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1

Seroprevalence and Incidence of Toxoplasma gondii among Apparently Healthy and Visually or Hearing Disabled Children in Taiz City, Yemen  

PubMed Central

This cross sectional study was conducted in the city of Taiz, Yemen, during the period from August 2006 to August 2007 in order to investigate the seroprevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis among apparently healthy children (AHC) and visually and/or hearing disabled children (DC). The seroprevalence was 16.0% among AHC compared to 32.5% among DC. The effect of gender was clear as the seroprevalence rate was significantly higher among females (18.3 and 43.8% for AHC and DC, respectively) than males (13.8 and 25% for AHC and DC, respectively). The seroprevalence was proportionally increased with the age, and the highest rates (20.9 and 53.0%) were reported among the oldest age group (> 10-14 years) for AHC and DC groups, respectively. The incidence rate was also higher (4.2%) in DC group compared to AHC group (2.4%) during 1 year period. These data indicate that the seroprevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis are significantly higher in DC group than those of AHC group. We need to check further relationship between toxoplasmosis and visual and/or hearing disability.

Saleh, Madha Mohammed Sheet; Qaed, Abeer Ahmed

2010-01-01

2

Seroprevalence and incidence of Toxoplasma gondii among apparently healthy and visually or hearing disabled children in Taiz City, Yemen.  

PubMed

This cross sectional study was conducted in the city of Taiz, Yemen, during the period from August 2006 to August 2007 in order to investigate the seroprevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis among apparently healthy children (AHC) and visually and/or hearing disabled children (DC). The seroprevalence was 16.0% among AHC compared to 32.5% among DC. The effect of gender was clear as the seroprevalence rate was significantly higher among females (18.3 and 43.8% for AHC and DC, respectively) than males (13.8 and 25% for AHC and DC, respectively). The seroprevalence was proportionally increased with the age, and the highest rates (20.9 and 53.0%) were reported among the oldest age group (> 10-14 years) for AHC and DC groups, respectively. The incidence rate was also higher (4.2%) in DC group compared to AHC group (2.4%) during 1 year period. These data indicate that the seroprevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis are significantly higher in DC group than those of AHC group. We need to check further relationship between toxoplasmosis and visual and/or hearing disability. PMID:20333289

Saleh, Madha Mohammed Sheet; AL-Shamiri, Adam Hezam; Qaed, Abeer Ahmed

2010-03-18

3

The Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Children, Taiz District, Yemen  

PubMed Central

Background This is the first work done on cryptosporidiosis among the children in Taiz, Yemen. Methods A number of 712 samples were collected from children of different ages (ranging from 1 month to 12 years) from Dec 2006 to Aug 2007. The collected samples were examined by Sheather's sugar floatation and Modified Ziehl- Neelsen stain as well as ELISA methods. The test results were statistically analyzed by SPSS software. Results The overall positive percentage was 43.7%. The higher incidence (36.2%) was occurred in males while the lowest incidence (32.7%) was observed in females (r=0.876; P=0.001). The correlation between infected cases and the type of drinking water was r =0.121. Among the cases examined by ELISA (92 cases), 26.1% were infected. The correlation between seropositivity and gender was r=0.652 (P=0.031). Conclusion Cryptosporidium spp. is a significant pathogen among children at Taiz. Fresh water supplies, education, eating habits and domestic animals are considered the main sources for transmission of cryptosporidiosis.

Al-Shamiri, AH; Al-Zubairy, AH; Al-Mamari, RF

2010-01-01

4

A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF WIND SPEED DATA AND AN ASSESSMENT OF WIND ENERGY POTENTIAL IN TAIZ-YEMEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yemen possesses a very good potential of renewable energy, such as solar and wind energy. Wind energy is an alternative clean energy source compared to fossil fuel, which pollute the lower layer of the atmosphere. In this study, statistical methods are used to analyze the wind speed data of Taiz in the southwest of Yemen. Wind speed is the most

Mahyoub H. Al Buhairi

5

A medical evaluation of the use of qat in North Yemen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data presented in this paper examine the frequent statements that the regular use of the drug qat by the people of North Yemen is harmful to their health. The research strategy employed performance of blind physical examinations as well as extensive interviews with 335 females and 371 males in and around the cities of Sanaa, Taiz and Hodeida who

John G. Kennedy; James Teague; William Rokaw; Elizabeth Cooney

1983-01-01

6

Ocular Complications of Leprosy in Yemen  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study was conducted to identify the main ocular- and vision-threatening complications of leprosy in Yemen. Methods: This is a cross-sectional observational study which took place from February to July 2010. Leprosy patients attending the Skin and Venereal Diseases Hospital in the City of Light in Taiz, Yemen, who consented to participate in the study, were enrolled. Detailed demographic and medical histories were taken and clinical examination findings were recorded. A detailed eye examination, including visual acuity (VA), slit-lamp, and fundus examinations, was conducted on each patient by a qualified ophthalmologist. Results: A total of 192 patients (180 male, 12 female, with a male to female ratio of 15:1) were included in the study. The majority of the patients (157; 81.8%) were over 40 years. Over two-thirds of the patients (129; 67.2%) had had leprosy for more than 20 years. Ocular complications were found in 97% of cases; 150 (39.1%) of the patients’ eyes had at least one pathology. Eyelid involvement was the most common problem observed in 102 (26.5%) patients. Half of the eyes (192; 50%) had a VA of <6/60. The main cause of blindness among these patients was corneal opacity detected in 69 out of 192 patients (35.9%). Conclusion: Ocular complications are frequent among leprosy patients in Yemen. They are true vision-threatening lesions. It is important to prevent these lesions through early diagnosis and adequate treatment.

Salem, Raga A. A.

2012-01-01

7

Seroepidemiological Survey of Viral Hepatitis in the Yemen Arab Republic. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During February 1988 a seroepidemiological survey of hepatitis A, B and D was performed in the Yemen Arab Republic. 879 sera were collected from 4 different areas: Sanaa, Hajja, Hodeidah and Taiz. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was ...

D. A. Scott J. P. Burans H. D. Al-Ouzeib B. K. Arunkumar M. Al-Fadeel

1990-01-01

8

Factors Associated with High Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoan Infections among Patients in Sana'a City, Yemen  

PubMed Central

Background Intestinal protozoan diseases in Yemen are a significant health problem with prevalence ranging from 18% to 27%. The present study is a cross-sectional study aimed at determining the factors associated with the high prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among patients seeking health care in Sana'a City, the capital of Yemen. Methodology/Principal Findings Stool samples were collected from 503 patients aged between 1 and 80 years old; 219 were males and 284 females. Biodata were collected via pretested standard questionnaire. Faecal samples were processed and examined for (oo)cysts or ova using a wet mount preparation after formal-ether concentration technique. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected using the Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. The overall prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections was 30.9%. Infection rates of Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Cryptosporidium were 17.7%, 17.1% and 1%, respectively. Other parasites detected included Ascaris lumbricoides (2.4%), Schistosoma mansoni (0.3%), Hymenolepis nana (1.4%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.4%). Multivariate analysis using forward stepwise logistic regression based on intestinal protozoan infections showed that contact with animals (OR?=?1.748, 95% CI?=?1.168–2.617) and taking bath less than twice a week (OR?=?1.820, 95% CI?=?1.192–2.779) were significant risk factors of protozoan infections. Conclusions/Significance This present study indicated that intestinal protozoan infections are still a public health problem in Yemen, with Giardia and Entamoeba infections being most common. Statistical analysis indicated that low personal hygiene and contact with animals were important predictors for intestinal protozoan infections. As highlighted in this study, in order to effectively reduce these infections, a multi-sectoral effort is needed. Preventive measures should include good hygienic practices, good animal husbandry practices, heightened provision of educational health programs, health services in all governorates including rural areas. Furthermore, it is also essential to find radical solutions to the recent water crises in Yemen.

Alyousefi, Naelah A.; Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.; Mahmud, Rohela; Lim, Yvonne A. L.

2011-01-01

9

A medical evaluation of the use of qat in North Yemen.  

PubMed

The data presented in this paper examine the frequent statements that the regular use of the drug qat by the people of North Yemen is harmful to their health. The research strategy employed performance of blind physical examinations as well as extensive interviews with 335 females and 371 males in and around the cities of Sanaa, Taiz and Hodeida who had been selected using a quota sample. The sample was classified into heavy, light and non-chewers of the qat plant, and systematic comparisons were made. In general, few diseases or conditions occurred with enough frequency to permit detailed analysis and fewer yet were associated with qat-use. Where associations occurred, differences by sex were often strong. Conditions most strongly associated with use by both sexes were histories of gastritis and insomnia, and the general body system groupings of gastrointestinal disorders. In males the strongest associations were with the histories of anorexia, constipation, insomnia and headaches, as well as the general history of respiratory difficulties. In females strong associations were seen between qat-use and the diagnosis of acute gastritis, and histories of jaundice, bronchitis and hepatic diseases. When effects of age and residence were corrected for by Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios on these items, some of the associations were diminished even further. In general, remarkably few of the allegations regarding the direct effects of qat-use on health by Western visitors to Yemen were supported by this study. PMID:6879237

Kennedy, J G; Teague, J; Rokaw, W; Cooney, E

1983-01-01

10

[North] Yemen.  

PubMed

The Yemen Arab Republic, also called North Yemen, is a small republic on the southern tip of the Arabian peninsula facing the Red Sea. Yemen has a temperate interior suitable for agriculture. 8.7 million people of Semetic Arab origin are growing at a rate of 3.1% yearly. The infant mortality rate is 173/1000; the life expectancy is 44 years, and the per capita income is about $550. Yemen was once self-sufficient in food production, exporting fine coffee. Years of civil wars, emigration to Saudi Arabia for work, production of the cash crop "qat" for internal consumption, and the recent drought have contributed to the decline of agriculture. Yemen's economy is maintained by foreign aid from Saudi Arabia, the Soviet Union, China, and the United States. U.S. aid has centered around food, roads and other development projects and primary health care such as immunization and reduction of child mortality. PMID:12177954

1987-11-01

11

Salmonella spp. in patients suffering from enteric fever and food poisoning in Thamar city, Yemen.  

PubMed

Salmonella remains a public health concern around the world, including Yemen although data on its incidence are few. This study determined the incidence of Salmonella infection in 250 enteric fever and 210 food poisoning cases attending Thamar general hospital and Dar Alshafaa medical clinic in 2008. In total, 773 clinical specimens were taken: 250 blood, 187 urine and 336 stool samples. Of the patients with enteric fever and food poisoning, 16.4% and 15.2% respectively were infected with Salmonella. The serovars isolated were: Salmonella Typhi (45.6%), Salmonella Enteritidis (24.4%), Salmonella Paratyphi B (14.4%), Salmonella Typhimurium (13.3%) and Salmonella Paratyphi A (2.2%). The distribution of somatic groups was: D (70%), B (727.7%)) and A (2.2%). None of the isolates was resistant to ciprofloxacin, sparfloxacin, ceftriaxone or moxifloxacin, while 71.1% were resistant to co-trimoxazole, 62.2% to gentamicin, 56.6% to ampicillin and 35.5% to nalidixic acid. PMID:23520911

Taha, R R; Alghalibi, S M; Saeedsaleh, M G

2013-01-01

12

Knowledge, attitudes and practices of barbers regarding hepatitis B and C viral infection in Sana'a city, Yemen.  

PubMed

There is strong evidence that razors, barber's scissors, nail files and body piercing instruments are risk factors for transmission of hepatitis B and C. to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding hepatitis B and C virus among barbers in Sana'a city. KAP study was conducted from July-September 2011. Two hundred and thirty four barbershops were surveyed. Out of 234 barber shops, 73.1% heard about viral hepatitis B and C. The awareness of modes of transmission of hepatitis and the different sources/risk factors were moderate, ranging from 51.6% who knew that hepatitis can be transmitted through sexual transmitted to 82.1% who knew that hepatitis can be transmitted through blood transfusion. 54.9% of barbers did not agree that it was essential to have periodic tests for HBV and HCV; however, 67.5%would themselves like to be tested for these infections. 32% washed their hands before attending each client, 59% cleaned instruments with disinfectant between clients, 96.1% washed razors with tap water before use on a new client, 92.6% also washed their razors with an antiseptic solution after every use, 87% used a new blade on new clients and 55% used disinfectants for skin cuts. In Yemen, a large number of barbers are shaving clients with an old style razor with a permanent blade. There is moderate awareness about the various modes of transmission of hepatitis among the barbers. PMID:22198003

Al-Rabeei, Nabil Ahmed; Al-Thaifani, Abdulhameed Ali; Dallak, Abdulsalam Mohammed

2012-10-01

13

Yemen Arab Republic.  

PubMed

The government of the Yemen Arab Republic does not have a population policy, but promotes family planning for health reasons since one of its goals is to reduce maternal and child mortality and morbidity. The 2nd 5-Year Plan (1982-86) aims for increased gross domestic product and per capita income, regional development, infrastructure development, job creation, and human resources mobilization. The population increased from 4.8 million in 1970 to 5.8 million in 1980 and is projected to reach 6.5 million by 1985 (indicating a 2.4% growth rate from 1980-1985). Life expectancy is 44 years for both sexes; infant mortality now stands at a high 156/1000 due largely to early marriage and little maternal care. The government concentrates on improving health care, mainly through its national health plans, by emphasizing immunization, education, and training doctors abroad. Current total fertility is 6.7, the birth rate is 48.5/1000, and the average age at marriage for girls is 13. Contraceptives and sterilization are available; abortion for contraceptive purposes is illegal. Up to 30% of Yemen's labor force may have emigrated to neighboring Gulf states and Saudi Arabia. The shortage in labor is partially made up by immigrants from the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, but the government still considers emigration too high since many of those who leave are the most skilled. There is no policy on international migration, due to the great value of remittances, but the government would like to encourage return migration. Yemen's urban population increased from 1.9% in 1950 to 15.3% in 1980. 4/5 of the population live in 5 of Yemen's 10 governorates. The government's policy seeks to strengthen the agricultural sector, improve living quality in rural areas, build up a balanced regional infrastructure, and establish more educational opportunities in small cities and villages. PMID:12314236

1985-07-01

14

Characteristics of sickle cell anemia in Yemen.  

PubMed

We studied 136 males and 105 females with sickle cell anemia to determine the characteristics of the disease in Yemen. Their mean age [± SD (standard deviation)] was 12.8 ± 9.5 years (range: 9 months-40 years). Taiz, Hudaydah and Hajjah governorates, in the South-Central and the Northwestern provinces, showed the highest prevalence. Eighty percent of the patients had family history of the disease, 73.0% patients had history of parental consanguinity and 20.7% of death of relative(s) due to the disease; 5.4% patients were older than 30 years of age. Pain, jaundice and infection were the most frequent features. Splenomegaly, cholelithiasis, osteomyelitis, acute chest syndrome (ACS), osteonecrosis and stroke occurred in 12.0, 9.5, 8.7, 6.6, 6.6 and 2.9%, respectively. Priapism and leg ulcers were rare. The mean laboratory values (obtained in the steady state) were: hemoglobin (Hb) 7.9 g/dL, WBC 14.08 × 10(9)/L, platelet 460 × 10(9)/L, reticulocytes 14.5%, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) 597 U/L, Hb F (?2?2) 16.69%, Hb S [?6(A3)Glu?Val, GAG>GTG] 77.31% and Hb A(2) (?2?2) 1.47%, respectively. There was no significant difference between South-Central and Northwestern provinces regarding clinical events and hematological parameters. PMID:23234436

Al-Ghazaly, Jameel; Al-Dubai, Waled; Abdullah, Munasser; Al-Mahagri, Altaf; Al-Gharasi, Leila

2012-12-12

15

Severe malaria in children in Yemen: two site observational study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess the burden of malaria on health services, describe the clinical presentation of severe malaria in children, and identify factors associated with mortality by means of a prospective observational study. Setting Two public hospitals in Taiz (mountain hinterland) and Hodeidah (coastal plain), Yemen. Participants Children aged 6 months to 10 years. Results Of 12 301 paediatric admissions, 2071 (17%) were for suspected severe malaria. The proportion of such admissions varied according to the season (from 1% to 40%). Falciparum malaria was confirmed in 1332 children; 808 had severe disease as defined by the World Health Organization. Main presentations were respiratory distress (322/808, 40%), severe anaemia (291/800, 37%), and cerebral malaria (60/808, 8%). Twenty two of 26 children who died had a neurological presentation. No deaths occurred in children with severe anaemia but no other signs of severity. In multivariate analysis, a Blantyre coma score ? 2, history of fits, female sex, and hyperlactataemia predicted mortality; severe anaemia, respiratory distress, and hyperparasitaemia were not significant predictors of mortality. Conclusions Severe malaria puts a high burden on health services in Yemen. Although presentation is similar to African series, some important differences exist. Case fatality is higher in girls.

Al-Taiar, Abdullah; Jaffar, Shabbar; Assabri, Ali; Al-Habori, Molham; Azazy, Ahmed; Al-Mahdi, Nagiba; Ameen, Khaled; Greenwood, Brian M; Whitty, Christopher J M

2006-01-01

16

First molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium in Yemen.  

PubMed

Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite of humans and animals and has a worldwide distribution. The parasite has a unique epidemiology in Middle Eastern countries where the IId subtype family of Cryptosporidium parvum dominates. However, there has been no information on Cryptosporidium species in Yemen. Thus, this study was conducted in Yemen to examine the distribution of Cryptosporidium species and subtype families. Fecal samples were collected from 335 patients who attended hospitals in Sana'a city. Cryptosporidium species were determined by PCR and sequence analysis of the 18 s rRNA gene. Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis subtypes were identified based on sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene. Out of 335 samples, 33 (9.9%) were positive for Cryptosporidium. Of them, 97% were identified as C. parvum whilst 1 case (3%) was caused by C. hominis. All 7 C. parvum isolates subtyped belonged to the IIaA15G2R1 subtype. The common occurrence of the zoonotic IIa subtype family of C. parvum highlights the potential occurrence of zoonotic transmission of cryptosporidiosis in Yemen. However, this postulation needs confirmation with future molecular epidemiological studies of cryptosporidiosis in both humans and animals in Yemen. PMID:23369243

Alyousefi, N A; Mahdy, M A K; Lim, Y A L; Xiao, L; Mahmud, R

2013-02-01

17

A seroepidemiological survey of viral hepatitis in the Yemen Arab Republic.  

PubMed

During February 1988 a seroepidemiological survey of hepatitis A, B and D was performed in the Yemen Arab Republic. 879 sera were collected from 4 different areas; Sanaa, Hajja, Hodeidah and Taiz. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was 12.7% (112/879) and some marker of hepatitis B infection was found in 45.5% (399/879) of study subjects. Only 2 (1.8%) of the 112 HBsAg positives were positive for antibody to delta hepatitis, and 9.7% (9/93) were positive for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg). Univariate analysis showed age, sex, qat chewing, blood transfusion, surgery and a past history of jaundice to be associated with hepatitis B infection. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis only, age (odds ratios 1.37 for HBsAg carriers and 1.51 for seropositives), a past history of jaundice (odds ratio 1.42), and combined history of blood transfusion and surgery (odds ratio 2.76) were independent predictors of infection. Hepatitis B appears to be a major health concern in the Yemen Arab Republic. PMID:2389323

Scott, D A; Burans, J P; al-Ouzeib, H D; Arunkumar, B K; al-Fadeel, M; Nigad, Y R; al-Hadad, A; Elyazeed, R R; Hyams, K C; Woody, J N

18

Yemen: Background and U.S. Relations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes Yemen's domestic situation, foreign relations, and ties with the United States. It will be updated as significant developments occur. With limited natural resources, a crippling illiteracy rate, and high population growth, Yemen fac...

J. M. Sharp

2009-01-01

19

Local groundwater governance in Yemen: building on traditions and enabling communities to craft new rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Local groundwater management in Yemen and the means by which stakeholders can work together to improve water governance are discussed. In the last few decades the discourse on groundwater management in Yemen has increasingly been cast in terms of crisis, triggered by rapidly declining water tables around cities and in the main agricultural areas. However, in some places in Yemen, communities have responded by implementing local rules that have reduced conflict and provided more reliable and equitable access to water. This trend towards development of local groundwater governance is described, and could make a major contribution in realizing the goals of national water-sector policies and strategies. Twenty-four cases have been identified from different parts of the country and five cases are presented in detail. The article discusses how the process of local management could be nurtured and how it could contribute to rebalancing water use in several parts of Yemen.

Taher, Taha; Bruns, Bryan; Bamaga, Omar; Al-Weshali, Adel; van Steenbergen, Frank

2012-09-01

20

Promoting gender parity in basic education: Lessons from a technical cooperation project in Yemen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many girls are not sent to school in Yemen, despite basic education being free as well as compulsory for all children aged 6-15. Aiming to improve girls' enrolment by increasing parental and community involvement, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) offered a technical cooperation project in June 2005 called Broadening Regional Initiative for Developing Girls' Education (BRIDGE). Phase 1 of this project ran for three and a half years, piloting a participatory school management model supported by school grants in six districts of the Taiz Governorate in the Southwest of Yemen. To find out how successful this approach has been in a traditional society, the authors of this paper analysed the gender parity index (GPI) of the project's pilot schools. Based on data collected at three points in time (in the initial and final years of the project, and two years after the project's end), their findings suggest that interventions in school management which strongly emphasise girls' education can be effective in improving gender parity rather quickly, regardless of the schools' initial conditions. However, the authors also observe that the pilot schools' post-project performance in terms of gender parity is mixed. While the local government allocated budgets for school grants to all pilot schools even after the project's end, training and monitoring activities were cut back. The authors further observe that the variation in performance appears to be significantly correlated with school leaders' initial perceptions of gender equality and with the number of female teachers employed. These findings point to the importance of providing schools with continuous long-term guidance and of monitoring those which implement school improvement programmes.

Yuki, Takako; Mizuno, Keiko; Ogawa, Keiichi; Mihoko, Sakai

2013-06-01

21

Promoting gender parity in basic education: Lessons from a technical cooperation project in Yemen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many girls are not sent to school in Yemen, despite basic education being free as well as compulsory for all children aged 6-15. Aiming to improve girls' enrolment by increasing parental and community involvement, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) offered a technical cooperation project in June 2005 called Broadening Regional Initiative for Developing Girls' Education (BRIDGE). Phase 1 of this project ran for three and a half years, piloting a participatory school management model supported by school grants in six districts of the Taiz Governorate in the Southwest of Yemen. To find out how successful this approach has been in a traditional society, the authors of this paper analysed the gender parity index (GPI) of the project's pilot schools. Based on data collected at three points in time (in the initial and final years of the project, and two years after the project's end), their findings suggest that interventions in school management which strongly emphasise girls' education can be effective in improving gender parity rather quickly, regardless of the schools' initial conditions. However, the authors also observe that the pilot schools' post-project performance in terms of gender parity is mixed. While the local government allocated budgets for school grants to all pilot schools even after the project's end, training and monitoring activities were cut back. The authors further observe that the variation in performance appears to be significantly correlated with school leaders' initial perceptions of gender equality and with the number of female teachers employed. These findings point to the importance of providing schools with continuous long-term guidance and of monitoring those which implement school improvement programmes.

Yuki, Takako; Mizuno, Keiko; Ogawa, Keiichi; Mihoko, Sakai

2013-03-01

22

Price for Rhino Horn Increases in Yemen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhino horn traders in Yemen are putting renewed pressure on Africa's rhinos. From 1985 to 1997 the price of rhino horn remained stable at around $1,200 a kg. By early 1999 it rose to $1,400 a kg. This price increase is due to two factors. The supply of rhino horn in Yemen has fallen because of shrinking stockpiles in the

Lucy Vigne; Esmond Martin

23

Country Analysis Briefs: Yemen, March 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Yemen's location on the Bab al Mandab, one of the world's most strategic shipping lanes through which an estimated 3.7 million barrels of oil pass daily, makes Yemen important to the global oil trade. Disruption to shipping in the Bab el-Mandab could prev...

2010-01-01

24

The young child in Yemen.  

PubMed

4 surveys were undertaken in Yemen through interviews with women in their homes in an effort to obtain information on the sociological and psychological aspects of young children and their mothers, the conditions of working mothers with young children, and traditional midwives and midwifery practices. The survey on child socialization and upbringing included 30 families. The survey on working mothers included 54 women selected at random among more than 300 women employed in a textile factory. 40 midwives were also interviewed; most were of the traditional type but the group also included 6 with 4 years of nursing school training and some hospital and midwifery experience. Focus is on ecological and economic background; social organization; housing, water supply and sanitation; the role of women; family planning; pregnancy and delivery; infant feeding and care; childhood; attitude of parents to education; weaning foods; swaddling babies; working mothers; health conditions and services; education; and the future for families in Yemen. There is a marked preference for sons in Yemen which is explained by the patriarchal character of the society and the place of defense in tribal unity and integration. Childbearing and rearing are heavy physical burdens for women. Among the families interviewed, 70% of the mothers did not want more children after the 4th child. During pregnancy mothers did not receive supplementary nutrition nor did they change their pattern of work or take any other special precautions. The social environment for child bearing is favorable, but conditions of delivery are primitive and even dangerous in the event of complications. PMID:12261902

Bornstein, A

1974-01-01

25

QAT EXPENDITURES IN YEMEN AND DJIBOUTI: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using household surveys from Yemen and Djibouti, the paper analyzes determinants of qat consumptions in two countries. The results confirm huge importance of qat in daily life: with between one-half (in Djibouti) and 70 percent (in Yemen) of all households reporting at least one user. But in Yemen, qat consumption is remarkably flat across income groups, age, and between rural

Branko Milanovic

2007-01-01

26

Qat Expenditures in Yemen and Djibouti: An Empirical Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using household surveys from Yemen and Djibouti, the paper analyses determinants of qat consumptions in two countries. The results confirm huge importance of qat in daily life: with between one-half (in Djibouti) and 70% (in Yemen) of all households reporting at least one user. But in Yemen, qat consumption is remarkably flat across income groups, age, and between rural and

Branko Milanovic

2008-01-01

27

The chemical warfare legacy of the Yemen war  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical weapons use in the modern Middle East began with the Yemen War of 1962–1967. Egyptian chemical attacks against hostile Yemeni tribesmen were initiated at a modest and fairly ineffective level in 1963. They became deadlier, however, as time went on and the scope of the Egyptian military presence in Yemen (later North Yemen) expanded. Had it not been for

W. Andrew Terrill

1991-01-01

28

Education in North Yemen: Problems and Hopes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The background of the educational system in North Yemen is reviewed and some of the problems facing the system are described. The findings from examining documents and on-site visitations are summarized as follows: (1) the view is confirmed that developing countries with long history and cultural heritage are torn between keeping their traditions…

Saif, Philip S.

29

Social determinants of child health in Yemen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of child illness in developing countries can be explained by what have been called, 'proximate determinants,' principally infant feeding practices and preventive and curative care. During previous field research in a small village in Yemen the author observed that despite the uniformly unhealthy environment, a minority of the families carried most of the burden of child illness and death.

Cynthia Myntti

1993-01-01

30

Incentives to reduce groundwater consumption in Yemen  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper options for changing the incentive structure to reduce unsustainable groundwater consumption in Yemen are evaluated. Special attention is paid to incentives that decrease the profitability of irrigation water use and subsidies on improved irrigation technology. Although the literature and economic theory suggest that the range of possible incentives is wide (water pricing, metering, water rights, water markets,

P. J. G. J. Hellegers; C. J. Perry; N. Al-Aulaqi

2011-01-01

31

Operators in Yemen draw warning from Saudis  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that foreign oil companies with concessions in northern Yemen have been drawn into a border dispute between Yemen and Saudi Arabia. At least six companies received letters from the Saudi government warning them that steps, as yet undefined, will be taken if exploration extends into disputed areas. A second territorial dispute also appears to be brewing in the region. Iran has ejected United Arab Emirates nationals from the island of Abu Musa in the Persian Gulf, which is jointly administered by Iran and Sharjah, one of the emirates. The U.A.E. government has reported the situation to the Gulf Cooperation Council, triggering a denial from Iran that anyone has been deported from the island.

Not Available

1992-05-04

32

Measuring Hunger and Food Insecurity in Yemen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yemen has become the first country in the MENA region to develop and field a direct survey-based food security survey at the national level. The survey was administered to a nationally-representative sample of over 112,000 households. This paper describes the methods used to construct the indicators of food insecurity and analyzes the correlates of food insecurity and hunger among Yemeni

Nader Kabbani; Yassin Wehelie

2004-01-01

33

IMPLEMENTING A 'BEST PRACTICE' SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY IN YEMEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the country's largest-ever industrial investment project, it is indispensable for Yemen Liquefied Natural Gas Company (Yemen LNG) to have a positive lasting influence and create sustainable benefits for communities in the Project area. A long-term Sustainable Community Development (SCD) Strategy has been developed to contribute to the social, environmental and economic development of the Project's neighbouring communities, and guide

Rochelle Chetty

34

Yemen's Arab Spring – Democratic Opening or Regime Maintenance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yemen's revolt of 2011, like its counterparts in Tunisia and Egypt, raises many questions about recent analysis of authoritarianism in the Arab world. The long-standing regime of Ali Abdullah al-Saleh and his General People's Congress (GPC) party seemed to represent a classic case of authoritarian upgrading. The surprisingly open political system in Yemen, which followed the emergence of the new

Vincent Durac

2012-01-01

35

Yemen in Crisis: Consequences for the Horn of Africa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Yemen will celebrate the 20th anniversary of national unification in 2010. But it will not be much of a celebration. Yemen, one of the world's oldest civilizations, is experiencing severe difficultius and faces an uncertain future. some of the problems ar...

A. Atarodi

2010-01-01

36

Products pipeline network plans set out for North Yemen  

SciTech Connect

The growth of oil-products demand in future years is leading the Yemen Arab Republic (Y.A.R.) to improve the distribution network for the products by constructing a pipeline system. Petroleum products are currently distributed by road tankers only between the receiving terminals and the main cities, which represent the most important consumption centers, together with new industrial plants such as cement factories, power plants, etc. The technical design and economic and financial feasibility study of the project was entrusted to Omnium Technique des Transports par Pipelines (OTP). The scope covers the setting up in the Y.A.R. of the basic equipment for the supply, storage, and land transportation of petroleum products with a view to: Meeting the national demand for the next 25 years. Providing an adequate strategic reserve of petroleum products with a total storage capacity amounting to 3 months of consumption. The only exception in the transportation of the petroleum products will involve heavy fuel oil which will continue to be transported by road tankers. This article describes the basic facilities which have to be installed before the start-up of the projected network. The project includes a marine terminal in Salif and a pipeline to Sana'a with the related storage, truck loading, and pumping facilities for white products and gas oil which will be transported by pipeline.

Venus, C.

1984-02-13

37

Science achievement of students in the Republic of Yemen and implications for improvement of science instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to establish a research base from which strategies could be developed for improving science education in Yemen. The study measured the achievement in general science of Yemeni students attending primary, preparatory, and secondary schools, and their counterparts attending three- or five-year education programs in primary teacher training institutions. A sample of 1,984 students from six major cities in Yemen was given the Second International Science Study test in May 1988. Achievement scores of these selected groups were compared. The mean achievement in general science was 11.93 for science track students, 9.21 for three-year teacher training institution students, and 8.49 for five-year teacher training institution students. These mean scores were based on a total of 35 items. This low level of achievement was further verified by making comparisons of the achievement of selected groups from Yemeni high schools in six cities with each other. The following factors were measured in this study: location, grade level, gender and type of science program studied. Selected groups from Yemeni high schools were also compared to their peers in other nations. The researcher compared students of the science track and teacher training institutions to their counterparts in 13 nations and students of the literature track to their counterparts in eight nations. Fifth and ninth grade students' scores were compared with the scores of their counterparts in 15 and 17 nations respectively. In every comparison, every Yemeni group ranked at the bottom of the achievement list. (Jacobson W., & Doran, R. 1988) The outcomes of this research indicate the profound need for improving science programs in all grade levels in Yemen. The research recommendations for improvement in science education in Yemen fall into four areas: a change in attitudes toward education, a change in teacher education, a change in classroom conditions, and a change in educational opportunities for women. Because this research study was based on a sizable sample and many hypotheses were tested, this work has contributed appreciable to the base of data available to future researchers. This study also implemented use of the SISS instrument for the first time in Arabic.

Ismail, Nageeb Kassem

38

Refugee, woman and domestic worker: Somali women dealing with dependencies in Yemen  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines changing gender relations among Somali couples in Yemen. Since the outbreak of the civil war in Somalia in 1991 hundreds of thousands of Somali refugees have come to Yemen. Most of them intend to move on to other countries on the Arabian Peninsula, or to Europe and North America. The possibilities to leave Yemen are, however, limited.

Marina de Regt

2010-01-01

39

LNG projects make progress in Oman and Yemen  

SciTech Connect

Two LNG projects in the Middle East, one in Oman and the other in Yemen, are due on stream at the turn of the century--each the largest single project ever put together in its country. Officials described their projects at a yearend 1996 conference in Paris by Institut Francais du Petrole and Petrostrategies. The Oman project develops gas reserves, does gas processing, and transports the gas 360 km to a liquefaction plant to be built on the coast. The Yemen project involves a liquefaction plant and an export terminal.

NONE

1997-02-24

40

A Bibliography of Agriculture and Rural Life in Yemen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Intended as a key to current work in agriculture in Yemen, this bibliography cites more than 520 resources produced since 1963 including monographs, journal articles, theses and dissertations, conference papers, case studies, reports, proposals, surveys, bibliographies, and United Nations publications. Foreign language materials in German,…

Swanjord, Don Edward

41

RAS ISSA Refinery Project Feasibility Study, Republic of Yemen.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report, conducted by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The project is related to the Republic of Yemen Government's privatization reform program which has encouraged Al-Hashed for Trading and Co...

1998-01-01

42

Conflicts in Yemen and U.S. National Security.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Yemen is not currently a failed state, but it is experiencing huge political and economic problems that can have a direct impact on U.S. interests in the region. It has a rapidly expanding population with a resource base that is limited and already leaves...

W. A. Terrill

2011-01-01

43

Antioxidant Activity of Commonly Consumed Vegetables in Yemen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of late, more attention has been paid to the role of natural antioxidants, especially phenolic compounds, which may act both by reducing the content of toxic compounds in foods and by supplying the human body with exogenous antioxidants. The total phenolic contents and the total antioxidant activities (% AA) of 17 commonly consumed vegetables in Yemen were determined. Total phenolics

Mohammed Ali Al-Mamary

2002-01-01

44

Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, 2007: Yemen.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Yemen, with a population of more than 21 million, is a republic whose law provides that the president be elected by popular vote from among at least two candidates endorsed by parliament. In September 2006 citizens re-elected President Ali Abdullah Saleh ...

2008-01-01

45

Oesophageal and gastric carcinoma in the Republic of Yemen  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a preliminary survey on 3064 patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at the Al-Thawra Hospital in Sana'a, Republic of Yemen, between January and December 1991. The age\\/sex distribution, demographic features and social habits with respect to cigarette and water-pipe smoking and Qat chewing were compared for patients with oesophageal and gastric cancers (n = 183). A preponderance of

AA Gunaid; AA Sumairi; RG Shidrawi; A al-Hanaki; M al-Haimi; S al-Absi; MA al-Hureibi; AA Qirbi; S al-Awlagi; AM el-Guneid

1995-01-01

46

Five new species of Triotemnus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae) from Morocco and Yemen  

PubMed Central

Abstract Fivenew species of the genus Triotemnus from Morocco and Yemen are described. Triotemnus is a new genus of Scolytinae for the Yemen region. External morphology of the new species and all morphologically related species of the genus were studied. While the new species from Morocco are morphologically similar to the known species from the corresponding region, all three newly described species from Yemen, mainly two of them living in Socotra, are morphologically very different from all other known species of the genus. Geographical distribution and the probability of endemicity are discussed.

Knizek, Milos

2010-01-01

47

Causal models for road accident fatalities in Yemen.  

PubMed

An identification of the causes of road accident fatalities is becoming more important with the growth of technology, population, number of vehicles and the need for their use. Many authors have addressed the problem in the past but no universal findings have been obtained. The problem tends to be different under different environments and for different geographical regions. The aim of this paper is to develop a model for the analysis and forecasting of road accident fatalities in Yemen considering data restrictions. The proposed data has a particular structure of accident occurrence that has not been reported in any existing research using data in other countries. The available data for the period 1978-1995 is used to build models to understand the nature and extent of the causes of fatalities. Part of the data is used for model building and part of it for test purposes. The issues of correlation and causality have been addressed and multiple collinearity is investigated and dealt with. Two alternative models are proposed based on both statistical grounds and that of practicality in viable decision making. The influence of consuming a locally grown stimulant called Qat on road users has been addressed and it is found that it increases the risk of accidents. This is not the common understanding within the authorities in Yemen as growing and consuming Qat is unregulated. PMID:11426685

Ameen JRM; Naji, J A

2001-07-01

48

Oesophageal and gastric carcinoma in the Republic of Yemen.  

PubMed

We conducted a preliminary survey on 3064 patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at the Al-Thawra Hospital in Sana'a, Republic of Yemen, between January and December 1991. The age/sex distribution, demographic features and social habits with respect to cigarette and water-pipe smoking and Qat chewing were compared for patients with oesophageal and gastric cancers (n = 183). A preponderance of women with carcinoma of the mid-oesophageal was noted, previously only recorded in areas of high prevalence. Unlike Western populations, smoking and alcohol consumption were not significant risk factors. A high frequency of Qat chewing and water-pipe smoking was found for both men and women and for a group with tumours of the gastro-oesophageal junction or cardia (chi 2 = 2.646, P > 0.05). Numbers were insufficient to identify independent effects of each factor individually. Dietary habits alone were insufficient to account for the excess of affected females. A case-control study is now underway to investigate further the role of dietary factors, social habits, demographic features and Helicobacter pylori infection on the development of upper gastrointestinal cancer in the Yemen. PMID:7841062

Gunaid, A A; Sumairi, A A; Shidrawi, R G; al-Hanaki, A; al-Haimi, M; al-Absi, S; al-Hureibi, M A; Qirbi, A A; al-Awlagi, S; el-Guneid, A M

1995-02-01

49

77 FR 39392 - Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Yemen  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Yemen AGENCY: Department...is amending the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) to update the policy...35. List of Subjects in 22 CFR Part 126 Arms and munitions, Exports....

2012-07-03

50

Yemen: Current Conditions and U.S. Relations (January 4, 2007).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Yemen, the only republic on the Arabian Peninsula, is the poorest country in that area. A presidential election deemed relatively fair was held in 2006 with President Ali Abdullah Salih winning reelection with 77% of the popular vote. Nevertheless, democr...

A. B. Prados J. M. Sharp

2007-01-01

51

‘Unfortunate Arabia’: The United States, Great Britain and Yemen, 1955–63  

Microsoft Academic Search

As it emerged from a long, self?imposed diplomatic isolation after 1955 and then plunged into revolution and civil war in 1962, Yemen confronted its Arab neighbours, the United States, and Great Britain with difficult political challenges. This study of Anglo?American diplomacy concerning Yemen in the late 1950s and early 1960s reveals the very different British and American interests and priorities

W. Taylor Fain

2001-01-01

52

Qat consumption in Yemen – knowledge and practice of mental health policy makers and other stakeholders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to report the findings of a half-day workshop on the impact and control of Qat, held in Yemen in February 2010. Senior mental health policy makers, professionals and leaders of mental health non-governmental organizations (NGOs), were present as part of a wider five-day national stakeholder conference to develop national mental health strategy for Yemen, at

Rachel Jenkins; Nahla Shoja Aldeen

2011-01-01

53

Combating Terrorism in the Horn of Africa and Yemen  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University has a number of thematic areas of research, ranging from work on international security to work on the intersection between science, technology, and public policy. This particular paper comes from the Center's program on intrastate conflict, and is authored by Deborah L. West. The 38-page paper comes out of discussions held at a conference on governance and policy in Yemen and the Horn of Africa in November 2004. Within its pages, the paper offers some expert recommendations for combatting terrorism in these two regions and also includes an overview of the current state of affairs and potential terrorist activity in the area.

West, Deborah L.

54

Caravan Kingdoms: Yemen and the Ancient Incense Trade  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the general assistance of a host of corporations, the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery at the Smithsonian Institution have created a probing exhibit that explores the artistic heritage of Yemen through items found in the ancient kingdoms of Qataban, Saba, and Himyar in the southern Arabian peninsula. The objects included in the exhibit include stone funerary sculpture, architectural fragments, and other such items of material culture. The accompanying online exhibit offered here is quite well-organized, as visitors are presented with six major themes that outline the history of these empires, complete with an interactive timeline that puts various cultural, historical, and trade developments into a broader context. Additionally, visitors can also learn about the in situ exhibit and read trenchant reviews from a number of sources, such as The Washington Times.

55

Prevalence of oral cancer and potentially malignant lesions among shammah users in Yemen.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of oral precancerous lesions and squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in Yemeni users of shammah, a traditional smokeless tobacco habit known in the Arabian Peninsula. The study group comprised 199 male and one female shammah users who were interviewed via a standardised questionnaire and clinically examined in 48 Yemeni villages and cities. Cases with oral leukoplakia (OL) or mucosal burns (MB) were compared with users without any lesion. MB were detected in 31%, of which 46.8% were located on the tongue or floor of the mouth, and OL in 27%, of which 59.2% were located in the same region. In addition, two cases (1%) of apparent OSCC were identified. Statistically significant increased OR (95% CI) of OL were (a) 6.91 (2.66-17.95) for an average duration of the respective shammah application >5min.; (b) 4.90 (1.99-12.08) for a daily frequency of those applications >10; and (c) 4.22 (1.43-12.43) for a daily duration >6h of chewing qat, also a traditional habit in Yemen. Likewise, decreased OR were (a) 0.39 (0.18-0.85) for rinsing the mouth after the shammah application; (b) 0.36 (0.17-0.78) for successful attempts to stop the use in the past; and (c) 0.26 (0.09-0.72) for existing knowledge about the carcinogenicity of shammah that was present in only 19% overall. In conclusion, evidence was shown for a significant association between the prevalence of OL and the daily duration of shammah application in a dose-dependent manner. An appropriate public health program might help to reduce this potential OSCC burden in shammah users. PMID:16759897

Scheifele, C; Nassar, A; Reichart, P A

2006-06-08

56

The dynamics of Zabid and its hinterland: The survey of a town on the Tihamah plain of North Yemen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Royal Ontario Museum Zabid project began in 1982 with its focus upon the town of Zabid on the central Tihamah plain of North Yemen (Yemen Arab Republic). Using sherd counts collected from field surveys, the project has been successful in establishing a working typology for the pottery found in the area of Zabid and in the surrounding 2,500 square

Edward J. Keall

1983-01-01

57

Dengue outbreak in Hadramout, Yemen, 2010: an epidemiological perspective.  

PubMed

We analyzed surveillance data of a dengue outbreak (2010) reported to the Hadramout Health Office (Yemen) and retrospectively analyzed dengue-related epidemiological and entomological events reported in Hadramout from 2005 to 2009. A total of 630 immunoglobulin M (IgM) -confirmed dengue cases of 982 febrile cases was reported during the period from February to June of 2010; 12 cases died, giving case fatality a rate of 1.9%. Among febrile cases, the highest proportion of dengue cases (37.3%) was reported in the 15- to 24-year-old age group. The overall attack rate was 0.89/1,000. The average number of cases reported by month over the preceding 5-year period compared with the 2010 data is consistent with endemicity of dengue in the region and supports epidemic designation for the dengue activity in 2010. Recognition of endemic dengue transmission and potential for substantial dengue epidemics highlight the need for consistent laboratory-based surveillance that can support prevention and control activities accordingly. PMID:22665621

Bin Ghouth, Abdulla Salim; Amarasinghe, Ananda; Letson, G William

2012-06-01

58

Dengue Outbreak in Hadramout, Yemen, 2010: An Epidemiological Perspective  

PubMed Central

We analyzed surveillance data of a dengue outbreak (2010) reported to the Hadramout Health Office (Yemen) and retrospectively analyzed dengue-related epidemiological and entomological events reported in Hadramout from 2005 to 2009. A total of 630 immunoglobulin M (IgM) -confirmed dengue cases of 982 febrile cases was reported during the period from February to June of 2010; 12 cases died, giving case fatality a rate of 1.9%. Among febrile cases, the highest proportion of dengue cases (37.3%) was reported in the 15- to 24-year-old age group. The overall attack rate was 0.89/1,000. The average number of cases reported by month over the preceding 5-year period compared with the 2010 data is consistent with endemicity of dengue in the region and supports epidemic designation for the dengue activity in 2010. Recognition of endemic dengue transmission and potential for substantial dengue epidemics highlight the need for consistent laboratory-based surveillance that can support prevention and control activities accordingly.

Ghouth, Abdulla Salim Bin; Amarasinghe, Ananda; Letson, G. William

2012-01-01

59

Ocular complications of severe vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) in Yemen?  

PubMed Central

Objectives The objective of this study was to assess the ocular complications and visual loss among patients with severe vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC). Methods Four hundred and thirty-one patients with VKC seen at Ibn Al-Haitham Eye Center were the study group. This is a retrospective non-comparative observational study between 01 January 2002 and 31 December 2002. Visual acuity was measured with the standard Snellen visual acuity chart and for children under 5 years of age Kay pictures were used. Visual impairment was assessed by means of the World Health Organization criteria for visual disabilities. Cases with severe VKC that developed ocular complications leading to blindness and severe visual impairment were analyzed. Results The majority of VKC patients were males (75.9%) with a male:female ratio of 3.1:1. A total of 68 (15.7%) patients (54 boys and 14 girls) had severe VKC. The ocular findings among 20 patients with severe VKC that led to blindness and severe visual impairment included keratoconus (7); steroid-induced cataract (5), central corneal scars (5) and steroid-induced glaucoma (3). Two of the keratoconus cases developed acute hydrops. Conclusion Severe VKC in developing countries including Yemen is a potentially blinding disease. Visual loss may be due to keratoconus and corneal scars, as well as complications of the unsupervised use of topically administered corticosteroids.

Al-Akily, Saleh A.; Bamashmus, Mahfouth A.

2011-01-01

60

Correlates of visit regularity among family planning clients in urban Yemen.  

PubMed

Contraceptive discontinuation has been an important issue in low contraceptive prevalence countries like Yemen. Religious and cultural factors might play a large role in barriers against contraceptive acceptance. This study revealed the characteristics of women who accepted contraception and the factors related to the regularity of visits to a clinic in Yemen. Women perceived that accepting contraception was against neither Islam nor their husband's attitudes. They rather paid attention to mother and child health. Regularity of visits was not related to socioeconomic or demographic factors, but was related to satisfaction with family planning services. This implies that different approaches are needed to promote 'continuation' and 'regular visits'. A population policy which promotes birth spacing for maternal health in accordance with cultural contexts should be an effective and acceptable strategy in Yemen. Regular visits could be prompted by increasing the quality of services, including communication between clients and providers about side-effects and alternative choices of methods. PMID:11145368

Inaoka, E; Wakai, S; Nakamura, Y; Al Babily, Y; Saghayroun, A A

1999-01-01

61

Khat (Catha edulis) Chewing during Pregnancy in Yemen: Findings from a National Population Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims  This study examines the prevalence of khat chewing among women during pregnancy and some of the risk factors for this habit\\u000a in Yemen.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Survey data on 7,343 ever-married women from the Yemen Demographic and Maternal and Health Survey (YDMHS), conducted in 1997\\u000a are used. Women who had a live birth during the 5 years preceding the survey were asked if they

Marwan Khawaja; Mohannad Al-Nsour; Ghada Saad

2008-01-01

62

Antioxidant activity of commonly consumed vegetables in yemen.  

PubMed

Of late, more attention has been paid to the role of natural antioxidants, especially phenolic compounds, which may act both by reducing the content of toxic compounds in foods and by supplying the human body with exogenous antioxidants. The total phenolic contents and the total antioxidant activities (% AA) of 17 commonly consumed vegetables in Yemen were determined. Total phenolics was measured colorimetrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent with D-catechin as the standard. The antioxidant activity (%AA) of vegetables using their juices at different levels (50?l, 100?l, 200?l) was assayed in vitro by the inhibition of liver homogenate oxidation mediated by FeSO4 / ascorbate system. The % AA was measured by the TBAR method. The results showed that for all vegetable juices, increased antioxidant activity or decreased prooxidant activity increased with volume of juice. With the addition of 50?l from each sample, most vegetable juices showed antioxidant activity and it appears that coriander had exceptionally high antioxidant activity (60%). However, garlic, yellow onion, parsley, red onion and Cissus rotundifolia showed considerably high antioxidant activities (54-41 %). Other vegetables with low antioxidant activities (27 to 3 %) showed an order of increase in %AA as follows: tomato > spinach > horseradish-leaves > carrot > cabbage > chilli > leek > horseradish-roots. At the same, time some vegetable juices such as that of green pepper, cucumber and lettuce showed initial prooxidant activities (-11 to -40 %). The complete inhibition of oxidation was noticed when the highest level of juices (200?l) was used in the cases of coriander, onions, garlic and parsley. The correlation between total phenolics and the antioxidant activities of vegetables with different levels of juices (50?l, 100?l and 200?l) showed positive but not significant correlations (R = 0.41 - 0.55). Some vegetables such as carrots and tomatoes show the highest relative antioxidant efficiencies despite the small content of total phenolics compared to other vegetables tested in this study. PMID:22692476

Al-Mamary, Mohammed Ali

2002-09-15

63

Promoting Gender Parity in Basic Education: Lessons from a Technical Cooperation Project in Yemen  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many girls are not sent to school in Yemen, despite basic education being free as well as compulsory for all children aged 6-15. Aiming to improve girls' enrollment by increasing parental and community involvement, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) offered a technical cooperation project in June 2005 called Broadening Regional…

Yuki, Takako; Mizuno, Keiko; Ogawa, Keiichi; Mihoko, Sakai

2013-01-01

64

THE ACCOUNTANTS’ ETHICAL CODE OF CONDUCT FROM AN ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE: CASE IN YEMEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ethical code of conduct is developed to guide behaviors of members in or of organizations. Accountants, in this context, are not an exception. The availability of such ethical code of conduct is extremely important for both accountants and users of accounting information. However, currently in Yemen, there is no ethical code of conduct for Yemeni professional accountants. Hence, a

Al-Hasan Al-Aidaros; Faridahwati Mohd. Shamsudin

2011-01-01

65

The Tribes that Bind: Yemen and the Paradox of Political Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beset by multiple security challenges, not least the emergence of a powerful Al Qaeda franchise, Yemen appears the antithesis of the “Weberian” state model. But while these challenges are acute, they should be seen as part of a wider “political field,” dominated by powerful tribes and conditioned by patrimonial networks that have long framed the modes of political exchange between

Clive Jones

2011-01-01

66

Optimum operating conditions of a solar cell panel and prediction of solar radiation in Sanaa, Yemen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a study of the performance of solar cells under nominal operating conditions in Yemen are reported. The solar cell panel comprised 14 Si cells of .003 sq m surface area each, and was mounted on a rooftop with the solar radiation being measured by a pyranometer. Further monitoring was performed of the panel surface temperature, the ambient air

A. Khogali; M. R. I. Ramadan

1982-01-01

67

Fractionation of trace metals (Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb) in Red Sea sediments, Gulf of Aden, Yemen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sequential extraction technique was applied to estimate the chemical association of Mn, Zn, Cu and Pb in five chemical phases (exchangeable, carbonate, Fe–Mn oxides, organic matter and residual) in sediments of the Gulf of Aden, Yemen. The results indicated that a higher level of Mn was associated with the residual fraction (natural sources) than the non-residual fraction (anthropogenic sources).

Mohamed A. Okbah; Samir M. Nasr; Shaif M. Kasem

2011-01-01

68

The clandestine defence of empire: British special operations in Yemen 1951–64  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an account of the special operations in Yemen authorized by successive Conservative governments in the 1950s and early 1960s. It suggests that these were undertaken in response to a perceived threat from Yemeni irredentism and Arab nationalism. The secrecy surrounding the operations was regarded as a useful means of avoiding the international condemnation which overt military action

Spencer Mawby

2002-01-01

69

Confirmation of Arabia plate slow motion by new GPS data in Yemen  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 10 years, a network of about 30 GPS sites was measured in Djibouti, East Africa. Additional points were also measured in Yemen, Oman, Ethiopia, Iran, and on La Réunion island. Merged with data from the available International GPS Service permanent stations scattered on the different plates in the area (Eurasia, Anatolia, Africa, Arabia, Somalia), this unique data

Christophe Vigny; Philippe Huchon; Jean-Claude Ruegg; Khaled Khanbari; Laike M. Asfaw

2006-01-01

70

Qat use in North Yemen and the problem of addiction: A study in medical anthropology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Travelers to North Yemen nearly invariably report that Yemeni people are universally addicted to the drug qat and that the problems of the country are related to this. On the other hand, the majority of Yemenis claim that qat is not only harmless, but that it has many virtues. After describing the chemistry of the drug and the customs of

John G. Kennedy; James Teague; Lynn Fairbanks

1980-01-01

71

A Reconsideration of Imam Yahya's Attitude Toward Forced Conversion of Jewish Orphans in Yemen  

Microsoft Academic Search

:The twentieth century revival of a Zaydi law requiring the conversion of orphaned Yemeni Jewish children has been described in both popular and scholarly literature as exemplifying antisemitism and provoking emigration from Yemen. Recent scholarship has concluded that this law was implemented infrequently and sporadically. However, as of yet no serious attempt has been made to explain when and why

Ari Ariel

2010-01-01

72

A Reconsideration of Imam Yahya's Attitude Toward Forced Conversion of Jewish Orphans in Yemen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The twentieth century revival of a Zaydi law requiring the conversion of orphaned Yemeni Jewish children has been described in both popular and scholarly literature as exemplifying antisemitism and provoking emigration from Yemen. Recent scholarship has concluded that this law was implemented infrequently and sporadically. However, as of yet no serious attempt has been made to explain when and why

Ari Ariel

2010-01-01

73

Reforming the Urban Water Supply and Sanitation (UWSS) Sector in Yemen  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early 1990s, Yemen suffered from low service coverage and national tariffs that were too low to cover public expenditure, as well as an inadequate level of service provided by the centralized National Water and Sanitation Authority. In 1996, a reform study recommended that the UWSS sector should embrace a policy of decentralization, corporatization, commercialization, the separation of service

Barbara Gerhager; Anwer Sahooly

2009-01-01

74

Coordinating Covert Action: The Case of the Yemen Civil War and the South Arabian Insurgency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focusing on British involvement in the 1960s Yemen Civil War, this article examines the centralised mechanisms developed in Whitehall to coordinate covert action interdepartmentally. It therefore sheds new light on London's security and intelligence machine and its input into clandestine operations. Drawing on recently declassified documents and interviews, it uncovers various important but secretive actors, which have been overlooked or

Rory Cormac

2012-01-01

75

Agriculture and Water Resources Crisis in Yemen: Need for Sustainable Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yemen's agriculture and water resources sectors are in a crisis. The water availability is 150 m\\/cap\\/a. This compares with an average of 1250 m\\/cap\\/a for the Middle East and North Africa. All surface water and groundwater resources are exploited beyond the level of recharge. The agriculture industry uses 93% of the potable water, and does not actively encourage sustainable water

Ahmed A. M. Almas; Miklas Scholz

2006-01-01

76

Precambrian basement character of Yemen and correlations with Saudi Arabia and Somalia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Precambrian basement of Yemen occupies a key location in the Pan-African orogen of Gondwana. This paper reviews geological, isotopic and geochronological data and presents new Pb- and Nd-isotope data which help define distinct gneiss terranes within this basement, constraining correlations of these terranes with neighbouring regions of Saudi Arabia and Somalia. Existing whole-rock Pb- and Nd-isotopic data are also

Martin J Whitehouse; Brian F Windley; Douglas B Stoeser; Salah Al-Khirbash; Mahfood A. O Ba-Bttat; Abdullah Haider

2001-01-01

77

Irrigation planning using geographic information system : A case study of Sana'a Basin, Yemen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a procedure to estimate the total irrigation water requirement for a command area of 2,500 hectares in an arid environment under various crops and soil types using GIS for data storage, analysis and visualization of results. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Bani Al-Harith agricultural area in Sana'a basin, Yemen was chosen for the

Gawaher Muthanna; M. S. M. Amin

2005-01-01

78

Molecular Characterization of Leishmania Species Isolated from Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Yemen  

PubMed Central

Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease endemic in the tropics and subtropics with a global yearly incidence of 1.5 million. Although CL is the most common form of leishmaniasis, which is responsible for 60% of DALYs lost due to tropical-cluster diseases prevalent in Yemen, available information is very limited. Methodology/Principal Findings This study was conducted to determine the molecular characterization of Leishmania species isolated from human cutaneous lesions in Yemen. Dermal scrapes were collected and examined for Leishmania amastigotes using the Giemsa staining technique. Amplification of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1(ITS-1) gene was carried out using nested PCR and subsequent sequencing. The sequences from Leishmania isolates were subjected to phylogenetic analysis using the neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods. The trees identified Leishmania tropica from 16 isolates which were represented by two sequence types. Conclusions/Significance The predominance of the anthroponotic species (i.e. L. tropica) indicates the probability of anthroponotic transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Yemen. These findings will help public health authorities to build an effective control strategy taking into consideration person–to-person transmission as the main dynamic of transmission of CL.

Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M.; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Bin Shuaib, Naemah O. M.; Azazy, Ahmed A.; Mahmud, Rohela

2010-01-01

79

A study of the chemical composition of traditional eye cosmetics ("kohls") used in Qatar and Yemen.  

PubMed

This study looks at the chemical composition of traditional eye cosmetics ("kohls") used in Qatar and Yemen. Of especial interest was how many samples in each country contain the toxic element lead. In Qatar 19 observably different kohl samples were obtained, and in Yemen ten such samples obtained. The analytical techniques of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) were used to study the samples. For the samples from Qatar, six of the 19 (32%) contained galena (lead sulfide, PbS)--all as the main component. However, for the samples from Yemen, five of the ten (50%) samples contained galena as the main component, with another three having it present as a minor component. Overall, the other main components were found to be: amorphous carbon (3), iron oxides (hematite, Fe2O3; and goethite, FeO(OH)) (1), quartz (SiO2) (1), sassolite (H3BO3) (5), talc (Mg3Si4O10(OH)2) (1), and zincite (ZnO) (7). PMID:18841305

Hardy, Andrew D; Farrant, Alexander J; Rollinson, Gavyn; Barss, Peter; Vaishnav, Ragini

80

Molecular markers of anti-malarial drug resistance in Lahj Governorate, Yemen: baseline data and implications  

PubMed Central

Background This is an investigation of anti-malarial molecular markers coupled with a therapeutic efficacy test of chloroquine (CQ) against falciparum malaria in an area of unstable malaria in Lahj Governorate, Yemen. The study was aimed at assessment of therapeutic response to CQ and elucidation of baseline information on molecular markers for Plasmodium falciparum resistance against CQ and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP). Methods Between 2002 and 2003 the field test was conducted according to the standard WHO protocol to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of CQ in 124 patients with falciparum malaria in an endemic area in Lahj Governorate in Yemen. Blood samples collected during this study were analysed for P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene (pfcrt)-76 polymorphisms, mutation pfcrt-S163R and the antifolate resistance-associated mutations dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr)-C59R and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps)-K540E. Direct DNA sequencing of the pfcrt gene from three representative field samples was carried out after DNA amplification of the 13 exons of the pfcrt gene. Results Treatment failure was detected in 61% of the 122 cases that completed the 14-day follow-up. The prevalence of mutant pfcrt T76 was 98% in 112 amplified pre-treatment samples. The presence of pfcrt T76 was poorly predictive of in vivo CQ resistance (PPV = 61.8%, 95% CI = 52.7-70.9). The prevalence of dhfr Arg-59 mutation in 99 amplified samples was 5%, while the dhps Glu-540 was not detected in any of 119 amplified samples. Sequencing the pfcrt gene confirmed that Yemeni CQ resistant P. falciparum carry the old world (Asian and African) CQ resistant haplotype CVIETSESI at positions 72,73,74,75,76,220,271, 326 and 371. Conclusion This is the first study to report baseline information on the characteristics and implications of anti-malarial drug resistance markers in Yemen. It is also the first report of the haplotype associated with CQR P. falciparum parasites from Yemen. Mutant pfcrtT76 is highly prevalent but it is a poor predictor of treatment failure in the study population. The prevalence of mutation dhfrArg59 is suggestive of emerging resistance to SP, which is currently a component of the recommended combination treatment of falciparum malaria in Yemen. More studies on these markers are recommended for surveillance of resistance in the study area.

2011-01-01

81

Assessment of Gingival Health Status among 5- and 12-Year-Old Children in Yemen: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose. There are limited data about the gingival health status in Yemeni children. The aim, therefore, was to assess oral hygiene status and prevalence and severity of gingivitis among Yemeni preschool and school children. Materials and Methods. A total of 5396 children were included from 5 representative Yemeni governorates: Sana'a, Hajjah, Hodeida, Hadramaut, and Taiz. Five-year olds (1292) were recruited from private kindergartens while 12-year olds (4104) were selected from public primary schools. Gingival health status was assessed using the plaque index (PI), calculus index (CAI), and gingival index (GI) on the 6 Ramfjord teeth. The latter index was used to categorize gingivitis severity at the subject level. Data were analyzed using simple hypothesis testing, as well as ordinal regression. Results. The 12-year old children had significantly much higher mean PI, CAI, and GI (P < 0.001) with 78.6% presenting with gingivitis and 47.8% with moderate gingivitis. In contrast, the figures were 27.2% and 3.1% in the younger group (P < 0.001). There were significant variations according to gender, area of residence, and governorate. Regression analysis revealed that mean PI (OR = 35), mean CAI (OR = 7.7), male gender (OR = 1.6), living in rural areas (OR = 1.4), and being from Hajjah or Sana'a were independent risk factors of gingivitis severity in the older group. For the 5-year olds, the determinants were mean PI (OR = 122), male gender (OR = 1.4), and living in Sana'a or Taiz. Conclusions. Bad oral hygiene and moderate gingivitis are highly prevalent among Yemeni preschool and school children. Geographical location appeared as important independent risk factors of gingival inflammation.

Al-Haddad, Khaled A.; Ibrahim, Yahia T.; Al-Haddad, Ahmed M.; Al-Hebshi, Nezar N.

2013-01-01

82

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Schistosomiasis among Children in Yemen: Implications for an Effective Control Programme  

PubMed Central

Background Schistosomiasis, one of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases, is a life-threatening public health problem in Yemen especially in rural communities. This cross-sectional study aims to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of schistosomiasis among children in rural Yemen. Methods/Findings Urine and faecal samples were collected from 400 children. Urine samples were examined using filtration technique for the presence of Schistosoma haematobium eggs while faecal samples were examined using formalin-ether concentration and Kato Katz techniques for the presence of S. mansoni. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information were collected via a validated questionnaire. Overall, 31.8% of the participants were found to be positive for schistosomiasis; 23.8% were infected with S. haematobium and 9.3% were infected with S. mansoni. Moreover, 39.5% of the participants were anaemic whereas 9.5% had hepatosplenomegaly. The prevalence of schistosomiasis was significantly higher among children aged >10 years compared to those aged ?10 years (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis confirmed that presence of other infected family member (P<0.001), low household monthly income (P?=?0.003), using unsafe sources for drinking water (P?=?0.003), living nearby stream/spring (P?=?0.006) and living nearby pool/pond (P?=?0.002) were the key factors significantly associated with schistosomiasis among these children. Conclusions/Significance This study reveals that schistosomiasis is still highly prevalent in Yemen. These findings support an urgent need to start an integrated, targeted and effective schistosomiasis control programme with a mission to move towards the elimination phase. Besides periodic drug distribution, health education and community mobilisation, provision of clean and safe drinking water, introduction of proper sanitation are imperative among these communities in order to curtail the transmission and morbidity caused by schistosomiasis. Screening and treating other infected family members should also be adopted by the public health authorities in combating this infection in these communities.

Sady, Hany; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Mahmud, Rohela; Surin, Johari

2013-01-01

83

Confirmation of Arabia plate slow motion by new GPS data in Yemen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last 10 years, a network of about 30 GPS sites was measured in Djibouti, East Africa. Additional points were also measured in Yemen, Oman, Ethiopia, Iran, and on La Réunion island. Merged with data from the available International GPS Service permanent stations scattered on the different plates in the area (Eurasia, Anatolia, Africa, Arabia, Somalia), this unique data set provides new insight on the current deformation in the Africa-Somalia-Arabia triple junction area and on the Arabian plate motion. Here we show that coherent motions of points in Yemen, Bahrain, Oman, and Iran allow us to estimate a geodetically constrained angular velocity for the Arabian plate (52.59°N, 15.74°W, 0.461°/Myr in ITRF2000). This result differs significantly from earlier determinations and is based upon our vectors in Yemen. They provide new additional data and better geometry for angular velocity determination. Combined with the African and Somalian motions, this new angular velocity results in predicted spreading rates in the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden which are 15-20% lower than those measured from oceanic magnetic anomalies and thus averaged over the last 3 Myr. With respect to Eurasia, the geodetic motion of Arabia is also about 30% slower than predicted by NUVEL-1A. On the basis of the kinematic results presented here and on other evidence for a similar slower geodetic rate of the Indian plate, we suggest that the whole collision zone between Africa, Arabia, India on one hand and Eurasia on the other hand has slowed down in the last 3 Myr.

Vigny, Christophe; Huchon, Philippe; Ruegg, Jean-Claude; Khanbari, Khaled; Asfaw, Laike M.

2006-02-01

84

Paleocene-Early Eocene larger foraminiferal biostratigraphy of Yemen and Oman  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Paleogene larger foraminiferal biostratigraphy is today rather well assessed for the Tethyan domain. In order to contribute to the full integration of the Middle-East in the widely employed Shallow Benthic Zonation, a preliminary report on the Paleocene-Early Eocene larger foraminiferal assemblages from Yemen and Oman is provided here. The sections investigated in Yemen range in age from the Upper Cretaceous to the Oligocene. The Paleogene of Yemen is widely affected by dolomitization and only by analyzing over 1,700 thin sections from 60 stratigraphic sections (mainly from Hadramaut and Socotra) it has been possible to adequately investigate the fossil assemblages. In contrast, the deposits from northern Oman are characterized by rich and extraordinarily well-preserved Paleocene-Lower Eocene larger foraminiferal assemblages. This preliminary report focuses mainly on the Paleocene-Early Eocene deposits of the Umm-er-Radhuma formation. The Paleocene-Lower Eocene assemblages are characterized by strong affinities with northern Somalia. Hyaline forms such as Daviesina khatiyahi, Miscellanea gr. rhomboidea/dukhani, M. miscella, Saudia, Sakesaria, Lockhartia, Ranikothalia, Dictyokathina largely prevail in SBZ 3-4 deposits. Nummulites, Ranikothalia and Daviesina ruida characterize the Lower Ypresian. Subordinately, porcelaneous forms such as "Taberina" daviesi and conical agglutinated (Daviesiconus) also occur; alveolinids (such as Alveolina vredenburgi and A. decipiens) are relatively abundant in the basal Lower Ypresian of Socotra. In contrast to the coeval deposits from Yemen, the Paleocene section of Oman (Wadi Duqm, Abat-Tiwi platform) yields very well-preserved larger foraminiferal assemblages and agglutinated and porcelaneous forms are well represented. The occurrence of abundant Globoreticulina paleocenica is noteworthy along with an as yet undescribed Lacazinella species. The co-occurrence of Coskinon sp., "Plumokathina dienii", Dictyoconus turriculus and Miscellanites globularis seems to indicate SBZ 2. Upsection, SBZ 3-?4 assemblages with Fallotella kochanskae persica, D. turriculus, "Taberina" daviesi, Keramosphaera sp., Miscellanea yvettae, Lockhartia haimei, L. conditi, L. altispira, Daviesina khatiyahi, D. danieli, D. langhami, Kathina selveri, K. delseota, ?Storrsella , Dictyokathina simplex, Sakesaria cf. cotteri andS. cf. dukhani occur.

Di Carlo, M.; Serra-Kiel, J.; Pignatti, J.

2012-04-01

85

Determination of uranium, thorium and potassium contents of rock samples in Yemen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uranium, thorium and potassium contents in 16 different rock samples from various sites in Republic of Yemen were determined\\u000a using three different techniques of analysis: ?-spectrometry, Instrumental neutron activation analyses (INAA) and X-ray fluorescence\\u000a (XRF). The concentration range for thorium, uranium and potassium were found to be from 9,810 ± 272 to 3.6 ± 1.3 ppm, 1,072 ± 40\\u000a to 1.2 ± 0.7 ppm and 11 ± 1 to 0.26 ± 0.05%, respectively.

Abdulrahman Abdul-Hadi; Wedad Al-Qadhi; Enayat El-Zeen

86

The Role of Demand Factors in Utilization of Professional Care during Childbirth: Perspectives from Yemen  

PubMed Central

Background. Utilization of professional care during childbirth by women in low-income countries is important for the progress towards MDG?5. In Yemen, home births have decreased minimally during the past decades. Objective. The study investigates the influence of socio-demographic, birth outcome and demand factors on women's future preference of a home or institutional childbirth. Method. We interviewed 220 women with childbirth experience in urban/rural Yemen. We performed bivariate chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analysis. A multistage sampling process was used. Results. The issues of own choice, birth support and birth complications were the most important for women's preference of future location of childbirth. Women who had previously been able to follow their own individual choice regarding birth attendance and/or location of childbirth were six times more likely to plan a future childbirth in the same location and women who received birth support four times more likely. Birth complications were associated with a 2.5-fold decrease in likelihood. Conclusions. To offer women with institutional childbirth access to birth support is crucial in attracting women to professional care during childbirth. Yemeni women's low utilization of modern delivery care should be seen in the context of women's low autonomy and status.

Kempe, Annica; Noor-Aldin Alwazer, Fatoom; Theorell, Tores

2011-01-01

87

Situation Report--Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, Yemen Arab Republic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

88

Coral communities of the northwestern Gulf of Aden (Yemen): variation in framework building related to environmental factors and biotic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coral communities were investigated in the northwestern Gulf of Aden, Yemen, for their composition, structure, and bioconstruction potential. Although no true reef was encountered, high cover coral carpets were found where hard substrate was available. Seven different types of coral communities were differentiated, and both non-framework and framework coral communities were found. Monotypy or oligotypy seem to be consistent characteristics

F. Benzoni; C. N. Bianchi; C. Morri

2003-01-01

89

Qat chewing and pesticides: A study of adverse health effects in people of the mountainous areas of Yemen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chewing qat leaves, Cathula Edulis, is now a very common behaviour among the people of the mountainous areas of Yemen. For about the past 20 years, in tandem with national development, qat chewing has been rapidly expanding, and the use of chemical pesticides in qat production has been increasing. In this study, the adverse effects on human health of qat

Junko Date; Noritoshi Tanida; Tatsuya Hobara

2004-01-01

90

High relative frequency of oral squamous cell carcinoma in Yemen: Qat and tobacco chewing as its aetiological background  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the association of qat chewing with the occurrence of oral cancer, the frequency of oral cancer among whole body cancers and the patients' histories of tobacco consumption and qat chewing were examined in Yemen where qat chewing has been most popular. All primary malignant tumors listed in the surgical pathology files at Al-Thawra Hospital, University of Sana'a, in

Faleh A. Sawair; Ammar Al-Mutwakel; Kamal Al-Eryani; Ameera Al-Surhy; Satoshi Maruyama; Jun Cheng; Ali Al-Sharabi; Takashi Saku

2007-01-01

91

Genetic Analysis of Viruses Associated with Emergence of Rift Valley Fever in Saudi Arabia and Yemen, 2000-01  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first confirmed Rift Valley fever outbreak outside Africa was reported in September 2000, in the Ara- bian Peninsula. As of February 2001, a total of 884 hospitalized patients were identified in Saudi Arabia, with 124 deaths. In Yemen, 1,087 cases were estimated to have occurred, with 121 deaths. Laboratory diagnosis of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) infections included virus

Trevor Shoemaker; Carla Boulianne; Martin J. Vincent; Linda Pezzanite; Mohammed M. Al-Qahtani; Yagub Al-Mazrou; Ali S. Khan; Pierre E. Rollin; Robert Swanepoel; Thomas G. Ksiazek; Stuart T. Nichol

92

The Admission and Academic Placement of Students from: Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Information is provided on the educational systems of Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and the Yemen Arab Republic in order to assist U.S. colleges and universities as they work with international student agencies and representatives from these countries. For each country, placement recommendations are offered, along with notes to…

Johnson, J. K., Ed.

93

Situation Reports--Afghanistan, Cyprus, Iran, Kenya, Lebanese Republic, Malagasy Republic, Malaysia (West), People's Democratic Republic of Yemen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Afghanistan, Cyprus, Iran, Kenya, Lebanese Republic, Malagasy Republic (Madagascar), Malaysia (West), and People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. Information is provided under two topics, general background and…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

94

Matching conjugate volcanic rifted margins: 40Ar\\/ 39Ar chrono-stratigraphy of pre- and syn-rift bimodal flood volcanism in Ethiopia and Yemen  

Microsoft Academic Search

40Ar\\/39Ar dating of mineral separates and whole-rock samples of rhyolitic ignimbrites and basaltic lavas from the pre- and syn-rift flood volcanic units of northern Ethiopia provides a temporal link between the Ethiopian and Yemen conjugate rifted volcanic margins. Sixteen new 40Ar\\/39Ar dates confirm that basaltic flood volcanism in Ethiopia was contemporaneous with flood volcanism on the conjugate margin in Yemen.

Ingrid A. Ukstins; Paul R. Renne; Ellen Wolfenden; Joel Baker; Dereje Ayalew; Martin Menzies

2002-01-01

95

Risk assessment of the introduction of Rift Valley fever from the Horn of Africa to Yemen via legal trade of small ruminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis of increasing global importance. Occurring since 1930 across Africa,\\u000a it was detected for the first time in Saudi Arabia and Yemen in September 2000, leading to human deaths and major losses in\\u000a livestock populations. Assuming the virus has not survived in Yemen or has been circulating at a low level, authors

Shaif Abdo-Salem; Agnès Waret-Szkuta; François Roger; Marie-Marie Olive; Khalid Saeed; Véronique Chevalier

2011-01-01

96

Detection of Chikungunya virus in Aedes aegypti during 2011 outbreak in Al Hodayda, Yemen.  

PubMed

In October 2010, the Ministry of Public Health and Population reported an outbreak of dengue-like acute febrile illness in Al Hodayda governorate. By January 2011, a total of 1542 cases had been recorded from 19 of the 26 districts in the governorate with 104 purportedly associated deaths. In response this event, in January 2011 entomological investigations aimed at identifying the primary vector and the epidemic associated etiological agent were carried out. Based on the reported cases and the progress of the outbreak in the governorate, mosquito collection was undertaken in two of the most recent outbreak areas; Al Khokha district (130km south of Al Hodayda) and Al Muneera district (100km north). Mosquito adults were collected from houses using BG-sentinel™ traps, aspiration of resting mosquitoes and knock-down spraying. Indoor and outdoor containers adjacent to the houses were inspected for larvae. Subsequently mosquito pools were analyzed by RT-PCR for detection of the four dengue virus serotypes (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, DENV-4), and for Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Aedes aegypti was the dominant mosquito species collected. Four pools represent 40% of the tested pools, all containing adult female Ae. aegypti, were positive for CHIKV. Three CHIKV isolates were obtained from the RNA positive mosquito pools and identified by rRT-PCR. This finding marks the first record of CHIKV isolated from Ae. aegypti in Yemen. The larval container and Breteau indices in the visited localities surveyed were estimated at 53.8 and 100, respectively. The emergence of this unprecedented CHIKV epidemic in Al Hodayda is adding up another arboviral burden to the already existing vector-borne diseases. Considering the governorate as one focal port in the Red Sea region, the spread of the disease to other areas in Yemen and in neighboring countries is anticipated. Public health education and simple measures to detect and prevent mosquito breeding in water storage containers could prevent and reduce the spread of mosquito-borne viruses like CHIKV and DENV in Yemen. PMID:22469818

Zayed, Alia; Awash, Abdullah A; Esmail, Mohammed A; Al-Mohamadi, Hani A; Al-Salwai, Mostafa; Al-Jasari, Adel; Medhat, Iman; Morales-Betoulle, Maria E; Mnzava, Abraham

2012-03-26

97

Qat use in North Yemen and the problem of addiction: a study in medical anthropology.  

PubMed

Travelers to North Yemen nearly invariably report that Yemeni people are universally addicted to the drug qat and that the problems of the country are related to this. On the other hand, the majority of Yemenis claim that qat is not only harmless, but that it has many virtues. After describing the chemistry of the drug and the customs of use, this paper addresses the question of the concept of addiction in terms of data gathered during an extensive field study of qat use. Questions of latency, tolerance and availability are discussed, while particular attention and data are devoted to an examination of the "analgesic hypothesis." It is concluded that a more complex theory is needed to deal with drug "dependencies" and that social and cultural perspectives must be added to concepts of the physiological and psychological effects of drugs if progress is to be made toward understanding institutional drug use such as is found with regard to qat. PMID:7449411

Kennedy, J G; Teague, J; Fairbanks, L

1980-12-01

98

A New Species of the Genus Parasa Moore (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) from Yemen  

PubMed Central

A new species Parasa dusii Solovyev and Saldaitis from northern Yemen is described (holotype in Museum Witt, Munich; Germany). The species has tendency to lose the green pigment typical for other congeners. It is provisionally placed into the genus Parasa Moore, 1859 where it is closely related to P. divisa West, 1940, P. catori Bethune-Baker, 1911, P. marginata West, 1940, P. thamia Rungs, 1951, P. dentina Hering, 1932, P. ananii Karsch, 1896, and P. semiochracea Hering, 1933. The relationship of the new species to these African species suggests its secondary penetration into the Arabian Peninsula from an origin in tropical Africa. The problems of monophyly of the genus Parasa and several associated genera are briefly discussed. All important characters of the new species, and some related species, are illustrated.

Solovyev, Alexey V.; Saldaitis, Aidas

2010-01-01

99

Relationship between hypertension, diabetes and proteinuria in rural and urban households in Yemen  

PubMed Central

Little information is available on the meanings of proteinuria in low-resource settings. A population-based, cross-sectional survey was performed in Yemen on 10?242 subjects aged 15–69 years, stratified by age, gender and urban/rural residency. Hypertension is defined as systolic blood pressure (BP) of ?140?mm?Hg and/or diastolic BP of ?90?mm?Hg, and/or self-reported use of antihypertensive drugs; diabetes is diagnosed as fasting glucose of ?126?mg?dl?1 or self-reported use of hypoglycaemic medications; proteinuria is defined as ?+1 at dipstick urinalysis. Odds ratios (ORs) for associations were determined by multivariable logistic regression models. Prevalence (weighted to the Yemen population aged 15–69 years) of hypertension, diabetes and proteinuria were 7.5, 3.7 and 5.1% in urban, and 7.8, 2.6 and 7.3% in rural locations, respectively. Proteinuria and hypertension were more prevalent among rural dwellers (adjusted ORs 1.56; 95% confidence limit (Cl) 1.31–1.86, and 1.23; 1.08–1.41, respectively), diabetes being less prevalent in rural areas (0.70; 0.58–0.85). Differently from hypertension and diabetes, proteinuria was inversely related with age. Most importantly, 4.6 and 6.1% of urban and rural dwellers, respectively, had proteinuria in the absence of hypertension and diabetes. The approach of considering kidney damage as a consequence of hypertension and diabetes might limit the effectiveness of prevention strategies in low-income countries.

Modesti, P A; Bamoshmoosh, M; Rapi, S; Massetti, L; Bianchi, S; Al-Hidabi, D; Al Goshae, H

2013-01-01

100

Molecular epidemiology of Plasmodium species prevalent in Yemen based on 18 s rRNA  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria is an endemic disease in Yemen and is responsible for 4.9 deaths per 100,000 population per year and 43,000 disability adjusted life years lost. Although malaria in Yemen is caused mainly by Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, there are no sequence data available on the two species. This study was conducted to investigate the distribution of the Plasmodium species based on the molecular detection and to study the molecular phylogeny of these parasites. Methods Blood samples from 511 febrile patients were collected and a partial region of the 18 s ribosomal RNA (18 s rRNA) gene was amplified using nested PCR. From the 86 positive blood samples, 13 Plasmodium falciparum and 4 Plasmodium vivax were selected and underwent cloning and, subsequently, sequencing and the sequences were subjected to phylogenetic analysis using the neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods. Results Malaria was detected by PCR in 86 samples (16.8%). The majority of the single infections were caused by P. falciparum (80.3%), followed by P. vivax (5.8%). Mixed infection rates of P. falciparum + P. vivax and P. falciparum + P. malariae were 11.6% and 2.3%, respectively. All P. falciparum isolates were grouped with the strain 3D7, while P. vivax isolates were grouped with the strain Salvador1. Phylogenetic trees based on 18 s rRNA placed the P. falciparum isolates into three sub-clusters and P. vivax into one cluster. Sequence alignment analysis showed 5-14.8% SNP in the partial sequences of the 18 s rRNA of P. falciparum. Conclusions Although P. falciparum is predominant, P. vivax, P. malariae and mixed infections are more prevalent than has been revealed by microscopy. This overlooked distribution should be considered by malaria control strategy makers. The genetic polymorphisms warrant further investigation.

2010-01-01

101

A high-resolution, absolute-dated deglacial speleothem record of Indian Ocean climate from Socotra Island, Yemen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stalagmite M1-5 from Socotra Island, Yemen in the northwest Indian Ocean provides a robust, high-resolution paleoclimate record from ?27.4–11.1 ka based on 717 stable isotope and 28 230Th measurements. Variations in M1-5 oxygen isotope ratios (?18O) are interpreted to be primarily driven by an amount effect related to changes in the mean position and\\/or intensity of convection of the intertropical convergence

Jeremy D. Shakun; Stephen J. Burns; Dominik Fleitmann; Jan Kramers; Albert Matter; Abdulkarim Al-Subary

2007-01-01

102

Genetic Variation and Phylogeography of Central Asian and Other House Mice, Including a Major New Mitochondrial Lineage in Yemen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region and flanking tRNAs were sequenced from 76 mice collected at 60 localities extending from Egypt through Turkey, Yemen, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nepal to eastern Asia. Segments of the Y chromosome and of a processed p53 pseudogene (Wp53) were amplified from many of these mice and from others collected elsewhere in Eurasia and North

Ellen M. Prager; Cristian Orrego; Richard D. Sage

103

Volcanic stratigraphy of large-volume silicic pyroclastic eruptions during Oligocene Afro-Arabian flood volcanism in Yemen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new stratigraphy for bimodal Oligocene flood volcanism that forms the volcanic plateau of northern Yemen is presented based on detailed field observations, petrography and geochemical correlations. The >1 km thick volcanic pile is divided into three phases of volcanism: a main basaltic stage (31 to 29.7 Ma), a main silicic stage (29.7 to 29.5 Ma), and a stage of upper bimodal volcanism

Ingrid Ukstins Peate; Joel A. Baker; Mohamed Al-Kadasi; Abdulkarim Al-Subbary; Kim B. Knight; Peter Riisager; Matthew F. Thirlwall; David W. Peate; Paul R. Renne; Martin A. Menzies

2005-01-01

104

Early Precambrian gneiss terranes and Pan-African island arcs in Yemen: Crustal accretion of the eastern Arabian Shield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the Precambrian of Yemen, we have identified four gneiss terranes and two island-arc terranes on the basis of existing literature, mapping, and our own field observations, together with new Sm-Nd isotopic data. The two western gneiss terranes can be correlated with well-documented terranes (Asir and Afif) in Saudi Arabia. To the east of these, the Abas and Al-Mahfid gneiss

Brian F. Windley; Martin J. Whitehouse; Mahfood A. O. Ba-Bttat

1996-01-01

105

Recycle City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recycle City contains an interactive city map that demonstrates how residents of every section of the city, formerly Dumptown, have recycled, reduced, and reused waste to turn their town around. There is a Dumptown Game with a Control Center to monitor displays while Dumptown changes as waste reduction programs are put in place. Students can create their own Recycle City scavenger hunt or go to the Activities area and see other ways to put Recycle City to use to help protect the environment.

1997-01-01

106

Thermal history of the Pan-African basement under the Jurassic Marib-Shabwa Basin, Yemen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pan-African tectonism within the Arabian Nubian Shield in Yemen is very poorly known. New drill-cores from the Marib-Shabwa Basin (Habban oil field) from central Yemen penetrated 600 m into the pre-Jurassic crystalline basement, providing a unique opportunity to extend our understanding of Pan-African events in Yemen. The cores were obtained some 80 km NE of the exposure limit of the Al Bayda Terrane, which lies SE of Sana'a. This terrane, which has no direct correlative in the ANS further north in Saudi Arabia, comprises deformed greenschist facies acid to basic volcanic rocks later witnessing acid to basic magmatism and has been previously interpreted as a Pan-African island arc complex with a basement component. Ophiolite fragments are common, both within the terrane and at its margins (sutures). To the north lies the Abas Gneiss Terrane and to the south the Al Mahfid Gneiss Terrane; both consist of older pre-Pan-African crystalline basement rocks. Geochemistry of a red, undeformed granite from the drill core indicates an A-type composition. LA-ICPMS U-Pb analysis of granite zircons gave two concordant age populations: 628.3 ± 3.1 Ma (large & small zircons) and 604.9 ± 2.0 Ma (intermediate sized zircons). The former age is interpreted as the time of crystallization, within the range of other A-type Younger Granites in the ANS, and the latter age as constraining lower temperature dissolution-reprecipitation of zircon, due to hydrothermal fluids or melt remobilization. Nd Tdm model ages for two granite samples from the drill core both gave ages of 1.24 Ga, within the range of the Al Bayda Terrane (1.2-2.5 Ga) and outside the range of the adjacent Palaeoproterozoic gneissic terranes (1.7-2.3 Ga, Abas Gneiss Terrane; 1.8-3.0 Ga, Al Mahfid Gneiss Terrane). Thus it seems certain that the Al Bayda Terrane extends at least 80 km to the NE of its present surface exposure. Rb-Sr biotite ages from the granite indicate closure through ~300°C at 593 Ma, indicating fast cooling either as a result of near-surface conditions of emplacement or rapid exhumation. Zircon (U-Th)/He cooling ages (~180°C) are constrained to the Early Carboniferous. The youngest (Cenozoic) set of veins contain pyrite, (saddle) dolomite and calcite. Pyrite sulphur isotopes, the occurrence of saddle dolomite and calcite fluid inclusions provide strong evidence that the Pan-African basement was not re-heated to above 150°C after the last stage of deformation; this places some constraint on the thickness of the sedimentary cover that was deposited.

Rice, A. Hugh N.; Schneider, David; Veeningen, Resi; Grasemann, Bernhard; Decker, Kurt

2013-04-01

107

Cities Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From The Economist, their Cities Guide offers practical information ranging from accommodations to insider tips on getting around various US and world cities. A very nice touch are areas like the City Briefing section (top news stories, history pieces, and other tidbits) and the Being There area (subtopics include how to kill an hour and gifts to take home). City Guide also contains sections on cultural events, shopping, history, facts, and much more. [REB].

2001-01-01

108

Offshore Socotra, Republic of Yemen: Potential for a new hydrocarbon province?  

SciTech Connect

A new plate reconstruction has enabled the Island of Socotra, currently located in the Gulf of Aden adjacent to the Somalian coast, to be confidently restored to its original spatial position, adjacent to the southern Omani coastline. New studies integrated with these plate reconstructions, have confirmed the presence of an untested Mesozoic graben, which trends across the Socotra platform. Fieldwork carried out in the region now enables a SE extension of the prolific Lower Cretaceous Qishn `play` (delinated in the Masilah Basin, onshore Yemen) to be postulated offshore into the Gulf of Aden. Following the award of offshore acreage adjacent to the Island of Socotra, exploration studies have confirmed the presence of the Qishn `play` both on the Island of Socotra, and offshore in the one available basin-margin control well. This work has also identified two additional plays: the Shuabia-equivalent carbonates, which are prolific producing reservoirs in central Oman; and the Permo-Triassic clastics, which may provide a new reservoir target for the region. Fieldwork has also identified Jurassic siliclastics outcropping on the Island, which may provide further reservoir potential. Ongoing multidisciplinary studies, integrating the results of a detailed geophysical interpretation with high resolution structural-stratigraphic studies, have confirmed the presence of large structures within an undrilled Mesozoic rift-basin, which will be tested during 1995.

Richardson, S.M.; Bott, W.F.; Birse, T.C.R. [British Gas Exploration & Production Ltd., Reading (United Kingdom)

1995-08-01

109

Emotional abuse towards children by schoolteachers in Aden Governorate, Yemen: A cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Emotional abuse is central to other forms of abuse. The primary objective of this paper was to estimate the prevalence of emotional abuse among pupils in basic education schools and the risk factors associated with it in Aden governorate, Yemen. Methods Four districts were randomly selected from across the governorate of Aden, 2 schools were selected at random in each district, and then 1066 pupils were randomly selected from the 8 schools. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences ver.15. Mean, standard deviation and chi square were used for descriptive statistics. Univariate and Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between emotional abuse with pupils/parents characteristics. Results Pupils reported high rates of emotional abuse 55.2% at least once in their school lifetime. Male pupils had higher prevalence of emotional abuse 72.6% than females 26.1%. Teachers constituted the highest proportion of perpetrators 45.6%. Odds Ratio (95% confidence interval) showed statistically significant association between emotional abuse and pupils' gender, family type and father education: 9.94 (7.19-13.74), 1.40 (1.02-1.91), .58 (.39-.86) respectively. Conclusion Emotional child abuse was highly prevalent in pupils in basic school education. Pupils' gender, family type and father education were the main risk factors associated with emotional abuse.

2012-01-01

110

Cytological study of exfoliative buccal mucosal cells of Qat chewers in Yemen.  

PubMed

Prevalence of oral cancer is relatively increasing in Yemen in recent years, which is ascribed to Qat with other carcinogens. Since the establishment of a simple and reliable method for the detection of oral cancerous and precancerous lesions is essential, exfoliative cytology (EC) was applied to a case-control study to appraise the presence and severity of oral epithelial atypia in 300 subjects (150 were Qat chewers and 150 were non-Qat users) without prior knowledge of the subjects' Qat exposure. Ten patients with oral squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC) were included as internal controls. Cytological atypia and hyperkeratosis were demonstrated in six and 24 subjects, respectively, and could not be ascertained in the remaining 294 and 276 correspondingly. All of the 30 (six atypia and 24 hyperkeratosis) were among the 150 Qat chewers. Cytological atypia was found in all the 10 control cases with OSCCs (eight with severe degree and two with mild atypia). For the Qat among those with atypia and hyperkeratosis, the adjusted OR and the 95% confidence level were found to be 1.6 (0.8-7.2) and 3 (10.1-21.9), respectively. In view of these findings, we suggest the use of EC for detection and assessment of oral cytological atypia. Qat use contributes to the occurrence of cytological atypia that might develop to oral precancerous or cancerous lesions. PMID:20949467

Ahmed, Hussain Gad Elkarim; Omer, Ammar Saleh Abdullah; Abd Algaffar, Shadan Atif

2010-10-14

111

Analysis of the consumption of sedative and hypnotic drugs in Yemen and the Czech Republic.  

PubMed

The aim of this project is to analyze the consumption and reasons for the use of sedative and hypnotic drugs (ATC: N05B and N05C) (SHD) in Yemen (YEM) and to compare this with the consumption of SHD in the Czech Republic (CZ) and in YEM, in the years 2000-2005. In 2005 the consumption of SHD in YEM and in CZ was 0.20 and 6.9 USD/1000 citizens/day, respectively. The consumption of SHD in YEM and in CZ increased after 2000 by 637% and 85%, respectively. A pilot questionnaire tested the factors influencing the consumption of SHD in YEM. 72% of respondents were male; 48% had obtained SHD the first time without a prescription; 90% had engaged in the long term use of SHD; 43% did not know the risks of SHD and the majority of users are most likely young people. The increasing consumption of SHD may be caused by the frequent prescribing of drugs for off-label use, obtaining SHD in the pharmacy without prescription and the common chewing of qat and the lack of warnings about long term risks. PMID:23961818

Al Warafi, Abdullah; Vl?ek, Ji?í

2013-06-01

112

Water demand management in Yemen and Jordan: addressing power and interests.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the extent to which entrenched interests of stakeholder groups both maintain water use practice, and may be confronted. The focus is on the agricultural sectors of Yemen and Jordan, where water resource policymakers face resistance in their attempts to reduce water use to environmentally sustainable levels through implementation of water demand management (WDM) activities. Some farmers in both countries that have invested in irrigated production of high-value crops (such as qat and bananas) benefit from a political economy that encourages increased rather than reduced water consumption. The resultant over-exploitation of water resources affects groups in unequal measures. Stakeholder analysis demonstrates that the more ‘powerful’ groups (chiefly the large landowners and the political elites, as well as the ministries of irrigation over which they exert influence) are generally opposed to reform in water use, while the proponents of WDM (e.g. water resource managers, environmental ministries and NGOs, and the international donor community) are found to have minimal influence over water use policy and decisionmaking. Efforts and ideas attempted by this latter group to challenge the status quo are classified here as either (a) influencing or (b) challenging the power asymmetry, and the merits and limits of both approaches are discussed. The interpretation of evidence suggests current practice is likely to endure, but may be more effectively challenged if a long-term approach is taken with an awareness of opportunities generated by windows of opportunity and the participation of ‘overlap groups’. PMID:22413173

Zeitoun, Mark; Allan, Tony; Al Aulaqi, Nasser; Jabarin, Amer; Laamrani, Hammou

2012-01-01

113

City Mayors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Drawing on the expertise of a team of editors who reside in Britain, Germany, Spain, Mexico, France, and a number of other countries, the City Mayors organization is an "international network of professionals working to promote strong cities and good local government." Their website takes on all of the important urban issues of the day, including governance, affordable housing, sustainable development, transportation, and a number of other pressing issues. On their homepage, visitors will find links to recent news stories from cities around the world and direct links to thematic sections such as business, finance, environment, and development. One section that should not be missed is the "City Rankings" area, which includes helpful lists of the largest cities in the world by land area, population and density, along with a list of the most expensive cities in the world.

114

Geothermal prospecting by geochemical methods in the Quaternary volcanic province of Dhamar (central Yemen)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with geothermal prospecting carried out in the Quaternary volcanic field of Dhamar, which is located almost in the centre of the main Oligo-Miocene basaltic trap plateau of Yemen.By applying geochemical and thermometric techniques in domestic wells producing water from the shallow unconfined aquifer in the area, which is prevalently hosted inside the Quaternary volcano-clastic material, a closed thermal anomaly associated with the Quaternary volcanic activity was well delineated. Although the aquifer(s) has a Ca-Na-HCO3 composition, that is typical of shallow groundwater, there are several chemical anomalies in the hotter central area compared to typical aquifers: i) the pH is lower and, consequently, the calculated partial pressure of CO2 in solution is higher, ii) the electrical conductivity is higher, iii) the total salinity is higher and iv) the fluoride ion concentration is higher. Such chemical anomalies in the hotter part of the aquifer do not seem to be generated by the rising and/or mixing of deep hydrothermal components rising into the shallow aquifer, but rather produced by enhanced water-rock interaction processes resulting from the higher temperature of the aquifer and its greater acidity.By applying some speculative calculations, based on the likely temperature of rainfall in the area and the depth and temperature of individual wells, the local thermal gradients in the area have been calculated. The thermal gradient varies from less than the average Earth gradient at the periphery of the delimitated thermal anomaly, to more than 250 °C/km, within an extensive area (exceeding 200 km2) where the gradient is greater than 100/120 °C/km.

Minissale, Angelo; Vaselli, Orlando; Mattash, Mohamed; Montegrossi, Giordano; Tassi, Franco; Ad-Dukhain, Abdulsalam; Kalberkamp, Ulrich; Al-Sabri, Ali; Al-Kohlani, Taha

2013-01-01

115

Qualitative study on the Community Perception of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) Implementation in Lahej, Yemen  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This qualitative study was aimed at exploring the perceptions of community leaders and mothers about health services and community actions pertaining to child health in Lahej, Yemen since the Implementation of Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI) in 2003. Methods: Face-to-face, semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with six community leaders and seven mothers in 2007 in the three districts of Lahej Governorate, Yemen, that are implementing IMCI. Results: Neither group was aware of IMCI, but had “positive perception to the services.” Community leaders expressed “uncertainty about the role of health committees and community participation,” and said, “people can contribute in different ways” and “health authorities must play a more active role.” The mothers emphasised, “poor livelihood and environmental conditions” and “salient counselling messages not received.” Conclusion: The pressing needs for effective community-IMCI is obvious owing to the appalling toll on child health of unfavourable livelihood and environmental conditions and disorganised community initiatives. Thus, for effective IMCI implementation, governmental support needs to be strengthened.

Basaleem, Huda O; Amin, Rahmah M

2009-01-01

116

Genetic Analysis of Viruses Associated with Emergence of Rift Valley Fever in Saudi Arabia and Yemen, 2000-01  

PubMed Central

The first confirmed Rift Valley fever outbreak outside Africa was reported in September 2000, in the Arabian Peninsula. As of February 2001, a total of 884 hospitalized patients were identified in Saudi Arabia, with 124 deaths. In Yemen, 1,087 cases occurred, with 121 deaths. Laboratory diagnosis of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) infections included virus genetic detection and characterization of clinical specimens by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, in addition to serologic tests and virus isolation. Genetic analysis of selected regions of virus S, M, and L RNA genome segments indicated little genetic variation among the viruses associated with disease. The Saudi Arabia and Yemen viruses were almost identical to those associated with earlier RVF epidemics in East Africa. Analysis of S, M, and L RNA genome segment sequence differences showed similar phylogenetic relationships among these viruses, indicating that genetic reassortment did not play an important role in the emergence of this virus in the Arabian Peninsula. These results are consistent with the recent introduction of RVFV into the Arabian Peninsula from East Africa.

Shoemaker, Trevor; Boulianne, Carla; Vincent, Martin J.; Pezzanite, Linda; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed M.; Al-Mazrou, Yagub; Khan, Ali S.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Swanepoel, Robert; Ksiazek, Thomas G.

2002-01-01

117

High relative frequency of oral squamous cell carcinoma in Yemen: qat and tobacco chewing as its aetiological background.  

PubMed

To study the association of qat chewing with the occurrence of oral cancer, the frequency of oral cancer among whole body cancers and the patients' histories of tobacco consumption and qat chewing were examined in Yemen where qat chewing has been most popular. All primary malignant tumors listed in the surgical pathology files at Al-Thawra Hospital, University of Sana'a, in the year 2004 were analyzed, and the patients' histories of tobacco consumption and qat chewing were examined. A total of 649 cases of primary malignant tumors (348, 53.6% males and 301, 46.4% females) were extracted. Oral cancer was the most frequent body cancer in both males (17.2%) and females (19.6%). Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was the most frequent oral cancer (84%), and the tongue (42%), gingiva (23%) and buccal mucosa (20%) were the most common sites. Among the 119 patients with oral cancer, information on chewing habits and smoking was obtained in 92 patients (77.3%). There were 70 tobacco chewers (76.1%), 55 qat chewers (59.8%), and 22 smokers (23.9%). Simultaneous chewing of tobacco and qat was found in 48 cases (52.2%). The present survey has disclosed for the first time that oral SCC is the most frequent cancer in this study area in Yemen, and that the high relative frequency of oral SCC may be related to the habits of chewing tobacco and qat. PMID:17479382

Sawair, Faleh A; Al-Mutwakel, Ammar; Al-Eryani, Kamal; Al-Surhy, Ameera; Maruyama, Satoshi; Cheng, Jun; Al-Sharabi, Ali; Saku, Takashi

2007-06-01

118

Improving the Quality of Basic Education for the Future Youth of Yemen Post Arab Spring. Global Economy & Development. Working Paper 59  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper looks at the issue of the quality of education in Yemen. It uses micro-data from TIMSS and from surveys conducted in underserved rural areas, as well as macro-level policy information from the System Assessment for Better Education Results (SABER) database. The analysis indicates that the availability of teachers and resources at…

Yuki, Takako; Kameyama, Yuriko

2013-01-01

119

Improving the Quality of Basic Education for the Future Youth of Yemen Post Arab Spring. Global Economy & Development. Working Paper 59  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper looks at the issue of the quality of education in Yemen. It uses micro-data from TIMSS and from surveys conducted in underserved rural areas, as well as macro-level policy information from the System Assessment for Better Education Results (SABER) database. The analysis indicates that the availability of teachers and resources at…

Yuki, Takako; Kameyama, Yuriko

2013-01-01

120

Beautiful city  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proponents of the City Beautiful movement advocated for sizable public investments in monumental spaces, street beautification, and classical architecture. Today, economists and policymakers see the provision of consumer leisure amenities as a way to attract people and jobs to cities. But past studies have provided only indirect evidence of the importance of leisure amenities for urban growth and development. In

Gerald Carlino

2009-01-01

121

Social Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans are social animals: relationships are critical to our wellbeing. Indeed, a lack of face-to-face contact can put our health at risk. This report looks at ways to make cities better places to live by increasing our opportunities to connect with other people. It examines how the design and functioning of a city – from transport networks to the availability

Jane-Frances Kelly; Peter Breadon; Caitrin Davis; Amelie Hunter; Peter Mares; Daniel Mullerworth; Tom Quinn; Ben Weidmann

2012-01-01

122

Physicians' perceptions of medical representative visits in Yemen: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background The pharmaceutical industry invests heavily in promotion, and it uses a variety of promotional strategies to influence physicians’ prescribing decisions. Within this context, medical representatives (MRs) are the key personnel employed in promoting their products. One significant consequence of the interactions between physicians and medical representatives is a conflict of interests which may contribute to the over prescribing of medications and thus negative effects on patients’ health and economics. There is limited detailed information published on the reasons why physicians interact with pharmaceutical representatives. This study aims to qualitatively explore physicians’ attitudes about interactions with medical representatives and their reasons for accepting the medical representatives’ visits. Methods In-depth interviews were used to gain a better understanding of physicians’ perceptions of medical representative visits. A total of 32 physicians from both private and public hospitals were interviewed. The recordings of the interviews were transcribed verbatim and subject to thematic analysis using a framework analysis approach. Results The present qualitative study found that the majority of the physicians had positive interactions with medical representatives. The physicians’ main reasons stated for allowing medical representatives’ visits are the social contacts and mutual benefits they will gain from these representatives. They also emphasized that the meeting with representatives provides educational and scientific benefits. A few physicians stated that the main reasons behind refusing the meeting with medical representatives were lack of conviction about the product and obligation to prescribe medicine from the representative company. Most of the physicians believed that they were under marketing pressure to prescribe certain medicines. Conclusions Although physicians are aware that the medical representatives could influence their prescribing decision, they welcome representatives to visit them and consider receiving free samples, gifts and various kinds of support as a normal practice. The findings provided insight into possible target areas for educational interventions concerning pharmaceutical marketing. Such a finding will provide the basis for policymakers in the public and private health sector in Yemen to develop a suitable policy and regulations in terms of drug promotion.

2013-01-01

123

The thermal state of the Arabian plate derived from heat flow measurements in Oman and Yemen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of the Afar plume and the rifting of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden affect the present-day thermal regime of the Arabian plate. However, the Arabian plate is a Precambrian shield covered on its eastern part by a Phanerozoic platform and its thermal regime, before the plume and rifting activities, should be similar to that of other Precambrian shields with a thick and stable lithosphere. The first heat flow measurements in the shield, in Saudi Arabia, yielded low values (35-44 mW/m2), similar to the typical shields values. Recent heat flow measurements in Jordan indicate higher values (56-66 mW/m2). As part of the YOCMAL project (YOung Conjugate MArgins Laboratory), we have conducted heat flow measurements in southern and northern Oman to obtain 10 new heat flux values in the eastern Arabian plate. We also derived 20 heat flux values in Yemen and Oman by processing thermal data from oil exploration wells. The surface heat flux in these different locations is uniformly low (45 mW/m2). The heat production in samples from the Dhofar and Socotra Precambrian basement is also low (0.7 µW/m3). Differences in heat flow between the eastern (60 mW/m2) and the western (45 mW/m2) parts of Arabia reflect differences in crustal heat production as well as a higher mantle heat flux in the west. We have calculated a steady state geotherm for the Arabian platform that intersects the isentropic temperature profile at a depth of about 150 km, consistent with the seismic observations. Seismic tomography studies of the mantle beneath Arabia also show this east-west contrast. Seismic studies have shown that the lithosphere is rather thin, 100 km or less below the shield and 150 km below the platform. The lithospheric thickness for the Arabian plate is 150 km, and the progressive thinning near the Red Sea, caused by the thermal erosion of the plume material, is too recent to be detected at the surface. The Afar plume mostly affects the base of the Arabian lithosphere along the Red Sea and the western part of the Gulf of Aden. The extent of this effect is explained by channeling of the asthenospheric magma by the rift. The subdued penetration into the Gulf of Aden is probably due to the important segmentation of the rift. The continental domain is not affected by rifting in the Gulf of Aden. The main thermal effect of the Arabian plate is probably the channeling of the Afar plume to the North.

Rolandone, Frederique; Lucazeau, Francis; Leroy, Sylvie; Mareschal, Jean-Claude; Jorand, Rachel; Goutorbe, Bruno; Bouquerel, Hélène

2013-04-01

124

Recycle City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recycling made fun. The Environmental Protection Agency's Recycle City Web site offers students an interactive way to learn how recycling can affect their environment. Users can click any part of the cartoon drawing of the city to learn about that particular building or site and what can be done to decrease waste. The site also contains a more involved exercise called the Dumptown game, where visitors click on City Hall to view various recycling programs and choose the program(s) the city will implement. Once implemented, that activity can be seen taking place in Dumptown. Although the Dumptown exercise may require the help of a teacher to navigate for younger students, both exercises are excellent for K-12 teachers and students.

1997-01-01

125

Virtual City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In conjunction with Rice Design Alliance's Virtual City lecture series held earlier this year, home pages have been put up for two of the speakers, Howard Rheingold and Bruce Sterling, with access to online writings included.

1994-01-01

126

Socio-religious factors affecting the breast-feeding performance of women in the Yemen Arab Republic.  

PubMed

Yemeni breast-feeding beliefs and practices are discussed in relation to the ritual status of Muslim women. It is argued that the existing socio-religious perspective of women in Yemen is expressed in, and reinforced by, their attitudes to breast-feeding. Yemeni women consider breastfeeding to be a powerful, but potentially destructive force. The Quran defines the worth of both women and breast-feeding, and this is upheld by the attitudes of contemporary Yemeni society. The practices and beliefs associated with the reproductive and menstrual cycles, indicate that these female functions are considered hedged with danger and ambiguity. Breast-feeding, which is connected to both cycles, is no exception. Traditional breast-feeding beliefs and practices are best understood within the wider context of the perceived place and ritual status of women in Yemeni society. PMID:6526683

Beckerleg, S

1984-10-01

127

Matching conjugate volcanic rifted margins: 40Ar/ 39Ar chrono-stratigraphy of pre- and syn-rift bimodal flood volcanism in Ethiopia and Yemen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

40Ar/ 39Ar dating of mineral separates and whole-rock samples of rhyolitic ignimbrites and basaltic lavas from the pre- and syn-rift flood volcanic units of northern Ethiopia provides a temporal link between the Ethiopian and Yemen conjugate rifted volcanic margins. Sixteen new 40Ar/ 39Ar dates confirm that basaltic flood volcanism in Ethiopia was contemporaneous with flood volcanism on the conjugate margin in Yemen. The new data also establish that flood volcanism initiated prior to 30.9 Ma in Ethiopia and may predate initiation of similar magmatic activity in Yemen by ˜0.2-2.0 Myr. Rhyolitic volcanism in Ethiopia commenced at 30.2 Ma, contemporaneous with the first rhyolitic ignimbrite unit in Yemen at ˜30 Ma. Accurate and precise 40Ar/ 39Ar dates on initial rhyolitic ignimbrite eruptions suggest that silicic flood volcanism in Afro-Arabia post-dates the Oligocene Oi2 global cooling event, ruling out a causative link between these explosive silicic eruptions (with individual volumes ?200 km 3) and climatic cooling which produced the first major expansion of the Antarctic ice sheets. Ethiopian volcanism shows a progressive and systematic younging from north to south along the escarpment and parallel to the rifted margin, from pre-rift flood volcanics in the north to syn-rift northern Main Ethiopian Rift volcanism in the south. A dramatic decrease in volcanic activity in Ethiopia between 25 and 20 Ma correlates with a prominent break-up unconformity in Yemen (26-19 Ma), both of which mark the transition from pre- to syn-rift volcanism (˜25-26 Ma) triggered by the separation of Africa and Arabia. The architecture of the Ethiopian margin is characterized by accumulation and preservation of syn-rift volcanism, while the Yemen margin was shaped by denudational unloading and magmatic starvation as the Arabian plate rifted away from the Afar plume. A second magmatic hiatus and angular unconformity in the northern Main Ethiopian Rift is evident at 10.6-3.2 Ma, and is also observed throughout the Arabian plate in Jordanian, Saudi Arabian and Yemeni intraplate volcanic fields and is possibly linked to tectonic re-organization and initiation of sea floor spreading in the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea at 10 and 5 Ma, respectively.

Ukstins, Ingrid A.; Renne, Paul R.; Wolfenden, Ellen; Baker, Joel; Ayalew, Dereje; Menzies, Martin

2002-05-01

128

Mantle domains beneath Arabia:contraints from Sr-Nd-Hf and high precision Pb isotopic analyses of intraplate volcanism and mantle xenoliths from Jordan and Yemen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have analysed Sr-Nd-Hf and high-precision Pb isotope ratios (with a 207Pb/204Pb double spike) in intraplate volcanics and lithospheric mantle (LM) xenoliths (cpx) entrained in volcanism erupted in Jordan and Yemen. These data represent the first high-precision Hf-Pb isotopic study of continental volcanism and associated mantle xenoliths, and constrain the role of the LM as a source of volcanism. Jordanian rocks exhibit subtle isotopic variations (143Nd/144Nd = 0.51297-0.51285) that correlate with elemental data and, to a large extent, are not the result of crustal contamination. This heterogeneity represents mixing of 2-5% spinel-facies melts, potentially from shallow Arabian LM, with smaller degree melts (<1%) from a deep garnet-bearing asthenospheric(?) source. Volcanism was triggered by lithospheric-extension-activated melting of LM in the Dead Sea plate boundary region that, with time, allowed progressively deeper mantle to decompress, melt and mix with the shallower melts. Chemical and isotopic differences between Jordan and Yemen volcanism suggest the Afar plume has not been channelled NW beneath the Arabian plate. Key differences and similarities between the Jordan and Yemen rocks are: (a) a Late Archean crustal contaminant in Yemen as opposed to a juvenile Pan-African contaminant in Jordan; (b) a common shallow LM component in both areas despite different crustal ages (0.7 versus > 2 Ga); (c) contrasting deeper-seated mantle components which reflect melting of deep asthenosphere in Jordan and melting of shallow mantle metasomatised by the Afar plume during flood volcanism in Yemen. Jordanian spinel lherzolites have a large range of isotopic compositions (143Nd/144Nd = 0.5135-0.5127; 176Hf/177Hf = 0.2836-0.2828; 206Pb/204Pb = 18.501-20.361). Radiogenic Pb is associated with unradiogenic Hf-Nd and LREE enrichment (Ce/Yb(N) > 1). Remarkably, preliminary cpx analyses define a Pb-Pb isochron of 1.34 ± 1 Ga, although the age of the overlying crust (0.7 Ga) and correlations with other isotopes suggest this a mixing line rather than having age significance. Interestingly, the xenoliths do not constitute an isotopic end-member for the inferred shallow LM component identified in both Jordan and Yemen. Thus, either the shallow component resides within the asthenosphere, which is difficult to reconcile with its shallow spinel-facies origin in the Jordan suite and estimates of Pan-African lithospheric thickness, or there is significant vertical isotopic stratification of the LM.

Shaw, J.; Baker, J.; Thirlwall, M.; Menzies, M.; Ibrahim, K.

2003-04-01

129

Prevalence of Rabies in Various Species in Yemen and Risk Factors Contributing to the Spread of the Disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study aimed to describe for the first time the prevalence of the passively-reported rabies virus among different domestic and wild animals submitted to the Central Veterinary Laboratory from various areas in Yemen, and to study prevalence proportion ratios (PPR) that contributed to the spread of rabies among animals, and its transmission to humans. Methods: A brain sample was obtained from each of the 180 animals and tested for rabies virus by a direct fluorescent antibody test. Results: Out of the total number of animals involved in attacks on humans, 63.3 % were positive for rabies. Of these, dogs were the main animal involved in attacks with a percentage of 92%, of which 62.7% were positive for rabies. Of animals involved in attacks, 70.6% were males of which 60.6% were positive, and 29.4% were females of which 69.8% were positive. Males comprised 68.9% of the total human individuals attacked, of whom 62.9% were attacked by rabies-positive animals. The significant risk factors that contributed to the spread of rabies in general included the presence of poultry carcasses and other waste in the vicinity of the attacks (PPR = 9.5) with a percentage of 84.8%, followed by the time of year, in particular school vacations (PPR = 3.8) with a percentage of 78%. Conclusion: Rabies is endemic in Yemen with a very high rabies-positive rate for animals involved in attacks, particularly for stray male dogs. Male children were most often involved in attacks by rabies-positive animals. The presence of food waste (particularly poultry carcasses) and school vacation periods were found to correlate significantly with increased risk for human exposure to rabies.

Al-Shamahy, Hassan A.; Sunhope, Ameera; Al-Moyed, Khaled A.

2013-01-01

130

Petrogenesis of Silicic Magmas in the Afro-Arabian Flood Volcanic Province in Yemen: A Melt Inclusion Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Oligocene (˜26-30 Ma) Afro-Arabian Flood Volcanic Province in Yemen and Ethiopia contains significant silicic material primarily deposited as large volume (>1,000 km 3 ) ignimbrites. These deposits have been correlated to tephra layers in ODP cores ˜2700 km SE of Yemen in the Indian Ocean. We are using melt inclusions (MI) in 4 ignimbrite units to model the petrogenesis and pre-eruptive volatile contents of the ignimbrites. Although quartz is a better MI host in silicic systems, these units only contain plagioclase that has the potential for degassing and leakage in cleavage planes. Through a series of experiments to investigate the rehomogenization temperature of the MI, we found inclusions were glassy at 1075 ° C after 24 hours. We also have compositional data from shorter duration runs (˜20 min.) at 1050 ° C. Reconnaissance MI data show a wide compositional variation compared to whole rock samples of the ignimbrites, and they provide a better estimate of true magmatic compositions compared to the heterogeneous whole rock samples. The inclusions are generally lower in Si (˜59-85 wt.%), yet significantly higher in Na and Al, which both decrease with increasing Si. We are currently modeling these variations to determine the petrogenesis of these silicic magmas. In terms of pre-eruptive volatiles, sulfur in the long duration experiments appears degassed (<5 ppm) yet is retained in the shorter duration runs (up to 500 ppm). Cl appears robust in the MI at ˜340 ppm and is consistent with modeled high halogen contents in such peralkaline melts. We will present estimates for the total S and Cl released during these large ignimbrite eruptions.

Falkena, L. B.; Peate, D.; Ukstins Peate, I.

2009-05-01

131

City Lore  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in New York, the City Lore organization is a nonprofit organization devoted to promoting the cultural heritage of the city through a variety of programs and events. Two online exhibits dealing with the Puerto Rican Day parade and the making of lace highlight some of their more recent work. A resources link on the site leads to several helpful articles that highlight the study of urban culture and folklore, along with a list of related links. One of the best parts of the site is an area dealing with New York Favorites, which is essentially a list of places and sights that local New Yorkers have submitted to the site. Finally, the site contains City Lore's online People's Hall of Fame, which recognizes the life-long contributions of persons who have dedicated themselves to the maintenance and practice of a number of folkways and traditions.

132

City 2020+  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to several public transport units running all across the city. This is accompanied by an analysis of probability density functions (PDF) for heat waves based on recent climate data and climate projections. A dense net of 40 PM measurement sites is operated in order to obtain the spatial pattern of PM concentration as depending on meteorological condition and location. It is lined out how this climate related sub-projects interact with investigations on social networks, governance issues, buildings structure development and health outcome. Related to the later the chemical composition of PM is analyzed in more detail and related to the spatial patterns of health deficiencies. At a later stage City2020+ will propose new strategies based on cooperation from the fields of medicine, geography, sociology, history, civil engineering, and architecture for adapting the city for future needs. The Project CITY 2020+ is part of the interdisciplinary Project House HumTec (Human Sciences and Technology) at RWTH Aachen University funded by the Excellence Initiative of the German federal and state governments through the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation, DFG).

Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

2010-09-01

133

Ghost City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghost City is a collection of poetry about Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It travels through the history, landscape, and family of the writer’s hometown. The poems take up themes of love, loss, food, hope, and family. The author seeks to emulate many characteristics of other poems such as the rich images and details of Elizabeth Bishop and the storytelling genius of Philip

Amanda J. Reynolds

2009-01-01

134

The Cities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Over the past two decades, direct payments from the Federal Government to local governments has increased more than sixfold as a percentage of the revenues local governments raise on their own. Both the Ford budget and the Carter budget revisions for 1977 and 1978 contain policy changes with important implications for cities. In this document…

Nathan, Richard P.; Dommel, Paul R.

135

Influence of the Afar plume on the deep structure of Aden and Red Sea margins - Insight from teleseismic tomography in western Yemen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continental rupture processes under mantle plume influence are still poorly known although extensively studied. The Afar plume has been largely investigated in Ethiopia to study early stages of continental break-up. Here we imaged the lithospheric structure of western continental Yemen to evaluate the role of the Afar plume on the evolution of the continental margin and its extent towards the East. A part of the YOCMAL project (YOung Conjugate MArgins Laboratory) permitted the deployment of twenty-three broadband stations in Yemen (from 2009 to 2010). Using a classical teleseismic tomography (Aki et al., 1974) on these stations together with a permanent GFZ station, we image the relative velocity variations of P-waves in the crust and lithosphere down to 300 km depth, with a maximum lateral resolution of about ~20 km. The model thus obtained shows (1) a dramatic and localized thinning of the crust in the vicinity of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden (2) the presence of magmatic underplating related to seaward dipping reflectors under those two volcanic margins (3) two granitic syn-rift intrusions on the border of the great escarpment (4) a low velocity anomaly in which with evidence of partial melting, just below thick Oligocene trapps series and other volcanic events (from 15 Ma to present). This low velocity anomaly could correspond to an abnormally hot mantle and could be responsible for dynamic topography and recent magmatism in western Yemen. (5) Finally, we infer the presence of hot material under the Southwestern corner of Yemen that could be related to Miocene volcanism in Jabal an Nar.

Korostelev, Félicie; Basuyau, Clémence; Leroy, Sylvie; Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Keir, Derek; Stuart, Graham; Rolandone, Frédérique; Ganad, Ismail Al; Khanbari, Khaled

2013-04-01

136

The human city beneath the social city  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Atlanta Symposium (Hillier, 2001, 2003a) a theory of the social construction of the city was presented. In this paper it is proposed that underlying the various kinds of social city there is a deeper, more generic human city, which arises from the pervasive intervention of the human cognitive subject in the shaping and working of the city. This

Bill Hillier

137

Vegetation mapping from high-resolution satellite images in the heterogeneous arid environments of Socotra Island (Yemen)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Socotra Island (Yemen), a global biodiversity hotspot, is characterized by high geomorphological and biological diversity. In this study, we present a high-resolution vegetation map of the island based on combining vegetation analysis and classification with remote sensing. Two different image classification approaches were tested to assess the most accurate one in mapping the vegetation mosaic of Socotra. Spectral signatures of the vegetation classes were obtained through a Gaussian mixture distribution model, and a sequential maximum a posteriori (SMAP) classification was applied to account for the heterogeneity and the complex spatial pattern of the arid vegetation. This approach was compared to the traditional maximum likelihood (ML) classification. Satellite data were represented by a RapidEye image with 5 m pixel resolution and five spectral bands. Classified vegetation relevés were used to obtain the training and evaluation sets for the main plant communities. Postclassification sorting was performed to adjust the classification through various rule-based operations. Twenty-eight classes were mapped, and SMAP, with an accuracy of 87%, proved to be more effective than ML (accuracy: 66%). The resulting map will represent an important instrument for the elaboration of conservation strategies and the sustainable use of natural resources in the island.

Malatesta, Luca; Attorre, Fabio; Altobelli, Alfredo; Adeeb, Ahmed; De Sanctis, Michele; Taleb, Nadim M.; Scholte, Paul T.; Vitale, Marcello

2013-01-01

138

Qat chewing and pesticides: a study of adverse health effects in people of the mountainous areas of Yemen.  

PubMed

Chewing qat leaves, Cathula Edulis, is now a very common behaviour among the people of the mountainous areas of Yemen. For about the past 20 years, in tandem with national development, qat chewing has been rapidly expanding, and the use of chemical pesticides in qat production has been increasing. In this study, the adverse effects on human health of qat chewing combined with pesticide use were investigated. Results of interviews and questionnaires showed that chewers of qat grown with few or no chemical pesticides and chewers of qat grown with chemical pesticides have considerably different subjective symptoms. Chewers of qat produced in fields where chemical pesticides are used regularly have more symptoms than chewers of qat produced in fields where chemical pesticides are rarely or never used. Chewers of qat produced with more chemical pesticides, in particular, experience acute adverse effects on the digestive system and chronic adverse effects such as body weakness and nasal problems. Farmers who chew homemade qat on which they spread chemical pesticides by themselves may have the highest health risks regarding the combination of qat and pesticides. It is concluded that chewing qat grown with chemical pesticides causes considerable adverse health effects in human beings. PMID:15545036

Date, Junko; Tanida, Noritoshi; Hobara, Tatsuya

2004-12-01

139

Reasons For Not Performing Keratorefractive Surgery in Patients Seeking Refractive Surgery in a Hospital-Based Cohort in "Yemen"  

PubMed Central

Background: To determine and analyze the reasons why keratorefractive surgery, laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) were not performed in patients who presented for refractive surgery consultation. Materials and Methods: A retrospective observational study was performed between January 2006 and December 2007 in the Yemen Magrabi Hospital. The case records of 2,091 consecutive new patients who presented for refractive surgery were reviewed. Information from the pre-operative ophthalmic examination, such as refractive error, corneal topography and visual acuity, were analyzed. The reasons for not performing LASIK and PRK in the cases that were rejected were recorded and analyzed. Results: In this cohort, 1,660 (79.4%) patients were advised to have LASIK or PRK from the 2,091 patients examined. LASIK and PRK were not advised in 431 (21%) patients. The most common reasons for not performing the surgery were high myopia >-11.00 Diopters (19%), keratoconus (18%), suboptimal central corneal thickness (15%), cataract (12%) and keratoconus suspect (forme fruste keratoconus) (10%). Conclusion: Patients who requested keratorefractive surgery have a variety of problems and warrant comprehensive attention to selection criteria on the part of the surgeon. Corneal topographies and pachymetry of refractive surgery candidates need to be read cautiously. High-refractive error, keratoconus and insufficient corneal thickness were found to be the leading reasons for not performing keratorefractive surgery in this study.

Bamashmus, Mahfouth A.; Saleh, Mahmoud F.; Awadalla, Mohamed A.

2010-01-01

140

Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

Kearns, Peter

2012-01-01

141

Clean Cities Fact Sheet  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

Not Available

2004-01-01

142

Assessment of natural and anthropogenic radioactivity levels in rocks and soils in the environments of Juban town in Yemen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The natural radioactivities of 40K, 226Ra, and 232Th and the fallout of 137Cs in rock and soil samples collected around Juban town in Yemen (south west of Asia) were measured. Concentrations of radionuclides in samples were determined by gamma-ray spectrometer using HPGe detector with specially designed shield. The average radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were determined expressed in Bq/kg. The results show that these radionuclides were present in concentrations of (53.6±4, 127±6.7, and 1742.8±62 Bq/kg), (55±4, 121±6.6, and 2341±78 Bq/kg), (212.8±8.7, 109 ±5.5, and 32.4±4.7 Bq/kg), and (32.1±3, 22.3±2.9 and 190.9±15 Bq/kg) for granite, gneiss, siltstone, and sandstone rocks, respectively. For soil the corresponding values were 44.4±4.5, 58.2±5.1, and 822.7±31 Bq/kg. Low deposits of 137Cs were noted in investigation area, where the activity concentrations ranged from 0.1±0.1 to 23.2±1.2 Bq/kg. Also the radiological hazard of the natural radionuclides content, radium equivalent activity, total dose rates, external hazard index, and gamma activity concentration index of the (rocks/soils) samples in the area under consideration were calculated. The data were discussed and compared with those given in the literature.

Abd El-Mageed, A. I.; El-Kamel, A. H.; Abbady, A.; Harb, S.; Youssef, A. M. M.; Saleh, I. I.

2011-06-01

143

The City as Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author gives a rationale for utilizing the city as a place to learn. The city has many problems and although logistics require that we conduct most education in the school building, the author argues for putting out best brains to the task of bringing the city to the classroom and to exploiting the city as a classroom when appropriate.…

Bailey, Stephen K.

144

Evolution of City Tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the ancient times, cities have attracted visitors in large numbers for a variety of reasons. In modern times, once again, large cities are competing among themselves for attracting tourists. Although, large cities have always attracted visitors but until recently, with the exception in cities like London, Paris, New York, and few others, tourist industry has not been perceived as

Niko Koncul

2005-01-01

145

What Is Clean Cities?  

SciTech Connect

This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes the purpose and scope of this DOE program. Clean Cities facilitates the use of alternative and advanced fuels and vehicles to displace petroleum in the transportation sector.

Not Available

2007-08-01

146

Soda Bottle City.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduces the Soda Bottle City project which meets Content Standard C of the National Science Education Standards. Involves design and construction of the city with appropriate energy sources. (YDS)|

Gampel, Manette

2001-01-01

147

Einstein in the City  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On his first trip to the United States in April 1921, Albert Einstein visited The City College of New York before he proceeded to Columbia and Princeton Universities. As a result, Einstein gave his very first scientific speech in the United States at The City College, known simply and cordially to New Yorkers as ``the City.'' That visit, however, is now rarely known. This paper will investigate why Einstein came to the City, what he spoke there, and the significance and consequences of his visit. In particular, the paper will discuss Einstein's associations with Reinhard Wetzel, a physicist, and Morris R. Cohen, a philosopher, at the City.

Hu, Danian

2007-04-01

148

Victory City: The City of the Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For the past 40-odd years, Orville Simpson II has been pursuing a dream, his vision of a city of the future, a Victory City based on reason and efficiency. Victory Cities would be entirely self-contained under one roof, ideally consisting of seven linked buildings -- each 102 stories -- containing residences, offices, industry, and retail space. Although the idea of snap-out modular walls, furniture bolted to the floors, and no kitchens (residents will be transported to the cafeterias by Ferris wheels) does not appeal to everyone, Simpson must be given credit for the depth and breadth of his vision. Users reading the Residents Guide will find that few details have been overlooked. Simpson addresses issues such as the money and food systems, education, postal service, transportation, security, recreation, pets, healthcare, ecological issues, and so on. Users can view numerous floor plans and conceptual drawings in the Victory City tour, review his arguments for the city in the Purpose/Benefits section, and read a collection of newspaper and magazine features on the man and his city in the Media Coverage section. Simpson is, by the way, still seeking investors.

149

BEHAVIOUR PREFERENCES AND CITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The resurgence of big, old cities and their regions took urban theory by surprise. A great deficiency of much urban theory is that it is static, partial, and backward-looking. As such, it has few tools to understand large-scale, medium-term change in complex systems such as cities. Explainingsuch changes requires realistic assumptionsabout the behaviours that make cities. Did resurgence occur

Urban Resurgence; Michael Storper; Michael Manville

150

Theme city or gated community - images of future cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future of the cities has been under discussion since the first city. It has been typical in every civilisation and era to hope for a better city. Creek philosopher Platon created image of future city where all men were equal and the city was ruled by philosophers minds. Many philosopher or later social scientist have ended up to similar

Leena Helenius-Mäki

2002-01-01

151

From intelligent to smart cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing upon the smart experiences of ‘world class’ cities in N. America, Canada and Europe, this special issue draws together five papers from leading international experts on the transition from intelligent to smart cities. Together they do what Hollands (‘Will the real smart city stand up?’ City 12(3), 302–320) has recently asked of smart cities and provide the definitional components,

Mark Deakin; Husam Al Waer

2011-01-01

152

Procedural modeling of cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling a city poses a number of problems to computer graphics. Every urban area has a transportation network that follows population and environmental influences, and often a superimposed pattern plan. The buildings appearances follow historical, aesthetic and statutory rules. To create a virtual city, a roadmap has to be designed and a large number of buildings need to be generated.

Yoav I. H. Parish; Pascal Müller

2001-01-01

153

Walkout in Crystal City  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When students take action, they create change that extends far beyond the classroom. In this article, the author, who was a former teacher from Crystal City, Texas, remembers the student walkout that helped launch the Latino civil rights movement 40 years ago. The Crystal City student walkout remains a high point in the history of student…

Barrios, Greg

2009-01-01

154

Air pollution in cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air quality in cities is the result of a complex interaction between natural and anthropogenic environmental conditions. Air pollution in cities is a serious environmental problem – especially in the developing countries. The air pollution path of the urban atmosphere consists of emission and transmission of air pollutants resulting in the ambient air pollution. Each part of the path is

Helmut Mayer

1999-01-01

155

Communication externalities in cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify communication externalities in French cities, we exploit a unique survey recording workplace communication of individual workers. Our hypothesis is that in larger and\\/or more educated cities, workers should communicate more. In turn, more communication should have a positive effect on wages. By estimating both an earnings and a communication equation, we find evidence of communication externalities. In larger

Sylvie Charlot; Gilles Duranton

2004-01-01

156

Communication Externalities in Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify communication externalities in French cities, we exploit a unique survey recording workplace communication of individual workers. Our hypothesis is that in larger and\\/or more educated cities, workers should communicate more. In turn, more communication should have a positive effect on individual wages. By estimating both an earnings and a communication equation, we find evidence of communication externalities. Being

Sylvie Charlot; Gilles Duranton

2003-01-01

157

The Plains City Story  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This case study portrays a contemporary phenomenon that affects many U.S. school districts. Specifically, the authors address the challenges that the superintendent of the Plains City school district faced as a result of a change in the demographic distribution of his district. The gradual development of the pig farming industry in Plains City

van Olphen, Marcela; Rios, Francisco; Berube, William; Dexter, Robin; McCarthy, Robert

2006-01-01

158

European cities: Towards a \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article puts forth the thesis that European cities are increasingly influenced by recreation, changing the essential quality of the urban space. I begin by setting out a theoretical framework in which cities are seen as specific places used as a resource by mobile individuals in a specific \\

Mathis Stock

2006-01-01

159

Parking, People, and Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study of how off-street parking requirements affect urban form, we begin by analyzing the relationship between population density and streets in cities. We find that denser cities devote a greater share of their land to streets, but also have less street space per person. This relationship results in part from the difficulty of constructing new streets in built-out

Michael Manville; Donald Shoup

2005-01-01

160

Why Do Cities Shrink?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cities and regions in different political contexts might play different roles in building communities, but when the cities shrink, they share common elements of what can be characterized as a “shrinkage identity”. One well-documented element is the independence from the country political context and a certain dependence on the effects of globalization on local industries. It can be described as

Diana Reckien; Cristina Martinez-Fernandez

2011-01-01

161

Seattle's Mobile City Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The City of Seattle's pioneering Mobile City Government Project has received wide attention, since it promises greatly improved fieldwork operations in local government. Three years into operation and with another fieldwork unit in the process of adopting mobile applications, our research studies the work domains of the units involved to better understand the premises, requirements, and effects of fully mobile,

Raya Fidel; Jens-Erik Mai; Kristene Unsworth

162

Effect of different sampling strategies for a single geographic region in Yemen on standard genetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequence data.  

PubMed

Collection of biological samples is the foundation of genetic studies ranging from estimation of genetic diversity to reconstruction of population history. Sample collections are intended to accurately represent the genetic, biological, ecological, cultural, geographic, and/or linguistic diversity of a particular region or population by providing a small, but representative, set of samples. In this study, we analyze human mitochondrial DNA variation in samples collected using four different sampling strategies to represent the same geographic region. Specifically, samples were collected from a village, a rural area, a regional clinic, and a national university in the governorate of Dhamar in Yemen. All samples were assayed for mitochondrial hypervariable region I DNA sequence variation and data were subjected to standard molecular genetic analyses. Our results suggest that analyses in which individual DNA sequences are explicitly compared or evaluated, e.g. phylogenetic and network analyses, may be more sensitive to sample collection design than analyses in which data are averaged across individuals or are analyzed more indirectly, e.g. summary statistics. PMID:21864032

Al-Meeri, A; Non, A L; Lajoie, T W; Mulligan, C J

2011-06-01

163

Sister Cities International  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

People from around the world have sought to establish links with other individuals from different nations, and since 1956, cities have sought to also establish meaningful relationships with other urban areas through the Sister Cities International organization. Currently, the organization represents more than 2,500 communities in 126 countries. Visitors to the site can learn which cities are currently seeking partnerships with other cities, read about the organization's annual conference, and also read about the programs they administer. Also, its calendar of events is quite full with programs designed for the general public, such as those dealing with relationships with countries in the Middle East and the question of local government. Finally, the material on the site is available in a number of different languages, including French, German, Spanish, and Japanese.

164

Noise in Mexico City  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mexico City is known to be the largest city in the world, inhabited by some 20 percent of the national population, so noise pollution is not strange to it, particularly in view of the fact that industry is not concentrated, but rather spread throughout the city. The international airport also lies within the city limits, in the midst of residential areas. The heavy traffic during rush hours in the morning and in the evening and the activities of the populace, together with special events, produce a noise problem that is difficult to assess and to solve. Nevertheless, with educational programs begun several years ago and noise campaigns planned for the near future, in addition to existing regulations, the problem is not completely out of control. This paper presents a discussion of the general noise problem and describes how authorities and institutions are dealing with it.

Beristain, Sergio

2001-05-01

165

Design a Solar City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students design and build a model city powered by the sun! They learn about the benefits of solar power, and how architectural and building engineers integrate photovoltaic panels into the design of buildings.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

166

Transforming Cities With Transit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How are cities transformed by the creation of new transit lines? How can existing transit lines be modified to create new land use opportunities for housing and commercial properties? These subjects are covered by a 172-page conference edition of a forthcoming paper from the World Bank. The paper was authored by Hiroaki Suzuki, Robert Cervero, and Kanako Iuchi. Visitors will note that the work focuses on "identifying barriers to and opportunities for effective coordination of transport infrastructure and urban development." The work takes on a number of global best practices of transit-oriented metropolises that have direct relevance to cities in developing countries and offers both analysis and suggestions for future projects. Sections here include "Lessons from Sustainable Transit-Oriented Cities," "Integrating Transit and Urban Development in Cities in the Developing World," and "Toward Sustainable Urban Futures."

Cervero, Robert.; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Iuchi, Kanako

167

Designing the Digital City  

Microsoft Academic Search

The forms that cities take, the ways they function, and the mixes and distributions of activities within them have always\\u000a been influenced very strongly by the capabilities of their underlying network infrastructures. Furthermore, cities have often\\u000a been transformed by the introduction of new infrastructures. It is impossible to imagine Rotterdam without its canals and\\u000a connection to the North Sea, Chicago

William J. Mitchell

2000-01-01

168

Atopia (On Vice City)  

Microsoft Academic Search

It’s like paradise here. Everything seems pastel-hued as you drive by with the radio on. The car is stolen, but so long as\\u000a the police didn’t see you, it won’t matter. Vice City is a nice place (Grand Theft Auto: Vice City 2002). It is not quite utopia. And nor is it some dark dystopia. There’s no\\u000a storyline here where

McKenzie Wark

169

[Cities in peril, Mahgreb].  

PubMed

The urban population has surpassed 50% in the Maghreb: first in Tunisia, followed by Algeria and Morocco. This phenomenon has greatly affected the distribution of power and the forms of its exercise in the political, social, and economic domain. The old city social strata are becoming extinct while city management is falling more and more under the control of cadres originally from rural areas. Urbanization is occurring at a slower pace than in other developing countries, however. In Morocco, the small- and medium-sized towns are growing at a faster rate than the cities. Their lack of infrastructure and services, like those that exist in the periphery of large cities, preoccupies the small- and medium-sized towns. The urban explosion is much more contained than its management is adapting. Legal and illegal housing will dominate the Moroccan city in the future. In the last decade, Moroccan authorities have tried to establish mechanisms to integrate populations in slums and illegal housing with the urban space. The Tunisians are also working on this. In Algeria, the rigid, urban formal management leaves no room to develop any type of housing. The problem of housing is even more grave here than the other 2 countries. Structural adjustment policies promote selling rather than renting houses. The government is not involved in social and health services. Algeria has a 2-tier society: a minority involved in the private sector and the majority who depends on the collapsing public sector which cannot meet the great needs of the poor. Persons with college degrees are unemployed in Algeria. One no longer knows how to build towns with the traditional medinas. The transportation system is falling apart in cities. Cities dump liquid and solid wastes directly into the sea or the wadis. The major risk of maghrebian cities lies in socioeconomic inequalities. PMID:12179396

Naciri, M

1994-10-01

170

The Cities Alliance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by the World Bank and other organizations, the Cities Alliance is "a global coalition of cities and their development partners committed to scaling up successful approaches to poverty reduction." The "News" area is front and center on their homepage and it provides a fine overview of their work, which ranges from concerted efforts to upgrade slums in the developing world, developing strategies to help cities with their financial situation, and also working on cohesive and comprehensive development strategies. Visitors can click on the right-hand side of the page to learn more about each of these thematic areas in the "Cities Alliance Activities" section. Moving on, the "Publications" area with its annual reports, fact sheets, and archived e-newsletters is a place worth visiting as well. The site is rounded out by the "City Development Strategies" area, which offers a rigorous explanation of the ways in which cities can assess their existing strengths and what the key aspects of a meaningful development strategy might be.

171

The Right to the City  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identity and character of cities in America have been profoundly influenced by race. In the past, laws mandating the segregation of African American and white urban residents through racially discriminatory housing and lending policies created racial geographic boundaries within cities and between cities and suburbs. The impact of this racial segregation in cities can be seen in the creation

Ngai Pindell

2008-01-01

172

Bushehr as an Energic City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bushehr city is one of the famous city in the south of Iran which is situated in the coastal part of Persian Gulf. This paper try to discuss one of the most important theme which threat the sustainability and comfortability of tomorrow`s life. Changing Bushehr into an Energic city is one of the effective ways to solve the cities problem.

Nasser Sabatsani

2007-01-01

173

Antibiotic Attack (Kinetic City)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game is a part of the Tau Pack of the Kinetic City site (see description below). In this simulation, the patient's bodies are filled with bacteria. The object is to cure as many patients as possible. Learning concepts enforced here are that antibiotics are specific for the type of bacteria they treat, their strength, and that the bacteria may also become resistant to the bacteria by mutations.KINETIC CITY DESCRIPTION: "Kinetic City" (www.kineticcity.com) is a fun, Web-based after-school science club for kids, ages 8 through 11. It combines exciting online animations and activities with boxes of hands-on science experiments. Children earn "Kinetic City" power points and collect stickers as they complete missions and learn standards-based science content. Here's how it works: The "Kinetic City" super crew (Keisha, Curtis, Megan and Max) needs the help of Earth kids to save their planet Vearth, from the science-distorting computer virus Deep Delete. Each of Deep Delete's 60 hideous strains attacks a different area of science with disastrous consequences. After each attack, teams of Earth kids fight back by viewing a short online animation describing the situation on Vearth; performing a series of activities to re-learn the lost science and going on a mission to Vearth during which they answer science questions and gobble up Deep Delete viruses. Their scores appear on their own Kinetic City Club Web page. "Kinetic City" is produced by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), with a grant from the National Science Foundation. AAAS writes the "Project 2061 Benchmarks for Science Literacy," which forms the basis of most state science standards.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2005-01-01

174

The knowledge that shapes the city: The human city beneath the social city  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In the Atlanta Symposium (Hillier, 2001, 2003a) a theory of the social construction ofthe city was presented. In this paper it is proposed that underlying the various kinds of social city there is a deeper, more generic human city, which arises from the pervasive intervention of the human,cognitive subject in the shaping and working of the city. This intervention

Bill Hillier

175

Reproducing in cities.  

PubMed

Reproducing in cities has always been costly, leading to lower fertility (that is, lower birth rates) in urban than in rural areas. Historically, although cities provided job opportunities, initially residents incurred the penalty of higher infant mortality, but as mortality rates fell at the end of the 19th century, European birth rates began to plummet. Fertility decline in Africa only started recently and has been dramatic in some cities. Here it is argued that both historical and evolutionary demographers are interpreting fertility declines across the globe in terms of the relative costs of child rearing, which increase to allow children to outcompete their peers. Now largely free from the fear of early death, postindustrial societies may create an environment that generates runaway parental investment, which will continue to drive fertility ever lower. PMID:18258904

Mace, Ruth

2008-02-01

176

Iowa City Electric Franchise: Report to the City Manager.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Iowa City electric franchise is analyzed on the bases of historical, economic, and policy issues. Information on past franchise renewals in Iowa City is presented and franchise practices are compared with those in other jurisdictions. Franchise fees a...

M. F. Sheehan

1982-01-01

177

Hazards in the City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity adapted from the National Library of Medicine, explore the environmental hazards that might be found at various locations within cities and towns, including construction sites, factories, homes, hospitals, offices and stores, parks, restaurants, rivers and lakes, schools, and vehicles. A background essay, discussion questions, and standards correlations are also provided.

2010-10-04

178

Accepted into Education City  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qatar's Education City, perhaps the world's most diverse campus, is almost entirely unknown in the United States, but represents the next step in the globalization of American higher education--international franchising. Aided by technology such as online libraries, distance learning and streaming video, U.S. universities offer--and charge tuition…

Asquith, Christina

2006-01-01

179

Homage to Atlantic City  

PubMed Central

In this article, I reflect on the unique value for the societies of academic internal medicine of their annual spring meetings that were held in Atlantic City for two generations prior to 1977 and consider whether lessons remain from those past experiences.

Jr., Lloyd H. Smith

2008-01-01

180

Making Cities Green.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes several examples of urban parks and the renewal of city open spaces. Community groups interested in getting funding from government or private sources must cope with budget restrictions by making effective, innovative use of available money. Government agencies with funds allocated for urban improvements are mentioned. (AM)|

Goldstein, Neil B.; Engel, Jane

1981-01-01

181

City Schools under Attack.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public education is under attack. There is a general assault on the public sphere as a central aspect of our common existence. The problems of city schools stem from our failure to place educational reform within a broader vision of social and economic justice and our unwillingness to take political action to realize that vision. (MLH)

Molnar, Alex

1994-01-01

182

Bug City: Beetles [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography, fun…

1998

183

Bug City: Ants [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic…

1998

184

Consumption and City Fragmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of the world population now lives in cities, a very dynamic socio-spatial reality with hubs of communication networks, large concentrations of finance and other economic activities, serving as arrival points for populations of different origins, composed of multicultural societies, and simultaneously the domain of freedom and wealth as well as the homeland of exclusion and despair. Diversity and

Teresa Barata Salgueiro

185

Problems of classified cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysed is the economy of classified spatial-administrative units of Russia formed in the Soviet period to provide national security with a nuclear shield. The change of priorities in favour of nuclear disarmament has brought financial and economic instability to major enterprises of the Atomic Ministry and economic depression to the classified cities. The author examines reasons for which the law

L. V. Koval

2002-01-01

186

City Kids Go Green.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes Outward Bound Urban Resources Initiative, a six-week summer course whose goal is to work with urban youth to develop solutions for local environmental problems. Among the activities described include converting city lots into parks, neighborhood cleanup, and tree planting. (MDH)|

Taylor, Tricia

1993-01-01

187

Bug City: Bees [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography, fun…

1998

188

New City, New Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|After eight years at the helm of the City College of New York, where Dr. Gregory Williams grew enrollment at the minority-serving institution by 60 percent, instituted more rigorous admissions standards and launched the college's first capital campaign that raised more than $300 million, last fall he became the 27th president of the University of…

Matthews, Frank

2010-01-01

189

India's Cities in Crisis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Indian cities are growing rapidly due to natural increase and migration from rural areas. This has caused huge pollution problems and has resulted in overcrowded schools and hospitals. Conflict between religious groups has increased; so has crime. India is modernizing, but not fast enough. (CS)|

Bryjak, George J.

1984-01-01

190

TELECOM-CITIES  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

TELECOM-CITIES, a discussion list sponsored by the Taub Urban Research Center at New York University, focuses on practical and theoretical aspects of the impacts of advanced telecommunications and telematics on urban centers. A web-based subscription form is available.

1997-01-01

191

Multilingual Virtual City Guides  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the potential of combining low cost systems with technologies for modelling and rendering populated urban scenes and multilingual interactive avatars is presented. As an example, a medieval European city was recreated, such that within this virtual environment, visitors can see for themselves how buildings look and hear from a multilingual interactive guide the history of the place.

Karina Rodriguez Echavarria; Michel Genereux; David B. Arnold; Andrew M. Day; John R. W. Glauert

192

Visit Cell City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online activity, students search the Web in order to learn about human body cells. After collecting their research, they make an analogy between the structure of a human liver cell and a real city. Included are activity pages, team pages, teacher pages, and a list of electronic resources that students will need to complete the activity.

Glass, Sue

2007-12-12

193

21 Cities- A National Perspective on Center City Transportation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a synopsis of comment from representatives of 21 cities during a 15 month process of intensive communication focused on the public transportation problems in center cities across the country. The project involved the 21 cities in the develop...

1970-01-01

194

Healthy Cities: a guide to the literature.  

PubMed Central

The author reviews the literature on attempts by city governments, international agencies, and nongovernmental and community organizations to improve city life around the world through Healthy Cities projects.

Kenzer, M

2000-01-01

195

Gary Model Cities Health Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Health planning in the Gary, Indiana, Model Cities target area is described. Efforts to involve citizens in the Model Cities program are noted, including the designation of non-profit resident and professional health boards to administer each health progr...

1971-01-01

196

Bushehr as an Energic City  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bushehr city is one of the famous city in the south of Iran which is situated in the coastal part of Persian Gulf. This paper try to discuss one of the most important theme which threat the sustainability and comfortability of tomorrow`s life. Changing Bushehr into an Energic city is one of the effective ways to solve the cities problem. For this purpose, we try to answer these questions: what is called as an energic city?; What are its main characteristics?; What are the aims of changing a city into an energic city? And what should be done to obtain the aims? For these purposes we offer a model which responds to the sustainability of Bushehr. This model uses 3 levels of activity that each level should respond to 5 significant characteristics of an energic city. For this purpose we present some applied ways in each category to obtain those characteristics.

Sabatsani, Nasser

197

Clean Cities National Partner Awards  

SciTech Connect

U. S. DOE Clean Cities Program has awarded its National Partner awards for 2002, and the awards will be presented at the Clean Cities Conference in May 2002. This fact sheets describe the winners and their contributions.

Not Available

2002-05-01

198

Smart cities and service integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

E-government advancements have not fully resolved the challenge of providing citizens with a single entry point for services that involve different government entities. The Smart Cities and Service Integration project (hereafter, SmartCities) aims to establish a framework for smart city service integration that would assist in the management of large scale projects related to the integration of services across governments.

Taewoo Nam; Francisco Armando Aldama; Hafedh Chourabi; Sehl Mellouli; Theresa A. Pardo; J. Ramon Gil-Garcia; Hans Jochen Scholl; Adegboyega Ojo; Elsa Estevez; Lei Zheng

2011-01-01

199

New York City's Education Battles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When Bloomberg gave his first State of the City address, in January, 2002, he announced his intention to seek mayoral control of the schools and abolish the infamous New York City Board of Education, which he called "a rinky-dink candy store." He joined a long list of New York mayors, educators, and business leaders who believed that the city's…

Meyer, Peter

2008-01-01

200

City Branding: Gold Coast Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

City branding is a relatively new area of academic research in marketing. Previous research has focused on city brand images and particularly the contrast in brand image across cities. Essentially this reflects the interest of policy makers in developing sound competitive brand positions, with the aim of achieving a competitive advantage. The current paper shifts the focus to explaining the

Dale Miller; Carmel Herington; Bill Merrilees

201

Mexico-US Border Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: HIV prevalence is increasing among female sex work- ers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, 2 Mexican cities on the US border. Quasilegal prostitution in both cities attracts large numbers of sex tourists. We compared FSWs with and without US clients in both cities. Methods: FSWs aged >18 years reporting unprotected sex with >1 client within the last 2

STEFFANIE A. STRATHDEE; REMEDIOS LOZADA; SHIRLEY J. SEMPLE; MINYA PU; HUGO STAINES-OROZCO; MIGUEL FRAGA-VALLEJO; HORTENSIA AMARO; ADELA DELATORRE; CARLOS MAGIS-RODRõ ´ GUEZ; THOMAS L. PATTERSON

202

77 FR 40798 - Safety Zone; Nautical City Festival Air Show, Rogers City MI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Nautical City Festival Air Show, Rogers City MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...Nautical City Festival Air Show, Rogers City MI; in the Federal Register...be launched to the east of the Rogers City marina. The Captain of the...

2012-07-11

203

Inner City Press  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in the South Bronx, the Inner City Press has been publishing a newspaper focused on low-income neighborhoods nationwide since 1987. A few months ago, the organization went online with a weekly publication featuring original and engaging investigative and analytical pieces from a selection of beats, including the Federal Reserve, Community Reinvestment, Insurance Redlining, Wall Street, Environmental Justice, and Banks, among others. The most recent issue (August 30) includes concise reports on predatory lending, the economic crisis in Ecuador, press leaks and the Federal Reserve, and a round-up of bank news. The site also provides overviews and related resources for Community Reinvestment, the Inner City Public Interest Law Center, Environmental Justice, Insurance Redlining, and related topics.

204

Freedomship: City At Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Freedomship is an enormous floating city that will be a monument to engineering skill and ingenuity. It will serve as a vacation resort or even a home for people with enough money. Although still in the pre-construction phase of the project, the Web site offers a good deal of information about the ship's design. It will be almost a mile long and rise 25 stories above the water. The ship will accommodate around 40,000 visitors who can arrive by boat or plane (yes, there will even be a small airport on the top deck). When Freedomship is not moving, it will sit offshore near major cities and other popular tourist destinations. The Web site provides several artist renderings that tantalize the imagination. Freedomship will be featured on Engineering the Impossible on the Discovery Channel February 25th, 2002.

2002-01-01

205

CEOs for Cities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The past few years have seen a growing number of organizations, institutions, and national think tanks express an increasing concern for sustaining the competitive economic advantage of major urban areas. One such group is CEOS for Cities, which is a national bipartisan alliance of mayors, corporate executives, university presidents, and other nonprofit leaders whose primary directive is to advance the economic competitiveness of cities. The group's executive committee includes such powerful leaders as Mayor Richard M. Daley of Chicago and Paul S. Grogan, the CEO of the Boston Foundation. One of the site's best features is the Trends and Data Analysis Reports, coupled with the Best Practice reports. Many of these documents are co-authored with other like-minded institutions, such as the Brookings Institution, and delve into such topics as What the IT Revolution Means for Regional Economic Development and Leveraging Colleges and Universities for Urban Economic Revitalization: An Action Agenda.

206

Building Healthy Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter has reviewed the range of laws and government policies that affect the physical form of our cities. These laws\\u000a and policies include mandates and prohibitions, incentives and subsidies, and direct government involvement, and they touch\\u000a a broad range of issues including transportation, housing, schools, parks, and economic development. The chapter highlights\\u000a that the health of urban residents is

Wendy C. Perdue

207

Starbucks in Forbidden City  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Do you have plans to open stores in the Taj Mahal, Versailles, or Buckingham Palace?” China Central Television’s news anchor Rui Chenggang askedJim Donald, Starbucks Chairman and CEO at the June 2006 Yale CEO Leadership Summit. Just over six months later, on 12 January 2007 Rui posted a blog entry protesting against Starbucks’ presence in Beijing’s Forbidden City. Rui stated,

Michael Netzley; Bhatt Dev SO DIGANTRAI; Desmond Yi Ming WONG; Weilin Ursula Laura TAN; Yen Julia HEE

2011-01-01

208

Raleigh: A Capital City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The story of the United States is told in many different ways, and the National Park Service's National Register of Historic Places offers a number of compelling online tours that allow visitors entry into many of the historic sites scattered around the country. This very nice online tour focuses on Raleigh, N.C., and was commissioned in partnership with the City of Raleigh and a number of related units of government. The tour presented on this site highlights 48 historic places, and includes the city's Victorian neighborhoods and some of the more quotidian commercial buildings around the area. Visitors can navigate these sites through a series of interactive maps, or by a comprehensive list that provides information about the historical significance of each structure or feature of the built environment. The site also contains a number of thematic essays that deal with different stages of the city's development, such as suburbanization. The site is rounded out by a selection of additional links to other online resources on Raleigh history and tourism, along with a select bibliography of relevant works.

209

Knowledge, attitude and beliefs towards HIV/AIDS among students of health institutes in Sana'a city.  

PubMed

Students of health-related subjects have an important role in national strategies on HIV/AIDS prevention. This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards HIV/AIDS among students at health institutes in Sana'a city, Yemen. A descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on 600 students selected by cluster sampling. Students had a moderate level of HIV/AIDS knowledge (an average of 67.6% were correct on all items). Nevertheless, 82.3% knew that HIV could be transmitted by sexual intercourse without a condom, 87.5% from syringes, 71.8% from infected blood and 80.7% from mother to child. Misconceptions about how HIV is transmitted (e.g. hugging and kissing or sharing food, swimming pools and classrooms) were found among 41.5% of the students. Attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS showed that 59.8% of students were accepting and positive. There was a common opinion among respondents that HIV-infected persons needed to be punished (65.5%) and isolated (41.0%); however, 86.8% were willing to care for an HIV-infected person. PMID:22574474

Al-Rabeei, N A; Dallak, A M; Al-Awadi, F G

2012-03-01

210

BIG CITY, BIG TURNOUT? ELECTORAL PARTICIPATION IN AMERICAN CITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to describe and explain variation in voter turnout in American big city municipal elections using data from 332 mayoral elections in 38 large U.S. cities over 25 years. In my cross-sectional time-series analysis of turnout in mayoral elections, I find that city- level demographic factors are only weakly correlated with turnout. By contrast, institutional and campaign factors

NEAL CAREN

2007-01-01

211

Living in living cities.  

PubMed

Abstract This article presents an overview of current and potential applications of living technology to some urban problems. Living technology can be described as technology that exhibits the core features of living systems. These features can be useful to solve dynamic problems. In particular, urban problems concerning mobility, logistics, telecommunications, governance, safety, sustainability, and society and culture are presented, and solutions involving living technology are reviewed. A methodology for developing living technology is mentioned, and supraoptimal public transportation systems are used as a case study to illustrate the benefits of urban living technology. Finally, the usefulness of describing cities as living systems is discussed. PMID:23834590

Gershenson, Carlos

2013-07-08

212

CityGML - Interoperable semantic 3D city models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CityGML is the international standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) for the representation and exchange of 3D city models. It defines the three-dimensional geometry, topology, semantics and appearance of the most relevant topographic objects in urban or regional contexts. These definitions are provided in different, well-defined Levels-of-Detail (multiresolution model). The focus of CityGML is on the semantical aspects of 3D city models, its structures, taxonomies and aggregations, allowing users to employ virtual 3D city models for advanced analysis and visualization tasks in a variety of application domains such as urban planning, indoor/outdoor pedestrian navigation, environmental simulations, cultural heritage, or facility management. This is in contrast to purely geometrical/graphical models such as KML, VRML, or X3D, which do not provide sufficient semantics. CityGML is based on the Geography Markup Language (GML), which provides a standardized geometry model. Due to this model and its well-defined semantics and structures, CityGML facilitates interoperable data exchange in the context of geo web services and spatial data infrastructures. Since its standardization in 2008, CityGML has become used on a worldwide scale: tools from notable companies in the geospatial field provide CityGML interfaces. Many applications and projects use this standard. CityGML is also having a strong impact on science: numerous approaches use CityGML, particularly its semantics, for disaster management, emergency responses, or energy-related applications as well as for visualizations, or they contribute to CityGML, improving its consistency and validity, or use CityGML, particularly its different Levels-of-Detail, as a source or target for generalizations.This paper gives an overview of CityGML, its underlying concepts, its Levels-of-Detail, how to extend it, its applications, its likely future development, and the role it plays in scientific research. Furthermore, its relationship to other standards from the fields of computer graphics and computer-aided architectural design and to the prospective INSPIRE model are discussed, as well as the impact CityGML has and is having on the software industry, on applications of 3D city models, and on science generally.

Gröger, Gerhard; Plümer, Lutz

2012-07-01

213

Visualizing Software Systems as Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a 3D visualization approach which gravitates around the city metaphor, i.e., an object-oriented software system is represented as a city that can be tra- versed and interacted with: the goal is to give the viewer a sense of locality to ease program comprehension. The key point in conceiving a realistic software city is to map the information

Richard Wettel; Michele Lanza

2007-01-01

214

Independence City Tavern National Historical Park, Pennsylvania: City Tavern.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

City Tavern flourished from 1774 until 1800 as one of the most important public houses in Philadelphia. It functioned as a social, political, even business center for this busy city. Although it had been destroyed, the National Park Service at Independenc...

C. V. Hershey

1974-01-01

215

Smart cities of the future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we sketch the rudiments of what constitutes a smart city which we define as a city in which ICT is merged with traditional infrastructures, coordinated and integrated using new digital technologies. We first sketch our vision defining seven goals which concern: developing a new understanding of urban problems; effective and feasible ways to coordinate urban technologies; models and methods for using urban data across spatial and temporal scales; developing new technologies for communication and dissemination; developing new forms of urban governance and organisation; defining critical problems relating to cities, transport, and energy; and identifying risk, uncertainty, and hazards in the smart city. To this, we add six research challenges: to relate the infrastructure of smart cities to their operational functioning and planning through management, control and optimisation; to explore the notion of the city as a laboratory for innovation; to provide portfolios of urban simulation which inform future designs; to develop technologies that ensure equity, fairness and realise a better quality of city life; to develop technologies that ensure informed participation and create shared knowledge for democratic city governance; and to ensure greater and more effective mobility and access to opportunities for urban populations. We begin by defining the state of the art, explaining the science of smart cities. We define six scenarios based on new cities badging themselves as smart, older cities regenerating themselves as smart, the development of science parks, tech cities, and technopoles focused on high technologies, the development of urban services using contemporary ICT, the use of ICT to develop new urban intelligence functions, and the development of online and mobile forms of participation. Seven project areas are then proposed: Integrated Databases for the Smart City, Sensing, Networking and the Impact of New Social Media, Modelling Network Performance, Mobility and Travel Behaviour, Modelling Urban Land Use, Transport and Economic Interactions, Modelling Urban Transactional Activities in Labour and Housing Markets, Decision Support as Urban Intelligence, Participatory Governance and Planning Structures for the Smart City. Finally we anticipate the paradigm shifts that will occur in this research and define a series of key demonstrators which we believe are important to progressing a science of smart cities.

Batty, M.; Axhausen, K. W.; Giannotti, F.; Pozdnoukhov, A.; Bazzani, A.; Wachowicz, M.; Ouzounis, G.; Portugali, Y.

2012-11-01

216

Safe in the city.  

PubMed

Workplace danger and violence are complex problems that affect nurses more often than is recognized. The home healthcare work environment is challenging enough without the additional risks associated with working out in the open or within a client's home. Every clinician working in home health today understands the demands of visits or extended care in the home and often reluctantly accepts the involved risk. The clinician working in the rural setting may experience similar challenges, but in large metropolitan cities, it has become increasingly frightening as crime, drug use, gangs, violence, homelessness, and transportation issues have made the clinician's job much tougher. It is important to renew awareness and remind clinicians to maintain constant vigilance for personal safety. PMID:18849719

Anderson, Norma R

2008-10-01

217

Kansas City Hopewell  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 2003, the University of Kansas Museum of Anthropology was awarded a Digital Library Initiatives grant for a project that would result in this rather useful and interesting digitization project. The hope was that the museum would be able to digitize some of the excellent collection of material recovered from the 30 Kansas City Hopewell archaeological sites that are located around the junction of the Kansas and Missouri Rivers. Most of the sites date to the Middle Woodland or Early Ceramic period, which ranges from 100 B.C. to 700 A.D. One of the fine features of this site is the 3D images area, which includes 32 excavated items that visitors may view in their entirety. The site is rounded out by a selection of helpful suggested readings and a collection of external links to sites such as those of the Society for American Archaeology and ArchNet.

218

Kid-Friendly Cities Report Card, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report examines the health and wellbeing of children in the United States' largest cities, covering every city with a population of 100,000 or more, as well as the largest cities in states without any cities of this size. Research shows that many cities are becoming more child-friendly, with better access to good education, jobs, and health…

Polansky, Lee S., Ed.

2001-01-01

219

Kid-Friendly Cities Report Card, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the health and wellbeing of children in the United States' largest cities, covering every city with a population of 100,000 or more, as well as the largest cities in states without any cities of this size. Research shows that many cities are becoming more child-friendly, with better access to good education, jobs, and health…

Polansky, Lee S., Ed.

2001-01-01

220

Assessing food security in Yemen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lack of updated information about food security is of concern to many countries, especially during and after economic crises, natural disasters, and conflicts. In this paper we present an analytical framework for assessing the effects of such crises on food security. This methodology can compensate for the lack of recent data in the aftermath of various crisis situations and

Olivier Ecker; Clemens Breisinger; Christen McCool; Xinshen Diao; Jose Funes; Liangzhi You; Bingxin Yu

2010-01-01

221

Fantasies of domesti(city)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conjunction of the terms 'city' and 'house' provides an extraordinary link between these three quotations from paradigmatic texts of radically different historical locations. The house and the city arguably occupy two extreme ends of the architectural scale and the modernist imagination has placed them at the opposite ends of the private\\/public divide. Home is constructed as the mythologised space

Gülsüm Baydar Nalbanto?lu; Leone Batisti Alberti; Le Corbusier

2000-01-01

222

Globalization: Countries, Cities and Multinationals  

Microsoft Academic Search

McCann P. and Acs Z. J. Globalization: countries, cities and multinationals, Regional Studies. This paper explores the relationship between the size of a country, the size of its cities, and the importance of economies of scale in the modern era of globalization. In order to do this, it integrates three different literatures, namely the literature on the optimal size of

Philip McCann; Zoltan J. Acs

2011-01-01

223

Pollution Parameters in Asian Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cities are the core of environmental problems. One such problem is air pollution, a diseconomy of urban areas. Although the majority of the population identifies air pollution with the advent of the industrial revolution, such problems have been plaguing cities around the globe for centuries. Air pollution does not emanate only from local sources. The atmosphere has no borders and

JOHN E. BENHART

224

Locating cities on global circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the cities that have the resources which enable firms and markets to be global. It considers the new intensity and complexity of globally-connected systems of production, finance and management which may disperse production, yet need (relatively few) networks of cities to provide their organizational and management architecture. This produces new geographies and hierarchies of centrality - particular

Saskia Sassen

2002-01-01

225

Designing an Ecologically Sound City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is intended to make students aware of the need to respect their environment and its natural resources. They will apply that knowledge in developing an "ecologically sound" city. Using an outline, they will design a city that has ecological laws, power source(s) for lights and heat, a river, two industries, and homes for its population.

1998-01-01

226

Aerial view of a city  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When a city is built, habitat and most organisms living in it are killed or forced to flee. Cities use a lot of energy and water and create a tremendous amount of waste and runoff. Development is the biggest source of pollution.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-12

227

House prices and city revenues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very little is known about what impact recent large upward and downward swings in single-family home values have had on local government budgets. Using a unique 15-year panel of Florida cities that includes both detailed revenue and house price data, we investigate the pathways whereby a change in house price may affect city revenue per capita and test for symmetric

William M. Doerner; Keith R. Ihlanfeldt

2011-01-01

228

The Future of American Cities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains the proceedings of a conference dealing with the issues that face U.S. cities today. Convened in October of 1979, the conference was sponsored by the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia. The document contains addresses and comments by six authorities on the current fiscal situation of large cities. The presentation…

Mulhern, John J., Ed.

229

Cultural development and city neighborhoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines four defining characteristics of city cultural policy: (1) the concentration of cultural resources in downtowns and cultural districts; (2) a policy infrastructure focused on nonprofit organizations, cultural industries and tourism; (3) the narrow policy scope and political influence of city-level cultural agencies; and (4) the decentralized and under-institutionalized authority and oversight in the public cultural sector. The

Carole Rosenstein

2011-01-01

230

CHED Events: Salt Lake City  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Division of Chemical Education (CHED) Committee meetings planned for the Spring 2009 ACS Meeting in Salt Lake City will be in the Marriott City Center Hotel. Check the location of other CHED events, the CHED Social Event, the Undergraduate Program, Sci-Mix, etc. because many will be in the Salt Palace Convention Center.

Wink, Donald J.

2009-03-01

231

Project Wish: The Emerald City.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Phase 3 of Project WISH saw the evolution of the Emerald City (E-City) from a collection of specialized independent analyses and ideas to a working structural design integrated with major support systems and analyses. Emphasis was placed on comparing and ...

H. Oz J. Dunne S. Butchar T. George R. Hellstrom

1992-01-01

232

Educating cities in Latin America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article considers the development of educating cities from a political perspective, illustrating in detail the diversity of organisations and individuals involved and the challenges they are facing. Bearing in mind that educating cities were established from the 1990s onwards in Europe and spread to other continents from there, the purpose of this article is to demonstrate how this proposal was adopted in Latin America. After discussing the basic aims of educating cities, the paper focuses on the Latin American experience, giving examples of existing projects within the educating cities initiative. The authors are particularly interested in the contrast between the political intentions of educating cities on the one hand and the social, economic, political and cultural world on the other hand. They observe that in this context there is a danger of the individual being forgotten, which contradicts the actual intention of the educating city concept. They also discuss the problem of who should carry out the realisation of educating cities and how the various stakeholders might coordinate their actions. Contemplating new directions at the end of their paper, the authors sum up a number of guidelines and offer recommendations for action in developing educating cities.

Messina, Graciela; Valdés-Cotera, Raúl

2013-09-01

233

Knowledge Infrastructures for Solar Cities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The evolution of contemporary cities into solar cities will be affected by the decisions of countless specialists according to an established intellectual and professional division of labor. These specialists belong to groups responsible for advancing and applying a body of knowledge, and jointly, these bodies of knowledge make up a knowledge…

Vanderburg, Willem H.

2006-01-01

234

Garden City Schools' Media Centers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Welcome to Garden City Public Schools Media Centers Web Pages. The Goal of the Garden City Public Schools' Media Centers is to provide access to information to students, staff, and community in both print and electronic formats. Our goal is to instill the importance of not only reading but also of information and technology literacy skills. High School Media Resource Center Media Specialist: Ms. Nancy Schultz-Speck; Librarian Paraprofessional: Mrs. Carol Garrett; 6500 Middlebelt Road, Garden City, MI 48135 (734) 762-8350 ext. 221 Email: schultn@gardencityschools.com MRC HOURS: 7am until 2:20pm - MRC Schedule Garden City Middle School Media Center Media Specialist:; 1851 Radcliff, Garden City, MI 48135 (734) 762-8400 District s Online Catalog - Destiny - Access the OPAC to ...

Schultz, Ms.

2007-03-26

235

Nature in the City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nature in the City is a project of the Earth Island Institute, and is "wholly dedicated to ecological conservation, restoration and stewardship of the [San] Franciscan bioregion." Their website's "About" section gives a thorough explanation of not only their goals, as well as a definition of nature. Furthermore, this section provides some philosophical insight into what exactly "urban nature" happens to be. Those visitors interested in a more visceral tour of San Francisco should check out the "Photo Gallery" link, and they should be sure to check out the "Natural Areas" album to view some eerie-looking oak woodlands in Golden Gate Park. Additionally, visitors to the site who are interested in the life that teems on Alcatraz Island will enjoy file number fourteen which includes an image of roosting double-crested cormorants on a dramatic hillside. Finally the "Local Ecology" link has an explanation of the "Biodiversity Crisis" in San Francisco, which can be attributed to ecological, political, institutional, social and cultural factors.

236

The backbone of a city  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have revealed the importance of centrality measures to analyze various spatial factors affecting human life in cities. Here we show how it is possible to extract the backbone of a city by deriving spanning trees based on edge betweenness and edge information. By using as sample cases the cities of Bologna and San Francisco, we show how the obtained trees are radically different from those based on edge lengths, and allow an extended comprehension of the “skeleton” of most important routes that so much affects pedestrian/vehicular flows, retail commerce vitality, land-use separation, urban crime and collective dynamical behaviours.

Scellato, S.; Cardillo, A.; Latora, V.; Porta, S.

2006-03-01

237

Olympic Cities: Regeneration, City Rebranding and Changing Urban Agendas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winning the right to host the Olympic Games is widely regarded as the most significant prize on offer in the never-ending contest between the world's leading cities for prestige and investment. This essay explores the implications and sig- nificance of being an Olympic city. After recognising the Olympics as a mega-event with inherent mega-project tendencies, it provides a chronological survey

John R. Gold; Margaret M. Gold

2008-01-01

238

Vision of a smart city.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The vision of 'Smart Cities' is the urban center of the future, made safe, secure environmentally green, and efficient because all structures--whether for power, water, transportation, etc. are designed, constructed, and maintained making use of advanced,...

R. E. Hall B. Bowerman J. Braverman J. Taylor H. Todosow U. Von Wimmersperg

2000-01-01

239

HUMAN CAPITAL EXTERNALITIES IN CITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter analyses a few key issues pertaining to human capital externalities in cities. It shows the difficulties of properly identifying such externalities and explores the implications of such externalities for policy prescriptions.

Gilles DURANTON

240

New York City at Night  

NASA Website

One of the Expedition 35 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station exposed this 400 millimeter night image of the greater New York City metropolitan area on March 23, 2013. For orientation purposes, note that Manhattan runs ...

241

Transit and the Polycentric City.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the role transit plays in evolving polycentric cities, with clusters of activity centers located at some distance from existing downtown areas. The study shows that the concept is widely used by metropolitan planning agencies in the U...

J. B. Schneider

1981-01-01

242

City business cycles and crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the influence of city-level business cycle fluctuations on crime in 20 large cities in the United States. Our monthly time series analysis considers seven crimes over an approximately 20-year period: murder, rape, assault, robbery, burglary, larceny, and motor vehicle theft. Short-run changes in economic conditions, as measured by changes in unemployment and wages, are found to have little

Thomas A. Garrett; Lesli S. Ott

2008-01-01

243

Deer Tracks in the City?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Why would a deer print be in the city?" wondered a student. She had noticed the track near a grocery store that morning with her mother. She was familiar with deer and had noticed their prints on a trip to a local museum; however, she had never seen a deer in the city before this experience. As she retold the story to her classmates, her question…

Quigley, Cassie Fay; Beeman-Cadwallader, Nicole; Riggs, Morgan; Rodriguez, Antonia; Buck, Gayle

2009-01-01

244

Metroscope - Web sites by city  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Metroscope is a directory of resources arranged by metropolitan area. It contains over four thousand sites. Subject category breakdown under each site includes arts and entertainment, business, media, sports, and professional services. The directory is searchable by subject and across cities. A fast and powerful way to access the Internet resources of over 40 U.S. and five international cities, with new sites being added weekly. The site is provided by the Isotropic Media Group.

245

The Experience of Living in Cities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suggests that human adaptations to urban overload create characteristic qualities of city life that can be measured. Studies are cited which offer insights into (1) the behavior patterns of city-dwellers, (2) their perception of social responsibility, (3) the "atmosphere" of great cities, (4) the tempo of life, and (5) cognitive maps of cities.…

Milgram, Stanley

1970-01-01

246

The Uncertain Future of the Central City.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes the decline and polarization of American cities into two separate and coterminous systems: the city of the poor, characterized by the function of redistribution (i.e., public welfare benefits); and the city of the elite, a city of information processing, economic facilitation, and consumption. Demographic trends and social…

Sternlieb, George; Hughes, James W.

247

77 FR 29932 - Safety Zone; Nautical City Festival Air Show, Rogers City, MI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Nautical City Festival Air Show, Rogers City, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...be launched to the east of the Rogers City marina. The Captain of the Port...Nautical City Festival air show near Rogers City, MI, the Captain of the...

2012-05-21

248

City of Soda Springs energy plan  

SciTech Connect

Soda Springs is a community of 4051 people located in southeastern Idaho. The City is planning to become a power sales customer of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and establish a City electrical department. To fulfill requirements and to better serve the City's consumers, the Mayor and City Council submitted a proposal for grant funds from BPA to develop a community energy plan for Soda Springs. The City was awarded a grant and this report is the final product of the planning process.

Not Available

1983-09-01

249

Organization of World Heritage Cities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in 1993, the Organization of World Heritage Cities (OWHC) has been given a mandate by the United Nations to protect the cultural, historical, and social heritage of the world's great cities. For a number of years, the organization has worked towards this goal by publishing helpful "how to" materials for any number of interested parties, including city officials, heritage groups, and concerned citizens. Recently, this site was created in an attempt to bring these materials together at one online destination. On this site, visitors can learn about case studies (such as those designed to rehabilitate the urban core of Havana), read publications on how to preserve the built environment, and peruse a list of related links. The publications area is quite strong, as it contains a number of introductory works such as "A History of Architectural Conservation" by Jukka Joklehto and "Standards in Preventive Conservation" by Rebeca Alcantra.

2005-01-01

250

City Air or City Markets: Productivity Gains in Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistent productivity gains to rural-urban migrants have been documented by a number of researchers. One interpretation of this result is that individuals learn higher value skills in cities than they would have learned in less dense areas. Another explanation for this result, however, is that thicker urban labor markets allow for better matches, which are realized slowly through a process

Douglas J. Krupka

2007-01-01

251

Researching the Oklahoma City bombing.  

PubMed

The authors present a literature retrieval strategy for investigators who plan to conduct research on the Oklahoma City bombing. To facilitate a comprehensive review of the scholarly research on disasters, mass emergencies, and terrorism, a multidatabase search strategy is strongly encouraged. Secondly, a wealth of current information and data on the bombing are available on "popular" and "news" files. PMID:8643773

Piotrowski, C; Perdue, B

1995-12-01

252

The Literature of City Magazines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The research literature on city magazines can be divided into five primary sources: books on magazines, popular magazines/journals and newspapers, business magazines, scholarly journals, and unpublished theses. "The New Yorker," founded in 1925 specifically for a sophisticated, metropolitan audience, is considered a precursor of the current…

Wiley, Rob

253

Reinventing the Johannesburg inner city  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the discovery of the Witwatersrand gold reef in 1886, the city of Johannesburg became, within a very short period of time, the financial and commercial hub of sub-Saharan Africa. It maintained this position throughout the earlier half of the twentieth century in the face of increasing opposition to the apartheid political system. By the late 1980s, however, this had

Lindsay Bremner

2000-01-01

254

Urban agriculture in Mexico City  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the use of urban space by dairy production activities in two areas of Mexico City with different degrees of urbanization (east and south). These activities have adapted to the recent urban conditions, from an original rural state. Dairy production is carried out in the house area, and producers pay for urban services as other residents. In the

H Losada; R Bennett; R Soriano; J Vieyra; J Cortés

2000-01-01

255

The Fuel of Fifty Cities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the results of a survey of fossil fuel prices to stationary combustion sources in fifty cities. It also presents a methodology for comparing the costs of the several fuels in relation to pollutant emissions. The methodology permits the...

1968-01-01

256

City School. First Year Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1971 members of TTT (a federally funded doctoral program within the University of Wisconsin school of education), teachers at Memorial High School, students, and community members planned an alternative school -- namely City School. This report provides background information, descriptive and objective outside evaluative data for the school,…

City School, Madison, WI.

257

THE CITY IS A TEACHER.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THE PROBLEM OF POVERTY IN THE CITY GHETTO FORMS A COMPLICATED CHAIN OF DISCRIMINATION AND LOST OPPORTUNITIES FOR WHICH ALL AMERICANS PAY. COSTS ARE INCURRED FROM POOR EDUCATION, UNEMPLOYMENT, WASTE OF INDIVIDUAL TALENT, RISING CRIME RATES, MILITARY SERVICE REJECTION RATES, AND OTHER SOCIAL PROBLEMS. THE EDUCATION LINK IN THIS CHAIN IS THE…

HOWE, HAROLD, II

258

Lancaster City in the Remaking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the publication is to make the community aware of the city government's use of Federal and State funds in various programs. It is hoped that through this publication a better understanding of the use of Federal and State funds will enable t...

1973-01-01

259

City School Policy. Discussion Draft.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is a draft of a proposed city of Portland, Oregon, school policy. Four themes run through the document: (1) neighborhood revitalization, (2) best use of public facilities, (3) greater efficiency in human services, and (4) the best use of public funds. In particular the policies address questions of equal access to education, school…

City School Policy Committee, Portland, OR.

260

Deer Tracks in the City?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Why would a deer print be in the city?" wondered a student. She had noticed the track near a grocery store that morning with her mother. She was familiar with deer and had noticed their prints on a trip to a local museum; however, she had never seen a de

Rodriguez, Antonia; Quigley, Cassie F.; Buck, Gayle; Riggs, Morgan; Beeman-Cadwallader, Nicole

2009-10-01

261

Bug City: Aquatic Insects [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography, fun…

1998

262

Bug City: Flies & Mosquitoes [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon, including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic…

1998

263

Bug City: Ladybugs & Fireflies [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon, including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic…

1998

264

Can City Schools Be Saved?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An unnatural, selective school crisis envelopes the poor, the cities, and Latino and African American communities. Structures of privilege and oppression apparent in the larger society are mirrored in schools. The perspectives of principal Deborah Meier, novelist Toni Morrison, and poet Adrienne Rich lend credence to empowerment and…

Ayers, William

1994-01-01

265

Operation Junction City, Vietnam, 1967.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Operation JUNCTION CITY was the largest search and destroy operation of the Viet Nam war as of the spring of 1967 when the battle took place. Forces of the United States Army and Air Force, in conjunction with elements of the Army of the Republic of Viet ...

B. L. Crittenden D. H. Petraeus G. C. Lorenz J. H. Willbanks P. A. Stuart

1983-01-01

266

CLIMATE DIAGRAM - MILES CITY, MT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research conducted across the Great Plains has shown precipitation and temperature are the main factors affecting plant growth and development. A climate diagram was constructed with long-term (96-year) climate records from Miles City, Montana. The diagram describes the climate of the area. Maximum ...

267

Cities, Skills and Regional Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glaeser E. L., Ponzetto G. A. M. and Tobio K. Cities, skills and regional change, Regional Studies. One approach to urban areas emphasizes the existence of certain immutable relationships, such as Zipf's or Gibrat's law. An alternative view is that urban change reflects individual responses to changing tastes or technologies. This paper examines almost 200 years of regional change in

Edward L. Glaeser; Giacomo A. M. Ponzetto; Kristina Tobio

2012-01-01

268

The City and the Car  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social sciences have generally ignored the motor car and its awesome consequences for social life, especially in their analysis of the urban. Urban studies in particular has failed to consider the overwhelming impact of the automobile in transforming the time-space 'scapes' of the modern urban\\/suburban dweller. Focusing on forms of mobility into, across and through the city, we consider

Mimi Sheller; John Urry

2000-01-01

269

Sioux City Riverbank Filtration Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The City of Sioux City (City) obtains a large percentage of their drinking water supply from both a horizontal collector well system and vertical wells located adjacent to the Missouri River. These wells are set in either the Missouri Alluvium or the Dakota Sandstone aquifer. Several of the collector well laterals extend out beneath the Missouri River, with the laterals being over twenty feet below the river channel bottom. Due to concerns regarding ground water under direct surface water influence, the Iowa Department of Natural Resources (IDNR) required the City to expand their water treatment process to deal with potential surface water contaminant issues. With the extensive cost of these plant upgrades, the City and Olsson Associates (OA) approached the IDNR requesting approval for assessing the degree of natural riverbank filtration for water treatment. If this natural process could be ascertained, the level of treatment from the plant could be reduced. The objective of this study was to quantify the degree of surface water (i.e. Missouri River) filtration due to the underlying Missouri River sediments. Several series of microscopic particulate analysis where conducted, along with tracking of turbidity, temperature, bacteria and a full scale particle count study. Six particle sizes from six sampling points were assessed over a nine-month period that spanned summer, fall and spring weather periods. The project was set up in two phases and utilized industry accepted statistical analyses to identify particle data trends. The first phase consisted of twice daily sample collection from the Missouri River and the collector well system for a one-month period. Statistical analysis of the data indicated reducing the sampling frequency and sampling locations would yield justifiable data while significantly reducing sampling and analysis costs. The IDNR approved this modification, and phase II included sampling and analysis under this reduced plant for an eight-month period. Final statistical analyses of the nine months of data indicate up to a four-log particle reduction occurs through river bank filtration. Consequently, Missouri River sediments within the City's well field are very effective in water filtration. This information was submitted to the IDNR for review and approval. Subsequently, the IDNR approved 4.0 log removal for Giardia and 3.5 log removal for Cryptosporidium through the riverbank and treatment plant. The City and IDNR have agreed on subrogate parameters for monitoring purposes.

Mach, R.; Condon, J.; Johnson, J.

2003-04-01

270

Air composition over Siberian cities.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is typical feature of Siberian cities that the quality of the atmosphere significantly depends on the climate conditions. During more than half of year, stable atmospheric stratification dominates over Siberia with temperature inversions, favoring accumulation of pollutants of different origin in the lower atmospheric layers. In addition to severe climatic conditions, modern industrial cities experience increasingly intensifying effect of anthropogenic factors on the environment and human health. Urban conditions give rise to distinct mesoclimates favoring accumulation of pollutants. In this case, natural and anthropogenic systems (power-generating and industrial objects, traffic, etc.) interact very closely. In this paper we present experimental results of the study the local air circulation effect on air composition of industrial cities of Siberian region. In our studies we have used AKV-2 mobile station, designed at the Institute of Atmospheric Optics SB RAS. The instrumentation of the station provides measurements of air temperature and humidity, wind speed and direction, total solar radiation; aerosol number density in two size ranges (0.4-10 microns by use of a modernized AZ-6 optical particle counter, and from 3 to 200 nm with a diffusion spectrometer of aerosols), and concentration of trace gases (NO, NO2, O3, SO2, CO, CO2). In addition to the continuous observations during the station motion, in Angarsk, Usol'e-Sibirskoe, Tulun, Nizhneudinsk, Taishet, Kansk, Krasnoyarsk, and Achinsk, we have carried measurements during stops at the city entry, near center, and at the exit. These observations were aimed to estimate the contribution of urban circulation to impurity accumulation on the city territory and to the change of thermodynamic regime. Such a contribution was found in all of the above-mentioned cities. Maximum of NO concentration is observed at crossroads of the main highways and decreases away from them. It should be noted that the NO distribution almost the same as the distribution of CO, which is also of "automobile engine" origin. In the center of cities where usually impurities are accumulated, concentration of SO2, NO2, CO, and aerosol number density as well are several times higher than in the city periphery. On the contrary, the ozone content in center is much lower. In most of the cases, the urban samples have 2-3 times more chemical elements than the background samples. The total concentrations of PAHs in aerosol matter of the cities varied from 20 to 30 ng/m3. PAH concentrations, as well as the percentage relation between them are determined by the place of aerosol sampling, i.e., by locations of pollution sources. Among the identified PAHs in the public green space and industrial zones of Angarsk, the predominating species are phenanthrene, pyrene, and fluoranthene, whose total amount reaches 80% of the mass of the detected PAHs. In summer, owing to more effective atmospheric ventilation, the effects of local circulation substantially weaken. As a result, a significant pollutant accumulation in the central parts of the cities may not always be detected.

Belan, B. D.; Ivlev, G. A.; Kozlov, A. S.; Marinaite, I. I.; Peneko, V. V.; Simonenkov, D. V.; Fofonov, A. V.; Khodzher, T. V.; Arshinov, M. Yu.

2009-04-01

271

49 CFR 372.221 - Twin Cities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transportation 5 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Twin Cities. 372.221 Section 372.221 Transportation...ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.221 Twin Cities. For the purpose of determining commercial...

2009-10-01

272

49 CFR 372.221 - Twin Cities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Twin Cities. 372.221 Section 372.221 Transportation...ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.221 Twin Cities. For the purpose of determining commercial...

2010-10-01

273

Clean Cities Program Contacts (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet provides contact information for program staff of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program, as well as contact information for the nearly 100 local Clean Cities coalitions across the country.

Not Available

2012-03-01

274

City of Temple, Texas. Comprehensive Plan Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The City of Temple's Comprehensive Plan Report contains those final planning elements previously prepared as interim reports. The report serves as a guide for the development of the city's future urban area. Data and plans presented in the comprehensive r...

1972-01-01

275

Scaling Behavior of Chinese City Size Distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the population distribution of Chinese cities from 1997 to 2006. The rank-size distributions of Chinese cities deviate from the Pareto distribution. For city size distribution of each year we can find a population threshold P c that characterizes the boundary of the deviation. The cities with population more than P c follow the Pareto distribution, while the smaller cities deviate from the Pareto distribution. Using P c for every year, the rank-size distribution from 1997 to 2006 can be written into a scaling form R(P,T)= C(T)P^{-? (T)}f(P/P_c (T)), where the Pareto exponent ?(T) is not equal to the value of Zipf’s law and evolutes with time. According this scaling form, the data of the city size distributions of Chinese cities from 1997 to 2006 can collapses to a single curve, which is the scaling function of the city size distribution.

Zhu, Xiaowu; Xiong, Aimin; Li, Liangsheng; Liu, Maoxin; Chen, Xiaosong

276

Extreme Rainfall In A City  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cities contain many structures and activities that are vulnerable to severe weather. Heavy precipitation cause floods which can damage structures, compromise transportation and water supply systems, and slow down economic and social activities. Rain induced flood patterns in cities must be well understood to enable effective placement of flood control and other regulatory measures. The planning goal is not to eliminate all floods but to reduce their frequency and resulting damage. Possible approaches to such planning include probability based extreme event analysis. Precipitation is normally the most variable hydrologic element over a given area. This variability results from the distribution of clouds and in cloud processes in the atmosphere, the storm path, and the distribution of topographical features on the ground along path. Some studies suggest that point rainfall patterns are also affected by urban industrial effects hence some agreement that cities are wetter than the country surrounding them. However, there are still questions regarding the intra- urban distribution of precipitation. The sealed surfaces, urban structures, and the urban heat anomaly increase convection in cities which may enhance the generation of clouds. Increased dust and gaseous aerosols loads are effective condensation and sublimation nuclei which may also enhance the generation of precipitation. Based on these associations, the greatest amount of convection type rainfall should occur at city center. A study of summer rainfall in Calgary showed that frequencies of trace amounts of rainfall and events under 0.2mm are highest downtown than elsewhere. For amounts greater than than 0.2 mm, downtown sites were not favored. The most compelling evidence for urban-industrial precipitation enhancement came from the Metromex project around St. Loius, Missouri where maximum increases of between 5 to 30 per cent in summer rainfall downwind of the city was linked to urbanization and industrialization. The development of small cloud droplets into larger particles requires time. A single thunderstorm cell has a mean development time of about 20 minutes and a life time of around 45 minutes with a mean mind of 10m/s, an air parcel would travel 12 km from the beginning of droplet formation to the first precipitation. That means that the precipitation field is shifted downwind of settlements. It could also explain the the higher frequency of the trace to small amounts observed in Calgary since those events occur under relatively calm weather. Whereas the majority of studies have focused on summer convectional type events, little appears to have been done on the extreme rainfall events on which most structural designs are based. Is there a detectable urban bias in these events? Do urban areas intensify them? What are the implications of point distribution of extreme rainfall events on flood frequency across a city. This paper examines the spatial distribution of the mean annual maximum rainfall event in Calgary, Canada, with a view to determining the relative contribution of geographical setting and urbanisation to point patterns. The data are subsequently maximized to produce maps of probable maximum precipitation for the city. The major results are as follows: (a) position along storm path is the most important variable determining maximum rainfall hazard, (b) higher grounds receive up to seventy percent more maximum rainfall than values based on spatial trend, (c) urban structure and geometry correlate negatively with maximum rainfall intensity, however, (d) zones of maximum flood peaks are found down slope of areas of maximum precipitation increasing flood hazard in the inner city in spite of its lower precipitation. Drainage networks based on point rainfall patterns have proved grossly inadequate for flood mitigation. The new design based on this study recognizes the strong moisture gradients caused by rapid movement of water and other elements down slope. Snow and river flow hazards reflect similar environmental controls.

Nkemdirim, Lawrence

277

Catholic Schools in New York City.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report examines the academic performance of New York City's Catholic elementary schools compared with the city's public schools. Catholic elementary schools enroll 98,000 children in New York City, approximately 14 percent of public school enrollment. The report uses data from the State of New York's fourth and eighth grade tests in English…

Domanico, Raymond

278

The postcolonial city as universal nostalgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modern metropolis of nearly two million souls in the heart of the Ecuadorian Andes, Quito has long been perceived as an old city marked by history, nostalgia and stagnation. This article attempts to trace the origins of the city's longing for its past by analysing the continued rele- vance of the Spanish concept of vecindad in the city's postcolonial

Ernesto B. Capello

2006-01-01

279

Making Cities Skilled. Civic Bulletin No. 40  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Throughout history, cities that have been centers of great learning have usually also taken their place as economic powerhouses. Here in America, economists have long noticed that educated cities--that is, cities with a greater percentage of knowledgeable and skilled residents--have fared better economically than their unskilled counterparts, but…

Glaeser, Edward L.

2006-01-01

280

E-Government: The URBIS Cities Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In1975 and ,1988 the National Science Foundation funded ,$1.9 million for studies of information technology in 42 US cities (URBIS I and II). These are the most studied cities in regards to IT or computer ,use and were intended to offer us a ,view of where ,cities would ,be moving in the future. But that future has become the

ALANA NORTHROP

281

Creating Smart-er Cities: An Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The following offers an overview of what it means for cities to be "smart." It draws the supporting definitions and critical insights into smart cities from a series of papers presented at the 2009 Trans-national Conference on Creating Smart(er) Cities. What the papers all have in common is their desire to overcome the all too often…

Allwinkle, Sam; Cruickshank, Peter

2011-01-01

282

Project RICE (Responsive Inner City Education).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project RICE (Responsive Inner City Education) prepared a cadre of 36 teachers drawn from majority and minority populations in 3 inner-city schools in Buffalo (New York) to complement mastery of subject matter with appropriate pedagogical styles. The project was designed to test the hypothesis that minority students in inner-city schools do not…

Mattai, P. Rudy

283

City Schools: Lessons from New York.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book presents a collection of essays by researchers and educators that examine the largest school system in the U.S.--the New York City school system. There are 5 parts with 15 chapters. Part 1, "Education in the City," includes: (1) "Schooling in New York City: The Socioeconomic Context" (Emanuel Tobier) and (2) "Public Schools That Work"…

Ravitch, Diane, Ed.; Viteritti, Joseph P., Ed.

284

Antecedents of residents' city brand attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

City branding is a relatively new area of academic research in marketing. Earlier research focuses on city brand images and particularly the contrast in brand image between cities. Essentially that attention reflects the interest of policy makers in developing sound competitive brand positions, with the aim of achieving a competitive advantage. The current paper shifts the focus to explaining the

Bill Merrilees; Dale Miller; Carmel Herington

2009-01-01

285

Socioeconomic Aspects in an Extended Contemporary City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary cities face significant traffic problems that tend to degrade the quality of life. Moreover, traffic habits of the residents in each city district are directly related to their socioeconomic status. In order to study the traffic patterns in a city and its suburbs, a huge amount of traffic data (number of automobiles, composition of the fleet, etc.) is required.

P. A. Kassomenos

2005-01-01

286

Demythologizing the Inner-City Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This collection of papers from a conference sponsored by Georgia State University addresses a variety of issues and myths regarding inner-city children. Chapters deal with: (1) the educational theory of W.E.B. DuBois; (2) the explicit and implicit meaning of demythologizing the inner-city child; (3) the education of inner-city children; (4)…

Granger, Robert C., Ed.; Young, James C., Ed.

287

Research Review: City and Regional Magazines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Argues that city magazines have vast unexplored potential as agenda setters, investigative reporters, and advocates of improved cities. Traces the historical development of city magazines, reviews the limited research in the field, and suggests research approaches that the magazines could use to expand their services to readers, advertisers,…

Hynds, Ernest C.

1994-01-01

288

Intelligent cities: Variable geometries of spatial intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the spatial intelligence of cities, the use of information communication technologies (ICTs) and institutional frameworks that support innovation ecosystems of cities and increase the problem-solving capability of communities and cities. It is based on three case studies on Bletchley Park, Cyberport Hong Kong and Smart Amsterdam, which highlight different architectures of spatial intelligence: (1) orchestration intelligence that

Nicos Komninos

2011-01-01

289

European cities and place-identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scholars concerned with different aspects of cities (formal, spatial, social, economic) converge in pointing place identity - the city's distinctive characteristics - as a powerful means to play right with intercity competition in the era of economic globalisation and European integration. To enhance place-identity in European cities, European Union and local governments have been supporting built heritage; financing research and

Aspa Gospodini

2002-01-01

290

Lock living: Urban sprawl in Mediterranean cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Lock living” refers to the importance of security design, consumed as a commodity, in the new suburban residential landscapes of Mediterranean cities. This article summarizes the process of urban sprawl that has developed in the cities of Southern Europe in recent decades. It presents the main consequences of this evolution, regarding changes in residential landscape. Mediterranean cities have been historically

Francesc Munoz

2003-01-01

291

City Schools: Lessons from New York.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents a collection of essays by researchers and educators that examine the largest school system in the U.S.--the New York City school system. There are 5 parts with 15 chapters. Part 1, "Education in the City," includes: (1) "Schooling in New York City: The Socioeconomic Context" (Emanuel Tobier) and (2) "Public Schools That Work"…

Ravitch, Diane, Ed.; Viteritti, Joseph P., Ed.

292

NATIONAL COOPERATIVE INNER CITY ASTHMA STUDY (NCICAS)  

EPA Science Inventory

National Cooperative Inner City Asthma Study (NCICAS) Phase I is to identify factors responsible for the rise in asthma among inner-city children aged 4-9 years. NCICAS Phase II is an intervention study aimed at reducing the asthma morbidity of inner city children aged 5-11 years...

293

The City as Public Space: Abuja - the Capital City of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the social construction of public space in the Central Area of Abuja, Nigeria's capital city. Using qualitative data collected from a survey of public spaces in the Capital City, the paper argues that the grand philosophy of 'City As Public Space' which permeated the master planning of the city and which itself was distilled from the nationalistic

Goomsu Ikoku

2004-01-01

294

33 CFR 100.911 - Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI. 100.911 Section 100.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters...NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.911 Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area . A regulated area is established...

2013-07-01

295

33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters... § 100.919 International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area . A regulated area is established...

2013-07-01

296

City University of New York  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The City University of New York, New York, USA contains the 19 CUNY colleges. Offers previews of multimedia programs developed by CUNY faculty and links to an innovative gopher containing resources for teaching English as a second language. Featured in the CUNY Multimedia Development Initiative page is "The Art of Renaissance Science," a prototype hypermedia article that explores the interconnections between art and science in Renaissance Italy.

297

Information Needs of City Travellers  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter focuses on the information needs of city travellers and their implications on actual travel behaviour. Three\\u000a different online travel information sources — Visiteuropeancities.info, Salzburg.info and Google.com — are used to demonstrate\\u000a the temporal relationship of online information search and travel behaviour over time. Based on log file analyses, the relationship\\u000a between the information retrieval process and the actual

Clemens Költringer; Karl Wöber

298

Hawking In The Creative City  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of creative industries in Asia in recent years has seen the rise of Korea, Hong Kong and Singapore as post-modern centres of innovation. From the new co-produced pan-Asian horror and action film genres, to brands like Samsung and Creative Technology, to the branding of cities through new nationalisms, creative industries are transforming cultural industries by merging the arts

Audrey Yue

2007-01-01

299

Urban Heat Islands: Hotter Cities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article demonstrates how as cities add roads, buildings, industry, and people heat islands are created in urban areas. Some consequences include:human discomfort and sometimes human health risks, increase in energy use, leading to release of more greenhouse gases, air pollution and increased levels of urban ozone, and higher costs because of greater water and energy use.

Urban Heat Islands (University of Western Ontario;)

2004-11-01

300

Do Cities Affect the Weather?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore clouds and how they form. Learners compare the cloud formation in two bottles, one with air freshener and one without, to examine the importance of condensation nuclei. Learners will discover that pollution and dust in cities increase the number of condensation nuclei in the atmosphere, which can affect the local weather. This activity is written as a demonstration for a whole group, but can be conducted by individual learners.

University, Colorado S.

2009-01-01

301

NASA helps reduce city hot spots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When researchers from NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., recently flew a thermal camera, mounted on a NASA aircraft, over Baton Rouge, La., Sacramento, Calif., and Salt Lake City, Utah, they took each city's temperature and produced an image that pinpoints the cities' "hot spots."Now, the researchers are using the images to study what types of surfaces in cities contribute to bubble-like accumulations of hot air, called urban heat islands. The bubbles of hot air develop over cities as naturally vegetated surfaces are replaced with asphalt, concrete, rooftops, and other man-made materials.

Showstack, Randy

302

The size, scale, and shape of cities.  

PubMed

Despite a century of effort, our understanding of how cities evolve is still woefully inadequate. Recent research, however, suggests that cities are complex systems that mainly grow from the bottom up, their size and shape following well-defined scaling laws that result from intense competition for space. An integrated theory of how cities evolve, linking urban economics and transportation behavior to developments in network science, allometric growth, and fractal geometry, is being slowly developed. This science provides new insights into the resource limits facing cities in terms of the meaning of density, compactness, and sprawl, and related questions of sustainability. It has the potential to enrich current approaches to city planning and replace traditional top-down strategies with realistic city plans that benefit all city dwellers. PMID:18258906

Batty, Michael

2008-02-01

303

Natural Hazards In Mexico City  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Around the world more than 300 natural disasters occur each year, taking about 250,000 lives and directly affecting more than 200 million people. Natural hazards are complex and vary greatly in their frequency, speed of onset, duration and area affected. They are distinguished from extreme natural events, which are much more common and widespread, by their potential impacts on human societies. A natural disaster is the occurrence of a natural hazard on a large scale, involving great damage and, particularly in developing countries, great loss of life. The Basin of Mexico, whose central and southwestern parts are occupied by the urban area of Mexico City at the average altitude of 2,240 m above the sea level, is located on the southern edge of the Southern Plateau Central, on a segment of the Trans-Mexican Neovolcanic Belt that developed during Pliocene-Holocene times. The Basin of Mexico is a closed basin, which was created with the closing of the former Valley of Mexico because of basaltic-andesitic volcanism that formed the Sierra de Chichinautzin south of the city. The south-flowing drainage was obstructed and prompted the development of a lake that became gradually filled with sediments during the last 700,000 years. The lake fill accumulated unconformably over a terrain of severely dissected topography, which varies notably in thickness laterally. The major part of the urban area of Mexico City is built over these lake deposits, whereas the rest is built over alluvial material that forms the transition zone between the lake deposits and what constitutes the basement for the basin fill. In the present study, the effect of rain, fire and earthquakes onto Mexico City is evaluated. Rain risk was calculated using the most dangerous flood paths. The fire risk zones were determined by defining the vegetation areas with greater probability to catch fires. Earthquake hazards were determined by characterization of the zones that are vulnerable to damages produced by earthquakes. This information was used to generate maps, which delimited zones that may suffer damage by rain, fire or earthquake. The convolution of the obtained maps produces a map of the city, where the areas with higher probability to suffer a hazard are defined. These results can be used to propose land use planning to avoid the growth of urban areas in high-risk zones.

Torres-Vera, M.

2001-12-01

304

WHO Healthy City Initiative in Japan.  

PubMed

City environmental conditions are associated with health outcomes in people living there. World Health Organization (WHO) initiated Healthy City in 1986. To promote the networking, Alliance for Healthy Cities (AFHC) was launched in 2003 with local offices including AFHC Japan. As of 2010, 26 cities are members of AFHC Japan. A questionnaire was sent to those member cities. It includes questions on why they became an AFHC member, which section is in charge of the initiatives, what factors are important for promotion, and others. Out of the 26 cities, 13 cities returned the completed questionnaire. As for factors important for promoting the initiatives, 10 (77%) out of the 13 cities answered "consciousness of residents", while five (38%) chose "budget". This result suggests that community participation is a more important factor than budget for promoting and succeeding in the initiatives. Aging is a problem in any of the member cities, and six cities out the 13 falls under the category of superaged society, which is defined as a society with the proportion of aged people < 65 years being greater than 21% of the whole population. Eleven cities (85%) agreed that bicycles are an alternative means of transportation to cars; however, infrastructure for ensuring safety needs further improvement. In the promotion of Healthy City, networking among the member cities in Japan and worldwide should be promoted. Community participation with empowerment from the planning stage should lead to sustainable initiatives. The function of AFHC in collaboration among the members should be strengthened to cope with the rapidly changing city environment. PMID:23718975

Yoshizawa, Kazuko

2013-01-01

305

The origins of scaling in cities.  

PubMed

Despite the increasing importance of cities in human societies, our ability to understand them scientifically and manage them in practice has remained limited. The greatest difficulties to any scientific approach to cities have resulted from their many interdependent facets, as social, economic, infrastructural, and spatial complex systems that exist in similar but changing forms over a huge range of scales. Here, I show how all cities may evolve according to a small set of basic principles that operate locally. A theoretical framework was developed to predict the average social, spatial, and infrastructural properties of cities as a set of scaling relations that apply to all urban systems. Confirmation of these predictions was observed for thousands of cities worldwide, from many urban systems at different levels of development. Measures of urban efficiency, capturing the balance between socioeconomic outputs and infrastructural costs, were shown to be independent of city size and might be a useful means to evaluate urban planning strategies. PMID:23788793

Bettencourt, Luís M A

2013-06-21

306

Curating the City: Wilshire Blvd  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To die-hard urbanistas, viewing the various parts of cities as discrete objects to be examined and celebrated is as natural as breathing in and out. There are many who like to look at a cityÂs primary arteries, such as ChicagoÂs State Street, or in the case of this website, Los AngelesÂs storied Wilshire Boulevard. Stretching across 16 miles and moving through three municipalities, Wilshire Boulevard is known for such signature landmarks as Palisades Park in Santa Monica and the Beverly Wilshire Hotel. Visitors will find the interactive map of the Boulevard quite a treat, as they are free to browse around by moving their mouse across a visually appealing map that offers highlights of the built environment on and around the area. Those who have their own personal memories of the Boulevard may wish to submit them in the siteÂs ÂMemory BookÂ, which currently contains personal memories offered by Angelenos and others.

307

Information Technology and the Future of Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Will improvements in information technology eliminate face-to-face interactions and make cities obsolete? In this paper, we present a model where people make contacts and choose a mode of interaction: meeting face-to-face or communicating electronically. Cities are a means of reducing the fixed travel costs involved in face-to-face interactions. When telecommunications technology improves, there will be two opposing effects on cities

Jess Gaspar; Edward L. Glaeser

1998-01-01

308

Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2006  

SciTech Connect

Report summarizes Clean Cities coalition accomplishments, including membership, funding, sales of alternative fuel blends, deployment of AFVs and HEVs, idle reduction initiatives, and fuel economy activities.

Bergeron, P.; Putsche, V.

2007-07-01

309

The carbon emissions of Chinese cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As increasing urbanization has become a national policy priority for economic growth in China, cities have become important players in efforts to reduce carbon emissions. However, their efforts have been hampered by the lack of specific and comparable carbon emission inventories. Comprehensive carbon emission inventories for twelve Chinese cities, which present both a relatively current snapshot and also show how emissions have changed over the past several years, were developed using a bottom-up approach. Carbon emissions in most Chinese cities rose along with economic growth from 2004 to 2008. Yet per capita carbon emissions varied between the highest and lowest emitting cities by a factor of nearly 7. Average contributions of sectors to per capita emissions for all Chinese cities were 65.1% for industrial energy consumption, 10.1% for industrial processes, 10.4% for transportation, 7.7% for household energy consumption, 4.2% for commercial energy consumption and 2.5% for waste processing. However, these shares are characterized by considerable variability due to city-specific factors. The levels of per capita carbon emissions in China's cities were higher than we anticipated before comparing them with the average of ten cities in other parts of the world. This is mainly due to the major contribution of the industry sector in Chinese cities.

Wang, H.; Zhang, R.; Liu, M.; Bi, J.

2012-07-01

310

Transfer/transform relationships in continental rifts and margins and their control on syn- and post-rift denudation: the case of the southeastern Gulf of Aden, Socotra Island, Yemen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transfer zones are ubiquist features in continental rifts and margins, as well as transform faults in oceanic lithosphere. Here, we present the structural study of such a structure (the Hadibo Transfer Zone, HTZ) from the southeastern Gulf of Aden, in Socotra Island, Yemen. There, from field data, the HTZ is interpreted as being reactivated, obliquely to divergence, since early rifting stages. Then, from a short review of transfer/transform fault zone geometries worldwide, we derive a classification in terms of relative importance (1st, 2nd, 3rd order), geometry, and location. We suggest that the HTZ is a 1st order transfer fault zone as it controls the initiation of a 1st order oceanic transform fault zone. We then investigate the denudation history of the region surrounding the HTZ in order to highlight the interplay of normal and transfer/transform tectonic structures in the course of rift evolution. Samples belong from two distinct East and West domains of the Socotra Island, separated by the (HTZ). Tectonic denudation started during the Priabonian-Rupelian along flat normal faults and removed all the overlying sedimentary formations, allowing basement exhumation up to the surface (~ 1.2 - 1.6 km of exhumation). Forward t-T modelling of the data requires a slightly earlier date and shorter period for development of rifting in the E-Socotra domain (38 - 34 Ma), compared to the W-Socotra domain (34 - 25 Ma), which suggests that the HTZ was already active at that time. A second major event of basement cooling and exhumation (additional ~ 0.7 - 1 km), starting at about ~ 20 Ma, has only been recorded on the E-Socotra domain. This second denudation phase significantly post-dates local rifting period but appears synchronous with Ocean Continent Transition (OCT: 20 - 17.6 Ma). This late syn-OCT uplift is maximum close to the HTZ, in the wedge of hangingwall delimited by this transfer system and the steep north-dipping normal faults that accommodated the vertical motion. This particular pattern of uplift and denudation during the OCT reorganisation suggests that the late uplift of the margin can be strongly differential from a segment to another, depending on its previous extensional history.

Pik, Raphael; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Leroy, Sylvie; Denele, Yoann; Razin, Philippe; Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Khanbari, Khaled

2013-04-01

311

75 FR 22333 - Safety Zone; Michigan City Super Boat Grand Prix, Lake Michigan, Michigan City, IN  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...click ``Search.'' Click the ``Open Docket Folder'' in the...with the Michigan City Super Boat Grand Prix. The Captain of the Port, Sector...during the Michigan City Super Boat Grand Prix. The Coast Guard proposes...

2010-04-28

312

Staffing Services to People in the Cities. No. 1. Does City Personnel Training Pay Off.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Management of the cities, particularly the management of personnel, is demanding national attention. The city as a producer of public services depends heavily on the quality of its personnel--the personnel who plan and who execute decisions about services...

1975-01-01

313

A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities, 2000: A 25-City Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assess the status of hunger and homelessness in U.S. cities during the year 2000, the U.S. Conference of Mayors surveyed 25 major cities whose mayors were members of its Task Force on Hunger and Homelessness. The survey sought information and estimates from each city on emergency food supplies and services, the causes of hunger and…

Lowe, Eugene T.

314

The Strategic Bombing of German Cities during World War II and its Impact on City Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We construct a unique data set to analyze whether or not a large temporary shock had an impact on German city growth and city size distribution. Following recent work by Davis and Weinstein (2001) on Japan, we take the strategic bombing of German cities during WWII as our example of such a shock. The goal of this paper is to

Steven Brakman; Harry Garretsen; Marc Schramm

2002-01-01

315

76 FR 31235 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Ocean City, MD to support the Ocean City Air Show. This action...navigable waters during the Ocean City Air Show. This action...traffic movement on the Atlantic Ocean to protect mariners from the...Transportation, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200...

2011-05-31

316

A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities, 2000: A 25-City Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To assess the status of hunger and homelessness in U.S. cities during the year 2000, the U.S. Conference of Mayors surveyed 25 major cities whose mayors were members of its Task Force on Hunger and Homelessness. The survey sought information and estimates from each city on emergency food supplies and services, the causes of hunger and…

Lowe, Eugene T.

317

The strategic bombing of German cities during World War II and its impact on city growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We construct a unique data set in order to analyse whether or not a large temporary shock has an impact on city growth. Following recent work by Davis and Weinstein on Japan, we take the strategic bombing of German cities during World War II as an example of such a shock, and analyse its impact on post-war German city growth.

Steven Brakman; Harry Garretsen; Marc Schramm

2004-01-01

318

77 FR 39413 - Safety Zone: Crescent City Fourth of July Fireworks Event, Crescent City, CA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Safety Zone: Crescent City Fourth of July Fireworks Event, Crescent City, CA AGENCY: Coast...support of the Crescent City Fourth of July Fireworks Event on July 4, 2012. This safety...posed by the pyrotechnics used in this fireworks display, the safety zone is...

2012-07-03

319

City of Pullman Image Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The city of Pullman in eastern Washington was first settled in 1874 by Bowlin Farr, who would also plat the town in 1881. A decade later, a committee decided that Pullman should serve as the location for the land grant college. The school that would later become Washington State University opened its doors in January 1892, and the town's fortunes have been linked closely to those of that institution ever since. This delightful digital collection brings together over 1200 photographs and postcards culled from the Special Collections holdings at the Washington State University Libraries. On the collection's homepage, visitors can perform a keyword search, look over a list of topical headings, or just elect to browse through the entire collection. Visitors might want to get started by typing in "palouse" or "agriculture".

320

Study on Innovative Strategies of City Marketing Under Globalization Background  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, with the rapid development of globalization, if a city want to be prominent in the world, it must use the tool of marketing to set up a new city image in order to enhance the competitiveness of the city. City Marketing is the method that uses marketing theory to integrate the city's political and economic resources in order to

Xiong Kai

2010-01-01

321

Service-Oriented and Collaborative Portal for Digital Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cities are being equipped with numerous systems and applications to provide city monitoring and public services for city officers, businesses, and residents. There are emerging problems with data islands and function overlaps. A collaborative portal for digital city is proposed to apply service-oriented architecture into the planning, design, implementation and integration of digital cities, to facilitate the collaborative work and

Jiaxing Li; Yinsheng Li; Xiaohua Lu

2007-01-01

322

Establish the intelligent city system and realize its level analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intelligent city system was presented in this paper to cover the requirement of urban development. Currently, most cities fell into a troubled state with the urban problems, such as traffic, parking, garbage-treatment etc. However, most cities in the world still concentrated on the building of the elementary stage of city informatization. The intelligent city system was centering on knowledge,

Peng Lu; Tao Zhang

2010-01-01

323

AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT CAPABILITY IN ASIAN CITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution continues to pose a significant threat to the environment, quality of life and health of the urban population in Asia. Levels of air pollution in Asian cities regularly exceed World Health Organization recommended guidelines as well as national air quality standards. Many Asian cities have developed some form of air quality management (AQM) system to address the increasing

Cornelius Huizenga; Gary Haq; Dietrich Schwela; Herbert Fabian; May Ajero

324

LOCATING CAPITAL CITIES: THE ABUJA EXPERIENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the principles and techniques governing the location of capital cities with special reference to Abuja, the new capital city of Nigeria. The principles and techniques, which have been valid in space and time, were employed by the writer in the location and siting of the Federal Capital Territory of Abuja. The author also brings into focus the

Remi I. Obateru

325

Colleges as Shining Cities on a Hill  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author proposes that the notion of America be reintroduced as the "shining city on a hill," that abiding image from American history. The image of the shining city on a hill captures the imagination because it reflects the abiding truth that people become fully human in society, not outside of it. People need one another to…

Townsend, Kathleen Kennedy

2012-01-01

326

City of Kennesaw Cemetery: Preserving History  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2007-2008, the City of Kennesaw received a grant from the United States Department of Natural Resources to begin underground imaging of their cemetery. The City contracted with Virtual Underground to do the imaging, plotting, and photography of headstones. The purpose of the underground imaging was to clarify where burials were made and in what section. Many of the burials

Whit Long

2009-01-01

327

Is Sydney a Divided City Ethnically?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent claims that Sydney's ethnic residential concentrations are a permanent feature and that the city is rapidly turning into a city bifurcated along an ethnic divide cannot be sustained by the evidence. An understanding of multicultural policies as they operate in Australia, and of segregation as essentially a transi- tory phenomenon there, suggests that social bifurcation is unlikely to occur.

MICHAEL POULSEN; RON JOHNSTON; JAMES FORREST

2004-01-01

328

CITIES AND GARBAGE: AN UNSUSTAINABLE RELATIONSHIP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper focuses on the relationships between cities, metropolitan regions, and the growth of waste production. One of the aspects of the un-sustainable development of the cities in Italy is the delay in understanding that also the waste issue engraves on the environment and on the climate change. In particular, this paper proposes a reflection on the landscape modifications in

G. Bonafede; F. Schilleci; P. Marotta

329

Representing Country in the Creative Postcolonial City  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article contributes to theories of the postcolonial city. The town of Alice Springs\\/Mparntwe is situated in the middle of Australia. Its shift from colonial control center to postcolonial city involves four interrelated processes: land rights negotiations, residential segregation, the use and regulation of public space, and the development of a cultural-creative economy based on “Aboriginal” art. Continuances and ruptures

John Rennie Short

2011-01-01

330

Representing Country in the Creative Postcolonial City  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article contributes to theories of the postcolonial city. The town of Alice Springs\\/Mparntwe is situated in the middle of Australia. Its shift from colonial control center to postcolonial city involves four interrelated processes: land rights negotiations, residential segregation, the use and regulation of public space, and the development of a cultural-creative economy based on “Aboriginal” art. Continuances and ruptures

John Rennie Short

2012-01-01

331

City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

Founded in 1913, City of Hope began focusing on cancer research and treatment in the late 1940s. Receiving its NCI designation in 1981 and its designation as a comprehensive cancer center in 1998, City of Hope is today a biomedical research, treatment, and education center.

332

Public Education in New York City.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of the major concerns of the First National City Bank's Public Affairs Committee is the cost and quality of urban education. The Bank's Regional Economics Section inquired into various aspects of public education in New York City. While the study is considered as a tentative exploration of a complex subject, questions concerning businessmen…

Landes, Rosalind

333

Transforming New York City's Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2002, Michael Bloomberg, New York City's newly elected mayor, hoped to fix his city's public schools, which were widely perceived as plagued by a gamut of problems that ranged from low test scores to patronage-riddled schools and districts. A special bill approved by the New York State Legislature made Bloomberg solely accountable to the New…

Bartholomew, Barbara

2006-01-01

334

Cities and their news media images  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses assorted aspects of the images of cities in the news media. Images affect perceptions and various spatial decisions made by three groups: the general public, decision makers on the national level and the place's inhabitants. Thus, media portrayal has implications for the position of cities in the growing international and national competition for various resources such as

Eli Avraham

2000-01-01

335

Literacy as Social Action in City Debate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines critical literacy and the intersections of oral, aural, written, and performative literate practices in City Debate, an afterschool program dedicated to providing debate instruction to students in a major Southeastern city. Previous research into definitions and beliefs about literacy in an urban debate program over its twenty…

Cridland-Hughes, Susan

2012-01-01

336

Extension Leads Model City Litter Fight  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A three-year war on litter is in effect in the Portland, Maine, area, as a result of the University of Maine's enlisting the county extension service to help the local Model Cities program clean up the inner city. Article details problems and progress in meeting the objectives. (PD)|

Magnuson, Doris

1971-01-01

337

Teachers' Opinion of the City Residency Requirement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 185 teachers and administrators in Chicago indicated some differences of opinion on a ruling that teachers must reside in the city. Minorities (blacks and Latinos) and those who lived in the city favored the residency ruling. These responses could be influenced by economic and social concerns. Teachers who lived in the suburbs…

Ogletree, Earl J.

338

FUEL CELL BUS DEMONSTRATION IN MEXICO CITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the performance of a cull-size, zero-emission, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell-powered transit bus in the atmospheric environment of Mexico City. To address the air quality problems caused by vehicle emissions in Mexico City, a seminar on clean vehic...

339

Police gang intelligence infiltrates a small city  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research indicates that the spread of gangs into small cities is rarely due to a deliberate, drug-motivated gang migration. Still, outside police accounts of such a gang migration adversely affected the small city of Bloomington, Indiana. Tracing newspaper reports, as well as analyzing other secondary data, I find that an infiltration of outside police ideas about migrating and dangerous gangs

Diane Schaefer

2002-01-01

340

Airborne Particulates in New York City  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to identify seasonal and source effects on the par-ticulate contaminants of the New York City atmosphere and ultimately to relate the concentrations of these contaminants to the tissue concentrations in residents of New York City. Continual weekly samples of particulates have been collected at three stations in the New York area on 8 by 10 in.

Theo. J. Kneip; Merril Eisenbud; Clifford D. Strehlow; Peter C. Freudenthal

1970-01-01

341

Determinants of City Growth in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we examine the determinants of Brazilian city growth between 1970 and 2000. We consider a model of a city, which combines aspects of standard urban economics and the new economic geography literatures. For the empirical analysis, we constructed a dataset of 123 Brazilian agglomerations, and estimate aspects of the demand and supply side as well as a

Daniel da Mata; Uwe Deichmann; J. Vernon Henderson; Subir V. Lall; Hyoung Gun Wang

2005-01-01

342

Urban Ecology: Exploring Wildlife in the City.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides rationale for and examples of nature study activities using school yards, vacant lots, and city parks. Focusing on city wildlife, the interdisciplinary activities provide experiences in observing and investigating. Three duplicating masters (animals on ground, animals overhead, and tree study) are provided. (JN)|

Malcarne, Vanessa

1982-01-01

343

Theory and Practice in the City Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The City project focuses on a treatment of the city that deliberately blurs the boundaries between physical and digital media. We are combining mobile computers, hypermedia and virtual environments in one system, and allowing each person to interact with others even if they are using quite different media or combinations of media. We have found it useful to consider the

Matthew Chalmers

344

Make China's cities be full of intelligent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital City is an integral part of Digital Earth, in this paper, we studied the problems of China's urban development has practical significance. In this article, we believe that to develop a wisdom digital city unified information platform is an effective way to improve the scientific planning, high level and efficient management of the urban development process; China has conditions

Li Lin; Dirong Cao

2010-01-01

345

Colleges as Shining Cities on a Hill  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author proposes that the notion of America be reintroduced as the "shining city on a hill," that abiding image from American history. The image of the shining city on a hill captures the imagination because it reflects the abiding truth that people become fully human in society, not outside of it. People need one another to…

Townsend, Kathleen Kennedy

2012-01-01

346

Cycling trends & policies in Canadian cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bicycling accounted for an average of 1.2% of work trips in Canada in 2001, but with considerable variation by province and metropolitan area. In this study, we chose six Canadian cities for detailed analysis of their cycling trends and policies: • Montréal and Québec City in Québec; • Ottawa and Toronto in Ontario; and • Vancouver and Victoria in British

John Pucher; Ralph Buehler

347

Inner City Disadvantaged and the Metropolitan Bind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay on education for the poor who live in urban areas is discussed how the problems of large cities relate to the educational experience of disadvantaged children. The inter-related development of middle-class suburbs, blue-collar neighborhoods, and the central city are analyzed. The basic argument is that segregation and fragmentation…

Levine, Daniel U.

348

Educational Policy for the Inner City. Draft.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most of the important educational issues for the country are represented in problems of urban education. This report concentrates on one of the practical issues for the urban education policy maker--education policy for the poor minority child who lives in the inner city. It concerns educational policy for the inner city over the next 10 years.…

Thomas, Thomas C.

349

Using GIS to Map the Multilingual City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work in two rather distinct disciplines, urban geography and sociolinguistics, readily points out the multiethnic and multilingual character of big cities. However, there is still demand for studies which establish the language structure of modern cities. This paper presents a pilot study where data on multilingualism is collected and presented visually using ArcGIS and ArcIMS. GIS technology together with census

Ljuba Veselinov; Jason Booz

350

Hispanic Diversity in New York City.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This issue of the Hispanic Research Center's journal contains four articles which focus on various aspects of the Hispanic community in New York City. In the first article, Douglas T. Gurak and Lloyd H. Rogler use data from censuses, ethnographic accounts, and public documents to profile New York City's Hispanic population. They review the…

Gurak, Douglas T.; And Others

1980-01-01

351

Project Wish: The Emerald City, Phase 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Phase 3 of Project Wish saw the evolution of the Emerald City (E-City) from a collection of specialized independent analyses and ideas to a working structural design integrated with major support systems and analyses. Emphasis was placed on comparing and ...

1992-01-01

352

MAXIMUM NOISE LEVELS IN CITY TRAFFIC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manual and automatic noise measurements were made along 13 streets in Gothenburg, Sweden to explore sources of maximum noise levels. Noise from different types of vehicles driven in a realistic way in inner city traffic was measured. In summary, the results show that the most important vehicle component as regards the maximum noise level in inner city traffic was a

M. Bjorkman; R. Rylander

1997-01-01

353

City of Lackawanna Local Waterfront Revitalization Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The City of Lackawanna occupies 6 square miles of land in Erie County, extending two miles along the shore line of Lake Erie. The population of the City is roughly 23,000. Lackawanna's development resulted directly from the construction of the Bethlehem S...

1990-01-01

354

City Life: Rankings (Livability) versus Perceptions (Satisfaction)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|I investigate the relationship between the popular Mercer city ranking (livability) and survey data (satisfactions). Livability aims to capture "objective" quality of life such as infrastructure. Survey items capture "subjective" quality of life such as satisfaction with city. The relationship between objective measures of quality of life and…

Okulicz-Kozaryn, Adam

2013-01-01

355

University students and the ‘creative city  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade, city governments throughout the world have pursued various prescriptions for a ‘creative city’ with varying degrees of success. In Melbourne, strategies have included a revitalised arts policy, liberalisation of liquor laws, an increase in ‘al fresco’ dining and the encouragement of celebrity architects in the design and development of new buildings and precincts. Although Richard Florida’s

Kate Shaw; Ruth Fincher

2010-01-01

356

122 CITIES MORTALITY REPORTING SYSTEM (122 MRS)  

EPA Science Inventory

This system compiles summary mortality data by age group for all-causes and pneumonia and influenza as reported by Vital Statistic Registrars and Reporters within 122 U.S. cities. Additional information and access to a query system linked to 122 Cities Mortality data is available...

357

Times Square Roulette: Remaking the City Icon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectacularly successful transformation of Times Square has become a model for other cities. From its beginning as Longacre Square, Times Square's commercialism, signage, cultural diversity, and social tolerance have been deeply embedded in New York City's psyche. Its symbolic role guaranteed that any plan for its renewal would push the hot buttons of public controversy: free speech, property-taking through

Lynne B. Sagalyn

358

The Marin City Early Intervention Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report briefly describes the Marin City, California community and summarizes progress made by the Far West Laboratory's Western Regional Laboratory in the development of a long-range community intervention program. Marin City is a predominantly low-income, black community in which 30 percent of households, mainly those headed by single women,…

Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, Berkeley, CA.

359

Solving City Bus Scheduling Problems in Bangkok  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modeling of city bus scheduling problems is considered. The aim of this paper is to optimize the number of buses and their scheduling in the city. This leads to high-dimensional integer programming problems. The vehicle scheduling problem (VSP) can also be formulated through a graph-theoretical model, which is then transformed into an integer linear programming (ILP) model. There are

H. G. Bock; G. Reinelt; C. Surapholchai

360

The way we live in our cities.  

PubMed

During 2007, the human species became predominantly urban. Australia is highly urbanised, and health varies within Australian cities. Australian urban life is characterised by sedentariness, excess food intake, reliance on cars for transport, a high level of exposure to media and marketing messages, and a consumer culture. These characteristics are linked to obesity, diabetes, heart disease, some cancers, chronic respiratory disease, injury, depression and anxiety. The evolution of cities has been characterised as a four-stage process: poverty, industrial, consumption and eco-city. Each stage but the last has defining health disorders. Transition to healthy and sustainable cities requires infrastructure investment in new urban areas (including mass transit, education and health services), better conditions for walking and cycling, access to healthy food and encouragement of suburban economic development. There is a role for everyone in the transition to healthy and sustainable cities. PMID:18072910

Capon, Anthony G

361

9. Historic American Buildings Survey 'NEW JAIL FOR THE CITY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Historic American Buildings Survey 'NEW JAIL FOR THE CITY OF BALTIMORE, MARYLAND' Undated Line Engraving - Original in Maryland Historical Society - Baltimore City Jail, 801 Van Buren & East Madison Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

362

27. WILEY CITY LINE, LOOKING WEST ON HENRYBRO LINE FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. WILEY CITY LINE, LOOKING WEST ON HENRYBRO LINE FROM WIDE HOLLOW JUNCTION; LINE TO WILEY CITY DIVERGING LEFT - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

363

200 MAIN STREET, SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING EAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

200 MAIN STREET, SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING EAST OF "MAIN' STREET. REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 18273, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

364

INTERSECTION OF 445 NORTH & 1040 EAST, SALT LAKE CITY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERSECTION OF 445 NORTH & 1040 EAST, SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 18272, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

365

Intersectoral planning for city health development.  

PubMed

The article reviews the evolution and process of city health development planning (CHDP) in municipalities participating in the European Network of Healthy Cities organized by the European Region of the World Health Organization. The concept of CHDP combines elements from three theoretical domains: (a) health development, (b) city governance, and (c) urban planning. The setting was the 77 cities which participated in Phase IV (2003-2008) of the network. Evidence was gathered principally from a general evaluation questionnaire sent to all network cities. CHDPs are strategic documents giving direction to municipalities and partner agencies. Analysis revealed a trend away from "classic" CHDPs with a primary focus on health development towards ensuring a health dimension to other sector plans, and into the overarching strategies of city governments. Linked to the Phase IV priority themes of Healthy aging and healthy urban planning, cities further developed the concept and application of human-centered sustainability. More work is required to utilize cost-benefit analysis and health impact assessment to unmask the synergies between health and economic prosperity. PMID:22391982

Green, Geoff

2012-04-01

366

[Thinking about tuberculosis in Osaka City].  

PubMed

The incidence rate of tuberculosis in Osaka City (104.2 per 100,000 population) is extremely high, namely 3 times higher than the national average. Why the tuberculosis situation of Osaka City is so bad? The reason could be summarized as follows: Before the end of the World War II (1945), it was the sequelae of high prevalence observed in the era of Meiji, Taisho and early years of Showa. However, after the World War II, especially from the Heisei era (1989-), it is deeply affected by the influence of socio-economic background in Japan. Osaka City is characterized as the city of merchants and small enterprises. And therefore, the city substantially has the nature of the locality that brings in or produces some kinds of social vulnerability such as temporary laborers and homeless people. Of the tuberculosis patients in Osaka City, about 20% are homeless. In addition, patients of the smear positive infectious tuberculosis are often discovered among temporary laborers who change their residences and job sites from place to place and contact widely with citizens. These two are the most difficult problems in tuberculosis control program of Osaka City. In the meantime, there are many citizens who are careless of their health and do not follow the law or social rule, and this has apparently no direct connection with the problems of tuberculosis. However, it might be one of the factors of an undesirable trend of tuberculosis in Osaka City. In order to improve such a unfavorable tuberculosis situation in Osaka City, effective and strong supporting activities to the tuberculosis program are essentially needed. And these activities must be done from the standpoint of health-promotion, namely, health education for citizens and improvement of social environmental conditions to maintain healthy and cultural life. PMID:11201140

Kameda, K

2000-12-01

367

32. WILEY CITY LINE PIONEER CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH AT ANTANUM, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. WILEY CITY LINE - PIONEER CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH AT ANTANUM, LOOKING SOUTH - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

368

22. WILEY CITY LINE BICENTENNIAL EXCURSION TROLLEY NEAR CONGDON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. WILEY CITY LINE - BICENTENNIAL EXCURSION TROLLEY NEAR CONGDON CASTLE - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

369

Slumdog cities: rethinking subaltern urbanism.  

PubMed

This article is an intervention in the epistemologies and methodologies of urban studies. It seeks to understand and transform the ways in which the cities of the global South are studied and represented in urban research, and to some extent in popular discourse. As such, the article is primarily concerned with a formation of ideas - "subaltern urbanism" - which undertakes the theorization of the megacity and its subaltern spaces and subaltern classes. Of these, the ubiquitous ‘slum’ is the most prominent. Writing against apocalyptic and dystopian narratives of the slum, subaltern urbanism provides accounts of the slum as a terrain of habitation, livelihood, self-organization and politics. This is a vital and even radical challenge to dominant narratives of the megacity. However, this article is concerned with the limits of and alternatives to subaltern urbanism. It thus highlights emergent analytical strategies, utilizing theoretical categories that transcend the familiar metonyms of underdevelopment such as the megacity, the slum, mass politics and the habitus of the dispossessed. Instead, four categories are discussed — peripheries, urban informality, zones of exception and gray spaces. Informed by the urbanism of the global South, these categories break with ontological and topological understandings of subaltern subjects and subaltern spaces. PMID:21542201

Roy, Ananya

2011-01-01

370

Transitioning from a Sanitary City to a Sustainable City: Drivers and Dynamics in the City of Los Angeles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With more than half of the world's population living in cities the decisions made in urban areas are critical for the sustainability of water resources. In the past, cities have been designed to efficiently use, clean, and dispose of water. This model is being challenged due to its effects on ecosystems and communities and its inability to adapt to changing circumstances. The aim of our research is to describe the mechanisms behind Los Angeles's transition from a monolithic water importing city to a city committed to local water resource development, conservation and regional collaboration. The paper argues this transition is the result of a "double exposure" of the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP), the major water supplier for the city. The first exposure is the increasing vulnerability and unreliability of its water imports due to environmental regulation and litigation. The second exposure is the increasing political integration and interdependence of LADWP with local government and interest groups due to institutional changes and rising environmental awareness in the city. These exposures and their effects are traced from the late 1970s to the present using interviews, government documents, and media accounts. The transition in Los Angeles is well underway but limited revenue and complex governance arrangements are barriers to greater change. The results from the Los Angeles case may provide insights for these cities and provide testable propositions for research on this topic in other places and sectors. Overall, we conclude that internal and external exposures can drive transitions in urban development, improving our understanding of when and how cities adopt more sustainable forms.

Hughes, S.; Pincetl, S.

2011-12-01

371

Earth Science in the City: A Reader  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than half of Earth's population lives in cities today, a figure that is projected to grow to nearly 5 billion in the coming quarter-century. A new AGU book edited by Grant Heiken, Robert Fakundiny and John Sutter, Earth Science in the City: A Reader, suggests that cities are becoming increasingly coupled with and vulnerable to their environment. The book explores the interrelationship between natural processes and the man-made urban environment, and reports on research examining the effects on urban residents and their surroundings. Included are papers looking at water use, environmental sustainability, hazard mitigation, and atmospheric sciences that propose integrated solutions to city planning, population growth, and policy decisions. In this issue, Eos talks with lead editor Grant Heiken. Heiken recently retired from the Earth and Environmental Science divisions at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico.

Lifland, Jonathan

372

Virtual Cities ?? a Regional Discovery Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article illustrates how, during the ICEM Orlando Conference, children from Canada, Italy and the USA were brought together in the world's first Virtual Reality Satellite teleconference. (see p. 36) The ‘Virtual Cities’ project is described in detail.

Julie Stanfel

1993-01-01

373

Clean Cities, Fact Sheet, April 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Clean Cities is a government-industry partnership designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative fuels and vehicles, idle reduction technologies, hybrid electric vehicles, fuel blends, and fuel ec...

2008-01-01

374

The Evolutionary Life and Death of Cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanization is a salient feature of evolutionary interactions between environment, technologies, economics, culture, and politics. Despite more than a century of urban studies, there remain considerable uncertainties associated with how systems of cities evolve as a function of time and space. Regional historic studies offer insights into factors associated with the growth and death of cities. We used scaling methodologies and population data to model and explore the evolution of Texas cities for the period 1850-2000. A vast majority of Texas cities demonstrated adaptive and resilient characteristics over the 1850-2000 time period. Sustained adaptive capacity and resilience was observed to be primarily related to growth fueled initially by natural resources and later by human actions in responding to economic opportunities, politics, wars, and advantages gained from transportation infrastructures.

Harriss, R. C.

2011-12-01

375

Two Cities, Water, and a Metropolitan University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes how the University of Arkansas helped the cities of Little Rock and North Little Rock to resolve a difficult and longstanding conflict over water rates and the provision of drinking water. (EV)|

Chamberlin, Gary D.; Anderson, Joel E.

2003-01-01

376

Municipal Collective Bargaining Agreements in Large Cities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bulletin provides a descriptive and statistical discussion of the general characteristics of collective bargaining procedures between municipal governments and their employees in cities that had populations of 250,000 or more in 1970. Sample provision...

R. R. Nelson

1972-01-01

377

Rochester City School District Peer Assistance Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper the author evaluates the Peer Assistance and Review (PAR) program in the Rochester City School District, Rochester, NY. The author evaluates the system's strengths and weaknesses and discusses the program's alignment with New York State requirements.|

Chierichella, Patrick

2010-01-01

378

Sewered Drainage Catchments in Major Cities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The size distribution and number of sewered drainage catchments in San Francisco, Washington, D. C., Milwaukee, Houston, and Philadelphia are summarized to provide data for urban rainfall-runoff-water quality studies. The 4 cities are in 4 distinctly diff...

L. S. Tucker

1969-01-01

379

City of Darlington, South Carolina Architectural Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Architectural historians with Edwards-Pitman Environmental, Inc. undertook the architectural survey of the City of Darlington as part of the South Carolina Department of Archives and History's Statewide Survey of Historic Places which forms the bedrock of...

C. W. Griffith J. F. MArtin S. A. Woodard

2002-01-01

380

City of Greenville, South Carolina: Architectural Inventory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Architectural historians with Edwards-Pitman Environmental, Inc., undertook the survey of the City of Greenville as part of the South Carolina Department of Archives and History's Statewide Survey of Historic Places, which forms the basis of the historic ...

C. DeMiranda C. W. Griffith H. Fearnbach J. F. Martin S. A. Woodard

2003-01-01

381

A Comparative Survey of Twelve American Cities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the results of a comparative study of twelve important or representative U.S. cities employing the Hudson Institute overview methodology of evaluating areas by means of personal observation and interviews with local leaders and citize...

B. Bruce-Briggs

1972-01-01

382

The State of the Cities 1999  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Department of Housing and Urban Development's third annual State of the Cities report was released by President Clinton yesterday. The report addresses the current status of urban and suburban areas in terms of economic growth, job creation, housing, crime, education, and other relevant issues. The 1999 report contains three major findings: most cities are fiscally and economically strong as a result of a robust national economy despite urban flight; "some older suburbs are experiencing problems once associated with urban areas;" and "a strong consensus [exists] on the need for joint city/suburb strategies to address sprawl and the structural decline of cities and older suburbs." Users may view the report as an HTML or .pdf document.

1999-01-01

383

Forms of City Government in Iowa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1969, the Institute of Public Affairs published a pamphlet entitled Forms of Municipal Government Available in Iowa which described the kinds of city government authorized by existing state law. Since that time, some significant changes have been made ...

M. L. Claxton M. S. McCauley

1978-01-01

384

Managing climate change risks in New York City’s water system: assessment and adaptation planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing risk by adapting long-lived infrastructure to the effects of climate change must become a regular part of planning\\u000a for water supply, sewer, wastewater treatment, and other urban infrastructure during this century. The New York City Department\\u000a of Environmental Protection (NYCDEP), the agency responsible for managing New York City’s (NYC) water supply, sewer, and wastewater\\u000a treatment systems, has developed a

Cynthia Rosenzweig; David C. Major; Kate Demong; Christina Stanton; Radley Horton; Melissa Stults

2007-01-01

385

Activating eco-city in China: The system engineering for cities' green transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of eco-city in China turns to a phenomenon recently, and some sample projects have been scheduled in the nationwide. Nevertheless, the planning of eco-city focuses on static construction with green technologies; in this study, the planning and operation of eco-city will be regarded as a complex system engineering that requires collaboration of systems from various categories and considerations

Xin Jun Wang; Po-Han Hsu; Rui Zhou; Hai-long Su

2011-01-01

386

Child-Friendly Cities: Canadian Perspectives1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article highlights a research project entitled, Child-Friendly Cities and Participatory Planning and Design in Canada. The article describes a graduate course, Child-Friendly Cities in Canada, which supported the research. Highlighted is a protocol (based on 15 factors) for collecting examples of best practices—including the degree of young people's participation, intended goals of fostering independence, recognition of diverse groups of

Rae Bridgman

2004-01-01

387

Principles for Guiding Eco-City Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before a town may rightly be termed an “eco-city,” it must first meet a number of requirements, which can be summarized in\\u000a one sentence: To the greatest possible extent, an eco-city should function in the same way as a natural ecosystem. However,\\u000a a comparison between urban and natural ecosystems reveals that in general this goal is currently far from being

Rüdiger Wittig

388

How Immigration Affects U.S. Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past 25 years immigration has re-emerged as a driving force in the size and composition of U.S. cities. This paper describes the effects of immigration on overall population growth and the skill composition of cities, focusing on the connection between immigrant inflows and the relative number of less-skilled workers in the local population. The labor market impacts of

David Card

2007-01-01

389

What is Clean Cities? October 2011 (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

Brochure describes the Clean Cities program and includes the contact information for its 85 coalitions. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP), Clean Cities is a government-industry partnership that reduces petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. Clean Cities contributes to the energy, environmental, and economic security of the United States by supporting local decisions to reduce our dependence on imported petroleum. Established in 1993 in response to the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992, the partnership provides tools and resources for voluntary, community-centered programs to reduce consumption of petroleum-based fuels. In nearly 100 coalitions, government agencies and private companies voluntarily come together under the umbrella of Clean Cities. The partnership helps all parties identify mutual interests and meet the objectives of reducing the use of petroleum, developing regional economic opportunities, and improving air quality. Clean Cities deploys technologies and practices developed by VTP. These include idle-reduction equipment, electric-drive vehicles, fuel economy measures, and renewable and alternative fuels, such as natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (propane), electricity, hydrogen, biofuels, and biogas. Idle-reduction equipment is targeted primarily to buses and heavy-duty trucks, which use more than 2 billion gallons of fuel every year in the United States while idling. Clean Cities fuel economy measures include public education on vehicle choice and fuel-efficient driving practices.

Not Available

2011-10-01

390

Indoor Radon Measurements in Mexico City  

SciTech Connect

Mexico City is one of the most populated cities in the world with almost 22 million inhabitants, located at an altitude of 2200 m. The old city was founded on an ancient lake and the zone is known by its high seismicity; indoor radon determination is an important public health issue. In this paper the data of indoor radon levels in Mexico City, measured independently by two research groups, both using Nuclear Track Detector systems but different methodologies, are correlated. The measurements were done during similar exposure periods of time, at family houses from the political administrative regions of the city. The results indicate a correlation coefficient between the two sets of data of R = 0.886. Most of the differences between the two sets of data are inherent to houses having extreme (very high or very low indoor radon) included in the statistics of each group. The total average indoor radon found in Mexico City considering the two methods was 87 Bq m{sup -3}.

Bogard, James S [ORNL; Espinosa Garcia, Guillermo [ORNL

2008-01-01

391

Mobility and accessibility in historic cities.  

PubMed

The historic cities of Brazil, despite its colonial structure, don't fail to go through transformations that affect contemporary cities, which is the main source of problems, leading to new approaches to urban issues such as mobility and accessibility. The uncontrolled growth of tourism in the historic cities can be considered as a big problem, because at the same time, they have committed to the conservation of its built heritage and demand control of the activities that occur in their areas without harm. Then, a permanent dialogue between conservatives and planners could be accomplished by joining the various sectoral policies. The study of urban mobility in historical sites was in fact the focus of this work because of their peculiarities, such as its specific characteristics of urban structure, morphology and occupation. In fact, the development of tourism in historic centers generates specific demands, such as adaptation to new uses of the houses, intensive movement of people and vehicles, illegal parking, among others. Beyond threatening the city preservation, does not provide mobility and accessibility to tourists, because these cities were not designed for the tourism conditions and needs of contemporary life. Characteristic features of Brazilian baroque cities, such as topography , the narrow streets, narrow or nonexistent sidewalks, steep turns and ramps strong, are not suitable for heavy vehicles, traffic and pedestrian circulation. Thus, studies concerning conservation urban integrated are aimed at an approach to interaction between historic preservation of the environment with the dynamic socio-economic of the local. PMID:22317715

Carvalho, Ana Carla; Paschoalin, Rachel Filgueiras; Castañon, José Alberto

2012-01-01

392

Cossidae of the socotra archipelago (yemen).  

PubMed

The faunistic composition of the family Cossidae (Lepidoptera) of the Socotra Archipelago is revised. Five species are recognized, including two new species (Mormogystia brandstetteri and Meharia hackeri), and dubious identifications and records are discussed. Adults and genitalia are illustrated and bionomic details, DNA barcodes and a synonymic checklist for Socotran cossids are provided. A review of their distribution reveals that at least 80 percent of Socotra's cossids are unique to the archipelago, which is renowned for its endemism. A checklist listing all the species from generas Meharia, Mormogystia, Aethalopteryx, Azygophleps, as well as the synonymy and distribution is provided. PMID:21998527

Borth, Robert; Ivinskis, Povilas; Saldaitis, Aidas; Yakovlev, Roman

2011-08-11

393

Resource cities across phases of globalization: Evidence from Bangalore  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on world cities and global cities has a resilient tendency to list hierarchies based on, among other things, the ability of a city to act as a command and control centre of the forces of globalization. This implies, even if it is not always explicitly acknowledged, there are other cities in the process of globalization that provide the

Narendar Pani

2009-01-01

394

Methodology for inventorying greenhouse gas emissions from global cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the methodology and data used to determine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions attributable to ten cities or city-regions: Los Angeles County, Denver City and County, Greater Toronto, New York City, Greater London, Geneva Canton, Greater Prague, Barcelona, Cape Town and Bangkok. Equations for determining emissions are developed for contributions from: electricity; heating and industrial fuels; ground transportation fuels;

Christopher Kennedy; Julia Steinberger; Barrie Gasson; Yvonne Hansen; Timothy Hillman; Miroslav Havránek; Diane Pataki; Aumnad Phdungsilp; Anu Ramaswami; Gara Villalba Mendez

2010-01-01

395

RESEARCH ON THE PROGRESS AND DIRECTION OF DIGITAL CITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of information and communication technology, the construction of digital cities has become more feasible. It is a powerful way to elevate the city's strength, to improve the social environment and to promote national sustainable development. This paper describes the digital city's definition, content, frame, architecture, urban spatial data infrastructure (USDI) and discusses the relations between digital city

MIAO Qian-jun; Li Deren

396

250 NORTH & MAIN STREET (PARK 83, SALT LAKE CITY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

250 NORTH & MAIN STREET (PARK 8-3, SALT LAKE CITY CEMETERY LOCATER), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING NORTH - REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 18271, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

397

City of New York, New York Municipal Forest Resource Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New York City, the largest city in the United States and one of the worlds major global cities, maintains trees as an integral component of the urban infrastructure. Since 1995, over 120,000 trees have been planted along the streets of the citys five boro...

E. G. McPherson J. R. Simpson K. E. Vargas P. J. Peper Q. Xiao S. L. Gardner

2007-01-01

398

Manufacturing competition: how accounting practices shape strategy making in cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Recent years have witnessed an increasing number of cities develop strategies. The discourse of strategic management has become an obligatory point of passage for many city managers. This paper starts by posing an ostensibly simple question: why do cities need strategies? The commonsensical answer to the question is: because cities compete with each other. This paper aims to

Martin Kornberger; Chris Carter

2010-01-01

399

The Research about City Safety Information System Based on GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern city is the main bearing body to learn, live, work, entertainment for people. City safety not only directly impacts on people's life quality and work efficiency, but also indirectly restricts to cities themselves harmonious and sustainable development. This paper primarily introduces the significance of GIS-based city safety information system development; posteriorly designs the framework structure, function modules and database

Liu Xiaosheng; Liu Yuxuan

2009-01-01

400

Decision Support Systems of Creative City Design: Rethinking Urban Competitiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competitiveness has become one of the important strategies of government and industry in every nation. The concept of the Creative City, proposed by Charles Landry is driving the imagination of city redevelopers. It is essential for researchers to pay more attention to the issue of Creative City design for rethinking urban competitiveness. However, Creative City design must be supported with

Lee-Chuan Lin; Junzo Watada

2009-01-01

401

Cities compete to host 2012 Olympics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the era of the modern Olympic Games began in 1896, many cities have sought to host this prestigious set of athletic events that test the physical and mental abilities of those competing in individual and team competition. While the next few sites have already been selected (Torino in 2006, Beijing in 2008, and Vancouver in 2010), there has been great speculation as of late regarding which city will host the 2012 Summer Games. This past Monday, five cities submitted their official bids to the International Olympic Committee, which will make its final decision via a secret ballot in Singapore on July 6, 2005. Each of the cities was required to turn in a set of documents that covers information that will help the IOC make its final decision. Out of the five cities that have entered bids (New York, Paris, Madrid, London, and Moscow), Paris is considered by many to be the front-runner thus far. As Paris 2012 spokesman Jerome Lenfant remarked recently, "We are not overconfident but we feel, due to all the work and checking that has been done and the support from the French government, politicians, IOC members, athletes and community leaders, we think we have put together the best of France."The first link provides a nice introduction to the recent Olympic host city competition process provided by the San Francisco Chronicle. The second link will take visitors to a news piece from the Telegraph in Britain that details the start of this highly publicized competition, along with providing some odds on which city may win, proffered by a prominent British bookmaker. The third link details the public relations campaign and broad vision put forth by the people behind the city of London's bid for the 2012 Olympic Games. The fourth link whisks visitors across the Channel, where they will learn about the ambitious plans offered by the leaders who are putting forth the City of Lights for the same event. Moving up to the Moscow River, visitors will be given an intimate introduction to Moscow's proposed plans for the same august set of events by clicking on the fifth link. It should be noted that the site offers this forceful (and potentially convincing) epigram: "Russia is eternal, yet Russia is new." The sixth link leads to the Iberian-themed plans offered by Madrid, which includes a number of video clips of the site that will be transformed into Olympic-worthy locales, provided it is selected as the host location, of course. Not to be forgotten, the final link will take visitors to the official bid website for New York City.

402

Letter of Understanding This letter of Understanding is made effective January 14 th between the City of Grass Valley (City) and Jeffery Foltz as Assistant (Employee or Assistant City Administrator). 1. Appointment City herby appoints Employee as the Assistant City Administrator for the City of Grass Valley and Employee hereby accepts such employment. Employee shall serve at the pleasure of the City Administrator  

Microsoft Academic Search

2. Duties Employee shall perform the functions and duties of the Assistant City Administrator as directed by the City Administrator. As a limited hour position those duties will be focused on defined projects and priorities. Employee will be subject to the Charter, Ordinances, Resolutions and Actions of the Council and policies and procedures of the City. 3. Term, Salary and

Lisa Swarthout; Mayor Jeffrey Foltz

2009-01-01

403

Exodus to cities and quality of life.  

PubMed

Concerns about deterioration of the quality of life in mega-cities in India, thought to be due to in-migration, are shown to be misplaced in this essay. Not only is the deterioration due merely to rising expectations, but its causes are problems on a national level. It is true that population growth in the 12 largest cities in India, 3.35%, is more rapid than growth rates in the country as a whole, 2.22%. Bangalore is growing the fastest, 5.68% annually, but generally Indian cities are growing less rapidly that many other Asian cities, e.g. Dacca, 7.37%. Urbanization to the extent of 60.70% of the population is in fact necessary for development. The primary reason for in-migration is employment for men, and marriage accompanying employed husbands for women. Contrary to common opinion, the educational status of in- migrants is higher than that of the region, and female literacy is higher in cities than in the rest of the state, e.g., 61% for Bombay, vs. 35% in Maharashtra State. The occupational status is frequently high: production, transport equipment operator, laborer, professional, technical executive managerial, sales and service. Furthermore, as urbanization proceeds, construction laborers and service workers are in demand. Quality of life defined by infant and maternal mortality is higher in cities than in the surrounding rural area. This quality of life is the reason why people migrate to the city. Unfortunately, frustrations are also rising as expectations for improved housing, water, air, transportation and consumer-durables rise faster than they can be supplied. PMID:12343049

Srinivasan, K

1990-08-15

404

"Nastro Virus" (The Human Body - Kinetic City)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Nastro Virus (Omega Pack) is a learning module centered on the human body and its bodily functions; it is a part of the Kinetic City-Mission to Vearth site (see description below). Targeted body parts are the lungs, stomach, muscles, and bones. This module includes a computer-simulated mind game, creative writing assignments for independent study, and art-centered exercises, as well as lesson plans for hands on games and activities designed for a group. KINETIC CITY DESCRIPTION: "Kinetic City" (www.kineticcity.com) is a fun, Web-based after-school science club for kids, ages 8 through 11. It combines exciting online animations and activities with boxes of hands-on science experiments. Children earn "Kinetic City" power points and collect stickers as they complete missions and learn standards-based science content. Here's how it works: The "Kinetic City" super crew (Keisha, Curtis, Megan and Max) needs the help of Earth kids to save their planet Vearth, from the science-distorting computer virus Deep Delete. Each of Deep Delete's 60 hideous strains attacks a different area of science with disastrous consequences. After each attack, teams of Earth kids fight back by viewing a short online animation describing the situation on Vearth; performing a series of activities to re-learn the lost science and going on a mission to Vearth during which they answer science questions and gobble up Deep Delete viruses. Their scores appear on their own Kinetic City Club Web page. "Kinetic City" is produced by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), with a grant from the National Science Foundation. AAAS writes the "Project 2061 Benchmarks for Science Literacy," which forms the basis of most state science standards.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2005-01-01

405

"Grinder Virus" (Diversity of Life - Kinetic City)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Grinder Virus (Omega Pack) is a learning module centered on the diversity of life; it is a part of the Kinetic City-Mission to Vearth site (see description below). This learning object may be used as reinforcement of learning objectives accomplished in the classroom. The Grinder Virus module is equipped with a computer-based simulation mind game, creative writing assignments for independent study, and art-centered exercises, as well as lesson plans for hands on games and activities. A major focus is on the classification of the diverse life forms. Target life forms are dogs, fish, trees, birds, worms, water lilies, including any plants and animals as well as the environments they live in. KINETIC CITY DESCRIPTION: "Kinetic City" (www.kineticcity.com) is a fun, Web-based after-school science club for kids, ages 8 through 11. It combines exciting online animations and activities with boxes of hands-on science experiments. Children earn "Kinetic City" power points and collect stickers as they complete missions and learn standards-based science content. Here's how it works: The "Kinetic City" super crew (Keisha, Curtis, Megan and Max) needs the help of Earth kids to save their planet Vearth, from the science-distorting computer virus Deep Delete. Each of Deep Delete's 60 hideous strains attacks a different area of science with disastrous consequences. After each attack, teams of Earth kids fight back by viewing a short online animation describing the situation on Vearth; performing a series of activities to re-learn the lost science and going on a mission to Vearth during which they answer science questions and gobble up Deep Delete viruses. Their scores appear on their own Kinetic City Club Web page. "Kinetic City" is produced by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), with a grant from the National Science Foundation. AAAS writes the "Project 2061 Benchmarks for Science Literacy," which forms the basis of most state science standards.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2005-01-01

406

Street-level desires, Discovering the city on foot: Pedestrian mobility and the regeneration of the European city centre  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pedestrian mobility and the regeneration of the European city centre.\\u000aCities can be chaotic and confusing places at the best of times – even for local people! Spatial Metro, a project largely funded by the EU, aims to make city visits more enjoyable for pedestrians by making cities easier to navigate, easier to walk around and easier to understand and

F. D. Van der Hoeven; S. C. Van der Spek; M. G. J. Smit

2008-01-01

407

New York City School Decentralization: The Respective Powers of the City Board of Education and the Community School Boards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The city of New York constitutes a single school district and the city Board of Education is charged with the general management and control of educational affairs in the city school district. The Board is subject to the plenary powers of the State Board of Regents and the State Commissioner of Education. Local school boards existed within the city school

Kenneth R. McGrail

1977-01-01

408

Hard-branding the cultural city - from Prado to Prada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The industrial 'Event City', host to World Fair, sporting, cultural and ceremonial mega-event, has been transformed in its late-capitalist form into the 'City as Event'- from the all year round festival city to the ubiquitous 'Cities of Culture'. These self-styled culture cities now look to the contemporary art museum and cultural district to provide a cosmopolitan edge to their promotional

Graeme Evans

2003-01-01

409

Developing a City Governance Index: Based on Surveys in Five Major Chinese Cities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the establishment of a City Governance Index to evaluate the levels of governance of cities. We identified seven key dimensions of governance and then divided each of them into four stages: input, mechanism, result and effect. Each dimension/stage mix is correlated with indicators that can be measured with both objective and…

Yong, Guo; Wenhao, Cheng

2012-01-01

410

A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities, 2002: A 25-City Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assess the status of hunger and homelessness in U.S. cities during 2002, 25 major cities completed surveys regarding demand for emergency food assistance and emergency shelter and capacity of local agencies to meet the demand; causes of hunger and homelessness and demographics of populations experiencing these problems; exemplary programs or…

Lowe, Eugene T.

411

A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities: 1990. A 30-City Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assess the status of hunger and homelessness in urban America during 1990, the U.S. Conference of Mayors surveyed the 30 major cities whose mayors are members of its Task Force on Hunger and Homelessness. This report summarizes survey findings. The survey sought information from each city on the following questions: (1) the demand for emergency…

Waxman, Laura DeKoven; Reyes, Lilia M.

412

A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities: 1991. A 28-City Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assess the status of hunger and homelessness in urban America during 1991, The U.S. Conference of Mayors surveyed 28 major cities whose mayors are members of its Task Force on Hunger and Homelessness. The survey sought information and estimates from each city on: (1) the demand for emergency food assistance and emergency shelter and the…

Waxman, Laura DeKoven

413

A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities, 2001: A 27-City Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assess the status of hunger and homelessness in U.S. cities during 2001, data were collected from 27 cities on demands for emergency food assistance and shelter and the capacity of local agencies to meet that demand; causes of hunger and homelessness and demographics of populations experiencing them; exemplary responses; availability of…

Lowe, Eugene T.

414

‘Facework’, Flow and the City: Simmel, Goffman, and Mobility in the Contemporary City  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contains a re?reading of Simmel and Goffman with an eye to the mobility practices of the contemporary city. The paper offers a ‘new’ perspective on mobility in the contemporary city by re?reading two sociological ‘classics’ as there is a need to conceptualise the everyday level of flow and mobility in the midst of an intellectual climate dominated by

Ole B. Jensen

2006-01-01

415

City Bound: The Big City as Learning Environment for Societal-Vulnerable Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

City Bound, an urban-based Belgian youth program, uses challenging social tasks such as visiting a prison or preparing for a mock job interview to foster individual development and social awareness. Discusses options for mixing elements of Outward Bound, a nature-based learning program, and City Bound, as well as specific adaptations for at-risk…

van Welzenis, Ingrid

1994-01-01

416

Cities and Growth: The Left Brain of North American Cities: Scientists and Engineers and Urban Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the growth of human capital in Canadian and U.S. cities. Using pooled Census of Population data for 242 urban centres, we evaluate the link between long run employment growth and the supply of different types of skilled labour. The paper also examines whether the scientific capabilities of cities are influenced by amenities such as the size of

Desmond Brown W. Mark Gellatly Guy Beckstead

2008-01-01

417

Selling the ‘scary city’: gendering freedom, fear and condominium development in the neoliberal city  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contemporary postindustrial cities, urban revitalization policies are discursively linked, in part, to urban fears and relations of threat. In Toronto, these tensions are inscribed in the city through new-build gentrification in the form of condominium development, a process that has created tens of thousands of securitized residential spaces. These spaces, I suggest, are produced in part through gendered ideologies

Leslie Kern

2010-01-01

418

From `global city’ to `city of crisis': Jakarta metropolitan region under economic turmoil  

Microsoft Academic Search

By mid-1990s the development of Jakarta Metropolitan Region (JMR) appeared to be heading towards global city status. However, the current economic crisis has largely squeezed the JMR economy which in turn rapidly increased unemployment and poverty incidence in the region. Meanwhile, the capacity of local government to provide urban public service and infrastructure largely declined as the city revenues decreased

Tommy Firman

1999-01-01

419

76 FR 38568 - Safety Zone; Bullhead City Regatta, Bullhead City, AZ  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...on the navigable waters of the Colorado River in Bullhead City, Arizona for...on the navigable waters of the Colorado River in Bullhead City, Arizona. The...would include the waters of the Colorado River between Davis Camp to Rotary...

2011-07-01

420

77 FR 36439 - Safety Zone; Bullhead City Regatta; Bullhead City, AZ  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...on the navigable waters of the Colorado River in Bullhead City, Arizona for...on the navigable waters of the Colorado River in Bullhead City, AZ. The proposed...would include the waters of the Colorado River between Davis Camp and...

2012-06-19

421

78 FR 44011 - Safety Zone; Bullhead City Regatta; Bullhead City, AZ  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...on the navigable waters of the Colorado River in Bullhead City, Arizona for...on the navigable waters of the Colorado River in Bullhead City, AZ. This temporary...closure of the portion of the Colorado River for this annual event. The...

2013-07-23

422

78 FR 34300 - Safety Zone; Bullhead City Regatta, Bullhead City, AZ  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...on the navigable waters of the Colorado River in Bullhead City, Arizona for...on the navigable waters of the Colorado River in Bullhead City, AZ. The proposed...would include the waters of the Colorado River between Davis Camp and...

2013-06-07

423

The Student City. Strategic Planning for Student Communities in EU Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students are the citizens and the high-skilled working class of tomorrow. They keep cities lively and diverse. They are the main consumers of cultural and recreational facilities. They have a distinct expenditure pattern that in some cases is crucial to support the economy of whole cities or specific neighborhoods. Increased international students' mobility is a major vector of socio-economic integration

Leo Van den Berg; Antonio Paolo Russo

2003-01-01

424

78 FR 32556 - Safety Zone; 2013 Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Ocean City, MD  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...zone on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Ocean City, MD to support the Ocean City Air Show. This action is intended to...Management Facility in Room W12-140 on the ground floor of the Department of Transportation West...

2013-05-31

425

75 FR 18778 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Ocean City, Maryland to support the Ocean City Air Show. This action...traffic movement on the Atlantic Ocean to protect mariners and the...Transportation, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200...

2010-04-13

426

77 FR 22523 - Safety Zone; 2012 Ocean City Air Show; Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean in Ocean City, MD. This action is necessary...navigable waters during the 2012 Ocean City Air Show. This action is intended...Transportation, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New...

2012-04-16

427

The Solar City Daegu 2050 Project: Visions for a Sustainable City  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Solar City Daegu 2050 Project (SCD 2050) represents a comprehensive model for shaping the future of this city of 2.5 million residents with a mixed industrial and services economic base. Its specific aims are as follows: realization of a carbon footprint consistent with standards of global sustainability and equity; the development of a…

Kim, Jong-dall; Han, Dong-hi; Na, Jung-gyu

2006-01-01

428

A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities: 1991. A 28-City Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To assess the status of hunger and homelessness in urban America during 1991, The U.S. Conference of Mayors surveyed 28 major cities whose mayors are members of its Task Force on Hunger and Homelessness. The survey sought information and estimates from each city on: (1) the demand for emergency food assistance and emergency shelter and the…

Waxman, Laura DeKoven

429

A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities, 2002: A 25-City Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To assess the status of hunger and homelessness in U.S. cities during 2002, 25 major cities completed surveys regarding demand for emergency food assistance and emergency shelter and capacity of local agencies to meet the demand; causes of hunger and homelessness and demographics of populations experiencing these problems; exemplary programs or…

Lowe, Eugene T.

430

A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities: 1990. A 30-City Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To assess the status of hunger and homelessness in urban America during 1990, the U.S. Conference of Mayors surveyed the 30 major cities whose mayors are members of its Task Force on Hunger and Homelessness. This report summarizes survey findings. The survey sought information from each city on the following questions: (1) the demand for…

Waxman, Laura DeKoven; Reyes, Lilia M.

431

A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities, 2001: A 27-City Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To assess the status of hunger and homelessness in U.S. cities during 2001, data were collected from 27 cities on demands for emergency food assistance and shelter and the capacity of local agencies to meet that demand; causes of hunger and homelessness and demographics of populations experiencing them; exemplary responses; availability of…

Lowe, Eugene T.

432

78 FR 38580 - Special Local Regulation; Tall Ships Celebration Bay City, Bay City, MI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Tall Ships Celebration Bay City, Bay City, MI AGENCY...temporary special local regulation for a tall ships parade located in the Captain of the Port...impracticable. The final details for this Tall Ships parade were not known to the Coast...

2013-06-27

433

Multiple Use Plan, Elk City Planning Unit, Elk City Ranger District.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project involves the implementation of a multiple use plan for the Elk City planning unit, Elk City Ranger District, Nezperce National Forest, in Idaho County, Idaho. Eighty-nine thousand acres are included in the planning unit, of which 66,000 acres ...

1974-01-01

434

‘New Americans’ in a ‘New-South’ city? Immigrant and refugee politics in the Music City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 1990s, many cities and towns in the US South have witnessed dramatic transformations in their racial and ethnic composition. Although these changes largely reflect spectacular Latino population growth, refugee resettlements (including Kurdish, Sudanese, Somalian and Bosnian settlers) for the last two decades have also increased ethnic diversity across the region. In some southern American cities, the combination

Jamie Winders

2006-01-01

435

Building a Learning City: Developing School and Community Coalitions in Oklahoma City  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This qualitative case study focuses on a district and community relations plan developed in Oklahoma City Public Schools. This article provides a description of the proposal regarding MAPS for KIDS (Metropolitan Area Projects for Keep Improving District Schools) in Oklahoma City from 1998 through November 2001, and it explores the coalitions that…

Garn, Gregg

2005-01-01

436

Air pollution assessment on city of Tirana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air pollution is one of the hot topics on nowadays studies. This problem is often encountered on urban centers, especially on metropolitan areas. These areas are usually characterized by densely population, heavy traffic rates and the presence of many industrial plants on their suburbs. Problems regarding to air pollution on these areas are more evident over metropolitan areas in developing countries. Air pollution is mostly related to health effects, especially in outdoor environments. These effects regards primarily on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Air pollution assessment on a specific area requires not only the estimation of pollutant concentrations in that area, but also determination of their principal sources as well as prediction of eventual scenarios on the area under investigation. This study is focused on air pollution assessment on the city of Tirana, which is the major urban centre and the capital city of Albania. This city has about one million inhabitants. During the last 20 years, its population has grown about four fold, and it is still growing. Because of Albania is a developing country, its capital city is involved on serious environmental problems. Considering these facts, we have conducted continuous monitoring campaigns on several sites of Tirana. These monitoring campaigns consist on measurement of several pollutant gases (SO2, CO, CO2, NOx, etc.) and particulate matter over a period of 20 months. In this paper there are obtained diurnal and annual variations of pollutant concentrations, there is modeled their spatial distributions over the area of the city, and there are estimated the potential contributions of principal sources like traffic and industrial plants. During the entire monitoring campaign there are recorded also meteorological parameters, like temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, wind direction, precipitations, etc. In this way we have tried to obtain the correlations between pollutant concentrations and meteorological parameters, and so to estimate their contribution on air pollution situation in this city. Overall measurement results indicate a critical situation of air pollution in this city, where pollutant concentrations exceed international recommendations. Because of in Albania these types of studies are very rare; the air pollution assessment in the capital city Tirana has an enormous importance not only for this city but also in general for entire the country.

Mandija, F.; Zoga, P.

2012-04-01

437

Water for the cities--The outlook  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Except perhaps for the arid Southwest, water resources are generally sufficient to meet the needs of cities for the foreseeable future. Cities will continue to expand and additional rural areas will be converted to urban and suburban complexes. Demands for urban water will continue to rise and this will place a heavy strain on existing systems. Cities have always faced water problems. This has largely been the result of 'crisis planning' or apathy. Immediate needs and minimum cost have been the governing criteria in solving water problems, as cities developed local supplies unilaterally and only at scales to meet local foreseeable demands. Most city water problems, however, have not been the result of shortages of sources of water but rather the result of overtaxed collection, storage, and distribution systems. This is verified by the experience of the Northeast during the recent prolonged drought. Rapid expansion of urban areas, particularly in the large metropolitan complexes of the United States, is placing urban political entities in ever closer juxtaposition to each other. The large demand for water for each entity is resulting in competition for available sources and is rapidly reaching critical proportions. Increasing awareness of the role of water in our society further complicates this competition. Pollution abatement, recreation, wildlife conservation, and aesthetics are demands now recognized by both rural and urban areas. Future development of water resources must consider regional demands and resources. Only in this way can our reasonably abundant water resources meet the severe demands imposed by our rapidly expanding urban areas.

Schneider, William Joseph; Spieker, Andrew Maute.

1969-01-01

438

A tale of two New Jersey cities.  

PubMed

Judging from the social and health measures considered in this article, Newark and Jersey City face similar challenges as other large cities. For Newark, the challenges are more extreme. The high rates of poverty and violence, coupled with a low rate of high school graduation and a large number of single parent households bode ill for the city. The hospitals in Newark and Jersey City have undergone major changes in meeting the needs of their communities. They have adjusted their size, shortened their lengths of stay, and provided more intensive care services and outpatient services. Of special concern for New Jersey's hospitals is the reliance on Medicaid financing. If dramatic changes are made to the Medicaid program, Newark hospitals should be on high alert. Legislatures need to tread carefully in designing policies that address the needs of New Jersey's large cities. The state is undergoing major changes in its health care system. The demise of the all-payer rate setting system, the establishment of the Health Care Subsidy Fund to finance uncompensated care and subsidize insurance for low and middle-income families, modifications to the community rating system for private insurance, and changes to the welfare system that affect eligibility for Medicaid all require legislators to consider the context in which these programs operate. PMID:9164104

Goodman, N; Benesch, B; Andrulis, D

1997-05-01

439

City of Corpus Christi Community Renewal Program. City of Corpus Christi City Government-Wide Cost Allocation Plan Year Ended July 31, 1972.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The cost allocation plan identifies and describes the central services provided by city supported agencies to other agencies, departments and activities of the city government, which in turn provide services to the public. The plan presents fully the cost...

1972-01-01

440

An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

2006-10-01

441

The Advancement of World Digital Cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the early 1990s, and particularly with the popularization of the Internet and the World Wide Web, a wave of experiments and initiatives has emerged, aiming at acilitating city functions such as community activities, local economies and municipal ervices. This chapter reviews advancements of worldwide activities focused on the creation of regional information spaces. In the US and Canada, a large number f community networks using the city metaphor appeared in the early 1990s. In Europe, more than one hundred similar initiatives have been tried out, often supported by large governmental project funds. Asian countries are rapidly adopting the latest information and communication technologies for actively interacting real-time city information and creating civic communication channels.

Yasuoka, Mika; Ishida, Toru; Aurigi, Alessandro

442

Visible Earth: City Lights of Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Growth in "mega-cities" is altering the landscape and the atmosphere in such a way as to curtail normal photosynthesis. By using data from The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System, researchers have been able to look at urban sprawl by monitoring the emission of light from cities at night. By overlaying these "light maps" onto other data such as soil and vegetation maps, the research shows that urbanization can have a variable but measurable impact on photosynthetic productivity. This site consists of an image of the city lights of Europe at night. It is available as either a JPEG or GIF file, and links to other parts of the Visible Earth website are provided.

443

"Sleuron Virus" (Human Learning - Kinetic City)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "Sleuron virus module" focuses on learning, practicing, and the ability to get better at things. Among the concepts covered are motor skills (such as reaction time), the human brain, short term memory, and the ability to give and receive accurate instructions. This learning object may be used as reinforcement of learning objectives accomplished in the classroom. The Sleuron Virus module is equipped with a computer-based simulation mind game, creative writing exercise for independent study, and art-centered exercises, as well as lesson plans hands on games and activities designed for a group. KINETIC CITY DESCRIPTION: "Kinetic City"(www.kineticcity.com) is a fun, Web-based after-school science club for kids, ages 8 through 11. It combines exciting online animations and activities with boxes of hands-on science experiments. Children earn "Kinetic City" power points and collect stickers as they complete missions and learn standards-based science content. Here's how it works: The "Kinetic City" super crew (Keisha, Curtis, Megan and Max) needs the help of Earth kids to save their planet Vearth, from the science-distorting computer virus Deep Delete. Each of Deep Delete's 60 hideous strains attacks a different area of science with disastrous consequences. After each attack, teams of Earth kids fight back by viewing a short online animation describing the situation on Vearth; performing a series of activities to re-learn the lost science and going on a mission to Vearth during which they answer science questions and gobble up Deep Delete viruses. Their scores appear on their own Kinetic City Club Web page. "Kinetic City" is produced by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), with a grant from the National Science Foundation. AAAS writes the "Project 2061 Benchmarks for Science Literacy," which forms the basis of most state science standards.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2005-01-01

444

Effect of chewing Qat on mucosal histology and prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in the oesophagus, stomach and duodenum of Yemeni patients.  

PubMed

This investigation was aimed at assessing whether the Yemeni habit of chewing Qat on a regular basis had a significant effect on the upper alimentary tract. Seventy patients with dyspepsia attending Al-Thawra Hospital in Taiz, Yemen Republic were examined by endoscopy. Biopsies were taken from the oesophagus, stomach and duodenum. The patients included 28 who gave a history of daily Qat intake, 21 with less frequent intake and 21 who took none. The only statistically significant finding associated with daily Qat intake was a higher prevalence of duodenal ulcer, particularly in females. However, a strong association was also found between heavy smoking and ulcer, with most ulcer patients who chewed Qat daily being heavy smokers. Chewing Qat was not associated with a higher prevalence of oesophageal dysplasia, making it unlikely to be the cause of the perceived high incidence of oesophageal carcinoma in Yemen. There was a high prevalence of gastric H. pylori colonization (93%) and columnar-lined lower end of oesophagus (18%), as well as low prevalence of intestinal metaplasia of stomach (4%); this was not, however, related to chewing Qat. Further epidemiological and histological studies are needed to assess the significance of these findings in relation to the incidence of oesophageal and gastric carcinoma in Yemen. PMID:1757083

el-Guneid, A; el-Sherif, A M; Murray-Lyon, I M; Zureikat, N; Shousha, S

1991-11-01

445

Fuel loads in U.S. cities.  

PubMed

Sources of burnable material within U.S. cities are analyzed. Based on a detailed evaluation of construction practices, storage of burnable contents, building function and layout, and density of buildings in city districts, we derive urban fuel load densities in terms of land use type and geographic location. Residential building fuel loads vary regionally from 123 to 150 kg m-2; nonresidential building classes have loads from 39 to 273 kg m-2. The results indicate that average U.S. urban area fuel loads range from 14 to 21 kg m-2. PMID:10109450

Bush, B; Anno, G; McCoy, R; Gaj, R; Small, R D

1991-02-01

446

West Nile Virus in New York City  

PubMed Central

In 1999, a cluster of encephalitis cases was detected in New York City. The city applied larvicide to standing water and aerially sprayed pesticides to control adult mosquitoes. The causative agent was West Nile virus, a type of encephalitis that had never before been transmitted in the western hemisphere. This experience offers many lessons for the practitioners of public health and of public health law. A public health infrastructure that does not lose sight of the old threats must be maintained. The public health and environmental governmental establishments must work together. Law is closely intertwined with policy and programmatic initiatives and can facilitate a better public health outcome.

Lopez, Wilfredo

2002-01-01

447

LGBTQs in the city, queering urban space.  

PubMed

Since the 1960s, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) culture has developed in big cities and metropolises everywhere (not only in the West, but also in Asia, Latin America and indeed Africa). This essay examines how cities provide the spatial conditions necessary for the formation of such emancipatory movements based on identity politics and strategies which transcend binary gender dualism. The starting point of this investigation is my thesis that only urban life enables LGBTQ individuals to live their lives fully, realize their (sexual) identities, and furthermore organize themselves collectively, become publicly visible, and appropriate urban, societal and political spaces. PMID:21542205

Doderer, Yvonne P

2011-01-01

448

The vision of a smart city  

SciTech Connect

The vision of ''Smart Cities'' is the urban center of the future, made safe, secure environmentally green, and efficient because all structures--whether for power, water, transportation, etc. are designed, constructed, and maintained making use of advanced, integrated materials, sensors, electronics, and networks which are interfaced with computerized systems comprised of databases, tracking, and decision-making algorithms. This paper discusses a current initiative being led by the Brookhaven National Laboratory to create a research, development and deployment agenda that advances this vision. This is anchored in the application of new technology to current urban center issues while looking 20 years into the future and conceptualizing a city framework that may exist.

Hall, R.E.; Bowerman, B.; Braverman, J.; Taylor, J.; Todosow, H.; Von Wimmersperg, U.

2000-09-28

449

The Social Structures of the Cities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity, created by Jim Wright of the University of Central Florida, provides a look at the urban structure of cities through the eyes of statistics. Objectives of this first data exercise are: to discover how the present-day United States population is distributed across these various census categories; to discover how the distribution has changed over time; and, to see how some of the social characteristics of people who live in cities, suburbs and non-metro areas. This is a nice look at how statistics are applied to real world situations.

Wright, Jim

2009-04-24

450

West Nile virus in New York City.  

PubMed

In 1999, a cluster of encephalitis cases was detected in New York City. The city applied larvicide to standing water and aerially sprayed pesticides to control adult mosquitoes. The causative agent was West Nile virus, a type of encephalitis that had never before been transmitted in the western hemisphere. This experience offers many lessons for the practitioners of public health and of public health law. A public health infrastructure that does not lose sight of the old threats must be maintained. The public health and environmental governmental establishments must work together. Law is closely intertwined with policy and programmatic initiatives and can facilitate a better public health outcome. PMID:12144970

Lopez, Wilfredo

2002-08-01

451

Seismogram offers insight into Oklahoma City bombing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terrorist bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995, generated seismic waves that were recorded on two permanent seismographs about 7 and 26 km away from the bombing. The seismogram recorded at 26 km shows two low-frequency wave trains, discrete sets of oscillatory signals, that begin about 10 s apart. Public release

Thomas L. Holzer; Joe B. Fletcher; Gary S. Fuis; Trond Ryberg; Thomas M. Brocher; Christopher M. Dietel

1996-01-01

452

Oklahoma city: The storying of a disaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bombing in Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995 was a massive assault on the meaning?making of survivors and community members. Utilizing a social constructionist perspective, this article explores the evolution of the community's social narrative as it shifted in the immediate wake of the blast to a new framework for understanding the event three months later. It is speculated

James E. Levine

1996-01-01

453

Sustainable cities: problems of integrated interdisciplinary research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the problem of integrated interdisciplinary research in the field of sustainable cities. The problematique of urban sustainability is studied in the historical and international context. Current research in the field is reviewed, and major gaps in interdisciplinary analysis are identified. The paper makes first steps towards the development of an innovative methodology for the analysis of interdisciplinary

Stanislav E. Shmelev; Irina A. Shmeleva

2009-01-01

454

MATCH: multimodal access to city help  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interfaces to mobile information access devices need to allow users to interact using whichever mode or combination of modes are most appropriate, given their user preference, task at hand, and physical and social environment. This paper describes a multimodal application architecture which facilitates rapid prototyping of flexible next-generation multimodal interfaces. Our sample application MATCH (Multimodal Access To City Help) provides

Michael Johnston; Srinivas Bangalore; Gunaranjan Vasireddy

2001-01-01

455

Systems Analysis in the USAC Cities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is part of a USAC series of special technical reports and a final project report by the Long Island University USAC project. It discusses systems analysis in the USAC cities of Charlotte (N.C.), Dayton (Ohio), Long Beach (Cal.), Reading (Pa)., ...

K. L. Kraemer R. C. Emrey R. D. Hackathorn L. D. Hackathorn J. Connors

1972-01-01

456

Jaffa, 1948: The fall of a city  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the fall of Palestinian-Arab Jaffa in the 1948 war. As the largest Arab city in Palestine, its accelerated social and military collapse came as a surprise to many, despite Jewish dominance in the Jaffa region. While previous research has mostly neglected this question, the present study aims at revealing the underlying causes, besides Jewish military pressure,

Itamar Radai

2011-01-01

457

Racial and Ethnic Succession in Four Cities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using longitudinal census tract data for four cities, this article predicts racial composition of neighborhoods as a function of earlier period racial, ethnic, socioeconomic, and physical characteristics. There is support for aspects of the ecological and filtering modes of succession, with some elements not being generally applicable across time…

White, Michael J.

1984-01-01

458

Educational aspirations in inner city schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research aimed to assess the nature and level of pupils’ educational aspirations and to elucidate the factors that influence these aspirations. A sample of five inner city comprehensive secondary schools were selected by their local authority because of poor pupil attendance, below?average examination results and low rates of continuing in full?time education after the age of 16. Schools were

Steve Strand; Joe Winston

2008-01-01

459

City of Santa Monica Community Profile.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a summary of the demographic data collected and analyzed by RAND as part of Community Voices: A Community Profile and Planning Project of the City of Santa Monica. Since June 1999, RAND has provided technical research assistance to th...

L. Mizell

2000-01-01

460

Interactive Dig Sagalassos: City in the Clouds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At the beginning of the 18th century, Sagalassos, City in the Clouds, was discovered in Turkey. Upon first seeing the ruined city, Paul Lucas, on a mission for Louis XIV, described the ruined city as someplace once inhabited by fairies. Over a century later, the preserved ruins of Sagalassos were considered indispensable by students of antiquity, and in modern times, the site has been excavated extensively by a team of scholars from the Catholic University of Leuven. This site is designed by the good people at Archaeology Magazine for people interested in the site who cannot make it to Turkey themselves. On the site, visitors can read field reports from the different areas of the site (such as the Roman baths located there), look at the ÂFind Of Week item, and learn about the daily life in and around the camp. Additionally, visitors would do well to consult the map of the excavation site in order to accurately gauge their bearings within the ancient city and Turkey.

2005-01-01

461

Pasadena City College SIGI Project Research Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The research design is presented for an evaluation of a computer based career guidance program, SIGI (System of Interactive Guidance and Information), designed by Educational Testing Service to assist community college students in improving their ability to make career decisions. The plan described is for the Pasadena City College field test--a…

Risser, John J.; Tulley, John E.

462

City: Images of America. Elementary Version.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed to accompany an audiovisual filmstrip series devoted to presenting a visual history of life in America, this guide contains an elementary social studies (grades 2-6) unit on the American city over the last century. Using authentic visuals including paintings, posters, advertising, documentary photography, and cartoons, the guide offers…

Franklin, Edward; And Others

463

University Without Walls. Honolulu Model Cities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Central Michigan University has been operating an external degree program for the Honolulu Model Cities Program since February 1972. The Institute for Personal and Career Development (IPCD) is the component that extends the goals of the program--equal access to education for personal enrichment, career alternatives, and increased upward…

Central Michigan Univ., Mount Pleasant.

464

Increasing mobility in cities by controlling overcrowding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various theories have been proposed to describe vehicular traffic movement in cities on an aggregate level. They fall short to create a macroscopic model with variable inputs and outputs that could describe a rush hour dynamically. This dissertation work shows that a macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD) relating production (the product of average flow and network length) and accumulation (the product

Nikolaos Geroliminis

2007-01-01

465

Pasadena City College SIGI Project. Research Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A research study at Pasadena City College in 1975-76 evaluated a computer based career guidance program, SIGI (System of Interactive Guidance and Information), designed by Educational Testing Service to assist community college students in improving their ability to make career decisions. Students identified as desiring aid in career guidance were…

Risser, John J.; Tulley, John E.

466

Identifying responsive inner-city policemen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessed police responsiveness using a technique that identified positive and negative attitudes of policemen toward inner-city residents. Ss were 30 policemen who scored most negatively and 32 who scored most positively on a 4-scale questionnaire (Policemen's View of Citizens' Support, General Faith in People, Police Fear of Citizens or Police Defensive Posture, and Police Stereotype of Poor People). Analysis of

Rita M. Kelly; Martin G. Farber

1974-01-01

467

Biodiversity in Dublin City Urban Parklands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversity was measured for five regional and fifteen neighbourhood urban parklands in the south-west Dublin city area, including a recently developed municipal golf course. Plant species were inventoried by habitat type in the spring, summer and autumn. Birds, mammals and fish were also recorded for each park with substantial input from environmental groups and members of the local community. The

D. E. Lynn; N. E. Kingston; J. R. Martin; S. Waldren

468

Remembering the city: translocality and the senses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores how the postcolonial cities of Kolkata and London are remembered across space and time through the translocal memories of a religious minority, followers of the Hindu reform sect, known as the Brahmo Samaj. London Brahmos represent a miniscule translocal community, historically located in the urban culture of Kolkata and yet with a long tradition of travel and

Shompa Lahiri

2011-01-01

469

City Planners and Public Service Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Once planners came to terms with the futility of being objective technicians, concerns arose regarding how they used their values in practice, particularly within the public sector. This study examines which factors are associated with the public service motivations of city planners in the USA. Variables representing individual characteristics of planners and the nature of their organizations and communities were

Bonnie J. Johnson

2010-01-01

470

The Green Guerillas, New York City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article, from "The Biodiversity Crisis: Losing What Counts", reports on the work of the Green Guerillas. It provides an overview of the group's first efforts, which included cleaning up a trash-filled vacant lot and tossing water balloons with seeds into abandoned lots and a look at the diverse gardens the group has created throughout New York City.

471

Computer simulation study on city car system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assume that 15 stations are set at the key points in a certain city and suitable number of small cars are distributed to each station and that basic 0-D data of trip between any two of these stations are given. In our simulation, passengers who take on cars at their stations are generated by using random number. If there

M. Abe; K. Suzuki; F. Harashima; S. Kariya

1978-01-01

472

Leukemia in Hiroshima City Atomic Bomb Survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt is made to establish a quantitative relation between ; radiation-induced leukemia and the unit-dose of radiation received. Data are ; presented which are based on studies of the survivors of the atomic bombings in ; Hiroshima City, Japan. (C.H.);

Niel Wald

1958-01-01

473

Jazz Exotica and the Naked City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noir fictions tend to a binary form of representation in which society is shown divided into light and dark sides, with the latter casting its shadows onto the former. Key to this discussion is Irving Howe's notion of the city as a narrative device for representing society in all its contradictions and fractures. In film noir, the abstract notion of

Phil Ford

2008-01-01

474

Bug City: House and Backyard Insects [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography, fun…

1998

475

Air quality data from large cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an assessment of the air quality for the principal cities in developed and developing countries. Part of the vast and widely dispersed information on air quality that is available at this time on the Internet was compiled, thus making possible a comprehensive evaluation of the tendencies that emerged at the end of the 20th century. Likewise, these

J. M Baldasano; E Valera; P Jiménez

2003-01-01

476

Special Libraries of New York City.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the facilities, collections, and services of the following special libraries in New York City: Shea and Gould Library; American Foundation for the Blind; Brooklyn Museum; Merrill Lynch Capital Markets Library; Public Relations of American Information Center; Port Authority of New York and New Jersey; and Brooklyn Public Library Business…

Special Libraries, 1989

1989-01-01

477

Cities cooperate on household hazardous waste collection  

SciTech Connect

This article describes a household hazardous waste collection project. The project resulted from Missouri solid waste regulations and the recognition of five suburban cities of St. Louis that there was a need to provide residents with an environmentally sound method of disposing of household hazardous waste. The project was 90 percent funded by a state grant.

Yost, K.D. (Director of Public Works, Kirkwood, MO (United States))

1994-03-01

478

Police technology in cities: changes and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced technologies originally developed for the military are now commonly used to enhance urban public safety. Photonics, thermal imaging, facial and behavioral recognition systems, remote monitoring by satellite, and biometric systems like DNA testing and retinal scans have become new weapons in police agencies. These technologies are being diffused among cities by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), NASA,

Samuel Nunn

2001-01-01

479

Appomattox Manor-City Point, A History.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a study of City Point, Virginia, General Grant's headquarters and supply base during the Siege of Petersburg. The report provides a comprehensive study of the strategy and tactics used by General Grant to bring an end to the Civil War. Spec...

H. A. Butowsky

1978-01-01

480

OneCleveland: Connecting the Digital City  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A new urban landscape characterizes cities around the globe, eclipsing the smokestacks of the 19th century and skyscrapers of the 20th century, yet the topography of the 21st century digital cityscape is almost invisible. In sharp contrast to the limits of interaction imposed by geography, architecture, and physical distances characteristic of…

Gonick, Lev; Junnar, Priya

2005-01-01

481

Northern Desegregation: A Tale of Two Cities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies on northern desegregation have focused on political strategies, the role of the courts, the responsibility of the federal government (HEW), and barriers to northern desegregation. Some have conducted individual case studies and comparative studies, and others have examined a number of cities. This article examines the way school…

Danns, Dionne

2011-01-01

482

Innovative Degree Programs Matched to City Strengths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In recent years, IUPUI has steadily acquired a considerable national reputation as an up-and-coming university. Some of the reasons for this recognition include the RISE Initiative and the large number of innovative degree programs recently started at IUPUI based on campus strengths and the priorities of the city of Indianapolis. Some specific…

Sukhatme, Uday

2011-01-01

483

Pollutant dispersion characteristics in Dhaka city, Bangladesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air pollution is a major environmental concern in major cities around the world. The major causes of air pollution include rapid industrialization/urbanization and increased non environment-friendly energy production. This paper analyses the atmospheric pollutant such as carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM) dispersion characteristics of Dhaka city. The yearly and diurnal variations of pollutant concentration are described by taking into consideration of both meteorological and emission source parameters highlighting washout effect due to rainfall and inversion phenomena. Concentration of PM (both PM2.5 and PM10) and CO in the ambient air are measured for a period of one year with Airmetric Minivol air samplers and Gas Chromatographic (GC) technique, respectively. The trend over the year shows an increase in the monthly average hourly PM and CO concentrations in winter months (November to March) when both PM10 and PM2.5 annual average concentrations (about 130 and 95 ?g m-3, respectively) exhibit levels exceeding World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines as well as exceed more than twice the national standards of annual PM10 (50 ?g m-3) and PM2.5 (15 ?g m-3) concentrations. Such high pollutant concentrations may have significant health implications for residents of Dhaka city. It is also found that the PM concentration increases with the increase of wind speed during dry winter season and is also influenced by transboundary air pollution. The data and subsequent recommendations can be useful in formulating air quality management strategies for the Dhaka city.

Hossain, Khandaker M. A.; Easa, Said M.

2012-02-01

484

Bug City: Butterflies and Moths [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography, fun…

1998

485

Bug City: Crickets, Grasshoppers & Friends [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon, including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic…

1998

486

Patterns of Alienation in Inner City Ghettos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although high rates of alienation are known to exist in inner city ghettos, it is not known whether that alienation is directed toward society as a whole or if individuals make distinctions between different sectors of the social system. Relationships between the levels of alienation directed toward four aspects of society are analyzed to determine if they are the result

William W. Philliber

1977-01-01

487

The Evolution of One-Newspaper Cities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of several papers presented at a Federal Trade Commission Symposium on Media Concentration. It analyzes trends in the development of one-newspaper cities. Some of the trends noted are that face-to-face competition has declined considerably over the last five decades, going from 90% of the circulation in 1923 to 30% of the circulation…

Rosse, James N.

488

Urban ecology: urbanization and systems of cities.  

PubMed

"This paper reviews the literature on the nature and extent of interrelations among cities in advanced industrial societies. It summarizes contemporary population distribution and redistribution trends in these societies and their causes. Finally, it attempts to identify some of the most important issues for the development of a comparative theory of urbanization." PMID:12339751

Wilson, F D

1984-01-01

489

The Growing Up in Cities Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child contains a set of “participation clauses” which are leading members of development agencies, municipal offices, and community organizations to incorporate children and youth into community planning. The Growing Up in Cities project of UNESCO provides a model for doing this, with a focus on low-income areas of special concern for

Louise Chawla; David Driskell

2006-01-01

490

City browser: developing a conversational automotive HMI  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces City Browser, a prototype multimodal, conversational, spoken language interface for automotive navigational aid and information access. A study designed to evaluate the impact of age and gender on device interaction errors, perceptions and experiences with the system along with physiological indices of workload is outlined. Preliminary results, plans for further analysis and a larger scale user evaluation

Alexander Gruenstein; Jarrod Orszulak; Sean Liu; Shannon Roberts; Jeff Zabel; Bryan Reimer; Bruce Mehler; Stephanie Seneff; James R. Glass; Joseph Coughlin

2009-01-01

491

City traffic simulation package and its utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population explosion in larger cities and increase in vehicle density cause traffic problems in these areas. Intersections are the places where traffic is mostly blocked and most of the accidents occur. Signalization lights at the intersections aim to arrange the traffic flow and to avoid accidents. If not located properly or have bad timing, not only they fail to avoid

Atilla Elci; Ali Zambako?lu

1982-01-01

492

Public Transport Supply in Indian Cities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a review of public transport supply in Indian cities. It is one of a series which presents the findings of the joint research project carried out over a two year period by the Indian Association of State Road Transport Undertakings (A...

C. H. Rao D. A. C. Maunder M. G. Pathak P. R. Fouracre

1981-01-01

493

Bug City: House and Backyard Insects [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography, fun…

1998

494

When the City Is Your Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students who attend Trinity College in Hartford, Connecticut, have elected to spend their university years in one of America's most distinguished small cosmopolitan cities. Over the last two decades as the world has become rapidly urbanized, Hartford has become a critically contested site where economic poverty, environmental degradation,…

Riggio, Milla Cozart; Sapolis, Lisa G.; Chen, Xiangming

2011-01-01

495

Waste Management in Greater Dhaka City.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on the environmental degradation of Greater Dhaka City (GDC) resulting from pollution created by the indiscriminate disposal of industrial wastes, open dumping of solid wastes, inadequate treatment and disposal of domestic sewage, and unplanned disposal of leachate from agricultural land. Measures to protect the GDC environment…

Rahman, M. H.

1993-01-01

496

The Long Island City Training Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In an effort to promote economic development in the Long Island City (New York) area, a study was conducted of the training and human resource needs of local manufacturing firms and the demographic characteristics of the local labor force. Specifically, the study sought to examine company needs, highlight programs available to address those…

Long Island City Business Development Corp., NY.

497

Assuring the Economic Health of America's Cities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the relationship of the economic conditions of cities to the national economy. A national urban policy is needed which would promote cooperation between business and government, increase investment in public facilities--roads, bridges, ports, etc.--and channel more resources to local governments. (AM)

Cisneros, Henry G.

1982-01-01

498

Children and playgrounds in Mediterranean cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the first results of a case study on the ways in which playgrounds are constructed and experienced in children's daily lives in two medium sized Mediterranean Catalan cities. The research is based on qualitative methodology through participant observation and interviews with institutional actors. Our research suggests that playgrounds are organised around age as the central category; nevertheless,

Mireia Baylina Ferré; Anna Ortiz Guitart; Maria Prats Ferret

2006-01-01

499

Waste Management in Greater Dhaka City.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study focuses on the environmental degradation of Greater Dhaka City (GDC) resulting from pollution created by the indiscriminate disposal of industrial wastes, open dumping of solid wastes, inadequate treatment and disposal of domestic sewage, and unplanned disposal of leachate from agricultural land. Measures to protect the GDC environment…

Rahman, M. H.

1993-01-01

500

WM VeloCity Tour '97 Live  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The world's most famous bicycle race is held in July. Viewers can watch the conclusion of the race, or recap its highlights at this site. The VeloCity site, provided by World Media Live, contains daily stories, standings and stage results, commentary by racer Stephen Roche, and archives of its 1995. 1996 and 1997 race coverage.

1997-01-01