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1

[Use of crude drugs in "PiWeiLun" in comparison to those used in "NeiWaiShangBianHuoLun".].  

PubMed

PiWeiLun (Hi-i-ron in Japanese) is a traditional Chinese medical formulary written in the 13th century that discusses endogenous disease. For curing endogenous diseases (Naisho) caused by functional deficiency of pi- and wei qi (Hi-I-Ki-Kyo), PiWeiLun was recommended for QingShuYiQi-Tang (Seisho-ekki-to), Ban-XiaBaiZhuTianMaTang (Hange-byakuju-tsu-tenma-to) and BuZhongYiQiTang (Ho-chu-ekki-to), which are described in NeiWaiShangBianHuoLun (Naigaisho-benwa-ku-ron).A characteristic of PiWeiLun is that it discusses combining the use of Phellodendri Cortex with sweet Qi-tonics (Hoki-yaku) as Ginseng and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizome for improving false heat syndrome (Kyo-netsu) due to yin-deficiency (In-kyo). In PiWeiLun Cimicifugae Rhizome, Angelicae Radux and Atractylodes Rhizome are more frequently used than in NeiWaiShangBianHuoLun.The use of drugs presented in PiWeiLun may be useful to devise new crude drug formulations good for modern deficiency syndrome experienced by persons having post-operative complications. PMID:16217902

Fuwa, Takako; Kosoto, Hiroshi; Tani, Tadato

2005-01-01

2

Wang Laboratories, Inc., Wang vs Cobol Compiler.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Validation Summary Report (VSR) for the Wang VS COBOL Compiler Version 2.8.5 (05 Version 4.1.1) provides a consolidated summary of the results obtained from the validation of the subject compiler against the 1974 COBOL Standard (X3.23-1974/FIPS PUB 2...

1980-01-01

3

Wei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Subvolume F 'Zeolite-Type Crystal Structures and their Chemistry. Framework Type Codes STO to ZON' of Volume 14 'Microporous and other Framework Materials with Zeolite-Type Structures' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'.

Fischer, R. X.; Baur, W. H.

4

1.G Grandfather Tang's Story  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Materials * A copy of Grandfather Tang's Story by Ann Tompert * One set of tangrams for each student (see note in commentary) * A set of tangrams for t...

5

76 FR 72387 - Order Relating to Xun Wang  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Security [11-BIS-0004] Order Relating to Xun Wang In the Matter of: Xun Wang, No. 30, Lane 3535, Yindu Road, Shanghai, 201108...Department of Commerce (``BIS''), has notified Xun Wang (``Wang'') of its intention to initiate...

2011-11-23

6

Wang-Landau Without Binning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are presented for Wang-Landau calculations on a Heisenberg model of BCC Fe that describe the density of states as function defined for all accessible energies instead of a function tabulated at discrete values of the energy. The density of states function described here is an analytic result valid near the ground state supplemented by a polynomial expansion. The probability density of Wang-Landau random walkers is sampled for a fixed density of states, and that probability density can be used to improve the estimated density of states. Methods for evaluating the convergence of the density of states are discussed along with the diffusion behavior of the random walkers. This work was performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725, and sponsored by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (ORNL), by the Mathematical, Information, and Computational Sciences Division; Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (US DOE), and by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering; Office of Basic Energy Sciences (US DOE). Computer resources provided by Florida State University.

Brown, G.; Nicholson, D.; Odbadrakh, Kh.; Eisenbach, M.; Rusanu, A.

2012-02-01

7

Communicating between the Apple and the Wang  

SciTech Connect

This manual covers what the beginner needs to know in order to transfer files between an Apple's Microcomputer and a Wang's OIS Word Processor. We have also tried to indicate where the experienced user might want to look for additional details. We cover the use of Apple Writer )(, VisiTerm, VisiCalc, and EasyWriter Professional. For us, the two most useful connections are from Applewriter to Wang and from Visicalc to Wang. From Wang to Apple Writer via Visiterm may have some value. Files can be transferred by VisiTerm to Wang, but they arrive with RETURNS in the middle of words, which have to be edited out, so we do not recommend it. We describe how to go from EasyWriter to Wang, but we do not know how to go from Wang to EasyWriter. We see no reason to go from Wang to VisiCalc, so we haven't thought about it. All instructions are given for a typical configuration of the Apple, namely the one on which this manual was composed. It is detailed in the section on Hardware and Software.

Barton, G.W., Downey, R.

1982-10-26

8

The Garden of Perfect Brightness (Yuanmingyuan) at the height of its splendour: Translated from Wang Wei (2002)) [The Yuanmingyuan Ruins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entering the Garden of Perfect Brightness (figure 1) from the Grand Palace Gate, which faces south, the first scene you came across was the Golden Water Bridge. All together there were three Golden Water bridges over the crescentshaped river. Through the Second Palace Gate was the Hall of Uprightness and Brightness, which was the hall where the Emperor of the

Xiuzhi Liu; Alison Hardie

2005-01-01

9

T'ang Dynasty Tomb Figure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses a print of a T'ang Dynasty tomb figure to acquaint grades 10-12 students with the tools needed for developing aesthetic judgement and artistic criticism. Includes background on the artwork and instructional strategies to help students describe the object, analyze the artmaking process, and formulate their own opinions. (GEA)

Selle, Penny

1988-01-01

10

Grandfather Tang Goes to High School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how the children's literature book, Grandfather Tang's Story, which is commonly used in the elementary grades, may be used at the high school level to engage students in an exploration of area and perimeter which includes basic operations with square roots, ordering numbers (decimal approximations, and their exact…

Johnson, Iris DeLoach

2006-01-01

11

Evaluation of Moon-tang on allergic reactions.  

PubMed

Moon-tang (M-tang) is a traditional Korean medicine that has been used for the treatment of various allergic disorders. However, the precise antiallergic effect and mechanism of it remain unknown. To figure out accurately the effect of M-tang on mast cell-mediated allergic reactions, we measured parameters including changes in the compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylaxis, ear-swelling response, histamine release, passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? secretion and expression, which related to allergic inflammatory reaction. The oral administration of M-tang inhibited systemic anaphylaxis and ear-swelling response in mice. M-tang suppressed the PCA and histamine release. In addition, M-tang and its active component, ?-eudesmol, inhibited the TNF-? production and expression in activated mast cells. These results suggest that M-tang may be a beneficial applicability as a candidate for an antiallergic agent. PMID:20946015

Kim, Na-Hyung; Kang, In-Cheol; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

2011-06-01

12

Wang Laboratories, Inc., VS Model 16B Wang VS COBOL Version 3.4.1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Validation Summary Report (VSR) for the WANG LABORATORIES, INC. Wang VS COBOL Version 3.4.1 running under the O.S Version 5.01.14 provides a consolidated summary of the results obtained from the validation of the subject compiler against the 1974 COB...

1981-01-01

13

The Epidemiology of Lung Cancer in Xuan Wei, China: Current Progress, Issues, and Research Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Xuan Wei, a rural Chinese county of about one million people, females' annual lung cancer mortality is China's highest, and males' is among China's highest. Xuan Wei's very high indoor air pollution levels (sometimes exceeding 20 mg\\/m), residentially stable population, relatively uncomplicated lifestyle, and wide geographic variation in lung cancer mortality render it highly amenable to quantitative, interdisciplinary investigation

Robert S. Chapman; Judy L. Mumford; D. Bruce Harris; Xingzhou He; Weizhang Jiang; Rudao Yang

1988-01-01

14

Assessing Indoor Air Pollution Exposure and Lung Cancer Risk in Xuan Wei, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the risk-assessment-related aspects of a multidisciplinary study of indoor coal smoke pollution and lung cancer in Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, China. Xuan Wei presents a unique natural experiment in environmental carcinogenesis because lung cancer mortality rates and indoor pollution exposures vary widely within the County. Current evidence links lung cancer with domestic burning of “smoky coal,”

Robert S. Chapman; Judy L. Mumford; Xingzhou He; D. Bruce Harris; Rudao Yang; Weizhang Jiang

1989-01-01

15

Tool Measures Depths of Defects on a Case Tang Joint  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A special-purpose tool has been developed for measuring the depths of defects on an O-ring seal surface. The surface lies in a specially shaped ringlike fitting, called a capture feature tang, located on an end of a cylindrical segment of a case that contains a solid-fuel booster rocket motor for launching a space shuttle. The capture feature tang is a part of a tang-and-clevis, O-ring joint between the case segment and a similar, adjacent cylindrical case segment. When the segments are joined, the tang makes an interference fit with the clevis and squeezes the O-ring at the side of the gap.

Ream, M. Bryan; Montgomery, Ronald B.; Mecham, Brent A.; Keirstead, Bums W.

2005-01-01

16

Wei-Norman equations for a unitary evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wei-Norman technique allows one to express the solution of a system of linear non-autonomous differential equations in terms of product of exponentials with time-dependent exponents being solutions of a system of nonlinear differential equations. We show that in the unitary case, i.e. when the solution of the linear system is given by a unitary evolution operator, the nonlinear system, by an appropriate choice of ordering, can be reduced to a hierarchy of matrix Riccati equations. To this end, we consider a general linear non-autonomous dynamical system on the special linear group SL(N, {C}). The unitary case, of particular significance for quantum optimal control problems, is then obtained by restriction to anti-Hermitian generators. We also point to the connections of the obtained results with the theory of the so-called Lie systems.

Charzy?ski, Szymon; Ku?, Marek

2013-07-01

17

Pharmacological evaluation of LiuWei Zhuanggu Granules in rats.  

PubMed

Many commonly consumed foods, herbs and spices contain a complex array of naturally occurring bioactive molecules called phytochemicals, which may confer health benefits. In this study, the impact of LiuWei Zhuanggu Granules (LWZGG) on mineral metabolism in osteopenia development was evaluated. Results showed that serum estrogen, bone gla protein (BGP), and calcitonin (CT) levels, bone Ca, Zn and Cu levels, femur, lumbar vertebrae and trabecular bone density, tibia maximum stress and maximum bending strength were increased, and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), serum and urine Ca, Zn and Cu levels were decreased in rat bone. It can be concluded that LWZGG is useful to improve bone quality in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. PMID:22759913

Zhu, Haiming; Ding, Liang; Xiao, Haijun; Ni, Weifeng; Xue, Feng; He, Zhiming

2012-01-01

18

Wang-Landau sampling for homopolymer collapse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the behavior of a continuum-homopolymer model using the Wang-Landau algorithm, concentrating on phase transitions such as the coil-globule and solid-liquid transitions. Using the density of states generated by the Wang-Landau algorithm, we calculate various thermodynamic quantities, e.g., the internal energy and specific heat. We also study how algorithmic parameters, such as sampling boundaries (maximum and minimum energies for random walks) and the final value of the modification factor, affect these quantities. In particular, we observe how the sampling boundaries can significantly alter the transition behavior. Our results are compared with two recent studies that yielded contradictory results, one using the bond-fluctuation model and the other using a continuum model similar to our own. We find that the transitions seen in our model are much more similar to those in the bond-fluctuation study. The careful analysis of the effects of algorithmic parameters on thermodynamic quantities should be relevant to the study of other polymeric/protein models.

Seaton, Daniel T.; Mitchell, Steven J.; Landau, David P.

2008-03-01

19

Weighted Lin-Wang Tests for Crossing Hazards  

PubMed Central

Lin and Wang have introduced a quadratic version of the logrank test, appropriate for situations in which the underlying survival distributions may cross. In this note, we generalize the Lin-Wang procedure to incorporate weights and investigate the performance of Lin and Wang's test and weighted versions in various scenarios. We find that weighting does increase statistical power in certain situations; however, none of the procedures was dominant under every scenario.

Koziol, James A.; Jia, Zhenyu

2014-01-01

20

Study on the compositional differences of Tang Sancai from different kilns by INAA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many kinds of Tang Sancai specimens were excavated in the Shaanxi and Henan Provinces. However, the provenances of some kinds of Tang Sancai have not been well identified until now. In order to group the Tang Sancai specimens of the unknown provenance to the respective kilns according to their chemical compositions, we studied the element abundance patterns of different kiln's

Lei Yong; Feng Songlin; Feng Xiangqian; Fan Dongyu; Xu Qing; Sha Yin; Cheng Lin; Chai Zhifang; Jiang Jie; Zhuo Zhenxi; Zhang Songlin; Liao Yongmin

2005-01-01

21

Effects of traditional Chinese medicine Wei-Wei-Kang-Granule on the expression of EGFR and NF-KB in chronic atrophic gastritis rats.  

PubMed

Wei-Wei-Kang-Granule(WWKG) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparation for the treatment of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). We examined the pathologic change and the effects of Wei-Wei-Kang-Granule (WWKG) on the expression of EGFR (epiderminal growth factor receptors) and NF-kB (nuclear transcription factor KappaB) in rats with chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), and evaluated the possible mechanisms. Ninety rats were randomly divided into control group and four experimental groups. CAG rat models were induced by repeated stimulating experiments in the experimental groups. After modeled rats were intragastrically injected (i.g.) with WWKG at 6000mg/kg (large dose WWKG group), WWKG at 3000mg/kg (small dose WWKG group), San-Jiu-Wei-Tai-Granule(SJWTG) at 1600mg/kg(SJWTG group), and normal saline(0.9%)at 20ml/kg (model group and control group), respectively, once a day for 30 days. After 30 days, all rats were sacrificed and samples were taken from the sinus ventriculi and body of stomach. The gastric specimens were prepared for microscopic view with hematoxylin and eosin (H-E). The immunohistochemistry method was used to observe the expression of protein of EGFR and NF-kB in gastric tissue. The data were analyzed in pre-and post-treatment by computer image automatic analysis system. Immunohistochemistry detection showed that the average optical density of EGFR and NF-kB in antrum was lower in large and small dose WWKG groups than the model group (P<0.01). CAG in rats was related with the damage of barrier in gastric mucosa and the misbalance of cell proliferation and apoptosis. One of the mechanisms is perhaps to reduce the expressing of EGFR and NF-Kb in gastric mucosa. PMID:23983313

Lin, Hai-yan; Zhao, Yan; Yu, Jia-ning; Jiang, Wei-wei; Sun, Xi-ling

2012-01-01

22

Massively parallel Wang Landau sampling on multiple GPUs  

SciTech Connect

Wang Landau sampling is implemented on the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) with the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA). Performances on three different GPU cards, including the new generation Fermi architecture card, are compared with that on a Central Processing Unit (CPU). The parameters for massively parallel Wang Landau sampling are tuned in order to achieve fast convergence. For simulations of the water cluster systems, we obtain an average of over 50 times speedup for a given workload.

Yin, Junqi [ORNL; Landau, D. P. [UGA

2012-01-01

23

Chemical Characterization of Mutagenic Fractions of Particles from Indoor Coal Combustion: A Study of Lung Cancer in Xuan Wei, China.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the rural Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, lung cancer mortality rates for women are among the highest in China. Most of these women are nonsmokers, and studies have shown that lung cancer in Xuan Wei is associated with domestic use of smoky coal unde...

J. C. Chuang S. A. Wise S. Cao J. L. Mumford

1992-01-01

24

Review of Anhoplocampa Wei (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae), with description of a new species and a new combination  

PubMed Central

Abstract Anhoplocampa is redescribed based on new material. Anhoplocampa bicoloricornis sp. n. from China is described. Anhoplocampa yunanensis (Haris & Roller, 1999), comb. n. is transferred from Trichiocampus. A key to species of Anhoplocampa is provided. The differences between Anhoplocampa and Trichiocampus Hartig, 1837, Priophorus Dahlbom, 1835, Hoplocampa Hartig, 1837 and Renonerva Wei & Nie, 1998 are briefly discussed.

Wei, Meicai; Niu, Gengyun

2011-01-01

25

LUNG CANCER AND INDOOR EXPOSURE OF UNVENTED COAL AND WOOD COMBUSTION EMISSIONS IN XUAN WEI, CHINA  

EPA Science Inventory

Residents of Xuan Wei County in China have unusually high lung cancer mortality that cannot be attributed to tobacco use or occupational exposure. They are exposed to smoke from unvented, open pit coal or wood fires (often used for cooking and heating). The variation in lung canc...

26

Picture Languages: From Wang Tiles to 2D Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to collect definitions and results on t he main classes of 2D languages introduced with the attempt of generalizing regular and context-free string languages and in same time preserving some of their nice properties. Almost all the models here described are based on tiles. So we also summarize some results on Wang tiles and

Alessandra Cherubini; Matteo Pradella

2009-01-01

27

Payload Specialist Taylor Wang performs repairs on Drop Dynamics Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Payload Specialist Taylor G. Wang performs a repair task on the Drop Dynamics Module (DDM) in the science module aboard the orbiter Challenger. Fellow crew members Dr. William E. Thornton (facing camera) and Don Lind are at the right of the frame.

1985-01-01

28

Hwangryun-Hae-Dok-tang (Huanglian-Jie-Du-Tang) extract and its constituents reduce ischemia-reperfusion brain injury and neutrophil infiltration in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preventive effect of Hwangryun-Hae-Dok-tang (HHDT, Huanglian-Jie-Du-Tang), a Chinese herbal medicine, and its ingredients on ischemia\\/reperfusion-induced brain injury was evaluated in the rat brain. HHDT consists of four herbs, namely, Coptidis rhizoma, Scutellariae radix, Phellodendri cortex, and Gardeniae fructus. Ischemia was induced by intraluminal occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery for 120 min and reperfusion was continued for 22

Young Sun Hwang; Chan Young Shin; Youngbuhm Huh; Jong Hoon Ryu

2002-01-01

29

Assessment of ecosystem health based on fish assemblages in the Wei River basin, China.  

PubMed

In the Wei River basin, the ecosystem is gradually deteriorating due to the rapid growth of the population and the development of economies. It is thus important to assess the ecosystem health and take measures to restore the damaged ecosystem. In this study, an index of biotic integrity (IBI) for fish was developed to aid the conservation of the ecosystem based on a calibration data set. An index of water and habitat quality (IWHQ) was calculated based on environmental variables and habitat quality (QHEI) to identify the environmental degradation in the studied sites. The least degraded sites (IWHQ???2; W1, W5, W10, W12, W13, W14, and W16) were chosen as the reference sites. Six metrics that are sensitive to environmental degradation were utilized to differentiate the reference and the impaired sites using statistical methods. These metrics included the number of species (P1), the total biomass (P2), the number of Cobitidae species (P8), the proportion of species in the middle and low tiers (P10), the proportion of individuals that were classified as sensitive species (P25), and number of individuals in the sample (P39). A continuous scoring method was used to score the six metrics, and four classes were defined to characterize the ecosystem health of the Wei River basin. The fact that the overall IBI scores were negatively correlated with the index of environmental quality (IWHQ) based on the validation data set indicated that the index should be useful for biomonitoring and the conservation of biodiversity. According to the results, more than half of the sites were classified as poor or very poor. The ecosystem health in the Wei River was better than that in the Jing River and the Beiluo River, and this study will be a great reference for water resources management and ecosystem restoration in the Wei River basin. PMID:24535402

Wu, Wei; Xu, Zongxue; Yin, Xuwang; Zuo, Depeng

2014-06-01

30

Microfacies and geochemistry of the Ilam Formation in the Tang-E Rashid area, Izeh, S.W. Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ilam Formation (Santonian-Campanian in age), part of the Bangestan Group, is disconformably overlain by the Sarvak Formation and underlain by the Gurpi Formation in the Tang-E Rashid, Peyon area, Izeh (Zagros), southwest of Iran. Facies analyses indicate that the Ilam carbonates formed in four microfacies belts: tidal flat, lagoon, shoal and open marine, in a platform ramp environment. Major and minor elements and carbon and oxygen isotope values were used to determine the original carbonate mineralogy of the Ilam Formation. Petrographic evidence and elemental and oxygen and carbon isotope values indicate that aragonite was the original carbonate mineralogy in the Ilam Formation. The elemental and isotopic compositions of the Ilam carbonates also illustrate that they have stabilized in the marine phreatic environment. Variations of Sr/Ca and ? 18O values versus Mn suggest that diagenetic alteration occurred in a closed system. Temperature calculation based on the oxygen isotope value of the least-altered sample indicates that the very early shallow burial fluid temperature was around 28 °C. Recognition of the exact boundary between the Ilam and Sarvak Formations is difficult, due to similar lithologies and the absence of the Surgah Formation in the study area. However, elemental and oxygen and carbon isotope analysis were used to determine the boundary between these formations. The ? 18O and ? 13C values, along with elemental results, clearly indicate a subaerial exposure surface, below which meteoric diagenesis affected the sediments.

Adabi, Mohammad H.; Mehmandosti, Elham Asadi

2008-07-01

31

Comparison of ferulic acid content in Radix Angelicae Sinensis, Danggui-Buxue-Tang and Danggui-Sini-Tang  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to determine the ferulic acid (FA) content of Radix Angelicae Sinensis (AS), Danggui-Buxue-Tang (DBT) and Danggui-Sini-Tang (DST) using the same ultra performance liquid chromatography system and method. FA was eluted using an Acquity BEH C18 column (100×2.1 mm inner diameter; 1.7 ?m). A mobile phase of methanol and 0.5% acetic acid was used and a flow rate of 0.3 ml/min was selected. The calibration curve exhibited a good linear regression (R2=0.9997). The inter- and intra-day precision measurements of FA ranged between 0.27 and 3.03% and the recovery ranged between 98.44 and 101.64% with relative standard deviation (RSD) values ?4.73%. The method was reliable and simple. The results of the chromatographic analyses indicate that the FA contents of the DBT and DST decoctions were increased compared with that of AS due to the presence of other herbs.

YAO, JIA-MEI; YU, LI-JIN; CHEN, QIONG; CHEN, ZE-QI; WANG, DONG-SHENG; QIU, XIN-JIAN; ZHAO, LIN-LIN

2014-01-01

32

Effects of Lizhong Tang on cultured mouse small intestine interstitial cells of Cajal  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effects of Lizhong Tang, an herbal product used in traditional Chinese medicine, on mouse small intestine interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs). METHODS: Enzymatic digestions were used to dissociate ICCs from mouse small intestine tissues. The ICCs were morphologically distinct from other cell types in culture and were identified using phase contrast microscopy after verification with anti c-kit antibody. A whole-cell patch-clamp configuration was used to record potentials (current clamp) from cultured ICCs. All of the experiments were performed at 30-32??°C. RESULTS: ICCs generated pacemaker potentials, and Lizhong Tang produced membrane depolarization in current-clamp mode. The application of flufenamic acid (a nonselective cation channel blocker) abolished the generation of pacemaker potentials by Lizhong Tang. Pretreatment with thapsigargin (a Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor in the endoplasmic reticulum) also abolished the generation of pacemaker potentials by Lizhong Tang. However, pacemaker potentials were completely abolished in the presence of an external Ca2+-free solution, and under this condition, Lizhong Tang induced membrane depolarizations. Furthermore, When GDP-?-S (1 mmol/L) was in the pipette solution, Lizhong Tang still induced membrane depolarizations. In addition, membrane depolarizations were not inhibited by chelerythrine or calphostin C, which are protein kinase C inhibitors, but were inhibited by U-73122, an active phospholipase C inhibitors. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that Lizhong Tang might affect gastrointestinal motility by modulating pacemaker activity in interstitial cells of Cajal.

Hwang, Min Woo; Kim, Jung Nam; Song, Ho Jun; Lim, Bora; Kwon, Young Kyu; Kim, Byung Joo

2013-01-01

33

CORRIGENDUM: Prospects for a new boson W+/-1 in the minimal Higgsless model at the LHC Prospects for a new boson W+/-1 in the minimal Higgsless model at the LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author list originally given in the above article (Ming-Shui Chen, Jian-Guo Bian, Guo-Ming Chen, Hong-Jian He, Chun-Hua Jiang, Zu-Hao Li, Song Liang, Xiang-Wei Meng, Yong-Hui Qi, Zhi-Cheng Tang, Jun-Quan Tao, Zheng Wang, Jian Wang, Jian Wang, Xian-You Wang, Jian-Xiong Wang, Hong Xiao, Min Yang, Jing-Jing Zang, Bin Zhang, Zhen Zhang and Zhen- Xia Zhang) is incorrect. The correct author list is: Ming-Shui Chen, Jian-Guo Bian, Guo-Ming Chen, Chun-Hua Jiang, Zu-Hao Li, Song Liang, Xiang-Wei Meng, Zhi-Cheng Tang, Jun-Quan Tao, Zheng Wang, Jian Wang, Jian Wang, Xian-You Wang, Jian-Xiong Wang, Hong Xiao, Min Yang, Jing-Jing Zang, Bin Zhang, Zhen Zhang and Zhen-Xia Zhang. Hong-Jian He and Yong-Hui Qi did not take part in the writing of this text and do not bear any responsibility for its contents. Also, reference [4] in the paper should be corrected to: [4] Hong-Jian He et al 2008 Phys. Rev. D 78 031701(R)

Chen, Ming-Shui; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; He, Hong-Jian; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Li, Zu-Hao; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiang-Wei; Qi, Yong-Hui; Tang, Zhi-Cheng; Tao, Jun-Quan; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xian-You; Wang, Jian-Xiong; Xiao, Hong; Yang, Min; Zang, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Zhen-Xia

2009-12-01

34

Wang-Landau sampling with logarithmic windows for continuous models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a modified Wang-Landau sampling (MWLS) for continuous statistical models by partitioning the energy space into a set of windows with logarithmically shrinking width. To demonstrate its necessity and advantages, we apply this sampling to several continuous models, including the two-dimensional square XY spin model, triangular J1-J2 spin model, and Lennard-Jones cluster model. Given a finite number of bins for partitioning the energy space, the conventional Wang-Landau sampling may not generate sufficiently accurate density of states (DOS) around the energy boundaries. However, it is demonstrated that much more accurate DOS can be obtained by this MWLS, and thus a precise evaluation of the thermodynamic behaviors of the continuous models at extreme low temperature (kBT<0.1) becomes accessible. The present algorithm also allows efficient computation besides the highly reliable data sampling.

Xie, Y. L.; Chu, P.; Wang, Y. L.; Chen, J. P.; Yan, Z. B.; Liu, J.-M.

2014-01-01

35

Beyond Tang: The Hidden Benefits of the Space Program  

SciTech Connect

Most people are familiar with the advertisement touting Tang as the orange drink that the astronauts took to the Moon. However, many other products have resulted from the space program, as well as discoveries with applications to everyday life. NASA highlights these products and information in an annual publication entitled 'Spinoffs'. Bar coding, medical imaging, suits worn by fire-fighters, smoke detectors, and thermal gloves and boots are all examples of products resulting from technologies developed in support of the space program. Detection of the 750K surface temperature of Venus in the 1960's led to the realization that the greenhouse effect (or 'global warming') is a real physical manifestation and resulted in concerns about our own terrestrial environment. Debate about the possibility of underground life on Mars spurred investigations which found organisms living inside rocks on the Earth. These spinoffs and more will be discussed.

Barlow, Nadine (Northern Arizona University) [Northern Arizona University

2005-05-25

36

[Study on screening cardioprotective components from Zhishi Xiebai Guizhi Tang].  

PubMed

Zhishi Xiebai Guizhi Tang (ZSXBGZT), a famous traditional Chinese formula from Synopsis of Golden Chamber, composing of five herbal medicines, has been routinely used for the therapy of cardiovascular diseases in clinical. However, the active components of ZSXBGZT have not been investigated thoroughly. A reliable cell model was established by H2O2-induced injury in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs), with fluorescein diacetate (FDA) labelling the live cells, to screen cardioprotective substances. Seven components were found to have obvious cardioprotective effects through screening ZSXBGZT, Vc as the positive control. Eleven compounds were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) from the active components C18, D14, D15, D16 and E09, and 6 of them were investigated further, which showed that hesperidin, neohesperidin and eriodictyol could protect NRCMs from H2O2-induced injury. In particular, eriodictyol showed significant cardioprotective effects in a dose-response relationship. PMID:23947146

Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Feng; Zhao, Xiao-Ping

2013-05-01

37

Neuroprotective effect of the fermented Gumiganghwal-tang.  

PubMed

Gumiganghwal-tang (GT) is a traditional herbal prescription widely used to treat inflammatory diseases in Asia. In this study, we evaluated neuroprotective effect and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity of GT and compared with fermented GT (FGT). In order to better understand the neuroprotective mechanism, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was investigated and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) analysis of contents of GT and FGT were conducted. As a result, FGT showed more potent protective effect against glutamate-induced HT22 cell death than GT and inhibited AChE activity. The neuroprotective effect of FGT is associated with inhibition of ROS production. The HPLC-DAD analytical results indicated that FGT contains higher content of bergapten and atractylenolide III than that of GT. In conclusion, FGT have neuroprotective effect and AChE inhibition, and may be useful source for treatment of neurodegenerative disease. PMID:24503423

Yun, Bo-Ra; Weon, Jin Bae; Lee, Jiwoo; Eom, Min Rye; Ma, Choong Je

2014-08-01

38

A Magnetohydrodynamic Test of the Wang-Sheeley Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wang-Sheeley empirical model enables the calculation of the solar wind speed at Earth from the divergence of magnetic flux tubes in a synoptic map-based potential field source surface model of the coronal magnetic field. The formula used for this purpose was derived from observations of the solar wind speed at 1 AU. According to the model, fast solar wind emanates from regions of small magnetic field divergence, while slow solar wind comes from high divergence regions. Arge and Pizzo (2000) recently improved the Wang-Sheeley formula by taking the stream interaction effects between the Sun and 1 AU into account. We use a three-dimensional MHD model of the solar corona to test the assumptions of the Wang- Sheeley model and the improvements made by Arge and Pizzo for various magnetic configurations. These results provide insight into what additional coronal heating may be implied for different flux tube geometries in order to obtain the observed relationship with solar wind speed.

Ledvina, S. A.; Abbett, W. P.; Luhmann, J. G.

2002-05-01

39

The full-scale process and design changes for elimination of insulation edge separations and voids in tang flap area  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Qualification of the full-scale process and design changes for elimination of redesigned solid rocket motor tang nitrile butadiene rubber insulation edge separations and voids was performed from 24 March to 3 December 1990. The objectives of this test were: to qualify design and process changes on flight hardware using a tie ply between the redesigned solid rocket motor steel case and the nitrile butadiene rubber insulation over the tang capture features; to qualify the use of methyl ethyl ketone in the tang flap region to reduce voids; and to determine if holes in the separator film reduce voids in the tang flap region. The tie ply is intended to aid insulation flow during the insulation cure process, and thus reduce or eliminate edge unbonds. Methyl ethyl ketone is intended to reduce voids in the tang flap area by providing better tacking characteristics. The perforated film was intended to provide possible vertical breathe paths to reduce voids in the tang area. Tang tie ply testing consisted of 270 deg of the tang circumference using a new layup method and 90 deg of the tang circumference using the current layup methods. Tie ply process success was defined as a reduction of insulation unbonds. Lack of any insulation edge unbonds on the tang area where the new process was used, and the presence of 17 unbonds with the current process, proves the test to be a success. Successful completion of this test has qualified the new processes.

Danforth, Richard A.

1991-01-01

40

The Neuroprotective Effect of Gugijihwang-Tang on Trimethyltin-Induced Memory Dysfunction in the Rat  

PubMed Central

Gugijihwang-Tang (the herbal formula PM012), a decoction consisting of several herbs including Rehmanniae Radix Preparata, has been widely used as herbal treatment for dementia. In order to investigate the neuroprotective action of this prescription, we examined the effect of Gugijihwang-Tang on learning and memory using the Morris water maze and [F-18]FDG micro PET neuroimaging technique. After injection of trimethyltin (TMT, 8.0?mg/kg, i.p.), which is a potent toxicant that selectively kills cells in the central nervous system, rats were administered Gugijihwang-Tang (100?mg/kg, p.o.) daily for two weeks, followed by the Morris water maze tasks and [F-18]FDG micro PET neuroimaging. In Gugijihwang-Tang administered TMT-treated rats, they showed improved learning and memory abilities in water maze tasks and glucose metabolism, suggesting that Gugijihwang-Tang plays effectively positive role in the improvement of brain function including learning and memory after TMT-induced neurodegeneration. Taken together, our results suggested that the Gugijihwang-Tang should be useful for developing strategies protecting nervous system and improving brain function.

Jung, Eun-Yee; Ahn, Chang Joon; Cho, Seung-Hun; Bae, Hyunsu; Shim, Insop

2013-01-01

41

Convergence for the Wang-Landau Density of States  

SciTech Connect

The Wang-Landau method of estimating the density of states, g (E), has become a powerful tool in statistical mechanics. Here it is shown that the distribution of random walkers sampled using an estimated density of states can always be used to improve the estimate. Specifically, this can be done without resorting to an auxiliary modification factor, f, which previously has been been used to find g (E) self consistently through a procedure that reduces f incrementally towards unity. The new, straight-forward approach is validated for multiple, independent random walkers.

Brown, Greg [ORNL; Odbadrakh, Khorgolkhuu [ORNL; Nicholson, Don M [ORNL; Eisenbach, Markus [ORNL

2011-01-01

42

Parallelization of the 2d Swendsen-Wang Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We implemented a parallel Swendsen-Wang algorithm for a 2D Ising system without magnetization in a host-node programming model. The simulations were performed on the Intel Hypercube IPSC/860. Our maximum number of updates/s on 32 nodes ist three times as high as in the implementation by Stauffer and Kertész on the same machine. With 32 processors we reach half the speed of the simulations by Tamayo and Flanigan on 256 nodes of a CM5. We discuss the non-equilibrium relaxation for the energy and the magnetization.

Hackl, R.; Matuttis, H.-G.; Singer, J. M.; Husslein, Th.; Morgenstern, I.

43

A Magnetohydrodynamic Test of the Wang-Sheeley Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wang-Sheeley relationship relates the solar wind speed at the Earth to the divergence rate of open magnetic flux tubes in the solar corona. This relationship is based on a statistically significant correlation between the flux tube divergence parameter ``fs'' derived from a photospheric field-based potential field source surface model, and satellite observations of the solar wind speed. The fast solar wind emanates from regions of small magnetic divergence, while slow solar wind comes from regions of high magnetic divergence. Arge and Pizzo [2] improved the reliability of the method by relating the coronal flux tube expansion factor to the solar wind speed at the source surface instead of the satellite. We use a three-dimensional MHD model of the solar corona to further investigate the implications of the Wang-Sheeley relationship for solar wind acceleration. The results suggest what additional heating and momentum inputs may be necessary in an MHD model to obtain the observed relationship between flux tube divergence and solar wind speed.

Ledvina, S. A.; Luhmann, J. G.; Abbett, W. P.

2003-09-01

44

Wang-Landau sampling: A criterion for halting the simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we propose a criterion to finish the simulations of the Wang-Landau sampling. Instead of determining a final modification factor for all simulations and every sample size, we investigate the behavior of the temperature of the peak of the specific heat during the simulations and finish them when this value varies below a given limit. As a result, different runs stop at different final modification factors. We show that in place of the temperature of the peak of the specific heat one can adopt alternatively the integrated heat transfer as a reference quantity. We apply this technique to the two-dimensional Ising model and a homopolymer. We verify that for the Ising model the mean order of the final modification factors is roughly the same for all lattice sizes, but for the homopolymer the order of the final modification factors increases with increasing polymer sizes. The results show that the simulations can be halted much earlier than is conventional in Wang-Landau sampling, but manifold finite-size simulations are required in order to obtain accurate results. A brief application to the three-dimensional Ising model is also available.

Caparica, A. A.

2014-04-01

45

The Application of Survey in ER Wang Temple Restituting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Er Wang Temple, in World Heritage Site "Dujiang Weirs and Qingchengshan Mountai", was severely destroyed in Wenchuan earthquake of May 2008. There are several problems at different level in every building, such as structural distortion, foundation displacement, wall fracture, roof damage, etc. The stage was completely collapsed in the earthquake. Tableland the stage situated had a huge crack and slope collapse. This article is for the stage renovation. The survey of damage in earthquake is the basis of Er Wang Temple restituting. Survey including field survey after the earthquake and the measurement and investigation for the remained construction member of the main wood structure. For field survey, the basis of pillars which had not have significantly affects in earthquake could be seem as the reference points for measurement. The investigation of remained main wood construction member, especially the size of the key structures and site and manufacture method of the joints, is the important basis for recovery stage. Our team did our utmost to restore the original appearance of stage in design, materials and craft by various tools, which include measured drawings in different times, old images collection, fine measuring by 3D laser scan, measurement of leftover pieces, logical inference.

Shuai, W.; Rong, Z.

2013-07-01

46

Wang-Tiles for the Simulation and Visualization of Plant Competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wang Tiles method is a successful and effective tech- nique for the representation of 2D-texture or 3D-geometry. In this paper we present a new method to fill Wang tiles with a 2D-FON distribution or a 3D-geometry in order to achieve a more efficient runtime. We extend the Wang Tiles method to include information about their position. We further demonstrate

Monssef Alsweis; Oliver Deussen

2006-01-01

47

On the Ohno–Wang kinematic hardening rules for multiaxial ratcheting modeling of medium carbon steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the performance of four Ohno–Wang type constitutive models in predicting ratcheting responses of medium carbon steel S45C for a set of axial\\/torsional loading paths. Suggestions are also made for further modification. The four models are the Ohno–Wang model, the McDowell model, the Jiang–Sehitoglu model and the AbdelKarim–Ohno model. It is shown that the Ohno–Wang model and the

Xu Chen; Rong Jiao; Kwang Soo Kim

2005-01-01

48

Structural behavior of the space shuttle SRM Tang-Clevis joint  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space shuttle Challenger accident investigation focused on the failure of a tang-clevis joint on the right solid rocket motor. The existence of relative motion between the inner arm of the clevis and the O-ring sealing surface on the tang has been identified as a potential contributor to this failure. This motion can cause the O-rings to become unseated and therefore lose their sealing capability. Finite element structural analyses have been performed to predict both deflections and stresses in the joint under the primary, pressure loading condition. These analyses have demonstrated the difficulty of accurately predicting the structural behavior of the tang-clevis joint. Stresses in the vicinity of the connecting pins, obtained from elastic analyses, considerably exceed the material yield allowables indicating that inelastic analyses are probably necessary. Two modifications have been proposed to control the relative motion between the inner clevis arm and the tang at the O-ring sealing surface. One modification, referred to as the capture feature, uses additional material on the inside of the tang to restrict motion of the inner clevis arm. The other modification uses external stiffening rings above and below the joint to control the local bending in the shell near the joint. Both of these modifications are shown to be effective in controlling the relative motion in the joint.

Greene, W. H.; Knight, N. F., Jr.; Stockwell, A. E.

1986-01-01

49

Structural behavior of the space shuttle SRM tang-clevis joint  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space shuttle Challenger accident investigation focused on the failure of a tang-clevis joint on the right solid rocket motor. The existence of relative motion between the inner arm of the clevis and the O-ring sealing surface on the tang has been identified as a potential contributor to this failure. This motion can cause the O-rings to become unseated and therefore lose their sealing capability. Finite element structural analyses have been performed to predict both deflections and stresses in the joint under the primary, pressure loading condition. These analyses have demonstrated the difficulty of accurately predicting the structural behavior of the tang-clevis joint. Stresses in the vicinity of the connecting pins, obtained from elastic analyses, considerably exceed the material yield allowables indicating that inelastic analyses are probably necessary. Two modifications have been proposed to control the relative motion between the inner clevis arm and the tang at the O-ring sealing surface. One modification, referred to as the capture feature, uses additional material on the inside of the tang to restrict motion of the inner clevis arm. The other modification uses external stiffening rings above and below the joint to control the local bending in the shell near the joint. Both of these modifications are shown to be effective in controlling the relative motion in the joint.

Greene, William H.; Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Stockwell, Alan E.

1988-01-01

50

Generic parallel Wang-Landau sampling for complex systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a parallel realization for Wang-Landau sampling in Monte Carlo simulations based on a replica-exchange framework. The key idea is to split the entire energy range of the system under consideration into several smaller, overlapping sub intervals. The survey of configurational phase space can then be distributed over multiple processors, with exchanges of random walkers taking place in the overlapping energy windows. To demonstrate the robustness and advantages of this parallel scheme for the simulations of complex systems, we have applied it to protein adsorption problems using the HP lattice protein modelfootnotetextK. A. Dill, Biochemistry 24, 1501 (1985).. The method gives significant speed-up and achieves strong scaling on small computer architectures like multi-core processors, with a possible improvement in accuracy. We believe that it could be potentially beneficial for large-scale petaflop machines.

Li, Ying Wai; Vogel, Thomas; Landau, David P.; Wüst, Thomas

2013-03-01

51

CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF INDOOR AIR HOMES FROM COMMUNES IN XUAN WEI, CHINA, WITH HIGH LUNG CANCER MORTALITY RATE  

EPA Science Inventory

In a rural county, Xuan Wei, China, the lung cancer mortality rate is among China's highest, especially in women. his mortality rate is more associated with indoor air burning of smoky coal, as opposed to smokeless coal or wood, for cooking and heating under unvented conditions. ...

52

MUTAGENICITY, CARCINOGENICITY, AND HUMAN CANCER RISK FROM INDOOR EXPOSURE TO COAL AND WOOD COMBUSTION IN XUAN WEI, CHINA  

EPA Science Inventory

The residents in Xuan Wei County, China, have been exposed to high levels of combustion emissions from smoky and smokeless coal and wood combustion under unvented conditions in homes. n unusually high lung cancer mortality rate that can not be attributed to tobacco smoke or occup...

53

INDOOR AIR EXPOSURE TO COAL AND WOOD COMBUSTION EMISSIONS IN XUAN WEI, CHINA, WITH A HIGH LUNG CANCER RATE  

EPA Science Inventory

Residents of Xuan Wei County in China have unusually high lung cancer mortality that cannot be attributed to tobacco use or occupational exposure. hey are exposed to smoke from unvented, open pit coal or wood fires (often used for cooking and heating). The variation in lung cance...

54

Effects of Wei Chang An on expression of multiple genes in human gastric cancer grafted onto nude mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To investigate the expression of multiple genes in Chinese jianpi herbal recipe Wei Chang An (WCA) in human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901. METHODS: A human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line SGC-7901 grafted onto nude mice was used as the animal model. The mice were randomly divided into 3 groups, one control and the two representing experimental conditions. Animals in

Ai-Guang Zhao; Ting Li; Sheng-Fu You; Hai-Lei Zhao; Ying Gu; Lai-Di Tang; Jin-Kun Yang

2008-01-01

55

Thermodynamics of RNA structures by Wang-Landau sampling  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Thermodynamics-based dynamic programming RNA secondary structure algorithms have been of immense importance in molecular biology, where applications range from the detection of novel selenoproteins using expressed sequence tag (EST) data, to the determination of microRNA genes and their targets. Dynamic programming algorithms have been developed to compute the minimum free energy secondary structure and partition function of a given RNA sequence, the minimum free-energy and partition function for the hybridization of two RNA molecules, etc. However, the applicability of dynamic programming methods depends on disallowing certain types of interactions (pseudoknots, zig-zags, etc.), as their inclusion renders structure prediction an nondeterministic polynomial time (NP)-complete problem. Nevertheless, such interactions have been observed in X-ray structures. Results: A non-Boltzmannian Monte Carlo algorithm was designed by Wang and Landau to estimate the density of states for complex systems, such as the Ising model, that exhibit a phase transition. In this article, we apply the Wang-Landau (WL) method to compute the density of states for secondary structures of a given RNA sequence, and for hybridizations of two RNA sequences. Our method is shown to be much faster than existent software, such as RNAsubopt. From density of states, we compute the partition function over all secondary structures and over all pseudoknot-free hybridizations. The advantage of the WL method is that by adding a function to evaluate the free energy of arbitary pseudoknotted structures and of arbitrary hybridizations, we can estimate thermodynamic parameters for situations known to be NP-complete. This extension to pseudoknots will be made in the sequel to this article; in contrast, the current article describes the WL algorithm applied to pseudoknot-free secondary structures and hybridizations. Availability: The WL RNA hybridization web server is under construction at http://bioinformatics.bc.edu/clotelab/. Contact: clote@bc.edu

Lou, Feng; Clote, Peter

2010-01-01

56

Undercooling, Rapid Solidification, and Relations to Processing in Low Earth Orbit (A Review of the Works of Bingbo Wei)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a survey of the published works of Prof. Bingbo Wei of the Department of Applied Physics at Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xian P.R. China. Transformations among solid - liquid - and vapor are fundamental to the foundations of life and culture on Earth. The development and understanding of materials has lead the evolution and advancement of the human race since antiquity. Materials and fluids research is continuing today, with us standing on the shoulders of those that have gone before us. Technological and scientific breakthroughs continue due to studies of greater and greater complexity, that include for example, research done at high pressures, in high magnetic fields, at temperatures near absolute zero, and in the low gravity environment of low Earth orbit. Of particular technological importance is the liquid to solid transformation of metals and alloys. Solidification processing is generally the most important factor in the final properties of objects made of metal; and undercooling is the fundamental driving force for all solidification. The interest and resources dedicated to the study of solidification and undercooling are great and World wide. For many years B. Wei and his coworkers have been studying undercooling and rapid solidification and have amassed a significant body of published research in this important field, contributing to the leading edge of the state-of-the-art. It is the goal of this memorandum to provide a review of the research of B. Wei et al.; publications in Chinese are included in the reference list but are not discussed. The bulk of Wei's work has been in the area of undercooling and rapid solidification [1-11, 13-16, 24-36] with papers dating back to 1989, the same year he earned his Ph.D. Below, discussions of Wei's undercooling and rapid solidification research have been grouped together mostly on the basis of alloy type, such as eutectic, intermetallic, or monotectic.

deGroh, Henry C., III

1999-01-01

57

Importance of wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix in Si Wu Tang, a traditional herbal formula for treating women's ailments.  

PubMed

Si Wu Tang (Four Agents Decoction), a traditional Chinese decoction composed of Angelica Sinensis Radix, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Paeoniae Radix Alba, and Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata in a ratio of 1 : 1 : 1 : 1, has been used to treat women's diseases for more than a thousand years. According to the original description of Si Wu Tang, Angelica Sinensis Radix should be treated with wine. However, the importance of this wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix in Si Wu Tang's function has not been identified. In this article, the chemical and biological properties of two decoctions processed in different ways (Si Wu Tang with crude Angelica Sinensis Radix and Si Wu Tang with wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix) were compared for examination. The herbal decoction Si Wu Tang prepared from wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix contained much different amounts of its active compounds. Compared with Si Wu Tang using crude Angelica Sinensis Radix, Si Wu Tang prepared from wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix had better biological responses. Therefore, these findings accentuate the functional importance of herbs treated with wine in the Chinese decoction. PMID:23457023

Zhan, Janis Y X; Zheng, Ken Y Z; Zhu, Kevin Y; Zhang, Wendy L; Bi, Cathy W C; Chen, J P; Du, Crystal Y Q; Dong, Tina T X; Lau, David T W; Tsim, Karl W K

2013-05-01

58

Phonology and Reading: A Response to Wang, Trezek, Luckner, and Paul  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four critical responses to an article, "The Role of Phonology and Phonologically Related Skills in Reading Instruction for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing" (Wang, Trezek, Luckner, & Paul, 2008), are presented. Issue is taken with the conclusions of the article by Wang and colleagues regarding the "necessary" condition of phonological…

Allen, Thomas E.; Clark, M. Diane; del Giudice, Alex; Koo, Daniel; Lieberman, Amy; Mayberry, Rachel; Millerd, Paul

2009-01-01

59

Numerical Comparison of Wang-Landau Sampling and Parallel Tempering for Met-Enkephalin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare the efficiency of two prominent techniques for simulation of complex systems: parallel tempering and Wang-Landau sampling. We show that both methods are of comparable efficiency but are optimized for different platforms. Parallel tempering should be chosen on multi-processor system while Wang-Landau sampling is easier to implement on a single-processor computer.

Junghans, C.; Hansmann, U. H. E.

60

[Influences of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism on Chinese Medical Formulas in Jin-Tang Dynasties].  

PubMed

In the Jin-Tang Dynasties, when Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism contended, conflicted and well blent, forming a state of mingled thoughts of the three sects. It exerted profound influences on Chinese Medical Formulas and promoted the academic fashion of compiling books about medical formulas characterized by collecting various formulas especially the simple and proved recipes. This plays a role in the formation of the formulas used in the Jin-Tang Dynasties, featuring simplicity, convenience, cheapness, and effectiveness, different from those of other periods. PMID:17096988

Wu, Xiao-xiang

2006-04-01

61

Dynamic Monitoring of Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity using Water Exchange Index (WEI) During Mannitol and CO2 Challenges in Mouse Brain  

PubMed Central

The integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is critical to normal brain function. Traditional techniques for assessing BBB disruption rely heavily on the spatiotemporal analysis of extravasating contrast agents. But such methods based on the leakage of relatively large molecules are not suitable to detect subtle BBB impairment or to perform repeated measurements in a short time frame. Quantification of the water exchange rate constant (WER) across the BBB using strictly intravascular contrast agents could provide a much more sensitive method for quantifying the BBB integrity. For estimating the WER, we have recently devised a powerful new method using a water exchange index (WEI) biomarker and demonstrated BBB disruption in an acute stroke model. Here we confirm that the WEI is sensitive to even very subtle changes in the integrity of the BBB caused by (1) systemic hypercapnia and (2) low doses of a hyperosmolar solution. In addition, we have examined the sensitivity and accuracy of the WEI as a biomarker of the WER using computer simulation. In particular, the dependence of the WEI-WER relation on changes in vascular blood volume, T1 relaxation of cellular magnetization, and transcytolemmal water exchange was explored. The simulated WEI was found to vary linearly with the WER for typically encountered exchange rate constants (1–4 Hz) regardless of the blood volume. However, for very high WER (>5 Hz) the WEI became progressively more insensitive to increasing WER. The incorporation of transcytolemmal water exchange, using a three-compartment tissue model, helped to extend the linear WEI regime to slightly higher WER, but had no significant effect for most physiologically important water exchange rate constants (WER<4 Hz). Variation in the cellular T1 had no effect on the WEI. Using both theoretical and experimental approaches, our study validates the utility of the WEI biomarker for monitoring BBB integrity.

Huang, Shuning; Farrar, Christian T.; Dai, Guangping; Kwon, Seon Joo; Bogdanov, Alexei A.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Kim, Young R.

2012-01-01

62

The alteration of components in the fermented Hwangryunhaedok-tang and its neuroprotective activity  

PubMed Central

Background: Hwangryunhaedok-tang is a traditional herbal prescription that has sedative activity, hypotensive and anti-bacterial effects. Objective: In this study, we investigated the alteration of contents of components in Hwangryunhaedok-tang, antioxidant activity and neuroprotective activity by fermentation with Lactobacillus acidophilus KFRI 128. Materials and Methods: Contents of three marker compounds (geniposide, berberine and palmatine) and unknown compounds in the Hwangryunhaedok-tang (HR) and the fermented Hwangryunhaedok-tang (FHR) were measured and compared using the established high-performance liqued chromatograph coupled with a photodiode (HPLC-DAD) method. The antioxidant activity of HR and FHR were determined by DPPH free radical and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging assay. Also, the neuroprotective activities of HR and FHR against glutamate-induced oxidative stress in a mouse hippocampal cell line (HT22) were evaluated by MTT assay. Results: The contents of geniposide and palmatine were decreased but the content of berberine was increased in the FHR. And the contents of unknown compounds (1), (2), (3), (4) and (5) in the HR were altered by fermentation. Electron donating activity (EDA, %) value of FHR was higher than HR for DPPH radical scavenging activity and H2O2 scavenging activity, respectively. In the MTT assay, FHR showed more potent neuroprotective activity than HR by 513.90%. Conclusion: The FHR using microorganism could convert compounds in HR and enhance the antioxidant and neuroprotective activity.

Yang, Hye Jin; Weon, Jin Bae; Lee, Bohyoung; Ma, Choong Je

2011-01-01

63

Is Duhuo Jisheng Tang containing Xixin safe? A four-week safety study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Though the nephrotoxicity and carcinogenicity of aristolochic acid (AA) are known, its safety in clinical usage is not clear. This study aims to evaluate the safety of Duhuo Jisheng Tang (DJT) in a four-week study to treat osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. METHODS: A qualitative and quantitative investigations on DJT were conducted. A list of adverse events (AEs), complete

Shu-Ching Hsieh; Jung-Nien Lai; Pau-Chung Chen; Chao-Chung Chen; Huey-Jen Chen; Jung-Der Wang

2010-01-01

64

Recovery of piece of the aft center segment tang joint of SRB  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 4000 pound, 11' x 20' piece of the aft center segment tang joint of the Shuttle Challenger's right-hand solid rocket booster is off loaded from the Stena Workhorse after its recovery on April 13, 1986. The burned out area is 15' x 28'.

1986-01-01

65

Rap and Resistance: A Social Movement of the Wu-Tang Clan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines specific collective identity and political expression of the rap group the Wu-Tang Clan. Reveals a multi-layered political strategy that has been conscientiously designed and implemented to instigate a social movement. Prioritizes the voices of marginalized Black peoples and provides raw narratives about oppression. (MMU)

Chasteen, Amy L.; Shriver, Thomas

1998-01-01

66

The "Three Doctrines Discussions" of Tang China: Religious Debate as a Rhetorical Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the origins and importance of the "Three Doctrines Discussions" of the Chinese Tang dynasty (618-960). Shows how their evolution and decline parallel shifts in the balance of political power. Argues that these debates functioned rhetorically to enhance and legitimate the emperor's political power. (HB)

Garrett, Mary M.

1994-01-01

67

Modified Jiu Wei Qiang Huo decoction improves dysfunctional metabolomics in influenza A pneumonia-infected mice.  

PubMed

In order to study the effective mechanism of a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), modified Jiu Wei Qiang Huo decoction (MJWQH), against H1N1-induced pneumonia in mice, we chose a holistic approach. A reverse-phase liquid chromatography with quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS) was developed to determine metabolomic biomarkers in mouse serum for the MJWQH effects. Thirteen biomarkers of H1N1-induced pneumonia in mice serum were identified, which comprised l-valine, lauroylcarnitine, palmitoyl-l-carnitine, l-ornithine, uric acid, taurine, O-succinyl-l-homoserine, l-leucine, l-phenylalanine, PGF2?, 20-ethyl-PGE2, arachidonic acid, and glycerophospho-N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine. Among them, metabolites of amino acids, fatty acids and arachidonic acid had the most relevant changes in mice with H1N1-induced pneumonia. MJWQH effectively improved weight loss, lung index, biomarkers and inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin E2 and phospholipase A2 in the infected mice. Importantly, MJWQH reversed the elevated biomarkers to the control levels from the infection, which provided a systematic view and a theoretical basis for its prevention or treatment. The results suggest that the protective effect of MJWQH against H1N1-induced pneumonia is possibly through regulation of pathways for amino acid, fatty acid and arachidonic acid metabolism. They also suggest that the LC-MS-based metabolomic strategy is a powerful tool for elucidation of the mechanisms of TCM. PMID:24132661

Chen, Lijuan; Fan, Jiajun; Li, Yubin; Shi, Xunlong; Ju, Dianwen; Yan, Qianlin; Yan, Xin; Han, Lei; Zhu, Haiyan

2014-04-01

68

Wang-Sheeley-Arge-Enlil Cone Model Transitions to Operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Weather Service's (NWS) Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) is transitioning the first large-scale, physics-based space weather prediction model into operations on the NWS National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) supercomputing system (see also C. Schultz, Space weather model moves into prime time, Space Weather, 9, S03005, doi:10.1029/2011SW000669, 2011). The model is intended to provide 1- to 4-day advance warning of geomagnetic storms from quasi-recurrent solar wind structures and Earth-directed coronal mass ejections (CMEs). A team has been put together at SWPC to bring an advanced numerical model—developed with broad participation of the research community—into operational status. The modeling system consists of two main parts: (1) a semiempirical near-Sun module (Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA)) that approximates the outflow at the base of the solar wind; and (2) a sophisticated three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic numerical model (Enlil) that simulates the resulting flow evolution out to Earth. The former module is driven by observations of the solar surface magnetic field accumulated over a solar rotation and composited into a synoptic map; this input is used to drive a parameterized model of the near-Sun expansion of the solar corona, which provides input for the interplanetary module to compute the quasi-steady (ambient) solar wind outflow. Finally, when an Earth-directed CME is detected in coronagraph images from NASA spacecraft, these images are used to characterize the basic properties of the CME, including speed, direction, and size. This input "cone" representation is injected into the preexisting ambient flow, and the subsequent transient evolution forms the basis for the prediction of the CME's arrival time at Earth, its intensity, and its duration (Figure 1).

Pizzo, Vic; Millward, George; Parsons, Annette; Biesecker, Douglas; Hill, Steve; Odstrcil, Dusan

2011-03-01

69

Impact of climate change and anthropogenic activities on stream flow and sediment discharge in the Wei River basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reduced stream flow and increased sediment discharge are a major concern in the Yellow River basin of China, which supplies water for agriculture, industry and the growing populations located along the river. Similar concerns exist in the Wei River basin, which is the largest tributary of the Yellow River basin and comprises the highly eroded Loess Plateau. Better understanding of the drivers of stream flow and sediment discharge dynamics in the Wei River basin is needed for development of effective management strategies for the region and entire Yellow River basin. In this regard we analysed long-term trends for water and sediment discharge during the flood season in the Wei River basin, China. Stream flow and sediment discharge data for 1932 to 2008 from existing hydrological stations located in two subcatchments and at two points in the Wei River were analysed. Precipitation and air temperature data were analysed from corresponding meteorological stations. We identified change-points or transition years for the trends by the Pettitt method and, using double mass curves, we diagnosed whether they were caused by precipitation changes, human intervention, or both. We found significant decreasing trends for stream flow and sediment discharge during the flood season in both subcatchments and in the Wei River itself. Change-point analyses further revealed that transition years existed and that rapid decline in stream flow began in 1968 (P < 0.01), and that sediment discharge began in 1981 (P < 0.01) in the main river. In the two subcatchments, the transition years were 1985 (P < 0.01) and 1994 (P < 0.05) for water discharge, and 1978 and 1979 for sediment discharge (P < 0.05), respectively. The impact of precipitation or human activity on the reduction amount after the transition years was estimated by double mass curves of precipitation vs. stream flow (sediment). For reductions in stream flow and sediment discharge, the contribution rate of human activity was found to be 82.80 and 95.56%, respectively, and was significantly stronger than the contribution rate of precipitation. This evidence clearly suggests that, in the absence of significant decreases in precipitation, strategies for managing the region need to focus on human activities to control erosion without restricting stream flow.

Gao, P.; Geissen, V.; Ritsema, C. J.; Mu, X.-M.; Wang, F.

2013-03-01

70

Wang-Landau simulation of the 2D Ising Model in Zero Field Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Wang-Landau algorithm, also called the flat-histogram algorithm, can be used to calculate the density of states of a microscopic system. In this simulation, the Wang-Landau algorithm is used to calculate the density of states for a two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet with periodic boundary conditions. From the density of states, the entropy, internal energy, and heat capacity are calculated as a function of temperature. You can modify this simulation if you have EJS installed by right-clicking within a plot and selecting "Open Ejs Model" from the pop-up menu item. The Wang-Landau simulation of the 2D Ising Model in Zero Field Model was developed using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_WangLandau_Ising_2D_Ferromagnet.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Engelhardt, Larry

2011-12-30

71

March 17 - 19, 2004: Proteomics: Finding the Needle in the Haystack, Xuena Wang, Kith Pradhan, Chen Ji, Xiangfeng Wu, Yeming Ma, Wei Zhu, Piyush Kumar, Valentin Polishchuk, Olaf Hall-Holt, Joseph Mitchell, Estie, Arkin, James Glimm, John Kovach  

Cancer.gov

Cosine Dimension Reduction Cosine Dimension Reduction 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 1 00 2 00 3 00 4 00 5 00 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 x 10 4 0 1 00 2 00 3 00 4 00 Original (368750) Reduced (32768) VII. VII.

72

A new paradigm for petascale Monte Carlo simulation: Replica exchange Wang-Landau sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a generic, parallel Wang-Landau method that is naturally suited to implementation on massively parallel, petaflop supercomputers. The approach introduces a replica-exchange framework in which densities of states for overlapping sub-windows in energy space are determined iteratively by traditional Wang-Landau sampling. The advantages and general applicability of the method are demonstrated for several distinct systems that possess discrete or continuous degrees of freedom, including those with complex free energy landscapes and topological constraints.

Li, Ying Wai; Vogel, Thomas; Wüst, Thomas; Landau, David P.

2014-05-01

73

A new paradigm for petascale Monte Carlo simulation: Replica exchange Wang Landau sampling  

SciTech Connect

We introduce a generic, parallel Wang Landau method that is naturally suited to implementation on massively parallel, petaflop supercomputers. The approach introduces a replica-exchange framework in which densities of states for overlapping sub-windows in energy space are determined iteratively by traditional Wang Landau sampling. The advantages and general applicability of the method are demonstrated for several distinct systems that possess discrete or continuous degrees of freedom, including those with complex free energy landscapes and topological constraints.

Li, Ying Wai [ORNL] [ORNL; Vogel, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wuest, Thomas [Swiss Federal Research Institute, Switzerland] [Swiss Federal Research Institute, Switzerland; Landau, David P [University of Georgia, Athens, GA] [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

2014-01-01

74

Can Rhizoma Chuanxiong replace Radix Angelica sinensis in the traditional Chinese herbal decoction Danggui Buxue Tang?  

PubMed

Herein, we test the hypothesis that a member of a formulated Chinese herbal decoction cannot be replaced by another herb. Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) is being used as an example for illustration: this is a traditional decoction containing Radix Astragali (RA) and Radix Angelicae Sinensis (RAS) in a weight ratio of 5 to 1. Rhizoma Chuanxiong (RC) and RAS are two chemically very similar herbs but with a distinct function. Following the preparation method of DBT, a herbal decoction, namely Chuanxiong Buxue Tang (CBT), was created, which contained RA and RC in a weight ratio of 5 to 1. The two decoctions, DBT and CBT, were compared in parallel regarding their chemical and biological properties. In all the tested parameters, DBT showed superior properties, both chemically and biologically, to that of CBT. The current results reveal the uniqueness of Chinese herbal decoctions that require a well-defined formulation, which is indispensable for its specific composition. PMID:19204892

Li, Winnie Z M; Li, Jun; Bi, Cathy W C; Cheung, Anna W H; Huang, Wen; Duan, Ran; Choi, Roy C Y; Chen, Ivy S Y; Zhao, Kui J; Dong, Tina T X; Duan, Jin A; Tsim, Karl W K

2009-05-01

75

Absence of drug interaction between Hwang-Ryun-Hae-Dok-Tang and Phenolsulfonphthalein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hwang-Ryun-Hae-Dok-Tang (HT; a standardized herbal formula consisting of extracts from Coptidis Rhizoma, Scutellariae Radix,\\u000a Phellodendri Cortex, and Gardeniae Fructus) was reported to modulate a function of multidrug resistance associated protein\\u000a 2 (Mrp2) in vitro. The aim of this study was to assess the in vivo pharmacokinetic interactions between HT and phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP), a typical model Mrp2 substrate eliminated via bile

Hong Jae Yi; Ju-Hee Oh; Young-Joo Lee

2010-01-01

76

Effects of Yinchenhao Tang and related decoctions on DMN-induced cirrhosis/fibrosis in rats  

PubMed Central

Background Chinese medicine decoctions such as Yinchenhao Tang (YCHT), Xiayuxue Tang (XYXT), Huangqi Tang (HQT), Yiguan Jian (YGJ) and Xiaochaihu Tang (XCHT)) were used to treat liver cirrhosis. The present study evaluates the effects of these decoctions on fibrosis in rats induced by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN). Methods DMN solution (0.5%) was injected to rats for three consecutive days per week for four weeks. At the beginning of week 3, rats were randomly divided into 4-week DMN control group, YCHT, XYXT, HQT, YGJ, XCHT and vehicle groups. Each group was orally administered with specific decoctions daily for two weeks. Rats in the vehicle group were orally administered with only water. Results Liver fibrosis and cirrhosis were observed in weeks 2 and 4 in DMN-intoxicated rats. Compared with normal rats, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and level of total bilirubin acid (TBA) in serum and content of Hydroxyproline (Hyp) in liver tissue of model group rats rose significantly. However, the albumin (Alb) level in serum decreased significantly. Compared with the 4-week DMN group, the pathological conditions and functions of the liver in the YCHT group improved significantly, and the content of Hyp decreased remarkably: only one rat in this group developed liver cirrhosis and the ratio of cirrhosis was only 8.3%. On the other hand, the other decoctions did not show remarkable effects. YCHT inhibited ?-SMA activation, including its gene expression into mRNA and protein. Conclusion Among the five Chinese medicine decoctions, YCHT exerted the most significant therapeutic effects on DMN-induced cirrhosis/fibrosis in rats.

Liu, Cheng; Sun, Mingyu; Wang, Lei; Wang, Gaoqiang; Chen, Gaofeng; Liu, Chenghai; Liu, Ping

2008-01-01

77

The Mueller-Tang jet impact factor at NLO from the high energy effective action  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on recent progress in the evaluation of next-to-leading order observables using Lipatov's QCD high energy effective action. In this contribution we focus on the determination of the real part of the next-to-leading order corrections to the Mueller-Tang impact factor which is the only missing element for a complete NLO BFKL description of quark induced dijet events with a rapidity gap.

Hentschinski, Martin; Murdaca, Beatrice

2013-04-01

78

Chinese Herbal Medicine Liu Jun Zi Tang and Xiang Sha Liu Jun Zi Tang for Functional Dyspepsia: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To assess the efficacy and safety of Liu Jun Zi Tang (LJZT) and Xiang Sha Liu Jun Zi Tang (XSLJZT) for treating functional dyspepsia. Methods. Literature searches were carried out on Medline database, Cochrane Library, CNKI database, Chinese Biomedical Literature database, Wanfang database, and VIP database up to July 2012. Hand search for further references was conducted. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were performed according to the Cochrane standards. Results. Fifteen publications in total were suitable for inclusion. There was evidence that LJZT compared with prokinetic drugs increased symptom improvement (odds ratio 1.96, 95% CI 1.15 to 3.36). There was also evidence that XSLJZT compared with prokinetic drugs increased symptom improvement (odds ratio 2.63, 95% CI 1.72 to 4.03). No adverse events were reported in LJZT or XSLJZT group in any of these randomized controlled trials. Conclusion. LJZT and XSLJZT might be more effective compared with prokinetic drugs in the treatment of functional dyspepsia, and no side effects are identified in the included trials. However, due to poor methodological quality in the majority of included studies, the potential benefit from LJZT and XSLJZT need to be confirmed in rigorously designed, multicentre, and large-scale trials.

Xiao, Ya; Liu, Yan-yan; Yu, Ke-qiang; Ouyang, Ming-zi; Luo, Ren; Zhao, Xiao-shan

2012-01-01

79

[The prevalence, prevention and treatment of cattle epidemic during the Han-Tang Period].  

PubMed

About 21 times of cattle epidemic with rather strong infectivity happened during the Han-Tang Period, including 6 in the Eastern Han Dynasty, 2 in the Jin Dynasty, 4 in the Southern and Northern Dynasties, 8 in the Tang Dynasty and 1in the Five Dynasty. Most of them were spread along the Yellow River and the northern region of the Huai River. The type of cattle epidemic included the acute cattle plague, cattle bovine mange, cattle yellow fever and cattle rotten hoof disease, etc. Its occurrence and prevalence brought a serious influentce on the society of the Han and Tang Dynasties, causing massive mortality of farm cattle, and then the shortage of animal power, and threatening the agriculture, which drew the attention of the governments, physicians, agriculturists, astrologists and Taoists. The medical measures and economic measures were adopted for the prevention and treatment of cattle epidemic. Especially, prescriptions in the books of medicine and agriculture exerted positive effects on the containment of cattle epidemic. On the other hand, its prevalence and the mass mortality of farm cattle, in a way, promoted, to certain extent, the improvement of the government's function of relief, the updating of the methods of agriculture and the creation of new farm tools, and being regarded as a main cause for the technological innovation of agriculture. PMID:24135474

Han, Yi

2013-03-01

80

Analysis of the elemental composition of Tang Sancai from the four major kilns in China using EDXRF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tang Sancai was widely used in the Tang Dynasty, and the study of this pottery provides information about the sociocultural aspects of the Tang people. To understand the characteristics of the different kilns for the production of Tang Sancai, Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) was used to analyze 174 Tang Sancai shards. These specimens were selected from four production centers in the Tang Dynasty, namely, the Huangye Kiln, the Huangbu Kiln, the Xing Kiln and the Liquanfang Kiln. The results demonstrate that the clay bodies from different kilns have varying compositions, and each kiln has a unique elemental fingerprint. Of the 17 elements analyzed, TiO2 and Fe2O3 had distinctly different contents in the samples from the Huangye Kiln and the Huangbu Kiln. For the Xing Kiln and the Huangye Kiln, the characteristic elements are Fe2O3 and MnO. For the Xing Kiln and the Huangbu Kiln, the most dissimilar elements are TiO2, MnO and ZnO. When the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was employed, the data points for the Huangye Kiln, the Huangbu Kiln and the Xing Kiln fell into distinct areas. For the Liquanfang Kiln, the contents of Al2O3 and Fe2O3 in white-bodied samples are different from those of other colors, which indicates that at least two types of raw materials were used. When compared with the white-bodied samples from the other three kilns, the white-bodied samples from the Liquanfang Kiln were found to have compositions similar to those of the samples from the Huangye Kiln, rather than the Huangbu Kiln, although the latter is much closer geographically than the former. All the obtained data provide valuable scientific criteria for provenance identification for Tang Sancai of unknown origin.

Ma, Bo; Liu, Long; Feng, Song-Lin; Xu, Qing; Feng, Xiang-Qian

2014-01-01

81

A new species of Arbomia Sato & Wang (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Ennominae) from Guangxi, Southern China.  

PubMed

The genus Arbomia was described as a monotypic genus by Sato & Wang, 2004, based on Arbomia kishidai Sato & Wang, 2004 from China (Guangdong) and Vietnam. Since then, no new species of Arbomia has been described. Recently we have examined all the specimens of Arbomia in IZCAS, including those collected during recent expeditions, and have found one new species. The purpose of this paper is to describe the new species A. trigonoprocessa sp. nov., to reported Arbomia kishidai for the first time from the provinces of Zhejiang, Hunan, Fujian, and Guangxi of China, and to provide diagnostic characters and illustrations of the external features and genitalia of the two Arbomia species. PMID:24870889

Jiang, Nan; Xue, Dayong; Han, Hongxiang

2014-01-01

82

Hwangryun-Hae-Dok-tang (Huanglian-Jie-Du-Tang) extract and its constituents reduce ischemia-reperfusion brain injury and neutrophil infiltration in rats.  

PubMed

The preventive effect of Hwangryun-Hae-Dok-tang (HHDT, Huanglian-Jie-Du-Tang), a Chinese herbal medicine, and its ingredients on ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain injury was evaluated in the rat brain. HHDT consists of four herbs, namely, Coptidis rhizoma, Scutellariae radix, Phellodendri cortex, and Gardeniae fructus. Ischemia was induced by intraluminal occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery for 120 min and reperfusion was continued for 22 h. HHDT (200 mg/kg), Coptidis rhizoma (100 mg/kg), Scutellariae radix (100 mg/kg), Phellodendri cortex (100 mg/kg), and Gardeniae fructus (100 mg/kg) were orally administered, promptly prior to reperfusion and 2 h after reperfusion. Baicalein, a component of Scutellariae radix, was also examined at a dosage of 50 mg/kg given 2 h apart, promptly prior to and 2 h after reperfusion. Total infarction volume in the ipsilateral hemisphere of ischemia/reperfusion rats was significantly lowered by treatment with HHDT, Scutellariae radix, and balicalein. However, the other ingredient of HHDT did not show any ameliorating effects on total infarction volume. The inhibiting effect of Scutellariae radix on total infarction volume was much higher than that of the others. In addition, HHDT, Scutellariae radix, and baicalein significantly inhibited myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, an index of neutrophil infiltration in ischemic brain tissue at about the same rate (30%). There was marked mismatch between total infarction volume and MPO activity in the Scutellariae radix-treated rats but not in the HHDT- and baicalein-treated groups. Our findings suggest that Scutellariae radix as an ingredient of HHDT plays a crucial protective role in ischemia-induced brain injury. In addition, it is apparent that the effect of Scutellariae radix is the result, in part, of baicalein, a compound contained in Scutellariae radix. PMID:12204769

Hwang, Young Sun; Shin, Chan Young; Huh, Youngbuhm; Ryu, Jong Hoon

2002-09-20

83

The effect of zhu yu hua tan tang on intracranial pressure in case of acute cerebral hemorrhage.  

PubMed

The therapeutic effect of Zhu Yu Hua Tan Tang ([symbol: see text] Decoction for removing blood stasis and resolving phlegm) plus general and modern treatment on acute cerebral hemorrhage in 44 cases, and the pressure-lowering effect of Zhu Yu Hua Tan Tang and mannitol in 20 cases of acute cerebral hemorrhage in the basilar region, and in rabbits with experimental encephaledema induced by injection of olive oil into the common carotid artery were observed in this study. The results showed that Zhu Yu Hua Tan Tang plus general treatment can better improved the conscious state of the patients than western medicine, and it can make the intracranial pressure drop clinically by 40.44%. The intracranial pressure-lowering effect of Zhu Yu Hua Tan Tang, though slow, is smooth and long-lasting without any rebound phenomenon, as compared to those of mannitol. Similar results were found in animal experiments, but the intracranial pressure-lowering amplitude of Zhu Yu Hua Tan Tang was stronger than that of mannitol. The difference between the clinical and experimental results needs to be further studied. PMID:10921160

Guo, Z; Shi, S; Yang, W; Li, M; Zhang, F

2000-03-01

84

An interdisciplinary approach to investigate the etiology of lung cancer in Xuan Wei, China: A study on mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and human lung cancer risk from indoor exposure to combustion emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports studies of chemical, physical, and toxicological characteristics of indoor air from Xuan Wei homes and links results to human lung chance. Indoor air particles (PMââ) were collected during cooking from Xuan Wei homes in two communes with high and low lung cancer mortality rates and where smoky coal, smokeless coal, and wood were used. The results showed

J. Mumford; R. Chapman; D. Harris; X. He; X. Lee; S. Cao

2008-01-01

85

Effect of Sinpo-Tang on the mast cell-mediated anaphylactic reactions.  

PubMed

The herbal formulation Sinpo-Tang (SPT) has long been used for various allergic diseases. We investigated the effect of SPT on the mast cell-mediated anaphylactic reactions in vivo and in vitro murine models. SPT dose dependently inhibited compound 48/80-induced ear swelling response and histamine release. SPT (0.001-0.1g/kg) significantly inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA). The mast cell number was markedly decreased at the SPT-treated PCA site. In addition, SPT decreased intracellular calcium levels of activated mast cells. These results suggest that SPT inhibit the anaphylactic degranulation of mast cells through decrease of the intracellular calcium level. PMID:12419650

Jeong, Hyun Ja; Yi, Jin Mu; Hong, Seung Heon; Kong, Joo Young; Kim, Kyung Suk; Won, Jin Hee; Cho, Kwang Ho; Shin, Tae Yong; Kim, Ha Song; Kim, Hyung Min

2002-11-01

86

1/f Noise in Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld Models on Narrow Stripes  

SciTech Connect

We report our findings of a 1/f power spectrum for the total amount of sand in directed and undirected Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld models confined to narrow stripes and driven locally. The underlying mechanism for the 1/f noise in these systems is an exponentially long configuration memory giving rise to a very broad distribution of time scales. Both models are solved analytically with the help of an operator algebra to explicitly show the appearance of the long configuration memory. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

Maslov, S. [Department of Physics, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Tang, C. [NEC Research Institute, 4 Independence Way, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)] [NEC Research Institute, 4 Independence Way, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Zhang, Y. [Institut de Physique Theorique, Universite de Fribourg, Fribourg CH-1700 (Switzerland)] [Institut de Physique Theorique, Universite de Fribourg, Fribourg CH-1700 (Switzerland)

1999-09-01

87

The Anticancer Properties and Apoptosis-inducing Mechanisms of Cinnamaldehyde and the Herbal Prescription Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (????? Hu?ng Li?n Ji? D? Tang) in Human Hepatoma Cells  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has long been one of the most important causes of cancer mortality in the world. Many natural products and traditional herbal medicines have been used to treat HCC in Asian countries such as Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and China. The present review aims to describe the anticancer properties and apoptotic mechanisms of cinnamaldehyde, the bioactive ingredient isolated from cinnamon trees, and the herbal prescription Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (????? Huáng Lián Ji? Dú Tang; HLJDT) against human hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Implication of their treatment for the development of targeted therapy against HCC is discussed.

Lin, Liang-Tzung; Wu, Shu-Jing; Lin, Chun-Ching

2013-01-01

88

Wang Laboratories, Inc. VS-100, VS COBOL, Version 3.6.3 (Pre-Release).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Validation Summary Report (VSR) for the WANG LABORATORIES, INC. VS COBOL, Version 3.6.3 (Pre-Release) running under the OS, Version 05.04.03 provides a consolidated summary of the results obtained from the validation of the subject compiler against t...

1983-01-01

89

Validation Summary Report, Wang Laboratories, Inc., VS-100, VS COBOL, Version 3.8.1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Validation Summary Report (VSR) for the Wang Laboratories, Inc., VS COBOL, Version 3.8.1 (Pre-Release) running under the VS, Version 6.19.6 provides a consolidated summary of the results obtained from the validation of the subject compiler against th...

1983-01-01

90

Learning from Wang Yang-Ming: Exploring Oriental Contributions to Understanding Action Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports recent foraging for ideas in action research among the lives and intellects of Chinese society. It began and is reported as a personal journey, initially following the trail of the activist scholar Wang Yang-Ming. The method is a roam through some of the resources that have so far been discovered. The style is…

Tickle, Les

2005-01-01

91

Additional symbols used in double-spaced text for Wang OIS word-processor users  

SciTech Connect

This paper illustrates samples of Greek symbols (and other symbols) that are on the Wang daisy printwheel but not in the form that is often required. This technique can be used in place of rub-ons. It applies to double-spaced formats only, and involves creating new format lines within the text.

Miller, J.A.

1983-06-01

92

The Death of a Virgin: The Cult of Wang Yulan and Nationalism in Jinmen, Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the impact of the global Cold War on local politics through the study of a state deified female ghost Wang Yulan in Jinmen, Taiwan. The liminal status of ghosts in the Chinese celestial order makes room for possible multiple meanings of state-local contestation. Civilians' interpretations of the cult engaged with the official discourse to generate what Bakhtin

Chang-hui Chi

2009-01-01

93

COBOL Technical Report, Wang Laboratories, Inc., VS-100, VS COBOL, Version 3.8.1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This FSTC Technical Report for the Wang Laboratories, Inc., VS COBOL, Version 3.8.1 (Pre-Release) running under the VS, Version 6.19.6 provides a consolidated summary of the results obtained from the evaluation of the subject compiler against the Indexed ...

1983-01-01

94

Commentary: A Closer Look at Task Analysis--Reactions to Wang, Schnipke, and Witt  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the Spring 2005 issue, Wang, Schnipke, and Witt provided an informative description of the task inventory approach that centered on four functions of job analysis. The discussion included persuasive arguments for making systematic connections between tasks and KSAs. But several other facets of the discussion were much less persuasive. This…

LaDuca, Tony

2006-01-01

95

Simulating posterior Gibbs distributions: a comparison of the Swendsen-Wang and Gibbs sampler methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show in detail how the Swendsen-Wang algorithm, for simulating Potts models, may be used to simulate certain types of posterior Gibbs distribution, as a special case of Edwards and Sokal (1988), and we empirically compare the behaviour of the algorithm with that of the Gibbs sampler. Some marginal posterior mode and simulated annealing image restorations are also examined. Our

A. J. Gray

1994-01-01

96

Short communication Conodont index fossil Hindeodus changxingensis Wang fingers greatest mass extinction event  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marine conodont fossil species, Hindeodus changxingensis Wang, that has a distinctive morphology, is restricted to a very narrowstratigraphicintervalessentiallyfromthePermian-Triassicextinctioneventthroughtheinternationallyrecognizedboundary and into the very earliest Triassic. The species is geographically widespread in the Tethyan Region, from Italy to South China, and serves as a characteristic index fossil to reliably identify this short but critical interval that encompasses the greatest mass extinction

I. Metcalfe; R. S. Nicoll; B. R. Wardlaw

97

Conodont index fossil Hindeodus changxingensis Wang fingers greatest mass extinction event  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marine conodont fossil species, Hindeodus changxingensis Wang, that has a distinctive morphology, is restricted to a very narrow stratigraphic interval essentially from the Permian–Triassic extinction event through the internationally recognized boundary and into the very earliest Triassic. The species is geographically widespread in the Tethyan Region, from Italy to South China, and serves as a characteristic index fossil to

I. Metcalfe; R. S. Nicoll; B. R. Wardlaw

2007-01-01

98

Dynamically optimized Wang-Landau sampling with adaptive trial moves and modification factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The density of states of continuous models is known to span many orders of magnitudes at different energies due to the small volume of phase space near the ground state. Consequently, the traditional Wang-Landau sampling which uses the same trial move for all energies faces difficulties sampling the low-entropic states. We developed an adaptive variant of the Wang-Landau algorithm that very effectively samples the density of states of continuous models across the entire energy range. By extending the acceptance ratio method of Bouzida, Kumar, and Swendsen such that the step size of the trial move and acceptance rate are adapted in an energy-dependent fashion, the random walker efficiently adapts its sampling according to the local phase space structure. The Wang-Landau modification factor is also made energy dependent in accordance with the step size, enhancing the accumulation of the density of states. Numerical simulations show that our proposed method performs much better than the traditional Wang-Landau sampling.

Koh, Yang Wei; Lee, Hwee Kuan; Okabe, Yutaka

2013-11-01

99

[An investigation into the Jin xiao fang (Prescriptions of Instant Effect), a lost recipe book of the Tang Dynasty].  

PubMed

Altogether 141 prescriptions in the Jin xiao fang (Prescriptions of Instant Effect), a lost recipe book of the Tang Dynasty are cited in the Wai tai mi yao (Medical Secrets of An Official). Based on the analysis of these citations, it can be sure that the Jin xiao fang was written by Li Jian-yi of the Tang Dynasty, and completed around 724 to 733. These cited prescriptions are related to the clinical subjects, with complicate origins, for example, physicians and scholars. It is characterized by its "xiao yan (efficacy)". PMID:24345550

Huang, Bin; Zhang, Yin-Zhu

2013-07-01

100

GSTM1 AND GSTT1 GENOTYPES AND LUNG CANCER RISK ASSOCIATED WITH EXPOSURE TO INDOOR COAL EMISSIONS: A CASE-CONTROL STUDY IN XUAN WEI, CHINA  

EPA Science Inventory

The lung cancer mortality rate in Xuan Wei County, China is among the highest in the country and has been associated with exposure to indoor smoky coal emissions that contain high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This risk may be modified by variation in metabolism gen...

101

HUMAN EXPOSURE AND DOSIMETRY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN URINE FROM XUAN WEI, CHINA WITH HIGH LUNG CANCER MORTALITY ASSOCIATED WITH EXPOSURE TO UNVENTED COAL SMOKE  

EPA Science Inventory

Lung cancer mortality rate in Xuan Wei (XW) county, China is 5 times the China national average; women's rate is China's highest. W residents have been exposed to unvented coal or wood smoke during cooling or heating in homes. his study investigated indoor air exposure and dosime...

102

Evolution of the Orszag-Tang vortex system in a compressible medium. II - Supersonic flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study is presented on the effect of embedded supersonic flows and the resulting emerging shock waves on phenomena associated with MHD turbulence, including reconnection, the formation of current sheets and vortex structures, and the evolution of spatial and temporal correlations among physical variables. A two-dimensional model problem, the Orszag-Tang (1979) vortex system, is chosen, which involves decay from nonrandom initial conditions. The system is doubly periodic, and the initial conditions consist of single-mode solenoidal velocity and magnetic fields, each containing X points and O points. The initial mass density is flat, and the initial pressure fluctuations are incompressible, balancing the local forces for a magnetofluid of unit mass density. Results on the evolution of the local structure of the flow field, the global properties of the system, and spectral correlations are presented. The important dynamical properties and observational consequences of embedded supersonic regions and emerging shocks in the Orszag-Tang model of an MHD system undergoing reconnection are discussed. Conclusions are drawn regarding the effects of local supersonic regions on MHD turbulence.

Picone, J. Michael; Dahlburg, Russell B.

1991-01-01

103

Metabolism of constituents in Huangqin-Tang, a prescription in traditional Chinese medicine, by human intestinal flora.  

PubMed

In the course of studies on the metabolism of active components of Huangqin-Tang by human intestinal flora (HIF), Huangqin-Tang and all individual herbs in the decoctions were incubated with a human fecal suspension separately. By using a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method which was previously established in our laboratory, the metabolites in both the compound prescription and all the single herb decoctions were identified and determined both qualitatively and quantitatively. We found that the constituents of Huangqin-Tang, incluing baicalin (baicalein 7-glucuronide; BG), wogonoside (wogoninoglucuronide; WG), oroxylin-A-glucuronide (OG) from Scutellariae Radix, paeoniflorin (PF) from Paeoniae Radix, liquiritin (liquiritigenin 4'-O-glucoside; LG), isoliquirtin (isoliquiritigenin 4-glucoside; ILG) and glycyrrhizic acid (GL) from Glycyhhizea Radix, were converted to their metabolites baicalein (B), wogonin (W), oroxylin-A (O), paeonimetabolin-I (PM-I), liquiritigenin (L), isoliquiritigenin (IL) and glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) by HIF. The contents of the metabolites in Huangqin-Tang and in each single herb decoction increased significantly after incubation with intestinal flora. Comparing with single herb decoctions, the transformation of BG, WG, OG, LG and ILG in the compound prescription was promoted, however, that of PF and GL was inhibited. All the results suggested that the glycosides of many medicinal herbs could be converted to aglycones by HIF, and the metabolism of most glycosides was improved in the compound prescription. PMID:12033492

Zuo, Feng; Zhou, Zhong-Ming; Yan, Mei-Zhen; Liu, Mei-Lan; Xiong, Yu-Lan; Zhang, Qing; Song, Hong-Yue; Ye, Wen-Hua

2002-05-01

104

[Study on pharmacological ingredients of wuzhuyu tang treating migraine by correlating absorption ingredients in everted intestinal sac and pharmacodynamics].  

PubMed

Wuzhuyu Tang is a classical formula for treating migraine, but its' pharmacological ingredients is unclear yet. Present study employed the everted intestinal sac model to collect the absorption samples of 10 kinds of Wuzhuyu decoction, and then analyzed the contents of 9 ingredients in Wuzhuyu Tang and absorption samples quantitatively or semi-quantitatively by HPLC-DAD method. Reserpine was used to establish the mice model of migraine, and then the contents and activities of 5-hydroxytryptamine, noradrenaline, dopamine, nitric oxide and nitricoxide synthase in brain tissues and serums were determined respectively after oral administration of Wuzhuyu Tang. Using the partial least squares regression method to correlate the total absorption quantity of 9 ingredients and pharmacodynamics. The result shows that limocitrin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside, ginsenoside Rg1 and Rb1, rutaevine, limonin, evodiamine and rutaecarpine are the main ingredients influenced the effects in absorption samples in everted intestinal sacs, especially ginsenoside Rg1, rutaevine, evodiamine and rutaecarpine among them have obvious improving effects to most pharmacodynamics index, might be the pharmacological ingredients influenced the therapeutical effects of Wuzhuyu Tang treating migraine. PMID:24754181

Pan, Xue-Qiang; Wu, Yan-Chuan; Gong, Mu-Xin; Xu, Yong-Song; Wang, Zhi-Min; Zhang, Qi-Wei; Shang, Ya-Wen; Lu, Xu-Ran; Song, Ya-Fang

2014-01-01

105

[Book reviews] The Science of Allelopathy, edited by A. R. Putnam and C. Tang; Allelopathy, by E .L. Rice  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Review of: Putnam, Alan R., and Chung-Shih Tang (eds.). 1986. The science of allelopathy. Wiley-Interscience Publications, John Wiley and Sons, New York. xi + 317 p. $52.50. Rice, Elroy L. 1984. Allelopathy. Second Edition. Academic Press, New York. xi + 422 p. $71.00.

Keeley, J. E.

1988-01-01

106

Full-Scale Process and Design Changes for Elimination of Insulation Edge Separations and Voids in Tang Flap Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Qualification of the full-scale process and design changes for elimination of redesigned solid rocket motor tang nitrile butadiene rubber insulation edge separations and voids was performed from 24 March to 3 December 1990. The objectives of this test wer...

R. A. Danforth

1991-01-01

107

Simultaneous Determination of 11 Major Components in Palmul-tang by HPLC-DAD and LC-MS-MS.  

PubMed

Palmul-tang, a traditional herbal medicine, is composed of eight herbs (Ginseng radix, Glycyrrhizae radix, Hoelen, Atractylodis rhizoma, Angelicae gigantis radix, Cnidii rhizoma, Paeoniae radix and Rehmanniae radix) and exhibits various bioactivities, including antiallergic and antitumor effects. In this study, an effective, reliable and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 11 marker components in Palmul-tang: hydroxymethylfurfural, albiflorin, paeoniflorin, ferulic acid, nodakenin, ginsenoside Rg1, decursinol, glycyrrhizin, 6-gingerol, ginsenoside Rg3 and decursin. All calibration curves of the 11 components indicated excellent linearity (correlation coefficient > 0.9997) within the test range. The limits of detection and quantification of each component were in the ranges of 0.08-1.03 and 0.23-3.11 µg/mL, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation values were within 1.65 and 2.71%, respectively. The mean recovery values were 94.49 to 101.10%. The established method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of 11 major components in 12 commercial samples of Palmul-tang. The developed analytical method is simple and suitable for the quality control of Palmul-tang. PMID:23741048

Lee, Bohyoung; Weon, Jin Bae; Yun, Bo-Ra; Lee, Jiwoo; Eom, Min Rye; Ma, Choong Je

2014-07-01

108

Pharmacokinetic study on the multi-constituents of Huangqin-Tang decoction in rats.  

PubMed

Using a validated high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method, the pharmacokinetics of multi-constituents in Huangqin-Tang decoction were simultaneously studied both in the compound prescription and in each single herb decoction. At different intervals (0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48 h) after oral administration of the Huangqin-Tang decoction or a single herb decoction at a dose of 10 g x kg(-1), the concentrations of the constituents and their metabolites: baicalin (BG), wogonoside (WG), oroxylin-A-glucuronide (OG), baicalein (B), wogonin (W), oroxylin-A (O), paeoniflorin (PF), paeonimetabolin-I (PM-I), liquiritin (LG), liquiritigenin (L), glycyrrhizic acid (GL) and glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), were detected in the rat plasma. A new metabolite-3,5,7,2',6'-penta hydroxy flavone (visidulin I, VD-I) was found in rat plasma after oral administration of Huangqin-Tang or a single herb Huangqin decoction, and the quality was identified by HPLC and LC/MS. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the constituents and metabolites in the compound prescription and single herb decoctions were compared. All concentration-time curves corresponded to the one-compartment model. The constituents of BG, WG, OG, VD-I and LG had higher C(max) and AUC(0-lim) in the compound prescription than in the single herb decoction, and WG had significant difference. The constituents of PF, W and O only had a higher AUC(0-lim) in the compound prescription, and O had a significant difference. It was concluded, in brief, that there were obvious differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters of most constituents (especially constituent WG) between the compound prescription and single herb decoction. The constituents in the compound prescription had delayed absorption and elimination, a longer residence time in the body, and higher C(max) and AUC(0-lim), than those in the single herb decoction. Therefore, they were more efficient and durable, making them promising to exerting pharmacological effects in vivo. PMID:12843610

Zuo, Feng; Zhou, Zhong-Ming; Zhang, Qing; Mao, Dan; Xiong, Yu-Lan; Wang, Yan-Li; Yan, Mei-Zhen; Liu, Mei-Lan

2003-07-01

109

Use of Herbal Dietary Supplement Si-Wu-Tang and Health-Related Quality of Life in Postpartum Women: A Population-Based Correlational Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. The aim of the study was to explore the association between women's use of herbal dietary supplement Si-Wu-Tang during the postpartum period and their health-related quality of life. Methods. This is a population-based correlational study. We used multistage, stratified, systematic sampling to recruit 24,200 pairs of postpartum women and newborns from the Taiwan National Birth Registry in 2005. A structured questionnaire was successfully administered to 87.8% of the sampled population. Trained interviewers performed home interviews 6 months after the women's deliveries between June 2005 and July 2006. The Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form (SF-36) was used to measure the quality of life of the women along with the frequency of Si-Wu-Tang use. Results. Si-Wu-Tang use after delivery improved women's score for bodily pain and also improved their score for mental health when used more than 10 times. In addition, there were increases in general health and vitality scores in the group who continuously used Si-Wu-Tang more than 10 times after using Sheng-Hua-Tang. Conclusion. Use of Si-Wu-Tang after delivery may be associated with women's health-related quality of life especially for those who previously used Sheng-Hua-Tang. These results are exploratory and need to be replicated.

Chang, Pei-Jen; Lin, Ching-Chun; Chen, Yi Chun; Chuang, Chao-Hua; Tseng, Yu-Ching; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Lin, Shio-Jean

2013-01-01

110

Dynamic critical behavior of the Swendsen–Wang algorithm for the three-dimensional Ising model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have performed a high-precision Monte Carlo study of the dynamic critical behavior of the Swendsen–Wang algorithm for the three-dimensional Ising model at the critical point. For the dynamic critical exponents associated to the integrated autocorrelation times of the “energy-like” observables, we find zint,N=zint,E=zint,E?=0.459±0.005±0.025, where the first error bar represents statistical error (68% confidence interval) and the second error bar

Giovanni Ossola; Alan D. Sokal

2004-01-01

111

Exploring new frontiers in statistical physics with a new, parallel Wang-Landau framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combining traditional Wang-Landau sampling for multiple replica systems with an exchange of densities of states between replicas, we describe a general framework for simulations on massively parallel Petaflop supercomputers. The advantages and general applicability of the method for simulations of complex systems are demonstrated for the classical 2D Potts spin model featuring a strong first-order transition and the self-assembly of lipid bilayers in amphiphilic solutions in a continuous model.

Vogel, Thomas; Li, Ying Wai; Wüst, Thomas; Landau, David P.

2014-03-01

112

Two alternate proofs of Wang's lune formula for sparse distributed memory and an integral approximation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In Kanerva's Sparse Distributed Memory, writing to and reading from the memory are done in relation to spheres in an n-dimensional binary vector space. Thus it is important to know how many points are in the intersection of two spheres in this space. Two proofs are given of Wang's formula for spheres of unequal radii, and an integral approximation for the intersection in this case.

Jaeckel, Louis A.

1988-01-01

113

Exploring new frontiers in statistical physics with a new, parallel Wang-Landau framework  

SciTech Connect

Combining traditional Wang Landau sampling for multiple replica systems with an exchange of densities of states between replicas we describe a general framework for simulations on massively parallel Petaflop supercomputers. The advantages and general applicability of the method for simulations of complex systems are demonstrated for the classical 2D Potts spin model featuring a strong first-order transition and the self-assembly of lipid bilayers in amphiphilic solutions in a continuous model.

Vogel, Thomas [University of Georgia, Athens, GA] [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Li, Ying Wai [ORNL] [ORNL; Wuest, Thomas [Swiss Federal Research Institute, Switzerland] [Swiss Federal Research Institute, Switzerland; Landau, David P [University of Georgia, Athens, GA] [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

2014-01-01

114

The development of echocardiography in China: the pioneering role of Xin-fang Wang.  

PubMed

I cannot discuss the history of the development of echocardiography in China without describing the pioneering role of Xin-fang Wang (???) from Wuhan, China, who is the "father of modern echocardiography."(1) Although Inge Edler from Sweden(2-5) and Harvey Feigenbaum from the United States(6) were also oftentimes referred to as the fathers of echocardiography, both Edler(7) and Feigenbaum(8) recognized that the Chinese used cardiac ultrasonography in the very early years (Figure 1). PMID:23227296

Cheng, Tsung O

2012-01-01

115

Phase transitions in a single polymer chain: A micro-canonical analysis of Wang Landau simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present simulation results for the phase behavior of a single chain for a flexible lattice polymer model using the Wang-Landau sampling idea. Using the micro-canonical density of states obtained with this method we will discuss the ability of an analysis in the micro-canonical ensemble to locate the coil-globule (continuous) and liquid-solid (first-order) transitions found for this problem using a canonical analysis.

Paul, W.; Rampf, F.; Strauch, T.; Binder, K.

2008-07-01

116

DCEG Special Seminar - Dr. Yu Wang, Director, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention  

Cancer.gov

Prior to leading the China CDC, Dr. Wang was Vice President of the Peking University Health Science Center and had important leadership positions in the Ministry of Science and Technology.China CDC’s outstanding contributions in disease control and prevention in the post-Wenchuan earthquake relief and his many other achievements have led to numerous awards from the Ministries of Health and Human Resources, and State Council, municipal governments and other organizations. Dr.

117

Wang-Landau molecular dynamics technique to search for low-energy conformational space of proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multicanonical molecular dynamics (MD) is a powerful technique for sampling conformations on rugged potential surfaces such as protein. However, it is notoriously difficult to estimate the multicanonical temperature effectively. Wang and Landau developed a convenient method for estimating the density of states based on a multicanonical Monte Carlo method. In their method, the density of states is calculated autonomously during a simulation. In this paper, we develop a set of techniques to effectively apply the Wang-Landau method to MD simulations. In the multicanonical MD, the estimation of the derivative of the density of states is critical. In order to estimate it accurately, we devise two original improvements. First, the correction for the density of states is made smooth by using the Gaussian distribution obtained by a short canonical simulation. Second, an approximation is applied to the derivative, which is based on the Gaussian distribution and the multiple weighted histogram technique. A test of this method was performed with small polypeptides, Met-enkephalin and Trp-cage, and it is demonstrated that Wang-Landau MD is consistent with replica exchange MD but can sample much larger conformational space.

Nagasima, Takehiro; Kinjo, Akira R.; Mitsui, Takashi; Nishikawa, Ken

2007-06-01

118

Effect of Boo Yong-Tang on mast cell-mediated allergic reaction.  

PubMed

Boo Yong-Tang (BYT) is an Oriental herbal prescription, which has been clinically applied for treatment of allergic disorders. Here, we report inhibitory effects of BYT on experimental allergic reactions. BYT increased interferon-gamma secretion from MOLT-4 T cells. When BYT (0.01, 0.1, or 1 g/kg) was orally administered for 1 h in mice, compound 48/80-induced ear swelling was significantly reduced. BYT also inhibited the histamine release from the mast cells activated by compound 48/80. In addition, BYT showed an inhibitory effect of anti-dinitrophenyl IgE antibody-induced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction. These findings provide evidence that BYT is a potential prescription for the treatment of allergic reaction through down-modulating of mast cell activation. PMID:15518177

Na, Ho-Jeong; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Hong, Seung-Heon; Hwang, Chung-Yeon; Cha, Wung-Suk; Kim, Hyung-Min

2004-08-01

119

The repulsive wall of the Tang-Toennies potential for He2 reexamined  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the case of He2, Aziz et al. [Z. Phys. D 21,251 (1991)] proposed a modification to the original Tang-Toennies potential form (TT) [J. Chem. Phys. 80, 3726 (1984)] which allows for a more accurate repulsive wall. The total interaction energy E int can, in principle, be considered as the sum of uncorrelated and correlated energies, i.e. E int ( r)= E unc( r)+ E c ( r). E unc is represented by the (SCF) Hartree-Fock interaction energy E SCF for the rare gas dimer. E c , which is expressed in terms of ab initio dispersion coefficients and a suitable damping function to account for charge overlap effects, is dominated by the van der Waals attraction in the long range. While the other literature potentials reproduce some of the data, only the TT model as modified by Aziz et al. properly characterizes E int over the entire range and E SCF over its range of significance.

Aziz, R. A.; Slaman, M. J.

1993-12-01

120

Numerical simulation of the compressible Orszag-Tang vortex 2. Supersonic flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The numerical investigation of the Orszag-Tang vortex system in compressible magnetofluids will consider initial conditions with embedded supersonic regions. The simulations have initial average Mach numbers 1.0 and 1.5 and beta 10/3 with Lundquist numbers 50, 100, or 200. The behavior of the system differs significantly from that found previously for the incompressible and subsonic analogs. Shocks form at the downstream boundaries of the embedded supersonic regions outside the central magnetic X-point and produce strong local current sheets which dissipate appreciable magnetic energy. Reconnection at the central X-point, which dominates the incompressible and subsonic systems, peaks later and has a smaller impact as M increases from 0.6 to 1.5. Similarly, correlation between the momentum and magnetic field begins significant growth later than in subsonic and incompressible flows. The shocks bound large compression regions, which dominate the wavenumber spectra of autocorrelations in mass density, velocity, and magnetic field.

Picone, J. M.; Dahlburg, Russell B.

1990-01-01

121

Visco-Resistive Dissipation in Transient Reconnection Driven by the Orszag-Tang Vortex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viscous effects are expected to significantly contribute to reconnective energy release mechanisms in solar flares. While simple scaling arguments based on head-on reconnection suggest that viscous dissipation may dominate resistive dissipation, it is not clear whether these findings can be applied in more general merging situations. Here we perform side-by-side planar reconnection simulations driven by the Orszag-Tang vortex, for both classical and Braginskii forms of the viscosity. This formulation has the advantage of providing an autonomous MHD system that develops strong current layers, sustained by large-scale vortical shearing flows. The dissipation rates are shown to follow analytically based scaling laws, which suggest that viscous losses generated from large-scale non-uniform velocity fields are likely to dominate resistive losses in current-sheet reconnection solutions.

Armstrong, C. K.; Craig, I. J. D.

2013-04-01

122

Effect of Danggui Buxue Tang on immune-mediated aplastic anemia bone marrow proliferation mice.  

PubMed

To investigate the pharmacological effects of Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) on immune-mediated aplasia anemia mice. The model of immune-mediated aplasia anemia mice was induced by means of (60)Co ?-ray irradiation and mixed cells of thymus and lymphnode of DBA/2 mice infusion through tail vein, the parameters tested indices were as following: blood picture, bone marrow nucleated cell count (BMNC), murine colony-forming unit-megakaryocytes (CFU-GM) of bone marrow cells, murine colony-forming unit-erthroid (CFU-E) and burst forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E). The results showed that DBT could not only withstand significantly decreation of blood cells by immune-mediated, but also stimulate on the growth of bone marrow colony cell and increase the weight of hemopoietic progenitor of bone marrow. Therefore, DBT had an obvious treat effect on immune-mediated aplasia anemia models mice. PMID:24290471

Yang, Xian; Huang, Chong-Gang; Du, Shou-Ying; Yang, Shui-Ping; Zhang, Xue; Liu, Jian-Yi; Xian-QinLuo; Xu, Jia-Hong

2014-04-15

123

Pentocin 31-1, an anti- Listeria bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus pentosus 31-1 isolated from Xuan-Wei Ham, a traditional China fermented meat product  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strain 31-1 was isolated from the traditional China fermented Xuan-Wei Ham and identified as Lactobacillus pentosus 31-1, produced pentocin 31-1 at 640 arbitrary units (AU)\\/ml in MRS broth in the early stationary phase (i.e. after 24h). After concentration by ammonium sulfate precipitation, followed by separation in SP-Sepharose fast flow cation exchange chromatography, the bacteriocin had a molecular weight of approximately

Guorong Liu; Yanni Lv; Pinglan Li; Kang Zhou; Jinglan Zhang

2008-01-01

124

Spatial-temporal change in precipitation patterns based on the cloud model across the Wei River Basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is of significant importance to investigate the spatial-temporal change in precipitation patterns due to its great effects on droughts, floods, soil erosion and water resource management. A complete investigation of precipitation structure and its distribution pattern based on daily precipitation covering 1960-2005 at 21 meteorological stations in the Wei River Basin has been performed. In order to comprehensively and objectively describe the changing pattern of precipitation, the cloud model is employed to quantitatively analyse the average, uniformity and stability of precipitation. Results indicate the following: (1) the occurrence of different precipitation durations exhibits a positive exponential curve with the decrease in precipitation durations, and 1-3-day events are the predominant precipitation events which have an increasing trend; (2) precipitation and its non-uniformity is increasingly reducing, while its stability increases initially then decreases; (3) mean precipitation reduces from southeast to northwest, and the precipitation of the Guanzhong Plain has a low uniformity and stability due to its location and increasingly intensifying human activities. The cloud model provides a new idea and quantitative measure for the evaluation of the uniformity and stability of precipitation.

Huang, Shengzhi; Hou, Beibei; Chang, Jianxia; Huang, Qiang; Chen, Yutong

2014-05-01

125

Effect of chimneys on indoor air concentrations of PM 10 and benzo[a]pyrene in Xuan Wei, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the effect of chimneys in reducing indoor air pollution in a lung cancer epidemic area of rural China. Household indoor air pollution concentrations were measured during unvented burning (chimneys blocked) and vented burning (chimneys open) of bituminous coal in Xuan Wei, China. Concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 ?m or less (PM 10) and of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were measured in 43 homes during normal activities. The use of chimneys led to significant decreases in indoor air concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 ?m or less (PM 10) by 66% and of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) by 84%. The average BaP content of PM 10 also decreased by 55% with the installation of a chimney. The reduction of indoor pollution levels by the installation of a chimney supports the epidemiology findings on the health benefits of stove improvement. However, even in the presence of a chimney, the indoor air concentrations for both PM 10 and BaP still exceeded the indoor air quality standards of China. Movement up the energy ladder to cleaner liquid or gaseous fuels is probably the only sustainable indoor air pollution control measure.

Tian, Linwei; Lan, Qing; Yang, Dong; He, Xingzhou; Yu, Ignatius T. S.; Hammond, S. Katharine

126

A Chinese Herbal Medicine, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San, Prevents Dimethylnitrosamine-Induced Hepatic Fibrosis in Rats  

PubMed Central

Jia-wei-xiao-yao-san (JWXYS) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that is widely used to treat neuropsychological disorders. Only a few of the hepatoprotective effects of JWXYS have been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of JWXYS on dimethylnitrosamine- (DMN-) induced chronic hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis in rats and to clarify the mechanism through which JWXYS exerts these effects. After the rats were treated with DMN for 3 weeks, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) levels were significantly elevated, whereas the albumin level decreased. Although DMN was continually administered, after the 3 doses of JWXYS were orally administered, the SGOT and SGPT levels significantly decreased and the albumin level was significantly elevated. In addition, JWXYS treatment prevented liver fibrosis induced by DMN. JWXYS exhibited superoxide-dismutase-like activity and dose-dependently inhibited DMN-induced lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase activity in the liver of rats. Our findings suggest that JWXYS exerts antifibrotic effects against DMN-induced chronic hepatic injury. The possible mechanism is at least partially attributable to the ability of JWXYS to inhibit reactive-oxygen-species-induced membrane lipid peroxidation.

Chien, Shu-Chen; Chang, Wei-Chiao; Lin, Pu-Hua; Chang, Wei-Pin; Chang, Jung-Chen; Pei, Jin-Kuo; Lin, Chia-Hsien

2014-01-01

127

Identification of abrupt changes of the relationship between rainfall and runoff in the Wei River Basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between rainfall and runoff in the Wei River Basin, one of the most important relationships in hydrology, possibly changed due to the changing climate and increasingly intensifying human activities. The identification of abrupt changes of the relationship will help to further understand the changing mechanism of runoff generation, being a great stimulus to the development of water resources planning and management. Therefore, a new method based on copulas was employed to detect change points of the relationship. Additionally, a Bayesian copula selection method was employed to choose the most appropriate copula, and the primary conclusions are as follows:(1) the Bayesian copula selection method based on Bayesian analysis is independent of parameter selections and easy to implement; (2) the identified change points can be summarized as the early 1970s, the late 1980s, and the middle 1990s; (3) from climate change perspective, the combined impact of increasing air temperature and initially decreasing then increasing potential evaporation had a certain effect on these change points; from human activities perspective, the underlying causes of these change points of the early 1970s, the late 1980s, and the middle 1990s were the construction of water projects and soil conservation, the growing effective arable land of the late 1980s and the growing utilization of water resources in the middle 1990s, respectively. The dominant factor influencing the relation between precipitation and runoff is the increasingly intensifying human activities, and this relation is increasingly weakening.

Huang, Shengzhi; Chang, Jianxia; Huang, Qiang; Chen, Yutong

2014-05-01

128

Notes on the genus Napialus Chu & Wang (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae), with description of a new species from China.  

PubMed

Napialus spinosus Li & Wei, sp. nov. is described as new based on a male specimen collected in Jiangxi Province of China. Image of the adult, illustrations of the antenna, venation, and eighth abdomeninal segment as well as male genitalia are presented. A species checklist and key to the species of Napialus are provided and the known distribution of each species is mapped with respect to temperature gradients. PMID:24870178

Li, Weichun; Wei, Hongyi

2014-01-01

129

UPLC-ESI/MS determination of 17 active constituents in two categorized formulas of traditional Chinese medicine, Sanhuang Xiexin Tang and Fuzi Xiexin Tang: application in comparing the differences in decoctions and macerations.  

PubMed

A rapid and sensitive UPLC-ESI/MS method was established and validated to determine 17 active constituents (aconitine, hypaconitine, mesaconitine, benzoylaconine, benzoylhypaconine, benzoylmesaconine, berberine, palmatine, jatrorrhizine, coptisine, baicalein, wogonin, baicalin, wogonoside, emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein) in Sanhuang Xiexin Tang (SXT) and Fuzi Xiexin Tang (FXT), which are two classic compound recipes from Xiexin Tang categorized formulas in traditional Chinese medicien. The separation was performed on a UPLC BEH C18 column gradient eluted using acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid as mobile phase. ESI/MS was operated in positive ([M + H](+)) in selected ion recording mode for analysis of alkaloids and flavones, while in negative ([M - H](-)) selected ion recording mode for anthraquinones. All of the 17 constituents exhibited good linearity in a relatively wide concentration ranges with the lowest limits of detection of 0.38 ng/mL. All of the relative standard deviation values of intra- and inter-precisions and stabilities of 17 constituents were within 5%. The method was successfully applied to determine 17 active constituents in decoctions and macerations of SXT and FXT. The results indicated that different preparative methods resulted in significant diversity in concentrations of the 17 analytes. Herb-herb interaction appeared between aconitum alkaloids in Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata and another three herbs. PMID:23629873

Zhang, Qian; Wang, Chang-hong; Ma, Yue-ming; Zhu, En-yuan; Wang, Zheng-tao

2013-08-01

130

Mineralogical and compositional characteristics of Late Permian coals from an area of high lung cancer rate in Xuan Wei, Yunnan, China: Occurrence and origin of quartz and chamosite  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Some townships in Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, have one of the highest lung cancer mortality rates in China and the epidemic disease in the area has generally been attributed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) released from domestic coal burning. However, the cancer-causing culprit is not settled as Tian [Tian, L., 2005. Coal Combustion Emissions and Lung Cancer in Xuan Wei, China. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley.] found nanometer quartz in these coals, soot emissions, and lung cancer tissues. We have conducted mineralogical and geochemical studies of the coals from Xuan Wei for the purpose of shedding light on the minerals which may be related to the epidemic lung cancer. In this paper, abundances, modes of occurrence, and origins of minerals and elements in the coals from two mines in Xuan Wei have been studied using optical microscope, low-temperature ashing, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The minerals in the coals are mainly composed of quartz, chamosite, kaolinite, and calcite. The particle size of quartz is rather small, mostly less than 20????m and it is of authigenic origin. Chamosite occurs mainly as cell-fillings. The occurrence of quartz and chamosite indicates that they were derived from the hydrothermal fluids. Epigenetic calcite is derived from calcic fluids. Kaolinite is derived mainly from sediment source region of Kangdian Oldland to the west of coal basin. The composition of Xuan Wei coal is high in SiO2, Fe2O3, TiO2, CaO, MnO, V, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn. The high SiO2 content is attributed to quartz, and the Fe2O3 content to chamosite. The high Mn and low Mg contents in the coal indicate the inputs of hydrothermal fluids. CaO occurs mainly in epigenetic calcite. Elements Ti, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and rare earth elements were derived from the basaltic rocks at sediment source region. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Dai, S.; Tian, L.; Chou, C. -L.; Zhou, Y.; Zhang, M.; Zhao, L.; Wang, J.; Yang, Z.; Cao, H.; Ren, D.

2008-01-01

131

Conodont index fossil Hindeodus changxingensis Wang fingers greatest mass extinction event  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The marine conodont fossil species, Hindeodus changxingensis Wang, that has a distinctive morphology, is restricted to a very narrow stratigraphic interval essentially from the Permian-Triassic extinction event through the internationally recognized boundary and into the very earliest Triassic. The species is geographically widespread in the Tethyan Region, from Italy to South China, and serves as a characteristic index fossil to reliably identify this short but critical interval that encompasses the greatest mass extinction of life on earth and the boundary between the Paleozoic and Mesozoic Eras. ?? 2007 Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, CAS.

Metcalfe, I.; Nicoll, R. S.; Wardlaw, B. R.

2007-01-01

132

A description of preimaginal stages of Pseudaspidapion botanicum Alonso-Zarazaga & Wang, 2011 (Apionidae, Curculionoidea)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The preimaginal stages including egg, mature larva and pupa of Pseudaspidapion botanicum Alonso-Zarazaga & Wang, 2011 were described and figured, diagnostic characters of larva and pupa were discussed, and corresponding biological information was supplied. The nomenclature of frontal setae in the larva compared with curculionid weevils, the absence of the hypopharyngeal bracon in the larva, and the metafemoral setae in the pupa were discussed. Common and different characters among the larvae of Pseudaspidapion botanicum, Aspidapion radiolus (Marsham, 1802) and Aspidapion aeneum (Fabricius, 1775) were also provided.

Wang, Zhiliang; Alonso-Zarazaga, M. A.; Zhou, Dakang; Zhang, Runzhi

2013-01-01

133

Conformational transitions of a confined lattice protein: A Wang-Landau study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use Wang-Landau sampling with suitable Monte Carlo trial moves to study a hydrophobic-polar (HP) lattice protein confined between two parallel, attractive walls. The density of states is determined iteratively by a random walk in energy space. Thermodynamic and structural properties, such as specific heat, number of surface contacts and number of H-H monomer pairs, are then calculated. When the surface attraction is comparable to the internal attraction among the hydrophobic monomers in the chain, two conformational “transitions”, adsorption at higher temperature and collapse at lower temperature, have been analyzed based on these properties. This transition behavior depends on the variation of surface separation.

Pattanasiri, Busara; Li, Ying Wai; Landau, David P.; Wüst, Thomas; Triampo, Wannapong

2012-12-01

134

A Wang-Landau study of the phase transitions in a flexible homopolymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using Wang-Landau sampling we study the characteristic behavior of a flexible homopolymer (off-lattice) for chain lengths up to N=300. The Hamiltonian consists of a Lennard-Jones potential between all monomers, and an additional FENE potential between bonded monomers. From the resultant density of states, we calculate thermodynamic properties for a wide range of temperatures, including low temperatures that are inaccessible to traditional Monte Carlo algorithms. Peaks in the specific heat and radius of gyration indicate the coil-globule and solid-liquid transitions. With a careful implementation of the algorithm, we find no evidence of a liquid-liquid transition.

Seaton, D. T.; Wüst, T.; Landau, D. P.

2009-04-01

135

Difference of energy density of states in the Wang-Landau algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paying attention to the difference of density of states, ?lng(E)?lng(E+?E)-lng(E), we study the convergence of the Wang-Landau method. We show that this quantity is a good estimator to discuss the errors of convergence and refer to the 1/t algorithm. We also examine the behavior of the first-order transition with this difference of density of states in connection with Maxwell's equal area rule. A general procedure to judge the order of transition is given.

Komura, Yukihiro; Okabe, Yutaka

2012-01-01

136

Administration with Bushenkangshuai Tang alleviates UV irradiation- and oxidative stress-induced lifespan defects in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

During normal metabolism, oxidative byproducts will inevitably generate and damage molecules thereby impairing their biological\\u000a functions, including the aging process. Bushenkangshuai Tang (?????, BT) is a traditional Chinese medicine widely used for clinically treating premature ovarian failure. In the present study, BT administration at high concentrations significantly increased lifespan, slowed aging-related decline, and delayed accumulation\\u000a of aging-related cellular damage in

Qi Rui; Qin Lu; Dayong Wang

2009-01-01

137

Effects of age, size, and density on natural survival for an important coral reef fishery species, yellow tang, Zebrasoma flavescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hundreds of thousands of juvenile yellow tang, Zebrasoma flavescens, are caught each year in the state of Hawai’i (USA) for the live aquarium trade. As part of an extensive adaptive management\\u000a strategy built around a network of protected areas, an emphasis was placed on understanding this important species’ life history.\\u000a Multiple capture-mark-recapture techniques and a model selection approach to data

J. T. Claisse; S. A. McTee; J. D. Parrish

2009-01-01

138

Evaluation of Oral Subchronic Toxicity of Soshiho-Tang Water Extract: The Traditional Herbal Formula in Rats  

PubMed Central

Soshiho-tang (Xiao-chai-hu-tang in Chinese and Sho-saiko-to in Japanese) has been widely used for its various pharmacological effects, which include anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antihepatic fibrosis, and antitumor properties. To evaluate the safety of Soshiho-tang water extract (SST), we tested its subchronic toxicity in male and female Crl:CD (SD) rats. Rats were orally treated with four different doses (0, 500, 1000, and 2000?mg/kg/day) of SST administered for 13 weeks. Mortality, clinical signs, body weight changes, food and water consumption changes, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematological and biochemical parameters, gross findings, organ weights, and histological markers were monitored during the study. The SST treatment did not result in any toxicologically significant changes in mortality, clinical signs, body weights, food and water consumption, ophthalmoscopy, urinalysis, hematological and serum biochemical parameters, gross findings, organ weights, or histopathology. Histological analysis did not show any liver or kidney alteration. We concluded that the 13-week repeated oral administration of SST did not cause any adverse effects in rats at dosage levels of ?2000?mg/kg/day. Under these experimental conditions, the no-observed-adverse-effect level was concluded to be 2000?mg/kg/day for both sexes.

Lee, Mee-Young; Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, In-Shik; Kim, Young-Bum; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

2013-01-01

139

Improved methods for calculating thermodynamic properties of magnetic systems using Wang-Landau density of states  

SciTech Connect

The Wang-Landau method [F. Wang and D. P. Landau, Phys. Rev. E 64, 056101 (2001)] is an efficient way to calculate the density of states (DOS) for magnetic systems, and the DOS can then be used to rapidly calculate the thermodynamic properties of the system. A technique is presented that uses the DOS for a simple Hamiltonian to create a stratified sample of configurations which are then used calculate a warped DOS for more realistic Hamiltonians. This technique is validated for classical models of bcc Fe with exchange interactions of increasing range, but its real value is using the DOS for a model Hamiltonian calculated on a workstation to select the stratified set of configurations whose energies can then be calculated for a density-functional Hamiltonian. The result is an efficient first-principles calculation of thermodynamic properties such as the specific heat and magnetic susceptibility. Another technique uses the sample configurations to calculate the parameters of a model exchange interaction using a least-squares approach. The thermodynamic properties can be subsequently evaluated using traditional Monte Carlo techniques for the model exchange interaction. Finally, a technique that uses the configurations to train a neural network to estimate the configuration energy is also discussed. This technique could potentially be useful in identifying the configurations most important in calculating the warped DOS. VC2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3565413

Brown, Greg [ORNL; Rusanu, Aurelian [ORNL; Daene, Markus W [ORNL; Nicholson, Don M [ORNL; Eisenbach, Markus [ORNL; Fidler, Jane L [ORNL

2011-01-01

140

The Chinese Herbal Decoction Danggui Buxue Tang Inhibits Angiogenesis in a Rat Model of Liver Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

In this study, we investigated the anti-angiogenic effect of the Chinese herbal decoction Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT; Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae sinensis in 5?:?1 ratio) in a rat model of liver fibrosis, in order to elucidate its mechanisms of action against liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis was induced with CCl4 and high-fat food for 6 weeks, and the rats were treated with oral doses of DBT (6?g raw herbs/kg/d) and N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC; 0.1?g/kg/d). The results showed that both DBT and NAC attenuated liver fibrosis and neo-angiogenesis. Furthermore, DBT and NAC improved SOD activity but decreased MDA content and 8-OH-dG in fibrotic livers, with DBT being more effective than NAC. DBT decreased the expression of VEGF, Ang1 and TGF-?1 and their signaling mediators, whereas NAC had no effect on VEGF and VEGFR2 expression. Both DBT and NAC reduced HIF-1? gene and protein expression in fibrotic livers, with DBT being more effective. These data clearly demonstrate that the anti-fibrotic properties of DBT are related to its ability to inhibit angiogenesis and its anti-angiogenic mechanisms are associated with improving oxidative stress, regulating the expression and signaling of angiogenic factors, and especially modulating HIF-1? in fibrotic livers.

Lv, Jing; Zhao, Zhimin; Chen, Yuan; Wang, Qinglan; Tao, Yanyan; Yang, Li; Fan, Tai-Ping; Liu, Chenghai

2012-01-01

141

Neuroprotective and cognitive enhancing activity of the fermented Bozhougyiqi-Tang  

PubMed Central

Background: Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disease related to memory impairments and neuronal cell death. Bozhougyiqi-Tang (BZYQT), a traditional herbal medicine, has been therapeutically used for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluated the neuroprotective effect of the fermented BZYQT and compared with unfermented BZYQT in HT22 cells by MTT assay and tested the beneficial effect on memory impairments induced by scopolamine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) using the passive avoidance and Morris water maze tests. Results: Compared with unfermented BZYQT, the neuroprotective effect of fermented BZYQT on glutamate induced neurotoxicity in HT22 cells increased at a concentration of 100 ?g/mL. Fermented BZYQT increased the step-through latency of the passive avoidance response. Furthermore, in Morris water maze test for evaluation of spatial learning and memory, escape latency time was significantly reduced by fermented BZYQT. Conclusion: These results suggest that the fermentation process of BZYQT led to improve neuroprotective and cognitive enhancing effect.

Weon, Jin Bae; Lee, Bohyoung; Yun, Bo-Ra; Lee, Jiwoo; Ma, Jin Y; Ma, Choong Je

2014-01-01

142

Effects of Berberine and Hwangryunhaedok-Tang on Oral Bioavailability and Pharmacokinetics of Ciprofloxacin in Rats  

PubMed Central

Hwangryunhaedok-Tang (HR) and berberine-containing single herbs are used to treat bacterial infection and inflammatory diseases in eastern Asia. The combination of berberine-containing herbal medicines and ciprofloxacin can be an excellent antibacterial chemotherapy against multidrug resistance bacteria. To evaluate the pretreatment effect of berberine and HR, vehicle, berberine (25 and 50?mg/kg/day), and HR (1.4?g/kg/day) were daily administered to rats for five consecutive days. On day 6, ciprofloxacin was administered (10?mg/kg, i.v. and 20?mg/kg, p.o.) to rats. To assess cotreatment effect of berberine and ciprofloxacin, berberine (50?mg/kg) and ciprofloxacin (20?mg/kg) were coadministered by single oral gavage. Pharmacokinetic data were estimated by noncompartmental model. Compared with ciprofloxacin alone (control group), coadministration of berberine (50?mg/kg) and ciprofloxacin significantly decreased Cmax of ciprofloxacin (P < 0.05). In addition, the pretreatment of berberine (50?mg/kg/day) and HR (1.4?g/kg/day) significantly decreased Cmax and AUC0??, compared with control group (P < 0.05). The oral bioavailability of ciprofloxacin was reduced by cotreatment of berberine and pretreatment of berberine and HR. Our results suggest that the expression of P-glycoprotein and organic anion and/or organic cation transporters (OAT/OCT) could take a role in reduced oral bioavailability of ciprofloxacin by berberine and HR.

Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Cho, Won-Kyung; Jang, Doorye; Ha, Jeong-Ho; Jung, Kiyoun; Yun, Hyo-In; Ma, Jin Yeul

2012-01-01

143

Effects of Jin-Ying-Tang on Staphylococcus aureus-induced mastitis in rabbit.  

PubMed

The present study was performed to investigate the effects of Jin-Ying-Tang (JYT), a Chinese herbal formula containing Lonicera japonica, Herba taraxaci, Fructus trichosanthis, Fructus forsythia, Radix et rhizoma rhei, Astragalus membranaceus, Angelica sinensis, on rabbit mastitis induced by Staphylococcus aureus. Suckling rabbits were challenged with 1.5 × 10(7) colony forming unit (CFU) of S. aureus at the base of the third pair teats, and they were treated and pretreated with JYT to detect the formula effects. The results showed that JYT could reduce the occurrence of Staphylococcal mastitis in rabbit model. To further investigate the action mechanism of JYT, we examined the leukocyte counts and inflammatory mediator levels such as TNF-? and IL-6 in blood and infected tissue. From histological study and blood analysis, we found that JYT could suppress leukocyte infiltration in infected mammary gland tissue and significantly inhibit the total leukocyte counts and lymphocytes (LYM), monocytes (MON) and granulocytes (GRA) fractions of leukocyte counts in blood. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results showed JYT significantly decreased the TNF-? and IL-6 concentrations in serum and mammary gland. The analysis of these data suggested that JYT effectively inhibited inflammatory responses to reduce the occurrence of mastitis in rabbit model. PMID:22303901

Wang, L U; He, Chang-Liang; He, Bing-Kun; Guo, Qing; Xiao, Chun-Gang; Yi, Qiong

2012-10-01

144

The Effects of Maekmoondong-Tang on Cockroach Extract-Induced Allergic Asthma  

PubMed Central

Maekmoondong-tang (MMDT) has long been used in Asian countries to treat respiratory diseases. However, the precise mechanisms underlying its effects on asthma are unknown. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of MMDT in a cockroach allergen (CKA-)induced animal model of allergic asthma. After being challenged with CKA, the number of macrophages, eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and total cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was evaluated. The Th2 specific cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 were also analyzed in BALF along with IgE levels in serum. For histological analysis, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining, and immunohistochemical staining were performed. In addition, airway hyperresponsiveness was assessed by noninvasive plethysmography. The cellular profiles and histopathologic analysis demonstrated that peribronchial and perivascular inflammatory cell infiltrates were significantly decreased in the MMDT-treated groups compared with the cockroach extract-injected (CKA) groups. In addition, the IgE, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 levels were significantly decreased in the MMDT group. MMDT treatment also significantly attenuated airway hyperresponsiveness. These results demonstrated that MMDT significantly reduced the hallmark signs of asthma: elevated serum IgE, airway eosinophilia, airway remodeling, mucus hypersecretion, and airway hyperresponsiveness. The remarkable antiasthmatic effects of MMDT suggest its therapeutic potential in allergic asthma treatment.

Sohn, Sung-Hwa; Jung, Kyung-Hwa; Lee, Kun-young; Yeom, Yu Rim; Kim, Gae-Eun; Jung, Sungki; Jung, Heejae; Bae, Hyunsu

2014-01-01

145

Effects of Sheng Hua Tang on Uterine Involution and Ovarian Activity in Postpartum Dairy Cows  

PubMed Central

The effects of Sheng Hua Tang (SHT) on uterine involution and ovarian activity were investigated in postpartum dairy cows. SHT (70 g) was given to dairy cows (n = 10) to evaluate its effects for five days from the first postpartum day. Postpartum cows fed with a basal diet without SHT were used as the control group (n = 10). Ultrasounds and blood tests were recorded for four weeks from postpartum day seven with a 3-d interval. The results showed that the areas and diameters of endometria were significantly (p<0.01) reduced in the group that received SHT compared to the control group on the seventh postpartum day. The group that received SHT had an intrauterine fluid volume mean of 1.2±0.6 cm3, which was significantly lower than that of the control group, 2.3±0.8 cm3 (p<0.01) on the 13th postpartum day. In addition, the uterine tension score was a mean of 1.0±0.0 in the group that received SHT, which was also significantly lower than that of the control group, 1.5±0.5 (p<0.01) on the 19th postpartum day. Taken together, the Chinese herbal medicine remedy, SHT, promoted uterine involution and ovarian activity in postpartum dairy cows.

Lee, K. H.; Lee, Y. T.; Chen, T. C.; Yeh, C. C.; Chen, J. Y.; Liu, L. Y.; Chi, C. H.

2013-01-01

146

Novel pharmacokinetic studies of the Chinese formula Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang in MCAO rats.  

PubMed

Our previous studies showed that after oral administration of an Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT) decoction, there is a higher concentration of the pure components, berberine, baicalin and gardenoside in the plasma of Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats than in sham-operated rats, The aim of the present study was to determine whether these components could be reliably measured in MCAO rat tissues. First, the plasma concentration-time profiles of berberine, palmatine, baicalin, baicalein and gardenoside were characterised in MCAO rats after oral administration of the aqueous extract of HLJDT. Subsequently, liver, lung and kidney tissues were obtained from sudden death MCAO rats in the absorption phase (0.25 h), the distribution phase (1.0 h) and the elimination phase (8.0 h) after administration of the HLJDT aqueous extract. An HPLC method was developed and validated for the determination of the distribution characteristics of berberine, palmatine, baicalin, baicalein and gardenoside simultaneously from the above-mentioned rat tissues. The results indicated that berberine, palmatine, baicalin and baicalein distributed rapidly and accumulated at high levels in the lung, while gardenoside distributed widely in the lung and the kidney. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the distribution of the active ingredients derived from HLJDT in MCAO rat tissues. The tissue distribution results provide a biopharmaceutical basis for the design of the clinic application of HLJDT in cerebrovascular disease. PMID:23628154

Zhu, Huaxu; Qian, Zhilei; He, Feng; Liu, Mengzhu; Pan, Linmei; Zhang, Qichun; Tang, Yuping

2013-07-15

147

Understanding the polypharmacological anticancer effects of Xiao Chai Hu Tang via a computational pharmacological model  

PubMed Central

Xiao Chai Hu Tang (XCHT), a traditional herbal formula, is widely administered as a cancer treatment. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of its anticancer effects are not fully understood. In the present study, a computational pharmacological model that combined chemical space mapping, molecular docking and network analysis was employed to predict which chemical compounds in XCHT are potential inhibitors of cancer-associated targets, and to establish a compound-target (C-T) network and compound-compound (C-C) association network. The identified compounds from XCHT demonstrated diversity in chemical space. Furthermore, they occupied regions of chemical space that were the same, or close to, those occupied by drug or drug-like compounds that are associated with cancer, according to the Therapeutic Targets Database. The analysis of the molecular docking and the C-T network demonstrated that the potential inhibitors possessed the properties of promiscuous drugs and combination therapies. The C-C network was classified into four clusters and the different clusters contained various multi-compound combinations that acted on different targets. The study indicated that XCHT has a polypharmacological role in treating cancer and the potential inhibitory components of XCHT require further investigation as potential therapeutic strategies for cancer patients.

ZHENG, CHUN-SONG; WU, YIN-SHENG; BAO, HONG-JUAN; XU, XIAO-JIE; CHEN, XING-QIANG; YE, HONG-ZHI; WU, GUANG-WEN; XU, HUI-FENG; LI, XI-HAI; CHEN, JIA-SHOU; LIU, XIAN-XIANG

2014-01-01

148

Simultaneous determination of seven constituents in herbal prescription jaeumganghwa-tang using HPLC-PDA.  

PubMed

A simple and accurate high-performance liquid chromatographic method was applied to the quantitative analysis of seven components of the traditional herbal prescription Jaeumganghwa-tang (JGT), including 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, albiflorin, paeoniflorin, liquiritin, ferulic acid, nodakenin, and glycyrrhizin. All seven compounds were separated in less than 40 min on a Gemini C18 column at 40°C by gradient elution using 1.0% (v/v) aqueous acetic acid and acetonitrile containing 1.0% (v/v) acetic acid as mobile phase. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the detector was a photodiode array (PDA) set at 230 nm, 254 nm, 280 nm, and 330 nm. The calibration curves showed good linearity (r (2) > 0.9998) in different concentration ranges. The recovery of each component was in the range of 91.47-102.62%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs, %) less than 4.5%. The RSDs (%) for intra- and interday precision were 0.06-2.85% and 0.06-2.83%, respectively. The concentrations of the seven components in JGT were in the range 0.74-5.48 mg/g. PMID:24082332

Seo, Chang-Seob; Kim, Jung Hoon; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

2012-01-01

149

Simultaneous determination of multiple marker constituents in concentrated Gegen Tang granule by high performance liquid chromatography  

PubMed Central

Background Concentrated Gegen Tang (GT) granule is a widely available traditional Chinese medicinal product for the treatment of cold and flu. There was no reliable analytical method available for the quality assessment of GT granules. Methods An HPLC method with an Agilent Zorbax SB-Phenyl Stablebond column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 ?m) was developed and validated. The mobile phase gradient was a mixture of 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in acetonitrile (ACN) and 0.1% TFA in water. The detection with a diode-array detector was set at 207, 230, 250 and 275 nm. Seven components, namely puerarin, daidzein, paeoniflorin, cinnamic acid, glycyrrhizin, ephedrine and pseudoephedrine were selected as marker compounds for the evaluation. Results The regression equations revealed good linear relationships (correlation coefficients: 0.9994–0.9998) between the peak areas and concentrations. The recovery was between 98.8% and 101.7% with good precision and accuracy. The quality of GT granule from four different manufacturers was evaluated with this newly developed method. Samples from four manufacturers showed similar profiles but contents of the detected markers varied significantly among manufacturers and batches. Conclusion A new method using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been developed for simple and reliable quality control of commercial concentrated GT granules. Sensitivity was increased by multi-wavelength detection. The contents of selected marker components in GT granules varied significantly among manufacturers and batches, making it necessary to evaluate the quality of concentrated GT granules in the market.

Song, Jingzheng; Han, Quanbin; Qiao, Chunfeng; Yip, Yuekeung; Xu, Hongxi

2007-01-01

150

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Chinese Herbal Formula Sini Tang in Myocardial Infarction Rats  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory profiling of the Chinese herbal formula Sini Tang (SNT) in myocardial infarction (MI) rats. SNT, a decoction consisting of four herbs: Aconitum carmichaelii, Cinnamomum cassia, Zingiber officinale, and Glycyrrhiza uralensis, was characterized as a remedy to treat syndromes corresponding to heart failure and MI in China. Potential biomarkers, which reflect the extent of myocardial necrosis and correlate with cardiac outcomes following MI, such as atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1? (TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-1?) were determined in plasma, serum, and in myocardial tissue of MI rats after treatment with SNT. Our data indicate that SNT decreased significantly the levels of hs-CRP, TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-1? in MI rats. SNT decreased the expression of ANP levels in plasma and increased the vascular active marker nitric oxide, which limits vascular inflammation. In addition, SNT could decrease the expression of endothelin-1 levels in rat plasma post-MI. Our data suggest that the Chinese herbal formula SNT has the potential to improve cardiac function after MI. SNT may be a candidate for treating MI and its associated inflammatory responses.

Liu, Jiangang; Peter, Karoline; Shi, Dazhuo; Zhang, Lei; Dong, Guoju; Zhang, Dawu; Breiteneder, Heimo; Bauer, Rudolf; Ma, Yan

2014-01-01

151

Anti-inflammatory effects of the chinese herbal formula sini tang in myocardial infarction rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory profiling of the Chinese herbal formula Sini Tang (SNT) in myocardial infarction (MI) rats. SNT, a decoction consisting of four herbs: Aconitum carmichaelii, Cinnamomum cassia, Zingiber officinale, and Glycyrrhiza uralensis, was characterized as a remedy to treat syndromes corresponding to heart failure and MI in China. Potential biomarkers, which reflect the extent of myocardial necrosis and correlate with cardiac outcomes following MI, such as atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor- ? , interleukin-6, and interleukin-1 ? (TNF- ? , IL-6, and IL-1 ? ) were determined in plasma, serum, and in myocardial tissue of MI rats after treatment with SNT. Our data indicate that SNT decreased significantly the levels of hs-CRP, TNF- ? , IL-6, and IL-1 ? in MI rats. SNT decreased the expression of ANP levels in plasma and increased the vascular active marker nitric oxide, which limits vascular inflammation. In addition, SNT could decrease the expression of endothelin-1 levels in rat plasma post-MI. Our data suggest that the Chinese herbal formula SNT has the potential to improve cardiac function after MI. SNT may be a candidate for treating MI and its associated inflammatory responses. PMID:24723959

Liu, Jiangang; Peter, Karoline; Shi, Dazhuo; Zhang, Lei; Dong, Guoju; Zhang, Dawu; Breiteneder, Heimo; Bauer, Rudolf; Jakowitsch, Johannes; Ma, Yan

2014-01-01

152

Is Duhuo Jisheng Tang containing Xixin safe? A four-week safety study  

PubMed Central

Background Though the nephrotoxicity and carcinogenicity of aristolochic acid (AA) are known, its safety in clinical usage is not clear. This study aims to evaluate the safety of Duhuo Jisheng Tang (DJT) in a four-week study to treat osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Methods A qualitative and quantitative investigations on DJT were conducted. A list of adverse events (AEs), complete blood counts, and liver and kidney function tests were measured for participants with knee OA at their scheduled hospital visits. Each detected AEs was independently assessed for severity and causality by site investigators (Chinese medical doctors) and study nurses. Results A total of 71 eligible subjects were included in the clinical study where 287 AEs were reported. DJT did not contain detectable aristolochic acid (AA) under thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). There were no significant changes in liver or kidney functions. Conclusion In four-week use of DJT, no renal tubular damage, no severe incidences of AEs and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were observed. The present study obtained safety data from active surveillance of DJT.

2010-01-01

153

DNA adducts as biomarkers for assessing exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tissues from Xuan Wei women with high exposure to coal combustion emissions and high lung cancer mortality.  

PubMed Central

The high lung cancer rate in Xuan Wei, China, is associated with smoky coal use in unvented homes, but not with wood or smokeless coal use. Smoky coal combustion emits higher polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations than wood combustion. This study used DNA adducts as biomarkers for human exposure to PAH from combustion emissions. DNA adducts were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in placentas and peripheral and cord white blood cells (WBC) from Xuan Wei women burning smoky coal or wood and from Beijing women using natural gas. Color ELISA gave positive results in 58, 47, and 5% of the placentas from Xuan Wei women burning smoky coal without and with chimneys, and from Beijing women, respectively. Fluorescence ELISA indicated that 46, 65, 56, and 25% of placentas were positive from Xuan Wei women who lived in houses without and with chimneys, Xuan Wei women burning wood, and Beijing controls, respectively. Peripheral WBC samples were positive in 7/9, 8/9, and 3/9 for the Xuan Wei women who lived in houses without and with chimneys and Beijing women, respectively. PAH-DNA adducts were detected in a higher percentage of placentas from Xuan Wei women living in houses exposed to smoky coal or wood emissions than from those of the Beijing controls. No dose-response relationship was observed between the air benzo[alpha]pyrene concentrations and DNA adduct levels or percentage of detectable samples. The results suggest that DNA adducts can be used as a qualitative biomarker to assess human exposure to combustion emissions.

Mumford, J L; Lee, X; Lewtas, J; Young, T L; Santella, R M

1993-01-01

154

Protective effect of Zhen-Wu-Tang ( ZWT) through keeping DA stable and VMAT 2\\/DAT mRNA in balance in rats with striatal lesions induced by MPTP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnopharmacological relevanceZhen-Wu-Tang (ZWT), the modified formulation of a classical Chinese prescription from “Treaties on Febrile Disease”, was clinically employed to treat Parkinson's disease.

Xiu-Min Li; Chang-Liang Xu; Ji-Min Deng; Lu-Fan Li; Shi-Ping Ma; Rong Qu

2011-01-01

155

Numerical solutions of Wang's stretching/shrinking sheet problem for nanofluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The steady stagnation-point flow of a viscous and incompressible fluid over a continuously stretching or shrinking sheet in its own plane in a water-based copper (Cu) nanofluid is studied theoretically. The formulation of the present problem in a nanofluid follows that of Wang's stretching/shrinking sheet problem in a viscous fluid. The nonlinear partial differential equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations via the similarity transformation. The transformed boundary layer equations are solved numerically using the shooting method. The numerical solutions are obtained and discussed for the skin friction coefficient and the velocity profiles for various values of the governing parameters, namely the nanoparticle volume fraction and stretching/shrinking parameters. It is found that dual solutions exist for the shrinking sheet case.

Ali, Fadzilah Md; Nazar, Roslinda; Arifin, Norihan Md; Pop, Ioan

2013-09-01

156

Collapse transitions in a flexible homopolymer chain: Application of the Wang-Landau algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermodynamic behavior of a continuous homopolymer is described using the Wang-Landau algorithm for chain lengths up to N=561 . The coil-globule and liquid-solid transitions are analyzed in detail with traditional thermodynamic and structural quantities. The behavior of the coil-globule transition is well within theoretical and computational predictions for all chain lengths, while the behavior of the liquid-solid transition is much more susceptible to finite-size effects. Certain “magic number” lengths (N=13,55,147,309,561) , whose minimal energy states offer unique icosahedral geometries, are discussed along with chains residing between these special cases. The low temperature behavior near the liquid-solid transition is rich in structural transformations for certain chain lengths, showing many similarities to the behavior of classical clusters with similar interaction potentials. General comments are made on this size dependent behavior and how it affects transition behavior in this model.

Seaton, D. T.; Wüst, T.; Landau, D. P.

2010-01-01

157

Cytochrome P450-mediated herb-drug interaction potential of Galgeun-tang.  

PubMed

We evaluated the herb-drug interaction potential of Galgeun-tang (GGT) extracts, mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition/induction. Further, the effects of fermentation on the CYP-mediated herb-drug interaction potential of GGT extracts were determined. As measured by LC-ESI/MS/MS, GGT extracts (0-300?g/mL) showed no inhibitory activity toward eight CYP isoforms (1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4) in pooled human liver microsomes, suggesting that GGT may have low potential for herb-drug interactions mediated by CYP inhibition. Hepatic CYP expression and activity in rats treated with GGT extracts twice per day for 1week was examined. Among the tested CYP isoforms (1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2B1, 2C11, 2E1, 3A1, 3A2, and 4A1), CYP1B1 and 4A1 were increased by GGT extracts. Hepatic activities of 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, 7-pentoxyresorufin-O-depentylase, and chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylase, but not midazolam hydroxylase were also elevated. These results raise the possibility that GGT extracts may increase the toxicity of environmental toxicants through the elevating CYP-dependent metabolic activation. Interestingly, the increases in CYP1B1 and CYP4A1 levels, and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, 7-pentoxyresorufin-O-depentylase, and chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylase activities were attenuated by fermentation of GGT extract using Lactobacillus plantarum KFRI 402, but not 144. Further studies are needed to identify the CYP regulatory component(s) from GGT and determination its metabolism. PMID:23104244

Lee, Sang Yoon; Lee, Ji-Yoon; Kang, Wonku; Kwon, Kwang-Il; Park, Song-Kyu; Oh, Soo Jin; Ma, Jin Yeul; Kim, Sang Kyum

2013-01-01

158

Absence of drug interaction between Hwang-Ryun-Hae-Dok-Tang and phenolsulfonphthalein.  

PubMed

Hwang-Ryun-Hae-Dok-Tang (HT; a standardized herbal formula consisting of extracts from Coptidis Rhizoma, Scutellariae Radix, Phellodendri Cortex, and Gardeniae Fructus) was reported to modulate a function of multidrug resistance associated protein 2 (Mrp2) in vitro. The aim of this study was to assess the in vivo pharmacokinetic interactions between HT and phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP), a typical model Mrp2 substrate eliminated via bile through Mrp2 in rats. Rats received intravenous PSP (0.8 mg/kg) followed by either a single oral dose of HT (0.42 g/kg) or multiple oral doses of HT (0.42 g/kg for 7 days). The effect of HT treatment was also investigated at a steady-state after intravenous PSP infusion. In contrast to previous in vitro results, in this study, we found that the HT-treated and control groups did not show any significant difference in the plasma PSP concentration and pharmacokinetic parameters, including area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC; control: 118 ± 19, single dose: 116 ± 40, and multiple dose: 137 ± 4, in mg/(min·mL)) and biliary clearance (control: 3.15 ± 0.69, single dose: 2.59 ± 1.11, and multiple dose: 2.53 ± 0.65, in mL/(min·kg)). However, cyclosporine A (5 mg/kg, an inhibitor of Mrp2) significantly decreased the AUC and biliary clearance of PSP. The steady-state plasma concentration and biliary clearance of PSP-were also similar between the groups. Taken together, our results suggest that HT may not be affected by Mrp2-mediated herb-drug interaction in vivo. PMID:21191769

Yi, Hong Jae; Oh, Ju-Hee; Lee, Young-Joo

2010-12-01

159

Non-clinical safety assessment of Hwangryunhaedok-tang: 13-week toxicity in Crl:CD Sprague Dawley rats.  

PubMed

Hwangryunhaedok-tang (Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang in Chinese, Oren-gedoku-to in Japanese) is a traditional herbal medicine with a long history of use for anti-inflammatory purposes. In this study, subchronic toxicity of daily oral administration of a Hwangryunhaedok-tang water extract (HHT) at 0, 250, 750, and 2000mg/kg for 13weeks was examined in rats. Mortality, clinical signs, and changes in body weight, food consumption, clinical signs, ophthalmological examination, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross observation, organ weight, and histopathology were monitored in accordance with Good Laboratory Practice and OECD guidelines. We found no mortality or abnormality in clinical signs, body weight, serum biochemistry, or organ weight in HHT-treated groups in either sex. However, there were significant changes in glucose, bilirubin, urobilinogen, protein (only male) in urine after 2000mg/kg/day HHT treatment for both sexes. In hematological examinations, we found a significant decreased number of red blood cells (RBC), whereas, an increased the mean corpuscular volume, number of platelets, and rate of reticulocyte (RET) after 2000mg/kg/day HHT treatment of male rats. In male and female rats, 750 and 2000mg/kg/day HHT treatment decreased the number of RBC and increased RET. Histopathological examinations revealed stomach mucosal erosion in female rats (2000mg/kg/day). No-observed-adverse-effect levels were established for 750mg/kg HHT in rats under the conditions of this study. However, other toxicological studies are necessary to evaluate the safety of HHT fully. PMID:24480795

Lee, Mee-Young; Seo, Chang-Seob; Kim, Young-Bum; Shin, In-Sik; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

2014-04-01

160

Banhabaekchulchunma-tang, a traditional herbal formula attenuates absolute ethanol-induced gastric injury by enhancing the antioxidant status  

PubMed Central

Background Banhabaekchulchunma-tang (hange-byakujutsu-tenma-to in Japanese and banxia-baizhu-tianma-tang in Chinese) is a mixture of fourteen herbs. It is used traditionally for the treatment of anemia, anorexia, general weakness, and female infertility in China, Japan, and Korea. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of a Banhabaekchulchunma-tang water extract (BCT) against ethanol-induced acute gastric injury in rats. Methods Gastric injury was induced by intragastric administration of 5 mL/kg body weight of absolute ethanol to each rat. The positive control group and the BCT group were given oral doses of omeprazole (50 mg/kg) or BCT (400 mg/kg), respectively, 2 h prior to the administration of absolute ethanol. The stomach of each animal was excised and examined for gastric mucosal lesions. To confirm the protective effects of BCT, we evaluated the degree of lipid peroxidation, the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in the stomach. In addition, we conducted an acute toxicity study to evaluate the safety of BCT according to OECD guideline. Results BCT reduced ethanol-induced hemorrhage, hyperemia, and loss of epithelial cell in the gastric mucosa. BCT reduced the increased lipid peroxidation associated with ethanol-induced acute gastric lesions, and increased the mucosal GSH content and the activities of antioxidant enzymes. In addition, BCT did not cause any adverse effects at up to 5000 mg/kg. Conclusions These results indicate that BCT protects the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced gastric injury by increasing the antioxidant status. We suggest that BCT could be developed as an effective drug for the treatment of gastric injury caused by alcohol intake.

2013-01-01

161

Effects of age, size, and density on natural survival for an important coral reef fishery species, yellow tang, Zebrasoma flavescens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hundreds of thousands of juvenile yellow tang, Zebrasoma flavescens, are caught each year in the state of Hawai’i (USA) for the live aquarium trade. As part of an extensive adaptive management strategy built around a network of protected areas, an emphasis was placed on understanding this important species’ life history. Multiple capture-mark-recapture techniques and a model selection approach to data analysis in Program MARK were used to estimate the effects of individual age and conspecific density on natural per-capita daily survival probabilities of yellow tang recruits (recently settled individuals, 30-50 mm total length) and the effects of body size and site on natural per-capita monthly survival probabilities for juveniles (58-127 mm total length). The models of recruit survival that included additive effects of density and age were best supported by the data and indicated an increase of survival with age and decrease of survival with increased conspecific density. At 1 day post-settlement, the model averaged daily per-capita survival probability ranged from 0.963 (95% CI: 0.932-0.981) at a low density of 0.1 recruits m-2 to 0.848 (95% CI: 0.752-0.911) at a high density of 1.3 recruits m-2. The best supported model of juvenile survival had no effect of fish length or site, with a constant monthly per-capita survival of 0.939 (95% CI: 0.925-0.950). Only about 1% of recruits may survive to adulthood when protected from fishing. These results can be used to better analyze and interpret data from protected area monitoring surveys and refine management practices. Continued long-term monitoring, combined with targeted life history studies and demographic modeling, is needed to further investigate the population level effects of fishing yellow tang juveniles.

Claisse, J. T.; McTee, S. A.; Parrish, J. D.

2009-03-01

162

Micro-Raman analysis of the pigments on painted pottery figurines from two tombs of the Northern Wei Dynasty in Luoyang.  

PubMed

The pigments on the painted pottery figurines from two tombs of Northern Wei Dynasty (AD 386-534) in Luoyang were analyzed by Raman microscopy. All the pigments were identified compared with the Raman spectra of standard pigments. The red pigments were identified as haematite, the blue pigment as lapis lazuli, the green pigment as malachite, the black pigment as carbon black and the white pigment as calcite. Similar pigments were used in the two tombs despite the pottery figurines were very different in artistic style. The use of lapis lazuli as blue pigment on Chinese painted pottery figurines was found for the first time. This pigment and the painted pottery figurine of Sogdians are of great archaeological significance because it demonstrated that the trade and cultural exchanges via the Silk Road had extended to Luoyang city in the Northern Wei Dynasty. The result also confirms that micro-Raman spectroscopy is a powerful analytical method for the identification of pigments on ancient artworks. PMID:23501716

Liu, Zhaojun; Han, Yunxia; Han, Ligang; Cheng, Yongjian; Ma, Yiqiang; Fang, Li

2013-05-15

163

Micro-Raman analysis of the pigments on painted pottery figurines from two tombs of the Northern Wei Dynasty in Luoyang  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pigments on the painted pottery figurines from two tombs of Northern Wei Dynasty (AD 386-534) in Luoyang were analyzed by Raman microscopy. All the pigments were identified compared with the Raman spectra of standard pigments. The red pigments were identified as haematite, the blue pigment as lapis lazuli, the green pigment as malachite, the black pigment as carbon black and the white pigment as calcite. Similar pigments were used in the two tombs despite the pottery figurines were very different in artistic style. The use of lapis lazuli as blue pigment on Chinese painted pottery figurines was found for the first time. This pigment and the painted pottery figurine of Sogdians are of great archaeological significance because it demonstrated that the trade and cultural exchanges via the Silk Road had extended to Luoyang city in the Northern Wei Dynasty. The result also confirms that micro-Raman spectroscopy is a powerful analytical method for the identification of pigments on ancient artworks.

Liu, Zhaojun; Han, Yunxia; Han, Ligang; Cheng, Yongjian; Ma, Yiqiang; Fang, Li

2013-05-01

164

Victimization in Korean Schools: The Nature, Incidence, and Distinctive Features of Korean Bullying or "Wang-Ta"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School bullying in South Korea may take different forms from bullying in western societies, and there is little data on its nature and extent nationally. We report results from a nationwide survey on the Korean form of bullying, "wang-ta". Two pilot studies were carried out, to adapt a western-based questionnaire for use in Korea. With the revised…

Koo, Hyojin; Kwak, Keumjoo; Smith, Peter K.

2008-01-01

165

Why Three Heads Are a Better Bet than Four: A Reply to Sun, Tweney, and Wang (2010)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We (Hahn & Warren, 2009) recently proposed a new account of the systematic errors and biases that appear to be present in people's perception of randomly generated events. In a comment on that article, Sun, Tweney, and Wang (2010) critiqued our treatment of the gambler's fallacy. We had argued that this fallacy was less gross an error than it…

Hahn, Ulrike; Warren, Paul A.

2010-01-01

166

A new species and new records of the leafhopper genus Taperus Li & Wang, 1994 (Hemiptera,Cicadellidae, Evacanthinae) from China  

PubMed Central

Abstract The paper deals with the species of the Oriental leafhopper genus Taperus Li & Wang. A new species, Taperus daozhenensis sp. n., from Guizhou Province, China is described and new records for other Chinese species are given together with a key for their separation. The type specimens of the new species are deposited in the Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University (GUGC).

Li, Yu-jian; Li, Zi-zhong

2011-01-01

167

Simultaneous quantification and inhibitory effect on LDL oxidation of the traditional Korean medicine, Leejung-tang  

PubMed Central

Background Leejung-tang (LJT) is a traditional Korean herbal medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. In this study, we performed quantification analysis of five marker components, liquiritin (1), ginsenoside Rg1 (2), ginsenoside Rb1 (3), glycyrrhizin (4), and 6-gingerol (5) in LJT using a high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (HPLC–PDA). In addition, we investigated the inhibitory effect on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation by the LJT sample. Methods Compounds 1–5 were separated within 35 min using a Gemini C18 column. The mobile phase used gradient elution with 1.0% (v/v) aqueous acetic acid (A) and 1.0% (v/v) acetic acid in acetonitrile (B). The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the detector was a photodiode array (PDA) set at 203 nm, 254 nm, and 280 nm. The inhibitory effect on LDL oxidation conduct an experiment on thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) assay, relative electrophoretic mobility (REM) assay, and electrophoresis of ApoB fragmentation of LJT. Results Calibration curves of compounds 1–5 showed good linearity (r2 ?0.9995) in different concentration ranges. The recoveries of compounds 1–5 were in the range of 98.90–103.39%, with relative standard deviations (RSD) below 3.0%. The RSDs (%) of intra-day and inter-day precision were 0.10–1.08% and 0.29–1.87%, respectively. The inhibitory effect of LJT on Cu2+-induced LDL oxidation was defined by TBARS assay (IC50: 165.7 ?g/mL) and REM of oxLDL (decrease of 50% at 127.7 ?g/mL). Furthermore LJT reduced the fragmentation of ApoB of oxLDL in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions The established HPLC-PDA method will be helpful to improve quality control of LJT. In addition, LJT is a potential LDL oxidation inhibitor.

2014-01-01

168

Duhuo Jisheng Tang for treating osteoarthritis of the knee: a prospective clinical observation  

PubMed Central

Background Little scientific evidence supports the efficacy of herbal medicines in the treatment of degenerative arthritis of the knee. The purpose of this study is to evaluate both the efficacy and safety of a finished Chinese herbal preparation Duhuo Jisheng Tang (DJT) in reducing symptoms of degenerative osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods A prospective follow-up study was carried out in two hospitals in Taipei between April and October 2005. Sixty-eight osteoarthritis patients, with symptoms diagnosed by radiologists, received DJT at a rate of 2.5 g, twice daily for four weeks. Baseline scores were measured on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) index, followed by further measures at the end of weeks 1, 2 and 4. The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) assessment was undertaken as a secondary outcome, with pattern identification questionnaires being adopted. Regression models were constructed to explore the score differences between the baseline and at weeks 2 and 4 by various determinants including age, gender, body mass index (BMI), severity at baseline, use of rescue medication, aversion to cold and flaccidity of the lower back and knees. Results Among the 68 participants, there were statistically significant reductions in the WOMAC index scores for pain, stiffness and physical functioning in the second and fourth weeks, with effects first appearing during week 2. By week 4, the mean WOMAC index scores had fallen from 22.2 (± 19.2) to 16.1 (± 16.2) for pain, from 28.1 (± 24.9) to 18.5 (± 20.3) for stiffness, and from 22.6 (± 18.0) to 18.2 (± 17.8) for physical functioning, while the global score for pain under the visual analogue scale (VAS) was reduced from 38.7 (± 21.5) to 27.8 (± 19.8). Conclusion In the treatment of degenerative osteoarthritis of the knee, a 4-week therapy with the Chinese herbal preparation DJT reduced pain and stiffness and improved physical functioning, but it was less effective in treating flaccidity and aversion to cold.

Lai, Jung-Nien; Chen, Huey-Jeng; Chen, Chao-Chung; Lin, Jer-Huei; Hwang, Jing-Shiang; Wang, Jung-Der

2007-01-01

169

Chemical and biological assessment of angelica roots from different cultivated regions in a chinese herbal decoction danggui buxue tang.  

PubMed

Roots of Angelica sinensis (Danggui) have been used in promoting blood circulation as herbal medicine for over 2000 years in China. Another species of Angelica roots called A. gigas is being used in Korea. To reveal the efficiency of different Angelica roots, the chemical and biological properties of Angelica roots from different cultivated regions were compared. Roots of A. sinensis contained higher levels of ferulic acid, Z-ligustilide, and senkyunolide A, while high amounts of butylphthalide and Z-butylenephthalide were found in A. gigas roots. The extracts deriving from A. gigas roots showed better effects in osteogenic and estrogenic properties than that of A. sinensis from China. However, this difference was markedly reduced when the Angelica roots were being prepared in a Chinese herbal decoction together with Astragali Radix as Danggui Buxue Tang. In contrast, the herbal decoction prepared from A. sinensis roots showed better responses in cell cultures. In addition, the extracts of A. gigas roots showed strong cell toxicity both as single herb and as Danggui Buxue Tang. This result revealed the distinct properties of Angelica roots from China and Korea suggesting the specific usage of herb in preparing a unique herbal decoction. PMID:23476692

Zhang, Wendy L; Zheng, Ken Y Z; Zhu, Kevin Y; Zhan, Janis Y X; Bi, Cathy W C; Chen, J P; Dong, Tina T X; Choi, Roy C Y; Lau, David T W; Tsim, Karl W K

2013-01-01

170

Chemical and Biological Assessment of Angelica Roots from Different Cultivated Regions in a Chinese Herbal Decoction Danggui Buxue Tang  

PubMed Central

Roots of Angelica sinensis (Danggui) have been used in promoting blood circulation as herbal medicine for over 2000 years in China. Another species of Angelica roots called A. gigas is being used in Korea. To reveal the efficiency of different Angelica roots, the chemical and biological properties of Angelica roots from different cultivated regions were compared. Roots of A. sinensis contained higher levels of ferulic acid, Z-ligustilide, and senkyunolide A, while high amounts of butylphthalide and Z-butylenephthalide were found in A. gigas roots. The extracts deriving from A. gigas roots showed better effects in osteogenic and estrogenic properties than that of A. sinensis from China. However, this difference was markedly reduced when the Angelica roots were being prepared in a Chinese herbal decoction together with Astragali Radix as Danggui Buxue Tang. In contrast, the herbal decoction prepared from A. sinensis roots showed better responses in cell cultures. In addition, the extracts of A. gigas roots showed strong cell toxicity both as single herb and as Danggui Buxue Tang. This result revealed the distinct properties of Angelica roots from China and Korea suggesting the specific usage of herb in preparing a unique herbal decoction.

Zhang, Wendy L.; Zheng, Ken Y. Z.; Zhu, Kevin Y.; Zhan, Janis Y. X.; Bi, Cathy W. C.; Chen, J. P.; Dong, Tina T. X.; Choi, Roy C. Y.; Lau, David T. W.; Tsim, Karl W. K.

2013-01-01

171

Safety assessment of So?cheong?ryong?tang: Subchronic toxicity study in Crl:CD Sprague Dawley rats.  

PubMed

So?cheong?ryong?tang, an oriental herbal formula, is used in Korea for treating pulmonary disorders, including asthma, bronchitis and allergic diseases. The objective of the present study was to investigate the potential adverse effects, if any, of subchronic administration of So?cheong?ryong?tang aqueous extract (SCRT) in male and female rats. In the present study, 0, 1,000, 2,000 and 5,000 mg/kg/day of SCRT was administered to Crl:CD Sprague Dawley rats (10/gender/group) for 13 weeks via oral gavage. Administration of the SCRT did not result in any mortality. There were no clinical or ophthalmological signs, changes in urinalysis, body weight, food consumption, gross findings, hematology, serum biochemistry, organ weight or histopathology attributable to the administration of SCRT. Any alterations noted were incidental and consistent with those historically observed in the age and strain of rats used in the present study. Based on the results of the present study, the no observed adverse effect level for SCRT under the present experimental conditions was determined to be 5,000 mg/kg/day, the highest dose assessed, for both genders. PMID:24700072

Lee, Mee-Young; Seo, Chang-Seob; Cha, Shin-Woo; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

2014-06-01

172

Validation of Community Models: 2. Development of a Baseline, Using the Wang-Sheeley-Arge Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper is the second in a series providing independent validation of community models of the outer corona and inner heliosphere. Here I present a comprehensive validation of the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) model. These results will serve as a baseline against which to compare the next generation of comparable forecasting models. The WSA model is used by a number of agencies to predict Solar wind conditions at Earth up to 4 days into the future. Given its importance to both the research and forecasting communities, it is essential that its performance be measured systematically and independently. I offer just such an independent and systematic validation. I report skill scores for the model's predictions of wind speed and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) polarity for a large set of Carrington rotations. The model was run in all its routinely used configurations. It ingests synoptic line of sight magnetograms. For this study I generated model results for monthly magnetograms from multiple observatories, spanning the Carrington rotation range from 1650 to 2074. I compare the influence of the different magnetogram sources and performance at quiet and active times. I also consider the ability of the WSA model to forecast both sharp transitions in wind speed from slow to fast wind and reversals in the polarity of the radial component of the IMF. These results will serve as a baseline against which to compare future versions of the model as well as the current and future generation of magnetohydrodynamic models under development for forecasting use.

MacNeice, Peter

2009-01-01

173

Enhanced von Weizsäcker Wang-Govind-Carter kinetic energy density functional for semiconductors.  

PubMed

We propose a new form of orbital-free (OF) kinetic energy density functional (KEDF) for semiconductors that is based on the Wang-Govind-Carter (WGC99) nonlocal KEDF. We enhance within the latter the semi-local von Weizsäcker KEDF term, which is exact for a single orbital. The enhancement factor we introduce is related to the extent to which the electron density is localized. The accuracy of the new KEDF is benchmarked against Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KSDFT) by comparing predicted energy differences between phases, equilibrium volumes, and bulk moduli for various semiconductors, along with metal-insulator phase transition pressures. We also compare point defect and (100) surface energies in silicon for a broad test of its applicability. This new KEDF accurately reproduces the exact non-interacting kinetic energy of KSDFT with only one additional adjustable parameter beyond the three parameters in the WGC99 KEDF; it exhibits good transferability between semiconducting to metallic silicon phases and between various III-V semiconductors without parameter adjustment. Overall, this KEDF is more accurate than previously proposed OF KEDFs (e.g., the Huang-Carter (HC) KEDF) for semiconductors, while the computational efficiency remains at the level of the WGC99 KEDF (several hundred times faster than the HC KEDF). This accurate, fast, and transferable new KEDF holds considerable promise for large-scale OFDFT simulations of metallic through semiconducting materials. PMID:24832339

Shin, Ilgyou; Carter, Emily A

2014-05-14

174

Thermodynamics and structural properties of a confined HP protein determined by Wang-Landau simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding protein folding confined by surfaces is important for both biological sciences and the development of nanomaterials. In this work, we study the properties of a confined HP model protein by three different types of surfaces, namely, surfaces that attract: (a) all monomers; (b) only P monomers; and (c) only H monomers. The thermodynamic and structural quantities, such as the specific heat, number of surface contacts, and number of hydrophobic pairs, are obtained by using Wang-Landau sampling. The conformational "transitions", specifically, the debridging process and hydrophobic core formation, can be identified based on an analysis of these quantities. We found that these transitions take place at different temperatures, and the ground state configurations show variations in structural properties when different surface type is used. These scenarios are confirmed by snapshots of typical states of the systems. From our study, we conclude that the thermodynamics of these transitions and the structural changes depend on the combined actions of both the composition of the H monomers and the P monomers in the HP chain and the surface types.

Pattanasiri, Busara; Li, Ying Wai; Landau, David P.; Wüst, Thomas; Triampo, Wannapong

2013-08-01

175

Wang-Landau sampling of the interplay between surface adsorption and folding of HP lattice proteins  

SciTech Connect

Generic features associated with the adsorption of proteins on solid surfaces are reviewed within the framework of the hydrophobic-polar (HP) lattice protein model. The thermodynamic behavior and structural properties of various HP protein sequences interacting with attractive surfaces have been studied using extensive Wang-Landau sampling with different types of surfaces, each of which attracts either: all monomers, only hydrophobic (H) monomers, or only polar (P) monomers, respectively. Consequently, different types of folding behavior occur for varied surface strengths. Analysis of the combined patterns of various structural observables, e.g., the derivatives of the numbers of interaction contacts, together with the specific heat, leads to the identification of fundamental categories of folding and transition hierarchies. We also inferred a connection between the transition categories and the relative surface strengths, i.e., the ratios of the surface attractive strengths to the intra-chain attraction among H monomers. We thus believe that the folding hierarchies and identification scheme are generic for different HP sequences interacting with attractive surfaces, regardless of the chain length, sequence, or surface attraction.

Li, Ying Wai [ORNL] [ORNL; Wuest, Thomas [Swiss Federal Research Institute, Switzerland] [Swiss Federal Research Institute, Switzerland; Landau, David P [University of Georgia, Athens, GA] [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

2014-01-01

176

[Dr. Wang's tube--study of a new technique for eliminating pathogens in sperm preparation for reproductive medicine].  

PubMed

A total of 30 ejaculates has been tested for ejaculate volume, spermatozoal concentration, motility, agglomeration, agglutination and contamination by microorganisms. After that the ejaculate has been washed twice and transferred in the Dr. Wangs Tube which was filled with medium before. After an incubation time of 90 minutes very quickly moving spermatozoan could be observed through the microscope in the upper part (C-D) of the Tube. After the Tube was cut by means of a special glasscutter the motility of the containing spermatozoans of part C-D has been determined again, followed by a second bacteriological examination of the so prepared ejaculate. The results of sperm preparation with the Dr. Wangs Tube regarding the sperm motility has been very good (85.7% of the sperm samples showed a motility rate of 90% or even more after treatment). The bacteriological examination has been satisfactory: in 77.7% of the cases all existing sperm bacterias has been eliminated by preparation in the Dr. Wangs Tube. Among other microorganisms Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus aureus which are considered to be pathologic could be isolated from five of the ejaculates and have been removed after treatment with the Dr. Wangs Tube. The handling of the Tube was rather demanding and Technically problematic. There has been caused glass-splinters by cutting the Tube which got visible while observing the ejaculate-medium-liquid through the microscope. Their sizes were nearly equivalent to the size of a sperms head or even bigger. If the so prepared ejaculate would be used for insemination and in-vitro fertilisation the very small splinters may destroy the success of the treatment and should be avoided or removed. The Dr. Wangs Tube offers a new modified swim-up technique for sperm preparation and is able to produce a high quality, nearly sterile sperm sample. Because of the technical deficiency of the system, the high purchase and running costs and the very small output (sperm sample volume, number of spermatozoans) the Dr. Wangs Tube is not be recommended for the reproductive medicine in its present shape. PMID:7941810

Riedel, H H; Sander, K; Lütticken, R

1994-01-01

177

Simultaneous determination of 12 chemical constituents in the traditional Chinese Medicinal Prescription Xiao-Yao-San-Jia-Wei by HPLC coupled with photodiode array detection.  

PubMed

An HPLC-photodiode array (PDA) detection method was established for the simultaneous determination of 12 components in Xiao-Yao-San-Jia-Wei (XYSJW): geniposide, puerarin, paeoniflorin, ferulic acid, liquiritin, hesperidin, naringin, paeonol, daidzein, glycyrrhizic acid, honokiol, and magnolol. These were separated in less than 70 min using a Waters Symmetry Shield RP 18 column with gradient elution using (A) acetonitrile, (B) water, and (C) acetic acid at a flow rate of 1 ml/min, and with a PDA detector. All calibration curves showed good linear regression (r(2)>0.9992) within the test ranges. The method was validated for specificity, accuracy, precision, and limits of detection. The proposed method enables in a single run the simultaneous identification and determination for quality control of 12 multi-structural components of XYSJW forming the basis of its therapeutic effect. PMID:18977108

Zhang, Hongmin; Chen, Shiwei; Qin, Feng; Huang, Xi; Ren, Ping; Gu, Xinqi

2008-12-15

178

Characterization and quantification of eight water-soluble constituents in tubers of Pinellia ternata and in tea granules from the Chinese multiherb remedy Xiaochaihu-tang.  

PubMed

In traditional Chinese medicine, multiple herbs are usually used in combination to generate the joint actions of a multiherb remedy. The recent development of LC-hyphenated techniques enables efficient and rapid profiling of the chemical constituent in extracts from multiherb remedies. Xiaochaihu-tang is a seven-herb remedy that has attracted a great deal of attention for reported ability to treat liver dysfunction. Dried tubers of Pinellia ternata (banxia in Chinese) is one of the ingredients, but its chemical contribution to Xiaochaihu-tang remains poorly understood. In the study presented here, LC-UV-MS, LC-MS-MS, and LC-NMR were used in a complementary manner to determine the nature and content of eight water-soluble constituents of banxia and their presence in various tea granules from Xiaochaihu-tang. Among the eight chemicals identified in banxia, cytidine, adenosine, tryptophan, uridine, and adenine are reported for the first time, while tyrosine, guanosine, and phenylalanine were previously described. These chemicals are also present in all of the samples of Xiaochaihu-tang granules, and the amounts of the chemicals ingested due to a daily dose of the multiherb remedies range from 0.008 to 6.3mg. PMID:16784905

Chen, Ping; Li, Chuan; Liang, Shipiao; Song, Guoqiang; Sun, Yan; Shi, Yanhong; Xu, Songlin; Zhang, Jiwen; Sheng, Shuqun; Yang, Yiming; Li, Min

2006-11-01

179

Numerical and experimental flow analysis of the Wang-Zwische double-lumen cannula.  

PubMed

An experimental and numerical analysis was performed for the Wang-Zwische double-lumen cannula (DLC) (Avalon Elite). The aim of this work was to provide insight for future improvement by characterizing the fluid dynamic behavior of the novel catheter with metrics often associated with blood trauma. Pressure and flow distributions were measured on a steady-flow rig using a 50% glycerol-water mixture by imposing a 2 L/min flow rate across the drainage and infusion lumens. The fluid was modeled as Newtonian with density of 1050 kg/m³ and dynamic viscosity of 0.0035 kg/m·s. Reynolds numbers typical for transitional flow (Re = 2000-2500) were computed within the lumens because of the changing cross-sections of the cannula geometry. Numerical computations were performed using the steady three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations and the low-Reynolds k-? turbulence model. Discretization of governing equations was based on a cell-centered finite volume method. Numerical results correlated well with global performance of the cannula, allowing evaluation of the geometry toward potential blood trauma. Peak wall shear stress (WSS) in the drainage lumen was higher than that of infusion lumen, mainly due to the presence of side holes. Furthermore, recirculation regions were predicted in transition tubing to connectors of both the drainage and the infusion lumens because of adverse pressure gradients caused by the sudden enlargement of the cannula geometry. In this three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study, we observed higher peak WSS values for the drainage lumen, which may potentially cause blood trauma. Furthermore, recirculation regions were predicted in the proximity of the exit sections of both the infusion and drainage lumens, which may contribute to thrombosis formation. This study provides insight for future DLC modifications in minimizing cannula-induced blood trauma and thrombogenicity in long-term applications. PMID:21654494

De Bartolo, Carmine; Nigro, Alessandra; Fragomeni, Gionata; Colacino, Francesco M; Wang, Dongfang; Jones, Cameron C; Zwischenberger, Joseph

2011-01-01

180

Pharmacochemistry and integrated pharmacokinetics of six alkaloids after oral administration of Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang decoction.  

PubMed

Pharmacochemistry and integrated pharmacokinetics of six alkaloids (groenlandicine, berberine, palmatine, epiberberine, jatrorrhizine, and columbamine) after oral administration of Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT) decoction were investigated in this paper. The method of plasma pharmacochemistry was applied to predict the potential bioactive components in HLJDT decoction. Based on the accurate molecular weight, 10 components including 2 flavonoids (baicalin and wogonoside), 1 iridoid glycoside (geniposide), and 7 alkaloids (above-mentioned 6 alkaloids and coptisine) were structurally identified. Then, integrated pharmacokinetics of the alkaloids in Sprague-Dawley rats after oral administration of HLJDT decoction was investigated by HPLC method. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic behaviors of the alkaloids were different although their chemical structures were similar. This study developed a method to predict the potential bioactive components in HLJDT decoction and research the pharmacokinetic behaviors of the potential bioactive components. PMID:24797560

Ma, Zhao-Tang; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Jian-Xun

2014-05-01

181

Subacute toxicity and stability of Soshiho-tang, a traditional herbal formula, in Sprague-Dawley rats  

PubMed Central

Backgroud Soshiho-tang (SST, Xiao-chai-hu-tang in Chinese and Sho-saiko-to in Japanese), an oriental herbal formula, is used for treatment of chronic liver diseases. Although many researchers have studied the pharmacological properties of SST, information about its safety and toxicity is limited. Therefore, we evaluated the potential safety of SST in Sprague–Dawley rats over a period of 4-weeks. Methods The SST was administered once daily by gavage to male and female rats at doses of 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. We measured the body weight, mortality, food consumption, ophthalmoscopy, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross pathological findings, absolute/relative organ weights and histopathology. In addition, we analyzed the component of SST and measured the stability of its component in SST according to study periods using high performance liquid chromatography. Results The SST treatment did not result in any toxicologically significant changes in mortality, food consumption, ophthalmoscopy, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross pathological findings, absolute/relative organ weights and histopathology, except for salivation and reduction in body weight in the 2000 mg/kg/day male group. These findings in the 2000 mg/kg/day male group are considered toxicologically insignificant because they are not accompanied by other pathological findings, including in hematology, serum biochemistry and histopatholgy, and they do not exhibit a dose–response relationship. SST is detected three components including liquiritin, baicalin, and glycyrrhizin. In addition, there were not observed the significant differences among the contents of three components in SST according to storage periods. Conclusion These results indicate that SST may be a safe material. Based on these results, the no-observed-adverse-effect level was more than 2000 mg/kg for both genders.

2012-01-01

182

Shape Variation in Aterian Tanged Tools and the Origins of Projectile Technology: A Morphometric Perspective on Stone Tool Function  

PubMed Central

Background Recent findings suggest that the North African Middle Stone Age technocomplex known as the Aterian is both much older than previously assumed, and certainly associated with fossils exhibiting anatomically modern human morphology and behavior. The Aterian is defined by the presence of ‘tanged’ or ‘stemmed’ tools, which have been widely assumed to be among the earliest projectile weapon tips. The present study systematically investigates morphological variation in a large sample of Aterian tools to test the hypothesis that these tools were hafted and/or used as projectile weapons. Methodology/Principal Findings Both classical morphometrics and Elliptical Fourier Analysis of tool outlines are used to show that the shape variation in the sample exhibits size-dependent patterns consistent with a reduction of the tools from the tip down, with the tang remaining intact. Additionally, the process of reduction led to increasing side-to-side asymmetries as the tools got smaller. Finally, a comparison of shape-change trajectories between Aterian tools and Late Paleolithic arrowheads from the North German site of Stellmoor reveal significant differences in terms of the amount and location of the variation. Conclusions/Significance The patterns of size-dependent shape variation strongly support the functional hypothesis of Aterian tools as hafted knives or scrapers with alternating active edges, rather than as weapon tips. Nevertheless, the same morphological patterns are interpreted as one of the earliest evidences for a hafting modification, and for the successful combination of different raw materials (haft and stone tip) into one implement, in itself an important achievement in the evolution of hominin technologies.

Iovita, Radu

2011-01-01

183

Banha-sasim-tang as an herbal formula for the treatment of functional dyspepsia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-center trial  

PubMed Central

Background Functional dyspepsia (FD) is characterized by a high prevalence rate and no standard conventional treatments. Alternative therapies, such as herbal formulas, are widely used to treat FD. However, there are inadequate evidences regarding the safety and efficacy of these formulas. Moreover, the mechanisms by which herbal formulas act in the gastrointestinal tract are controversial. In traditional Korean medicine, Banha-sasim-tang has long been one of the most frequently prescribed herbal formulas for treating dyspepsia. The current study is designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Banha-sasim-tang for FD patients and to examine whether there will be a significant correlation between cutaneous electrogastrography recordings and dyspeptic symptoms in FD patients, and between changes in gastric myoelectrical activity and improvement in dyspeptic symptoms during Banha-sasim-tang administration. Methods This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial will be performed at two centers and will include a Banha-sasim-tang group and placebo group. Each group will consist of 50 FD patients. Six weeks of administration of Banha-sasim-tang or placebo will be conducted. During the subsequent 2 months, follow-up observations of primary and secondary outcomes will be performed. The primary outcomes are differences as measured on the gastrointestinal symptom scale, and the secondary outcomes are differences as measured on the visual analogue scale for dyspepsia and on the questionnaire for FD-related quality of life. All outcomes will be measured at baseline, at 2, 4, and 6 weeks of treatment, and at the 1 and 2 month follow-up. Cutaneous electrogastrography will be performed and assessed at baseline and at 6 weeks. Discussion This trial will provide evidence of the safety and efficacy of Banha-sasim-tang for the treatment for FD. Furthermore, based on the assessment of the relationship between cutaneous electrogastrography recordings and dyspeptic symptoms in this trial, the possibility of clinical applications of cutaneous electrogastrography in the treatment of FD will be elucidated. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials (ISRCTN 51910678); Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT00987805

2010-01-01

184

Understanding the applicability and limitations of Wang-Landau method for biomolecules: Met-enkephalin and Trp-cage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wang-Landau (WL) method is an efficient way to calculate density of states (DOS), thermodynamic and structural properties of a system. In this work, two different flavors of WL method, its original implementation and the t-1 method of Belardinelli et al., are applied to met-enkephalin and Trp-cage to understand their efficacy and limitations. Accurate thermodynamic and structural quantities are calculated for both the peptides considered. For Trp-cage, fragmenting the energy range into different parts and determining DOS for each part is found to be a feasible way to use WL method. The problem of low temperature sampling of WL method is discussed.

Singh, Priya; Sarkar, Subir K.; Bandyopadhyay, Pradipta

2011-10-01

185

Comparative pharmacokinetics of baicalin after oral administration of pure baicalin, Radix scutellariae extract and Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang to rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT) is an important “heat-clearing” multiherb remedy of traditional Chinese medicine, and Radix scutellariae (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Labiatae) is a key ingredient herb in it. Baicalin and wogonoside are two main effective ingredients enriched in Radix scutellariae. In the present study, pharmacokinetic differences of baicalin following oral administration of pure baicalin, Radix scutellariae extract, baicalin co-administrated with extract of

Tong Lu; Jue Song; Fang Huang; Yuanxiong Deng; Lin Xie; Guangji Wang; Xiaodong Liu

2007-01-01

186

Protective effect of Oren-gedoku-to (Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang) against impairment of learning and memory induced by transient cerebral ischemia in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protective effect of Oren-gedoku-to (OGT; Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang), a traditional Chinese medicine, against impairment of learning and memory induced by transient cerebral ischemia was investigated in mice. The cerebral ischemia caused a reduction of step-down latency and an increase of step-down errors in the passive avoidance task. Pretreatment with oral administration of OGT (2, 4 or 8 g of herbs per

Jinghua Xu; Yukihisa Murakami; Kinzo Matsumoto; Michihisa Tohda; Hiroshi Watanabe; Shaohui Zhang; Qinghai Yu; Jia Shen

2000-01-01

187

Efficacy and mechanism of action of yin lai tang (lung-stomach treatment) in dyspepsia mouse infected by FM1 virus.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and elaborate the mechanism of action of Yin Lai Tang (Lung-Stomach Treatment) on dyspepsia mouse infected by FM1 virus. Ninety male, 4 week old Kunming mouse with 12-14 g weight, were randomly divided into 9 groups, i.e., normal, infected, dyspepsia, ribavirin, Shuanghuanglian, Children's indigestion tablet, YinLaiTang high dose, YinLaiTang middle dose and YinLaiTang low dose, and these groups had been treated by according drugs to get objectives. Compared with normal group, lung index significantly (p < 0.01) increased in all groups except ribavirin group where lung index obviously (p < 0.05) increased. There was non-significant (p > 0.05) difference in the values of lung homogenate virus titer between dyspepsia group and other groups. Compared to normal group, there was variable degree of inflammatory cell infiltrations in respiratory tract structures in the animals of other groups, and there was a significant (p < 0.01) increase in the level of serum IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-alpha in infected and dyspepsia group and significant (p < 0.01) decrease in the level of serum IFN-gamma was observed. Compared with single clearing stomach method and single clearing lung approach, lung-stomach treatment reduced the level of IL-6 with non-significant difference (p > 0.05) and increased the level of IL-10 obviously, and compared with the single clearing lung method, there was a significant difference (p < 0.05). Compared with the single clearing stomach method and the single clearing lung method, the lung-stomach treatment method had a better efficacy and showed effects on the expression of pro-inflammatory factor and anti-inflammatory factor. PMID:24383334

Liu, Tiegang; Yu, He; Zhang, Wang; Zhen, Jianhua; Li, Xiaofei; Lv, Guokai; Gu, Hong-Xiao; Murtaza, Ghulam

2013-01-01

188

Thyroxine and reserpine-induced changes in metabolic profiles of rat urine and the therapeutic effect of Liu Wei Di Huang Wan detected by UPLC-HDMS.  

PubMed

The promise of metabonomics, a new "omics" technique, to validate Chinese medicines and the compatibility of Chinese formulas has been appreciated. The present study was undertaken to explore the excretion pattern of low molecular mass metabolites in the male Wistar-derived rat model of kidney yin deficiency induced with thyroxine and reserpine as well as the therapeutic effect of Liu Wei Di Huang Wan (LW) and its separated prescriptions, a classic traditional Chinese medicine formula for treating kidney yin deficiency in China. The study utilized ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization synapt high definition mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-SYNAPT-HDMS) in both negative and positive electrospray ionization (ESI). At the same time, blood biochemistry was examined to identify specific changes in the kidney yin deficiency. Distinct changes in the pattern of metabolites, as a result of daily administration of thyroxine and reserpine, were observed by UPLC-HDMS combined with a principal component analysis (PCA). The changes in metabolic profiling were restored to their baseline values after treatment with LW according to the PCA score plots. Altogether, the current metabonomic approach based on UPLC-HDMS and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA) indicated 20 ions (14 in the negative mode, 8 in the positive mode, and 2 in both) as "differentiating metabolites". PMID:20605388

Wang, Ping; Sun, Hui; Lv, Haitao; Sun, Wenjun; Yuan, Ye; Han, Ying; Wang, Dongwu; Zhang, Aihua; Wang, Xijun

2010-11-01

189

Simultaneous determination of seven ginsenosides in Du Shen Tang decoction by rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RRLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A rapid quantification of seven ginsenosides in Du Shen Tang decoction, the decoction of the root of Panax ginseng was investigated by rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS). All analytes including seven major constituents, namely ginsenoside-Re, Rg1, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rd and Rf were analysed simultaneously in short time and provide good linearity (r>0.9976), repeatability (RSD<5.67%), intra- and inter-day precisions (RSD<5.06%) with accuracies (94.65-105.31%) and recovery (93.76-106.82%) by using optimised methods. In addition, the content of seven ginsenosides in the decoction prepared by the root of 2-year-old, 4-year-old and 6-year-old Panax ginseng was also analysed. The results showed the concentration of ginsenosides detected in Du Shen Tang decoction was affected by the difference in collected times of the root of Panax ginseng. The established method could be used as a rapid and reliable approach for assessment of the quantity of Du Shen Tang decoction. PMID:23993583

Guo, Na; Ablajan, Keyume; Fan, Bin; Yan, Han; Yu, Youhua; Dou, Deqiang

2013-12-15

190

[Deep acupuncture at Baliao points (eight sacral foramina) by Professor WANG Ling-Ling and its clinical application].  

PubMed

With deep acupuncture at Baliao points (eight sacral foramina) as the core, Professor WANG Ling-ling has treated diseases of urinary, digestive and reproductive systems with superior therapeutic effect. The key for efficacy of Baliao points is deep acupuncture. Only deeply insert into acupoints with long needles and directly stimulate at sacral nerves, could Baliao points play a superior role in treatment effect. Searching acupoints is the basis of deep acupuncture, and superficial anatomy should be combined to summarize the methods of searching Baliao points. The premise of deep acupuncture is needling manipulation. The angles of needles must be adjusted according to morphological features of posterior sacral foramina, or it is hard to practice deep acupuncture into Baliao points. The description of location and manipulation on Baliao points in ancient and modern literature was vague, which restricts clinical application of Baliao points. A lot of research on location, manipulation and clinical application of Baliao points has performed by Professor WANG Ling-ling, and its manipulation and clinical cases are introduced to make a positive effect on its application and popularization. PMID:24843976

Cai, Hai-Hong; Wang, Ling-Ling

2014-03-01

191

Quality Control of Danggui Buxue Tang, a Traditional Chinese Medicine Decoction, by (1)H-NMR Metabolic Profiling.  

PubMed

Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) is one of the simplest traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) decoctions, first described in China in 1247 AD. DBT is composed of 2 herbs, Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelica Sinensis Radix (ASR), boiled together in a 5?:?1 ratio. Clinically, DBT is prescribed to women as a remedy for menopausal symptoms. Here, H-NMR metabolic profiling was conducted for DBT and the water extracts of AR or ASR, to evaluate the potential of this chemical profiling method for quality control of the herbal decoction. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that DBT could be readily distinguished from the water extracts of its constituent herbs by the metabolic profiles. More interestingly, the metabolic profile of DBT was not a simple sum of that of AR and ASR. Asparagine was found at significantly higher concentration in DBT than that in either AR or ASR extract, contributing mainly to the discrimination of DBT sample. In addition, we employed the same method to profile a commercial DBT powder, verifying its authenticity as compared to our prepared DBT. This study is the first to employ H-NMR metabolic profiling for the quality control of traditional Chinese medicine decoctions. PMID:24826194

Chan, Pui Hei; Zhang, Wendy L; Cheung, Chi Yuen; Tsim, Karl W K; Lam, Henry

2014-01-01

192

In vitro and in vivo assessment of cytochrome P450-mediated herb-drug interaction of Ssang-hwa-tang.  

PubMed

We have evaluated the herb-drug interaction potential of Ssang-hwa-tang (SHT) mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition/induction. Further, the effects of fermentation on the CYP-mediated herb-drug interaction potential were determined. SHT showed inhibitory activity toward CYP1A2, but not 2A6, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4 in human liver microsomes. The results of the enzyme kinetic study suggested that the SHT-induced CYP1A2 inhibition is mixed reversible inhibition. The hepatic CYP expression and activity in rats treated with SHT were examined. The expression/activity of CYP2E1 increased as a result of SHT extract treatment (P<0.005 or P<0.001, respectively), which raises the possibility that SHT may increase the toxicity of environmental toxicants through the elevation of CYP2E1-mediated metabolic activation. SHT fermentation using Lactobacillus fermentum or Lactobacillus gasseri resulted in attenuation of the SHT-induced CYP1A2 inhibition, but not CYP2E1 induction, suggesting that changes in the chemical composition of SHT through fermentation can affect the inhibition of CYP1A2 activity. PMID:23122083

Lee, Sang Yoon; Lee, Ji-Yoon; Kang, Wonku; Kwon, Kwang-il; Oh, Soo Jin; Ma, Jin Yeul; Kim, Sang Kyum

2013-01-15

193

Involvement of nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway in the antidepressant action of the total flavonoids extracted from Xiaobuxin-Tang.  

PubMed

Our previous studies have demonstrated that the total flavonoids (XBXT-2) isolated from the extract of Xiaobuxin-Tang (XBXT), a traditional Chinese herbal decoction, exerted antidepressant-like effects. Recently, accumulating studies have suggested that l-arginine-NO is implicated in the regulation of depression. Therefore, the aim of current study attempts to explore the involvement of l-arginine-NO pathway in the antidepressant-like effect of XBXT-2 in the mouse forced swim test (FST). Our results showed that the antidepressant-like action of XBXT-2 (100mg/kg, i.g.) was reversed by pretreatment with l-arginine (a nitric oxide precursor, 750mg/kg, i.p.). While co-administration of aminoguanidine (a specific inducible NOS inhibitor, 40, 80mg/kg, i.p.) and sub-effective dose of XBXT-2 (50mg/kg, i.g.) did not significantly alter the immobility in FST. In contrast, combined administration of 7-nitroindazole (a specific neuronal NOS inhibitor, 50mg/kg, i.p.) potentiated the antidepressant-like effect of non-effective doses of XBXT-2 (50mg/kg, i.g.). Meanwhile, NO modulators were devoid of any locomotor effects on the animals. In conclusion, the antidepressant-like action of XBXT-2 may be involvement of NO signaling pathway. PMID:24792392

Zhang, Li-Ming; Wang, Heng-Lin; Zhao, Nan; Chen, Hong-Xia; Li, Yun-Feng; Zhang, You-Zhi

2014-07-11

194

Simultaneous determination of 11 bioactive compounds in Jaeumganghwa-tang by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection  

PubMed Central

Background: Jaeumganghwa-tang (JEGH) is a traditional Korean herbal medicine for the treatment of chronic bronchitis, nephritis and diabetes mellitus. Objective: A high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was developed for simultaneous determination of 11 major compounds such as 5- hydroxymethylfurfural, mangiferin, paeoniflorin, nodakenin, naringin, hesperidin, decursinol, berberine, glycyrrhizin, atractylenolide III and decursin, in JEGH. Materials and Methods: The separation was conducted on Shishedo C18 column with gradient elution of 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid–acetonitrile. Detection of wavelength was set at 205, 250, 280 and 330 nm. Results: The developed analysis showed a good linearity (R2 >0.9997). The range of limit of detection and limit of quantification were observed from 0.04 to 0.43 and from 0.11 to 1.30, respectively. The intra- and inter-day test relative standard deviations (RSD) were less than 3% and the accuracy was 95.98-108.44%. The recoveries were between 92.75% and 109.19% and RSD range of recoveries was measured from 0.52% to 2.78%. Conclusion: This HPLC-DAD method can be successfully applied for simultaneous determination of 11 major compounds in JEGH samples.

Yun, Bo-Ra; Weon, Jin Bae; Lee, Jiwoo; Eom, Min Rye; Ma, Choong Je

2014-01-01

195

Antitussive principles of Glycyrrhizae radix, a main component of the Kampo preparations Bakumondo-to (Mai-men-dong-tang).  

PubMed

We attempted to elucidate the antitussive principles of Glycyrrhizae radix, a main component of Bakumondo-to (Mai-men-dong-tang). Although the 50% methanol-eluted fraction (100 mg/kg, p.o.) caused a more than 60% reduction in the number of capsaicin-induced coughs, neither the water-eluted nor 100% ethanol-eluted fractions of water extract of G. radix had antitussive effects. The water extract of G. radix contained high levels of liquiritin, liquiritin apioside, isoliquiritin, isoliquiritin apioside and glycyrrhizin. On the other hand, the 50% methanol-eluted fraction contained mainly liquiritin and liquiritin apioside, but not the other compounds. Liquiritin apioside (3-30 mg/kg, p.o.), but not liquiritin, isoliquiritin, isoliquiritin apioside or glycyrrhizin, dose-dependently inhibited the number of coughs. Methysergide, a serotonin receptor antagonist, antagonized the antitussive effect of liquiritin apioside. However, the antitussive effect of liquiritin apioside was not antagonized by naloxone. Pretreatment with glibenclamide (3 mg/kg, i.p.), an ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker, also significantly reduced the antinociceptive effect of liquiritin apioside. These results suggest that G. radix contains a potent antitussive compound, liquilitin apioside, whose antitussive effect may depend on both peripheral and central mechanisms. PMID:12782198

Kamei, Junzo; Nakamura, Rie; Ichiki, Hiroyuki; Kubo, Masayoshi

2003-05-23

196

Advancing Drug Discovery and Development from Active Constituents of Yinchenhao Tang, a Famous Traditional Chinese Medicine Formula  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula has been playing a very important role in health protection and disease control for thousands of years. Guided by TCM syndrome theories, formula are designed to contain a combination of various kinds of crude drugs that, when combined, will achieve synergistic efficacy. However, the precise mechanism of synergistic action remains poorly understood. One example is a famous TCM formula Yinchenhao Tang (YCHT), whose efficacy in treating hepatic injury (HI) and Jaundice syndrome, has recently been well established as a case study. We also conducted a systematic analysis of synergistic effects of the principal compound using biochemistry, pharmacokinetics and systems biology, to explore the key molecular mechanisms. We had found that the three component (6,7-dimethylesculetin (D), geniposide (G), and rhein (R)) combination exerts a more robust synergistic effect than any one or two of the three individual compounds by hitting multiple targets. They can regulate molecular networks through activating both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways to synergistically cause intensified therapeutic effects. This paper provides an overview of the recent and potential developments of chemical fingerprinting coupled with systems biology advancing drug discovery towards more agile development of targeted combination therapies for the YCHT.

Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Qiu, Shi; Wang, Xijun

2013-01-01

197

Pharmacokinetics and Relative Bioavailability of Flavonoids between Two Dosage Forms of Gegen-Qinlian-Tang in Rats.  

PubMed

Gegen-Qinlian-Tang (GQT), a popular Chinese medicine prescription, consists of Puerariae Radix, Scutellariae Radix, Coptidis Rhizoma, and Glycyrrhizae Radix. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of GQT in rats and compared the bioavailability between two dosage forms, that is, traditional decoction (TD) and concentrated powder (CP). Rats were given TD and CP of GQT in a crossover design, and blood samples were withdrawn at predetermined time points. The quantitation methods of ten constituents in two dosage forms of GQT and in serum specimen using HPLC were developed and validated in this study. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartment model. The results showed that daidzein, baicalein, wogonin, berberine, palmatine, and coptisine were not found in the circulation, whereas the sulfates/glucuronides of daidzein, baicalein, and wogonin were the major forms after oral administration of GQT. Comparison between two dosage forms indicated that the AUC(0-t) of daidzein sulfates/glucuronides after administration of CP was significantly lower than that of TD by 28.9%, whereas the bioavailabilities of baicalin/baicalein and wogonoside/wogonin were comparable between two dosage forms. In conclusion, the major flavonoids of GQT were extensively metabolized into sulfates/glucuronides and present as the major molecules in the circulation. TD of GQT revealed higher bioavailability of daidzin/daidzein than CP. PMID:23258986

Yu, Chung-Ping; Shia, Chi-Sheng; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Hou, Yu-Chi

2012-01-01

198

Determination of 14 chemical constituents in the traditional Chinese medicinal preparation Huangqin-Tang by high performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

The high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the identification and determination of baicalin (BG), wogonoside (WG), oroxylin-A-glucoside (OG), baicalein (B), wogonin (W), orxylin-A (O), paeoniflorin (PF), glycyrrhizic acid (GL), glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), liquiritin (LG), isoliquirition (ILG), liquiritigenin (L), isoliquiritigenin (IL) and ononin (ON) in Huangqin-Tang [Chinese characters: see text] was established. The samples were separated with a Wakosil C18 column (4.6 x 150 mm) by linear gradient elution using A (MeOH-HAC 100:1, v/v)-B (Water-HAC 100:1, v/v) (0 min, 30:70; 15 min, 40:60; 30 min, 60:40; 45 min, 80:20; 60 min, 100:0) as the mobile phase at a flow-rate of 1.0 ml/min. The detection was by diode-array UV/Vis detector (DAD), and the wavelength was set at the range of 200-400 nm. Satisfactory results were obtained within 60 min for the simultaneous determination of the 14 constituents. The repeatability (RSD) of the method was generally less than 2% (n=5, interday and intraday). The recovery of BG was 96.9+/-1.71, WG was 98.9+/-2.99, PF was 99.7+/-0.52, LG was 95.3+/-2.67, GL was 96.7+/-3.44, and GA was 94.8+/-4.16, respectively. PMID:11411561

Zuo, F; Zhou, Z M; Liu, M L

2001-06-01

199

San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang extract suppresses hepatitis C virus replication and virus-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression.  

PubMed

Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with chronic inflammation of liver, which leads to the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Because of severe side effects and only a 50-70% cure rate in genotype 1 HCV-infected patients upon current standard treatment with pegylated interferon-? plus ribavirin, new therapeutic regimens are still needed. San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXT) is a transitional Chinese herbal formula, composed of Rhei rhizoma, Scutellaria radix and Coptidis rhizome, and possesses anti-inflammatory effect. Here, we describe a (+)-catechin-containing fraction extracted from SHXT, referred as SHXT-frC, exhibited effective inhibition of HCV replication, with selectivity index value (SI; CC50 /EC50) of 84, and displayed synergistic anti-HCV effects when combined with interferon-?, HCV protease inhibitor telaprevir or polymerase inhibitor 2'-C-methylcytidine. The activation of factor-?B (NF-?B) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) signalling pathway has particular relevance to HCV-associated HCC. SHXT-frC treatment also caused a concentration-dependent decrease in the induction of COX-2 and NF-?B expression caused by either HCV replication or HCV NS5A protein. Collectively, SHXT-frC could be an adjuvant treatment for patients with HCV-induced liver diseases. PMID:21692943

Lee, J C; Tseng, C K; Wu, S F; Chang, F R; Chiu, C C; Wu, Y C

2011-07-01

200

Total Flavonoids Extracted from Xiaobuxin-Tang on the Hyperactivity of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in Chronically Stressed Rats  

PubMed Central

Our previous studies have demonstrated that the total flavonoids (XBXT-2) isolated from the extract of Xiaobuxin-Tang (XBXT), a traditional Chinese herbal decoction, ameliorated behavioral alterations and hippocampal dysfunctions in chronically stressed rats. Studies over the last decades have suggested that the hyperactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the most consistent findings in stress-related depression. Herein, we used the same chronic mild stress model of rats as before to further investigate the effect of XBXT-2 on the hyperactivity of HPA axis, including the stress hormones levels and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) expression. Our ELISA results showed that chronic administration of XBXT-2 (25, 50?mg?kg?1, p.o., 28 days, the effective doses for behavioral responses) significantly decreased serum corticosterone level and its upstream stress hormone adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level in chronically stressed rats. Furthermore, western blotting result demonstrated XBXT-2 treatment ameliorated stress-induced decrease of GRs expression in hippocampus, an important target involved in the hyperactivity of HPA axis. These results were similar to that of classic antidepressant imipramine treatment (10?mg?kg?1, p.o.). In conclusion, the modulation of HPA axis produced by XBXT-2, including the inhibition of stress hormones levels and up-regulation of hippocampal GRs expression, may be an important mechanism underlying its antidepressant-like effect in chronically stressed rats.

An, Lei; Zhang, You-Zhi; Liu, Xin-Min; Yu, Neng-Jiang; Chen, Hong-Xia; Zhao, Nan; Yuan, Li; Li, Yun-Feng

2011-01-01

201

Hydrolysis of Glycosidic Flavonoids during the Preparation of Danggui Buxue Tang: An Outcome of Moderate Boiling of Chinese Herbal Mixture.  

PubMed

Chemical change during boiling of herbal mixture is a puzzle. By using Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), a herbal decoction that contains Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR), we developed a model in analyzing the hydrolysis of flavonoid glycosides during the boiling of herbal mixture in water. A proper preparation of DBT is of great benefit to the complete extraction of bioactive ingredients. Boiling of DBT in water increased the solubility of AR-derived astragaloside IV, calycosin, formononetin, calycosin-7-O- ? -D-glucoside, and ononin in a time- and temperature-dependent manner: the amounts of these chemicals reached a peak at 2?h. The glycosidic resides of AR, calycosin-7-O- ? -D-glucoside, and ononin could be hydrolyzed during the moderate boiling process to form calycosin and formononetin, respectively. The hydrolysis efficiency was strongly affected by pH, temperature, and amount of herbs. Interestingly, the preheated herbs were not able to show this hydrolytic activity. The current results supported the rationality of ancient preparation of DBT in boiling water by moderate heat. PMID:24744813

Zhang, Wendy Li; Chen, Jian-Ping; Lam, Kelly Yin-Ching; Zhan, Janis Ya-Xian; Yao, Ping; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

2014-01-01

202

Evolution of the Orszag-Tang vortex system in a compressible medium. I - Initial average subsonic flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of fully compressible, Fourier collocation, numerical simulations of the Orszag-Tang vortex system are presented. The initial conditions for this system consist of a nonrandom, periodic field in which the magnetic and velocity field contain X points but differ in modal structure along one spatial direction. The velocity field is initially solenoidal, with the total initial pressure field consisting of the superposition of the appropriate incompressible pressure distribution upon a flat pressure field corresponding to the initial, average Mach number of the flow. In these numerical simulations, this initial Mach number is varied from 0.2-0.6. These values correspond to average plasma beta values ranging from 30.0 to 3.3, respectively. It is found that compressible effects develop within one or two Alfven transit times, as manifested in the spectra of compressible quantities such as the mass density and the nonsolenoidal flow field. These effects include (1) a retardation of growth of correlation between the magnetic field and the velocity field, (2) the emergence of compressible small-scale structure such as massive jets, and (3) bifurcation of eddies in the compressible flow field. Differences between the incompressible and compressible results tend to increase with increasing initial average Mach number.

Dahlburg, R. B.; Picone, J. M.

1989-01-01

203

Effect of Sipjeondaebo-Tang on Cancer-Induced Anorexia and Cachexia in CT-26 Tumor-Bearing Mice  

PubMed Central

Cancer-associated anorexia and cachexia are a multifactorial condition described by a loss of body weight and muscle with anorexia, asthenia, and anemia. Moreover, they correlate with a high mortality rate, poor response to chemotherapy, poor performance status, and poor quality of life. Cancer cachexia is regulated by proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). In addition, glucagon like peptide-1 (GIP-1), peptide YY (PYY), ghrelin, and leptin plays a crucial role in food intake. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of one of the traditional herbal medicines, Sipjeondaebo-tang (Juzen-taiho-to in Japanese; SJDBT), on cancer anorexia and cachexia in a fundamental mouse cancer anorexia/cachexia model, CT-26 tumor-bearing mice. SJDBT was more significantly effective in a treatment model where it was treated after anorexia and cachexia than in a prevention model where it was treated before anorexia and cachexia on the basis of parameters such as weights of muscles and whole body and food intakes. Moreover, SJDBT inhibited a production of IL-6, MCP-1, PYY, and GLP-1 and ameliorated cancer-induced anemia. Therefore, our in vivo studies provide evidence on the role of SJDBT in cancer-associated anorexia and cachexia, thereby suggesting that SJDBT may be useful for treating cancer-associated anorexia and cachexia.

Jung, Ki Yong; Woo, Sang-Mi; Jun, Chan-Yong; Park, Jong Hyeong; Shin, Yong Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

2014-01-01

204

Si-Wu-tang extract stimulates bone formation through PI3K/Akt/NF-?B signaling pathways in osteoblasts  

PubMed Central

Background Si-Wu-Tang (SWT), a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula, is widely used for the treatment of gynopathies diseases such as menstrual discomfort, climacteric syndrome, dysmenorrhea, and other estrogen-related diseases. Recent studies have shown that SWT can treat primary dysmenorrhea, have anti-pruritic anti-inflammatory effects, and protect against radiation-induced bone marrow damage in an animal model. It has been reported that anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant agents have the potential to treat osteoporosis by increasing bone formation and/or suppressing bone resorption. However, the effect of SWT on bone cell function has not yet been reported. Methods Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP)-2, and osteopontin (OPN) mRNA expression was analyzed by qPCR. The mechanism of action of SWT extract was investigated using western blotting. The in vivo anti-osteoporotic effect of SWT extract was assessed in ovariectomized mice. Results Here, we report that SWT increases ALP, BMP-2, and OPN expression as well as bone mineralization. In addition, we show that the PI3K, Akt, and NF-?B signaling pathways may be involved in the SWT-mediated increase in gene expression and bone mineralization. Notably, treatment of mice with SWT extract prevented bone loss induced by ovariectomy in vivo. Conclusion SWT may be used to stimulate bone formation for the treatment of osteoporosis.

2013-01-01

205

Bioinformatics analysis for the antirheumatic effects of huang-lian-jie-du-tang from a network perspective.  

PubMed

Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT) is a classic TCM formula to clear "heat" and "poison" that exhibits antirheumatic activity. Here we investigated the therapeutic mechanisms of HLJDT at protein network level using bioinformatics approach. It was found that HLJDT shares 5 target proteins with 3 types of anti-RA drugs, and several pathways in immune system and bone formation are significantly regulated by HLJDT's components, suggesting the therapeutic effect of HLJDT on RA. By defining an antirheumatic effect score to quantitatively measure the therapeutic effect, we found that the score of each HLJDT's component is very low, while the whole HLJDT achieves a much higher effect score, suggesting a synergistic effect of HLJDT achieved by its multiple components acting on multiple targets. At last, topological analysis on the RA-associated PPI network was conducted to illustrate key roles of HLJDT's target proteins on this network. Integrating our findings with TCM theory suggests that HLJDT targets on hub nodes and main pathway in the Hot ZENG network, and thus it could be applied as adjuvant treatment for Hot-ZENG-related RA. This study may facilitate our understanding of antirheumatic effect of HLJDT and it may suggest new approach for the study of TCM pharmacology. PMID:24348693

Fang, Haiyang; Wang, Yichuan; Yang, Tinghong; Ga, Yang; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Runhui; Zhang, Weidong; Zhao, Jing

2013-01-01

206

Monitoring bidecadal development of urban agglomeration with remote sensing images in the Jing-Jin-Tang area, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an important urban agglomeration of China, the Jing-Jin-Tang area has experienced intense urbanization since the 1980s. This study explores the spatiotemporal dynamics of urban areas in this region using multitemporal Landsat images. An enhanced built-up (BU) index method was applied to extract BU areas with an overall accuracy ranging from 75% to 91.35%. Seven spatial metrics were used to discern urban growth patterns at city and county levels. The results indicate that all cities witnessed a rapid growth of BU areas with different spatial patterns. Beijing has been aggregating since the 1990s and a large homogeneous urban patch has formed. The construction and development of metropolitan Beijing and Tianjin started in the early 1980s and became almost fully developed by the end of 1990. Tangshan, like many medium-sized cities in China, is still enduring a development process with an accelerating pace. The metropolitan areas of Beijing and Tianjin have been greatly developed with BU densities exceeding 90% since 2000, compared with Tangshan's 55% in 2010. These results provide spatial information on the evolution of urban extent in the period of 1990s to 2010s in this region.

Lu, Linlin; Guo, Huadong; Wang, Cuizhen; Pesaresi, Martino; Ehrlich, Daniele

2014-01-01

207

Protection Effect of Zhen-Wu-Tang on Adriamycin-Induced Nephrotic Syndrome via Inhibiting Oxidative Lesions and Inflammation Damage  

PubMed Central

Zhen-wu-tang (ZWT), a well-known formula in China, is widely used to treat chronic kidney diseases. However, very little information on ZWT's mechanism of action is currently available. In this study, we investigated the possible protective role and underlying mechanism of ZWT on nephrotic syndrome (NS) induced by Adriamycin (intravenous injection, 6.0?mg/kg) in rats using biochemical and histopathological approaches. ZWT decreased urine protein excretion and the serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine significantly in diseased rats. A decrease in plasma levels of total protein and albumin was also recorded in nephropathic rats. Pathological results show an improved pathological state and recovering glomerular structure in ZWT treatment groups. ZWT decreased renal IL-8 level but increased renal IL-4 level. In addition, rats subjected to ZWT exhibited less IgG deposition in glomerulus compared with model group. RT-PCR results showed that ZWT decreased the mRNA expression of NF-?B p65 and increased the mRNA expression of I?B. Furthermore, ZWT reduced the level of MDA and increased SOD activity. These results demonstrated that ZWT ameliorated Adriamycin-induced NS in rats possibly by inhibiting Adriamycin-induced inflammation damage, enhancing body's antioxidant capacity, thereby protecting glomerulus from injury.

Liang, Chun-ling; Wu, Jun-biao; Lai, Jie-mei; Ye, Shu-fang; Lin, Jin; Ouyang, Hui; Zhan, Janis Ya-xian; Zhou, Jiu-yao

2014-01-01

208

Precursors of catastrophe in the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld, Manna, and random-fiber-bundle models of failure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied precursors of the global failure in some self-organized critical models of sandpile [in Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) and Manna models] and in the random-fiber-bundle model (RFB). In both BTW and Manna model, as one adds a small but fixed number of sand grains (heights) to any central site of the stable pile, the local dynamics starts and continues for an average relaxation time ? and an average number of topplings ? spread over a radial distance ?. We find that these quantities all depend on the average height hav of the pile and they all diverge as hav approaches the critical height hc from below: ?~(hc-hav)-?, ?~(hc-hav)-?, and ?~(hc-hav)-?. Numerically, we find ?~=2.0, ?~=1.2, and ?~=1.0 for both BTW and Manna model in two dimensions. In the strained RFB model, we find that the breakdown susceptibility ? (giving the differential increment of the number of broken fibers due to increase in external load) and the relaxation time ?, both diverge as the applied load or stress ? approaches the network failure threshold ?c from below: ?~(?c-?)-1/2 and ?~(?c-?)-1/2. These self-organized dynamical models of failure, therefore, show some definite precursors with robust power laws long before the failure point. Such well-characterized precursors should help predicting the global failure point of the systems in advance.

Pradhan, Srutarshi; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.

2002-01-01

209

Quality Control of Danggui Buxue Tang, a Traditional Chinese Medicine Decoction, by 1H-NMR Metabolic Profiling  

PubMed Central

Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) is one of the simplest traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) decoctions, first described in China in 1247 AD. DBT is composed of 2 herbs, Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelica Sinensis Radix (ASR), boiled together in a 5?:?1 ratio. Clinically, DBT is prescribed to women as a remedy for menopausal symptoms. Here, H-NMR metabolic profiling was conducted for DBT and the water extracts of AR or ASR, to evaluate the potential of this chemical profiling method for quality control of the herbal decoction. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that DBT could be readily distinguished from the water extracts of its constituent herbs by the metabolic profiles. More interestingly, the metabolic profile of DBT was not a simple sum of that of AR and ASR. Asparagine was found at significantly higher concentration in DBT than that in either AR or ASR extract, contributing mainly to the discrimination of DBT sample. In addition, we employed the same method to profile a commercial DBT powder, verifying its authenticity as compared to our prepared DBT. This study is the first to employ H-NMR metabolic profiling for the quality control of traditional Chinese medicine decoctions.

Zhang, Wendy L.; Cheung, Chi Yuen; Tsim, Karl W. K.

2014-01-01

210

Hydrolysis of Glycosidic Flavonoids during the Preparation of Danggui Buxue Tang: An Outcome of Moderate Boiling of Chinese Herbal Mixture  

PubMed Central

Chemical change during boiling of herbal mixture is a puzzle. By using Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), a herbal decoction that contains Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR), we developed a model in analyzing the hydrolysis of flavonoid glycosides during the boiling of herbal mixture in water. A proper preparation of DBT is of great benefit to the complete extraction of bioactive ingredients. Boiling of DBT in water increased the solubility of AR-derived astragaloside IV, calycosin, formononetin, calycosin-7-O-?-D-glucoside, and ononin in a time- and temperature-dependent manner: the amounts of these chemicals reached a peak at 2?h. The glycosidic resides of AR, calycosin-7-O-?-D-glucoside, and ononin could be hydrolyzed during the moderate boiling process to form calycosin and formononetin, respectively. The hydrolysis efficiency was strongly affected by pH, temperature, and amount of herbs. Interestingly, the preheated herbs were not able to show this hydrolytic activity. The current results supported the rationality of ancient preparation of DBT in boiling water by moderate heat.

Zhang, Wendy Li; Chen, Jian-Ping; Lam, Kelly Yin-Ching; Zhan, Janis Ya-Xian; Yao, Ping; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

2014-01-01

211

Vulcaniibacterium tengchongense gen. nov., sp. nov. isolated from a geothermally heated soil sample, and reclassification of Lysobacter thermophilus Wei et al. 2012 as Vulcaniibacterium thermophilum comb. nov.  

PubMed

A thermotolerant Gram-staining negative and aerobic bacterium, designated strain YIM 77520(T), was isolated from a geothermally heated soil sample collected at Rehai National Park, Tengchong, Yunnan Province, South-West China. Cells of the strain were found to be rod-shaped and colonies were light beige and circular. The strain was found to grow in the presence of 0-2 % (w/v) total salts (optimum, 0 %), at pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and 25-55 °C (optimum, 45 °C). The only quinone detected was Q-8 and the genomic DNA G+C content was determined to be 66.9 mol%. The major fatty acids (>10 %) were identified as iso-C16:0 and iso-C15:0. The phospholipids were found to consist of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, five unknown phospholipids and three aminophospholipids. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain YIM 77520(T) was found to form a cluster with Lysobacter thermophilus YIM 77875(T) and showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to L. thermophilus YIM 77875(T) (96.0 %). These two strains formed a distinct lineage of the family 'Xanthomonadaceae'. On the basis of the morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, as well as genotypic data, a new genus, Vulcaniibacterium gen. nov. is proposed with Vulcaniibacterium tengchongense sp. nov. as the type species. The type strain of V. tengchongense sp. nov. is strain YIM 77520(T) (=DSM 25623(T) = CCTCC AB 2011152(T)). Furthermore we propose that L. thermophilus Wei et al. 2012 is reclassified in the new genus as Vulcaniibacterium thermophilum comb. nov. (type strain YIM 77875(T) = CCTCC AB 2012064(T) = KCTC 32020(T)) based on polyphasic data. PMID:23864384

Yu, Tian-Tian; Zhou, En-Min; Yin, Yi-Rui; Yao, Ji-Cheng; Ming, Hong; Dong, Lei; Li, Shuai; Nie, Guo-Xing; Li, Wen-Jun

2013-09-01

212

Activity-dependent branching ratios in stocks, solar x-ray flux, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We define an activity-dependent branching ratio that allows comparison of different time series Xt . The branching ratio bx is defined as bx=E[?x/x] . The random variable ?x is the value of the next signal given that the previous one is equal to x , so ?x={Xt+1?Xt=x} . If bx>1 , the process is on average supercritical when the signal is equal to x , while if bx<1 , it is subcritical. For stock prices we find bx=1 within statistical uncertainty, for all x , consistent with an “efficient market hypothesis.” For stock volumes, solar x-ray flux intensities, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) sandpile model, bx is supercritical for small values of activity and subcritical for the largest ones, indicating a tendency to return to a typical value. For stock volumes this tendency has an approximate power-law behavior. For solar x-ray flux and the BTW model, there is a broad regime of activity where bx?1 , which we interpret as an indicator of critical behavior. This is true despite different underlying probability distributions for Xt and for ?x . For the BTW model the distribution of ?x is Gaussian, for x sufficiently larger than 1, and its variance grows linearly with x . Hence, the activity in the BTW model obeys a central limit theorem when sampling over past histories. The broad region of activity where bx is close to one disappears once bulk dissipation is introduced in the BTW model—supporting our hypothesis that it is an indicator of criticality.

Martin, Elliot; Shreim, Amer; Paczuski, Maya

2010-01-01

213

Activity-dependent branching ratios in stocks, solar x-ray flux, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model.  

PubMed

We define an activity-dependent branching ratio that allows comparison of different time series X(t). The branching ratio b(x) is defined as b(x)=E[xi(x)/x]. The random variable xi(x) is the value of the next signal given that the previous one is equal to x, so xi(x)=[X(t+1) | X(t)=x]. If b(x)>1, the process is on average supercritical when the signal is equal to x, while if b(x)<1, it is subcritical. For stock prices we find b(x)=1 within statistical uncertainty, for all x, consistent with an "efficient market hypothesis." For stock volumes, solar x-ray flux intensities, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) sandpile model, b(x) is supercritical for small values of activity and subcritical for the largest ones, indicating a tendency to return to a typical value. For stock volumes this tendency has an approximate power-law behavior. For solar x-ray flux and the BTW model, there is a broad regime of activity where b(x) approximately equal 1, which we interpret as an indicator of critical behavior. This is true despite different underlying probability distributions for X(t) and for xi(x). For the BTW model the distribution of xi(x) is Gaussian, for x sufficiently larger than 1, and its variance grows linearly with x. Hence, the activity in the BTW model obeys a central limit theorem when sampling over past histories. The broad region of activity where b(x) is close to one disappears once bulk dissipation is introduced in the BTW model-supporting our hypothesis that it is an indicator of criticality. PMID:20365434

Martin, Elliot; Shreim, Amer; Paczuski, Maya

2010-01-01

214

Evaluating the pharmacological mechanism of Chinese medicine Si-Wu-Tang through multi-level data integration.  

PubMed

Si-Wu-Tang (SWT) is a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula widely used for the treatments of gynecological diseases. To explore the pharmacological mechanism of SWT, we incorporated microarray data of SWT with our herbal target database TCMID to analyze the potential activity mechanism of SWT's herbal ingredients and targets. We detected 2,405 differentially expressed genes in the microarray data, 20 of 102 proteins targeted by SWT were encoded by these DEGs and can be targeted by 2 FDA-approved drugs and 39 experimental drugs. The results of pathway enrichment analysis of the 20 predicted targets were consistent with that of 2,405 differentially expressed genes, elaborating the potential pharmacological mechanisms of SWT. Further study from a perspective of protein-protein interaction (PPI) network showed that the predicted targets of SWT function cooperatively to perform their multi-target effects. We also constructed a network to combine herbs, ingredients, targets and drugs together which bridges the gap between SWT and conventional medicine, and used it to infer the potential mechanisms of herbal ingredients. Moreover, based on the hypothesis that the same or similar effects between different TCM formulae may result from targeting the same proteins, we analyzed 27 other TCM formulae which can also treat the gynecological diseases, the subsequent result provides additional insight to understand the potential mechanisms of SWT in treating amenorrhea. Our bioinformatics approach to detect the pharmacology of SWT may shed light on drug discovery for gynecological diseases and could be utilized to investigate other TCM formulae as well. PMID:24223693

Fang, Zhao; Lu, Bingxin; Liu, Mingyao; Zhang, Meixia; Yi, Zhenghui; Wen, Chengping; Shi, Tieliu

2013-01-01

215

Development of simultaneous analysis for marker constituents in Hwangryunhaedok-tang () and its application in commercial herbal formulas.  

PubMed

This study was performed to develop methods for the chromatographic determination of biomarkers in Hwangryunhaedok-tang (HHT) and the quantitative evaluation of commercial HHT. To develop an analytical method, an RP-amide column (2.7 ?m, 4.6 × 100 mm, Halo: Supelco, Bellefonte, PA) was used with a gradient solvent system of mixed acetonitrile and 0.1 % phosphoric acid/water and an ultra performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector. The method was validated by specificity, linearity, accuracy (recovery) and precision tests (repeatability, intra and inter-day). The correlation coefficients (R (2)) of biomarkers were calculated as 0.9998-1.000 and their ranges were as follows: geniposide (62.5-1,000.0 ?g/ml), berberine (31.3-500.0 mg/ml), palmatine (31.3-500.0 ?g/ml), baicalin (125.0-1,500.0 ?g/ml), baicalein (15.6-250.0 ?g/ml) and wogonin (5.2-125.0 ?g/ml), respectively. The limit of detection was 0.34-4.01 ?g/ml, and the limit of quantification was 1.02-12.16 ?g/ml. The intra-day and inter-day precision of six components were revealed as 0.02-2.48 % as a relative standard deviation (RSD). The repeatability value of biomarkers in three different concentrations of HHT was 0.29-2.98 % (RSD value) and recovery was 95.72-104.90 %. Among several extraction methods tested, biomarker content was higher with the 20 times extraction (20TE) and mixture of extract powder (MEP) methods than with any other method, and some differences among diverse pharmaceutical medicines were revealed. The validation data indicated that the method developed is suited to the determination of six marker compounds in HHT. The content of biomarkers by simultaneous analysis was evaluated in 20TE, MEP, USA formula and Taiwan formula. PMID:22855402

Kim, Se Gun; Poudel, Amrit; Kim, Yun-Kyung; Jo, Hyung-Kwon; Jung, Hyun-Ju

2013-04-01

216

Two Simple Approaches to Overcome a Problem with the Mantel-Haenszel Statistic: Comments on Wang, Bradlow, Wainer, and Muller (2008)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Mantel-Haenszel (MH) procedure (Mantel and Haenszel) is a popular method for estimating and testing a common two-factor association parameter in a 2 x 2 x K table. Holland and Holland and Thayer described how to use the procedure to detect differential item functioning (DIF) for tests with dichotomously scored items. Wang, Bradlow, Wainer, and…

Sinharay, Sandip; Dorans, Neil J.

2010-01-01

217

Discovery of Molecular Mechanisms of Traditional Chinese Medicinal Formula Si-Wu-Tang Using Gene Expression Microarray and Connectivity Map  

PubMed Central

To pursue a systematic approach to discovery of mechanisms of action of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), we used microarrays, bioinformatics and the “Connectivity Map” (CMAP) to examine TCM-induced changes in gene expression. We demonstrated that this approach can be used to elucidate new molecular targets using a model TCM herbal formula Si-Wu-Tang (SWT) which is widely used for women's health. The human breast cancer MCF-7 cells treated with 0.1 µM estradiol or 2.56 mg/ml of SWT showed dramatic gene expression changes, while no significant change was detected for ferulic acid, a known bioactive compound of SWT. Pathway analysis using differentially expressed genes related to the treatment effect identified that expression of genes in the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) cytoprotective pathway was most significantly affected by SWT, but not by estradiol or ferulic acid. The Nrf2-regulated genes HMOX1, GCLC, GCLM, SLC7A11 and NQO1 were upreguated by SWT in a dose-dependent manner, which was validated by real-time RT-PCR. Consistently, treatment with SWT and its four herbal ingredients resulted in an increased antioxidant response element (ARE)-luciferase reporter activity in MCF-7 and HEK293 cells. Furthermore, the gene expression profile of differentially expressed genes related to SWT treatment was used to compare with those of 1,309 compounds in the CMAP database. The CMAP profiles of estradiol-treated MCF-7 cells showed an excellent match with SWT treatment, consistent with SWT's widely claimed use for women's diseases and indicating a phytoestrogenic effect. The CMAP profiles of chemopreventive agents withaferin A and resveratrol also showed high similarity to the profiles of SWT. This study identified SWT as an Nrf2 activator and phytoestrogen, suggesting its use as a nontoxic chemopreventive agent, and demonstrated the feasibility of combining microarray gene expression profiling with CMAP mining to discover mechanisms of actions and to identify new health benefits of TCMs.

Wen, Zhining; Wang, Zhijun; Wang, Steven; Ravula, Ranadheer; Yang, Lun; Xu, Jun; Wang, Charles; Zuo, Zhong; Chow, Moses S. S.; Shi, Leming; Huang, Ying

2011-01-01

218

[Further investigation on Second Volume of Essay on Simple Recipe and Pulsology (SESR) and Wang's Simple Recipes (WSR)].  

PubMed

There are 2 extant editions of SESR, written in Chunyou Jiachen (1244) reign. In the facsimile copy of Song manuscript recorded in Kojima's Records of Investigating Ancient Classics which was brought by Yang Shoujing and is now collected in the Library of Palace Museum in Taipei. There is also a facsimile copy of Song dynasty postscribed by Taki Genkan now collected in Library of Relics and Naturalist Academy of National Imperial Secretariat in Japan. The book is written in one volume, dealing first with four diagnostic methods, followed by drug and therapy and compounding of recipes and "processing" of drugs, thus forming a complete system. The WSR included in Classified Collection of Recipes is not the Essay on Pulsology, neither WANG Shou's Simple Recipes, but Yi jian gui yi (Unity of Simplicity and Easiness) by XU Ruoxu of Yuzhang, Jiangxi of Yuan dynasty, being an epitomized work of all physicians of Yongjia medical schools with only 3 pieces of incomplete papers remained. PMID:11868572

Liu, S; Cheng, K; Lui, S

2000-10-01

219

Quality evaluation of commercial Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang based on simultaneous determination of fourteen major chemical constituents using high performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT), comprising Coptidis Rhizoma, Scutellariae Radix, Phellodendri Cortex and Gardeniae Fructus, is one of the commonly used Chinese medicine formulas for clearing heat and detoxifying. Quality control of the herbal complex like Chinese medicine formulas still remains a challenge. The successful approval of botanical drug Veregen by FDA indicated the importance of quantitative analysis in quality control of herbal medicines. In this study, an effective quantitative method based on conventional HPLC-DAD was developed for simultaneous determination of fourteen major ingredients (seven alkaloids, four flavonoids, three terpenes) in HLJDT. The established method was well validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and stability and then successfully applied to quality evaluation of commercial HLJDT samples. The developed method can quantitatively determine up to 70% of the chemicals of commercial HLJDT sample and effectively revealed the significant variation in the quality of the commercial HLJDT samples collected from different locations. PMID:23973454

Kwok, Ka-Yan; Xu, Jun; Ho, Hing-Man; Chen, Hu-Biao; Li, Min; Lang, Yan; Han, Quan-Bin

2013-11-01

220

A systems biology-based investigation into the therapeutic effects of Gansui Banxia Tang on reversing the imbalanced network of hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Several complex molecular events are involved in tumorigenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The interactions of these molecules may constitute the HCC imbalanced network. Gansui Banxia Tang (GSBXT), as a classic Chinese herbal formula, is a popular complementary and alternative medicine modality for treating HCC. In order to investigate the therapeutic effects and the pharmacological mechanisms of GSBXT on reversing HCC imbalanced network, we in the current study developed a comprehensive systems approach of integrating disease-specific and drug-specific networks, and successfully revealed the relationships of the ingredients in GSBXT with their putative targets, and with HCC significant molecules and HCC related pathway systems for the first time. Meanwhile, further experimental validation also demonstrated the preventive effects of GSBXT on tumor growth in mice and its regulatory effects on potential targets.

ZHANG, Yanqiong; GUO, Xiaodong; WANG, Danhua; LI, Ruisheng; LI, Xiaojuan; XU, Ying; LIU, Zhenli; SONG, Zhiqian; LIN, Ya; LI, Zhiyan; LIN, Na

2014-01-01

221

Simultaneous determination of active flavonoids and alkaloids of Tang-Min-Ling-Pill in rat plasma by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A rapid, sensitive and reliable liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of five active flavonoids (wogonin, chrysin, oroxylin A, naringenin, hesperetin) and four major alkaloids (berberine, coptisine, jatrorrhizine, palmatine) from Tang-Min-Ling-Pill in rat plasma. Plasma samples (100 ?L) were spiked with internal standards daidzein (for flavonoids) and tetrahydropalmatine (for alkaloids), acidified with HCl and extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with acetone. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Zorbax SB-C(18) column with the mobile phase of water (containing 0.1% of formic acid)-acetonitrile (30:70, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min in a run time of 7.0 min. Detection was performed by multiple reaction monitoring mode using electrospray ionization in the positive ion mode. All analytes showed good linearity over the investigated concentration range (r>0.9900). The validated lower limit of quantification was 1.01 ng/mL for wogonin and oroxylin A, 0.238 ng/mL for chrysin, 1.01 ng/mL for naringenin, 0.998 ng/mL for hesperetin, 0.0505 ng/mL for berberine, 0.0996 ng/mL for coptisine, 0.0501 ng/mL for jatrorrhizine, 0.0889 ng/mL for palmatine, respectively. Intra- and inter-day precision (RSD%) was less than 15% and accuracy (RE%) ranged from -7.5% to 4.5%. The validated method was successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics of the major flavonoids and alkaloids of Tang-Min-Ling-Pill after oral administration to rats. PMID:22883103

Zhu, Yonghong; Tong, Ling; Zhou, Shuiping; Sun, He; Bi, Kaishun; Zhang, Boli

2012-09-01

222

Genotoxicity evaluation of Guibi-Tang extract using an in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay, chromosome aberration assay, and in vivo micronucleus test  

PubMed Central

Background Guibi-Tang is a traditional herbal prescription made from 12 different herbs that is used in the treatment of amnesia and poor memory. Methods In the present study, we evaluated the acute oral toxicity and genotoxic potential of Guibi-Tang water extract (GBT) at doses up to 2000 ?g/plate an using a bacterial reverse mutation test (Ames test) with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100, TA1535, TA98, and TA1537, and Escherichia coli strain WP2uvrA. Acute toxicity and genotoxic potential were measured in the presence and absence of an exogenous source of metabolic activation, in an in vitro chromosome aberration assay with Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells, and in an in vivo micronucleus test using ICR mice bone marrow as recommended by the Korean Food and Drug Administration. An acute oral toxicity test of GBT was performed in Sprague Dawley rats. The Ames test showed that GBT did not induce gene mutations in S. typhimurium or in E. coli in the presence or absence of S9 activation. Results GBT did not significantly increase the number of structural aberrations in CHL cells with or without S9 activation. The oral administration of GBT at a dose of up to 2000 mg/kg caused no significant increase in the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes or in the mean ratio of polychromatic to total erythrocytes. Conclusions However, as we did not identify the components of GBT responsible for these effects, other assays are needed to confirm its genotoxicity.

2014-01-01

223

The construction of the spatio-temporal database of the ancient Silk Road within Xinjiang province during the Han and Tang dynasties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the bridge over the Chinese and Western civilization, the ancient Silk Road has made a huge contribution to cultural, economic, political exchanges between China and western countries. In this paper, we treated the historical period of Western Han Dynasty, Eastern Han Dynasty and Tang Dynasty as the research time domain, and the Western Regions' countries that were existed along the Silk Road at the mean time as the research spatial domain. Then we imported these data into the SQL Server database we constructed, from which we could either query the attribute information such as population, military force, the era of the Central Plains empire, the significant events taking place in the country and some related attribute information of these events like the happened calendar year in addition to some related spatial information such as the present location, the coordinates of the capital and the territory by inputting the name of the Western countries. At the same time we could query the significant events, government institution in Central Plains and the existent Western countries at the mean time by inputting the calendar year. Based on the database, associated with GIS, RS, Flex, C# and other related information technology and network technology, we could not only browsing, searching and editing the information of the ancient Silk Road in Xinjiang Province during the Han and Tang Dynasties, but preliminary analysing as well. This is the combination of archaeology and modern information technology, and the database could also be a reference to further study, research and practice in the related fields in the future.

Bi, Jiantao; Luo, Guilin; Wang, Xingxing; Zhu, Zuojia

2014-03-01

224

Wang H Galbán S Wu R Bowman B Witte A Vetter K Galbán CJ Ross BD Chi KR Rehemtulla A. Molecular Imaging Reveals Role Act Resistance Cisplatin overrun Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma. Cline Cancer Res  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Did you mean: Wang H Galbán S Wu R Bowman B Witte A Vetter K Galbán CJ Ross BD Chi KR Rehemtulla A. Molecular Imaging Reveals Role Act Resistance Cisplatin overrun Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma. Cline Cancer Res ?

225

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of nine major compounds in the Bozhougyiqi-Tang using a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector and electrospray ionization mass spectrometer  

PubMed Central

Background: Bozhougyiqi-Tang (BZYQT) is of traditional herbal medicine used for enhancement of digestive capacity. Objective: An accurate and reliable simultaneous determination using a HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS was developed and validated for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of 9 major compounds, ferulic acid (1), naringin (2), hesperidin (3), decursinol (4), glycyrrhizin (5), saikosaponin A (6), 6-gingerol (7), ginsenoside Rg3 (8), decursin (9), in traditional herbal medicine ‘Bozhougyiqi-Tang.’ Materials and Methods: The chromatographic separation of 9 compounds was performed on a SHISEIDO C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., S-5 ?m) using gradient elution with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The 9 compounds were identified based on peak retention time and UV spectrum and MS data of these compounds. Results: This developed method showed good linearity (R2 > 0.999). The LOD and LOQ of the major compounds were less than 0.09 and 0.28 ?g/ml, respectively. The intra - day and inter - day RSD values were within 2.06% and 1.64%, respectively. The mean recoveries were from 92.10% to 108.56% with less than 1.88%. The results indicated that established method had good precision and accuracy. Conclusion: The new method was successfully applied to the simultaneous analysis of 9 compounds in Bozhougyiqi-Tangs samples.

Weon, Jin Bae; Ma, Jin Yeul; Yang, Hye Jin; Lee, Bohyoung; Yun, Bo-Ra; Ma, Choong Je

2013-01-01

226

Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta): a new species from South China Sea based on morphological observation and rbcL gene sequences analysis.  

PubMed

Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. is a new species described from Lingshui, Hainan Province, South China Sea. Based on the external form and internal structure, combined with rbcL gene sequence analysis, Grateloupia tenuis is distinct from other Grateloupia species as follows: (1) thalli is slippery and cartilaginous in texture; possess fewer branches, relatively slight main axes, and two or three dichotomous branches; (2) cortex is 5-6 layers; medulla is solid when young, but hollow in old branches; reproductive structures are dispersed in main axes of thalli and lower portions of branchlets; exhibits Grateloupia-type auxiliary cell ampullae; (3) the four studied G. tenuis sequences were positioned in a large Grateloupia clade of Halymeniaceae, which included sister group generitype G. filicina with 68 bp differences; G. tenuis was determined to be a sister taxon to the G. catenata, G. ramosissima, G. orientalis, and G. filiformis subclade. The pairwise distances between G. tenuis and these species were 39 to 50 bp. The sequences of G. tenuis differed by 81-108 bp from the sequences of other samples in Grateloupia; there are 114-133 bp changes between G. tenuis and other genera of Halymeniaceae. In final analysis, we considered Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. to be a new species of genus Grateloupia. PMID:24455703

Yu, Ling; Wang, Hongwei; Luan, Rixiao

2013-01-01

227

Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta): A New Species from South China Sea Based on Morphological Observation and rbcL Gene Sequences Analysis  

PubMed Central

Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. is a new species described from Lingshui, Hainan Province, South China Sea. Based on the external form and internal structure, combined with rbcL gene sequence analysis, Grateloupia tenuis is distinct from other Grateloupia species as follows: (1) thalli is slippery and cartilaginous in texture; possess fewer branches, relatively slight main axes, and two or three dichotomous branches; (2) cortex is 5-6 layers; medulla is solid when young, but hollow in old branches; reproductive structures are dispersed in main axes of thalli and lower portions of branchlets; exhibits Grateloupia-type auxiliary cell ampullae; (3) the four studied G. tenuis sequences were positioned in a large Grateloupia clade of Halymeniaceae, which included sister group generitype G. filicina with 68?bp differences; G. tenuis was determined to be a sister taxon to the G. catenata, G. ramosissima, G. orientalis, and G. filiformis subclade. The pairwise distances between G. tenuis and these species were 39 to 50?bp. The sequences of G. tenuis differed by 81–108?bp from the sequences of other samples in Grateloupia; there are 114–133?bp changes between G. tenuis and other genera of Halymeniaceae. In final analysis, we considered Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. to be a new species of genus Grateloupia.

Wang, Hongwei; Luan, Rixiao

2013-01-01

228

Modeling the width and placement of riparian vegetated buffer strips: a case study on the Chi-Jia-Wang stream, Taiwan.  

PubMed

Improper agricultural activities seriously affect water quality. It is very important to control agricultural nonpoint source pollution along the Chi-Jia-Wang Stream to protect the habitat of land-locked salmon (Oncorhynchus masou formosanus), one of the endangered species in Taiwan. Riparian vegetative buffer strips are used to intercept wastewater, surface runoff and groundwater flow to reduce pesticide, nutrient and other organic pollutants before they enter the stream. This study estimates the suitable width for vegetated buffer strips in the riparian zone along the stream using a geographic information system and an index model. The groundwater in the study area is easily contaminated by pollutants due to the high hydraulic conductivity in the riparian zone of the Chi-Jia-Wang Stream. After comparing simulations on selected 46 kinds of selected pesticides, the maximum safety depth of Fenarimol was estimated. A wider Fenarimol vegetated strip is needed as a buffer zone to ensure pollution control effectiveness. Simulation results can provide a preliminary evaluation for the soil or groundwater pollution caused by pesticides, but the actual influences require onsite data verification. PMID:12448405

Lin, C Y; Chou, W C; Lin, W T

2002-11-01

229

U-Bang-Haequi Tang: A Herbal Prescription that Prevents Acute Inflammation through Inhibition of NF-?B-Mediated Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase  

PubMed Central

Since antiquity, medical herbs have been prescribed for both treatment and preventative purposes. Herbal formulas are used to reduce toxicity as well as increase efficacy in traditional Korean medicine. U-bang-haequi tang (UBT) is a herbal prescription containing Arctii fructus and Forsythia suspensa as its main components and has treated many human diseases in traditional Korean medicine. This research investigated the effects of UBT against an acute phase of inflammation. For this, we measured induction of nitric oxide (NO) and related proteins in macrophage cell line stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Further, paw swelling was measured in carrageenan-treated rats. Carrageenan significantly induced activation of inflammatory cells and increases in paw volume, whereas oral administration of 0.3 or 1?g/kg/day of UBT inhibited the acute inflammatory response. In RAW264.7 cells, UBT inhibited mRNA and protein expression levels of iNOS. UBT treatment also blocked elevation of NO production, nuclear translocation of NF-?B, phosphorylation of I?-B? induced by LPS. Moreover, UBT treatment significantly blocked the phosphorylation of p38 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases by LPS. In conclusion, UBT prevented both acute inflammation in rats as well as LPS-induced NO and iNOS gene expression through inhibition of NF-?B in RAW264.7 cells.

Hwangbo, Min; Jung, Ji Yun; Ki, Sung Hwan; Park, Sang Mi; Jegal, Kyung Hwan; Lee, Ju-Hee; Kang, Seung Ho; Park, Sun-Dong; Ku, Sae Kwang; Zhao, Rong Jie; Jee, Seon Young

2014-01-01

230

Simultaneous determination of five marker compounds in Xuanfu Daizhe Tang by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection for quality control  

PubMed Central

Background: Xuanfu Daizhe Tang (XDT) is a classical traditional Chinese medicinal prescription that has been widely used for treating digestive system illnesses for hundreds of years. Materials and Methods: In this study, a simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method was established for the simultaneous determination of five marker compounds in XDT including chlorogenic acid, glycyrrhizic acid, ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Rb1 and ginsenoside Re, for quality control of this well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Results: These compounds were separated in less than 130 min using a YMC C18 column with a gradient elution system of acetonitrile and 0.1% phosphoric acid water solution at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. All calibration curves of standard components showed good linearity with R2 >0.9991. Limit of detection and limit of quantification varied from 0.11 to 4.3 ?g/ml and 0.20 to 11.6 ?g/ml, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the intra-day and inter-day experiments were less than 4.72 and 5.48%, respectively. The accuracy of recovery test ranged from 95.0 to 105.0% with RSD values 1.28- 4.32%. Conclusion: The validated method is simple, reliable, and successfully applied to determine the contents of the selected compounds in XDT for quality control.

Qin, Kunming; Wang, Bin; Cai, Hao; Li, Weidong; Yao, Zhongqing; Zhang, Xingde; Lu, Tulin; Cai, Baochang

2012-01-01

231

A chinese herbal decoction, danggui buxue tang, stimulates proliferation, differentiation and gene expression of cultured osteosarcoma cells: genomic approach to reveal specific gene activation.  

PubMed

Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), a Chinese herbal decoction used to treat ailments in women, contains Radix Astragali (Huangqi; RA) and Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Danggui; RAS). When DBT was applied onto cultured MG-63 cells, an increase of cell proliferation and differentiation of MG-63 cell were revealed: both of these effects were significantly higher in DBT than RA or RAS extract. To search for the biological markers that are specifically regulated by DBT, DNA microarray was used to reveal the gene expression profiling of DBT in MG-63 cells as compared to that of RA- or RAS-treated cells. Amongst 883 DBT-regulated genes, 403 of them are specifically regulated by DBT treatment, including CCL-2, CCL-7, CCL-8, and galectin-9. The signaling cascade of this DBT-regulated gene expression was also elucidated in cultured MG-63 cells. The current results reveal the potential usage of this herbal decoction in treating osteoporosis and suggest the uniqueness of Chinese herbal decoction that requires a well-defined formulation. The DBT-regulated genes in the culture could serve as biological responsive markers for quality assurance of the herbal preparation. PMID:19131392

Choi, Roy C Y; Gao, Qiu T; Cheung, Anna W H; Zhu, Judy T T; Lau, Faye T C; Li, Jun; Li, Winnie Z M; Chu, Glanice K Y; Duan, Ran; Cheung, Jerry K H; Ding, An W; Zhao, Kui J; Dong, Tina T X; Tsim, Karl W K

2011-01-01

232

In-vivo and in-vitro studies on the effect of Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang on nimodipine transport across rat blood-brain barrier.  

PubMed

Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT), an aqueous extract of Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae, Cortex Phellodendri and Fructus Gardeniae (3:2:2:3) is an important multi-herb remedy in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of HLJDT on nimodipine transport across rat blood-brain barrier (BBB). It was found that in-vivo the brain concentrations of nimodipine significantly increased when rats were pretreated with HLJDT. In-vitro, the serum of HLJDT-treated rats increased the accumulation of nimodipine in primary cultured rat brain microvessel endothelial cells (rBMECs) and decreased the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) on rBMECs. Our previous study showed that the peak concentration of baicalin and berberine in rats after administration of HLJDT was 5 mug mL(-1) and 10 ng mL(-1), respectively. This study showed that 5 mug mL(-1) baicalin significantly increased the accumulation of nimodipine in rBMECs, while 10 ng mL(-1) berberine had no effect on the accumulation of nimodipine in rBMECs. Both the in-vivo and in-vitro experimental findings indicated that HLJDT pretreatment may alter the transport of nimodipine across rat BBB. PMID:18053337

Zhang, Dong Mei; He, Zhen Wei; Liu, Xiao Dong; Li, Yang; Xie, Lin; Wang, Guang Ji; Liu, Li

2007-12-01

233

The effects of Gamijinhae-tang on elastase/lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation in an animal model of acute lung injury  

PubMed Central

Background Gamijinhae-tang (GJHT) has long been used in Korea to treat respiratory diseases. The therapeutic effect of GJHT is likely associated with its anti-inflammatory activity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying its effects are unknown. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of GJHT in a porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) and lipopolysaccharide(LPS) induced animal model of acute lung injury (ALI). Methods In this study, mice were intranasally exposed to PPE and LPS for 4 weeks to induce chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-like lung inflammation. Two hours prior to PPE and LPS administration, the treatment group was administered GJHT extracts via an oral injection. The numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes, macrophages and total cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were counted, and pro-inflammatory cytokines were also measured. For histologic analysis, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stains and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stains were evaluated. Results After inducing ALI by treating mice with PPE and LPS for 4 weeks, the numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes and total cells were significantly lower in the GJHT group than in the ALI group. In addition, the IL-1? and IL-6 levels were significantly decreased in the GJHT group. The histological results also demonstrated the attenuation effect of GJHT on PPE- and LPS-induced lung inflammation. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that GJHT has significantly reduces PPE- and LPS-induced lung inflammation. The remarkable protective effects of GJHT suggest its therapeutic potential in COPD treatment.

2013-01-01

234

Identification of the effective constituents for anti-inflammatory activity of Ju-Zhi-Jiang-Tang, an ancient traditional Chinese medicine formula.  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory constituents of Ju-Zhi-Jiang-Tang (JZJT), a formula used for thousands of years in China, were identified by LC-MS and pharmacological activity evaluation. In this study, the whole extract of formula was separated into multiple components to facilitate the analytical process. To characterize their contributions to pharmacological activity of formula, activity indexes of constituents were proposed and calculated for the first time, which integrated the chemical and pharmacological information of multiple components. Among the 151 constituents detected in JZJT by LC-Q-TOF-MS and LC-IT-MS, a total number of 108 constituents were identified unambiguously or tentatively, including eighteen potential novel compounds. And, the structures of some constituents were confirmed by NMR. According to their activity indexes, polymethoxy flavones were indicated as the major active constituents responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of JZJT. To verify the feasibility of activity indexes in predicting the active constituents, nine compounds with positive and negative index values were selected to validate their anti-inflammatory activity in vitro. The results showed that two polymethoxy flavones with higher positive index values, i.e., nobiletin and tangeretin can significantly exert anti-inflammatory effects, while other compounds with negative values did not show any activity. In conclusion, our results indicated the proposed approach might be an efficient and rapid way to identify active constituents of TCM formulae. PMID:24813935

Wang, Shufang; Chen, Pinghong; Jiang, Wei; Wu, Leihong; Chen, Lulin; Fan, Xiaohui; Wang, Yi; Cheng, Yiyu

2014-06-27

235

Inhibitory Effects of Chung Hun Wha Dam Tang (CHWDT) on High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity via AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Activation  

PubMed Central

The Chung Hun Wha Dam Tang (CHWDT) herbal combination was reported to cease dizziness and phlegm. However, the effect of CHWDT in obesity has not yet been known mechanically. Therefore, we investigated whether this CHWDT could protect the cells from lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and inflammation in both in vivo and in vitro. CHWDT significantly decreased body weight, epididymal and perirenal fat content without affecting feed intake in high-fat diet-induced obese mice model. Additionally, CHWDT inhibited obesity-induced SREBP1, FAS, PGC1?, G6Pase, PEPCK and increased CPT1, ACO, and LCAD genes expression in vivo and in vitro. Proinflammatory cytokines like TNF-? and iNOS expression were reduced by CHWDT in both Raw264.7 macrophages and HepG2 cells. In addition, NO production was also significantly decreased by CHWDT in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Furthermore, AMPK? activation by CHWDT was involved in inhibition of obesity by reducing triglycerides production and increasing CPT1 expression. Based on all of the results, we suggest that CHWDT has inhibitory effects on obesity-induced lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and inflammation via AMPK? activation.

Uddin, Md. Jamal; Joe, Yeonsoo; Zheng, Min; Kim, Sena; Lee, Hoyoung; Kwon, Tae-Oh; Chung, Hun Taeg

2012-01-01

236

Involvement of MAPKs and PLC Pathways in Modulation of Pacemaking Activity by So-Cheong-Ryong-Tang in Interstitial Cells of Cajal from Murine Small Intestine  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are the pacemaker cells that generate slow waves in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We have aimed to investigate the effects of Socheongryong-Tang (SCRT) in ICCs from mouse's small intestine. Methods. The whole-cell patch-clamp configuration was used to record membrane potentials from cultured ICCs. Intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) increase was studied in cultured ICCs using fura-2 AM. Results. ICCs generated pacemaker potentials in mouse's small intestine. SCRT produced membrane depolarization in current clamp mode. Y25130 (5-HT3 receptor antagonist) and RS39604 (5-HT4 receptor antagonist) blocked SCRT-induced membrane depolarizations, whereas SB269970 (5-HT7 receptor antagonist) did not. When GDP-?-S (1?mM) was in the pipette solution, SCRT did not induce the membrane depolarizations. [Ca2+]i analysis showed that SCRT increased [Ca2+]i. In the presence of PD98059 (p42/44 MAPK inhibitor), SCRT did not produce membrane depolarizations. In addition, SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) and JNK inhibitors blocked the depolarizations by SCRT in pacemaker potentials. Furthermore, the membrane depolarizations by SCRT were not inhibited by U-73122, an active phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, but by U-73343, an inactive PLC inhibitor. Conclusion. These results suggest that SCRT might affect GI motility by the modulation of pacemaker activity through MAPKs and PLC pathways in the ICCs.

Hwang, Min Woo; Lee, Hee Jung

2013-01-01

237

Traditional Formula, Modern Application: Chinese Medicine Formula Sini Tang Improves Early Ventricular Remodeling and Cardiac Function after Myocardial Infarction in Rats  

PubMed Central

Sini Tang (SNT) is a traditional Chinese herbal formula consisting of four different herbs: the root of Aconitum carmichaelii, the bark of Cinnamomum cassia, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, and the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis. This study aims to evaluate the improvement of early ventricular remodeling and cardiac function in myocardial infarction (MI) rats by SNT. A MI model was established by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Following treatment for 4 weeks, ultrasonic echocardiography was performed. Myocardial histopathological changes were observed using haematoxylin and eosin staining. Collagens (type I and type III), transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1), and Toll-like receptors (TLR-2 and TLR-4) were measured in plasma, serum, and myocardial tissue. SNT treatment decreased the infarct size, the left ventricular cavity area/heart cavity area ratio, and the left ventricle dimension at end systole and increased the left ventricular ejection fraction. SNT reduced the levels of TLR-2 and TLR-4 in myocardial tissue significantly and decreased the collagens content in serum and in myocardial tissue. SNT could partially reduce the level of TGF-?1 in serum and in myocardial tissue. Our data suggest that the Chinese medicine formula SNT has the potential to improve early ventricular remodeling and cardiac function after MI.

Liu, Jiangang; Peter, Karoline; Shi, Dazhuo; Zhang, Lei; Dong, Guoju; Zhang, Dawu; Breiteneder, Heimo; Ma, Yan

2014-01-01

238

U-Bang-Haequi Tang: A Herbal Prescription that Prevents Acute Inflammation through Inhibition of NF-?B-Mediated Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase.  

PubMed

Since antiquity, medical herbs have been prescribed for both treatment and preventative purposes. Herbal formulas are used to reduce toxicity as well as increase efficacy in traditional Korean medicine. U-bang-haequi tang (UBT) is a herbal prescription containing Arctii fructus and Forsythia suspensa as its main components and has treated many human diseases in traditional Korean medicine. This research investigated the effects of UBT against an acute phase of inflammation. For this, we measured induction of nitric oxide (NO) and related proteins in macrophage cell line stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Further, paw swelling was measured in carrageenan-treated rats. Carrageenan significantly induced activation of inflammatory cells and increases in paw volume, whereas oral administration of 0.3 or 1?g/kg/day of UBT inhibited the acute inflammatory response. In RAW264.7 cells, UBT inhibited mRNA and protein expression levels of iNOS. UBT treatment also blocked elevation of NO production, nuclear translocation of NF-?B, phosphorylation of I?-B? induced by LPS. Moreover, UBT treatment significantly blocked the phosphorylation of p38 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases by LPS. In conclusion, UBT prevented both acute inflammation in rats as well as LPS-induced NO and iNOS gene expression through inhibition of NF-?B in RAW264.7 cells. PMID:24959187

Hwangbo, Min; Jung, Ji Yun; Ki, Sung Hwan; Park, Sang Mi; Jegal, Kyung Hwan; Cho, Il Je; Lee, Ju-Hee; Kang, Seung Ho; Park, Sun-Dong; Ku, Sae Kwang; Kim, Sang Chan; Zhao, Rong Jie; Jee, Seon Young; Kim, Young Woo

2014-01-01

239

Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang Protects Rats from Cardiac Damages Induced by Metabolic Disorder by Improving Inflammation-Mediated Insulin Resistance  

PubMed Central

Huang-lian-jie-du-tang (HLJDT), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been shown to improve insulin resistance (IR) induced by inflammation, a key event in the development of metabolic syndrome (MS). The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of HLJDT on MS and explore the underlying mechanism. MS rats were established with obese-diets and treated with normal saline, aspirin or HLJDT. The myocardial lesions were identified by echocardiogram, transmission electron microscope, and Sirius-red staining. The inflammatory cytokines were measured by ELISA and real-time PCR. The activation of NF-?B, JNK, SOCS3, IRS1 and AKT in the heart was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Compared with the controls, MS rats developed obvious obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, IR, inflammation, and cardiac damage. Moreover, phosphorylated IRS-1 at Ser307 was correlated with the activation of NF-?B, JNK and SOCS3 and the inhibition of AKT in the heart from MS rats. These data suggest that serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 in response to inflammation is mediated, in part, by NF-?B, JNK and SOCS3. Notably, HLJDT inhibited the activation of NF-?B and reduced serine phosphorylation of IRS-1. In summary, HLJDT protects myocardium from IR-mediated injury by inhibiting serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 in MS rats.

Li, Chuan Bao; Li, Xiao Xing; Chen, Yu Guo; Gao, Hai Qing; Bu, Pei Li; Zhang, Yun; Ji, Xiao Ping

2013-01-01

240

Chemical differentiation of Da-Cheng-Qi-Tang, a Chinese medicine formula, prepared by traditional and modern decoction methods using UPLC/Q-TOFMS-based metabolomics approach.  

PubMed

In order to evaluate chemical consistency between traditional and modern decoctions of Da-Cheng-Qi-Tang (DCQT), a classical Chinese medicine formula commonly used in the treatment of digestive diseases, an ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOFMS) combined with multivariate statistical analysis was established to globally characterize the chemical profile and discover differentiating chemical markers. Two kinds of decoctions, namely traditional decoction (multi-step decoction of constituent herbs), and modern decoction (one-step decoction of all herbs), were prepared and subjected to UPLC-MS analysis, the datasets of tR-m/z pairs, ion intensities and sample codes were processed with supervised orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to comprehensively compare the chemical difference between these two kinds of decoction samples. The global chemical difference was found between traditional and modern decoctions, and rhein, sennoside A/B, diosmetin, magnoloside B and naringin were the components contributing most to these differences. Based on the fact that traditional decoction of DCQT presents the higher concentration of rhein and sennoside A/B, mainly contributed to laxative activity of DCQT, the purgative effect of traditional decoction might be more potent, compared with modern decoction. However, the comparative study on purgative effect of traditional and modern DCQT remains to be further investigated using pharmacological approaches. Our findings also provide the early scientific evidence of traditional decoction method of DCQT. PMID:23685412

Wan, Jian-Bo; Bai, Xu; Cai, Xiu-Jiang; Rao, Yi; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Wang, Yi-Tao

2013-09-01

241

Immunomodulatory Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine Formula Sheng-Fei-Yu-Chuan-Tang in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury Mice  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese medicine formula Sheng-Fei-Yu-Chuan-Tang (SFYCT), consisting of 13 medicinal plants, was used to treat patients with lung diseases. This study investigated the immunoregulatory effect of SFYCT on intratracheal lipopolysaccharides- (LPS-) challenged acute lung injury (ALI) mice. SFYCT attenuated pulmonary edema, macrophages, and neutrophils infiltration in the airways. SFYCT decreased inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?), interleukin-1?, and interleukin-6 and inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production but increased anti-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-4, and interleukin-10, in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of LPS-challenged mice. TNF? and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 mRNA expression in the lung of LPS-challenged mice as well as LPS-stimulated lung epithelial cell and macrophage were decreased by SFYCT treatment. SFYCT treatment also decreased the inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and phosphorylation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) in the lung of mice and macrophage with LPS stimulation. SFYCT treatment dose dependently decreased the LPS-induced NO and reactive oxygen species generation in LPS-stimulated macrophage. In conclusion, SFYCT attenuated lung inflammation during LPS-induced ALI through decreasing inflammatory cytokines production while increasing anti-inflammatory cytokines production. The immunoregulatory effect of SFYCT is related to inhibiting NF-?B phosphorylation.

Lin, Chia-Hung; Yeh, Ching-Hua; Wang, Shulhn-Der; Wang, Jen-Shu; Kao, Shung-Te

2013-01-01

242

Traditional formula, modern application: chinese medicine formula sini tang improves early ventricular remodeling and cardiac function after myocardial infarction in rats.  

PubMed

SINI TANG (SNT) IS A TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL FORMULA CONSISTING OF FOUR DIFFERENT HERBS: the root of Aconitum carmichaelii, the bark of Cinnamomum cassia, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, and the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis. This study aims to evaluate the improvement of early ventricular remodeling and cardiac function in myocardial infarction (MI) rats by SNT. A MI model was established by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Following treatment for 4 weeks, ultrasonic echocardiography was performed. Myocardial histopathological changes were observed using haematoxylin and eosin staining. Collagens (type I and type III), transforming growth factor- ? 1 (TGF- ? 1), and Toll-like receptors (TLR-2 and TLR-4) were measured in plasma, serum, and myocardial tissue. SNT treatment decreased the infarct size, the left ventricular cavity area/heart cavity area ratio, and the left ventricle dimension at end systole and increased the left ventricular ejection fraction. SNT reduced the levels of TLR-2 and TLR-4 in myocardial tissue significantly and decreased the collagens content in serum and in myocardial tissue. SNT could partially reduce the level of TGF- ? 1 in serum and in myocardial tissue. Our data suggest that the Chinese medicine formula SNT has the potential to improve early ventricular remodeling and cardiac function after MI. PMID:24971143

Liu, Jiangang; Peter, Karoline; Shi, Dazhuo; Zhang, Lei; Dong, Guoju; Zhang, Dawu; Breiteneder, Heimo; Jakowitsch, Johannes; Ma, Yan

2014-01-01

243

A comprehensive platform for quality control of botanical drugs (PhytomicsQC): a case study of Huangqin Tang (HQT) and PHY906  

PubMed Central

Background Establishing botanical extracts as globally-accepted polychemical medicines and a new paradigm for disease treatment, requires the development of high-level quality control metrics. Based on comprehensive chemical and biological fingerprints correlated with pharmacology, we propose a general approach called PhytomicsQC to botanical quality control. Methods Incorporating the state-of-the-art analytical methodologies, PhytomicsQC was employed in this study and included the use of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) for chemical characterization and chemical fingerprinting, differential cellular gene expression for bioresponse fingerprinting and animal pharmacology for in vivo validation. A statistical pattern comparison method, Phytomics Similarity Index (PSI), based on intensities and intensity ratios, was used to determine the similarity of the chemical and bioresponse fingerprints among different manufactured batches. Results Eighteen batch samples of Huangqin Tang (HQT) and its pharmaceutical grade version (PHY906) were analyzed using the PhytomicsQC platform analysis. Comparative analysis of the batch samples with a clinically tested standardized batch obtained values of PSI similarity between 0.67 and 0.99. Conclusion With rigorous quality control using analytically sensitive and comprehensive chemical and biological fingerprinting, botanical formulations manufactured under standardized manufacturing protocols can produce highly consistent batches of products.

2010-01-01

244

Chinese Patent Medicine Liu Wei Di Huang Wan Combined with Antihypertensive Drugs, a New Integrative Medicine Therapy, for the Treatment of Essential Hypertension: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To assess the beneficial and adverse effects of Liu Wei Di Huang Wan (LWDHW), combined with antihypertensive drugs, for essential hypertension. Methods. Five major electronic databases were searched up to August 2012 to retrieve any potential randomized controlled trials designed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of LWDHW combined with antihypertensive drugs for essential hypertension reported in any language, with main outcome measures as blood pressure. The quality of the included studies was assessed with the Jadad scale and a customized standard quality assessment scale. Results. 6 randomized trials were included. The methodological quality of the trials was evaluated as generally low. The pooled results showed that LWDHW combined with antihypertensive drugs was more effective in blood pressure and the scale for TCM syndrome and symptom differentiation scores compared with antihypertensive drugs alone. Most of the trials did not report adverse events, and the safety is still uncertain. Conclusions. LWDHW combined with antihypertensive drugs appears to be effective in improving blood pressure and symptoms in patients with essential hypertension. However, the evidence remains weak due to the poor methodological quality of the included studies.

Wang, Jie; Yao, Kuiwu; Yang, Xiaochen; Liu, Wei; Feng, Bo; Ma, Jizheng; Du, Xinliang; Wang, Pengqian; Xiong, Xingjiang

2012-01-01

245

CUDA programs for the GPU computing of the Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster spin flip algorithm: 2D and 3D Ising, Potts, and XY models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present sample CUDA programs for the GPU computing of the Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster spin flip algorithm. We deal with the classical spin models; the Ising model, the q-state Potts model, and the classical XY model. As for the lattice, both the 2D (square) lattice and the 3D (simple cubic) lattice are treated. We already reported the idea of the GPU implementation for 2D models (Komura and Okabe, 2012). We here explain the details of sample programs, and discuss the performance of the present GPU implementation for the 3D Ising and XY models. We also show the calculated results of the moment ratio for these models, and discuss phase transitions.

Komura, Yukihiro; Okabe, Yutaka

2014-03-01

246

On the Swendsen-Wang dynamics. II. Critical droplets and homogeneous nucleation at low temperature for the two-dimensional Ising model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the Swendsen-Wang dynamics for the two-dimensional Ising model at low temperature in the presence of a small negative magnetic field h and with plus boundary conditions at the boundary of an arbitrarily large square. We analyze in detail the tunneling from the metastable phase to the stable one. In particular, we obtain an upper bound on the tunneling time t ? by explicitly constructing paths in the space of spin configurations that drive the system from the metastable phase to the stable one. In our analysis the transition takes place through the formation of droplets of the right phase inside the wrong one with side greater than a certain critical value l c . The values of the tunneling time and of l c coincide with those found for a single-spin-flip dynamics in finite volume by Jordao-Neves and Schonmann.

Martinelli, Fabio; Olivieri, Enzo; Scoppola, Elisabetta

1991-01-01

247

Using UPLC-QTOF-MS to analyze the chemical changes between traditional and dispensing granule decoctions of San-Ao-Tang.  

PubMed

In the present study, a chemical profiling approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-TOF-MS) was proposed to rapidly evaluate the chemical consistency between traditional and dispensing granule decoctions of traditional medicine combinatorial formulae and validated using San-Ao-Tang (SAT) as a model combinatorial formula. SAT is an effective traditional Chinese medicine, which is usually used in treating asthma and other diseases of the respiratory system. Two decoctions were prepared: traditional decoction, which is a water extract of three mixed constituent herbs of SAT; and dispensing granule decoction, which is a mixed water extract of each individual herb of SAT. Batches of these two decoction samples were subjected to UPLC-PDA-TOF-MS analysis and the data sets of t(R)-m/z pairs, ion intensities and sample codes were processed with supervised orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis to holistically compare their differences. Once a clear classification trend was found in the score plot, further statistics were performed to generate points at the two ends of S, and the components that correlated to these ions were regarded as the most changed components during decoction of the combinatorial formula. The changed components were identified by comparing the mass/ultraviolet spectra and retention times with those of reference compounds and/or tentatively assigned by matching empirical molecular formulae with those of the known compounds published in the literature. Using the proposed approach, global chemical differences were found between traditional and dispensing granule decoctions, like ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, licorice saponine H2, licorice saponine G2 and amygdalin. PMID:23572319

Ma, Chunhua; Qian, Yefei; Fan, Xinsheng; Shang, ErXin; Yao, Xin; Ma, Shiping

2014-04-01

248

Unique mechanisms of sheng yu decoction ( shèng yù tang) on ischemic stroke mice revealed by an integrated neurofunctional and transcriptome analysis.  

PubMed

Sheng Yu Decoction ( Shèng Yù Tang; SYD) is a popular traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) remedy used in treating cardiovascular and brain-related dysfunction clinically; yet, its neuroprotective mechanisms are still unclear. Here, mice were subjected to an acute ischemic stroke to examine the efficacy and mechanisms of action of SYD by an integrated neurofunctional and transcriptome analysis. More than 80% of the mice died within 2 days after ischemic stroke with vehicle treatment. Treatments with SYD (1.0 g/kg, twice daily, orally or p.o.) and recombinant thrombolytic tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA; 10 mg/kg, once daily, intravenously or i.v.) both significantly extended the lifespan as compared to that of the vehicle-treated stroke group. SYD successfully restored brain function, ameliorated cerebral infarction and oxidative stress, and significantly improved neurological deficits in mice with stroke. Molecular impact of SYD by a genome-wide transcriptome analysis using brains from stroke mice showed a total of 162 out of 2081 ischemia-induced probe sets were significantly influenced by SYD. Mining the functional modules and genetic networks of these 162 genes revealed a significant upregulation of neuroprotective genes in Wnt receptor signaling pathway (3 genes) and regulation of cell communication (7 genes) and downregulation of destructive genes in response to stress (13 genes) and in the induction of inflammation (5 genes), cytokine production (4 genes), angiogenesis (3 genes), vasculature (6 genes) and blood vessel (5 genes) development, wound healing (7 genes), defense response (7 genes), chemotaxis (4 genes), immune response (7 genes), antigen processing and presenting (3 genes), and leukocyte-mediated cytotoxicity (2 genes) by SYD. Our results suggest that SYD could protect mice against ischemic stroke primarily through significantly downregulating the damaging genes involved in stress, inflammation, angiogenesis, blood vessel formation, immune responses, and wound healing, as well as upregulating the genes mediating neurogenesis and cell communication, which make SYD beneficial for treating ischemic stroke. PMID:24716184

Hou, Yu-Chang; Lu, Chung-Kuang; Wang, Yea-Hwey; Chern, Chang-Ming; Liou, Kuo-Tong; Wang, Hsei-Wei; Shen, Yuh-Chiang

2013-10-01

249

Teng-Long-Bu-Zhong-Tang, a Chinese herbal formula, enhances anticancer effects of 5 - Fluorouracil in CT26 colon carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Colorectal cancer remains one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has played a positive role in colorectal cancer treatment. There is a great need to establish effective herbal formula for colorectal cancer treatment. Based on TCM principles and clinical practices, we have established an eight herbs composed formula for colorectal cancer treatment, which is Teng-Long-Bu-Zhong-Tang (TLBZT). We have demonstrated the anticancer effects of TLBZT against colorectal carcinoma in vitro. In present study, we evaluated the anticancer potential of TLBZT, used alone or in combination with low dose of 5-Fluorouracil (5-Fu), in CT26 colon carcinoma in vivo. Methods CT26 colon carcinoma was established in BALB/c mice and treated with TLBZT, 5-Fu, or TLBZT plus 5-Fu. The tumor volumes were observed. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL assay. Caspases activities were detected by colorimetric assay. Cell senescence was indentified by senescence ?-galactosidase staining. Gene expression and angiogenesis was observed by immunohistochemistry or western blot. Results TLBZT significantly inhibited CT26 colon carcinoma growth. TLBZT elicited apoptosis in CT26 colon carcinoma, accompanied by Caspase-3, 8, and 9 activation and PARP cleavage, and downregulation of XIAP and Survivin. TLBZT also induced cell senescence in CT26 colon carcinoma, with concomitant upregulation of p16 and p21 and downregulation of RB phosphorylation. In addition, angiogenesis and VEGF expression in CT26 colon carcinoma was significantly inhibited by TLBZT treatment. Furthermore, TLBZT significantly enhanced anticancer effects of 5-Fu in CT26 colon carcinoma. Conclusions TLBZT exhibited significantly anticancer effect, and enhanced the effects of 5-Fu in CT26 colon carcinoma, which may correlate with induction of apoptosis and cell senescence, and angiogenesis inhibition. The present study provides new insight into TCM approaches for colon cancer treatment that are worth of further study.

2013-01-01

250

HPLC-MS/MS Analysis of a Traditional Chinese Medical Formulation of Bu-Yang-Huan-Wu-Tang and Its Pharmacokinetics after Oral Administration to Rats  

PubMed Central

Bu-yang-huan-wu-tang (BYHWT) is one of the most popular formulated traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions, and is widely for prevention of ischemic cardio-cerebral vascular diseases and stroke-induced disability. A specific high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of the nine main bioactive components, i.e., astragaloside I, astragaloside II, astragaloside IV, formononetin, ononin, calycosin, calycosin-7-O-?-d-glucoside, ligustilide and paeoniflorin in rat plasma after oral administration of BYHWT extract. This method was applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics in conscious and freely moving rats. No significant matrix effects were observed. The overall analytical procedure was rapid and reproducible, which makes it suitable for quantitative analysis of a large number of samples. Among them, three astragalosides and four isoflavones in A. membranaceus, ligustilide in Radix Angelicae Sinensis and Rhizoma Ligustici Chuanxiong and paeoniflorin in Radix Paeoniae Rubra were identified. This developed method was then successfully applied to pharmacokinetic studies of the nine bioactive constituents after oral administration of BYHWT extracts in rats. The pharmacokinetic data demonstrated that astragaloside I, astragaloside II, astragaloside IV and ligustilide presented the phenomenon of double peaks. The other herbal ingredients of formononetin, ononin, calycosin, calycosin-7-O-?-d-glucoside and paeoniflorin appeared together in a single and plateau absorption phase. These phenomenona suggest that these components may have multiple absorption sites, regulation of enterohepatic circulation or the gastric emptying rate, or there is ingredient-ingredient interaction. These pharmacokinetic results provide a constructive contribution to better understand the absorption mechanism of BYHWT and to support additional clinical evaluation.

Shaw, Lee-Hsin; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

2012-01-01

251

Xu-Lina Chena. Ghio-Fan Zia. Duo Wai. Shen Hahn. Daw-Fong Ben. gang-king Wang . (2003). Role p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase Kupffer cell secretion proinflammatory stickiness after burn trauma Burns 29: 533539  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Did you mean: Xu-Lina Chena. Ghio-Fan Zia. Duo Wai. Shen Hahn. Daw-Fong Ben. gang-king Wang . (2003). Role p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase Kupffer cell secretion proinflammatory stickiness after burn trauma Burns 29: 533539 ?

252

Effects of Huanglian-Jie-Du-Tang and its modified formula on the modulation of amyloid-? precursor protein processing in Alzheimer's disease models.  

PubMed

Huanglian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT) is a famous traditional Chinese herbal formula that has been widely used clinically to treat cerebral ischemia. Recently, we found that berberine, a major alkaloid compound in HLJDT, reduced amyloid-? (A?) accumulation in an Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model. In this study, we compared the effects of HLJDT, four single component herbs of HLJDT (Rhizoma coptidis (RC), Radix scutellariae (RS), Cortex phellodendri (CP) and Fructus gardenia (FG)) and the modified formula of HLJDT (HLJDT-M, which is free of RS) on the regulatory processing of amyloid-? precursor protein (APP) in an in vitro model of AD. Here we show that treatment with HLJDT-M and its components RC, CP, and the main compound berberine on N2a mouse neuroblastoma cells stably expressing human APP with the Swedish mutation (N2a-SwedAPP) significantly decreased the levels of full-length APP, phosphorylated APP at threonine 668, C-terminal fragments of APP, soluble APP (sAPP)-? and sAPP?-Swedish and reduced the generation of A? peptide in the cell lysates of N2a-SwedAPP. HLJDT-M showed more significant APP- and A?- reducing effects than berberine, RC or CP treatment alone. In contrast, HLJDT, its component RS and the main active compound of RS, baicalein, strongly increased the levels of all the metabolic products of APP in the cell lysates. The extract from FG, however, did not influence APP modulation. Interestingly, regular treatment of TgCRND8 APP transgenic mice with baicalein exacerbated the amyloid plaque burden, APP metabolism and A? production. Taken together, these data provide convincing evidence that HLJDT and baicalein treatment can increase the amyloidogenic metabolism of APP which is at least partly responsible for the baicalein-mediated A? plaque increase in the brains of TgCRND8 mice. On the other hand, HLJDT-M significantly decreased all the APP metabolic products including A?. Further study of HLJDT-M for therapeutic use in treating AD is warranted. PMID:24671102

Durairajan, Siva Sundara Kumar; Huang, Ying-Yu; Yuen, Pui-Yee; Chen, Lei-Lei; Kwok, Ka-Yan; Liu, Liang-Feng; Song, Ju-Xian; Han, Quan-Bin; Xue, Lei; Chung, Sookja K; Huang, Jian-Dong; Baum, Larry; Senapati, Sanjib; Li, Min

2014-01-01

253

Chemical Profile Analysis and Comparison of Two Versions of the Classic TCM Formula Danggui Buxue Tang by HPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF-MSn.  

PubMed

Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) is a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula primarily used to treat symptoms associated with menopause in women. Usually, DBT is composed of one portion of Radix Angelicae Sinensis (RAS) and five portions of Radix Astragali (RA). Clinically, Radix Hedysari (RH) is sometimes used by TCM physicians to replace RA in DBT. In order to verity whether the chemical constituents of the DBT1 (RA:RAS = 5:1, w/w) and DBT2 (RH:RAS = 5:1, w/w) share similarities the chemical profiles of the two DBTs crude extracts and urine samples were analyzed and compared with the aid of HPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF-MSn, which determines the total ion chromatogram (TIC) and multi-stage mass spectra (MSn). Then, the DBT1 and DBT2 were identified and compared on the basis of the TIC and the MSn. In the first experiment (with crude extracts), 69 compounds (C1-C69) were identified from the DBT1; 46 compounds (c1-c46) were identified from the DBT2. In the second experiment(with urine samples), 44 compounds (M1-M44) were identified from the urine samples of rats that had been administered DBT1, and 34 compounds (m1-m34) were identified from the urine samples of rats that had been administered DBT2. Identification and comparison of the chemical compositions were carried out between the DBT1 and DBT2 of the crude extracts and urine samples respectively. Our results showed that the two crude extracts of the DBTs have quite different chemical profiles. The reasons for their differences were that the special astragalosides in DBT1 and the isoflavonoid glycosides formed the malonic acid esters undergo single esterification and acetyl esters undergo acetylation in DBT1. In contrast, the urine from DBT1-treated rats strongly resembled that of DBT2-treated rats. These metabolites originate mainly from formononetin, calycosin and their related glycosides, and they were formed mainly by the metabolic process of reduction, deglycosylation, demethylation, hydrogenation and sulfation. The HPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF-MSn method was successfully applied for the rapid chemical profiles evaluation of two DBTs and their related urine samples. PMID:24786849

Zhang, Ya-Zhou; Xu, Feng; Yi, Tao; Zhang, Jian-Ye; Xu, Jun; Tang, Yi-Na; He, Xi-Chen; Liu, Jing; Chen, Hu-Biao

2014-01-01

254

Effects of Huanglian-Jie-Du-Tang and Its Modified Formula on the Modulation of Amyloid-? Precursor Protein Processing in Alzheimer's Disease Models  

PubMed Central

Huanglian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT) is a famous traditional Chinese herbal formula that has been widely used clinically to treat cerebral ischemia. Recently, we found that berberine, a major alkaloid compound in HLJDT, reduced amyloid-? (A?) accumulation in an Alzheimer’s disease (AD) mouse model. In this study, we compared the effects of HLJDT, four single component herbs of HLJDT (Rhizoma coptidis (RC), Radix scutellariae (RS), Cortex phellodendri (CP) and Fructus gardenia (FG)) and the modified formula of HLJDT (HLJDT-M, which is free of RS) on the regulatory processing of amyloid-? precursor protein (APP) in an in vitro model of AD. Here we show that treatment with HLJDT-M and its components RC, CP, and the main compound berberine on N2a mouse neuroblastoma cells stably expressing human APP with the Swedish mutation (N2a-SwedAPP) significantly decreased the levels of full-length APP, phosphorylated APP at threonine 668, C-terminal fragments of APP, soluble APP (sAPP)-? and sAPP?-Swedish and reduced the generation of A? peptide in the cell lysates of N2a-SwedAPP. HLJDT-M showed more significant APP- and A?- reducing effects than berberine, RC or CP treatment alone. In contrast, HLJDT, its component RS and the main active compound of RS, baicalein, strongly increased the levels of all the metabolic products of APP in the cell lysates. The extract from FG, however, did not influence APP modulation. Interestingly, regular treatment of TgCRND8 APP transgenic mice with baicalein exacerbated the amyloid plaque burden, APP metabolism and A? production. Taken together, these data provide convincing evidence that HLJDT and baicalein treatment can increase the amyloidogenic metabolism of APP which is at least partly responsible for the baicalein-mediated A? plaque increase in the brains of TgCRND8 mice. On the other hand, HLJDT-M significantly decreased all the APP metabolic products including A?. Further study of HLJDT-M for therapeutic use in treating AD is warranted.

Durairajan, Siva Sundara Kumar; Huang, Ying-Yu; Yuen, Pui-Yee; Chen, Lei-Lei; Kwok, Ka-Yan; Liu, Liang-Feng; Song, Ju-Xian; Han, Quan-Bin; Xue, Lei; K. Chung, Sookja; Huang, Jian-Dong; Baum, Larry; Senapati, Sanjib; Li, Min

2014-01-01

255

High-performance purification of quaternary alkaloids from Corydalis yanhusuo W. T. Wang using a new polar-copolymerized stationary phase.  

PubMed

An efficient method for purification of alkaloids from Corydalis yanhusuo W. T. Wang using HPLC was developed, featuring a polar-copolymerized stationary phase named C18HCE. As ionizable solutes, the crude alkaloid sample often suffered from serious peak tailing problem on conventional RP-LC columns, and the separation would rapidly became destroyed with the increasing of load amount. However, on the new stationary phase, good peak shapes (asymmetry factor <1.5) as well as good loadability were easily obtained in a commonly used acidic mobile phase condition. The loading amount could reach 10 mg per injection on an analytical C18HCE column for laboratory-scale purification. About 6.8 mg of palmatine (HPLC purity >98%) and 44.4 mg of dehydrocorydaline (HPLC purity >98%) were rapidly derived from 200 mg of the crude alkaloid sample, and the recoveries of these two compounds were 76.5 and 81.7%, respectively. The purified alkaloids were characterized by comparing retention times with standard compounds as well as (1)H-NMR data. The new method is simple and high yielding, and it may provide a promising tool for purification of alkaloids as well as other alkaline compounds. PMID:21171176

Wang, Chaoran; Guo, Zhimou; Zhang, Jing; Zeng, Jing; Zhang, Xiuli; Liang, Xinmiao

2011-01-01

256

Thermodynamics of phase coexistence and metal-nonmetal transition in mercury: assessment of effective potentials via expanded Wang-Landau simulations.  

PubMed

We present molecular simulation results on the thermodynamics of phase transitions (specifically, the vapor-liquid and metal-nonmetal transitions) in mercury, as predicted by effective potential models. We use a recently developed method, known as Expanded Wang-Landau simulations, to determine the grand-canonical partition function of systems of mercury atoms. Using the statistical mechanics formalism, we are then able to determine all thermodynamic properties of the system, including the Gibbs free energy and entropy. Prior experimental and theoretical work has emphasized the strong interplay between the vapor-liquid coexistence and the metal-nonmetal transition. We therefore start by assessing the accuracy of the effective potentials considered in this work through a comparison to the available experimental data. We then analyze the thermodynamics of the nonmetal liquid-metal liquid transition, characterized by sharp variations in the rate of change of Gibbs free energy and enthalpy as a function of density. We also identify a crossover density (10.5 g/cm(3)) consistent with the results of recent ab initio calculations and with the experiment. PMID:24568658

Desgranges, Caroline; Delhommelle, Jerome

2014-03-20

257

Wang-Landau density of states based study of the folding-unfolding transition in the mini-protein Trp-cage (TC5b).  

PubMed

We present the results of a high-statistics equilibrium study of the folding/unfolding transition for the 20-residue mini-protein Trp-cage (TC5b) in water. The ECEPP/3 force field is used and the interaction with water is treated by a solvent-accessible surface area method. A Wang-Landau type simulation is used to calculate the density of states and the conditional probabilities for the various values of the radius of gyration and the number of native contacts at fixed values of energy-along with a systematic check on their convergence. All thermodynamic quantities of interest are calculated from this information. The folding-unfolding transition corresponds to a peak in the temperature dependence of the computed specific heat. This is corroborated further by the structural signatures of folding in the distributions for radius of gyration and the number of native contacts as a function of temperature. The potentials of mean force are also calculated for these variables, both separately and jointly. A local free energy minimum, in addition to the global minimum, is found in a temperature range substantially below the folding temperature. The free energy at this second minimum is approximately 5?kBT higher than the value at the global minimum. PMID:25005309

Singh, Priya; Sarkar, Subir K; Bandyopadhyay, Pradipta

2014-07-01

258

An event-based approach to validating solar wind speed predictions: High-speed enhancements in the Wang-Sheeley-Arge model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the primary goals of the Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM) effort is to assess and improve prediction of the solar wind conditions in near-Earth space, arising from both quasi-steady and transient structures. We compare 8 years of L1 in situ observations to predictions of the solar wind speed made by the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) empirical model. The mean-square error (MSE) between the observed and model predictions is used to reach a number of useful conclusions: there is no systematic lag in the WSA predictions, the MSE is found to be highest at solar minimum and lowest during the rise to solar maximum, and the optimal lead time for 1 AU solar wind speed predictions is found to be 3 days. However, MSE is shown to frequently be an inadequate "figure of merit" for assessing solar wind speed predictions. A complementary, event-based analysis technique is developed in which high-speed enhancements (HSEs) are systematically selected and associated from observed and model time series. WSA model is validated using comparisons of the number of hit, missed, and false HSEs, along with the timing and speed magnitude errors between the forecasted and observed events. Morphological differences between the different HSE populations are investigated to aid interpretation of the results and improvements to the model. Finally, by defining discrete events in the time series, model predictions from above and below the ecliptic plane can be used to estimate an uncertainty in the predicted HSE arrival times.

Owens, M. J.; Arge, C. N.; Spence, H. E.; Pembroke, A.

2005-12-01

259

l-Tetrahydropalmatine, an Active Component of Corydalis yanhusuo W.T. Wang, Protects against Myocardial Ischaemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats  

PubMed Central

l-Tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP) is an active ingredients of Corydalis yanhusuo W.T. Wang, which protects against acute global cerebral ischaemia-reperfusion injury. In this study, we show that l-THP is cardioprotective in myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury and examined the mechanism. Rats were treated with l-THP (0, 10, 20, 40 mg/kg b.w.) for 20 min before occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery and subjected to myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion (30 min/6 h). Compared with vehicle-treated animals, the infarct area/risk area (IA/RA) of l-THP (20, 40 mg/kg b.w.) treated rats was reduced, whilst l-THP (10 mg/kg b.w.) had no significant effect. Cardiac function was improved in l-THP-treated rats whilst plasma creatine kinase activity declined. Following treatment with l-THP (20 mg/kg b.w.), subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase p85, serine473 phosphorylation of Akt and serine1177 phosphorylation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) increased in myocardium, whilst expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) decreased. However, the expression of HIF-1? and VEGF were increased in I30 minR6 h, but decreased to normal level in I30 minR24 h, while treatment with l-THP (20 mg/kg b.w.) enhanced the levels of these two genes in I30 minR24 h. Production of NO in myocardium and plasma, activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in plasma and the expression of tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in myocardium were decreased by l-THP. TUNEL assay revealed that l-THP (20 mg/kg b.w.) reduced apoptosis in myocardium. Thus, we show that l-THP activates the PI3K/Akt/eNOS/NO pathway and increases expression of HIF-1? and VEGF, whilst depressing iNOS-derived NO production in myocardium. This effect may decrease the accumulation of inflammatory factors, including TNF-? and MPO, and lessen the extent of apoptosis, therefore contributing to the cardioprotective effects of l-THP in myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury.

Tang, Yan; Bai, Wenli; Yang, Fan; Xie, Liping; Li, Xiaozhen; Zhou, Suming; Pan, Shiyang; Chen, Qi; Ferro, Albert; Ji, Yong

2012-01-01

260

A Chinese Herbal Decoction, Dang Gui Bu Xue Tang, Prepared from Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae sinensis, Ameliorates Insulin Resistance Induced by A High-Fructose Diet in Rats  

PubMed Central

Dang Gui Bu Xue Tang (DBT), a Chinese medicinal decoction contains Radix Angelicae sinensis (Danggui) and Radix Astragali (Huangqi) at a ratio of 1?:?5, is used commonly for treating women's ailments. This study was conducted to explore the effects of this preparation on insulin resistance in rats fed with 6-week diet containing 60% fructose. Similar to the action of rosiglitazone (4?mg?kg?1 per day by an oral administration), repeated oral administration of DBT (2.5?g?kg?1 per day) for 14 days was found to significantly alleviate the hyperglycemia but made no influence on plasma lipid profiles nor weight gain in fructose chow-fed rats. Also, the higher degree of insulin resistance as measured by homeostasis model assessment of basal insulin resistance in fructose chow-fed rats was significantly decreased by repeated DBT treatment. DBT displays the characteristic of rosiglitazone by increasing the whole-body insulin sensitivity in fructose chow-fed rats after 2-week treatment, as evidenced by the marked elevation of composite whole-body insulin sensitivity index during the oral glucose tolerance test. DBT improves insulin sensitivity through increased post-receptor insulin signaling mediated by enhancements in insulin receptor substrate-1-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase step and glucose transporter subtype 4 translocation in soleus muscles of animals exhibiting insulin resistance. DBT is therefore proposed as potentially useful adjuvant therapy for patients with insulin resistance and/or the patients who wish to increase insulin sensitivity.

Liu, I-Min; Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Liou, Shorong-Shii

2011-01-01

261

Therapeutic Effect of Yi-Chi-Tsung-Ming-Tang on Amyloid ?1?40-Induced Alzheimer's Disease-Like Phenotype via an Increase of Acetylcholine and Decrease of Amyloid ?  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible neurodegenerative disorder characterized by amyloid accumulation, neuronal death, and cognitive impairments. Yi-Chi-Tsung-Ming-Tang (YCTMT) is a traditional Chinese medicine and has never been used to enhance cognitive function and treat neurodegenerative disorders such as senile dementia. Whether YCTMT has a beneficial role in improving learning and memory in AD patients remains unclear. The present study showed that oral administration of YCTMT ameliorated amyloid-?- (A?1?40) injection-induced learning and memory impairments in rats, examined using passive avoidance and Morris water-maze tests. Immunostaining and Western Blot results showed that continuous A?1?40 infusion caused amyloid accumulation and decreased acetylcholine level in hippocampus. Oral administration of medium and high dose of YCTMT 7 days after the A?1?40 infusion decreased amyloid accumulation area and reversed acetylcholine decline in the A?1?40-injected hippocampus, suggesting that YCTMT might inhibit A? plague accumulation and rescue reduced acetylcholine expression. This study has provided evidence on the beneficial role of YCTMT in ameliorating amyloid-induced AD-like symptom, indicating that YCTMT may offer an alternative strategy for treating AD.

Yeh, Chung-Hsin; Hsieh, Ming-Tsuen; Hsueh, Chi-Mei; Wu, Chi-Rei; Huang, Yi-Chun; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Chow, Kuan-Chih

2012-01-01

262

Determination of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural, albiflorin, paeoniflorin, liquiritin, ferulic acid, nodakenin, and glycyrrhizin by HPLC-PDA, and evaluation of the cytotoxicity of Palmul-tang, a traditional Korean herbal medicine.  

PubMed

A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for quantitative analysis of seven components, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (1), albiflorin (2), paeoniflorin (3), liquiritin (4), ferulic acid (5), nodakenin (6), and glycyrrhizin (7) of Palmul-tang (PMT), a traditional Korean medicine. HPLC analysis was performed using a Gemini C18 column at 40°C, and photodiode array (PDA) detection at 230 nm, 254 nm, 280 nm, 320 nm, and 330 nm was used for quantification of the seven components in PMT. The mobile phase was a gradient flow composed of two solvent systems. Solvent A was 1.0% (v/v) aqueous acetic acid and solvent B was acetonitrile containing 1.0% (v/v) acetic acid. Calibration curves were acquired with r (2) values > 0.9998, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs, %) for intra- and interday precision were both less than 6.0%. The recovery of each component was in the range of 90.66-103.79%, with a RSD less than 5.0%. The contents of the seven components in PMT range form 0.61-6.21 mg/g. Additionally, we investigated the cytotoxicity of the extract against the RBL-1 and BEAS-2B cell lines, as well as splenocytes. PMID:22297748

Seo, Chang-Seob; Lee, Mee-Young; Lim, Hye-Sun; Kim, Su-Jeong; Ha, Hyekyung; Lee, Jin-Ah; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

2012-01-01

263

Xiang-Qi-Tang and its active components exhibit anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant properties by inhibiting MAPK and NF-?B signaling pathways in LPS-treated rat cardiac microvascular endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Xiang-Qi-Tang (XQT) is a Chinese herbal formula containing Cyperus rotundus, Astragalus membranaceus and Andrographis paniculata. Alpha-Cyperone (CYP), astragaloside IV (AS-IV) and andrographolide (AND) are the three major active components in this formula. XQT may modulate the inflammatory or coagulant responses. We therefore assessed the effects of XQT on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory model of rat cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (RCMECs). XQT, CYP, AS-IV and AND inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and up-regulated the mRNA expression of Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2). XQT and CYP inhibited the secretion of tissue factor (TF). To further explore the mechanism, we found that XQT, or its active components CYP, AS-IV and AND significantly inhibited extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 phosphorylation protein expression as well as decreased the phosphorylation levels of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) p65 proteins in LPS-stimulated RCMECs. These results suggested that XQT and its active components inhibited the expression of inflammatory and coagulant mediators via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) and NF-?B signaling pathways. These findings may contribute to future research on the action mechanisms of this formula, as well as therapy for inflammation- or coagulation-related diseases. PMID:23171279

He, Chang-Liang; Yi, Peng-Fei; Fan, Qiao-Jia; Shen, Hai-Qing; Jiang, Xiao-Lin; Qin, Qian-Qian; Song, Zhou; Zhang, Cui; Wu, Shuai-Cheng; Wei, Xu-Bin; Li, Ying-Lun; Fu, Ben-Dong

2013-04-01

264

Comment on "Density functional theory analysis of structural and electronic properties of orthorhombic perovskite CH3NH3PbI3" by Y. Wang et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2014, 16, 1424-1429.  

PubMed

Yun Wang et al. used density functional theory (DFT) to investigate the orthorhombic phase of CH3NH3PbI3, which has recently shown outstanding properties for photovoltaic applications. Whereas their analysis of ground state properties may represent a valuable contribution to understanding this class of materials, effects of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) cannot be overlooked as was shown in earlier studies. Moreover, their discussion on optical properties may be misleading for non-DFT-experts, and the nice agreement between experimental and calculated band gap is fortuitous, stemming from error cancellations between SOC and many-body effects. Lastly, Bader charges suggest potential problems during crystal structure optimization. PMID:24671474

Even, J; Pedesseau, L; Katan, C

2014-04-01

265

Sann-Joong-Kuey-Jian-Tang decreases the protein expression of Mcl?1 and TCTP and increases that of TNF-? and Bax in BxPC?3 pancreatic carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Sann-Joong-Kuey-Jian-Tang (SJKJT), a traditional Chinese medicinal prescription, has been used for the treatment of lymphadenopathy and solid tumors, and has shown therapeutic potential in several human malignant tumor cell lines. However, the efficacy and molecular mechanisms of action of SJKJT in human pancreatic cancer have not yet been elucidated. In the present study, we evaluated the cytotoxic effects of SJKJT on BxPC-3 human pancreatic carcinoma cells by MTT assay. The protein expression levels of myeloid cell leukemia 1 protein (Mcl-1), translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF??), caspase-8, caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 family in the BxPC-3 cells were measured by western blot analysis. The cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. The protein expression of caspase-3 was also detected by immunocytochemistry (ICC). The results revealed that SJKJT inhibited the proliferation of BxPC-3 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The protein expression levels of TNF-?, caspase-8, caspase-3 and Bax increased in the BxPC-3 cells treated with SJKJT; however, the levels of Mcl-1, TCTP and Bcl-xL decreased. The results also demonstrated that SJKJT increased the percentage of BxPC-3 cells in the sub-G1 phase. In addition, ICC staining indicated that the protein expression of caspase-3 was upregulated in the BxPC-3 cells treated with SJKJT. These findings indicate that SJKJT inhibits the proliferation of BxPC-3 cells through the extrinsic and intrinsic pathway, inducing apoptosis in vitro. Our study, using BxPC-3 human pancreatic cancer cells, demonstrates that SJKJT has potential as a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Further sutdies are warranted to fully elucidate its mechanisms of action. PMID:23652631

Chien, Su-Yu; Kuo, Shou-Jen; Chen, Dar-Ren; Su, Chin-Cheng

2013-07-01

266

Inhibitory Effects of Hwangryunhaedok-Tang in 3T3-L1 Adipogenesis by Regulation of Raf/MEK1/ERK1/2 Pathway and PDK1/Akt Phosphorylation.  

PubMed

Hwangryunhaedok-tang (HRT) has been long used as traditional medicine in Asia. However, inhibitory role of HRT is unclear in early stage of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation related to signaling. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of HRT on upstream signaling of peroxisome proliferation-activity receptor- ? (PPAR- ? ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein- ? (C/EBP- ? ) expression in differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. We found that HRT significantly inhibited the adipocyte differentiation by downregulating several adipocyte-specific transcription factors including PPAR- ? , C/EBP- ? , and C/EBP- ? in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Furthermore, we observed that HRT markedly inhibited the differentiation media-mediated phosphorylation of Raf/extracellular mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MEK1)/signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and phosphorylation of phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1)/Akt. These results indicate that anti-adipogenesis mechanism involves the downregulation of the major transcription factors of adipogenesis including PPAR- ? and C/EBP- ? through inhibition of Raf/MEK1/ERK1/2 phosphorylation and PDK1/Akt phosphorylation by HRT. Furthermore, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed HRT contains active antiobesity constituents such as palmatine, berberine, geniposide, baicalin, baicalein, and wogonin. Taken together, this study suggested that anti-adipogenesis effects of HRT were accounted by downregulation of Raf/MEK1/ERK1/2 pathway and PDK1/Akt pathway during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. PMID:23762131

Kwak, Dong Hoon; Lee, Ji-Hye; Kim, Dong-Gun; Kim, Taesoo; Lee, Kwang Jin; Ma, Jin Yeul

2013-01-01

267

Verification of the formulation and efficacy of Danggui Buxue Tang (a decoction of Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae Sinensis): an exemplifying systematic approach to revealing the complexity of Chinese herbal medicine formulae  

PubMed Central

This article exemplifies a systematic approach to revealing the complexity of Chinese herbal medicine formulae through three levels of scientific research: standardization of herbs, verification of ancient formulae and mechanism studies. We use Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) as an example for this approach. Among thousands of traditional Chinese medicine herbal formulae, almost all of which consist of multiple herbs, DBT is one of the simplest. Containing only two herbs, namely Radix Astragali (RA) and Radix Angelicae Sinensis (RAS), DBT is traditionally used to treat ailments in women. The weight ratio of RA to RAS in DBT was prescribed to be 5:1 as early as in 1247 AD. In addition to advanced chemical analysis of herbal constituents, DNA genotyping techniques have been developed for reliable standardization of RA and RAS. Chemical evaluation shows that main active constituents in DBT, including astragaloside IV, calycosin, formononetin and ferulic acid, were most abundant after extraction at the RA to RAS ratio of 5:1, whereas other tested RA to RAS ratios only gave sub-optimal levels of the active constituents. Biological evaluation indicates that bioactivities of DBT, e.g. immuno-modulatory, oesteotropic and estrogenic effects are also best exerted at the RA to RAS ratio of 5:1. Correlation analysis demonstrates statistically significant relationship between the tested chemical constituents and tested bioactivities. Up- and down-regulation of expression of some genes as potential biomarkers has been detected by using gene chip technology. This systematic approach on the basis of herbal standardization, chemical and biological verification and mechanism studies, as exemplified in this article, will be useful to reveal the complexity of not only DBT but also other Chinese medicine herbal formulae.

Gao, Qiutao; Li, Jun; Cheung, Jerry Ka Hei; Duan, Jinao; Ding, Anwei; Cheung, Anna Wing Han; Zhao, Kuijun; Li, Winnie Zhuoming; Dong, Tina Tingxia; Tsim, Karl Wah Keung

2007-01-01

268

Immobilized magnetic beads based multi-target affinity selection coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for screening anti-diabetic compounds from a Chinese medicine "Tang-Zhi-Qing".  

PubMed

We developed an approach for screening bioactive compounds from botanical drug using multiple target-immobilized magnetic beads coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. This novel approach was called magnetic beads based multi-target affinity selection-mass spectrometry (MT-ASMS). It can enrich and identify different types of ligands from mixture extracts. Multiple targets (maltase, invertase, lipase) were immobilized on the magnetic beads by covalent linkage using 1-(3-dimethyl-aminopropyl)-3-ethyl-carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) as reaction reagents, respectively. The properties of enzyme conjugated magnetic beads were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometer and vibration sample magnetometer. Several factors including pH, ion strength, incubation time and temperature were optimized using three known ligands (caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and hesperidin). The established MT-ASMS approach was applied to screening for ligands from a Chinese medicine "Tang-Zhi-Qing", which was used to treat type II diabetes in China. Seven bound compounds were identified via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Five active compounds including 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-D-glucose, 1,2,3,4-tetra-O-galloyl-D-glucose, 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-d-glucose, quercetin-3-O-?-D-glucuronide and quercetin-3-O-?-D-glucoside were identified and their activities were validated by conventional inhibitory assay. Our findings suggested that the proposed approach is efficient in screening compounds with multiple activities from extracts of botanical drugs. PMID:23501439

Tao, Yi; Chen, Zhui; Zhang, Yufeng; Wang, Yi; Cheng, Yiyu

2013-05-01

269

Ssanghwa-tang, an oriental herbal cocktail, exerts anti-melanogenic activity by suppression of the p38 MAPK and PKA signaling pathways in B16F10 cells  

PubMed Central

Background Ssanghwa-tang (SHT) is a widely used medication for the treatment of fatigue, pain, inflammation, hypothermia, erectile dysfunction, cancer, and osteoporosis in Asia, however, role of SHT on the melanin synthesis has not been checked previously. Thus, the present study was designed to determine the effect of SHT on ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH)-induced melanogensis and its mechanisms of action in murine B16F10 melanoma cells. Method Cellular melanin content and tyrosinase activity in murine B16F10 melanoma cells were determined after ?-MSH stimulation with or without pre-treatment of SHT at the concentration of 250 and 500 ?g/ml. Expression level of tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1), TRP-2, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), and activation of c-AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), c-AMP-related element binding protein (CREB), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were examined by Western blot analysis. Results SHT significantly inhibited ?-MSH-induced melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity, and also decreased ?-MSH-induced expression of MITF, tyrosinase, and TRP-1. In addition, SHT remarkably suppressed tyrosinase, CRE, and MITF luciferase reporter activity in a resting state as well as in ?-MSH-stimulating condition. Phosphorylation of p38 MAPK by ?-MSH stimulation was efficiently blocked by SHT pre-treatment. Moreover, SHT as an herbal cocktail showed synergistic anti-melanogenic effect compared with that of each single constituent herb. Conclusion SHT efficiently inhibited c-AMP-induced melanin synthesis in B16F10 cells via suppression of PKA and p38 MAPK signaling pathways and subsequently decreased the level of CREB phosphorylation, MITF, and melanogenic enzymes. These results indicate that SHT may be useful as herbal medicine for treating hyperpigmentation and cosmetics as a skin-whitening agent.

2013-01-01

270

[History of hot spring bath treatment in China].  

PubMed

As early as the 7th century B.C. (Western Zhou Dynasty), there is a recording as 'spring which contains sulfur could treat disease' on the Wentang Stele written by WANG Bao. Wenquan Fu written by ZHANG Heng in the Easten Han Dynasty also mentioned hot spring bath treatment. The distribution of hot springs in China has been summarized by LI Daoyuan in the Northern Wei Dynasty in his Shuijingzhu which recorded hot springs in 41 places and interpreted the definition of hot spring. Bencao Shiyi (by CHEN Cangqi, Tang Dynasty) discussed the formation of and indications for hot springs. HU Zai in the Song Dynasty pointed out distinguishing hot springs according to water quality in his book Yuyin Conghua. TANG Shenwei in the Song Dynasty noted in Jingshi Zhenglei Beiji Bencao that hot spring bath treatment should be combined with diet. Shiwu Bencao (Ming Dynasty) classified hot springs into sulfur springs, arsenicum springs, cinnabar springs, aluminite springs, etc. and pointed out their individual indications. Geologists did not start the work on distribution and water quality analysis of hot springs until the first half of the 20th century. There are 972 hot springs in Wenquan Jiyao (written by geologist ZHANG Hongzhao and published in 1956). In July 1982, the First National Geothermal Conference was held and it reported that there were more than 2600 hot springs in China. Since the second half of the 20th century, hot spring sanatoriums and rehabilitation centers have been established, which promoted the development of hot spring bath treatment. PMID:22169492

Hao, Wanpeng; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Yinghong; Gu Li, A Man; Li, Ming; Zhang, Xin

2011-07-01

271

spinal discharge processes have not kept up with the magnitude of change that has occurred over the years A study by Bueno Ross and Wang 2010 showed that of 7 million Medicare CDF patients admitted to the hospital between1993 to 2006 the mean Levels of Stay LOS decreased from 88 days to 63 days  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Did you mean: spinal discharge processes have not kept up with the magnitude of change that has occurred over the years A study by Bueno Ross and Wang 2010 showed that of 7 million Medicare CDF patients admitted to the hospital between1993 to 2006 the mean Levels of Stay LOS decreased from 88 days to 63 days ?

272

Metabolism and tissue distribution study of Vaccaria seeds (Wang-Bu-Liu-Xing) in benign prostatic hyperplasia model rat: toward an in-depth study for its bioactive components.  

PubMed

Vaccaria seeds (Wang-Bu-Liu-Xing), a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been used as an emperor herb of many ancient formulas to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in clinic. However, its metabolism and tissue distribution, especially in the target tissue, had not been investigated so far. Based on the hypothesis that the components which exert effect against BPH of Vaccaria seeds would be measureable in target tissue (prostate), in vivo metabolism and tissue distribution of Vaccaria seeds in rats were profiled using a specific and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS/MS). As a result, 19 major constituents in the Vaccaria seeds decoction and 19 constituents in rat plasma, feces and tissues after oral administration of Vaccaria seeds decoction were identified. Accurate mass measurement for molecular ions and characteristic fragment ions could represent reliable identification criteria for these compounds. Two prototypes were detected in prostate. An in vitro metabolism analysis of them was studied after incubation with rat intestinal flora and rat liver microsome (RLM) in this paper, which is helpful for further investigation of the potential effect of these two components. The result of this study provided meaningful information for further pharmacology research on Vaccaria seeds. PMID:23973757

Qi, Peng; Li, Zhixiong; Chen, Mingcang; Sun, Zhaolin; Huang, Chenggang

2013-11-01

273

Reply to Comments to X. Li and Y. M. Wang (2011) Comparisons of geoid models over Alaska computed with different Stokes' kernel modifications, JGS 1(2): 136-142 by L. E. Sjöberg  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors thank professor Sjöberg for having interest in our paper. The main goal of the paper is to test kernel modification methods used in geoid computations. Our tests found that Vanicek/Kleusberg's and Featherstone's methods fit the GPS/leveling data the best in the relative sense at various cap sizes. At the same time, we also pointed out that their methods are unstable and the mean values change from dm to meters by just changing the cap size. By contrast, the modification of the Wong and Gore type (including the spectral combination, method of Heck and Grüninger) is stable and insensitive to the truncation degree and cap size. This feature is especially useful when we know the accuracy of the gravity field at different frequency bands. For instance, it is advisable to truncate Stokes' kernel at a degree to which the satellite model is believed to be more accurate than surface data. The method of the Wong and Goretype does this job quite well. In contrast, the low degrees of Stokes' kernel are modified by Molodensky's coefficients tn in Vanicek/Kleusberg's and Featherstone's methods (cf. Eq. (6) in Li and Wang (2011)). It implies that the low degree gravity field of the reference model will be altered by less accurate surface data in the final geoid. This is also the cause of the larger variation in mean values of the geoid.

Wang, Y.

2012-01-01

274

Mayaguez Incident: Near Disaster at Koh Tang.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Mayaguez incident is a clear case in which the tactical, operational, and strategic levels of war merged. The strategic objectives as determined by the National Command Authorities were to recover the ship and crew and in doing so demonstrate U.S. str...

M. J. Toal

1998-01-01

275

Comment on “Magnetostratigraphic study of the Kuche Depression, Tarim Basin, and Cenozoic uplift of the Tian Shan Range, Western China” Baochun Huang, John D.A. Piper, Shoutao Peng, Tao Liu, Zhong Li, Qingchen Wang, Rixiang Zhu [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2006, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2006.09.020  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent publication of "Magnetostratigraphic study of the Kuche Depression, Tarim Basin, and Cenozoic uplift of the Tian Shan Range,Western China" by B.C. Huang, J.D.A. Piper, S.T. Peng, T. Liu, Z. Li, Q.C. Wang, R.X. Zhu [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2006, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2006.09.020] discusses the Cenozoic uplift history of the Tianshan Mountains by studying the magnetostratigraphy of Paleogene to Neogene continental sediments from two sections located in the Kuche basin at the northern edge of the Tarim basin. To support their conclusion they reinterpreted a magnetostratigraphic study of the Yaha section, which lies ~ 10 km south of their sections, we previously published [J. Charreau, S. Gilder, Y. Chen, S. Dominguez, J.-P. Avouac, S. Sen, M. Jolivet, Y. Li and W. Wang, Magnetostratigraphy of the Yaha section, Tarim Basin (China): 11 Ma acceleration in erosion and uplift of the Tianshan Mountains, Geology 34(3), 2006, 181­184.]. Here, (1) we argue that the interpretations of the sedimentation rate changes they proposed for the Kuche sections are partially invalid, (2) we disagree with their reinterpretation of the age of the Yaha section, and (3) we think that the way they interpret their AMS data is incorrect.

Charreau, Julien; Chen, Yan; Gilder, Stuart; Barier, Laurie

2008-04-01

276

News & Information President Chen Yiyu Meets with Omi Professor Wang Jie Meets with NSF Assistant Director Vice President Sun Jiaguang Visited Japan and Germany on International Evaluation Vice President Shen Wenqing Meets JST Delegation Vice President Wang Jie Meets with Vice President of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 12th Meeting of China-Korea Joint Committee for Basic Scientific Research Held Further Implement the Scientific Outlook for Development and Open up a New Prospect for Science Funding Panel Meeting for A3 Foresight Program 2008 held in Hangzhou Department Director's Fund for Earthquake Relief Vice President Shen Wenqing Meets IRRI Officials President Chen Yiyu Visits Taiwan Province NSFC VIP Attends the NSFC-JST Workshop 1st NSFC-JST Joint Evaluation for Funded Projects Ends Successfully NSFC Delegation Visits the U.S. Top Heads Meet at China-US Computer Science Leadership Summit President Chen Yiyu Met with Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chari Sirindhorn of Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

President Chen Yiyu Meets with Omi Professor Wang Jie Meets with NSF Assistant Director Vice President Sun Jiaguang Visited Japan and Germany on International Evaluation Vice President Shen Wenqing Meets JST Delegation Vice President Wang Jie Meets with Vice President of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 12th Meeting of China-Korea Joint Committee for Basic Scientific Research Held Further Implement the Scientific Outlook for Development and Open up a New Prospect for Science Funding Panel Meeting for A3 Foresight Program 2008 held in Hangzhou Department Director's Fund for Earthquake Relief Vice President Shen Wenqing Meets IRRI Officials President Chen Yiyu Visits Taiwan Province NSFC VIP Attends the NSFC-JST Workshop 1st NSFC-JST Joint Evaluation for Funded Projects Ends Successfully NSFC Delegation Visits the U.S. Top Heads Meet at China-US Computer Science Leadership Summit President Chen Yiyu Met with Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chari Sirindhorn of Thailand

2008-01-01

277

Correction: Determining the degradation efficiency and mechanisms of ethyl violet using HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS and GC-MS.  

PubMed

This is a correction to the following paper: Determining the degradation efficiency and mechanisms of ethyl violet using HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS and GC-MS, Wen-Hsin Chung, Chung-Shin Lu, Wan-Yu Lin, Jian-Xun Wang, Chia-Wei Wu, Chiing-Chang Chen, Chemistry Central Journal 2012, 6:63 (30 June 2012). PMID:24735461

Lu, Chung-Shin; Lin, Wan-Yu; Wang, Jian-Xun; Wu, Chia-Wei; Chen, Chiing-Chang

2014-01-01

278

Commentary on "common genetic polymorphisms modify the effect of smoking on absolute risk of bladder cancer." Garcia-Closas M, Rothman N, Figueroa JD, Prokunina-Olsson L, Han SS, Baris D, Jacobs EJ, Malats N, De Vivo I, Albanes D, Purdue MP, Sharma S, Fu YP, Kogevinas M, Wang Z, Tang W, Tardón A, Serra C, Carrato A, García-Closas R, Lloreta J, Johnson A, Schwenn M, Karagas MR, Schned A, Andriole G Jr., Grubb R 3rd, Black A, Gapstur SM, Thun M, Diver WR, Weinstein SJ, Virtamo J, Hunter DJ, Caporaso N, Landi MT, Hutchinson A, Burdett L, Jacobs KB, Yeager M, Fraumeni JF Jr., Chanock SJ, Silverman DT, Chatterjee N, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA.: Cancer Res 2013;73(7):2211-20 [Epub 2013 Mar 27].  

PubMed

Bladder cancer results from the combined effects of environmental and genetic factors, smoking being the strongest risk factor. Evaluating absolute risks resulting from the joint effects of smoking and genetic factors is critical to assess the public health relevance of genetic information. Analyses included up to 3,942 cases and 5,680 controls of European background in seven studies. We tested for multiplicative and additive interactions between smoking and 12 susceptibility loci, individually and combined as a polygenic risk score (PRS). Thirty-year absolute risks and risk differences by levels of the PRS were estimated for U.S. males aged 50 years. Six of 12 variants showed significant additive gene-environment interactions, most notably NAT2 (P = 7×10(-4)) and UGT1A6 (P = 8×10(-4)). The 30-year absolute risk of bladder cancer in U.S. males was 6.2% for all current smokers. This risk ranged from 2.9% for current smokers in the lowest quartile of the PRS to 9.9% for current smokers in the upper quartile. Risk difference estimates indicated that 8,200 cases would be prevented if elimination of smoking occurred in 100,000 men in the upper PRS quartile compared with 2,000 cases prevented by a similar effort in the lowest PRS quartile (P(additive) = 1×10(-4)). Thus, the potential impact of eliminating smoking on the number of bladder cancer cases prevented is larger for individuals at higher than lower genetic risk. Our findings could have implications for targeted prevention strategies. However, other smoking-related diseases, as well as practical and ethical considerations, need to be considered before any recommendations could be made. PMID:24445297

Scherr, Douglas S

2014-02-01

279

Origin of the Wang-Sheeley-Arge Solar Wind Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A correlation between solar wind speed at Earth and the amount of field line expansion in the corona was verified in 1989 using 22 years of solar and interplanetary observations. This talk will trace the history of this discovery from its birth 15 years earlier in the Skylab era to its current use as a space weather forecasting technique. This research was supported by NASA and ONR.

Sheeley, Neil R.

2014-06-01

280

Wang's shrinking cylinder problem with suction near a stagnation point  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the steady axisymmetric stagnation point flow of a viscous and incompressible fluid over a shrinking circular cylinder with mass transfer (suction) is studied. The flow is induced by a cylinder shrinking with a linear velocity distribution from the stagnation line. The fluid flow solution is an exact solution of the Navier-Stokes equation, which is reduced to a nonlinear ordinary differential equation. This equation is solved numerically for some values of the governing parameters that involves a Reynolds number R, a shrinking parameter ?, and a suction parameter ?. The effects of these governing parameters on the velocity and temperature profiles, skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number, as well as the distributions of the streamlines are investigated. The obtained results for the case of fixed cylinder are compared with those from the open literature and it is shown that they are in excellent agreement. The solutions are non-unique for some values of ? (<0). The streamlines show that the flow structures become complicated due to the shrinking and suction effects.

Lok, Y. Y.; Pop, I.

2011-08-01

281

Ada Compiler Validation Summary Report: Certificate Number: 901129W1.11093 Wang Laboratories, Inc. Wang VS Ada Version 5.00.00 Wang VS 8480 under Wang VSOS 7.30.02 => Wang VS 8480 under Wang VSOS 7.30.02.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Validation Summary Report describes the extent to which a specific Ada compiler conforms to the Ada Standard, ANSI/MIL-STD-1815A. This report explains all technical terms used within it and thoroughly reports the results of testing this compiler usin...

1991-01-01

282

Die saure 5?Nucleotidase im Zentralnervensystem der wei\\\\en Ratte  

Microsoft Academic Search

In adult white rats of both sexes the conditions for the best histochemical demonstration of the acid 5'-nucleotidase (AMP) were determined. Best results were obtained with immersion fixation for 2 hours in formol calcium, followed by postfixation in the same solution, containing 0.88 M sucrose for 12–18 hours. The free floating sections were incubated in a solution representing a modification

M. Davidoff; G. Galabov

1971-01-01

283

[Determination of active constituents in shi-wei (Folium Pyrrosiae) by high performance liquid chromatography].  

PubMed

A new analytical method for the simultaneous determination of three constituents, viz, mangiferin, isomangiferin and chlorogenic acid in Folium Pyrrosiae using high performance liquid chromatography was developed. A Zorbax-CN column (4.6 mm x 25 cm) was used; methanol--water--phosphoric acid (pH 2.5) (20:80:0.1) was used as the mobile phase. The method was rapid, sensitive, precise and showed good reproducibility. The three constituents in crude drugs were completely separated within 15 min. Recoveries of three constituents were 96.78-101.3%, with coefficients of variation 1.8-4.7%. Mangiferin and isomangiferin were separated for the first time. Pyrrosia plant materials were analyzed as follows: The powdered sample was refluxed with methanol for 4 hours, the extract was transferred into a 25 ml volumetric flask and diluted to 25 ml with methanol. A definite amount of this sample solution was injected for HPLC. The content of constituents in Folium pyrrosiae was calculated from the relevant peak height or peak area. The content of these three constituents in 7 species of Chinese Pyrrosia collected in 17 districts were determined. The results showed that these constituents varied greatly with the plant species and varied with the districts for the same species also, and should be evaluated accordingly. PMID:1414373

Li, J; Tong, Y Y

1992-01-01

284

Reviews of Books  

Microsoft Academic Search

WANG ZHENPING. Ambassadors from the Islands of Immortals: China-Japan Relations in the Han-Tang Period. Honolulu: Association for Asian Studies and University of Hawaii Press, 2005. Pp. xiii, 387. $53.00 (US). Reviewed by Kent G. DengPETER WHITFIELD. Cities of the World: A History in Maps. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2005. Pp. 208. $39.95 (US). Reviewed by Jeremy

Kent G. Deng; Jeremy Black; Antonio Santosuosso; Virginia Martin; Paulene Stafford; Simon MaClean; Patrick Salmon; Hugh M. Thomas; Montomery Bohna; Charles J. Halperin; David Potter; Stephen Constantine; Trevor Burnard; Kenneth Morgan; J. C. D. Clark; Dane Kennedy; Ian K. Steele; George Baer; Marshall C. Eakin; Edward Ingram; Nicholas Crafts; Ian Talbot; Ann Pottinger Saab; Lothar Hobelt; Catherine R. Schenk; Olive Patricia Dickason; Nupur Chaudhuri; John M. Mackenzie; Tony Collins; John L. Gordon Jr; Andrew J. Wilson; John Price; Warren I. Cohen; William R. Keylor; Andrew J. Crozier; Thomas G. Mahnken; John-Paul Himka; Tim Cook; Terrence Cole; S. P. Mackenzie; Akira Iriye; Carol S. Gruber; Steven I. Levine; Hector Mackenzie; Anders Stephanson; James I. Matray; Andrei Lankov; Campbell Craig; Nicholas Tarling; Marc Frey; Max Quanchi; Luis Van Isschot; Dale Torston Graden; Gary R. Hess; William M. Wardell; Eberhard Baumbauer; Bruce R. Kuniholm; Carl Cavanagh Hodge; Mark Harrison; Martin Bunton; James L. Gelvin; Lawrence S. Kaplan; J. David Singer; David A. Charters; Stephen Azzi; David A. Welch; David E. Apter; I. William Zartman; Shepard Forman; Harold James

2006-01-01

285

Uniqueness of weak solutions to the Ginzburg-Landau model for superconductivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We prove the uniqueness for weak solutions of the time-dependent 2-D Ginzburg-Landau model for superconductivity with L 2 initial data in the case of Coulomb gauge. This question was left open in Tang and Wang (Physica D, 88:139-166, 1995). We also prove the uniqueness of the 3-D radially symmetric solution in bounded annular domain with the choice of Lorentz gauge and L 2 initial data.

Fan, Jishan; Ozawa, Tohru

2012-06-01

286

The WEI6K, a 6kW 7-m Small Wind Turbine: Final Technical Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy under a DOE solicitation âLow Wind Speed Technology for Small Turbine Development.❠The objective of this project has been to design a new small wind turbine with improved cost, reliability and performance in grid-connected residential and small business applications, in order to achieve the overall DOE goal of cost effectiveness

Kyle K. Wetzel; Patrick J. McCleer; Edwin C. Hahlbeck

2006-01-01

287

CONTEXT-BASED CONCEPT FUSION WITH BOOSTED CONDITIONAL RAN DOM FIELDS Wei JiangShih-Fu Chang  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contextual relationships among different semantic conc- epts provide important information for automatic concept det- ection in images\\/videos. We propose a new context-based co- ncept fusion (CBCF) method for semantic concept detection. Our work includes two folds. (1) We model the inter-con- ceptual relationships by a Conditional Random Field (CRF) that improves detection results from independent detectors by taking into

Alexander C. Loui

288

StreamMiner: A Classifier Ensemble-based Engine to Mine Concept-drifting Data Streams Wei Fan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate StreamMiner, a random decision-tree ensemble based engine to mine data streams. A fundamental challenge in data stream mining applications (e.g., credit card transaction authorization, security buy- sell transaction, and phone call records, etc) is concept-drift or the discrepancy between the previously learned model and the true model in the new data. The basic problem is the abil- ity

T. J. Watson

289

The Games We Play Online and Offline: Making Wang-tta in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an ethnographic analysis of case studies derived from fieldwork that was designed to consider the different ways Korean game players establish com- munity online and offline. I consider ways Korean youth participate in activities at Korean computer game rooms, which can be thought of as \\

Florence Chee

2006-01-01

290

Argonne's Michael Wang talks about the GREET Model for reducing vehicle emi  

ScienceCinema

To fully evaluate energy and emission impacts of advanced vehicle technologies and new transportation fuels, the fuel cycle from wells to wheels and the vehicle cycle through material recovery and vehicle disposal need to be considered. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Argonne has developed a full life-cycle model called GREET (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation). It allows researchers and analysts to evaluate various vehicle and fuel combinations on a full fuel-cycle/vehicle-cycle basis. The first version of GREET was released in 1996. Since then, Argonne has continued to update and expand the model. The most recent GREET versions are the GREET 1 2012 version for fuel-cycle analysis and GREET 2.7 version for vehicle-cycle analysis.

Michael Wang

2013-06-05

291

Argonne's Michael Wang talks about the GREET Model for reducing vehicle emi  

SciTech Connect

To fully evaluate energy and emission impacts of advanced vehicle technologies and new transportation fuels, the fuel cycle from wells to wheels and the vehicle cycle through material recovery and vehicle disposal need to be considered. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Argonne has developed a full life-cycle model called GREET (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation). It allows researchers and analysts to evaluate various vehicle and fuel combinations on a full fuel-cycle/vehicle-cycle basis. The first version of GREET was released in 1996. Since then, Argonne has continued to update and expand the model. The most recent GREET versions are the GREET 1 2012 version for fuel-cycle analysis and GREET 2.7 version for vehicle-cycle analysis.

Michael Wang

2012-07-25

292

Observations from Space: Marine Ecosystem and Environment Response to Typhoon/ Hurricanes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine ecosystem is sensitive to environmental factors, including typhoon. Typhoon's activities have been strengthening in both intensity and spatial coverage in the past several decades, along with global changes; however, our knowledge about the impact of typhoons upon the marine ecosystem is very scarce. To understand how could typhoon/hurricane impact on marine ecosystem, we have conducted a series studies in the South China Sea, by using Satellite remote sensing and in situ observation data to investigate phytoplankton concentration, sea surface temperature (SST) and related factors before, during, and after typhoon. Results show that typhoon can induce large area of phytoplankton blooms with increases of Chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations and decrease of sea surface temperature (SST) about 4 oC. Analysis showed that typhoon can support nutrients to surface phytoplankton by upwelling and vertical mixing, and typhoon rain can also nourish marine phytoplankton. More observations confirmed that typhoon can induce cold eddy, and cold eddy can support eddy-shape phyto-plankton bloom by upwelling. Typhoon can also induce transport of nutrient-rich water from depth and from the coast to offshore regions, nourishing phytoplankton biomass. Comparative study show that slow-moving typhoon induced phytoplankton blooms of higher Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), the strong typhoon induced phytoplankton blooms of a large area. Therefore, typhoons may have important contribution to the marine primary production. Those studies may help better understand the mechanism of typhoon impacts on marine ecosys-tem, and the role of typhoon in the global environmental changes. The series research were sup-ported by: NSFC (40976091, 40811140533) and GD NSF (8351030101000002); (2) CAS(kzcx2-yw-226 and LYQ200701); (3) The CAS/SAFEA International Partnership Program for Creative Research Teams (KZCX2-YW-T001). References: Tang, DanLing, H Kawamura, P Shi, W Takahashi, T Shimada, F. Sakaida, O Isoguchi, 2005. Seasonal phytoplankton blooms associated with monsoonal influences and coastal environments in the sea areas either side of the Indochina Peninsula. JGR-Bio-geo. VOL. 111, G01010, doi:10.1029/2005JG000050, 2006. Tang, DanLing, H Kawamura, Hai Doan-Nhu, W Takahashi , 2004. Remote sensing oceanography of a harmful algal bloom (HAB) off the coast of southeastern Vietnam. J. of Geophysical Research (Ocean).Vol 109, doi:10.1029/2003JC002045; Tang, DanLing, H Kawamura, TV Dien. MA Lee, 2004. Offshore phytoplankton biomass increase and its oceanographic causes in the South China Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 268: 31-41; Tang, DanLing, H ZHAO, B. Satyanarayana, GM ZHENG, RP. SINGH, JH LV, 2009, Enhancement of Chlorophyll-a in the Northeastern Indian Ocean after the 2004 South Asian Tsunami, Int. J. Remote Sensing doi10.1080/01431160802603778 , Vol.30 (17):4553-4565; Zhao, H., DanLing Tang, and Y. Wang, 2008, Comparison of phyto-plankton blooms triggered by two typhoons with different intensities and translation speeds in the South China SeaMar Ecol Prog Ser, 365, 57-65; Zheng, GM. and DanLing Tang ,2007Off-shore and nearshore chlorophyll increases induced by typhoon winds and subsequent terrestrial rainwater runoff, Mar Ecol Prog Ser, 333, 61-72; H Zhao, DanLing TANG, DX Wang, 2009, Phytoplankton blooms near the Pearl River Estuary induced by Typhoon Nuri, Journal of Geophysical Research -Oceans. 114, C12027; YQ Chen, DanLing Tang, 2010, Cold eddies and eddy-shape phytoplankton blooms induced by tropical cyclone Linfa in the South China Sea. In preparation; XX Yang, DanLing Tang, 2010, Sea Surface Temperature Decreasing in the Northern South China Sea Induced by Typhoon. In preparation.

Tang, Danling; Yi, Sui

293

Scanning tunneling microscopy study on superconductivity of FeSe thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Searching for superconducting materials with high transition temperature (TC) is one of the most exciting and challenging fields in physics and materials science. By using MBE technique, we are able to prepare stoichiometric and superconducting FeSe single crystalline films on various substrates, which enables us investigate superconductivity mechanism of FeSe thin films in well-controlled way [1-3]. Most importantly, by using low temperature scanning tunneling spectroscopy, a superconductive gap as large as 20 meV and the vortex state under high magnetic field are revealed in the single unit-cell thick FeSe films on SrTiO3(001) substrate [4]. Such a high Tc superconductor is further confirmed by recent transport measurement. The study not only demonstrates a powerful way for finding new superconductors and for raising TC, but also provides a well-defined platform for systematic study of the mechanism of unconventional superconductivity by using different superconducting materials and substrates. The study is collaborated with Professor Qi-Kun Xue, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, China.[4pt] References:[0pt] [1] C. L. Song, Y. L.Wang, P. Cheng, Y. P. Jiang, W. Li, T. Zhang, Z. Li, K. He, L. L. Wang, J. F. Jia, H. H, Hung, C. J. Wu, X. C. Ma, X. Chen, and Q. K. Xue, Science 332, 1410 (2011).[0pt] [2] C. L. Song, Y. L. Wang, Y. P. Jiang, Z. Li, L. L. Wang, K. He, X. Chen, X. C. Ma, and Q. K. Xue, Phys. Rev. B 84, 020503 (2011).[0pt] [3] C. L. Song, Y. L. Wang, Y. P. Jiang, L. L. Wang, Ke He, Xi Chen, J. E. Hoffman, X. C. Ma, and Q. K. Xue, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 137004 (2012).[0pt] [4] Wang Qingyan, Li Zhi, Zhang Wenhao, Zhang Zuocheng, Zhang Jinsong, Li Wei, Ding Hao, Ou Yunbo, Deng Peng, Chang Kai, Wen Jing, Song Canli, He Ke, Ji Shuaihua, Jia Jinfeng, Wang Yayu, Wang Lili, Chen Xi, Ma Xucun, and Xue Qikun, Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 037402 (2012).

Ma, Xucun

2013-03-01

294

Coprescription of Chinese herbal medicine and Western medication among female patients with breast cancer in Taiwan: analysis of national insurance claims  

PubMed Central

Background Many female breast cancer (FBC) patients take Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) and Western medication (WM) concurrently in Taiwan. Despite the possibility of interactions between the CHM and WM mentioned in previous studies, the pattern of these coprescriptions in FBC patients remains unclear. Hence, the aim of the present study is to investigate the utilization of coprescriptions of CHM and WM among the FBC patients in Taiwan. Methods The study was a cross-sectional survey using the sampled cohort in 2009 obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. There were 3,507 FBC patients identified from the registry for catastrophic illness patients. Ambulatory visit records, corresponding prescriptions, and the data of beneficiaries belonging to the FBC patients were further extracted. A total of 1,086 FBC patients used CHM at least once. CHM and WM prescribed within any overlapping duration were defined as coprescriptions. Results There were 868 (80.0%) patients simultaneously receiving CHM and WM. A total of 4,927 CHM prescriptions and 6,358 WM prescriptions were prescribed concurrently. Among these coprescriptions, the most frequently used CHM was jia-wei-xiao-yao-san (21.2%), and the most frequently coprescribed WM was acetaminophen (38.9%), followed by tamoxifen (25.5%). There were 346 patients using systemic adjuvant therapy and CHM concurrently. The most commonly coprescribed CHM with chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, and trastuzumab was xiang-sha-liu-jun-zi-tang, jia-wei-xiao-yao-san, and zhi-gan-cao-tang, respectively. Conclusion The combined use of CHM with WM is prevalent. The main purpose of combining CHM with systemic cancer treatment is to alleviate the treatment-related adverse effects. However, the combination may result in the potential risk of drug–herb interactions. Further clinical studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the CHM and WM coprescriptions for FBC patients.

Wang, Bih-Ru; Chang, Yuh-Lih; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chiu, Jen-Hwey; Wu, Jing Chong; Wu, Min-Shan; Chou, Chia-Lin; Chou, Yueh-Ching

2014-01-01

295

DFT based modeling of C60/Dichloropentacene on stepped Au surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The co-assembly of functionalized pentacenes (electron-donor materials) and fullerenes (electron-acceptor materials) on metal substrates provides a model for studying the structural and electronic properties for novel organic photovoltaic (OPV) heterojunctions [1]. Our previous STM experimental results show C60 to form molecular chains on an intact single-domain, brick-wall structured 6,13-dichloropentacene (DCP) monolayer adsorbed on stepped Au(788) [2]. Here, we have included a stepped gold substrate in DFT calculations for the geometric and electronic structure of this interacting three-component system. Our calculations show that C60 molecular chain prefer to absorb on top of the DCP molecules on the upper step edge. We calculate the dipole moments for various C60 configurations. The stepped gold substrate interaction shows a major influence on this unique molecular chain formation. [1] J. Wang, I. Kaur, B. Diaconescu, J.-M. Tang, G. P. Miller, and K. Pohl, ACS Nano 5 (2011) 1792. [2] J. Wang, J.-M. Tang, G. P. Miller, and K. Pohl, in preparation.

Wang, Jun; Tang, Jian-Ming; Pohl, Karsten

2013-03-01

296

Control Strategy on Hypertension in Chinese Medicine  

PubMed Central

Hypertension is a clinical common disease, with high mortality and disability. Although there have also been significant advances in therapeutic concepts and measures, it has shown a certain value and significance in the treatment of Chinese medicine. The control strategy on hypertension is described from the following aspects such as differentiation of symptoms, pathogenesis, formula syndrome, and herb syndrome. As the common clinical manifestations of hypertension are dizziness, headache, fatigue, lassitude in the loins and knees, and so on, the pathogeneses of them are analysed. The author found that the main pathogenesis of the disease is heat, excessive fluid, and deficiency, which occurred incorporatively and interacted with each other in patients. Although the pathogenesis of the disease is complicated, the distribution of formula syndromes and herb syndromes is regular. The common formula syndromes include Banxia Baishu Tianma Tang (Decoction of Pinellia ternata, Atractylodes and Gastrodia elata), Da Chaihu Tang (Major Bupleurum Decoction), and Liu Wei Dihuang Wan (Pill of Rehmannia). And the common herb syndromes include Tian Ma (Gastrodia elata) syndrome, Sheng Di Huang (Radix Rehmanniae) syndrome, Niu Xi (Achyranthes Root) syndrome, and Chuan Xiong (Ligusticum wallichii) syndrome.

Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang

2012-01-01

297

Control strategy on hypertension in chinese medicine.  

PubMed

Hypertension is a clinical common disease, with high mortality and disability. Although there have also been significant advances in therapeutic concepts and measures, it has shown a certain value and significance in the treatment of Chinese medicine. The control strategy on hypertension is described from the following aspects such as differentiation of symptoms, pathogenesis, formula syndrome, and herb syndrome. As the common clinical manifestations of hypertension are dizziness, headache, fatigue, lassitude in the loins and knees, and so on, the pathogeneses of them are analysed. The author found that the main pathogenesis of the disease is heat, excessive fluid, and deficiency, which occurred incorporatively and interacted with each other in patients. Although the pathogenesis of the disease is complicated, the distribution of formula syndromes and herb syndromes is regular. The common formula syndromes include Banxia Baishu Tianma Tang (Decoction of Pinellia ternata, Atractylodes and Gastrodia elata), Da Chaihu Tang (Major Bupleurum Decoction), and Liu Wei Dihuang Wan (Pill of Rehmannia). And the common herb syndromes include Tian Ma (Gastrodia elata) syndrome, Sheng Di Huang (Radix Rehmanniae) syndrome, Niu Xi (Achyranthes Root) syndrome, and Chuan Xiong (Ligusticum wallichii) syndrome. PMID:22194771

Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang

2012-01-01

298

Hypolipidemic Effects of Three Purgative Decoctions  

PubMed Central

In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), purgation is indicated when a person suffers an illness due to the accumulation of evil internal heat. Obese individuals with a large belly, red face, thick and yellow tongue fur, constipation, and avoidance of heat are thought accumulates of evil internal heat, and they are also treated with purgatives such as Ta-Cheng-Chi-Tang (TCCT), Xiao-Chen-Chi-Tang (XCCT), and Tiao-Wei-Chen-Chi-Tang (TWCCT) by TCM doctors. In previous studies, our group found that TCCT has potent anti-inflammatory activity, and that XCCT is an effective antioxidant. Since rhubarb is the principle herb in these three prescriptions, we will first present a thorough review of the literature on the demonstrated effect (or lack of effect) of rhubarb and rhubarb-containing polyherbal preparations on lipid and weight control. We will then continue our research with an investigation of the anti-obesity and lipid-lowering effect of TCCT, XCCT, TWCCT, and rhubarb extracts using two animal models. TWCCT lowered the serum triglyceride concentration as much as fenofibrate in Triton WR-1339-treated mice. Daily supplementation with XCCT and TWCCT significantly attenuated the high-fat-diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats. In addition, TWCCT also significantly lowered the high-fat-diet-induced hypertriglycemia. Although feeding high-fat diet rats with these extracts did not cause loose stools or diarrhea or other deleterious effects on renal or hepatic function. None of these extracts lowered the body weight of rats fed on high-fat diet. In conclusion, the results suggest that XCCT and TWCCT might exert beneficial effects in the treatment of hyperlipidemia.

Tseng, Sung-Hui; Chien, Ting-Yi; Chen, Jiun-Rong; Lin, I-Hsin; Wang, Ching-Chiung

2011-01-01

299

An adaptive ghost fluid finite volume method for compressible gas water simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An adaptive ghost fluid finite volume method is developed for one- and two-dimensional compressible multi-medium flows in this work. It couples the real ghost fluid method (GFM) [C.W. Wang, T.G. Liu, B.C. Khoo, A real-ghost fluid method for the simulation of multi-medium compressible flow, SIAM J. Sci. Comput. 28 (2006) 278-302] and the adaptive moving mesh method [H.Z. Tang, T. Tang. Moving mesh methods for one- and two-dimensional hyperbolic conservation laws, SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 41 (2003) 487-515; H.Z. Tang, T. Tang, P.W. Zhang, An adaptive mesh redistribution method for non-linear Hamilton-Jacobi equations in two- and three-dimensions, J. Comput. Phys. 188 (2003) 543-572], and thus combines their advantages. This work shows that the local mesh clustering in the vicinity of the material interface can effectively reduce both numerical and conservative errors caused by the GFM around the material interface and other discontinuities. Besides the improvement of flow field resolution, the adaptive GFM also largely increases the computational efficiency. Several numerical experiments are conducted to demonstrate robustness and efficiency of the current method. They include several 1D and 2D gas-water flow problems, involving a large density gradient at the material interface and strong shock-interface interactions. The results show that our algorithm can capture the shock waves and the material interface accurately, and is stable and robust even for solutions with large density and pressure gradients.

Wang, Chunwu; Tang, Huazhong; Liu, Tiegang

2008-06-01

300

Stratigraphy, microfacies and sedimentary environments of Asmari Formation at Tang-e-Bolhayat, north of Kazerun, Fars Province, Iran.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Oligo-Miocene Asmari Formation is the most important petroleum reservoir in the Folded Zagros Zone (FZZ). The FZZ is one of the tectono-sedimentary provinces of Iran, situated to the SW of the country and is recognized as the southwesterly boundary of the Zagros Orogen near the Persian Gulf. This area is easily recognised by the NW-SE trending parallel anticlines that verge to the SW in a 6-12 km cover sequence. As mentioned above, this area is home to some of the world largest oil reservoirs, and was the location of initial continental collision between the Arabian and Eurasian Plates. The Asmari Formation includes Kalhur (evaporates) and Ahwaz (sandstone) Members, measured in Lorestan and Khuzestan Provinces, respectively. The Asmari Formation is present throughout the Zagros Basin but it is best developed in Dezful Embayment. Most studies of the formation in this basin are related to subsurface data, while this study is focused on an outcrop. In the type section, which was measured at Kuh-e-Asmari (Asmari Mountain), SE of Masjed-e-Soleiman (a town in Khuzestan Province, SW of Iran), the formation comprises 314 m resistant, severely fractured, cream to brown limestones, with the occurrence of thin bedded shales. The lower contact with Pabdeh Formation and the upper contact with Gachsaran Formation are gradual and conformable. In the study area, from the viewpoint of lithology, the Asmari Formation consists up to 430 meters of thin to massive bedded limestone, dolomitic limestone, argillaceous limestone and occasionally marl. According to petrography and field observations and analysis of larger benthic foraminifera assemblages and microfacies features 4 major depositional environments were identified. These include open marine, barrier, lagoon and tidal flat. These environments are represented by 10 microfacies. A carbonate ramp platform is suggested for the depositional environment of the Asmari Formation. The inner ramp facies are characterized by wackstone-packstone, dominated by various taxa of imperforate foraminifera, the middle ramp facies are characterized by packstone-grainstone with diverse assemblage of larger hyaline foraminifera. The outer ramp is dominated by argillaceous wackstone and mudstone, characterized by hyaline foraminifera. On a sequence stratigraphic framework, the Lower Asmari is marly in character near the base, overlain by foraminiferal limestone, and deposited in HST stage, wears TST started during the deposition of underlying Pabded Formation and transgression reached to highest level Just in the boundary of Asmari and Pabdeh formations. The Middle Asmari is marked as late HST sediments composed of lagoonal facies (miliolidae wackstones). This sequence comprises one stage of HST, one LST and one TST. The Upper Asmari which is existed in the Dezful Embayment very well, comprises two HST and two TST; the latter began with echinoderm wackstone microfacies. Two third- order sequences are identified based on deepening and shallowing patterns in microfacies, stacking patterns and the distribution of foraminiferas. Sequence boundary is type 2 and no evidence of exposure was observed. Keywords: Stratigraphy, Microfacies, Sedimentary Environments, Kazerun, Iran.

Bahrami, M.

2009-04-01

301

Cross-Linguistic Studies of Directionality in First Language Acquisition: The Japanese Data--A Response to O'Grady, Suzuki-Wei and Cho (1986).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that current attempts to show that forward directionality effects can also be induced in Japanese acquisition do not succeed in supporting the forward directionality preference of anaphora. (57 references) (Author/CB)

Lust, Barbara; Mazuka, Reiko

1989-01-01

302

Wang-aldehyde resin as a recyclable support for the synthesis of alpha,alpha-disubstituted amino acid derivatives.  

PubMed

Merrifield resin was functionalised with hydroxybenzaldehyde under microwave irradiation. The resultant resin was used as a means for immobilisation and activation of alpha-amino acid esters for alkylation reactions. Alpha,alpha-disubstituted and cyclic amino acid esters were prepared in good yields. PMID:16106300

Guinó, Meritxell; Hii, King Kuok Mimi

2005-09-01

303

Risky Choice with Heuristics: Reply to Birnbaum (2008), Johnson, Schulte-Mecklenbeck, and Willemsen (2008), and Rieger and Wang (2008)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

E. Brandstatter, G. Gigerenzer, and R. Hertwig (2006) showed that the priority heuristic matches or outperforms modifications of expected utility theory in predicting choice in 4 diverse problem sets. M. H. Birnbaum (2008) argued that sets exist in which the opposite is true. The authors agree--but stress that all choice strategies have regions of…

Brandstatter, Eduard; Gigerenzer, Gerd; Hertwig, Ralph

2008-01-01

304

NCI-CCR Pediatric Oncology Branch: Cell & Molecular Biology Section - Chunxi Wang, Ph.D, Postdoctoral Fellow  

Cancer.gov

My research focuses on the epigenetic modification of genes involving in the Neuroblastoma. Now I am working on the regulation of hCasz1, which has been suggested to be a tumor suppressor in Neuroblastoma.

305

Feature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shi Changxu, former vice-president of NSFC wins Top Prize of National Science and Technology Award of China Both China and the world materials community have greatly benefitted from his service, by RPH Chang Shi Changxu—a great teacher and mentor for materials scientists, by Gaoqing Max Lu A bright example for all of us—Professor Shi Changxu, by Wei Gao Professor Shi Changxu—The Giant Materials Scientist of China, by Wuzong Zhou Congratulations to Academician Changxu Shi on the Occasion of His Winning the 2010 Chinese Science & Technology Grand Prize, by Ju Li, Kai Chen, Zhiwei Shan, Guanjun Qiao, Jun Sun and Evan Ma Materials—the foundation for technology revolutions, by Zhong Lin Wang

2011-01-01

306

Pseudopotential Calculation of the Excited States of Semiconductor Quantum Dots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of our pseudopotential calculations of up to 10 single-exciton states in free standing InP, InAs and CdSe quantum dots with diameters ranging from 10 to 50ÅIn the first step we solve for ?20-40 single particle hole and electron states using a screened atomic pseudopotential Hamiltonian[1], solved within a plane wave basis using the Folded Spectrum Method[2]. In the second step, we calculate the electron-hole Coulomb energy[3] and the dipole transition probability for each of the ?1000 possible single particle excitations. We present a comparison of the size scaling of the peaks in absorption and emission spectra obtained in our calculations with those from recent experiments and those of the effective mass based, k.p method. We also compare pseudopotential and k.p predictions of the character of the initial and final single particle states associated with each of these emission peaks. [1] J. Kim, A.J. Williamson, L.W. Wang, S.H-. Wei and A. Zunger, submitted to Phys. Rev. B [2] L. W. Wang and A. Zunger, J. Chem. Phys. 100, 2394 (1994). [3] A. Franceschetti and A. Zunger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 915 (1997). *Supported under BES/OER/DMS contract No. DE---AC36---83CH10093

Williamson, Andrew; Wang, Lin-Wang; Fu, Hiauxiang; Zunger, Alex

1998-03-01

307

77 FR 75613 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR); Assessment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Assessment Process Webinars for Caribbean Blue Tang and Queen Triggerfish AGENCY: National...30 assessment webinar II for Caribbean blue tang and queen triggerfish...The SEDAR 30 assessments of the Caribbean blue tang and queen triggerfish will...

2012-12-21

308

77 FR 55811 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Assessment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Assessment Process Webinars for Caribbean Blue Tang and Queen Triggerfish AGENCY: National...pre-assessment webinar for Caribbean blue tang and queen triggerfish...The SEDAR 30 assessments of the Caribbean blue tang and queen triggerfish will...

2012-09-11

309

Achieving higher TC superconductivity in dense cuprates, iron selenides, and hydrocarbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pressure plays an essential role in inducing or tuning superconductivity as well as shedding insight on the mechanism of superconductivity. There are much rich phase diagrams in unconventional superconductors under pressure. Finding ways to control the quantum coherence properties to have a higher critical temperature TC than the material has remains a challenge. Here we will talk about our recent experimental efforts in achieving higher temperature superconductivity in cuprates, iron selenides, and hydrocarbons. We will show how to enhance remarkably TC through the pressure tuning of competing electronic order in multilayer cuprates [1] and how to have superconductivity in two distinct regimes in iron selenides [2,3]. We will present a discovery of an enhancement of TC at more than doubled ambient value in a highly compressed aromatic hydrocarbon [4]. Our results have important implications for designing and engineering superconductors with much higher TCs at ambient conditions.[4pt] [1] X. J. Chen, V. V. Struzhkin, Y. Yu, A. F. Goncharov, C. T. Lin, H. K. Mao, and R. J. Hemley, Nature 466, 950-953 (2010).[0pt] [2] L. L. Sun, X. J. Chen, J. Guo, P. W. Gao, H. D. Wang, M. H. Fang, X. L. Chen, G. F. Chen, Q. Wu, C. Zhang, D. C. Gu, X. L. Dong, K. Yang, A. G. Li, X. Dai, H. K. Mao, and Z. X. Zhao, Nature 483, 67-69 (2012) .[0pt] [3] X. J. Chen, Q. Huang, S. B. Wang, J. X. Zhu, W. Bao, M. H. Fang, J. B. Zhang, L. Y. Tang, Y. M. Xiao, P. Chaw, J. Shu, W. L. Mao, V. V. Struzhkin, R. J. Hemley, and H. K. Mao, unpublished.[0pt] [4] X. J. Chen, X. F. Wang, Z. X. Qin, H. Wu, Q. Z. Huang, T. Muramatsu, J. J. Ying, P. Cheng, Z. J. Xiang, X. H. Chen, W. G. Yang, V. V. Struzhkin, and H. K. Mao, unpublished.

Chen, Xiao-Jia

2013-03-01

310

Alleviative Effects of a Kampo (a Japanese Herbal) Medicine "Maoto (Ma-Huang-Tang)" on the Early Phase of Influenza Virus Infection and Its Possible Mode of Action  

PubMed Central

A Kampo medicine, maoto, has been prescribed in an early phase of influenza-like illness and used for a treatment of influenza clinically in Japan these days. However, the efficacy of maoto against the virus infection remains to be elucidated. This study was conducted to evaluate the alleviative effects of maoto against early phase of influenza virus infection and its preliminary mode of actions through immune systems. When maoto (0.9 and 1.6?g/kg/day) was orally administered to A/J mice on upper respiratory tract infection of influenza virus A/PR/8/34 from 4?hours to 52?hours postinfection (p.i.) significant antipyretic effect was shown in comparison with water-treated control. Administration of maoto (0.8 and 1.3?g/kg/day) significantly decreased the virus titers in both nasal (NLF) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) at 52 hours p.i., and significantly increased the anti-influenza virus IgM, IgA, and IgG1 antibody titers in NLF, BALF, and serum, respectively. Maoto also increased significantly the influenza virus-bound IgG1 and IgM antibody titers in serum and the virus-bound IgM antibody titer in even the BALF of uninfected A/J mice. These results indicate that maoto exerts antipyretic activity in influenza virus-infected mice and virus reducing effect at an early phase of the infection through probably augmentation of the virus-bound natural antibodies.

Kataoka, Erika; Aoki, Yuka; Hokari, Rei

2014-01-01

311

A demonstration research on job satisfaction of the employee from the private enterprise — Based on LH Group Co., LTD. Tang Shan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate the employee's job satisfac- tion from the private enterprise LH Group Co., LTD. ,and explore the factors which influence the job satisfaction.This paper takes the staffs of LH Company as the studying object, which company is a large-scale private enterprise by the steel and iron production as the primarily business, and it is a representative

Gu Fan; Su Yong

2011-01-01

312

Large-Scale Simulation of the Effects of Climate Change on Runoff Erosion Following Extreme Wildfire Events Authors: Gould, Adam, Warren, Barber, Wagenbrenner, Robichaud, Wang, Cherkauer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Across the western U.S., there is clear concern for increases in wildfire occurrence, severity, and post-fire runoff erosion due to projected climate changes. The aim of this study was to advance our capability to simulate post-fire runoff erosion at scales larger than a single hillslope to examine the relative contribution of sediment being released to larger streams and rivers in response to wildfire. We applied the Variable Capacity Infiltration-Water Erosion Prediction Project (VIC-WEPP), a newly-developed physically-based modeling framework that combines large-scale hydrology with hillslope-scale runoff erosion, over the Salmon River basin (SRB) in central Idaho. We selected the SRB for this study because of recent research that suggested that forest wildfires are likely contributing the majority of coarser sands that settle in downstream navigation channels and in reservoirs, causing adverse impacts to aquatic life, navigation, and flood storage. Using the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR), burn intensity and severity maps show the regularity of wildfire occurrence in the SRB. These maps compare pre-fire images to next growing season images from the Landsat Thematic Mapper multispectral scanning sensor. Rather than implementing WEPP over all hillslopes within the SRB, we applied a representative hillslope approach. A monofractal scaling method downscales globally available 30 arc second digital elevation model (DEM) data to a 30 m resolution for simulations. This information determined the distribution of slope gradients within each VIC grid cell. This study applied VIC-WEPP over the 1979-2010 period and compared an ensemble of future climate simulations for the period of 2041-2070. For future scenarios, we only considered meteorological impacts on post-fire erosion and did not incorporate changes in future fire occurrence or severity. We ran scenarios for a variety of land cover and soil parameter sets, particularly those that relate to pre and post-fire characteristics, such as vegetative cover, interrill and rill erodibility factors, and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Evaluation of runoff erosion at experimental sites, observed by the U.S. Forest Service, involved using Disturbed WEPP which showed reasonable first post-fire year annual erosion predictions. We evaluated VIC-WEPP by comparing sediment observations downstream of the SRB with simulated yields for both pre and post-fire conditions. Generation of maps showing erosion over the SRB for each of the scenarios show specific areas within the SRB to be high, moderate, or low runoff-induced post-fire erosion regions. Our methodology will enable forest managers in the region to incorporate the impacts of changes in meteorological events on runoff erosion into their strategic management plans.

Gould, G.; Adam, J. C.; Barber, M. E.; Wagenbrenner, J. W.; Robichaud, P. R.; Wang, L.; Cherkauer, K. A.

2012-12-01

313

Why Deuterium+Au was the critical control experiment at RHIC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the striking discoveries at RHIC was the strong (factor of 4-5) suppression of high pT pions above 4 GeV/c in central Au+Au at 200 AGeV. In addition the data reveal an evolution from di-jet correlations in peripheral collisions to mono-jet production in central collisions. Two paradigms existed prior to the new D+Au data proporting to explain the same jet quenching pattern. One is based on the formation of an opaque Quark-Gluon Plasma [1]. The other is based on initial state gluon shadowing in the Color Glass Condensate model for the nuclear wavefunction [2]. I review both paradigms and how the D+Au reaction provides the critical control experiment to decide which is closer to reality under RHIC conditions. I conclude that if the preliminary d+Au data are confirmed, then a QGP was in fact formed in central Au+Au at RHIC. References: [1] M. Gyulassy, Ivan Vitev, Xin-Nian Wang, Ben-Wei Zhang nucl-th/0302077 and refs. therein. [2] Edmond Iancu, Raju Venugopalan hep-ph/0303204 and refs. therein.

Gyulassy, Miklos

2003-10-01

314

A new apparatus for study of pressure-dependent laminar premixed flames with vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a home-made combustion apparatus for study of pressure-dependent laminar premixed flames with tunable vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry. The instrument consists of a flame chamber, a photoionization chamber with a single-stage sampling system, an ion transfer/storage system, and an orthogonal-acceleration reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Preliminary results of fuel-rich C2H4/O2/Ar flames at pressures of 30, 150, and 760 Torr have been obtained with this instrument. Compared to previous instruments [T. A. Cool, A. McIlroy, F. Qi, P. R. Westmoreland, L. Poisson, D. S. Peterka, and M. Ahmed, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 094102 (2005); F. Qi, R. Yang, B. Yang, C. Q. Huang, L. X. Wei, J. Wang, L. S. Sheng, and Y. W. Zhang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 084101 (2006)], performances of the new apparatus have higher mass resolution (~3500 at m/z = 40), better detection limit (<1 ppm), and broader dynamic range (better than 5 order of magnitude).

Zhou, Z. Y.; Wang, Y.; Tang, X. F.; Wu, W. H.; Qi, F.

2013-01-01

315

Prediction of peptides binding to the PKA RII? subunit using a hierarchical strategy  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Favorable interaction between the regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and a peptide in A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) is critical for translocating PKA to the subcellular sites where the enzyme phosphorylates its substrates. It is very hard to identify AKAPs peptides binding to PKA due to the high sequence diversity of AKAPs. Results: We propose a hierarchical and efficient approach, which combines molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, free energy calculations, virtual mutagenesis (VM) and bioinformatics analyses, to predict peptides binding to the PKA RII? regulatory subunit in the human proteome systematically. Our approach successfully retrieved 15 out of 18 documented RII?-binding peptides. Literature curation supported that many newly predicted peptides might be true AKAPs. Here, we present the first systematic search for AKAP peptides in the human proteome, which is useful to further experimental identification of AKAPs and functional analysis of their biological roles. Contact: tingjunhou@hotmail.com; tjhou@suda.edu.cn; wei-wang@ucsd.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Hou, Tingjun; Li, Youyong; Wang, Wei

2011-01-01

316

Supernova 2014M = Psn J15151721+7529095  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bin Ma and Peng Wei, National Astronomical Observatories of China; Zhaohui Shang, Tianjing Normal University; Lifan Wang, Purple Mountain Observatory; and Xiaofeng Wang, Tsinghua University, on behalf of the Chinese Antarctic Survey Collaboration, report the discovery of an apparent supernova (mag 17.0) on unfiltered CCD images taken on Jan. 18.66 UT using the 0.5-m AST3-2 telescope at Mohe, China. The new object is located at R.A. = 15h15m17s.21, Decl. = +75d29'09".5 (equinox 2000.0), which is 18".3 east and 2".9 north of the center of the galaxy 2MASX J15151575+7529066. Nothing is visible at this position on a Digitized Sky Survey image (Palomar Sky Survey cited). The discovery image has been posted at the following website URL: http://www.thca.tsinghua.edu.cn/~wangxf/AST3/PSNJ15151721+7529095.png. The variable was designated PSN J15151721+7529095 when it was posted at the Central Bureau's TOCP webpage and is here designated SN 2014M based on the spectroscopic confirmation reported below. Additional CCD magnitudes for 2014M: Jan. 12.67, [17.5 (Ma et al.); 25.77, 17.1 (Ma et al.); 28.805, 16.3 (Gianluca Masi, Francesca Nocentini, and Patrick Schmeer; remotely using a 43-cm telescope near Ceccano, Italy; position end figures 17s.15, 09".9). H.-N. Sai, W.-X. Li, and X.-F. Wang, Tsinghua University; and T.-M. Zhang, National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC), report on an optical spectrogram (range 350-890 nm) of PSN J15151721+7529095 = SN 2014M that was obtained on Jan. 27.90 UT with the 2.16-m telescope (+ BFOSC) at the Xinglong Station of NAOC. The spectrum is consistent with that of a type-Ia supernova a few days after maximum; cross-correlation with a library of supernova spectra using the "Supernova Identification" code (SNID; Blondin and Tonry 2007, Ap.J. 666, 1024) shows that it matches with SN 1994ae at +9 days. The host galaxy (2MASX J15151575+7529066) seems to have a redshift of 0.0222 from the narrow emission line; adopting this redshift for the host galaxy, they measure a velocity of the Si II 635.5-nm absorption feature to be about 11500 km/s.

Ma, Bin; Wei, Peng; Shang, Zhaohui; Wang, Lifan; Wang, Xiaofeng; Masi, Gianluca; Nocentini, Francesca; Schmeer, Patrick; Sai, H.-N.; Li, W.-X.; Wang, X.-F.; Zhang, T.-M.

2014-01-01

317

Electron tunneling characteristics of a cubic quantum dot, (PbS)32  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electron transport properties of the cubic quantum dot, (PbS)32, are investigated. The stability of the quantum dot has been established by recent scanning tunneling microscope experiments [B. Kiran, A. K. Kandalam, R. Rallabandi, P. Koirala, X. Li, X. Tang, Y. Wang, H. Fairbrother, G. Gantefoer, and K. Bowen, J. Chem. Phys. 136(2), 024317 (2012)]. In spite of the noticeable energy band gap (˜2 eV), a relatively high tunneling current for (PbS)32 is predicted affirming the observed bright images for (PbS)32. The calculated I-V characteristics of (PbS)32 are predicted to be substrate-dependent; (PbS)32 on the Au (001) exhibits the molecular diode-like behavior and the unusual negative differential resistance effect, though this is not the case with (PbS)32 on the Au (110). Appearance of the conduction channels associated with the hybridized states of quantum dot and substrate together with their asymmetric distribution at the Fermi level seem to determine the tunneling characteristics of the system.

Gupta, Sanjeev K.; He, Haiying; Banyai, Douglas; Kandalam, Anil K.; Pandey, Ravindra

2013-12-01

318

Soliton-like solutions to the generalized Burgers-Huxley equation with variable coefficients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we consider the generalized Burgers-Huxley equation with arbitrary power of nonlinearity and timedependent coefficients. We analyze the traveling wave problem and explicitly find new soliton-like solutions for this extended equation by using the ansatz of Zhao et al. [X. Zhao, D. Tang, L. Wang, Phys. Lett. A 346 (2005) 288-291]. We also employ the solitary wave ansatz method to derive the exact bright and dark soliton solutions for the considered evolution equation. The physical parameters in the soliton solutions are obtained as function of the time-dependent model coefficients. The conditions of existence of solitons are presented. As a result, rich exact travelling wave solutions, which contain new soliton-like solutions, bell-shaped solitons and kink-shaped solitons for the generalized Burgers-Huxley equation with time-dependent coefficients, are obtained. The methods employed here can also be used to solve a large class of nonlinear evolution equations with variable coefficients.

Triki, Houria; Wazwaz, Abdul-Majid

2013-12-01

319

Global ? f Particle Simulations of Neoclassical Transport in Stellarators and Tokamaks Including Self-Consistent Ambipolar Potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are modifying the GTC(Z. Lin, W. M. Tang, and W. W. Lee, Phys. Plasmas) 2(8) 2975 (1995). ? f general geometry particle simulation code to include a self-consistent neoclassical radial electric field. This will provide a new capability for kinetic, global, neoclassical calculations with self-consistent radial potential for stellarators, and for tokamaks with shaped flux surfaces. The potential is calculated from the neoclassical particle flux,(W.X. Wang et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(5) 5002 (2001). obtained with low noise from variations of the parallel and perpendicular pressures on a flux surface.(J.L.V. Lewandowski et al.), Phys. Plasmas 8(6) 2849 (2001). Kinetic calculations of the toroidal flow damping rate in stellarators address the efficacy of neutral beam injection in driving sheared flows to suppress turbulence. The results for tokamaks will be compared with standard neoclassical theory in steep gradient regimes. Simulations of HSX plasmas for comparison with direct measurements of the potential, NCSX NBI configurations, transport barriers in TFTR, JT60-U, and DIII-D, and high-? NSTX plasmas are envisioned.

Ernst, D. R.; Zarnstorff, M. C.; Lewandowski, J. L. V.; Lin, Z.; Wang, W. X.

2001-10-01

320

78 FR 19565 - Notice of Proposal To Extend the Memorandum of Understanding Between the Government of the United...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Archaeological Material From the Paleolithic Period Through the Tang Dynasty and Monumental Sculpture and Wall Art At Least 250 Years...Archaeological Material from the Paleolithic Period Through the Tang Dynasty and Monumental Sculpture and Wall Art At Least 250...

2013-04-01

321

77 FR 26746 - Fisheries of the Caribbean; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Scoping, Assessment, and Review Workshops for Caribbean blue tang and queen triggerfish...SUMMARY: The SEDAR assessments of the Caribbean stocks of blue tang and queen triggerfish will consist of a series of...

2012-05-07

322

77 FR 67341 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Notice of SEDAR 30 Assessment Process Webinar I for Caribbean blue tang and queen triggerfish...SUMMARY: The SEDAR 30 assessments of the Caribbean blue tang and queen triggerfish will consist of a series of workshops...

2012-11-09

323

Automatic Locking Knee Brace Joint.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention is an apparatus for controlling the pivotal movement of a knee brace comprising a tang-and-clevis joint that has been uniquely modified. Both the tang and the clevis have a set of teeth that, when engaged, can lock the tang and the clevis t...

B. Weddendorf

1995-01-01

324

46 CFR 160.043-4 - Construction and workmanship.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...not less than 0.095 inch thick at the tang. Shall have a triangular section and...Before assembling, the sides of the tang shall be uniformly polished. (b) Can...not less than 0.072 inch thick at the tang, and 111/16 to 115/16...

2009-10-01

325

46 CFR 160.043-4 - Construction and workmanship.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...not less than 0.095 inch thick at the tang. Shall have a triangular section and...Before assembling, the sides of the tang shall be uniformly polished. (b) Can...not less than 0.072 inch thick at the tang, and 111/16 to 115/16...

2010-10-01

326

Teacher Agency in the Performance of Inquiry-Oriented Science Curriculum Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this commentary, I consider several theoretical and analytical aspects of Tang Wee Teo and Margery Osborne's case study. I begin by identifying structuralist and cultural themes in Tang Wee and Margery's theoretical model of human activity. Next, I offer an alternative interpretation for Tang Wee and Margery's reported findings in terms of the…

Oliveira, Alandeom W.

2012-01-01

327

76 FR 19033 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Credit International Trading Co. Ltd; In the Matter of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Order Making Order Denying Export Privileges of Ruo Ling Wang Applicable to Related Person Credit International Trading...Order that was imposed against the individual Ruo Ling Wang (``Wang'') on April 18, 2006 (71 Fed. Reg. 23897,...

2011-04-06

328

77 FR 65148 - Airworthiness Directives; Intertechnique Aircraft Systems  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Caspar Wang, Aerospace Engineer, Boston Aircraft...781) 238-7170; email: caspar.wang@faa.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION...directly to the ACO, send it to ATTN: Caspar Wang, Aerospace Engineer, Boston...

2012-10-25

329

76 FR 76375 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the 2009-2010...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INFORMATION CONTACT: Scott Lindsay or Lingjun Wang, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6, Import...Through Thomas Gilgunn, From Lingjun Wang, Re: Fresh Garlic from the People's...Memorandum to Thomas Gilgunn, From Lingjun Wang, Re: Fresh Garlic from the...

2011-12-07

330

78 FR 2451 - Grand Gulf ESP Site; Consideration of Approval of Application Regarding Proposed Creation of a...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Alan Wang, Project Manager, Plant Licensing Branch...number: 301-415- 2102; email: Alan.Wang@nrc.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION...Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Alan B. Wang, Project Manager, Plant Licensing...

2013-01-11

331

76 FR 24522 - In the Matter of Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Jiu An Zheng, Jian Yong Zheng, Peter Zheng) of Arcadia, California; Alice Bei Wang (a/k/a Alice B. Wang) of Arcadia, California (``Alice B. Wang''); Trendy Creations, Inc. of Chatsworth, California; The Inspired Bagger...

2011-05-02

332

[Textual research on the Wu zhi fang (Prescriptions of Five Hemorrhoids) of Ding Zhai, a lay Buddhist].  

PubMed

The book Wu zhi fang (Prescriptions of Five Hemorrhoids), included in the Bibliography of the Song Annals was claimed by later scholars as a book written by Dingzhai, the lay Buddhist. Parts of its contents are cited in Wei Xian's Wei shi jia cang fang (Collections of Prescriptions of the Wei Family). By the preface of the latter book, the prescriptions of the Wu zhi fang were derived from Li Yong-he, whose son passed these prescriptions to Ma Xing-si, who, in turn, gave them to Wei Xian's father Wei Xiong-meng. Wei Xiong-meng was familiar with a calligrapher of the Southern Song Dynasty Shan Wei, nicknamed Dingzhai, the lay Buddhist, who wrote the autobiography for Wei Xiong-meng. In addition to those collected in the Wei shi jia cang fang, there are also "Li Fangyu's Prescriptions for Five Hemorrhoids Secretly Handed Down" collected in the Mi chuan wai ke fang (Prescriptions for External Diseases Secretly Handed Down) of the Ming Dynasty which are also Li Yong-he's prescriptions for hemorrhoids, outnumbering those collected by the Wei shi jia cang fang. PMID:24429040

Zhang, Hai-Peng

2013-09-01

333

Markov chains with marked transitions 1 1 This research was supported in part by Grant No. DMI930628 from the National Science Foundation and the K.C. Wang Education Foundation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several useful point processes such as the Markovian arrival process, the input and departure processes of finite-capacity Markovian queues, and various models for counters and biological phenomena are obtained by considering Markov chains with marked transitions. This point of view yields many examples of interesting dependent point processes and provides a unified formalism for their study. This paper presents some

Qi-Ming He; Marcel F. Neuts

1998-01-01

334

Human Defensin 5 Disulfide Array Mutants: Disulfide Bond Deletion Attenuates Antibacterial Activity Against Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

Human ?-defensin 5 (HD5, HD5ox to specify the oxidized and disulfide linked form) is a 32-residue cysteine-rich host-defense peptide, expressed and released by small intestinal Paneth cells, that exhibits antibacterial activity against a number of Gram-negative and –positive bacterial strains. To ascertain the contributions of its disulfide array to structure, antimicrobial activity, and proteolytic stability, a series of HD5 double mutant peptides where pairs of cysteine residues corresponding to native disulfide linkages (Cys3—Cys31, Cys5—Cys20, Cys10—Cys30) were mutated to Ser or Ala residues were overexpressed in E. coli, purified and characterized. A hexa mutant peptide, HD5[Serhexa], where all six native Cys residues are replaced by Ser residues was also evaluated. Removal of a single native S—S linkage influences oxidative folding and regioisomerization, antibacterial activity, Gram-negative bacterial membrane permeabilization, and proteolytic stability. Whereas the majority of the HD5 mutant peptides show low-micromolar activity against Gram-negative E. coli ATCC 25922 in colony counting assays, the wild-type disulfide array is essential for low-micromolar activity against Gram-positive S. aureus ATCC 25923. Removal of a single disulfide bond attenuates the activity observed for HD5ox against this Gram-positive bacterial strain. This observation supports the notion that the HD5ox mechanism of antibacterial action differs for Gram-negative and Gram-positive species (Wei, G.; de Leeuw, E., Pazgier, M., Yuan, W., Zou, G., Wang, J., Ericksen, B., Lu, W.-Y.; Lehrer, R. I.; Lu, W. (2009) J. Biol. Chem. 284, 29180-29192), and that the native disulfide array is a requirement for its activity against S. aureus.

Wanniarachchi, Yoshitha A.; Kaczmarek, Piotr; Wan, Andrea; Nolan, Elizabeth M.

2011-01-01

335

Magnetic sifters and biochips for early diagnosis and therapy monitoring of cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with biomolecules or recognition moieties are finding wide applications in medicine. In this context, we are developing a micromachined magnetic sifter and magnetic nanoparticles aimed for sample preparation applications in early diagnosis of cancer. The microfabricated sifter consisting of arrays of micron sized slits etched through a silicon wafer. A magnetic film is deposited on the wafer, producing high magnetic field gradients, comparable in magnitude to gradients in planar flow devices. As the solution flows through the die, magnetic particles are captured by the magnetic material surrounding the slits. The large number of slits allows for processing of large volumes of liquid, much greater than that of planar microfluidic devices. The sifters can be simply attached to a syringe or tube, resulting in a portable and user-friendly tool for molecular biology. Separation efficiencies of ˜ 50% for one pass through the sifter have been achieved. We have also designed and fabricated several types of magnetic biochips consisting of arrays of giant magnetoresistive (GMR) spin valve detectors with appropriate dimensions, surface chemistry, and microfluidics. An advanced electronic test station has been set up as a demonstration vehicle for the integrated evaluation of our magnetic biochips with commercial and custom magnetic nanoparticle labels for DNA or protein biomarkers. The magnetic biochip is capable of detecting down to 1-30 nanotags. Real-time detection of DNA signatures and protein targets in buffer and serum samples has been successfully performed in our laboratories, suggesting that magnetic biochips hold great promises for molecular diagnostics of cancer and other diseases. In collaboration with Chris M. Earhart, Wei Hu, Robert J. Wilson, Sebastian J. Osterfeld, Robert L. White, Nader Pourmand, and Shan X. Wang @ Stanford University. This work was supported by grants from NIH (1U54CA119367-01) and DARPA/Navy (N00014-02-1-0807).

Earhart, Chris

2008-03-01

336

Magnetic field asymmetry and high temperature magnetoresistance in single-walled carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The length scales and scattering processes in the one-dimensional electron system in single-walled carbon nanotubes remain only partially understood. Measuring the magnetoresistance, in both linear and nonlinear response, is a way to investigate these processes. In disordered nanotubes with ballistic paths much shorter than the length, we observe magnetoresistance in the metallic regime which at low temperatures resembles the universal fluctuations and weak localization seen in higher dimensional metals. A parabolic magnetoresistance persists at room temperature, indicating a significant role for phase coherence and/or interactions at high temperatures. While the linear resistance of a two-terminal sample must be an even function of magnetic field B by Onsager's principle, the nonlinear resistance need not be. Importantly, the B-asymmetric nonlinear terms can in principle be used to infer the strength of electron-electron interactions in the sample [1]. We have therefore also measured in detail the lowest order B-asymmetric current contributions, with a focus on the B-linear term. This has apparently not been done before in any system. Consistent with general theory, at high temperatures the term is small and has a constant sign independent of Fermi energy. At low temperatures it grows and develops mesoscopic fluctuations. Although these result imply that interactions are involved in the transport, calculations specific to nanotubes are needed in order to extract interaction parameters. This work was done by the authors of Ref [2]. References: [1] E.L. Ivchenko and B. Spivak, Phys. Rev. B 66, 155404 (2002); [2] Jiang Wei, Michael Shimogawa, Zenghui Wang, Iuliana Radu, Robert Dormaier, and David H. Cobden, Phys. Rev. Lett. (Dec. 2005) (cond-mat/0506275).

Cobden, David

2006-03-01

337

Center for Cancer Research - News  

Cancer.gov

Dr. Jun Wei, Staff Scientist in the Oncogenomics Section of CCR's Pediatric Oncology Branch, takes you into his lab where he uses genomic approaches to study pediatric cancers. Dr. Wei and his colleague, Dr. Javed Khan, Head of the Oncogenomics Section, use microarray analysis to measure the expression of genes and to ultimately find key targets for treatments and therapy. Watch and listen to Dr. Wei's passion and drive to develop personalized treatment therapies for children with neuroblastoma.

338

Fake "Returnee" Earns 4 Million through Fraudulent Marriages: More than Ten Women Fall for His Claims of Being a Boss and Possessing a House and Car  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the case of Wang Ruiliang. Ms. Huang filed a case against Wang Jun, alleging that he had defrauded her. Ms. Huang met a man named Wang Jun in April 2002 through a certain matrimonial agency. Before they had been together for very long, Wang Jun asked to borrow money from Ms. Huang, claiming that he was having difficulties in…

Chinese Education and Society, 2005

2005-01-01

339

Potent Antiviral Activity of Topoisomerase I and II Inhibitors against Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus  

PubMed Central

The lytic DNA replication of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) initiates at an origin (ori-Lyt) and requires trans-acting elements, both viral and cellular. We recently demonstrated that several host cellular proteins, including topoisomerases I and II (Topo I and II), are involved in KSHV lytic DNA replication (Y. Wang, H. Li, Q. Tang, G. G. Maul, and Y. Yuan. J. Virol. 82: 2867–2882, 2008). To assess the importance of these topoisomerases in viral lytic replication, shRNA-mediated gene silencing was used. Depletion of Topo I and II severely inhibited viral lytic DNA replication as well as virion production, suggesting essential roles of these cellular proteins in viral DNA replication. The discovery of Topo I and II as enzymes indispensable for KSHV DNA replication raises a possibility that these cellular proteins could be new targets of therapeutic approaches to halt KSHV replication and treat KSHV-associated diseases. In this report, we examined one Topo I inhibitor and several Topo II inhibitors (inclusive of Topo II poison and catalytic inhibitors) as potential therapeutic agents for blocking KSHV replication. The Topo II catalytic inhibitors in general exhibited marked inhibition on KSHV replication and minimal cytotoxicity. In particular, novobiocin, with the best selectivity index (SI = 31.62) among the inhibitors tested in this study, is effective in inhibiting KSHV DNA replication and virion production but shows little adverse effect on cell proliferation and cycle progression in its therapeutic concentration, suggesting its potential to become an effective and safe drug for the treatment of human diseases associated with KSHV infection.

Gonzalez-Molleda, Lorenzo; Wang, Yan

2012-01-01

340

Research Projects, Technical Reports and Publications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) was established by the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) at the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) on June 6, 1983. RIACS is privately operated by USRA, a consortium of universities with research programs in the aerospace sciences, under contract with NASA. The primary mission of RIACS is to provide research and expertise in computer science and scientific computing to support the scientific missions of NASA ARC. The research carried out at RIACS must change its emphasis from year to year in response to NASA ARC's changing needs and technological opportunities. A flexible scientific staff is provided through a university faculty visitor program, a post doctoral program, and a student visitor program. Not only does this provide appropriate expertise but it also introduces scientists outside of NASA to NASA problems. A small group of core RIACS staff provides continuity and interacts with an ARC technical monitor and scientific advisory group to determine the RIACS mission. RIACS activities are reviewed and monitored by a USRA advisory council and ARC technical monitor. Research at RIACS is currently being done in the following areas: Advanced Methods for Scientific Computing High Performance Networks During this report pefiod Professor Antony Jameson of Princeton University, Professor Wei-Pai Tang of the University of Waterloo, Professor Marsha Berger of New York University, Professor Tony Chan of UCLA, Associate Professor David Zingg of University of Toronto, Canada and Assistant Professor Andrew Sohn of New Jersey Institute of Technology have been visiting RIACS. January 1, 1996 through September 30, 1996 RIACS had three staff scientists, four visiting scientists, one post-doctoral scientist, three consultants, two research associates and one research assistant. RIACS held a joint workshop with Code 1 29-30 July 1996. The workshop was held to discuss needs and opportunities in basic research in computer science in and for NASA applications. There were 14 talks given by NASA, industry and university scientists and three open discussion sessions. There were approximately fifty participants. A proceedings is being prepared. It is planned to have similar workshops on an annual basis. RIACS technical reports are usually preprints of manuscripts that have been submitted to research 'ournals or conference proceedings. A list of these reports for the period January i 1, 1996 through September 30, 1996 is in the Reports and Abstracts section of this report.

Oliger, Joseph

1996-01-01

341

Space shuttle solid rocket motor Profile Measuring Device (PMD)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SRM PMD is an electromechanical tool used for measuring and recording the profile and diameters of the solid rocket motor segments, both Tang and Clevis ends. This system consists of a crossbeam assembly that mounts to the SRM segment using the existing assembly pin holes. The mounting configuration is such that the tool can be used to measure Clevis up/Tang down or Clevis up/Tang down. The testing and calibration of the PMD is described.

Redmon, John

1988-01-01

342

Many conserved quantities induced by Lie symmetries of a Lagrangian system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lie symmetries along with either Noether theorem or Jacobi Last Multiplier yield all the conserved quantities that one may seek and even more. We show that three new conserved quantities derived in Jian-Hui Fang, Ming-Jiang Zhang, Wei-Wei Zhang (2010) [1] can be algorithmically obtained by these old methods. Even more than three.

Nucci, M. C.

2011-03-01

343

Developing an Understanding of the Nature of Accessibility and Usability Problems Blind Students Face in Web-Enhanced Instruction Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central premise of this research is that blind and visually impaired (BVI) people cannot use the Internet effectively due to accessibility and usability problems. Use of the Internet is indispensable in today's education system that relies on Web-enhanced instruction (WEI). Therefore, BVI students cannot participate effectively in WEI. Extant…

Babu, Rakesh

2011-01-01

344

Heteroxiphia Saini & Singh (Hymenoptera, Xiphydriidae), a genus new to China with descriptions of two new species  

PubMed Central

Abstract Heteroxiphia Saini & Singh, 1987 is redescribed and Heteroxiphia sinica sp. n.and Heteroxiphia tenuipalpa sp. n. from China are described. A key to three species is provided and a key for separation of Heteroxiphia, Trixiphidia Wei, 1999 and Yangixiphia Wei, 2002 is also provided.

Wei, Meicai; Niu, Gengyun

2011-01-01

345

Conduct Disorders: Are Boot Camps Effective?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth diagnosed with "conduct disorder" are often placed in programs using forced compliance and coercive control. One type of intervention used to treat conduct disorder is the boot camp. The basic idea is that disruptive behaviors can be corrected by strict behavioral regulation and an emphasis on skills training (Weis & Toolis 2009; Weis

Jeter, LaVaughn V.

2010-01-01

346

War Experiences Inventory: Initial Psychometric and Structural Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the structural and psychometric properties of the War Experiences Inventory (WEI) with data from 255 post deployed service members (224 men and 31 women). Results from principal components analyses yielded a five-factor solution assessing sexual trauma, combat exposure, interpersonal distress, circumstances of deployment, and personal injury. Psychometric analyses revealed scale scores were internally consistent; validity evidence showed WEI

Lori S. Katz; Geta Cojucar; Cory Davenport; Satish Clarke; John C. Williams

2012-01-01

347

Pay Attention to the Phrasal Structures: Going beyond T-Units--A Response to Weiwei Yang  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

WeiWei Yang, in her forum piece, raises two main criticisms of the authors' "TQ" article on grammatical complexity: "The study the authors conducted [1] is not capable of answering development-related questions and [2] is mathematically questionable" (Yang, 2013, p. 190). In addition, Yang's article has a third goal that is not explicitly…

Biber, Douglas; Gray, Bethany; Poonpon, Kornwipa

2013-01-01

348

HDAC3 as a Molecular Chaperone for Shuttling Phosphorylated TR2 to PML: A Novel Deacetylase Activity-Independent Function of HDAC3  

Microsoft Academic Search

TR2 is an orphan nuclear receptor specifically expressed in early embryos (Wei and Hsu, 1994), and a transcription factor for transcriptional regulation of important genes in stem cells including the gate keeper Oct4 (Park et al. 2007). TR2 is known to function as an activator (Wei et al. 2000), or a repressor (Chinpaisal et al., 1998, Gupta et al. 2007).

Pawan Gupta; Ping-Chih Ho; Sung Gil Ha; Yi-Wei Lin; Li-Na Wei; Andreas Bergmann

2009-01-01

349

Economic wealth and soil erosion in new Citrus plantations in Eastern Spain or how to explain the Land Degradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use to accept the idea that the best oranges are coming from Valecia Region in Eastern Spain. Although the oranges are originally from Eastern Asia, Valencia is having a mild climate in winter, with a low recurrency of frost and is strategically located close to the largest market of citrus: Western Europe. This resulted in a continuous growth of production and trade of citrus, and contributed to make the Valencia Region the largest World exporter (Bono, 2010). This economical success reached the highest point after the EU and Spain agreement in 1986. This expansion of citrus plantations were done on steep slopes allowed by the drip irrigation systems that does not need leveling the land as it was done by new farmers with large properties. The traditional farming of oranges was done in small properties, flood irrigation and leveled land. Those changes are triggering intense soil erosion rates such were shown by previous researchers in Valencia (Cerdà et al., 2009). This impact is also shown in other regions with a similar citrus production evolution, and China is a clear example (Wang et al., 2010; Liu et al., 2012). Land This research evaluate the relations between the investment (economic wealth) of the owners of citrus plantations and the soil erosion rates on their orchards. The economic wealth of the onwers was measured on the size of their properties and after an interview. The soil erosion rates were measured by means of rainfall simulation experiments in each farm by means of thunderstorms of 10 years return period (55 mm h-1). The results show that the soil losses in the new plantations are extremely high (> 10 Mg ha-1 y-1), and that we can show three types of orchards: < 0.99 ha; 1-10 ha and > 10.1. The soil erosion rates where positively related to the size of the farms. The higher erosion rates are shown also by the scientific literature review. Chemically treated plantations (Cerdà, 2002) show high erosion rates due to the road construction too (Cerdà, 2007) and is higher than rainfed agriculture soil (García Orenes et al., 2009). Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE FP7 project 603498 supported this research. References Bono, E. 2010. Naranja y desarrollo. La base agrícola exportadora de la economía del País Valenciano y el modelo de crecimiento hacea afuera. PUV, Valencia, 203 pp. Cerdà, A. 2001. Erosión hídrica del suelo en el Territorio Valenciano. El estado de la cuestión a través de la revisión bibliográfica. Geoforma Ediciones, Logroño, 79 pp. Cerdá, A. 2007. Soil water erosion on road embankments in Eastern Spain. Science of the Total Environments 378, 151-155. Cerdà, A., Morera, A.G., Bodí, M.B. 2009. Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western Mediterranean basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 34 (13), 1822-1830. García-Orenes, F., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Guerrero, C., Bodí, M.B., Arcenegui, V., Zornoza, R. & Sempere, J.G. 2009. Effects of agricultural management on surface soil properties and soil-water losses in eastern Spain. Soil and Tillage Research, doi:10.1016/j.still.2009.06.002 Liu, Y., Tao, Y., Wan, K.Y., Zhang, G.S., Liu, D.B., Xiong, G.Y., Chen, F. 2012. Runoff and nutrient losses in citrus orchards on sloping land subjected to different surface mulching practices in the Danjiangkou Reservoir area of China. Agricultural Water Management, 110, 34-40. Wang, L., Tang, L., Wang, X., Chen, F. 2010. Effects of alley crop planting on soil and nutrient losses in the citrus orchards of the Three Gorges Region. Soil and Tillage Research, 110 (2), 243-250.

Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Cerdà, Artemio; Pereira, Pauloq

2014-05-01

350

Beat Phenomena in Travelling Waves in Cylinders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The displacement response of a semi-infinite, thin-walled cylinder to a pressure moving at a constant velocity has been solved by Sing-chih Tang in closed form except for an integral term which Tang was forced to evaluate numerically. In this paper, an as...

T. E. Simkins

1993-01-01

351

Automatic Locking Orthotic Knee Device.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An articulated tang in clevis joint for incorporation in newly manufactured conventional strap-on orthotic knee devices or for replacing such joints in conventional strap-on orthotic knee devices is discussed. The instant tang in clevis joint allows the u...

B. Weddendorf

1991-01-01

352

40 CFR Appendix I to Subpart V of... - Recommended Test Procedures and Test Criteria and Recommended Durability Procedures To...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...temperature, the relative position of the thermostatic coil outer tang or loop and the index mark, when corrected to 24 °C (75... b. Electrically-heated Chokes i. Time to rotate coil tang When tested on a suitable fixture, the time to rotate...

2009-07-01

353

40 CFR Appendix I to Subpart V of... - Recommended Test Procedures and Test Criteria and Recommended Durability Procedures To...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...temperature, the relative position of the thermostatic coil outer tang or loop and the index mark, when corrected to 24 °C (75... b. Electrically-heated Chokes i. Time to rotate coil tang When tested on a suitable fixture, the time to rotate...

2010-07-01

354

Toward Construct Validation of a Transfer Climate Instrument. [and] Improving Positive Transfer: A Test of Relapse Prevention Training on Transfer Outcomes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes "Toward Construct Validation of a Transfer Climate Instrument" (Holton et al.); "Improving Positive Transfer: A Test of Relapse Prevention Training on Transfer Outcomes" (Burke); "Invited Reaction: Progress or Relapse?" (Newstrom); "Invited Reaction: Theory, Research, and Practice" (Tang); "Final Word: Reply to Newstrom's and Tang's…

Holton, Elwood F., III; And Others

1997-01-01

355

Teacher agency in the performance of inquiry-oriented science curriculum reform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this commentary, I consider several theoretical and analytical aspects of Tang Wee Teo and Margery Osborne's case study. I begin by identifying structuralist and cultural themes in Tang Wee and Margery's theoretical model of human activity. Next, I offer an alternative interpretation for Tang Wee and Margery's reported findings in terms of the notion of multiple teacher agencies. After that, I discuss the dramaturgical or theatrical nature of the symbolic interactionist model used by Tang Wee and Margery, focusing specifically on the issues of teacher role-taking and curriculum authorship. The paper then ends with a discussion about the significance of Tang Wee and Margery's study wherein I emphasize the need for science education researchers to give more careful consideration to teacher agency and the analytical value of theatrical metaphors from the field of social dramatism.

Oliveira, Alandeom W.

2012-09-01

356

76 FR 18064 - State of California; Request for Approval of Section 112(l) Authority for Hazardous Air...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...contact listed in the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mae Wang, EPA Region IX, (415) 947- 4124, wang.mae@epa.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Throughout this document, ``we,''...

2011-04-01

357

Adults with Autism At Risk for Many Health Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... children and adolescents with autism," said Dr. Paul Wang, senior vice president and head of medical research ... autism are out of the mainstream." Croen and Wang agreed that autism researchers should extend their focus ...

358

75 FR 30864 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on AP1000  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...statements and/or written comments should notify the Designated Federal Official (DFO), Weidong Wang (Telephone 301-415-6279 or e-mail Weidong.Wang@nrc.gov) five days prior to the meeting, if possible, so that appropriate...

2010-06-02

359

77 FR 4585 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Power Uprates...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...statements and/or written comments should notify the Designated Federal Official (DFO), Weidong Wang (Telephone (301) 415-6279 or Email: Weidong.Wang@nrc.gov) five days prior to the meeting, if possible, so that appropriate...

2012-01-30

360

78 FR 323 - Notice of Consideration of Approval of Application Regarding Proposed Creation of a Holding...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...section of this document. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Alan Wang, Project Manager, Plant Licensing Branch IV, Division of Operating...301-415-1445; fax: 301-415-2102; email: Alan.Wang@nrc.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Accessing...

2013-01-03

361

76 FR 20242 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...contact listed in the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mae Wang, EPA Region IX, (415) 947- 4124, wang.mae@epa.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Throughout this document, ``we,''...

2011-04-12

362

77 FR 35081 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Power...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...statements and/or written comments should notify the Designated Federal Official (DFO), Weidong Wang (Telephone 301-415-6279 or Email: Weidong.Wang@nrc.gov) five days prior to the meeting, if possible, so that appropriate...

2012-06-12

363

75 FR 61369 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...contact listed in the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mae Wang, EPA Region IX, (415) 947- 4124, wang.mae@epa.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Throughout this document, ``we,''...

2010-10-05

364

76 FR 47094 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan; South Coast Air Quality Management District  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...contact listed in the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mae Wang, EPA Region IX, (415) 947- 4124, wang.mae@epa.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This proposal addresses the following local...

2011-08-04

365

76 FR 62867 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on AP1000...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...statements and/or written comments should notify the Designated Federal Official (DFO), Weidong Wang (Telephone 301-415-6279 or E-mail: Weidong.Wang@nrc.gov) five days prior to the meeting, if possible, so that appropriate...

2011-10-11

366

75 FR 65036 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on AP1000...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...statements and/or written comments should notify the Designated Federal Official (DFO), Weidong Wang (Telephone 301-415-6279 or E-mail: Weidong.Wang@nrc.gov) five days prior to the meeting, if possible, so that appropriate...

2010-10-21

367

Protein Replacement Therapy Shows Promise in Treating Rare Skin Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... the Dermal-Epidermal Junction and Promotes Wound Closure . Wang X, Chasri P, Amir M, Hwang B, Hou ... Skin Integrity of Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa . Woodley DT, Wang X, Amir M, Hwang B, Remington J, Hou ...

368

78 FR 320 - Consideration of Approval of Application Regarding Proposed Creation of a Holding Company and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...section of this document. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Alan Wang, Project Manager, Plant Licensing Branch IV, Division of Operating...301-415-1445; fax number: 301-415- 2102; email: Alan.Wang@nrc.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Accessing...

2013-01-03

369

76 FR 71610 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Power Uprates...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...statements and/or written comments should notify the Designated Federal Official (DFO), Weidong Wang (Telephone (301) 415-6279 or Email: Weidong.Wang@nrc.gov) five days prior to the meeting, if possible, so that appropriate...

2011-11-18

370

Parents of Children with Autism Need Help, Too  

MedlinePLUS

... willing to take up such work." Dr. Paul Wang, senior vice president and head of medical research ... are coming from and can speak from experience," Wang said. "We know there aren't enough professionals. ...

371

Grief in Pregnancy May Trigger Obesity in Adulthood  

MedlinePLUS

... the child's health in adulthood, said Dr. Youfa Wang, chair of epidemiology at the School of Public ... and biochemicals between the mother and the fetus," Wang said. This interplay can affect the development and ...

372

PREFACE: XXVIII International Conference on Photonic, Electronic and Atomic Collisions (ICPEAC 2013)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 28th International Conference on Photonic, Electronic and Atomic Collisions (XXVIII ICPEAC) was held by the Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IMP) on 24–30 July, 2013 in Lanzhou, China. The 444 conference participants came from 37 countries and/or regions. Five plenary lectures, more than 80 progress reports and special reports had been arranged according to the decision of the ICPEAC International General Committee. Meanwhile, more than 650 abstracts were selected as poster presentations. Before the conference, three highly distinguished scientists, Professor Joachim Burgdöorfer, Professor Hossein Sadeghpour and Professor Yasunori Yamazaki, presented tutorial lectures with the support of the IMP Branch of Youth Innovation Promotion Association, CAS (IMP-YIPA). During the conference, Professor Jianwei Pan from University of Sciences and Technology in China presented an enlightening public lecture on quantum communication. Furthermore, 2013 IUPAP Young Scientist Prize was awarded to Dr T Jahnke from Johann Wolfgang Goethe University of Germany. The Sheldon Datz Prize for an Outstanding Young Scientist Attending ICPEAC was awarded to Dr Diogo Almeida from University of Fribourg of Switzerland. As a biannual academic conference, ICPEAC is one of the most important international conferences on atomic and molecular physics. The topic of the conference covers the recent progresses in photonic, electronic, atomic, ionic, molecular, cluster collisions with matter. With a history back to 1958, ICPEAC came to China for the very first time. IMP has been preparing the conference six years before, ever since the ICPEAC International General Committee made the decision to hold the XXVIII ICPEAC in Lanzhou. This proceedings includes the papers of the two plenary lectures, 40 progress reports, 17 special reports and 337 posters, which were reviewed and revised according to the comments of the referees. The Local Organizing Committee would like to express its great appreciation to National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP), IMP, and IMP-YIPA for financial support, to Fangfang Ruan, Qiang Liang, Dacheng Zhang, Shukai Tian, Yuyu Wang, Wenping Zhu, Wei Liang, Mingwu Zhang, Haibo Yuan, Shan Sha, Jieru Ren, Jie Yang and Zhenhai Chen for their contributions to the organization, and to the volunteer group from Lanzhou University, the High School Attached Northwest Normal University and IMP for their excellent volunteer work. The Local Organizing Committee would like to thank all of the participants and the authors of the proceedings for their supports and contributions to the conference. Guoqing Xiao Director of Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences

Xiao, Guoqing; Cai, Xiaohong; Ding, Dajun; Ma, Xinwen; Zhao, Yongtao

2014-04-01

373

76 FR 47589 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...final action in the following case: Sheng Wang, PhD, Boston University School of Medicine...misconduct findings, ORI found that Dr. Sheng Wang, who has been an Assistant Professor...1. Zhang, B., Faller, D.V., Wang, S. ``HIC1 regulates tumor cell...

2011-08-05

374

75 FR 7358 - Addition of Certain Persons to the Entity List: Addition of Persons Acting Contrary to the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Block B, Hoplite Industrial Centre, 3-5 Wang Tai Road, Kowloon, Hong Kong; (3...Block B, Hoplite Industrial Centre, 3-5 Wang Tai Road, Kowloon, Hong Kong; (5...Block B, Hoplite Industrial Centre, 3-5 Wang Tai Road, Kowloon, Hong Kong;...

2010-02-19

375

Effects of ice storm on forest ecosystem of southern China in 2008 Shaoqiang Wang1, Lei Zhou1, Weimin Ju2, Kun Huang1 1Key Lab of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Beijing, 10010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence is mounting that an increase in extreme climate events has begun to occur worldwide during the recent decades, which affect biosphere function and biodiversity. Ecosystems returned to its original structures and functions to maintain its sustainability, which was closely dependent on ecosystem resilience. Understanding the resilience and recovery capacity of ecosystem to extreme climate events is essential to predicting future ecosystem responses to climate change. Given the overwhelming importance of this region in the overall carbon cycle of forest ecosystems in China, south China suffered a destructive ice storm in 2008. In this study, we used the number of freezing day and a process-based model (Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator, BEPS) to characterize the spatial distribution of ice storm region in southeastern China and explore the impacts on carbon cycle of forest ecosystem over the past decade. The ecosystem variables, i.e. Net primary productivity (NPP), Evapotranspiration (ET), and Water use efficiency (WUE, the ratio of NPP to ET) from the outputs of BEPS models were used to detect the resistance and resilience of forest ecosystem in southern China. The pattern of ice storm-induced forest productivity widespread decline was closely related to the number of freezing day during the ice storm period. The NPP of forest area suffered heavy ice storm returned to normal status after five months with high temperature and ample moisture, indicated a high resilience of subtropical forest in China. The long-term changes of forest WUE remain stable, behaving an inherent sensitivity of ecosystem to extreme climate events. In addition, ground visits suggested that the recovery of forest productivity was attributed to rapid growth of understory. Understanding the variability and recovery threshold of ecosystem following extreme climate events help us to better simulate and predict the variability of ecosystem structure and function under current and future climate change.

Wang, Shaoqiang

2014-05-01

376

1D Nanostructures: Controlled Fabrication and Energy Applications  

SciTech Connect

Jian Wei, Xuchun Song, Chunli Yang, and Michael Z. Hu, 1D Nanostructures: Controlled Fabrication and Energy Applications, Journal of Nanomaterials, published special issue (http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/si/197254/) (2013).

Hu, Michael Z. [ORNL

2013-01-01

377

Controlled Evaluation of Maintenance Peritoneal Dialysis: Progress Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

103 patients, randomly assigned to treatment with peritoneal dialysis (PD) or hemodialysis (HD) and followed up to 3 years showed differences in 'nutritional state' with lower serum total protein, albumin, and certain immunoglobulins and a lower 'dry' wei...

J. W. Coburn M. J. Blumenkrantz J. D. Kopple

1979-01-01

378

77 FR 28880 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OFF), 332 Hindry Avenue, Inglewood, CA 90301, Officers: Edison Chen, Manager (Qualifying Individual), Wei-Nung (Janus) Lin, Member/Manager/CEO, Application Type: QI Change/Trade Name Change. Lone Star Integrated Distribution,...

2012-05-16

379

Graphical analysis of barrel-tamped explosively accelerated flyer plates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Analytical equations for barrel-tamped explosively accelerated flyer plates are used to generate graphical solutions to flyer problems. Given the problem geometrical dimensions, explosive weight, detonation velocity, explosive exponent, barrel-tamping wei...

M. G. Vigil

1990-01-01

380

A new species of Pseudaulacaspis MacGillivray, 1921 from China (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Diaspididae) with a key to Chinese species  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species of armored scale, Pseudaulacaspis zhenyuanensis Wei & Feng, sp. n. is described and illustrated from specimens collected on Spermadictyon suaveolens in China. A key to armored scale species known from China is provided.

Wei, Jiu-Feng; Feng, Ji-Nian

2012-01-01

381

Model estimate of mercury emission from natural sources in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

East Asia is one of the largest source regions that release mercury into the atmosphere. Although extensive studies have been devoted to estimating the anthropogenic mercury emission, little is known about mercury emission from natural sources in the region. In this study, we adapt the algorithms developed previously, coupled with detailed GIS data and satellite LAI products, to estimate mercury emission from natural sources including vegetation, soil, and water surfaces in an East Asian domain containing 164 × 97 grid cells at a spatial resolution of 36 km. Seasonal simulations were performed to project the annual emission quantity. The simulated emission shows strong diurnal and seasonal variations due to meteorology and vegetation coverage. The annual emission in the form of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) from the domain in 2001 is estimated to be 834 Mg, with 462 Mg contributed from China. The estimated GEM emission is comparable to the reported anthropogenic emission of 575 ± 261 Mg (56% GEM, 32% reactive gaseous mercury, 12% particulate mercury; Wu, Y., Wang, S., Streets, D.G., Hao, J., Chan, M., Jiang, J., 2006. Trends in anthropogenic mercury emissions in China from 1995 to 2003. Environmental Science & Technology 40, 5312-5318) in China for the year 2001, and dominates the anthropogenic emission during the warm season. Combining the anthropogenic and natural emission estimates, the total mercury emission from China is 776-1298 Mg, with GEM being in the range of 660-1000 Mg. The latter is similar to the GEM emission quantity inferred from aircraft measurement (765 Mg; Friedli, H.R., Radke, L.F., Prescott, R., Li, P., Woo, J.-H., Carmichael, G.R., 2004. Mercury in the atmosphere around Japan, Korea and China as observed during the 2001 ACE Asia field campaign: measurements, distributions, sources, and implications. Journal of Geophysical Research 109, D19 S25) and modeling estimate (1140 Mg; Pan, L., Chai, T., Carmichael, G.R., Tang, Y., Streets, G.G., Woo, J.-H., Friedli, H.R., Radke, L.F., 2007a. Top-down estimate of mercury emissions in China using four-dimensional variational data assimilation. Atmospheric Environment 41, 2804-2819) in China for the year 2001. The estimated natural emission helps explain the gap between the anthropogenic emission estimates based on activity data (e.g., Pacyna, J.M., Pacyna, E., Steenhuisen, F., Wilson, S., 2006. Global anthropogenic mercury emission inventory for 2000. Atmospheric Environment 40, 4048-4063; Wu, Y., Wang, S., Streets, D.G., Hao, J., Chan, M., Jiang, J., 2006. Trends in anthropogenic mercury emissions in China from 1995 to 2003. Environmental Science & Technology 40, 5312-5318) and the emission inferred from field observations (e.g., Jaffe, D., Prestbo, E., Swartzendruber, P., Weiss-Penzias, P., Kato, S., Takami, A., Hatakeyama, S., Kajii, Y., 2005. Export of atmospheric mercury from Asia. Atmospheric Environment 39, 3029-3038; Weiss-Penzias, P., Jaffe, D., Swartzendruber, P., Hafner, W., Chand, D., Prestbo, E., 2007. Quantifying Asian and biomass burning sources of mercury using the Hg/CO ratio in pollution plumes observed at the Mount Bachelor observatory. Atmospheric Environment 41, 4366-4379) in the region.

Shetty, Suraj K.; Lin, Che-Jen; Streets, David G.; Jang, Carey

382

Mid-Holocene variability of the East Asian monsoon based on bulk organic ?13C and C/N records from the Pearl River estuary, southern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the mid-Holocene dynamics of the East Asian monsoon (EAM) is integral to modelling the Holocene development of the global climate system (Webster et al., 1998). Thus the mid-Holocene EAM history was reconstructed using bulk organic carbon isotopes (?13C), total carbon to total nitrogen (C/N) ratios and total organic carbon (TOC) from a sediment core (UV1), at a mean resolution of 7-10 years, from the Pearl River estuary, southern China. Sedimentary ?13C, C/N and TOC from the Pearl River estuary is a good indicator of changes in monsoonal precipitation strength (Zong et al., 2006; Yang et al., 2010; Yu et al., 2010), eg sediments buried during a period of high precipitation exhibit a high proportion of terrigenous sediments, and have low ?13C and high C/N, and vice versa (Yu et al., 2010). Results suggest a general decreasing trend in monsoonal precipitation from 6650 to 2215 cal yr BP because of the weakening Northern Hemisphere insolation most likely related to the current precession circle (An, 2000). Superimposed on this trend are apparent dry-wet oscillations at centennial to millennial timescales most likely in response to solar activity. Mismatch between ?13C and results from the Dongge Cave in southern China at millennial-timescale oscillations (Wang et al., 2005), may indicate that the ?13C from the Pearl River estuary reveals changes in precipitation in a broader area than the ?18O from Dongge Cave does. Reference An Z (2000) The history and variability of the East Asian paleomonsoon climate. Quaternary Science Reviews 19: 171-187. Wang Y, Cheng H, Edwards RL, He Y, Kong X, An Z, Wu J, Kelly MJ, Dykoski CA and Li X (2005) The Holocene Asian Monsoon: Links to Solar Changes and North Atlantic Climate. Science 308: 854-857. Webster PJ, Magaña VO, Palmer TN, Shukla J and Tomas RA (1998) Monsoons: Processes, predictability, and the prospects for prediction. Journal of Geophysical Research 103(C7): 14451-14510. Yang S, Tang M, Yim WWS, Zong Y, Huang G, Switzer AD and Saito Y (2011) Burial of organic carbon in Holocene sediments of the Zhujiang (Pearl River) and Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuaries. Marine Chemistry 123(1-4): 1-10. Yu F, Zong Y, Lloyd JM, Huang G, Leng MJ, Kendrick C, Lamb AL and Yim WWS (2010) Bulk organic ?13C and C/N as indicators for sediment sources in the Pearl River delta and estuary, southern China. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 87(4): 618-630. Zong Y, Lloyd JM, Leng MJ, Yim WW-S and Huang G (2006) Reconstruction of Holocene monsoon history from the Pearl River Estuary, southern China, using diatoms and carbon isotope ratios. The Holocene 16(2): 251-263.

Yu, F.; Zong, Y.; Lloyd, J. M.; Leng, M. J.; Switzer, A. D.; Yim, W. W.; Huang, G.

2012-12-01

383

NCI Funded Research Portfolio - ZIA CP010121-10349 Detail  

Cancer.gov

Females in Xuan Wei County are almost all non-smokers, yet they have the highest lung cancer rate in China. Non-smoking women in Xuan Wei who use smoky coal in their home can inhale ten-times higher levels of PAHs than a 20 cigarette per day active smoker, and air concentrations approach levels experienced by workers on the top-side of coke ovens.

384

Comment on 'Three-dimensional numerical investigation of electron transport with rotating spoke in a cylindrical anode layer Hall plasma accelerator'[Phys. Plasmas 19, 073519 (2012)  

SciTech Connect

The oscillation behavior described by Tang et al.[Phys. Plasmas 19, 073519 (2012)] differs too greatly from previous experimental and numerical studies to claim observation of the same phenomenon. Most significantly, the rotation velocity by Tang et al.[Phys. Plasmas 19, 073519 (2012)] is three orders of magnitude larger than that of typical 'rotating spoke' phenomena. Several physical and numerical considerations are presented to more accurately understand the numerical results of Tang et al.[Phys. Plasmas 19, 073519 (2012)] in light of previous studies.

Ellison, C. L.; Parker, J. B.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Matyash, K. [Greifswald University, Greifswald D-17487 (Germany)

2013-01-15

385

Comment on ``Three-dimensional numerical investigation of electron transport with rotating spoke in a cylindrical anode layer Hall plasma accelerator'' [Phys. Plasmas 19, 073519 (2012)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oscillation behavior described by Tang et al. [Phys. Plasmas 19, 073519 (2012)] differs too greatly from previous experimental and numerical studies to claim observation of the same phenomenon. Most significantly, the rotation velocity by Tang et al. [Phys. Plasmas 19, 073519 (2012)] is three orders of magnitude larger than that of typical ``rotating spoke'' phenomena. Several physical and numerical considerations are presented to more accurately understand the numerical results of Tang et al. [Phys. Plasmas 19, 073519 (2012)] in light of previous studies.

Ellison, C. L.; Matyash, K.; Parker, J. B.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N. J.

2013-01-01

386

Self-Organized Criticality and the Barkhausen Effect.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Barkhausen effect was studied in an amorphous alloy. The data exhibit all the attributes of self-ordered critical behavior enumerated by Bak, Tang, and Wiesenfeld: The distribution of lifetimes and areas of discrete Barkhausen pulses follow powerlaw d...

P. J. Cote L. V. Meisel

1992-01-01

387

A remark for "Linearization, stability, and oscillation of the discrete delayed logistic system"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this remark, we shall show three counter examples for the main results to the paper [Guanrong Chen, Shu Tang Liu, Linearization, stability, and oscillation of the discrete delayed logistic system, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. 50 (2003) 822-826].

Zhang, Binggen

2007-09-01

388

Some Bee Pollen Weight Loss Products Are a Dangerous Scam  

MedlinePLUS

... product,” Coody says. back to top An Elaborate Marketing Scheme Zi Xiu Tang Bee Pollen is sold ... Products Advisory Committees Regulatory Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance ...

389

[Studies on the original plants of nuoteng, hanshuiteng and dahuteng].  

PubMed

By studying the origin of the three herbs: Nuoteng, Hanshuiteng and Dahuteng recorded in medical books before the Tang Dynasty, it has been verified that all these three plants Maimateng (Gnetum montanum) or Xiaoye Maimateng (G. parvifolium). PMID:2504209

Zheng, J S

1989-03-01

390

Scaling Theory of Self Organized Criticality.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The self organized critical phenomena of Bak, Tang, and Wiesenfeld is studied. A continuous energy model is introduced. The numerical simulations show that the energy is homogeneously and isotropically distributed and concentrated around discrete attracto...

Y. Zhang

1989-01-01

391

Self-Organized Criticality and the Barkhausen Effect in Amorphous and Polycrystalline Metals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation of the possibility that the Barkhausen effect in amorphous and polycrystalline ferromagnets is an example of self-organized criticality is described. Since the theory of self-organized criticality was introduced by Bak Tang, and Weisenfel...

P. J. Cote L. V. Meisel

1993-01-01

392

Playing with Sandpiles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model provides a simple and elegant system with which to demonstate self-organized criticality. This model has rather remarkable mathematical properties. Some of these properties are demonstrated graphically with a simple ...

M. Creutz

2004-01-01

393

Experimental Research on Artemisia Decoction and General Attack Therapy in Cholelithiasis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This article deals with the determination of the normal values and ranges of bile flow, bile content and Oddi's sphincter tension in 33 anesthetized dogs and Yinchen dandao tang (artemisia decoction or AD) action on these biliary tract parameters. Mainly ...

Y. Zhongfu G. Zhaogui

1980-01-01

394

78 FR 34408 - Notice of Applications for Deregistration Under Section 8(f) of the Investment Company Act of 1940  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...based on net asset value. Expenses of approximately $11,486 incurred in connection with the liquidation were paid by Reich & Tang Asset Management, LLC, applicant's investment adviser. Filing Date: The application was filed on May 14, 2013....

2013-06-07

395

77 FR 58606 - Notice of Closed Meeting of the Cultural Property Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Concerning the Imposition of Import Restrictions on Categories of Archaeological Material from the Paleolithic Period through the Tang Dynasty and Monumental Sculpture and Wall Art at Least 250 Years Old. Public comment, oral and written, will be invited...

2012-09-21

396

77 FR 20853 - Notice of Applications for Deregistration Under Section 8(f) of the Investment Company Act of 1940  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...based on net asset value. Expenses of approximately $32,393 incurred in connection with the liquidation were paid by Reich & Tang Asset Management, LLC, applicant's investment adviser. Filing Date: The application was filed on February 23, 2012....

2012-04-06

397

77 FR 51816 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, (Telephone Conference Call). Contact Person: Careen K Tang-Toth, Ph.D, Scientific Review Officer, Center for Scientific Review, National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge...

2012-08-27

398

76 FR 42718 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Washington/DC Rockville, Hotel and Executive Meeting Center, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20582. Contact Person: Delia Tang, MD, Scientific Review Officer, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 6116 Executive Blvd., Room...

2011-07-19

399

75 FR 68367 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Place: National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892 (Virtual Meeting). Contact Person: Delia Tang, MD, Scientific Review Officer, Center for Scientific Review, National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive,...

2010-11-05

400

78 FR 46358 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, (Telephone Conference Call). Contact Person: Careen K Tang-Toth, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Center for Scientific Review, National Institutes of Health, 6701...

2013-07-31

401

77 FR 5260 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Place: Embassy Suites at the Chevy Chase Pavilion, 4300 Military Road NW., Washington, DC 20015. Contact Person: Careen K Tang-Toth, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Center for Scientific Review, National Institutes of Health, 6701...

2012-02-02

402

75 FR 34456 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, (Telephone Conference Call). Contact Person: Delia Tang, MD, Scientific Review Officer, Center for Scientific Review, National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive,...

2010-06-17

403

77 FR 21787 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, (Telephone Conference Call). Contact Person: Careen K Tang-Toth, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Center for Scientific Review, National Institutes of Health, 6701...

2012-04-11

404

76 FR 7574 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Place: National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892 (Virtual Meeting). Contact Person: Delia Tang, MD, Scientific Review Officer, Center for Scientific Review, National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive,...

2011-02-10

405

76 FR 41258 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NVO & OFF), 527 Albert Street, East Meadow, NY 11554. Officers: Ben Leung, Secretary (Qualifying Individual), Eric Tang, President. Application Type: New NVO and OFF License. Logikor USA, Inc. (NVO & OFF), 3422 Old Capital Trail,...

2011-07-13

406

77 FR 61770 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Place: Embassy Suites at the Chevy Chase Pavilion, 4300 Military Road NW., Washington, DC 20015. Contact Person: Careen K Tang-Toth, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Center for Scientific Review, National Institutes of Health, 6701...

2012-10-11

407

76 FR 54690 - Statutory Delays of Notifications and Prohibitions of Disclosure  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...administratively efficient. DATES: This final rule is effective September 2, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Alex Tang, atang@ftc.gov, 202-326- 2447; or W. Ashley Gum, wgum@ftc.gov, 202-326-3006; Federal Trade...

2011-09-02

408

78 FR 25280 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, (Telephone Conference Call). Contact Person: Careen K Tang-Toth, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Center for Scientific Review, National Institutes of Health, 6701...

2013-04-30

409

Laser surface alloying of a marine propeller bronze using aluminium powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous study laser surface melting (LSM) was employed to improve the cavitation erosion resistance of manganese–nickel–aluminium–bronze (MAB)[9,10][C.H. Tang, F.T. Cheng, H.C. Man, Surf. Coat. Technol. 182 (2004) 300; C.H. Tang, F.T. Cheng, H.C. Man, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 373 (2004) 195]. To further enhance the improvement, laser surface alloying (LSA) using fine aluminum powder has been attempted in

C. H. Tang; F. T. Cheng; H. C. Man

2006-01-01

410

Placement Of O-Rings In Solid Rocket Booster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brief report proposes to modify placement of O-ring seals in joints of Solid Rocket Booster of Space Shuttle. Modified joint and seal essentially "inside-out" version of old joint and seal. O-rings placed between outer side of tang and clevis. Joint rotation pushes tang harder against O-rings, thereby making even tighter seal. Proposal derived from analysis of Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, attributed to failure of these O-ring seals.

Wood, Charles

1991-01-01

411

From waves to avalanches: Two different mechanisms of sandpile dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time series resulting from wave decomposition show the existence of different correlation patterns for avalanche dynamics. For the d=2 Bak-Tang-Wisenfeld model, long range correlations determine a modification of the wave size distribution under coarse graining in time, and multifractal scaling for avalanches. In the Manna model, the distribution of avalanche coincides with that of waves, which are uncorrelated and obey finite size scaling, a result expected also for the d=3 Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile.

de Menech, Mario; Stella, Attilio L.

2000-10-01

412

Connecting your Apple to Octopus 7600's  

SciTech Connect

In UCID-19588, Communicating between the Apple and the Wang, we described how to take Apple DOS text files and send them to the Wang, and how to return Wang files to the Apple. It is also possible to use your Apple as an Octopus terminal, and to exchange files with Octopus 7600's. Presumably, you can also talk to the Crays, or any other part of the system. This connection has another virtue. It eliminates one of the terminals in your office.

Barton, G.W. Jr.

1983-01-17

413

Light power density distribution of image spot of laser triangulation measuring  

Microsoft Academic Search

HaiMing Wang [Wang HaiMing, Long range optical triangulation utilising collimated probe beam. Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 23(11), 1995, 41–52] studied the influences of the size of the object spot on the image spot in laser triangulation measuring. This paper points out that the study method of HaiMing Wang is inappropriate from two points of view. The size and relative

Jinsong Liu; Luxian Tian; Lijun Li

1998-01-01

414

The possible mechanism of the "stratospheric bridge" modulation by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation in early winter and the QBO, 11-year solar cycle in late winter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Questions of the interannual variations of the extra-tropical stratospheric dynamics, its rela-tionship with the sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the North Pacific (Pacific Decadal Oscillation -PDO) in early winter (November-December), Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) (Holton-Tan relations), a decadal modulation by the 11-year Solar Cycle (SC) (Labitzke, van Loon -LvL correlations) in late winter (January-February) are discussed. In early winter, the interannual changes of the planetary wave activity define partly the variations of the strato-spheric circulation in subsequent January [Zyulyaeva and Jadin, 2009]. The interannual and decadal variations of the stratospheric wave activity appear to be associated with those of the PDO [Jadin et al. 2009]. A decadal period from the mid-1970s to mid-1990s of the violation of the Holton-Tan (HT) relationship corresponds well to that of the positive PDO phase (anoma-lously cold SSTs in the central North Pacific). Using the NCEP and ERA-40 monthly mean reanalysis datasets, the three-dimensional Eliassen-Palm fluxes are calculated. The results of the analysis of relations between the upward/downward propagation of planetary waves in the lower stratosphere ("stratospheric bridge"), their interaction with the zonal wind and the HT and LvL correlations for January-February are presented. In contrast with early winter, the large role in the wave-zonal flow interaction plays the downward propagation of planetary waves from the stratosphere to the troposphere over Canada and North Atlantic ("stratospheric wave hole") responsible for the sink of the eddy energy from the stratosphere. One can suggest that there are two dominant regimes in the stratosphere-troposphere coupling in late winter: 1) the "ventilation regime" with the strong penetration of planetary waves from the troposphere over north Eurasia and their strong downward propagation over Canada and North Atlantic, and 2) the "blocking regime" with the weak those. This simple physical mechanism can explain the interannual variability of the stratospheric circulation in late winter after the accumulated eddy energy in December. Because the downward propagation of planetary waves can depend on the radiation regime and circulation changes in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere, there is a possibility of the 11-year SC influence on the lower stratosphere dynamics, which can explain the LvL correlations. References Zyulyaeva Yu.A., Jadin E.A., Analysis of three -dimensional Eliassen-Palm fluxes in the lower stratosphere, Russian Meteorology and Hydrology, v.8, 5-14, 2009. (http://ao.atmos.colostate.edu). Jadin E.A., Wei K., Zyulyaeva Yu.A., Chen W., Wang L., Stratospheric Wave Activity and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 2009, under review. (http://ao.atmos.colostate.edu).

Jadin, Evgeny; Wei, Ke; Chen, Wen; Wang, Lin

415

Influence of mycorhization and soil organic matters on lead and antimony transfers to vegetables cultivated in urban gardens: environmental and sanitary consequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Environment Agency estimates that c.a. 250 000 sites required clean up and that about 100 000 ha could have been contaminated by metals in Europe. Numerous remediation techniques have been therefore tested and phytoremediation appears as a sustainable and low cost in situ technique particularly for large-scale remediation of polluted arable soils. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) are already used in phytoextraction or phytostabilisation of many metal(loid)s (GU ET AL., 2013, SHARMA AND SHARMA, 2013). However, while plant inoculation with AMF will mostly result of an increase of the plant biomass, the response for lead accumulation in shoots is contrasted (LEBEAU ET AL., 2008). Furthermore, nothing is actually known for Sb transfer to plants phytoremediation-assisted AMF. Yet recently, many researches concern the accumulation of Sb in the environment, its (eco)toxicity and the risk of bioaccumulation in vegetables (FENG ET AL., 2013), especially in some China areas where Sb mining activities have widely contaminated arable lands (WU ET AL., 2011). Our research project, which is part of a national program for urban gardens (JASSUR, http://www.agence-nationale-recherche.fr), focused on polluted soils in associative urban gardens with both geogenic and anthropogenic origins for Pb and Sb. The impact of Pb and Sb on AMF density and diversity was studied using morphological and biomolecular approaches. The role of AMF symbiosis with Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) on Pb and Sb compartmentalization, speciation and phytoavailability was investigated. The influence of soil organic matters on these processes was examined. Eventually, the part of metal(loid)s available for humans in case of ingestion of lettuces unfit for human consumption (FOUCAULT ET AL., 2013; XIONG ET AL., 2013) will be assessed in relation with the influence of AMF symbiosis and organic matter. Key Words: Mycorrhiza, Antimony, Compartmentation, Speciation, Edible Plants, Urban Agriculture. References: Feng, R., Wei, C., Tu, S., Ding, Y., Wang, R., Guo, J., 2013. The uptake and detoxification of antimony by plants: a review. Environ. Exp. Bot. 96, 28-34. Foucault, Y., Lévêque, T., Xiong, T., Schreck, E., Austruy, A., Shahid, M., Dumat, C., 2013. Green manure plants for remediation of soils polluted by metals and metalloids: Ecotoxicity and human bioavailability assessment. Chemosphere 93, 1430-1435. Gu, H.H., Li, F.P., Yu, Q., Gao, Y.Q., Yuan, X.T., 2013. The Roles of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Glomus mosseae and Festuca arundinacea in Phytostabilization of Lead/Zinc Tailings. Adv. Mater. Res. 699, 245-250. Lebeau, T., Braud, A., Jézéquel, K., 2008. Performance of bioaugmentation-assisted phytoextraction applied to metal contaminated soils: A review. Environ. Pollut. 153, 497-522. Sharma, A., Sharma, H., 2013. Role of Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza in the Mycoremediation of Heavy Toxic Metals From Soil. Int J LifeSc Bt Pharm Res 2, 2418-2431. Wu, F., Fu, Z., Liu, B., Mo, C., Chen, B., Corns, W., Liao, H., 2011. Health risk associated with dietary co-exposure to high levels of antimony and arsenic in the world's largest antimony mine area. Sci. Total Environ. 409, 3344-3351. Xiong, T., Austruy, A., Dappe, V., Leveque, T., Sobanska, S., Foucault, Y., Dumat, C., 2013. Phytotoxicity and bioaccessibility of metals for vegetables exposed to atmosphere fine particles in polluted urban areas". Urban Environmental Pollution, Asian Edition, 17-20, Beijing, China.

Pierart, Antoine; Braud, Armelle; Lebeau, Thierry; Séjalon-Delmas, Nathalie; Dumat, Camille

2014-05-01

416

Summer North Atlantic Oscillation: decadal change, impact, and possible mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summer North Atlantic Oscillation: decadal change, impact, and possible mechanisms Jianqi Sun, Huijun Wang, and Wei Yuan Nansen-Zhu International Research Centre (NZC), Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China. Email: sunjq@mail.iap.ac.cn It is well known that the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is strong in winter, so most previous studies focused on the NAO in winter time. However, actually the NAO is also one of the teleconnection patterns that have a year-round presence. For example, some studies have indicated that the summer North Atlantic Oscillation (SNAO) is still a dominant pattern over the North Atlantic region. So it is of importance to investigate the SNAO’s variability and influences. Our recent studies revealed that the summer (SNAO) experienced a significant decadal change around the late 1970s, with the southern action center located farther eastward after the late 1970s as compared to before. Such decadal change of the SNAO pattern altered its relationship with the Northern Hemispheric summer climate. In the period before the late 1970s, the connection of the SNAO on the Northern Hemispheric land surface air temperature is weak, but after that time the impact of the SNAO is significantly enhanced. Our further analysis indicated that the decadal change of the SNAO pattern is to some extend attributed to the decadal variability of the Mediterranean-Black Sea (MBS) sea surface temperature (SST). In 1951-1975, the variability of the MBS SST is quite weak, but in 1978-2002 it becomes more active. The active MBS SST can enhance the interaction between the sea and its overlying atmosphere, thus strengthening the activity of the east part of the SNAO southern center after the late 1970s and consequently producing an eastward SNAO southern center shift. This observational analysis result is further confirmed by sensitivity experiments. Besides the MBS SST, the decadal variability of the tropical Atlantic SST also plays important role in the SNAO pattern shift. During the past half century, the TASST experienced an abrupt change around the late 1970s, with a rapid warming in the recent 2 decades. Thus in the period after the late 1970s when the TASST is relatively warmer, the TASST released more energy into the atmosphere, then stimulated strong convection over the tropical Atlantic, and further excited anomalous wave-like patterns. This strengthened the circulation in the region of the Mediterranean Sea, namely the east part of the SNAO southern center, consequently leading to an eastward shift of the SNAO southern center. Meanwhile, in the period before the late 1970s when the TASST is relatively cooler, the TASST released less energy into the atmosphere, so its impact on the overlying atmosphere was significantly weakened and confined to the lower-level atmosphere of the tropical Atlantic. Thus the TASST possibly did not influence the variability of the SNAO southern center, and the SNAO pattern exhibited a traditional distribution with two centers over the North Atlantic.

Sun, J.

2010-12-01

417

All in the family: kin contact leads to outer membrane exchange.  

PubMed

The ability to recognize related cells in a population can confer evolutionary benefits. For example, some bacteria use contact-dependent inhibition proteins to distinguish kin from nonkin. Kinship recognition is taken to a new level in Myxococcus, which uses the dual-purpose TraA protein for kin recognition and outer membrane and lipoprotein exchange. In this issue of the Journal of Bacteriology, Wei et al. (X. Wei, C. N. Vassallo, D. T. Pathak, D. Wall, J. Bacteriol. 196:1807-1814, 2014) show that Tra-dependent exchange can be uncoupled from outer membrane vesicle/tube formation, reported elsewhere to mediate outer membrane exchange. PMID:24610708

Hartzell, Trish

2014-05-01

418

Spatial Distribution of Landslides Triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake: Implications for Landslide Fluvial Mobilization and Earthquake Source Mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessing the spatial distribution of earthquake-induced landslides is important for quantifying the fluvial evacuation of landslide material [Hovius et al., 2011], for deriving information about earthquake sources [Meunier et al., 2013], and for understanding the role of earthquakes in shaping surface topography and in driving orogen evolution. The 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake is characterized by large magnitude, widespread coseismic landsliding, typical mountainous ridge-and-valley topography of the region, and comprehensive geophysical observation. Previous work on landslides associated with the Wenchuan earthquake has focused on the occurrences of landslide-induced hazards and spatial relations between the landslide locations and the seismic features (i.e., the surface ruptures and the epicenter) [e.g., Dai et al., 2011; Gorum et al., 2011]. Little attention has been paid to how the landslide distribution determines the fluvial mobilization of landslide material or quantitative landslide-earthquake source mechanism inversion, even though the Wenchuan event provides an ideal case study to explore these problems for a larger magnitude earthquake than has yet been considered. We obtained a landslide inventory for the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake using high-resolution remote imagery and a semi-automated mapping algorithm. Here we report the results from spatial and statistical analysis of this landslide map using a digital elevation model (DEM) framework. We present the probability distribution of primary parameters (i.e., slope, aspect, elevation, and area density of all landslides) of the landslide inventory and discuss their relations to regional topographic features (i.e., river channels and mountain ridges). The landslide-river channel connectivity and landslide mobility were estimated using different hillslope-channel transition cutoffs. The landslide density and the probability of slope failure were calculated for all lithological units within the Longmen Shan range. The patterns of the derived landslide statistical parameters were compared to the fault slip distribution of the Wenchuan earthquake. This comparison allows the evaluation of the applicability of the inversion from landslide distribution to earthquake source mechanism for this high-magnitude earthquake. References Dai, F. C., C. Xu, X. Yao, L. Xu, X. B. Tu, and Q. M. Gong (2011), Spatial distribution of landslides triggered by the 2008 Ms 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake, China, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 40(4), 883-895. Gorum, T., X. M. Fan, C. J. van Westen, R. Q. Huang, Q. Xu, C. Tang, and G. H. Wang (2011), Distribution pattern of earthquake-induced landslides triggered by the 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, Geomorphology, 133(3-4), 152-167. Hovius, N., P. Meunier, L. Ching-Weei, C. Hongey, C. Yue-Gau, S. Dadson, H. Ming-Jame, and M. Lines (2011), Prolonged seismically induced erosion and the mass balance of a large earthquake, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 304(3-4), 347-355. Meunier, P., T. Uchida, and N. Hovius (2013), Landslide patterns reveal the sources of large earthquakes, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 363(0), 27-33.

Li, G.; West, A.; Hilton, R. G.

2013-12-01

419

EDITORIAL: Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2009 Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The publishers of Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB), IOP Publishing, in association with the journal owners, the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM), jointly award an annual prize for the best paper published in PMB during the previous year. The procedure for deciding the winner has been made as thorough as possible, to try to ensure that an outstanding paper wins the prize. We started off with a shortlist of the 10 research papers published in 2009 which were rated the best based on the referees' quality assessments. Following the submission of a short 'case for winning' document by each of the shortlisted authors, an IPEM college of jurors of the status of FIPEM assessed and rated these 10 papers in order to choose a winner, which was then endorsed by the Editorial Board. We have a clear, and very worthy, winner this year. We have much pleasure in advising readers that the 2009 Roberts Prize is awarded to E Z Zhang et al from University College London for their paper on photoacoustic tomography. In vivo high resolution 3D photoacoustic imaging of superficial vascular anatomy E Z Zhang, J G Laufer, R B Pedley and P C Beard 2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 1035-46 Our congratulations go to these authors. Of course all of the shortlisted papers were of great merit, and the full top-10 is listed below (in alphabetical order). Steve Webb Editor-in-Chief Simon Harris Publisher References Cheng Y-C N , Neelavalli J and Haacke E M 2009 Limitations of calculating field distributions and magnetic susceptibilities in MRI using a Fourier based method Phys. Med. Biol. 54 1169-89 Cho S, Ahn S, Li Q and Leahy R M 2009 Exact and approximate Fourier rebinning of PET data from time-of-flight to non time-of-flight 2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 467-84 Davidson S R H, Weersink R A, Haider M A, Gertner M R, Bogaards A, Giewercer D, Scherz A, Sherar M D, Elhilali M, Chin J L, Trachtenberg J and Wilson B C 2009 Treatment planning and dose analysis for interstitial photodynamic therapy of prostate cancer Phys. Med. Biol. 54 2293-313 Hand J W, Shaw A, Sadhoo N, Rajagopal S, Dickinson R J and Gavrilov L R 2009 A random phased array device for delivery of high intensity focused ultrasound Phys. Med. Biol. 54 5675-93 Johnson P, Lee C, Johnson K, Siragusa D and Bolch W E 2009 The influence of patient size on dose conversion coefficients: a hybrid phantom study for adult cardiac catheterization Phys. Med. Biol. 54 3613-29 Paganetti H 2009 Dose to water versus dose to medium in proton beam therapy Phys. Med. Biol. 54 4399-421 Pramanik M, Song K H, Swierczewska M, Green D, Sitharaman B and Wang L V 2009 In vivo carbon nanotube-enhanced non-invasive photoacoustic mapping of the sentinel lymph node Phys. Med. Biol. 54 3291-301 Schöndube H, Stierstorfer K and Noo F 2009 Accurate helical cone-beam CT reconstruction with redundant data 2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 4625-44 Tang G, Earl M A and Yu C X 2009 Variable dose rate single-arc IMAT delivered with a constant dose rate and variable angular spacing Phys. Med. Biol. 54 6439-56 Zhang E Z, Laufer J G, Pedley R B and Beard P C 2009 In vivo high resolution 3D photoacoustic imaging of superficial vascular anatomy Phys. Med. Biol. 54 1035-46 For more information on this article see medicalphysicsweb.org

Webb, Steve; Harris, Simon

2010-07-01

420

Holocene biome shifts in the East Asian monsoon margin region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

East Asia is affected by three major atmospheric circulation systems determining the regional climate and vegetation distribution: The moisture advected by the Indian and East Asian monsoon support the growing of forest in large parts of Eastern China. The influence of the monsoon gets weaker further on the continent yielding a transition of forest to steppe and of steppe to desert in Central East Asia (e.g. Inner Mongolia) where the dry westerly winds prevail. Particularly in these transition zones, vegetation is supposed to be very sensitive to climate change and strong feedbacks are expected in case of climate and vegetation shifts due to large environmental changes (Feng et al., 2006). During mid-Holocene, cyclic variations in the Earth's orbit around the sun led to an enhancement of the Asian monsoon system probably causing strong shifts in the biome distribution. According to reconstructions, the steppe-forest margin moved to the northwest by about 500km (Yu et al., 2000) and the desert area in China and Inner Mongolia was substantially reduced compared to today (Feng et al., 2006). However, in the complex environment of Asia, the locally limited reconstructions may not portray the general vegetation change. To get a systematic overview on the spatial pattern of biome shifts in the Asian monsoon - westerly wind transition zone since mid-Holocene, we use the diagnostic vegetation model BIOME4 and force this model with climate anomalies from different transient Holocene climate simulations performed in coupled atmosphere-ocean-vegetation models. The main aims of this study are to a) get a consistent ensemble of possible changes in biome distribution since the mid-Holocene b) test the robustness of the simulated vegetation changes and quantify the differences between the models, and c) allow for a better comparison of simulated and reconstructed vegetation changes. Preliminary results confirm the general trend seen in the reconstructions. The simulations reveal an expansion of forest for most models and a substantially reduced desert fraction in the transition zone during mid-Holocene. However, the amplitude of the signal and the trend varies for the different climate models. At mid-Holocene, the desert-steppe margin is located further west by approx. 6° in the ensemble mean ranging from 1° to 10° in the different simulations. The forest biomes extend further north-westward by approx. 2° in the ensemble mean ranging from 0° to 4°. In some simulations, the biome distribution shows a strong variability during the last 6000 years and a strong increase of desert starting 500 years before present. In other simulations the biome distribution stays relatively constant until 4500 years before present, afterwards the desert border gradually moves eastward to its present-day position. References: Feng, Z.-D., An, C.B., and Wang, H.B.: Holocene climatic and environmental changes in the arid and semi-arid areas of China: a review. The Holocene 16(1), 119-130, 2006. Yu, G., Chen, X., Ni, J., Cheddadi, R., Guiot, J., Han, H., Harrison, S.P., Huang, C., Ke, M., Kong, Z., Li, S., Li, W., Liew, P., Liu, G., Liu, J., Liu, Q., Liu, K.-B., Prentice, I.C., Qui, W., Ren, G., Song, C., Sugita, S., Sun, X., Tang, L., Van Campo, E., Xia, Y., Xu, Q., Yan, S., Yang, X., Zhao, J., and Zheng, Z.: Palaeovegetation of China: a pollen date-based synthesis for the mid-Holocene and last glacial maximum. J. Biogeogr., 27, 635-664, 2000.

Dallmeyer, Anne; Claussen, Martin; Ni, Jian; Wang, Yongbo; Cao, Xianyong; Herzschuh, Ulrike

2013-04-01

421

A revision of Caridina yunnanensis and its allied species (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Atyidae) from Yunnan, southern China, with description of one new species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The taxonomy of the Caridina yunnanensis and its allied species (Caridea: Atyidae) from Yunnan Province in southern China, is revised. A neotype for C. yunnanensis Yu, 1938, is designated. Additional information is provided on C. disparidentata Liang, Yan and Wang, 1984; C. dianchiensis Liang and Yan, 1985; C. mongziensis Liang, Yan and Wang, 1987; and C. disjuncta Cai and Liang,

Y. Cai; P. K. L. Ng

2001-01-01

422

A Comparison of Alternative Models for Testlets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When tests are made up of testlets, standard item response theory (IRT) models are often not appropriate due to the local dependence present among items within a common testlet. A testlet-based IRT model has recently been developed to model examinees' responses under such conditions (Bradlow, Wainer, & Wang, 1999). The Bradlow, Wainer, and Wang…

Li, Yanmei; Bolt, Daniel M.; Fu, Jianbin

2006-01-01

423

HRD Learning Participation: An Empirical Study of E-Learning Completion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study offers empirical evidence in HRD e-learning completion. Based on the Learning Participation Theory (LPT) (Wang & Wang, 2004), a study was conducted with U.S. corporate e-learners to explore the determinants of e-learning completion. The results generally confirmed the hypothesis by the LPT that individual, learning process, and…

Wang, Greg G.; Foucar-Szocki, Diane; Griffin, Oris

2006-01-01

424

77 FR 46704 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Ya reported that the 2008 death of its Chairman, Mr. Y.C. Wang, dissolved the family ties and common ownership interests such...instant review regarding both the disposition of Mr. Y.C. Wang's assets and the current ownership and corporate...

2012-08-06

425

Exercise during Pregnancy: What You Can Do for a Healthy Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... vision Source Exercise During Pregnancy by Thomas W. Wang, M.D., and Barbara S. Apgar, M.D. (American ... 15, 1998, http://www.aafp.org/afp/980415ap/wang.html) Written by familydoctor.org editorial staff Reviewed/ ...

426

77 FR 73677 - Stephanie A. Tarapchak, M.D.; Decision and Order  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2012); Segun M. Rasaki, 77 FR 29692 (2012); David W. Wang, 72 FR 54297 (2007). Rather, DEA's rule derives primarily...Sandarg, D.M.D., 74 FR 17,528 (DEA 2009); David W. Wang, M.D., 72 FR 54,297 (DEA 2007); Sheran Arden...

2012-12-11

427

Phonology Is Necessary, but Not Sufficient: A Rejoinder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Paul, Wang, Trezek, and Luckner offer a rebuttal to an article by Allen, Clark, del Giudice, Koo, Lieberman, Mayberry, and Miller published in the same issue of the "American Annals of the Deaf" (Fall 2009) that is critical of an article by Wang, Trezek, Luckner, and Paul that was published in the Fall 2008 "Annals". Major themes from the article…

Paul, Peter V.; Wang, Ye; Trezek, Beverly J.; Luckner, John L.

2009-01-01

428

77 FR 67673 - Fernando Valle, M.D.; Decision and Order  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Serenity Caf[eacute], 77 FR 35027, 35028 (2012); David W. Wang, 72 FR 54297, 54298 (2007); Sheran Arden Yeates, 71 FR...whose state license has been suspended or revoked. David W. Wang, 72 [FR] 54297, 54298 (2007); Sheran Arden Yeates,...

2012-11-13

429

ALTERATION OF CARDIAC ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY BY WATER-LEACHABLE COMPONENTS OF RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH (ROFA)  

EPA Science Inventory

Alteration of cardiac electrical activity by water-leachable components of residual oil fly ash (ROFA) Desuo Wang, Yuh-Chin T. Huang*, An Xie, Ting Wang *Human Studies Division, NHEERL, US EPA 104 Mason Farm Road, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 Department of Basic ...

430

FOOTWORK TECHNIQUES USED IN TABLE TENNIS: A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of 2 matches of 4 male players from 2006 World Team Table Tennis Championships (videos recorded from television). During that competition the players were the n° 1 (Wang Liqin), 2 (Timo Boll), 4 (Ma Lin) and 56 (Christian Suss) in the world ranking. Analysis of the matches: L. Ma vs T. Boll, and L.Q. Wang vs C. Suss. 2.

Malagoli Lanzoni Ivan; Lobietti Roberto; Merni Franco

431

Yani: The Brush of Innocence. Teacher's Activity Packet, Grades One through Five.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a teaching package designed to introduce students in grades one through five to Chinese painting methods and equipment. Prepared in conjunction with an exhibition of paintings by child prodigy Wang Yani titled "The Brush of Innocence," the package consists of a teacher's activity plan unit, a slide set of art works by Wang…

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

432

The Dimensions and Number of Turns for the Tracker Solenoids As-Built compared to the Original Magnet Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two tracker solenoids for MICE [1]-[3] as-built are different from the original design proposed by Wang NMR [4]. The Wang NMR design is in turn different from the magnet design proposed in the original MICE tracker magnet specification [5]. The two tracker solenoids where fabricated with niobium titanium conductor supplied to LBNL by Luvata under a specification written by

Michael A Green; Steve P Virostek

2008-01-01

433

Triggered Star Formation from Bubbles S51, N68, and N131  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the environment of the infrared dust bubbles S51 (Zhang & Wang 2012a), N68 (Zhang & Wang 2012b), and N131 (Zhang et al. 2012) from catalogue of Churchwell et al. (2006), and searched for evidence of triggered star formation.

Zhang, C. P.; Wang, J. J.

2013-03-01

434

The Western Wheatgrass Chloroplast Genome Originates in Pseudoroegneria  

Microsoft Academic Search

morphological (Love, 1984) considerations, but more recent DNA hybridization (Zhang and Dvor ?ak, 1991; The octoploid Pascopyrum smithii (Rydb.) A. Love (StHNsXm) Wang and Jensen, 1994) and genomic (Wang and Jen- arose from hybrization among four diploid genera, three of which are sen, 1994) data have eliminated it as a possible Leymus known from genome analysis, but the diploid origin

T. A. Jones; M. G. Redinbaugh; Y. Zhang

435

DCTD — Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine (OCCAM)  

Cancer.gov

Eisenberg DM, Harris ES, Littlefield BA, Cao S, Craycroft JA, Scholten R, Bayliss P, Fu Y, Wang W, Qiao Y, Zhao Z, Chen H, Liu Y, Kaptchuk T, Hahn WC, Wang X, Roberts T, Shamu CE, Clardy J. Developing a library of authenticated Traditional Chinese Medicinal (TCM) plants for systematic biological evaluation--rationale, methods and preliminary results from a Sino-American collaboration.