the industry. Since the publishing of the "End-of-life vehicle recycling guidelines" under the authority of the Waste Disposal Act by the Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) in 1994, the recycling of ELVs in Taiwan has gradually become systematic. Subsequently, the Recycling Fund Management Board (RFMB) of the EPA was established in 1998 to collect a Collection-Disposal-Treatment Fee (recycling fee) from responsible enterprises for recycling and related tasks. Since then, the recycling channels, processing equipment, and techniques for ELVs in Taiwan have gradually become established. This paper reviews the establishment of the ELV recycling system, analyzes the current system and its performance, and provides some recommendations for future development. The reduction of auto shredder residue (ASR) is a key factor in maximizing the resource recovery rate and recycling efficiency. The RFMB needs to provide strong economic incentives to further increase the recycling rate and to encourage the automobile industry to design and market greener cars. PMID:20382516

Chen, Kuan-chung; Huang, Shih-han; Lian, I-wei

2010-01-01

383

High-resolution seafloor features related to potential gas-hydrate formation off SW Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The area off SW Taiwan is considered as a high potential area for gas-hydrate formation. The gas-hydrate signature is indicated by the abundant presence of BSR (Bottom-Simulating-Reflector). High methane concentration is also shown in the bottom water near the seafloor. To have a better understanding, we have conducted deep-towed survey of side-scan sonar and sub-bottom profiler in several potential areas. Pockmarks are found in several places. Some are related to gas seeping. The gas seeps are especially obvious in high-resolution sub-bottom profilers. The high pore-pressure due to the charging of the gas has clearly uplifted a top layer of sediments. The pockmarks area usually accompany the presence of authigenic carbonate. In the image of side-scan sonar data, the irregular patterns of strong backscatter signal are associated with the gas seeping or pockmark sites. The presence of pockmarks or gas seeps could be related to structural faults. Because the NW convergence of the Philippine Sea plate relative to the Eurasian plate, the area off SW Taiwan in fact is under compression and has caused folds and faults. These structural faults provide efficient conduits for fluid to migrate upward. Thus, the pockmarks frequently appear near faults. In the water depth of about 450m, the upward gas even goes into water column and creates clear gas plume image in EK 500 data. The gas is inferred to be dissociated from gas-hydrate and can get into the atmosphere. The dissociation of gas-hydrate has probably also induced the instability of the seafloor off SW Taiwan and cuased submarine landslides.

Hsu, S.; Tsai, C.; Chen, S.; Shih, T.

2010-12-01

384

Brownian Motion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the phenomenon of Brownian motion, which serves as a mathematical model for random processes. Topics addressed include kinetic theory, Einstein's theory, particle displacement, and others. Points out that observations of the random course of a particle suspended in fluid led to the first accurate measurement of atomic mass. (DH)

Lavenda, Bernard H.

1985-01-01

385

Spring Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Lang Moore and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purposes of this module are to investigate a mathematical model for spring motion and to study the effect of increased damping. This is one within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Moore, Lang

386

75 FR 22842 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Final)] Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam Determinations...Vietnam of polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs), provided for in subheading...entitled Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Indonesia, Taiwan, and...

2010-04-30

387

78 FR 52213 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam: Determinations...Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam of certain oil...subsidized by the Governments of India and...

2013-08-22

388

78 FR 41421 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam; Institution...Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam of certain oil...subsidized by the Governments of India and Turkey. Unless the Department of Commerce...

2013-07-10

389

76 FR 38691 - Certain Pipe and Tube From Brazil, India, Korea, Mexico, Taiwan, Thailand, and Turkey  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Korea, Mexico, Taiwan, Thailand, and Turkey Institution of five-year review concerning...welded carbon steel pipe and tube from Turkey and the antidumping duty orders on certain...Korea, Mexico, Taiwan, Thailand, and Turkey. AGENCY: United States...

2011-07-01

390

77 FR 14342 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Correction to Notice of Opportunity To Request Administrative Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Trade Administration [A-583-841] Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Correction to Notice of Opportunity...administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyvinyl alcohol from Taiwan. See Antidumping or Countervailing...

2012-03-09

391

69 FR 17235 - Certain Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Canada, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Belgium, Canada, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan AGENCY: United States...Belgium, Canada, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan...plate from Belgium, Italy, and South Africa and/or the revocation of...

2004-04-01

392

Seismogenic patterns in the Taiwan region: insights from source parameter inversion of BATS data  

E-print Network

Seismogenic patterns in the Taiwan region: insights from source parameter inversion of BATS data by the newly established Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology (BATS). The results are utilized to delineate

Lin, Andrew Tien-Shun

393

Synchrotron radiation in strongly coupled conformal field theories  

E-print Network

Using gauge/gravity duality, we compute the energy density and angular distribution of the power radiated by a quark undergoing circular motion in strongly coupled N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. We compare the strong ...

Athanasiou, Christiana

394

Reflections on internationalisation of higher education in Taiwan: perspectives and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to investigate the possible framework for encouraging the presence of local dimensions in an internationalised\\u000a and globally competitive system by using Taiwan’s higher education system as a case. It begins by discussing the notion of\\u000a internationalisation and its implications for higher education. It then turns to look at Taiwan’s responses to these global\\u000a developments. It also reviews

William Yat Wai Lo

2009-01-01

395

Human freshwater demand for economic activity and ecosystems in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Freshwater is necessary to economic activity, and humans depend on goods and services generated by water-dependent ecosystems. However, national freshwater management usually focuses on direct use of domestic freshwater. With an increasing scarcity of freshwater, attention has turned to two indirect uses of freshwater by humans. The first indirect use is freshwater used by foreign countries when producing products for export. The second use is freshwater required by local ecosystems: human survival and development depend on goods and services generated in these ecosystems. This work adopted Taiwan as a case study. In addition to two widely recognized ecosystem freshwater demands, evapotranspiration and reversed river flow, this study suggests that freshwater is a constituent of some abiotic components, such as groundwater in aquifers, because excessive withdrawal has already caused significant land subsidence in Taiwan. Moreover, the estimated results show that Taiwan's net imports of freshwater through trade amounts to approximately 25% of its total freshwater use for economic production. Integrating industrial policy, trade policy, and national freshwater management is a useful approach for developing strategies to limit the growing use of freshwater in Taiwan. Policy implications are then developed by further analyzing withdrawal sources of freshwater (domestic and foreign) for supporting economic production in Taiwan and identifying the factors (domestic final demand and export) driving freshwater-intensive products. PMID:17899249

Ferng, Jiun-Jiun

2007-12-01

396

78 FR 67113 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India and Taiwan: Preliminary Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India and Taiwan: Preliminary Results of the...Sheet and Strip (``PET Film'') from India and Taiwan. The Department determined...antidumping duty orders on PET Film from India and Taiwan were published on July 1,...

2013-11-08

397

An Island of Learning: Academeocracy in Taiwan. An Inquiry into Non-Traditional and Traditional Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional and nontraditional education in Taiwan are considered, based on interviews with educators and scholars in Taiwan, observations, and research materials. To provide a picture of the evolution of academe in the Chinese-Taiwan setting, attention is directed to philosophy, history, academic ethics and excellence, methodology, and policy…

Smith, Douglas C.

398

Internet Service Cognition and Use, and Their Promotion of Quality of Life in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "e-Taiwan Program" implemented by Taiwan government is aimed at showing the e-advantage in people's life and bring about essential benefits. This research follows the e-Life indicators of the Quality of Life measurement system developed by "e-Taiwan Program", which including four major dimensions of e-Daily Life, e-Business, e-Government,…

Liang, Te-Hsin

2011-01-01

399

Structural, geodetic and seismological evidence for tectonic escape in SW Taiwan  

E-print Network

Structural, geodetic and seismological evidence for tectonic escape in SW Taiwan O. Lacombe*, F author. E-mail address: lacombe@lgs.jussieu.fr (O. Lacombe). #12;active Taiwan collision to lithospheric scales, allowing improved geodynamic models of the Taiwan collision O. Lacombe et al

Lin, Andrew Tien-Shun

400

Possible stress states adjacent to the rupture zone of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake  

E-print Network

is the largest earthquake ever recorded inland Taiwan (e.g., Chang et al., 2007; Ji et al., 2001, 2003; ShinPossible stress states adjacent to the rupture zone of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake Chung TCDP Chi-Chi earthquake Taiwan We explore regional stress states in the vicinity of the rupture area

Wu, Yih-Min

401

Academocracy: A Critical Analysis of Higher, Adult and Non-traditional Education in Contemporary Taiwan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional and non-traditional educational systems in Taiwan are examined. Section one, "The Confucian Continuum," includes the first seven chapters which discuss Terra Incognita, the intellectual continuum-Chinese educational philosophy, John Dewey, traditional education in Taiwan, academocracy in Taiwan, the Ta-Yuan Hsiang's Community Education…

Smith, Douglas C.

402

Bond Price Volatility c2012 Prof. Yuh-Dauh Lyuu, National Taiwan University Page 75  

E-print Network

Bond Price Volatility c2012 Prof. Yuh-Dauh Lyuu, National Taiwan University Page 75 #12;"Well Taiwan University Page 76 #12;Price Volatility · Volatility measures how bond prices respond to interest-coupon bonds here. c2012 Prof. Yuh-Dauh Lyuu, National Taiwan University Page 77 #12;Price Volatility

Lyuu, Yuh-Dauh

403

Bond Price Volatility c 2011 Prof. Yuh-Dauh Lyuu, National Taiwan University Page 74  

E-print Network

Bond Price Volatility c 2011 Prof. Yuh-Dauh Lyuu, National Taiwan University Page 74 #12;"Well Taiwan University Page 75 #12;Price Volatility · Volatility measures how bond prices respond to interest-coupon bonds throughout. c 2011 Prof. Yuh-Dauh Lyuu, National Taiwan University Page 76 #12;Price Volatility

Lyuu, Yuh-Dauh

404

Bond Price Volatility c 2008 Prof. Yuh-Dauh Lyuu, National Taiwan University Page 71  

E-print Network

Bond Price Volatility c 2008 Prof. Yuh-Dauh Lyuu, National Taiwan University Page 71 #12;"Well Taiwan University Page 72 #12;Price Volatility · Volatility measures how bond prices respond to interest-coupon bonds throughout. c 2008 Prof. Yuh-Dauh Lyuu, National Taiwan University Page 73 #12;Price Volatility

Lyuu, Yuh-Dauh

405

New insights on 3-D plates interaction near Taiwan from tomography and tectonic implications  

E-print Network

New insights on 3-D plates interaction near Taiwan from tomography and tectonic implications Serge trenches, respectively. In particular, the 3-D plates interaction beneath Taiwan is discussed based of Hualien, (2) the Eurasian plate subducts beneath most part of the Taiwan island down to the 670 km

Demouchy, Sylvie

406

Morphotectonics and incision of the Kaoping submarine canyon, SW Taiwan orogenic wedge  

E-print Network

Morphotectonics and incision of the Kaoping submarine canyon, SW Taiwan orogenic wedge Cheng February 2006 Available online 24 March 2006 Abstract The Kaoping submarine canyon developed on the frontal; Incision; Submarine canyon; Taiwan 1. Introduction 1.1. Geological settings The island of Taiwan is located

Lin, Andrew Tien-Shun

407

A Comparative Study of the Presidential Records Management between Taiwan and Korea  

E-print Network

69 A Comparative Study of the Presidential Records Management between Taiwan and Korea Yu political and historical development of Taiwan and of Korea. The management of presidential records countries. Through a comparison of the presidential records management between Taiwan and Korea

Wu, Yih-Min

408

Hazardous workplace review program in Taiwan.  

PubMed

In Taiwan, relevant mid-term plans and projects of mitigating occupational hazards have been launched in recent years in the hopes of lowering the incidence of occupational hazards. In light of the lack of objective methodologies for researches on issues pertaining occupational safety and health, this research aims to explore the priorities of safety and health issues through focal groups, expert questionnaires and interviews on relevant issues such as hazard installations identified in R181 Prevention of Major Industrial Accidents Recommendation, 1993 proposed during the 18th World Congress on Safety and Health at work in Seoul 2008. Results revealed that distribute reports of major domestic/foreign occupational disasters to relevant sectors for the prevention of major accidents is needed, both from the importance and feasibility analysis. It is the only topic that scored over 4 points in average for expert and focal group consensus. Furthermore, the experts and focal groups came to consensus in the ranking of priority for 4 items, namely: 1) Installations containing/using large quantities of hazardous materials should be prioritized for inspection, 2) Incorporation of hazard installation review/inspection into OSH management system accreditation, 3) Impose operation shutdown as a means of penalty) and 4) Prioritize the promotion of preliminary PHA. PMID:23648770

Chang, Yi-Kuo; Chuang, Kuen-Yuan; Tseng, Jo-Ming; Lin, Fang-Chen; Su, Teh-Sheng

2013-01-01

409

Modeling the Impacts of Cetacean-Focused Tourism in Taiwan: Observations from Cetacean Watching Boats: 2002-2005  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cetacean-focused tourism in Taiwan has grown rapidly since 1997. This development, measured in terms of both number of tour boats and visitors, has resulted in many resource management challenges stemming from the absence of regulation and scientific data. To fill this void in empirical evidence, we used 464 sighting records from 2002 to 2005 to model the impact of cetacean-focused tourism. Cox proportional hazard analysis indicated cetacean avoidance responses to cetacean watching boats were strongly associated with pod size, mother-calf pairs, and cetacean-vessel distances. Mother-calf pairs abandoned their avoidance tactic by 55% compared to noncalf groups when tour boats approached. Second, the hazard ratio of abundance was 0.996, suggesting that the odds of encountering avoidance responses by the cetaceans decreased by 42% for every 100-member increase in the cetacean pod size. Last, distances maintained by boats from the cetaceans was positively related to avoidance responses (i.e., less avoidance behavior with closer interaction). Based on our findings, we have the following recommendations: (a) limit vessels from approaching mothers with calves, (b) limit vessels from approaching small groups of cetaceans, (c) reduced avoidance behavior to boat traffic may be a red flag for potential long-term disturbance, and (d) apply the "precautionary principle" based on the best scientific information available in cetacean-based tourism in Taiwan. These recommendations will help contribute to the sustainable development of cetacean-focused tourism in Taiwan.

Tseng, Yung-Ping; Huang, Yu-Chin; Kyle, Gerard T.; Yang, Ming-Ching

2011-01-01

410

Spectral Amplification Factors of Long-Period (3 to 10 s) Strong Ground Motions in and around the Los Angeles Basin during the Mw7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake of April 4, 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluated spectral amplification factors of long-period ground motions (3 to 10 s) in the Los Angeles (LA) basin by computing Fourier spectral ratios of the basin sites with respect to the surrounding reference hard-rock sites from the Mw7.2 April 4, 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake records and presented period-specific (4, 6, 8 and 10 s) maps of amplification factors for the long periods. This earthquake was the first event providing many (236) high-quality recordings to study spatial variation of long-period amplification in the LA basin. We also tried numerical wave propagation simulations for two of the recent 3D seismic-velocity models for south California: SCEC (Southern California Earthquake Center) CVM (Community Velocity Model)-4.0 and CVM-H 6.2 to examine how these models account for the observed long-period amplification factors. Comparison of the period-specific maps of amplification factors between the observation and the simulation for the two velocity models shows that both CVM-4.0 and CVM-H 6.2 can roughly reproduce the observed amplification factors with the period range of 8 to 10 s in the LA basin. Concerning the shorter-period range (4 to 6 s), however, both of the two models leave more to be improved so that the observed amplification factors can be better simulated. We also find that CVM-4.0 has an advantage over CVM-H 6.2 in terms of the south-eastern part of the LA basin, because CVM-H 6.2 indicates non-observed large amplification there, while CVM-4.0 does not indicate the false amplification. For the period of 10 s, the largest amplification factor of about 5 was observed in the central part of the LA basin, which is well simulated in terms of good agreements between the observed and the simulated amplification factors. The simulation from the two velocity models also indicates the large amplification even in the San Gabriel (SG) valley, which disagrees with the observation. For 8 s, larger amplification factors of about 5 were observed not only in the central part of the LA basin but also in the SG valley, which are also well simulated by both of the two models. The CVM-H 6.2 simulation undershoots the observation in the western part of the LA basin, while CVM-4.0 can almost reproduce it. For 6 s, the largest amplification is observed in the western part of the basin (Manhattan Beach), although the amplification in the central part is also large. Around Manhattan Beach, the ground motions with this period are amplified by a factor of 10. There is significant discrepancy between the observation and the simulation for the two models in terms of the places where the largest amplification occurs. For the period of 4 s, the largest amplification factor of about 8 occurs in the central part of the LA basin. Again, the spatial pattern of amplification is basically failed to simulate by either of the two models.

Hatayama, K.; Kalkan, E.

2012-12-01

411

Sequence Variants of ADIPOQ and Association with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Taiwan Chinese Han Population  

PubMed Central

Diabetes is a serious global health problem. Large-scale genome-wide association studies identified loci for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), including adiponectin (ADIPOQ) gene and transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2), but few studies clarified the effect of genetic polymorphisms of ADIPOQ and TCF7L2 on risk of T2DM. We attempted to elucidate association between T2DM and polymorphic variations of both in Taiwan's Chinese Han population, with our retrospective case-control study genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ADIPOQ and TCF7L2 genes both in 149 T2DM patients and in 139 healthy controls from Taiwan. Statistical analysis gauged association of these polymorphisms with risk of T2DM to show ADIPOQ rs1501299 polymorphism variations strongly correlated with T2DM risk (P = 0.042), with rs2241766 polymorphism being not associated with T2DM (P = 0.967). However, both polymorphisms rs7903146 and rs12255372 of TCF7L2 were rarely detected in Taiwanese people. This study avers that ADIPOQ rs1501299 polymorphism contributes to risk of T2DM in the Taiwanese population. PMID:25121131

Tsai, Ming-Kai; Wang, Hui-Min David; Shiang, Jeng-Chuan; Chen, I-Hung; Wang, Chih-Chiang; Shiao, Ya-Fen; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Lin, Tai-Jung; Chen, Tsung-Ming; Chen, Ya-Huey

2014-01-01

412

Constraints on current crustal deformation of the Taiwan plate boundary from CGPS strain rate field and focal mechanism stress inversions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many studies using the continuous GPS (CGPS) observations and forward modeling to represent the current crustal deformation around the global plate boundaries. However, the relation between surface geodetic data and crustal deformation is still a major debate since there are only few available data at depth for constraints. In this study, 3D spatial variations of interseismic surface strain rate and crustal stress state in Taiwan are evaluated by using both CGPS data and earthquake focal mechanisms from 1994 to 2010 and 1991 to 2010, respectively. We estimated strain rate with a simple approach that solves for surface velocity on a 0.1 x 0.1° grid while weighting the distance between observations and each grid node. The surface velocities used in this study are after the process of removing the coseismic and postseismic effects caused by local main shocks. We applied the genetic algorithm in a nonlinear global search for the focal mechanism solution determination with magnitude ranging from ML 1.6 to 7.3 by first motion polarities of P waves. Earthquakes were excluded the redundant aftershock sequences which perturbed the estimation of interseismic stress state. There are 7083 events determined around Taiwan for performing a stress tensor inversion. In the comparison of orientations between strain rate and stress axes, we found the regional variation of stress orientations from surface to the base of crust is significant and not homogenous in Taiwan. In general, the orientations of strain rate and stress axes are consistent from surface to 20 km depth in most of Taiwan regimes. We suggest that the common decoupling phenomenon between both axes starts from 20 km implying a rheological change. The consistency of orientations from strain rate and stress field extends from surface down to more than 30 km in Central Taiwan and southern Coastal Range (COR) could be associated with stress accumulation in the crust for the 1999 Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi and 2003 Mw 6.8 Chengkung earthquakes. Some of regions without consistency of strain rate and stress axes, it may cause by the worse data constraint or the complex of regional structures.

Chen, K.; Wu, Y.; Hsu, Y.; Chan, Y.

2013-12-01

413

U.S.-China Relations after Resolution of Taiwan's Status  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The question of Taiwan's status in the political economy of East Asia has been one that has bedeviled policy experts, government leaders, and others for six decades. Recently, the RAND Corporation crafted this 40-page report on behalf of the United States Air Force "to assess the nature of U.S.-China relations after the resolution of Taiwan's status." The document begins by identifying the principal pathways by which Taiwan's status might be resolved and also examines the consequences for relations between China and the United States. The report is divided into three chapters which deal with near-term prospects, longer-term possibilities, and a set of final observations. Finally, the report concludes with a complete bibliography and several helpful tables.

Cliff, Roger; Shlapak, David A.

2007-01-01

414

RT-PCR amplification and sequence analysis of extra small virus associated with white tail disease of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) cultured in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Post-larvae of Macrobrachium rosenbergii infected with white tail disease (WTD) have been reported in Taiwan. The causative agents have been identified as M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) associated with extra small virus (XSV). The present study is the first report confirming the presence of XSV virus in M. rosenbergii displaying WTD symptoms in Taiwan by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A 772 bp amplified product was obtained by RT-PCR, cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence analysis of the 772 bp DNA fragment revealed 98% and 97% identity with XSV isolated from China and India, respectively. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of the XSV partial genome showed strong homology (99% and 97%) with isolates from China and India. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the XSV-Taiwan isolate was more closely related to the Chinese rather than the Indian isolates. The results demonstrated the presence of XSV virus co-infection in M. rosenbergii cultured in Taiwan suffering from WTD. PMID:17352787

Wang, C S; Chang, J S; Shih, H H; Chen, S N

2007-03-01

415