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Sample records for tang wei wang

  1. Editorial: Which Wei Wang?

    SciTech Connect

    Sprouse, Gene D.

    2007-12-01

    The APS journals receive manuscripts from scientists all over the world. For authors whose names cannot be expressed in Latin characters, their names in the byline must be transliterated, a process that is not necessarily bidirectionally unique. For example, the eight Chinese names all transliterate as Wei Wang. To remove some of the ambiguity arising from this unfortunate degeneracy of names, APS will allow some authors the option to include their names in their own language in parentheses after the transliterated name, such as Wei Wang. The option to present names in the article byline in this manner is an experiment initially offered to Chinese, Japanese, and Korean authors, whose names can be expressed in Unicode characters. An example of a Japanese name is Tadanori Minamisono and a Korean name is Chang Kee Jung. In the English text the given name precedes the family name, while the reverse is true for the characters. As we gain experience, we may be able to broaden this offer to other languages. Authors who wish to try this option will need to prepare their manuscripts by following the special instructions at http://authors.aps.org/names.html.

  2. Greg Tang: Making Math Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierpont, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    Greg Tang has a resume that could get his foot in the door to a lot of places. A graduate of Harvard with both a B.A. and M.A. in economics, Tang has found success as a business executive, a speechwriter, a software designer and owner of a Tae Kwon Do school. After the publication of his first best-selling book for children, "The Grapes of Math"…

  3. Greg Tang: Making Math Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierpont, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    Greg Tang has a resume that could get his foot in the door to a lot of places. A graduate of Harvard with both a B.A. and M.A. in economics, Tang has found success as a business executive, a speechwriter, a software designer and owner of a Tae Kwon Do school. After the publication of his first best-selling book for children, "The Grapes of Math"

  4. 77 FR 34339 - Yufeng Wei, a/k/a Annie Wei, 165 Beech Street, Belmont, MA 02378; Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Yufeng Wei, a/k/a Annie Wei, 165 Beech Street, Belmont, MA 02378; Order..., Yufeng Wei, a/k/a Annie Wei (``Wei'') was convicted of violating the International Emergency Economic... her conviction. Accordingly, it is hereby ordered I. Until January 28, 2021, Yufeng Wei, a/k/a...

  5. Wei-Norman equations for classical groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charzyński, Szymon; Kuś, Marek

    2015-08-01

    We show that the nonlinear autonomous Wei-Norman equations, expressing the solution of a linear system of non-autonomous equations on a Lie algebra, can be reduced to the hierarchy of matrix Riccati equations in the case of all classical simple Lie algebras. The result generalizes our previous one concerning the complex Lie algebra of the special linear group. We show that it cannot be extended to all simple Lie algebras, in particular to the exceptional G2 algebra.

  6. Wang-Landau Without Binning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, G.; Nicholson, D.; Odbadrakh, Kh.; Eisenbach, M.; Rusanu, A.

    2012-02-01

    Results are presented for Wang-Landau calculations on a Heisenberg model of BCC Fe that describe the density of states as function defined for all accessible energies instead of a function tabulated at discrete values of the energy. The density of states function described here is an analytic result valid near the ground state supplemented by a polynomial expansion. The probability density of Wang-Landau random walkers is sampled for a fixed density of states, and that probability density can be used to improve the estimated density of states. Methods for evaluating the convergence of the density of states are discussed along with the diffusion behavior of the random walkers. This work was performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725, and sponsored by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (ORNL), by the Mathematical, Information, and Computational Sciences Division; Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (US DOE), and by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering; Office of Basic Energy Sciences (US DOE). Computer resources provided by Florida State University.

  7. LUNG CANCER AND INDOOR AIR POLLUTION IN XUAN WEI, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Xuan Wei County, China has an unusually high lung cancer mortality rate that cannot be attributed to tobacco use or occupational exposure. Most Xuan Wei residents, especially women, are exposed domestically to smoke from unvented, open pit coal/wood fires used for cooking and hea...

  8. Communicating between the Apple and the Wang

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, G.W., Downey, R.

    1982-10-26

    This manual covers what the beginner needs to know in order to transfer files between an Apple's Microcomputer and a Wang's OIS Word Processor. We have also tried to indicate where the experienced user might want to look for additional details. We cover the use of Apple Writer )(, VisiTerm, VisiCalc, and EasyWriter Professional. For us, the two most useful connections are from Applewriter to Wang and from Visicalc to Wang. From Wang to Apple Writer via Visiterm may have some value. Files can be transferred by VisiTerm to Wang, but they arrive with RETURNS in the middle of words, which have to be edited out, so we do not recommend it. We describe how to go from EasyWriter to Wang, but we do not know how to go from Wang to EasyWriter. We see no reason to go from Wang to VisiCalc, so we haven't thought about it. All instructions are given for a typical configuration of the Apple, namely the one on which this manual was composed. It is detailed in the section on Hardware and Software.

  9. Jumihaidokuto (Shi-Wei-Ba-Du-Tang), a Kampo Formula, Decreases the Disease Activity of Palmoplantar Pustulosis

    PubMed Central

    Mizawa, Megumi; Makino, Teruhiko; Inami, Chieko; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2016-01-01

    Palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP) is a chronic skin disease characterized by sterile intraepidermal pustules associated with erythematous scaling on the palms and soles. Jumihaidokuto is a traditional herbal medicine composed of ten medical plants and has been given to patients with suppurative skin disease in Japan. This study investigated the effect of jumihaidokuto on the disease activity in PPP patients (n = 10). PPP patients were given jumihaidokuto (EKT-6; 6.0 g per day) for 4 to 8 weeks in addition to their prescribed medications. The results showed that the palmoplantar pustular psoriasis area and severity index (PPPASI) was decreased after the administration of jumihaidokuto (p < 0.05). Therefore, Jumihaidokuto is seemingly effective against PPP. PMID:27143961

  10. Jumihaidokuto (Shi-Wei-Ba-Du-Tang), a Kampo Formula, Decreases the Disease Activity of Palmoplantar Pustulosis.

    PubMed

    Mizawa, Megumi; Makino, Teruhiko; Inami, Chieko; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2016-01-01

    Palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP) is a chronic skin disease characterized by sterile intraepidermal pustules associated with erythematous scaling on the palms and soles. Jumihaidokuto is a traditional herbal medicine composed of ten medical plants and has been given to patients with suppurative skin disease in Japan. This study investigated the effect of jumihaidokuto on the disease activity in PPP patients (n = 10). PPP patients were given jumihaidokuto (EKT-6; 6.0 g per day) for 4 to 8 weeks in addition to their prescribed medications. The results showed that the palmoplantar pustular psoriasis area and severity index (PPPASI) was decreased after the administration of jumihaidokuto (p < 0.05). Therefore, Jumihaidokuto is seemingly effective against PPP. PMID:27143961

  11. Inhibitory effect of Yukmijihwang-tang, a traditional herbal formula against testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Yukmijihwang-tang, a traditional herbal formula, has been used for treating disorder, diabetic mellitus and neurosis in China (Liu-wei-di-huang-tang in Chinese), Japan (Lokumijio-to in Japanese) and Korea for many years. In this study, we investigated the effects of Yukmijihwang-tang water extract (YJT) on the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) using a rat model of testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH. Methods A total of 30 rats were divided into five groups. One group was used as a control and the other groups received subcutaneous injections of TP for 4 weeks to induce BPH. YJT (200 or 400 mg/kg) was administered daily for 4 weeks to two groups by oral gavage concurrently with the TP. The animals were euthanized, the prostate and body weights were recorded, and tissues were subjected to hormone assays and histomorphology. In addition, we investigated proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression in the prostate using immunoblotting. Results Animals with BPH showed significantly increased absolute and relative prostate weights, increased dihydrotestosterone levels in the serum or prostate and increased PCNA expression in the prostate; however, YJT-treated animals showed significant reductions compared with the animals with TP-induced BPH. Histomorphology also showed that YJT inhibited TP-induced prostatic hyperplasia. Conclusions These findings indicate that YJT effectively inhibited the development of BPH and might be a useful drug clinically. PMID:22520510

  12. [Analysis of WANG Ji's moxibustion therapy opinion].

    PubMed

    Cai, Hai-Hong; Wang, Ling-Ling

    2014-04-01

    WANG Ji's opinion on moxibustion therapy in Questions and answers of acupuncture and moxibustion (Zhenjiu Wendui) was explored and analyzed. With his two contraindications of moxibustion as breakthrough points, the arrangement and discussion was performed. The results showed that based on summary of moxibustion treatment theory before Ming dynasty, WANG Ji could provide characteristic idea, which is of great reference value and guide significance to the inheritance and development of moxibustion. PMID:24946649

  13. Lung cancer and indoor air pollution in Xuan Wei, China

    SciTech Connect

    Mumford, J.L.; He, X.Z.; Chapman, R.S.; Cao, S.R.; Harris, D.B.; Li, X.M.; Xian, Y.L.; Jiang, W.Z.; Xu, C.W.; Chuang, J.C.

    1987-01-09

    In Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, lung cancer mortality is among China's highest and, especially in females, is more closely associated with indoor burning of smoky coal, as opposed to wood or smokeless coal, than with tobacco smoking. Indoor air samples were collected during the burning of all three fuels. In contrast to wood and smokeless coal emissions, smoky coal emission has high concentrations of submicron particles containing mutagenic organics, especially in aromatic and polar fractions. These studies suggested an etiologic link between domestic smoky coal burning and lung cancer in Xuan Wei.

  14. [Textual Research on Wang Fengchun's Life].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ti

    2012-01-01

    WANG Fengchun (1884 - 1949), born in Wu County, Jiangsu Province, was one of the four famous doctors of Beijing in the Republic of China periods. He learned Confucianism during his childhood and then learned medicine from AI Buchan, a famous doctor in Wuzhong area. In 1908, he went to Beijing and was appointed as the prosecutor of the court of law and a medical official, but also had learnt medicine from LI Jun, the head of the Business Ministry. In 1910, Wang resigned and lived as doctor in Beijing. According to the literature, from 1935 to 1942, Wang had been appointed 11 times as a member of Beiping (Beijing) TCM examination committee or test committee. In 1938, he was appointed as president of the Beijing Branch of the National Medical Professional Association and created the Beijing Medicine Monthly in 1939. In September 1939, Wang began to make preparations for a TCM symposium, i.e. the Medicine Symposium which was established officially in October 1939. In 1941, he was appointed as the director of the Beijing Traditional Chinese Medicines Workshop, employing famous doctors to cultivate reserve talents of medicines. Being a realist, he often exchanged opinions with TCM and western medical doctors and also made a contribution to medical education. PMID:22613482

  15. Safety Evaluation of Yukmijihwang-tang: Assessment of Acute and Subchronic Toxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Hyekyung; Lee, Jun Kyoung; Lee, Ho Young; Koh, Woo Suk; Seo, Chang Seob; Lee, Mi-Young; Huang, Dae Sun; Shin, Hyeunkyoo

    2011-01-01

    Yukmijihwang-tang (YMJ; Liu wei di huang tang (China), Rokumigan (Japan)) has been used in the treatment of diseases including renal disorder, cognitive vitality, and diabetes mellitus. However, there is very little information regarding the toxicity of YMJ to give an assurance of safety for clinical treatment. To provide safety information for YMJ, we evaluated its acute and sub-chronic toxicity in rats. The single-dose toxicity of YMJ was examined using Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were treated with YMJ extract orally at 0, 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg body weight. After a single administration, clinical signs were observed every day for two weeks, and body weights were measured five times, including an initial measurement on day 1 (the day of administration). In the sub-chronic oral toxicity study, YMJ was administered to rats at 0, 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg/day for 13 weeks. Mortalities, clinical signs, body weight changes, food and water consumption, ophthalmologic findings, urinalysis, hematological and biochemical parameters, gross findings, organ weights, and histological examination were monitored during the study period. We found no mortality and no abnormalities in clinical signs, body weights, and necropsy findings for any of the animals in the acute and sub-chronic studies following oral administration in the rat at up to 2000 mg/kg/day YMJ. YMJ may not have any single-dose toxicity; the LD50 of YMJ was over 2000 mg/kg, and it is safe for rats. The no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) was considered to be 2000 mg/kg/day. PMID:21234385

  16. Forgery attack to Kang-Tang digital signature scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jie; Guo, Yongning; Liu, Chenglian

    2014-10-01

    In 2006, Kang and Tang proposed a digital signature scheme without hash functions and message redundancy. They claimed their scheme are more efficient in computation and communication for small device. In this paper, we will point out an new attack to certain the Kang-Tang scheme is insecure.

  17. Lung cancer and indoor air pollution in Xuan Wei, China

    SciTech Connect

    Mumford, J.L.; He, X.Z.; Chapman, R.S.; Cao, S.R.; Harris, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    Xuan Wei County, China has an unusually high lung-cancer mortality rate that cannot be attributed to tobacco use or occupational exposure. Most Xuan Wei residents, especially women, are exposed domestically to smoke from unvented, open pit coal/wood fires used for cooking and heating. Samples collected during combustion of smoky coal, smokeless coal, and wood were examined for physical and chemical characteristics and for mutagenicity in the Ames Salmonella mutagenesis assay. Samples collected in two communes in which lung cancer rates are high and smoky coal is the predominant fuel contained high concentrations of submicron particles of high organic content. Indoor levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in these communes were comparable to occupational exposure levels. Samples from homes in a wood-burning commune that has a low lung cancer rate, on the other hand, mostly consisted of larger particles of lower organic content. Extracts of these samples, containing mostly polar compounds displayed little mutagenicity.

  18. [Discussion on XU Shu-wei's clinical application of moxibustion].

    PubMed

    Li, Cui-Juan

    2014-02-01

    The experiences and features of XU Shu-wei's clinical application of moxibustion is studied in this article with method of review research. XU Shu-wei attached great importance on yangqi and the functions of spleen and kidney. At the same time, warming-reinforcing method was recommended in treatment as well. Not only treatment with medicine was emphasized, but also moxibustion was encouraged to be applied in clinic. A warming-reinforcing method with moxibustion was recommended for diseases such as yinzheng (yin syndrome), yin-du (extreme yin syndrome), yang deficiency syndrome, stroke, prolapse of anus and furuncles on back. Flexible moxibustion methods were applied based on differentiation of syndromes. Various acupoints and moxibustion manipulations were selected according to different conditions. With the proved therapeutic effect, XU Shu-wei was held as the forerunner of warming-reinforcing method in the acupuncture history of China. Meanwhile, he also made certain contribution on the establishment of the Wenbu Xuepai (the warming-reinforcing school) in the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). PMID:24796067

  19. Tool Measures Depths of Defects on a Case Tang Joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ream, M. Bryan; Montgomery, Ronald B.; Mecham, Brent A.; Keirstead, Bums W.

    2005-01-01

    A special-purpose tool has been developed for measuring the depths of defects on an O-ring seal surface. The surface lies in a specially shaped ringlike fitting, called a capture feature tang, located on an end of a cylindrical segment of a case that contains a solid-fuel booster rocket motor for launching a space shuttle. The capture feature tang is a part of a tang-and-clevis, O-ring joint between the case segment and a similar, adjacent cylindrical case segment. When the segments are joined, the tang makes an interference fit with the clevis and squeezes the O-ring at the side of the gap.

  20. Effects of lu-duo-wei capsule on prolonging life span of housefly and Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Cui, X; Dai, X G; Li, W B; Zhang, B L; Fang, Y Z

    1999-01-01

    Lu-Duo-Wei capsule is a product of Chinese medicine having high efficacy in scavenging superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. It contains antioxidants, which may increase longevity, but whether Lu-Duo-Wei capsule has such an effect is unknown. In this study, supplementing the basic diet with Lu-Duo-Wei resulted in prolonging the life span of houseflies and fruit flies. Moreover, the effect of prolonging the life span of houseflies by Lu-Duo-Wei was significantly higher than that of tea polyphenol. The result not only confirms our previous report but also supports the free radical theory of aging. PMID:10592850

  1. ASSESSING INDOOR AIR POLLUTION EXPOSURE AND LUNG CANCER RISK IN XUAN WEI, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents risk assessment-related aspects of a multidisciplinary study of indoor coal smoke po1lution and lung cancer in Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, China. uan Wei presents a unique natural experiment in environmental carcinogenesis because lung cancer mortality ...

  2. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF LUNG CANCER IN XUAN WEI, CHINA: CURRENT PROGRESS, ISSUES, AND RESEARCH STRATEGIES (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Xuan Wei, a rural Chinese county of about one million people, females' annual lung cancer mortality is China's highest, and males' is among China's highest. Xuan Wei's very high indoor air pollution levels (sometimes exceeding 20 mg/m3), residentially stable population, relati...

  3. Analysis of parameters probability on Zhang-Wang signature scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weiping; Liu, Chenglian

    2014-10-01

    Zhang and Wang proposed an improved signature scheme without using one-way hash functions. In this paper, we analyze the odd and even probability of signature parameters in Zhang-Wang signature scheme, which combined with Boolean algebra, such as bitwise exclusive-or (XOR). Furthermore, it is pointed out that we can use them for attacks.

  4. Natural radioactivity in sediment of Wei River, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xinwei; Zhang, Xiaolan; Wang, Fengling

    2008-02-01

    The concentrations of natural radionuclides in sediment of Wei River of China were measured using γ-ray spectrometry with the aim of estimating the radiation hazard as establishing a database for radioactivity levels of river sediment of China. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in sediment samples ranged from 10.4 to 39.9 Bq kg-1, 15.3 to 54.8 Bq kg-1 and 514.8 to 1,175.5 Bq kg-1, respectively. The concentrations of these radionuclides were compared with the typical world values and the average activities of Chinese soil and Shaanxi soil. Radium equivalent activity (Raeq), external hazard index ( H ex) and representative level index ( I γr) were calculated for the samples to assess the radiation hazards arising due to the use of these sediment samples in the construction of dwellings. All the sediment samples have Raeq lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg-1, H ex less than unity and I γr close to 1 Bq kg-1. The overall mean outdoor terrestrial gamma dose rate is 64.8 nGy h-1 and the corresponding outdoor annual effective dose is 0.079 mSv. None of the studied location is considered a radiological risk and sediment can be safely used in construction.

  5. Chemical gas-dynamics beyond Wang Chang-Uhlenbeck's kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesnichenko, Evgeniy G.; Gorbachev, Yuriy E.

    2014-12-09

    Wang Chang-Uhlenbeck equation does not give possibility to take into account intermolecular processes such as redistribution of the energy among different degrees of freedom. The modification of the generalized Wang Chang-Uhlenbeck equation including such processes is proposed. It allows to study for instance the kinetics of non-radiative transitions. Limitations of this approach are connected with the requirements of absence of polarization of rotational momentum and phases of intermolecular vibrations.

  6. Massively parallel Wang Landau sampling on multiple GPUs

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Junqi; Landau, D. P.

    2012-01-01

    Wang Landau sampling is implemented on the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) with the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA). Performances on three different GPU cards, including the new generation Fermi architecture card, are compared with that on a Central Processing Unit (CPU). The parameters for massively parallel Wang Landau sampling are tuned in order to achieve fast convergence. For simulations of the water cluster systems, we obtain an average of over 50 times speedup for a given workload.

  7. Spatial chaos of Wang tiles with two symbols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jin-Yu; Chen, Yu-Jie; Hu, Wen-Guei; Lin, Song-Sun

    2016-02-01

    This investigation completely classifies the spatial chaos problem in plane edge coloring (Wang tiles) with two symbols. For a set of Wang tiles B , spatial chaos occurs when the spatial entropy h ( B ) is positive. B is called a minimal cycle generator if P ( B ) ≠ 0̸ and P ( B ' ) = 0̸ whenever B ' ⫋ B , where P ( B ) is the set of all periodic patterns on ℤ2 generated by B . Given a set of Wang tiles B , write B = C 1 ∪ C 2 ∪ ⋯ ∪ C k ∪ N , where Cj, 1 ≤ j ≤ k, are minimal cycle generators and B contains no minimal cycle generator except those contained in C1∪C2∪⋯∪Ck. Then, the positivity of spatial entropy h ( B ) is completely determined by C1∪C2∪⋯∪Ck. Furthermore, there are 39 equivalence classes of marginal positive-entropy sets of Wang tiles and 18 equivalence classes of saturated zero-entropy sets of Wang tiles. For a set of Wang tiles B , h ( B ) is positive if and only if B contains a MPE set, and h ( B ) is zero if and only if B is a subset of a SZE set.

  8. Effects of traditional Chinese medicine Wei-Wei-Kang-Granule on the expression of EGFR and NF-KB in chronic atrophic gastritis rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hai-yan; Zhao, Yan; Yu, Jia-ning; Jiang, Wei-wei; Sun, Xi-ling

    2012-01-01

    Wei-Wei-Kang-Granule(WWKG) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparation for the treatment of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). We examined the pathologic change and the effects of Wei-Wei-Kang-Granule (WWKG) on the expression of EGFR (epiderminal growth factor receptors) and NF-kB (nuclear transcription factor KappaB) in rats with chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), and evaluated the possible mechanisms. Ninety rats were randomly divided into control group and four experimental groups. CAG rat models were induced by repeated stimulating experiments in the experimental groups. After modeled rats were intragastrically injected (i.g.) with WWKG at 6000mg/kg (large dose WWKG group), WWKG at 3000mg/kg (small dose WWKG group), San-Jiu-Wei-Tai-Granule(SJWTG) at 1600mg/kg(SJWTG group), and normal saline(0.9%)at 20ml/kg (model group and control group), respectively, once a day for 30 days. After 30 days, all rats were sacrificed and samples were taken from the sinus ventriculi and body of stomach. The gastric specimens were prepared for microscopic view with hematoxylin and eosin (H-E). The immunohistochemistry method was used to observe the expression of protein of EGFR and NF-kB in gastric tissue. The data were analyzed in pre-and post-treatment by computer image automatic analysis system. Immunohistochemistry detection showed that the average optical density of EGFR and NF-kB in antrum was lower in large and small dose WWKG groups than the model group (P<0.01). CAG in rats was related with the damage of barrier in gastric mucosa and the misbalance of cell proliferation and apoptosis. One of the mechanisms is perhaps to reduce the expressing of EGFR and NF-Kb in gastric mucosa. PMID:23983313

  9. TANG1, Encoding a Symplekin_C Domain-Contained Protein, Influences Sugar Responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Leiying; Shang, Li; Chen, Xing; Zhang, Limin; Xia, Yan; Smith, Caroline; Bevan, Michael W; Li, Yunhai; Jing, Hai-Chun

    2015-07-01

    Sugars not only serve as energy and cellular carbon skeleton but also function as signaling molecules regulating growth and development in plants. Understanding the molecular mechanisms in sugar signaling pathways will provide more information for improving plant growth and development. Here, we describe a sugar-hypersensitive recessive mutant, tang1. Light-grown tang1 mutants have short roots and increased starch and anthocyanin contents when grown on high-sugar concentration medium. Dark-grown tang1 plants exhibit sugar-hypersensitive hypocotyl elongation and enhanced dark development. The tang1 mutants also show an enhanced response to abscisic acid but reduced response to ethylene. Thus, tang1 displays a range of alterations in sugar signaling-related responses. The TANG1 gene was isolated by a map-based cloning approach and encodes a previously uncharacterized unique protein with a predicted Symplekin tight-junction protein C terminus. Expression analysis indicates that TANG1 is ubiquitously expressed at moderate levels in different organs and throughout the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) life cycle; however, its expression is not affected by high-sugar treatment. Genetic analysis shows that PRL1 and TANG1 have additive effects on sugar-related responses. Furthermore, the mutation of TANG1 does not affect the expression of genes involved in known sugar signaling pathways. Taken together, these results suggest that TANG1, a unique gene, plays an important role in sugar responses in Arabidopsis. PMID:26002908

  10. [Discussion on WANG Guo-rui's acupuncture academy thought].

    PubMed

    Gao, Xi-Yan; Wang, Xin; Gao, Ling; Chen, Xin-Wang

    2013-12-01

    Through study on Bianque Shenying Zhenjiu Yulong Jing (Bianque's Classic of Effective Acupuncture Prescriptions), acupuncture experiences and ideology of WANG Guo-rui, an acupuncture physician of the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368), is discussed in this article. Inherited and carried forward DOU's acupuncture theory, WANG Guo-rui encouraged to use experiential points and to expand extra points. Penetrating needling method was created, and the application of acupoints according to needling opportunities and seasonal factors were enriched by him. Great importance was also attached on treatment according to differentiation of syndromes, which including the simultaneous acupuncture and moxibustion, simultaneous reinforcing and reducing, reducing after reinforcing, reinforcing after reducing, predomination of reducing and predomination of reinforcing. The flexible treating methods are still extensively adopted in clinic nowadays. WANG Guo-rui is a master of clinical acupuncture who made great contribution to the development of acupuncture and moxibustion. PMID:24617245

  11. Analysis of temporal and spatial trends of hydro-climatic variables in the Wei River Basin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Huang, Qiang; Chang, Jianxia; Liu, Dengfeng; Huang, Shengzhi; Shi, Xiaoyu

    2015-05-01

    The Wei River is the largest tributary of the Yellow River in China. The relationship between runoff and precipitation in the Wei River Basin has been changed due to the changing climate and increasingly intensified human activities. In this paper, we determine abrupt changes in hydro-climatic variables and identify the main driving factors for the changes in the Wei River Basin. The nature of the changes is analysed based on data collected at twenty-one weather stations and five hydrological stations in the period of 1960-2010. The sequential Mann-Kendall test analysis is used to capture temporal trends and abrupt changes in the five sub-catchments of the Wei River Basin. A non-parametric trend test at the basin scale for annual data shows a decreasing trend of precipitation and runoff over the past fifty-one years. The temperature exhibits an increase trend in the entire period. The potential evaporation was calculated based on the Penman-Monteith equation, presenting an increasing trend of evaporation since 1990. The stations with a significant decreasing trend in annual runoff mainly are located in the west of the Wei River primarily interfered by human activities. Regression analysis indicates that human activity was possibly the main cause of the decline of runoff after 1970. PMID:25619963

  12. [Study on meridians and collaterals through ying-qi and wei-qi].

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Lian-Shi

    2011-07-01

    Assisted with inference, and approved by the ancient medical classics, it is concluded that meridians and collaterals are often felt in the form of qi through imitation of the methods of life experiencing of the ancient people. Ying-qi is considered as jing-qi (meridian qi), which originates from the experiences of respiration. And wei-qi relates with experiences of sleep. Part of meridian theory originated from the traditional Chinese thought of seeking the internal cause but not the external manifestations, and paying attention to the self-adjustment, accomplishment and comprehension. It is also believed that the theory of ying-qi traveling inside the meridians and wei-qi outside the meridians is based on the theory that needling sensation has close relationship with wei-qi. PMID:21823301

  13. Treatment of 910 cases of atrophic gastritis with wei you decoction.

    PubMed

    Ma, S; Liang, F; Wang, S; Dong, S; Yin, S; Xue, C; Lin, Z

    1990-09-01

    In treatment of 910 cases of chronic atrophic gastritis with Wei You Decoction, the overall effective rate was 96.9%. The disease was considered as due to deficiency of vital energy with stagnation of cold, and therefore treatment was to invigorate blood circulation. The Wei You Decoction had functions of replenishing vital energy, warming the middle burner, invigorating blood circulation, and resolving stasis, thus reversing the morbid process in the gastric mucosa. It was nontoxic, and the side-effects were minimal. The therapeutic effect was prompt and persistent. No malignant change was observed after taking the drug. PMID:2277511

  14. Payload Specialist Taylor Wang performs repairs on Drop Dynamics Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Payload Specialist Taylor G. Wang performs a repair task on the Drop Dynamics Module (DDM) in the science module aboard the orbiter Challenger. Fellow crew members Dr. William E. Thornton (facing camera) and Don Lind are at the right of the frame.

  15. Reclassification of Deinococcus xibeiensis Wang et al. 2010 as a heterotypic synonym of Deinococcus wulumuqiensis Wang et al. 2010.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sunhee; Farrance, Christine E; Russell, Anne; Yi, Hana

    2015-03-01

    Two species of the genus Deinococcus, namely Deinococcus wulumuqiensis Wang et al. 2010 and Deinococcus xibeiensis Wang et al. 2010, were simultaneously proposed and described in the same publication. However, the identical 16S rRNA gene sequence of the two type strains strongly raised the probability of their relatedness at the species level. Thus, the genomic relatedness of the two species of the genus Deinococcus was investigated here to clarify their taxonomic status. The high (99.9 %) average nucleotide identity (ANI) between the genome sequences of the two type strains suggested that the two species are synonymous. Additional phenotypic data including enzymic activities and substrate-utilization profiles showed no pronounced differences between the type strains of the two species. Data from this study demonstrated that the two taxa constitute a single species. According to Rule 42 of the Bacteriological Code, we propose that D. xibeiensis Wang et al. 2010 should be reclassified as a subjective heterotypic synonym of D. wulumuqiensis Wang et al. 2010. PMID:25574035

  16. Home Education of a Bright Student: A Case Study on Lu Wei

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuexiang, Chen; Hongfang, Zhou

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the life history and home education of Lu Wei, a top student in the 2004 Guangdong Province College entrance examination. The authors argue that the following issues of Lu's home education played an important role in Lu's success: emphasis and nurture of intellectual development in the early years of life,…

  17. Epidemiology of lung cancer in Xuan Wei, China: current progress, issues, and research strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, R.S.; Mumford, J.L.; Harris, D.B.; He, Z.Z.; Jiang, W.Z.; Yang, R.D.

    1988-03-01

    In Xuan Wei, a rural Chinese county of about one million people, females' annual lung cancer mortality is China's highest, and males' is among China's highest. Xuan Wei's very high indoor air pollution levels (sometimes exceeding 20 mg/m3), residentially stable population, relatively uncomplicated lifestyle, and wide geographic variation in lung cancer mortality render it highly amenable to quantitative, interdisciplinary investigation of chemical carcinogens due to indoor air pollution. To date, epidemiologic findings reveal a closer association of lung cancer with the indoor burning of smoky coal (as opposed to smokeless coal or wood) than with tobacco use or occupation. Current aerometric, chemical, and toxicologic findings tend to confirm this association, though the specific carcinogenic constituents of Xuan Wei indoor air pollution have not yet been determined. Chinese and American investigators are conducting interdisciplinary field and laboratory investigations to quantify the lung cancer risk attendant on indoor air pollution relative to other factors, to measure and compare the characteristics of pollution from different Xuan Wei fuels, to determine the relative etiologic importance of pollution composition and concentration, and to develop quantitative relationships between air pollution dose and lung cancer risk.

  18. POLYMORPHISMS IN THE DNA NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR GENES AND LUNG CANCER RISK IN XUAN WEI, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The lung cancer mortality rate in Xuan Wei County, China is among the highest in the country and has been etiologically attributed to exposure to indoor smoky coal emissions that contain very high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Nucleotide excision repair (NE...

  19. Silica-volatile interaction and the geological cause of the Xuan Wei lung cancer epidemic

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Large; Shona Kelly; Baruch Spiro; Linwei Tian; Longyi Shao; Robert Finkelman; Mingquan Zhang; Chris Somerfield; Steve Plint; Yasmin Ali; Yiping Zhou

    2009-12-01

    Parts of Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, China have the highest known lung cancer mortality in nonsmoking women. This high mortality displays a clear spatial relationship to the mines producing coal from the uppermost Permian. Geochemical, petrographic, and grain size analyses were undertaken on a set of coal samples from Xuan Wei. Results demonstrate that the single geochemical property that makes this coal unusual is its high concentration of quartz (13.5 wt %) of which 35-55% occurs as < 10 {mu}m grains. We propose the potential for silica-volatile interaction (PSVI) as a new method for assessing the combined influence of silica and volatile organic matter and use this as a basis for re-evaluating existing ecological data. Published lung cancer mortality values are more strongly correlated with PSVI values for Xuan Wei coal than with volatiles or silica alone and the PSVI values measured are distinct from those of other coals. Finally we propose that the localization of this epidemic to Xuan Wei results from enhanced weathering of the local Emeishan basalts as a consequence of geochemical perturbations at the Permo-Triassic Boundary.

  20. Review of Anhoplocampa Wei (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae), with description of a new species and a new combination.

    PubMed

    Wei, Meicai; Niu, Gengyun

    2011-01-01

    Anhoplocampa is redescribed based on new material. Anhoplocampa bicoloricornissp. n. from China is described. Anhoplocampa yunanensis (Haris & Roller, 1999), comb. n. is transferred from Trichiocampus. A key to species of Anhoplocampa is provided. The differences between Anhoplocampa and Trichiocampus Hartig, 1837, Priophorus Dahlbom, 1835, Hoplocampa Hartig, 1837 and Renonerva Wei & Nie, 1998 are briefly discussed. PMID:22303116

  1. LUNG CANCER AND INDOOR EXPOSURE OF UNVENTED COAL AND WOOD COMBUSTION EMISSIONS IN XUAN WEI, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residents of Xuan Wei County in China have unusually high lung cancer mortality that cannot be attributed to tobacco use or occupational exposure. They are exposed to smoke from unvented, open pit coal or wood fires (often used for cooking and heating). The variation in lung canc...

  2. Strength-based Supervision: Frameworks, Current Practice, and Future Directions A Wu-wei Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jeffrey K.; Chen, Mei-Whei

    1999-01-01

    Discusses a method of counseling supervision similar to the wu-wei practice in Zen and Taoism. Suggests that this strength-based method and an understanding of isomorphy in supervisory relationships are the preferred practice for the supervision of family counselors. States that this model of supervision potentiates the person-of-the-counselor.…

  3. Geochemistry of Heavy Minerals from Wang River, Lampang Province, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM, T.; Lee, I.

    2014-12-01

    Wang River, known as Mae Nam Wang, is located in Northern part of Thailand. It is 440km long and has a catchment area 10,791km2. It originates from Mt. Phi Pannam and flows south-westward to join Ping River at Tak Province. The study area is the upper part of Wang River, which is located in the Wang Nua District, Lampang Province. The upper part of Wang River has been mined for gold placer deposit for a long time by local residents. Previous studies, dealing with gold grain morphology and chemistry of this area, reported several heavy mineral assemblages. In this study, we focused on geochemistry of detrital heavy mineral assemblage occurring within placer gold deposit of the study area to trace the provenances of the detrital heavy minerals and to evaluate the economic value of the detrital heavy mineral deposits on upper part of Wang River. The samples from the study area were prepared by panning and heavy liquid separation for analyses. An Energy Dispersive System (EDS) in Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used for identification and image analysis of the detrital grains. The assemblage of heavy minerals in this area consists of ilmenite, zircon, hematite, magnetite, garnet, and rutile. Ilmenite (>21.5%) is the most common heavy mineral in the prepared heavy mineral sample. The proportion of zircon, hematite, magnetite, garnet, and rutile are approximately 15.0%, 14.7%, 10.5%, 5.8%, and 5.1% respectively. A plot of FeO-TiO2-Fe2O3 ternary diagram shows that most of iron-titanium oxides are plotted near or above the line of ilmenite (FeTiO3) - hematite (Fe2O3) solid solution, which is continuous solid solution above 800℃. It provides useful information about forming condition of the source rock. Furthermore, the combination of the chemical analyses results with detailed geologic setting of the study area can be a tool to trace the provenances of the detrital heavy minerals.

  4. A generic, hierarchical framework for massively parallel Wang Landau sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, Thomas; Li, Ying Wai; Wuest, Thomas; Landau, David P

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a parallel Wang Landau method based on the replica-exchange framework for Monte Carlo simulations. To demonstrate its advantages and general applicability for simulations of com- plex systems, we apply it to the self-assembly process in amphiphilic solutions and to lattice protein adsorption. Without loss of accuracy, the method gives significant speed-up on small architectures like multi-core processors, and should be beneficial for petaflop machines.

  5. Orszag Tang vortex - Kinetic study of a turbulent plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Parashar, T. N.; Servidio, S.; Shay, M. A.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Cassak, P. A.

    2010-03-25

    Kinetic evolution of the Orszag-Tang vortex is studied using collisionless hybrid simulations based on particle in cell ions and fluid electrons. In magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) this configuration leads rapidly to broadband turbulence. An earlier study estimated the dissipation in the system. A comparison of MHD and hybrid simulations showed similar behavior at large scales but substantial differences at small scales. The hybrid magnetic energy spectrum shows a break at the scale where Hall term in the Ohm's law becomes important. The protons heat perpendicularly and most of the energy is dissipated through magnetic interactions. Here, the space time structure of the system is studied using frequency-wavenumber (k-omega) decomposition. No clear resonances appear, ruling out the cyclotron resonances as a likely candidate for the perpendicular heating. The only distinguishable wave modes present, which constitute a small percentage of total energy, are magnetosonic modes.

  6. Beyond Tang: The Hidden Benefits of the Space Program

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, Nadine

    2005-05-25

    Most people are familiar with the advertisement touting Tang as the orange drink that the astronauts took to the Moon. However, many other products have resulted from the space program, as well as discoveries with applications to everyday life. NASA highlights these products and information in an annual publication entitled 'Spinoffs'. Bar coding, medical imaging, suits worn by fire-fighters, smoke detectors, and thermal gloves and boots are all examples of products resulting from technologies developed in support of the space program. Detection of the 750K surface temperature of Venus in the 1960's led to the realization that the greenhouse effect (or 'global warming') is a real physical manifestation and resulted in concerns about our own terrestrial environment. Debate about the possibility of underground life on Mars spurred investigations which found organisms living inside rocks on the Earth. These spinoffs and more will be discussed.

  7. Kunbi-Boshin-Hangam-Tang stimulates nitic oxide production through activation of nuclear factor-kappaB.

    PubMed

    Koo, H N; Jeong, H J; Park, J H; Moon, G; Chae, H J; Kim, H R; Kim, C H; Seo, S B; An, N H; Kim, H M

    2001-05-01

    The objective of the currently study was to determine the effect of Kunbi-Boshin-Hangam-Tang (KBH-Tang) on the production of nitric oxide (NO). Stimulation of RAW 264.7 cells with KBH-Tang after the treatment of recombinant interferon-gamma (rIFN-gamma) resulted in increased NO synthesis. KBH-Tang partially increased NO synthesis by itself. When KBH-Tang was used in combination with rIFN-gamma, there was a marked cooperative induction of NO synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. This increase in NO synthesis was reflected as increased amount of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) protein. NO production was inhibited by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (NGMMA). Furthermore, activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB was increased by KBH-Tang. These results suggest that KBH-Tang may stimulate the NO production through the activation of the NF-kappaB. PMID:11417846

  8. [Pharmacological study on asthma-relieving decoction (dingchuan tang) treating asthma].

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Li, T

    1999-08-01

    Asthma-relieving decoction (Dingchuan tang) is a famous prescription of treating asthma, but its pharmacology has been not reported. This experiment showed that Asthma-relieving decoction (Dingchuan tang) can protect experimental asthma that blending of histamine and acetylcholine caused (P < 0.05 [symbol: see text] P < 0.01), can resist external trachea smooth muscle's contracting that histamine caused (P < 0.01), and can promote secretion of phenol red of rat's respiratory tract (P < 0.01). Results indicated that Asthma-relieving decoction (Dingchuan tang) has significant effect of relieving asthma and expelling phlegm. PMID:12571889

  9. The Application of Survey in ER Wang Temple Restituting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuai, W.; Rong, Z.

    2013-07-01

    Er Wang Temple, in World Heritage Site "Dujiang Weirs and Qingchengshan Mountai", was severely destroyed in Wenchuan earthquake of May 2008. There are several problems at different level in every building, such as structural distortion, foundation displacement, wall fracture, roof damage, etc. The stage was completely collapsed in the earthquake. Tableland the stage situated had a huge crack and slope collapse. This article is for the stage renovation. The survey of damage in earthquake is the basis of Er Wang Temple restituting. Survey including field survey after the earthquake and the measurement and investigation for the remained construction member of the main wood structure. For field survey, the basis of pillars which had not have significantly affects in earthquake could be seem as the reference points for measurement. The investigation of remained main wood construction member, especially the size of the key structures and site and manufacture method of the joints, is the important basis for recovery stage. Our team did our utmost to restore the original appearance of stage in design, materials and craft by various tools, which include measured drawings in different times, old images collection, fine measuring by 3D laser scan, measurement of leftover pieces, logical inference.

  10. The full-scale process and design changes for elimination of insulation edge separations and voids in tang flap area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danforth, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    Qualification of the full-scale process and design changes for elimination of redesigned solid rocket motor tang nitrile butadiene rubber insulation edge separations and voids was performed from 24 March to 3 December 1990. The objectives of this test were: to qualify design and process changes on flight hardware using a tie ply between the redesigned solid rocket motor steel case and the nitrile butadiene rubber insulation over the tang capture features; to qualify the use of methyl ethyl ketone in the tang flap region to reduce voids; and to determine if holes in the separator film reduce voids in the tang flap region. The tie ply is intended to aid insulation flow during the insulation cure process, and thus reduce or eliminate edge unbonds. Methyl ethyl ketone is intended to reduce voids in the tang flap area by providing better tacking characteristics. The perforated film was intended to provide possible vertical breathe paths to reduce voids in the tang area. Tang tie ply testing consisted of 270 deg of the tang circumference using a new layup method and 90 deg of the tang circumference using the current layup methods. Tie ply process success was defined as a reduction of insulation unbonds. Lack of any insulation edge unbonds on the tang area where the new process was used, and the presence of 17 unbonds with the current process, proves the test to be a success. Successful completion of this test has qualified the new processes.

  11. The Neuroprotective Effect of Gugijihwang-Tang on Trimethyltin-Induced Memory Dysfunction in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Eun-Yee; Ahn, Chang Joon; Cho, Seung-Hun; Bae, Hyunsu; Shim, Insop

    2013-01-01

    Gugijihwang-Tang (the herbal formula PM012), a decoction consisting of several herbs including Rehmanniae Radix Preparata, has been widely used as herbal treatment for dementia. In order to investigate the neuroprotective action of this prescription, we examined the effect of Gugijihwang-Tang on learning and memory using the Morris water maze and [F-18]FDG micro PET neuroimaging technique. After injection of trimethyltin (TMT, 8.0 mg/kg, i.p.), which is a potent toxicant that selectively kills cells in the central nervous system, rats were administered Gugijihwang-Tang (100 mg/kg, p.o.) daily for two weeks, followed by the Morris water maze tasks and [F-18]FDG micro PET neuroimaging. In Gugijihwang-Tang administered TMT-treated rats, they showed improved learning and memory abilities in water maze tasks and glucose metabolism, suggesting that Gugijihwang-Tang plays effectively positive role in the improvement of brain function including learning and memory after TMT-induced neurodegeneration. Taken together, our results suggested that the Gugijihwang-Tang should be useful for developing strategies protecting nervous system and improving brain function. PMID:23861706

  12. CORRIGENDUM: Prospects for a new boson W+/-1 in the minimal Higgsless model at the LHC Prospects for a new boson W+/-1 in the minimal Higgsless model at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming-Shui; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; He, Hong-Jian; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Li, Zu-Hao; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiang-Wei; Qi, Yong-Hui; Tang, Zhi-Cheng; Tao, Jun-Quan; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xian-You; Wang, Jian-Xiong; Xiao, Hong; Yang, Min; Zang, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Zhen-Xia

    2009-12-01

    The author list originally given in the above article (Ming-Shui Chen, Jian-Guo Bian, Guo-Ming Chen, Hong-Jian He, Chun-Hua Jiang, Zu-Hao Li, Song Liang, Xiang-Wei Meng, Yong-Hui Qi, Zhi-Cheng Tang, Jun-Quan Tao, Zheng Wang, Jian Wang, Jian Wang, Xian-You Wang, Jian-Xiong Wang, Hong Xiao, Min Yang, Jing-Jing Zang, Bin Zhang, Zhen Zhang and Zhen- Xia Zhang) is incorrect. The correct author list is: Ming-Shui Chen, Jian-Guo Bian, Guo-Ming Chen, Chun-Hua Jiang, Zu-Hao Li, Song Liang, Xiang-Wei Meng, Zhi-Cheng Tang, Jun-Quan Tao, Zheng Wang, Jian Wang, Jian Wang, Xian-You Wang, Jian-Xiong Wang, Hong Xiao, Min Yang, Jing-Jing Zang, Bin Zhang, Zhen Zhang and Zhen-Xia Zhang. Hong-Jian He and Yong-Hui Qi did not take part in the writing of this text and do not bear any responsibility for its contents. Also, reference [4] in the paper should be corrected to: [4] Hong-Jian He et al 2008 Phys. Rev. D 78 031701(R)

  13. Ke Wang, a Chinese television soap opera with a message.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Singhal, A

    1992-01-01

    The Chinese soap opera, Ke Wang, was created by Li Xiaoming between August 1989 and June 1990 and produced at a cost of US$4650 per episode. The characters were drawn from everyday ordinary Chinese life: a traditional and open-minded and caring woman, a typical mother who works hard and loves her children, a highly educated upwardly mobile man who divorces his wife, a professor criticized during the Cultural Revolution, a doctor prejudiced against ordinary people, a kind honest man who marries the divorcee, a friend of the divorcee, a man who is optimistic in spite of bad experiences during the Cultural Revolution, and an excellent medical doctor who also resolves conflicts. The program was very popular, even among Communists, because of its value-based content, the real-life nature of the show, the change from highly restricted programming, the elaborate and supportive media coverage, and dialogue which closely matches audience preferences. The show has been aired by over 100 stations to date and has reached a total estimated audience of 550 million. The sale of television sets has increased since the show's appearance. The script reflects the conflicts between traditional and modern Chinese values. Pro-social values and behaviors are learned from the role models depicted; examples are given of immediate social impact. Ke Wang was a by-product of the Beijing Television Arts Center's interest in designing television programs that are relevant to the lives of ordinary people. The 60-minute scripts dealt with issues such as the status of women, social morality, family harmony, class conflict, responsible parenthood, maintenance of traditional culture, volunteerism, child development, and coping with physical disability. The Chinese government hailed Ke Wang as model television and awarded US$20,000 in prize money to the producers. The Chinese government is planning to produce other entertainment-education soap operas, which raises the problem of blatant, political propaganda. In 1989, after the Tinanmen Square events, the controversial He Shang, which attacked cultural symbols, was denounced and banned. PMID:12286006

  14. Multiple Walkers in the Wang-Landau Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G

    2005-12-28

    The mean cost for converging an estimated density of states using the Wang-Landau algorithm is measured for the Ising and Heisenberg models. The cost increases in a power-law fashion with the number of spins, with an exponent near 3 for one-dimensional models, and closer to 2.4 for two-dimensional models. The effect of multiple, simultaneous walkers on the cost is also measured. For the one-dimensional Ising model the cost can increase with the number of walkers for large systems. For both the Ising and Heisenberg models in two-dimensions, no adverse impact on the cost is observed. Thus multiple walkers is a strategy that should scale well in a parallel computing environment for many models of magnetic materials.

  15. Wang-Landau Monte Carlo formalism applied to ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin-Omran, S.; Kornev, Igor A.; Bellaiche, L.

    2016-01-01

    The Wang-Landau Monte Carlo algorithm is implemented within an effective Hamiltonian approach and applied to BaTiO3 bulk. The density of states obtained by this approach allows a highly accurate and straightforward calculation of various thermodynamic properties, including phase transition temperatures, as well as polarization, dielectric susceptibility, specific heat, and electrocaloric coefficient at any temperature. This approach yields rather smooth data even near phase transitions and provides direct access to entropy and free energy, which allow us to compute properties that are typically unaccessible by atomistic simulations. Examples of such latter properties are the nature (i.e., first order versus second order) of the phase transitions for different supercell sizes and the thermodynamic limit of the Curie temperature and latent heat.

  16. Wang-Landau simulation of Gō model molecules.

    PubMed

    Böker, Arne; Paul, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Gō-like models are one of the oldest protein modeling concepts in computational physics and have proven their value over and over for forty years. The essence of a Gō model is to define a native contact matrix for a well-defined low-energy polymer configuration, e.g., the native state in the case of proteins or peptides. Many different potential shapes and many different cut-off distances in the definition of this native contact matrix have been proposed and applied. We investigate here the physical consequences of the choice for this cut-off distance in the Gō models derived for a square-well tangent sphere homopolymer chain. For this purpose we are performing flat-histogram Monte Carlo simulations of Wang-Landau type, obtaining the thermodynamic and structural properties of such models over the complete temperature range. Differences and similarities with Gō models for proteins and peptides are discussed. PMID:26810395

  17. Scalable replica-exchange framework for Wang Landau sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, Thomas; Li, Ying Wai; Wuest, Thomas; Landau, David P

    2014-01-01

    We investigate a generic, parallel replica-exchange framework for Monte Carlo simulations based on the Wang Landau method. To demonstrate its advantages and general applicability for massively parallel simulations of complex systems, we apply it to lattice spin models, the self-assembly process in amphiphilic solutions, and the adsorption of molecules on surfaces. While of general, current interest, the latter phenomena are challenging to study computationally because of multiple structural transitions occurring over a broad temperature range. We show how the parallel framework facilitates simulations of such processes and, without any loss of accuracy or precision, gives a significant speedup and allows for the study of much larger systems and much wider temperature ranges than possible with single-walker methods.

  18. Lung cancer and indoor exposure of unvented coal and wood combustion emissions in Xuan Wei, china

    SciTech Connect

    Mumford, J.L.; Chapman, R.S.; Harris, D.B.; He, X.Z.; Cao, S.R.

    1987-05-01

    Residents of Xuan Wei County in China have unusually high lung cancer mortality that cannot be attributed to tobacco use or occupational exposure. They are exposed to smoke from unvented, open pit coal or wood fires (often used for cooking and heating). The variation in lung cancer rates among communes within the county suggests that indoor combustion of smoky coal may be the prime determinant of lung cancer. To characterize the air in Xuan Wei homes, samples of the air particles and semivolatile organics were collected from homes located in communes with different lung-cancer rates. Samples collected in the commune in which the lung-cancer rate is high and smoky coal is the predominant fuel-contained high concentrations of submicron particles with high organic content; organic extracts of these samples were mutagenic. Samples from homes in a wood-burning commune, which has a low lung-cancer rate, consisted mostly of larger particles of lower organic content and mutagenicity. The smoky coal sample was also a more potent skin-tumor initiator compared to the wood or smokeless coal sample and was a mouse skin carcinogen.

  19. Buyanghuanwu Tang therapy for neonatal rats with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiyao; Min, Yue; Gu, Weiwang; Wang, Yujue; Tian, Yuguang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a clinical syndrome manifested by neurological symptoms in the first days of life in term infants. Purpose: To investigate the therapy effect of Buyanghuanwu Tang (BYHWT), a decoction with 7 herbal ingredients, on neonatal rats with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and its mechanism. Methods: 50 3-week male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into normal control group, model group, BYHWT 1d group, BYHWT 3d group and BYHWT 7d group, 10 rats in each group. The HIE model of was established in later 4 groups. The later 3 groups were treated with BYHWT for 1, 3 and 7 days, respectively, and the normal control group and model group were treated with PBS. The Morris water maze test and dynamic 18F-FDG-PET/CT imaging were performed. The changes of hippocampal tissue observed by histopathologic examination, and the expressions of JNK1/JNK2 and TNF-α protein were observed western blotting. Results: Compared with model group, the impaired performance on distance and latency parameters was mitigated in BYHWT 1d group, BYHWT 3d group and BYHWT 7d group (P < 0.01), the FDG uptake was decreased in BYHWT 3d group and BYHWT 7d group, the apoptotic cells and inflammatory cells were significantly decreased in BYHWT 3d group and BYHWT 7d group, and the expressions of JNK1/JNK2 and TNF-α protein were significantly decreased in BYHWT 7d group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: BYHWT can delay the HIE onset and preserve the motor function, primarily by regulating inflammation, apoptosis and inhibition by mediating JNK signaling. PMID:26770451

  20. Structural behavior of the space shuttle SRM tang-clevis joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, William H.; Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Stockwell, Alan E.

    1988-01-01

    The space shuttle Challenger accident investigation focused on the failure of a tang-clevis joint on the right solid rocket motor. The existence of relative motion between the inner arm of the clevis and the O-ring sealing surface on the tang has been identified as a potential contributor to this failure. This motion can cause the O-rings to become unseated and therefore lose their sealing capability. Finite element structural analyses have been performed to predict both deflections and stresses in the joint under the primary, pressure loading condition. These analyses have demonstrated the difficulty of accurately predicting the structural behavior of the tang-clevis joint. Stresses in the vicinity of the connecting pins, obtained from elastic analyses, considerably exceed the material yield allowables indicating that inelastic analyses are probably necessary. Two modifications have been proposed to control the relative motion between the inner clevis arm and the tang at the O-ring sealing surface. One modification, referred to as the capture feature, uses additional material on the inside of the tang to restrict motion of the inner clevis arm. The other modification uses external stiffening rings above and below the joint to control the local bending in the shell near the joint. Both of these modifications are shown to be effective in controlling the relative motion in the joint.

  1. Structural behavior of the space shuttle SRM Tang-Clevis joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, W. H.; Knight, N. F., Jr.; Stockwell, A. E.

    1986-01-01

    The space shuttle Challenger accident investigation focused on the failure of a tang-clevis joint on the right solid rocket motor. The existence of relative motion between the inner arm of the clevis and the O-ring sealing surface on the tang has been identified as a potential contributor to this failure. This motion can cause the O-rings to become unseated and therefore lose their sealing capability. Finite element structural analyses have been performed to predict both deflections and stresses in the joint under the primary, pressure loading condition. These analyses have demonstrated the difficulty of accurately predicting the structural behavior of the tang-clevis joint. Stresses in the vicinity of the connecting pins, obtained from elastic analyses, considerably exceed the material yield allowables indicating that inelastic analyses are probably necessary. Two modifications have been proposed to control the relative motion between the inner clevis arm and the tang at the O-ring sealing surface. One modification, referred to as the capture feature, uses additional material on the inside of the tang to restrict motion of the inner clevis arm. The other modification uses external stiffening rings above and below the joint to control the local bending in the shell near the joint. Both of these modifications are shown to be effective in controlling the relative motion in the joint.

  2. Phonology and Reading: A Response to Wang, Trezek, Luckner, and Paul

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Thomas E.; Clark, M. Diane; del Giudice, Alex; Koo, Daniel; Lieberman, Amy; Mayberry, Rachel; Millerd, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Four critical responses to an article, "The Role of Phonology and Phonologically Related Skills in Reading Instruction for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing" (Wang, Trezek, Luckner, & Paul, 2008), are presented. Issue is taken with the conclusions of the article by Wang and colleagues regarding the "necessary" condition of phonological…

  3. Wang Qingren and the 19th century Chinese doctrine of the bloodless heart.

    PubMed

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Shokouhi, Ghaffar; Loukas, Marios

    2010-11-19

    Wang Qingren, a Chinese physician, made interesting observations regarding the cardiovascular system approximately 200 years ago. His textbook of anatomy was based on cadaveric dissections only and this resulted in many of his observations being erroneous. Nevertheless, Wang made steps forward in reversing past misconceptions based on Chinese mysticism. PMID:19910063

  4. [Study on Wang Ruzun's hand - written copy of Dongyi Bogam (Precious mirror of oriental medicine)].

    PubMed

    Yan, Guiyin; Feng, Jing

    2002-07-01

    In the beginning of the 16th century, Hu Jung of the Lee dynasty of Korea collected the chief medical books written before the mid - Ming dynasty of China and some ancient Korean medical books to compile the Dongyi Bogam (Precious Mirror of Oriental Medicine). This marks the formation of a new stage in Korean medicine with unique theoretical system. After this great book was transmitted to China, the first man who tried to blockprint it was a folk doctor, Wang Ruzun. This article briefly introduces Wang's life, gives a general picture of Wang's hand - written copy in 1747, by quoting Chai Chaosheng's preface and Wang Ruzun's postscript in the book. It is firmly believed that Wang's hand - written copy is of great significance. The said copy is collected in our library. PMID:12639447

  5. Applying the Wang-Landau algorithm to lattice gauge theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bringoltz, Barak; Sharpe, Stephen R.

    2008-10-01

    We implement the Wang-Landau algorithm in the context of SU(N) lattice gauge theories. We study the quenched, reduced version of the lattice theory and calculate its density of states for N=20, 30, 40, 50. We introduce a variant of the original algorithm in which the weight function used in the update does not asymptote to a fixed function, but rather continues to have small fluctuations that enhance tunneling. We formulate a method to evaluate the errors in the density of states, and use the result to calculate the dependence of the average action density and the specific heat on the 't Hooft coupling {lambda}. This allows us to locate the coupling {lambda}{sub t} at which a strongly first-order transition occurs in the system. For N=20 and 30 we compare our results with those obtained using Ferrenberg-Swendsen multihistogram reweighting and find agreement with errors of 0.2% or less. Extrapolating our results to N={infinity}, we find ({lambda}{sub t}){sup -1}=0.3148(2). We remark on the significance of this result for the validity of quenched large-N reduction of SU(N) lattice gauge theories.

  6. [Mr. Wang Le-ting: a master of acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Niu, Xue-Song; Wang, Fan

    2012-11-01

    Mr. WANG Le-ting attaches great importance to accurate differentiation of syndromes, strict selection of acupoints, technique and direction of needle insertion, clear reinforcing and reducing methods after the appearance of needling sensations, proper opportunities of manipulations as well as needle withdrawal techniques, and reasonable application of acupuncture and moxibustion respectively. The above mentioned principles are known as his "5 agreements". He emphasizes that the selection of acupoints should be "in accordance with both the meridians and the accurate location of the points", and "needling sensation is necessary for each point". He holds that the back-shu points of the five-zang organs and Geshu (BL 17) can be adopted for patient with deficiency of qi, blood, yin and yang. In the aspect of acupoint theory, he insists the accurate location of Xuanzhong (GB 39). He also adjusts the locations of Huatuo Jiaji (EX-B 2) points, and finds the location of the new Dubi (ST 35). For easier applications, he divides the functions of acupoints into different schools of qi, blood, cold, heat, deficiency, excess, wind and dampness. And 41 combinations of acupoints are also invented as innovation. He is always strict to his students, instructing and influencing them by his own words and deeds. He is always conscientious and meticulous, which benefit immensely his followers, and remains a lot of precious experiences for the later generations. PMID:23214000

  7. The Structure of the Kac-Wang-Yan Algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linshaw, Andrew R.

    2015-11-01

    The Lie algebra D of regular differential operators on the circle has a universal central extension {hat{D}} . The invariant subalgebra {hat{D}^+} under an involution preserving the principal gradation was introduced by Kac, Wang, and Yan. The vacuum {hat{D}^+} -module with central charge {c in C} , and its irreducible quotient {V}_c, possess vertex algebra structures, and {V}_c has a nontrivial structure if and only if c in 1/2 Z. We show that for each integer {n > 0} , V_{n/2} and V_{-n} are W -algebras of types W(2, 4,dots,2n) and W(2, 4,dots, 2n^2 + 4n), respectively. These results are formal consequences of Weyl's first and second fundamental theorems of invariant theory for the orthogonal group {O(n)} and the symplectic group {Sp(2n)} , respectively. Based on Sergeev's theorems on the invariant theory of {Osp(1, 2n)} we conjecture that V_{-n+1/2} is of type W(2, 4,dots, 4n^2 + 8n + 2), and we prove this for {n = 1} . As an application, we show that invariant subalgebras of {βγ} -systems and free fermion algebras under arbitrary reductive group actions are strongly finitely generated.

  8. [Medical application of the art of supplication before the Tang dynasty].

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuan; Ding, Jieyun; Zhang, Ruqing

    2015-05-01

    Ample materials on diseases treated with supplication were seen on excavated texts, medical works from ancient time, and religious works before the Tang dynasty (including Tang dynasty). Since the breaking up of witchcraft from medicine, there are still supplication applied in the treatment and prevention of diseases, including those of internal medicine, external medicine, women's and children's diseases, disease of the sense organs, and infections. There are dual reasons for this phenomena, one being the diseases caused by spirit and ghostss; and the other being certain effectiveness of this art on some diseases not cured by other regular treatments, hence, its acceptance by secular people. PMID:26420523

  9. Generalizing Swendsen-Wang to sampling arbitrary posterior probabilities.

    PubMed

    Barbu, Adrian; Zhu, Song-Chun

    2005-08-01

    Many vision tasks can be formulated as graph partition problems that minimize energy functions. For such problems, the Gibbs sampler provides a general solution but is very slow, while other methods, such as Ncut and graph cuts are computationally effective but only work for specific energy forms and are not generally applicable. In this paper, we present a new inference algorithm that generalizes the Swendsen-Wang method to arbitrary probabilities defined on graph partitions. We begin by computing graph edge weights, based on local image features. Then, the algorithm iterates two steps. 1) Graph clustering: It forms connected components by cutting the edges probabilistically based on their weights. 2) Graph relabeling: It selects one connected component and flips probabilistically, the coloring of all vertices in the component simultaneously. Thus, it realizes the split, merge, and regrouping of a "chunk" of the graph, in contrast to Gibbs sampler that flips a single vertex. We prove that this algorithm simulates ergodic and reversible Markov chain jumps in the space of graph partitions and is applicable to arbitrary posterior probabilities or energy functions defined on graphs. We demonstrate the algorithm on two typical problems in computer vision--image segmentation and stereo vision. Experimentally, we show that it is 100-400 times faster in CPU time than the classical Gibbs sampler and 20-40 times faster then the DDMCMC segmentation algorithm. For stereo, we compare performance with graph cuts and belief propagation. We also show that our algorithm can automatically infer generative models and obtain satisfactory results (better than the graphic cuts or belief propagation) in the same amount of time. PMID:16119263

  10. Chemical characterization of indoor air of homes from communes in Xuan Wei, China, with high lung cancer mortality rates

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a rural county, Xuan Wei, China, the lung cancer mortality rate is among China's highest, especially in women. This mortality rate is more associated with indoor air burning of smoky coal, as opposed to smokeless coal or wood, for cooking and heating under unvented conditions....

  11. INDOOR AIR EXPOSURE TO COAL AND WOOD COMBUSTION EMISSIONS IN XUAN WEI, CHINA, WITH A HIGH LUNG CANCER RATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residents of Xuan Wei County in China have unusually high lung cancer mortality that cannot be attributed to tobacco use or occupational exposure. hey are exposed to smoke from unvented, open pit coal or wood fires (often used for cooking and heating). The variation in lung cance...

  12. MUTAGENICITY, CARCINOGENICITY, AND HUMAN CANCER RISK FROM INDOOR EXPOSURE TO COAL AND WOOD COMBUSTION IN XUAN WEI, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The residents in Xuan Wei County, China, have been exposed to high levels of combustion emissions from smoky and smokeless coal and wood combustion under unvented conditions in homes. n unusually high lung cancer mortality rate that can not be attributed to tobacco smoke or occup...

  13. Phonology and reading: a response to Wang, Trezek, Luckner, and Paul.

    PubMed

    Allen, Thomas E; Clark, M Diane; del Giudice, Alex; Koo, Daniel; Lieberman, Amy; Mayberry, Rachel; Miller, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Four critical responses to an article, "The Role of Phonology and Phonologically Related Skills in Reading Instruction for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing" (Wang, Trezek, Luckner, & Paul, 2008), are presented. Issue is taken with the conclusions of the article by Wang and colleagues regarding the "necessary" condition of phonological awareness for the development of reading skills among deaf readers. Research findings (not cited by Wang and colleagues) are pointed out that reveal weak correlations between phonemic awareness and reading comprehension, and stronger correlations between other variables such as overall language skill and early exposure to a visual language. PMID:20066916

  14. Undercooling, Rapid Solidification, and Relations to Processing in Low Earth Orbit (A Review of the Works of Bingbo Wei)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Henry C., III

    1999-01-01

    This is a survey of the published works of Prof. Bingbo Wei of the Department of Applied Physics at Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xian P.R. China. Transformations among solid - liquid - and vapor are fundamental to the foundations of life and culture on Earth. The development and understanding of materials has lead the evolution and advancement of the human race since antiquity. Materials and fluids research is continuing today, with us standing on the shoulders of those that have gone before us. Technological and scientific breakthroughs continue due to studies of greater and greater complexity, that include for example, research done at high pressures, in high magnetic fields, at temperatures near absolute zero, and in the low gravity environment of low Earth orbit. Of particular technological importance is the liquid to solid transformation of metals and alloys. Solidification processing is generally the most important factor in the final properties of objects made of metal; and undercooling is the fundamental driving force for all solidification. The interest and resources dedicated to the study of solidification and undercooling are great and World wide. For many years B. Wei and his coworkers have been studying undercooling and rapid solidification and have amassed a significant body of published research in this important field, contributing to the leading edge of the state-of-the-art. It is the goal of this memorandum to provide a review of the research of B. Wei et al.; publications in Chinese are included in the reference list but are not discussed. The bulk of Wei's work has been in the area of undercooling and rapid solidification [1-11, 13-16, 24-36] with papers dating back to 1989, the same year he earned his Ph.D. Below, discussions of Wei's undercooling and rapid solidification research have been grouped together mostly on the basis of alloy type, such as eutectic, intermetallic, or monotectic.

  15. The alteration of components in the fermented Hwangryunhaedok-tang and its neuroprotective activity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hye Jin; Weon, Jin Bae; Lee, Bohyoung; Ma, Choong Je

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hwangryunhaedok-tang is a traditional herbal prescription that has sedative activity, hypotensive and anti-bacterial effects. Objective: In this study, we investigated the alteration of contents of components in Hwangryunhaedok-tang, antioxidant activity and neuroprotective activity by fermentation with Lactobacillus acidophilus KFRI 128. Materials and Methods: Contents of three marker compounds (geniposide, berberine and palmatine) and unknown compounds in the Hwangryunhaedok-tang (HR) and the fermented Hwangryunhaedok-tang (FHR) were measured and compared using the established high-performance liqued chromatograph coupled with a photodiode (HPLC-DAD) method. The antioxidant activity of HR and FHR were determined by DPPH free radical and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging assay. Also, the neuroprotective activities of HR and FHR against glutamate-induced oxidative stress in a mouse hippocampal cell line (HT22) were evaluated by MTT assay. Results: The contents of geniposide and palmatine were decreased but the content of berberine was increased in the FHR. And the contents of unknown compounds (1), (2), (3), (4) and (5) in the HR were altered by fermentation. Electron donating activity (EDA, %) value of FHR was higher than HR for DPPH radical scavenging activity and H2O2 scavenging activity, respectively. In the MTT assay, FHR showed more potent neuroprotective activity than HR by 513.90%. Conclusion: The FHR using microorganism could convert compounds in HR and enhance the antioxidant and neuroprotective activity. PMID:21969791

  16. Rap and Resistance: A Social Movement of the Wu-Tang Clan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chasteen, Amy L.; Shriver, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Examines specific collective identity and political expression of the rap group the Wu-Tang Clan. Reveals a multi-layered political strategy that has been conscientiously designed and implemented to instigate a social movement. Prioritizes the voices of marginalized Black peoples and provides raw narratives about oppression. (MMU)

  17. The "Three Doctrines Discussions" of Tang China: Religious Debate as a Rhetorical Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Mary M.

    1994-01-01

    Reports on the origins and importance of the "Three Doctrines Discussions" of the Chinese Tang dynasty (618-960). Shows how their evolution and decline parallel shifts in the balance of political power. Argues that these debates functioned rhetorically to enhance and legitimate the emperor's political power. (HB)

  18. Three-dimensional reconstruction method of Tang Dynasty building based on point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yinghui; Zhang, Huanhuan; Zhao, Yanni; Hao, Wen; Ning, Xiaojuan; Shi, Zhenghao; Zhao, Minghua

    2015-12-01

    We present a method to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3-D) Tang Dynasty building model from raw point clouds. Different from previous building modeling techniques, our method is developed for the Tang Dynasty building which does not exhibit planar primitives, facades, and repetitive structural elements as residential low- or high-rise buildings. The proposed method utilizes the structural property of the Tang Dynasty building to process the original point clouds. First, the raw point clouds are sliced into many parallel layers to generate a top-bottom hierarchical structure, and each layer is resampled to achieve a subset purification of 3-D point clouds. In addition, a series of different building components of the building are recognized by clustering these purifications of 3-D point clouds. In particular, we get the tree-structured topology of these different building components during slicing and clustering. Second, different solutions are explored to reconstruct its 3-D model for different building components. The overall model of building can be gotten based on the building components and tree-structured topology. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is more efficient for generating a high realistic 3-D model of the Tang Dynasty building.

  19. Effects of jen-sheng-yang-yung-tang on cellular immunocompetence of gamma-irradiated mice.

    PubMed

    Hsu, H Y; Hau, D M; Lin, C C

    1993-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the therapeutic effects of Jen-Sheng-Yang-Yung-Tang on mice irradiated by gamma-ray. A total of 160 male ICR strain mice, 6-7 weeks of age, were chosen to receive different treatment of radiation and Jen-Sheng-Yang-Yung-Tang. After the treatments, six to eight mice from each group were sacrificed on days 1, 5, 12, 19, 26 and 33. The body and splenic weights of mice by different treatments were measured and the splenic cells were separated under aseptic conditions, thereafter. The changes of cellular immunocompetence in mice following treatments were measured by 3H-thymidine incorporation in each experimental mouse. The results revealed that 4 Gy of gamma-ray irradiation inhibited the increases of body and splenic weights and exerted an obvious inhibitory effect on the blastogenic responses of the splenic lymphoid cells after being stimulated by mitogens such as PHA, Con A, PWM and LPS. Jen-Sheng-Yang-Yung-Tang administration seemed to help the recovery of cellular immunocompetence in the gamma-ray irradiated mice. Among these treatments, Jen-Sheng-Yang-Yung-Tang administered with the concentration of 20 mg/20 g body weight after irradiation enhanced the recovery of radiation damages and had the highest efficacy of any other kinds of treatments. PMID:8135172

  20. A new paradigm for petascale Monte Carlo simulation: Replica exchange Wang Landau sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ying Wai; Vogel, Thomas; Wuest, Thomas; Landau, David P

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a generic, parallel Wang Landau method that is naturally suited to implementation on massively parallel, petaflop supercomputers. The approach introduces a replica-exchange framework in which densities of states for overlapping sub-windows in energy space are determined iteratively by traditional Wang Landau sampling. The advantages and general applicability of the method are demonstrated for several distinct systems that possess discrete or continuous degrees of freedom, including those with complex free energy landscapes and topological constraints.

  1. Sagunja-Tang Improves Lipid Related Disease in a Postmenopausal Rat Model and HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Go, Hiroe; Ryuk, Jin Ah; Lee, Hye Won; Park, In Sil; Kil, Ki-Jung; Park, Sunmin; Kim, Dong Il; Ko, Byoung Seob

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of Sagunja-tang on the lipid related disease in a rat model of menopausal hyperlipidemia and lipid accumulation in methyl-β-cyclodextrin-induced HepG2 cells. In in vivo study using menopausal hyperlipidemia rats, Sagunja-tang reduced retroperitoneal and perirenal fat, serum lipids, atherogenic index, cardiac risk factor, media thickness, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis score, when compared to menopausal hyperlipidemia control rats. In HepG2 cells, Sagunja-tang significantly decreased the lipid accumulation, total cholesterol levels, and low-density/very-low-density lipoprotein levels. Moreover, Sagunja-tang reversed the methyl-β-cyclodextrin-induced decrease in the protein levels of critical molecule involved in cholesterol synthesis, sterol regulatory element binding protein-2, and low-density lipoprotein receptor and inhibited protein levels of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase as well as activity. Phosphorylation level of AMP-activated protein kinase was stimulated by Sagunja-tang. These results suggest that Sagunja-tang has effect on inhibiting hepatic lipid accumulation through regulation of cholesterol synthesis and AMPK activity in vitro. These observations support the idea that Sagunja-tang is bioavailable both in vivo and in vitro and could be developed as a preventive and therapeutic agent of hyperlipidemia in postmenopausal females. PMID:25977697

  2. Sagunja-Tang Improves Lipid Related Disease in a Postmenopausal Rat Model and HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Go, Hiroe; Ryuk, Jin Ah; Lee, Hye Won; Park, In Sil; Kil, Ki-Jung; Park, Sunmin; Kim, Dong il; Ko, Byoung Seob

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of Sagunja-tang on the lipid related disease in a rat model of menopausal hyperlipidemia and lipid accumulation in methyl-β-cyclodextrin-induced HepG2 cells. In in vivo study using menopausal hyperlipidemia rats, Sagunja-tang reduced retroperitoneal and perirenal fat, serum lipids, atherogenic index, cardiac risk factor, media thickness, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis score, when compared to menopausal hyperlipidemia control rats. In HepG2 cells, Sagunja-tang significantly decreased the lipid accumulation, total cholesterol levels, and low-density/very-low-density lipoprotein levels. Moreover, Sagunja-tang reversed the methyl-β-cyclodextrin-induced decrease in the protein levels of critical molecule involved in cholesterol synthesis, sterol regulatory element binding protein-2, and low-density lipoprotein receptor and inhibited protein levels of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase as well as activity. Phosphorylation level of AMP-activated protein kinase was stimulated by Sagunja-tang. These results suggest that Sagunja-tang has effect on inhibiting hepatic lipid accumulation through regulation of cholesterol synthesis and AMPK activity in vitro. These observations support the idea that Sagunja-tang is bioavailable both in vivo and in vitro and could be developed as a preventive and therapeutic agent of hyperlipidemia in postmenopausal females. PMID:25977697

  3. Heavy metal pollution and health risk assessment in the Wei River in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuefu; Duan, Jinming; Wang, Lei; Li, Wei; Guan, Jianling; Beecham, Simon; Mulcahy, Dennis

    2015-03-01

    From data collected monthly at 26 monitoring cross sections in the Wei River in the Shaanxi Region of China during the period 2008-2012, the temporal pollution characteristics of heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Cr(VI), Pb, and As) were analyzed based on a heavy metal pollution index (HPI). The monthly HPI values of the five heavy metals in the river fluctuated greatly in 2008 and then declined gradually with time. This general trend of reduction in HPI appears not to have a seasonal variation and most likely resulted from the continued improvement in heavy metal pollution control strategies implemented by local environmental agencies combined with a significant improvement in wastewater treatment capacities. Among the five heavy metals, Cd and Pb were below 0.1 and 3 μg L(-1), respectively, at all the sampling points in the studied areas in the year 2012. The detection rates of As, Hg, and Cr(VI) were in the order of Hg > Cr(VI) > As. Hg, Cr(VI), and As exceeded, in a month of the dry season in 2012, the standard limits for category III surface waters according to the China Environment Quality Standards for Surface Water (CEQSSW). Based on the assessment using the HPI method, the pollution status of these heavy metals in water of the Wei River in the Shaanxi Region was generally at an acceptable level, but exhibited distinctive characteristics between the main stream river and tributaries. Most of the tributaries were more seriously polluted than the main river. A health risk assessment was conducted based on the Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) method recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Apart from As, the health risk for the five heavy metals in the region were at acceptable levels for drinking water sources (hazard quotient (HQ) < 1, carcinogenic risk (CR) ranged from 10(-4)-10(-6)) according to the Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS), USEPA. Arsenic was identified as the most important pollutant of concern among the five heavy metals; both its values of the HQ and CR indicated potentially adverse health risks for the local population. PMID:25673268

  4. Modified Jiu Wei Qiang Huo decoction improves dysfunctional metabolomics in influenza A pneumonia-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lijuan; Fan, Jiajun; Li, Yubin; Shi, Xunlong; Ju, Dianwen; Yan, Qianlin; Yan, Xin; Han, Lei; Zhu, Haiyan

    2014-04-01

    In order to study the effective mechanism of a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), modified Jiu Wei Qiang Huo decoction (MJWQH), against H1N1-induced pneumonia in mice, we chose a holistic approach. A reverse-phase liquid chromatography with quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS) was developed to determine metabolomic biomarkers in mouse serum for the MJWQH effects. Thirteen biomarkers of H1N1-induced pneumonia in mice serum were identified, which comprised l-valine, lauroylcarnitine, palmitoyl-l-carnitine, l-ornithine, uric acid, taurine, O-succinyl-l-homoserine, l-leucine, l-phenylalanine, PGF2α, 20-ethyl-PGE2, arachidonic acid, and glycerophospho-N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine. Among them, metabolites of amino acids, fatty acids and arachidonic acid had the most relevant changes in mice with H1N1-induced pneumonia. MJWQH effectively improved weight loss, lung index, biomarkers and inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin E2 and phospholipase A2 in the infected mice. Importantly, MJWQH reversed the elevated biomarkers to the control levels from the infection, which provided a systematic view and a theoretical basis for its prevention or treatment. The results suggest that the protective effect of MJWQH against H1N1-induced pneumonia is possibly through regulation of pathways for amino acid, fatty acid and arachidonic acid metabolism. They also suggest that the LC-MS-based metabolomic strategy is a powerful tool for elucidation of the mechanisms of TCM. PMID:24132661

  5. Some tests for detecting trends based on the modified Baumgartner–Weiβ–Schindler statistics

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Guogen; Ma, Changxing; Hutson, Alan D.; Wilding, Gregory E.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a modified nonparametric Baumgartner–Weiβ–Schindler test and investigate its use in testing for trends among K binomial populations. Exact conditional and unconditional approaches to p-value calculation are explored in conjunction with the statistic in addition to a similar test statistic proposed by Neuhäuser (2006), the unconditional approaches considered including the maximization approach (Basu, 1977), the confidence interval approach (Berger and Boos, 1994), and the E + M approach (Lloyd, 2008). The procedures are compared with regard to actual Type I error and power and examples are provided. The conditional approach and the E + M approach performed well, with the E + M approach having an actual level much closer to the nominal level. The E + M approach and the conditional approach are generally more powerful than the other p-value calculation approaches in the scenarios considered. The power difference between the conditional approach and the E + M approach is often small in the balance case. However, in the unbalanced case, the power comparison between those two approaches based on our proposed test statistic show that the E+ M approach has higher power than the conditional approach.

  6. Investigation on the Relationship of River Stage and Groundwater Level along Hsin-Hu-Wei Steam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, C.; Wu, C.; Wen, J.

    2009-12-01

    The south-west part along the coast of Taiwan appeared serious land subsidence that caused by groundwater over-pumped in several decades. How to predict trend of groundwater fluctuation accurately becomes a key subject. The river stage is a primary factor of groundwater level fluctuation. The investigation on interpret the interaction between rive stage and groundwater level accurately is essential. This study use gray system theory to describe the feature of infiltration from river to aquifer. Then using a new inversion method, hydraulic tomography, established an approach to predict groundwater level according to river stage change. The river stage and the groundwater level data adopted in this study are collected from the monitoring site along the Hsin-Hu-Wei stream in Yunlin, Taiwan. The relation of river stage and groundwater level is investigated using gray system theory. Subsequently the quantity of infiltration from river to aquifer has been estimated. The concept of hydraulic tomography will be adopted to establish the more realistic and precise groundwater flow model. Therefore more valuable information will be applied to another groundwater research and subsurface water resource management.

  7. Analysis of baseflow index based hydrological model in Upper Wei River basin on the Loess Plateau in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Chang, J.; Tian, F.; Huang, Q.; Meng, X.

    2015-05-01

    The baseflow is the drainage from the groundwater and soil water to the streamflow. As one important source of the streamflow, the baseflow could be the main source of the streamflow in the dry season. The Wei River, located in the semi-arid region of the Loess Plateau which is overlain by deep and loose soil, is the largest tributary of the Yellow River. According to former research, most of the streamflow in the dry season in the headwater of the Yellow River is baseflow. For the whole Yellow River basin, the baseflow is an important component of the streamflow, and accounts for about 44% of the annual runoff. Physically-based distributed hydrological models can simulate the runoff components separately, and are important tools to analyse the runoff components. Given the importance of the baseflow in the dry season for drought relief to support the ecological water requirement and irrigation, especially in the Wei River, the baseflow is analysed in this study. To investigate the baseflow in the Upper Wei River basin, a semi-distributed hydrological model based on a Representative Elementary Watershed approach (THREW) is employed to investigate the runoff generation process. To compare the results, an automatic baseflow separation method proposed by Arnold is used to separate the baseflow from the daily streamflow at Beidao hydrological station in Upper Wei River basin from 2001 to 2004. Based on the hydrological modelling and the Arnold separation method, the average annual baseflow index, i.e. the ratio of baseflow to the total runoff, is estimated as in the range of 0.30-0.36. The average intra-annual monthly baseflow index represents the seasonality of the baseflow due to the seasonality of the precipitation and evapotranspiration, and is also analysed.

  8. Mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and human cancer risk from indoor exposure to coal and wood combustion in xuan wei, china

    SciTech Connect

    Mumford, J.L.; Chapman, R.S.; Nesnow, S.; Helmes, C.T.; Li, X.

    1990-01-01

    The residents in Xuan Wei County, China, have been exposed to high levels of combustion emissions from smoky and smokeless coal and wood combustion under unvented conditions in homes. An unusually high lung cancer mortality rate that can not be attributed to tobacco smoke or occupational exposure was found. The communes using smoky coal, which emits more organics than smokeless coal, generally have a higher lung cancer rate than the communes using smokeless coal or wood. The mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of organic extracts of indoor air particles collected from Xuan Wei homes during cooking were investigated. The objectives of the study were (1) to investigate the characteristics of lung cancer mortality in Xuan Wei, (2) to determine the genotoxicity and chemical and physical properties of the combustion emissions, and (3) to link bioassay results to human lung cancer data. The organic extracts of these emission particles were tested for mutagenicity in the Ames Salmonella and the L5178Y TK+/- mouse lymphoma assays and for skin tumor-initiating activity and complete carcinogenicity in SENCAR mice. The two coal samples showed higher activity in both mutagenicity and tumor initiation. When the emission rate of organics was taken into consideration, the smoky coal emission showed the highest potency of the three fuels. The smoky coal sample was also a more potent complete carcinogen than the wood sample. Higher mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of the smoky coal emission compared to wood or smokeless coal emissions are in agreement with the epidemiological data.

  9. Antioxidant and Antiadipogenic Activities of Galkeun-Tang, a Traditional Korean Herbal Formula

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ohn-Soon; Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2014-01-01

    Galkeun-tang (GKT; Galgen-tang in Chinese and Kakkon-to in Japanese), a traditional herbal formula, has been used for treatment of the common cold. Here, we report in vitro antioxidant and antiadipogenic effects of GKT. GKT increased the activities of scavenging 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. GKT also significantly reduced the malondialdehyde (MDA) generation during low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and the electrophoretic mobility of oxidized LDL, indicating inhibitory effects of GKT on Cu2+-mediated oxidation of LDL. Regarding antiadipogenic activity, GKT treatment significantly suppressed lipid accumulation, triglyceride production, and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Consistent with this, GKT significantly reduced the secretion of leptin, a major adipokine, in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Overall, our findings suggest that GKT has the potential for antioxidative and antiadipogenic properties. PMID:25574183

  10. [Selection of medical talents under the influence of imperial examination system in the Tang Dynasty.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen-Guo; Zang, Shou-Hu

    2005-10-01

    The Tang Dynasty was an important period in which China's ancient imperial examination system was formed and perfected. The medical examination at that time was influenced by imperial examination system, too. Medical talents were chosen according to a clear regulation of exam subjects imitating "Examination based on Imperial College law", "Ming Jing" and "Ming Fa" in the Tang Dynasty. The ways of choosing sheng tu, gong jü, zhi jü, dai zhao were also used for choosing medical talents, and the practical subjects of medical examination and qualified standard were also made, which can be used as a reference for TCM education, examination, selecting and checking of TCM talents today. PMID:16469247

  11. Evaluation of the teratogenic effects of three traditional Chinese medicines, Si Jun Zi Tang, Liu Jun Zi Tang and Shenling Baizhu San, during zebrafish pronephros development.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yu-Ju; Wang, Bo-Cheng; Wen, Chi-Chung; Sun, Chiao-Yin; Lee, Hsun-Hua; Lee, Fei-Peng; Yang, Ling-Ling; Chen, Yau-Hung

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the teratogenic effects of three common Chinese medical prescriptions, Si Jun Zi Tang (SJZT), Liu Jun Zi Tang (LJZT) and Shenling Baizhu San (SLBS), during zebrafish pronephros development. We used the transgenic zebrafish line Tg(wt1b:EGFP) to assess the teratogenic effects using 12 different protocols, which comprised combinations of 4 doses (0, 25, 250, 1,250 ng/mL) and 3 exposure methods [methods I, 12-36 hours post fertilization (hpf), II, 24-48 hpf, and III, 24-36 hpf]. As a result, few defects in the kidneys were observed in the embryos exposed to 25 ng/mL of each medical prescription. The percentage of kidney malformation phenotypes increased as the exposure concentrations increased (25 ng/mL, 0-10%; 250 ng/mL, 0-60%; 1,250 ng/mL, 80-100%). Immunohistochemistry for α6F, which is a basolateral and renal tubular differentiation marker, revealed no obvious defective phenotypes in either SJZT- or LJZT-treated embryos, indicating that these Chinese medical prescriptions had minimal adverse effects on the pronephric duct. However, SLBS-treated embryos displayed a defective phenotype in the pronephric duct. According to these findings, we suggest (1) that the Chinese medical prescriptions induced kidney malformation phenotypes that are dose dependent and (2) that the embryonic zebrafish kidney was more sensitive to SLBS than SJZT and LJZT. PMID:26441476

  12. Chinese Herbal Medicine Liu Jun Zi Tang and Xiang Sha Liu Jun Zi Tang for Functional Dyspepsia: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ya; Liu, Yan-yan; Yu, Ke-qiang; Ouyang, Ming-zi; Luo, Ren; Zhao, Xiao-shan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the efficacy and safety of Liu Jun Zi Tang (LJZT) and Xiang Sha Liu Jun Zi Tang (XSLJZT) for treating functional dyspepsia. Methods. Literature searches were carried out on Medline database, Cochrane Library, CNKI database, Chinese Biomedical Literature database, Wanfang database, and VIP database up to July 2012. Hand search for further references was conducted. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were performed according to the Cochrane standards. Results. Fifteen publications in total were suitable for inclusion. There was evidence that LJZT compared with prokinetic drugs increased symptom improvement (odds ratio 1.96, 95% CI 1.15 to 3.36). There was also evidence that XSLJZT compared with prokinetic drugs increased symptom improvement (odds ratio 2.63, 95% CI 1.72 to 4.03). No adverse events were reported in LJZT or XSLJZT group in any of these randomized controlled trials. Conclusion. LJZT and XSLJZT might be more effective compared with prokinetic drugs in the treatment of functional dyspepsia, and no side effects are identified in the included trials. However, due to poor methodological quality in the majority of included studies, the potential benefit from LJZT and XSLJZT need to be confirmed in rigorously designed, multicentre, and large-scale trials. PMID:23304226

  13. Evaluation of the teratogenic effects of three traditional Chinese medicines, Si Jun Zi Tang, Liu Jun Zi Tang and Shenling Baizhu San, during zebrafish pronephros development

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yu-Ju; Wang, Bo-Cheng; Wen, Chi-Chung; Sun, Chiao-Yin; Lee, Hsun-Hua; Lee, Fei-Peng; Yang, Ling-Ling; Chen, Yau-Hung

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the teratogenic effects of three common Chinese medical prescriptions, Si Jun Zi Tang (SJZT), Liu Jun Zi Tang (LJZT) and Shenling Baizhu San (SLBS), during zebrafish pronephros development. We used the transgenic zebrafish line Tg(wt1b:EGFP) to assess the teratogenic effects using 12 different protocols, which comprised combinations of 4 doses (0, 25, 250, 1,250 ng/mL) and 3 exposure methods [methods I, 12–36 hours post fertilization (hpf), II, 24–48 hpf, and III, 24–36 hpf]. As a result, few defects in the kidneys were observed in the embryos exposed to 25 ng/mL of each medical prescription. The percentage of kidney malformation phenotypes increased as the exposure concentrations increased (25 ng/mL, 0–10%; 250 ng/mL, 0–60%; 1,250 ng/mL, 80–100%). Immunohistochemistry for α6F, which is a basolateral and renal tubular differentiation marker, revealed no obvious defective phenotypes in either SJZT- or LJZT-treated embryos, indicating that these Chinese medical prescriptions had minimal adverse effects on the pronephric duct. However, SLBS-treated embryos displayed a defective phenotype in the pronephric duct. According to these findings, we suggest (1) that the Chinese medical prescriptions induced kidney malformation phenotypes that are dose dependent and (2) that the embryonic zebrafish kidney was more sensitive to SLBS than SJZT and LJZT. PMID:26441476

  14. Applications of the Wei-Lachin multivariate one-sided test for multiple outcomes on possibly different scales.

    PubMed

    Lachin, John M

    2014-01-01

    Many studies aim to assess whether a therapy has a beneficial effect on multiple outcomes simultaneously relative to a control. Often the joint null hypothesis of no difference for the set of outcomes is tested using separate tests with a correction for multiple tests, or using a multivariate T2-like MANOVA or global test. However, a more powerful test in this case is a multivariate one-sided or one-directional test directed at detecting a simultaneous beneficial treatment effect on each outcome, though not necessarily of the same magnitude. The Wei-Lachin test is a simple 1 df test obtained from a simple sum of the component statistics that was originally described in the context of a multivariate rank analysis. Under mild conditions this test provides a maximin efficient test of the null hypothesis of no difference between treatment groups for all outcomes versus the alternative hypothesis that the experimental treatment is better than control for some or all of the component outcomes, and not worse for any. Herein applications are described to a simultaneous test for multiple differences in means, proportions or life-times, and combinations thereof, all on potentially different scales. The evaluation of sample size and power for such analyses is also described. For a test of means of two outcomes with a common unit variance and correlation 0.5, the sample size needed to provide 90% power for two separate one-sided tests at the 0.025 level is 64% greater than that needed for the single Wei-Lachin multivariate one-directional test at the 0.05 level. Thus, a Wei-Lachin test with these operating characteristics is 39% more efficient than two separate tests. Likewise, compared to a T2-like omnibus test on 2 df, the Wei-Lachin test is 32% more efficient. An example is provided in which the Wei-Lachin test of multiple components has superior power to a test of a composite outcome. PMID:25329662

  15. Applications of the Wei-Lachin Multivariate One-Sided Test for Multiple Outcomes on Possibly Different Scales

    PubMed Central

    Lachin, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies aim to assess whether a therapy has a beneficial effect on multiple outcomes simultaneously relative to a control. Often the joint null hypothesis of no difference for the set of outcomes is tested using separate tests with a correction for multiple tests, or using a multivariate T2-like MANOVA or global test. However, a more powerful test in this case is a multivariate one-sided or one-directional test directed at detecting a simultaneous beneficial treatment effect on each outcome, though not necessarily of the same magnitude. The Wei-Lachin test is a simple 1 df test obtained from a simple sum of the component statistics that was originally described in the context of a multivariate rank analysis. Under mild conditions this test provides a maximin efficient test of the null hypothesis of no difference between treatment groups for all outcomes versus the alternative hypothesis that the experimental treatment is better than control for some or all of the component outcomes, and not worse for any. Herein applications are described to a simultaneous test for multiple differences in means, proportions or life-times, and combinations thereof, all on potentially different scales. The evaluation of sample size and power for such analyses is also described. For a test of means of two outcomes with a common unit variance and correlation 0.5, the sample size needed to provide 90% power for two separate one-sided tests at the 0.025 level is 64% greater than that needed for the single Wei-Lachin multivariate one-directional test at the 0.05 level. Thus, a Wei-Lachin test with these operating characteristics is 39% more efficient than two separate tests. Likewise, compared to a T2-like omnibus test on 2 df, the Wei-Lachin test is 32% more efficient. An example is provided in which the Wei-Lachin test of multiple components has superior power to a test of a composite outcome. PMID:25329662

  16. Safety assessment of Guibi-tang: Subchronic toxicity study in Crl:CD SD rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mee-Young; Seo, Chang-Seob; Kim, Yong-Bum; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2015-11-01

    Guibi-tang (Kihi-To in Japanese and Qui-Pi-Tang in Chinese) is a multiherbal traditional Korean medicinal formula used for treatment of amnesia, fatigue, poor memory or forgetfulness, anemia, insomnia, and necrosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate potential safety, if any, of subchronic administration of Guibi-tang aqueous extract (GBT) in laboratory animals. For this study, 0, 1000, 2000, and 5000 mg/kg/day of GBT was administered to Crl:CD Sprague Dawley rats (10/sex/group) for 13 weeks via oral gavage. Administration of the GBT did not result in any mortality, body weight, food consumption, hematology, serum biochemistry, clinical or ophthalmological signs or changes in urinalysis, gross findings, or organ weight. However, histopathology revealed forestomach hyperplasia and duodenum mucosal hyperplasia in rats of both sexes at the highest dose of GBT, 5000 mg/kg/day. Therefore, the no-observed-adverse-effect level in rats was established for GBT at 2000 mg/kg/day under the conditions of this study. PMID:26432010

  17. A new framework to evaluate ecosystem health: a case study in the Wei River basin, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Xu, Zongxue; Zhan, Chesheng; Yin, Xuwang; Yu, Songyan

    2015-07-01

    Due to the rapid growth of the population and the development of economies in the Guanzhong district, central China, the river ecosystem is gradually deteriorating, which makes it important to assess the aquatic ecosystem health and take measures to restore the damaged ecosystem. An index of catchment ecosystem health has been developed to assist large-scale management of watersheds by providing an integrated measure of ecosystem health, including aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem. Most researches focus on aquatic ecosystem or terrestrial ecosystem, but little research integrates both of them to assess the catchment ecosystem health. In this paper, we combine these two aspects into catchment ecosystem health. Ecosystem indicators derived from field samples and modeling are identified to integrate into ecosystem health. These included indicators of ecological landscape pattern (based on normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), vegetation cover, dominance index, Shannon's diversity index, Shannon's evenness index, and fragmentation index), hydrology regime (based on 33 hydrological parameters), physical form condition (based on substrate, habitat complexity, velocity/depth regimes, bank stability, channel alteration), water quality (based on electrical conductivity (Cond), dissolved oxygen (DO), NH3_N, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), chemical oxygen demand-permanganate (CODMn)), and biological quality (based on fish abundance). The index of ecosystem health is applied in the Guanzhong district, and the ecosystem health was fair. The ecosystem health in the upstream to Linjiacun (U-L) and Linjiacun to Weijiabao (L-W) reaches was in good situation, while that in Weijiabao to Xianyang (W-X), Xianyang-Weijiabao (X-W), and Weijiabao to Tongguan (W-T) reaches was in fair situation. There is a trend that the ecosystem health in the upstream was better than that in the downstream. The ecosystem health assessment is expected to play a key role in future water and watershed management of the Wei River basin, or even the Yellow River basin. PMID:26108745

  18. The protective effect of Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Fang in salt-sensitive hypertension rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiang; He, Yanming; Wang, Wenjian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hypertension is considered as a chronic and complex disease relating to multiple systemic systems. Apart from lowering blood pressure, the final purpose of the treatment lies in reducing the variability of blood pressure and other risk factors. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a long history of treating hypertension. This study was designed to determine the effect of Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Fang (L-W-D-H-F), a compound used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine, to treat salt-sensitive hypertension (SSHT) induced by a high-salt and high-fat diet. L-W-D-H-F was prepared from six plant extracts. It was dissolved in 0.9% sodium chloride solution prior to use. Male Sprague-Dawley (6 weeks) rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet (CON); HSF (Without Drug Intervention); VAL (Valsartan 13.33 mg/kg/day); and LW (L-W-D-H-F 8.13 g/kg/day). Six weeks after blood pressure treatment, plasma biochemical analyses and histological and functional examination of the kidney were performed. L-W-D-H-F decreased the levels of mean arterial pressure (MAP), fasting blood glucose (FG), insulin (INS), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), homeostasis model assessment of basal insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and angiotensin II (Ang II) from plasma and Ang II and renin from kidney. It also promoted the excretion of urinary Na(+), reducing the loss of urinary K(+) and microalbuminuria (MAU), and improved the glomerular afferent arteriole, arterioles and each kidney unit. Together, these results suggest that L-W-D-H-F is capable of moderately reducing MAP in salt-sensitive hypertension and can work at different levels on multiple differential targets. PMID:24164386

  19. Dynamic critical exponents for Swendsen Wang and Wolff algorithms obtained by a nonequilibrium relaxation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jianqing; Zheng, Bo; Wang, Jian-Sheng

    2006-05-01

    Using a nonequilibrium relaxation method, we calculate the dynamic critical exponent z of the two-dimensional Ising model for the Swendsen-Wang and Wolff algorithms. We examine dynamic relaxation processes following a quench from a disordered or an ordered initial state to the critical temperature Tc, and measure the exponential relaxation time of the system energy. For the Swendsen-Wang algorithm with an ordered or a disordered initial state, and for the Wolff algorithm with an ordered initial state, the exponential relaxation time fits well to a logarithmic size dependence up to a lattice size L = 8192. For the Wolff algorithm with a disordered initial state, we obtain an effective dynamic exponent zexp = 1.19(2) up to L = 2048. For comparison, we also compute the effective dynamic exponents through the integrated correlation times. In addition, an exact result of the Swendsen-Wang dynamic spectrum of a one-dimensional Ising chain is derived.

  20. Replica-exchange Wang Landau sampling: pushing the limits of Monte Carlo simulations in materials sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Perera, Meewanage Dilina N; Li, Ying Wai; Eisenbach, Markus; Vogel, Thomas; Landau, David P

    2015-01-01

    We describe the study of thermodynamics of materials using replica-exchange Wang Landau (REWL) sampling, a generic framework for massively parallel implementations of the Wang Landau Monte Carlo method. To evaluate the performance and scalability of the method, we investigate the magnetic phase transition in body-centered cubic (bcc) iron using the classical Heisenberg model parameterized with first principles calculations. We demonstrate that our framework leads to a significant speedup without compromising the accuracy and precision and facilitates the study of much larger systems than is possible with its serial counterpart.

  1. Analysis of the elemental composition of Tang Sancai from the four major kilns in China using EDXRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Bo; Liu, Long; Feng, Song-Lin; Xu, Qing; Feng, Xiang-Qian

    2014-01-01

    Tang Sancai was widely used in the Tang Dynasty, and the study of this pottery provides information about the sociocultural aspects of the Tang people. To understand the characteristics of the different kilns for the production of Tang Sancai, Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) was used to analyze 174 Tang Sancai shards. These specimens were selected from four production centers in the Tang Dynasty, namely, the Huangye Kiln, the Huangbu Kiln, the Xing Kiln and the Liquanfang Kiln. The results demonstrate that the clay bodies from different kilns have varying compositions, and each kiln has a unique elemental fingerprint. Of the 17 elements analyzed, TiO2 and Fe2O3 had distinctly different contents in the samples from the Huangye Kiln and the Huangbu Kiln. For the Xing Kiln and the Huangye Kiln, the characteristic elements are Fe2O3 and MnO. For the Xing Kiln and the Huangbu Kiln, the most dissimilar elements are TiO2, MnO and ZnO. When the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was employed, the data points for the Huangye Kiln, the Huangbu Kiln and the Xing Kiln fell into distinct areas. For the Liquanfang Kiln, the contents of Al2O3 and Fe2O3 in white-bodied samples are different from those of other colors, which indicates that at least two types of raw materials were used. When compared with the white-bodied samples from the other three kilns, the white-bodied samples from the Liquanfang Kiln were found to have compositions similar to those of the samples from the Huangye Kiln, rather than the Huangbu Kiln, although the latter is much closer geographically than the former. All the obtained data provide valuable scientific criteria for provenance identification for Tang Sancai of unknown origin.

  2. High-performance liquid chromatography determination and pharmacokinetics of coumarin compounds after oral administration of Samul-Tang to rats

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Cho, Won-Kyung; Jang, Doorye; Ha, Jeong-Ho; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Samul-tang has been traditionally used for the treatment of cardiovascular, gynecologic, cutaneous, and chronic inflammation disorders. Although coumarin compounds do have various pharmacological activities and the same may be present in Samul-tang, however there is little information about it. Objective: A simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for the determination of nodakenin, nodakenetin, decursin, decursinol, and decursinol angelate in rat plasma. To obtain a better understanding for pharmacological properties of Samul-tang, pharmacokinetic study of coumarin compounds was performed after oral administration of Samul-tang in rats. Materials and Methods: Chromatographic separation of the analytes was successfully achieved on a Phenomenex Luna C18 column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) using a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile water with a gradient elution at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Noncompartmental analysis was performed. Results: Calibration curves for all analytes had good linearity (r2 <0.999) in a wide linear range. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) ranged from 0.05 to 0.1 μg/mL. The variation of intra- and interday assay was less than 15%. Nodakenin, nodakenetin, and decursinol were determined in rat plasma after oral administration of Samul-tang. Conclusion: This developed and validated HPLC method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of three coumarin compounds in rats, given as a single oral administration of Samul-tang. These pharmacokinetic data of the nodakenin, nodakenetin, and decursinol could offer a new point of view to evaluate the pharmacological effects of Samul-tang. PMID:24696544

  3. Learning from Wang Yang-Ming: Exploring Oriental Contributions to Understanding Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tickle, Les

    2005-01-01

    This article reports recent foraging for ideas in action research among the lives and intellects of Chinese society. It began and is reported as a personal journey, initially following the trail of the activist scholar Wang Yang-Ming. The method is a roam through some of the resources that have so far been discovered. The style is…

  4. An L1-Script-Transfer-Effect Fallacy: A Rejoinder to Wang et al

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada, Jun

    2004-01-01

    Do different L1 (first language) writing systems differentially affect word identification in English as a second language (ESL)? Wang, Koda, and Perfetti [Cognition 87 (2003) 129] answered yes by examining Chinese students with a logographic L1 background and Korean students with an alphabetic L1 background for their phonological and orthographic…

  5. Commentary: A Closer Look at Task Analysis--Reactions to Wang, Schnipke, and Witt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaDuca, Tony

    2006-01-01

    In the Spring 2005 issue, Wang, Schnipke, and Witt provided an informative description of the task inventory approach that centered on four functions of job analysis. The discussion included persuasive arguments for making systematic connections between tasks and KSAs. But several other facets of the discussion were much less persuasive. This…

  6. Blaschke's rolling ball theorem and the Trudinger-Wang monotone bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakhanyan, Aram L.

    2016-04-01

    We revisit the classical rolling ball theorem of Blaschke for convex surfaces with positive curvature and show that it is linked to another inclusion principle in the optimal mass transportation theory due to Trudinger and Wang. We also discuss an application to reflector antennae design problem.

  7. Morphological and molecular differentiation between Dicrocoelium dendriticum (Rudolphi, 1819) and Dicrocoelium chinensis (Sudarikov and Ryjikov, 1951) Tang and Tang, 1978 (Platyhelminthes: Digenea).

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Rehbein, Steffen; Weigl, Stefania; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Parisi, Antonio; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Olson, Peter D

    2007-01-01

    Dicrocoelium dendriticum (Rudolphi, 1819) and Dicrocoelium hospes (Looss, 1907) are recognised to affect the liver of domestic and wild ruminants. A third species, Dicrocoelium orientalis which was described from musk deer in the Baikal region of the former Soviet Union and re-named to Dicrocoelium chinensis (Sudarikov and Ryjikov, 1951) Tang and Tang, 1978 was isolated from other species of deer in Asian countries and from mouflon and roe deer in Europe. Scant information is available for D. chinensis, including the range of species that act as definitive and intermediate hosts. To provide morphological and molecular evidences differentiating D. chinensis versus D. dendriticum, 239 Dicrocoelium spp. specimens were collected from sheep, cattle and sika deer from different localities in Austria, Germany and Italy. Specimens were morphologically identified based on the testes orientation, overall size, and level of maximum body width and other morphometric measurements. From this sample, 10 specimens of D. chinensis and 25 of D. dendriticum from different hosts and geographical localities were characterized molecularly through sequencing of partial 18S rDNA (approximately 1400 bp) and ITS-2 (including the 5.8S and 28S flanking regions; approximately 600 bp). Interspecific differences between D. dendriticum and D. chinensis of 0.14% and 3.8% were recorded in 18S rRNA and ITS-2 sequences, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses via Bayesian inference were conducted using sequences of ITS-2 (276 bp) and partial 28S (221 bp) of the above species of Dicrocoelium together with 20 species belonging to the Xiphidiata within the Plagiorchiida available in GenBank. Both gene regions were strongly concordant in differentiating the Dicrocoeliidae, Gorgoderidae and Plagiorchiidae and were in agreement with their current classification. Morphological and molecular characterization clearly differentiate D. dendriticum and D. chinensis as two distinct digeneans infecting ruminants. The implications on the separate status of D. chinensis on the etiology, biology and diagnosis of dicrocoeliosis are discussed. PMID:17803950

  8. Wei-Norman-Kolokolov dual approach for arbitrary spin S in a time-dependent magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenmoe, M. B.; Fai, L. C.

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive theory describing spin dynamics in a time-dependent magnetic field is constructed on the basis of a Maurer-Cartan (MC) form selected following the exponential Wei-Norman ordering technique. We demonstrate that the purely diffusive SU(2) problem described by a MC form yields the Fokker-Planck equation for the probability density function. The Fokker-Planck-like operator is observed to correspond to the Casimir operator. The case of a multichannel Coulomb model is considered for illustration.

  9. The Anticancer Properties and Apoptosis-inducing Mechanisms of Cinnamaldehyde and the Herbal Prescription Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang ( Huáng Lián Jiě Dú Tang) in Human Hepatoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Wu, Shu-Jing; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2013-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has long been one of the most important causes of cancer mortality in the world. Many natural products and traditional herbal medicines have been used to treat HCC in Asian countries such as Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and China. The present review aims to describe the anticancer properties and apoptotic mechanisms of cinnamaldehyde, the bioactive ingredient isolated from cinnamon trees, and the herbal prescription Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang ( Huáng Lián Jiě Dú Tang; HLJDT) against human hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Implication of their treatment for the development of targeted therapy against HCC is discussed. PMID:24716182

  10. Indoor air exposure to coal and wood combustion emissions associated with a high lung cancer rate in Xuan Wei, China

    SciTech Connect

    Mumford, J.L.; Chapman, R.S.; Harris, D.B.; He, X.Z.; Cac, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    Residents of Xuan Wei County in China have unusually high lung cancer mortality that cannot be attributed to tobacco use or occupational exposure. They are exposed to smoke from unvented, open pit coal or wood fires (often used for cooking and heating). The variation in lung cancer rates among communes within the county suggests that indoor combustion of smoky coal may be the prime determinant of lung cancer. To characterize the air in Xuan Wei homes, samples of the air particles and semivolatile organic compounds were collected from homes located in two communes; one commune has a high rate of lung cancer, and the other has a low rate. Samples collected in the commune where the lung cancer rate is high and where smoky coal is the predominant fuel contained high concentrations of small particles with high organic content; organic extracts of these samples were mutagenic. Samples from homes in the wood-burning commune, which has a low rate of lung cancer, consisted mostly of larger particles of lower organic content and mutagenicity. The smoky coal sample was a mouse skin carcinogen and was a more potent initiator of skin tumors in comparison to the wood or smokeless coal sample.

  11. Indoor air exposure to coal and wood combustion emissions associated with a high lung cancer rate in Xuan Wei, China

    SciTech Connect

    Mumford, J.L.; Chapman, R.S.; Harris, D.B. ); He, X.Z.; Cao, S.R.; Xian, Y.L.; Li, X.M. )

    1989-01-01

    Residents of Xuan Wei County in China have unusually high lung cancer mortality that cannot be attributed to tobacco use or occupational exposure. They are exposed to smoke from unvented, open pit coal or wood fires (often used for cooking and heating). The variation in lung cancer rates among communes within the county suggests that indoor combustion of smoky coal may be the prime determinant of lung cancer. To characterize the air in Xuan Wei homes, samples of air particles and semivolatile organic compounds were collected from homes located in two communes; one commune has a high rate of lung cancer, and the other has a low rate. Samples collected in the commune where the lung cancer rate is high and where smoky coal is the predominant fuel contained high concentrations of small particles with high organic content; organic extracts of these samples were mutagenic. Samples from homes in the wood-burning commune, which has a low rate of lung cancer, consisted mostly of larger particles of lower organic content and mutagenicity. The smoky coal sample was a mouse skin carcinogen and was a more potent initiator of skin tumors in comparison to the wood or smokeless coal sample.

  12. Wang OIS glossary package for reformatting documents telecommunicated to the OIS system

    SciTech Connect

    Markow, S.R.

    1983-12-09

    Documents that are composed on a computer and then transmitted by telecommunications into a Wang Office Information System (OIS) word processing system need to be reformatted and cleaned up before they can be used properly as word processing documents suitable for further revisions or additions. This report describes a group of glossary entries created for the Wang OIS which simplifies the job of cleaning up telecommunicated documents. This glossary is a semi-automated process designed to eliminate most of the tedious work needed to be performed in removing extra spaces and returns, adjusting formats, moving material, repagination, using tabs or indents, and similar problems. The report briefly discusses the problems, describes the glossary approach to solving them, and gives instructions for actually using the glossary entries.

  13. Application of the Wang-Landau Monte-Carlo Formalism applied to Ferroelectrics materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin Omran, Saad; Kornev, Igor; Bellaiche, Laurent

    The conventional description of phase transitions in ferroelectrics is based on canonical thermodynamic functions and always assumes the thermodynamic limit of an infinite system. However, ferroelectrics at nanoscale recently became of high interest due to their potential applications in minuaturized devices. It is this timely and more appropriate to use the microcanonical ensemble when mimicking ferroelectric systems. Interestingly, a Monte Carlo method based on the density of states (or microcanonical ensemble partition function) proposed by Wang and Landau has the potential to over-come these difficulties. Here, the Wang-Landau Monte Carlo algorithm is implemented within an effective Hamiltonian approach and used to conduct a detailed study of physical properties of BaTiO3 bulk. In this presentation, we will show how this approach allows a highly-accurate and straightforward calculation of various thermodynamic properties, including phase transition temperatures, as well as polarization, dielectric susceptibility, specific heat and electrocaloric coefficient at any temperature.

  14. [Experience summary of professor WANG Fuchun's "Zhenjing Anshen" acupuncture method for insomnia].

    PubMed

    Li, Tie; Ha, Lijuan; Cao, Fang; Zhi, Mujun; Wang, Fuchun

    2015-11-01

    The experience of "Zhenjing Anshen" acupuncture method originally created by professor WANG Fuchun for treatment of insomnia was introduced in this paper. From aspects of insomnia pathogenesis, theoretical foundation, characteristics of acupoint selection, needing methods, needing time, etc., the experience of Professor WANG Fuchun for treatment of insomnia was explained. The "Zhenjing Anshen" acupuncture method proposed, for the first time, "new three layers" method of acupoint selection, including Sishencong (EX-HN 1), Shenmen (HT 7), Sanyinjiao (SP 6). This method presents the principles of acupoint selection along meridian, acupoint selection based on essence-qi-spirit, harmony of yin and yang. The acupuncture manipulation is emphasized, and treating time (the period of the day from 3 pm to 5 pm) is focused on; acupoint selection is simple but essential, and acupoint combination is scientific, which receives notable therapeutic effect in clinic. PMID:26939335

  15. Daniel I.C. Wang: a tribute to an inspirational leader and colleague.

    PubMed

    Hatton, T Alan

    2006-10-01

    Daniel I.C. Wang has been an influential leader of the biotechnology industry over the past four decades through his inspirational research activities, the legions of students and other researchers that have studied under him, his development of many research and educational initiatives, both nationally and internationally, and the advice he has given worldwide to companies, research institutions, universities, and governments. He has played an important role in the mentoring and nurturing of junior faculty members, and has been a supportive collaborator in research and teaching. This two-part article provides a brief overview of Danny Wang's many contributions to furthering the global development of biotechnology, with particular emphasis on his recent activities in Asia, and concludes with an account of his research collaborations with the author over the past two decades. PMID:16933298

  16. Two alternate proofs of Wang's lune formula for sparse distributed memory and an integral approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaeckel, Louis A.

    1988-01-01

    In Kanerva's Sparse Distributed Memory, writing to and reading from the memory are done in relation to spheres in an n-dimensional binary vector space. Thus it is important to know how many points are in the intersection of two spheres in this space. Two proofs are given of Wang's formula for spheres of unequal radii, and an integral approximation for the intersection in this case.

  17. Wang-Landau sampling in face-centered-cubic hydrophobic-hydrophilic lattice model proteins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingfa; Song, Beibei; Yao, Yonglei; Xue, Yu; Liu, Wenjie; Liu, Zhaoxia

    2014-10-01

    Finding the global minimum-energy structure is one of the main problems of protein structure prediction. The face-centered-cubic (fcc) hydrophobic-hydrophilic (HP) lattice model can reach high approximation ratios of real protein structures, so the fcc lattice model is a good choice to predict the protein structures. The lacking of an effective global optimization method is the key obstacle in solving this problem. The Wang-Landau sampling method is especially useful for complex systems with a rough energy landscape and has been successfully applied to solving many optimization problems. We apply the improved Wang-Landau (IWL) sampling method, which incorporates the generation of an initial conformation based on the greedy strategy and the neighborhood strategy based on pull moves into the Wang-Landau sampling method to predict the protein structures on the fcc HP lattice model. Unlike conventional Monte Carlo simulations that generate a probability distribution at a given temperature, the Wang-Landau sampling method can estimate the density of states accurately via a random walk, which produces a flat histogram in energy space. We test 12 general benchmark instances on both two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) fcc HP lattice models. The lowest energies by the IWL sampling method are as good as or better than those of other methods in the literature for all instances. We then test five sets of larger-scale instances, denoted by the S, R, F90, F180, and CASP target instances on the 3D fcc HP lattice model. The numerical results show that our algorithm performs better than the other five methods in the literature on both the lowest energies and the average lowest energies in all runs. The IWL sampling method turns out to be a powerful tool to study the structure prediction of the fcc HP lattice model proteins. PMID:25375531

  18. Wang-Landau sampling in face-centered-cubic hydrophobic-hydrophilic lattice model proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingfa; Song, Beibei; Yao, Yonglei; Xue, Yu; Liu, Wenjie; Liu, Zhaoxia

    2014-10-01

    Finding the global minimum-energy structure is one of the main problems of protein structure prediction. The face-centered-cubic (fcc) hydrophobic-hydrophilic (HP) lattice model can reach high approximation ratios of real protein structures, so the fcc lattice model is a good choice to predict the protein structures. The lacking of an effective global optimization method is the key obstacle in solving this problem. The Wang-Landau sampling method is especially useful for complex systems with a rough energy landscape and has been successfully applied to solving many optimization problems. We apply the improved Wang-Landau (IWL) sampling method, which incorporates the generation of an initial conformation based on the greedy strategy and the neighborhood strategy based on pull moves into the Wang-Landau sampling method to predict the protein structures on the fcc HP lattice model. Unlike conventional Monte Carlo simulations that generate a probability distribution at a given temperature, the Wang-Landau sampling method can estimate the density of states accurately via a random walk, which produces a flat histogram in energy space. We test 12 general benchmark instances on both two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) fcc HP lattice models. The lowest energies by the IWL sampling method are as good as or better than those of other methods in the literature for all instances. We then test five sets of larger-scale instances, denoted by the S, R, F90, F180, and CASP target instances on the 3D fcc HP lattice model. The numerical results show that our algorithm performs better than the other five methods in the literature on both the lowest energies and the average lowest energies in all runs. The IWL sampling method turns out to be a powerful tool to study the structure prediction of the fcc HP lattice model proteins.

  19. Exploring new frontiers in statistical physics with a new, parallel Wang-Landau framework

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, Thomas; Li, Ying Wai; Wuest, Thomas; Landau, David P

    2014-01-01

    Combining traditional Wang Landau sampling for multiple replica systems with an exchange of densities of states between replicas we describe a general framework for simulations on massively parallel Petaflop supercomputers. The advantages and general applicability of the method for simulations of complex systems are demonstrated for the classical 2D Potts spin model featuring a strong first-order transition and the self-assembly of lipid bilayers in amphiphilic solutions in a continuous model.

  20. Study on the modification factor of Wang-Landau sampling for computational science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung-Yeon

    2015-08-01

    Wang-Landau Monte Carlo sampling is the most efficient method in obtaining the density of states as a function of energy E ( g( E)). In Wang-Landau sampling, the most important concept to calculate g( E) more efficiently is the modification factor f. For the systematic study of the modification factor of Wang-Landau sampling, the density of states g i ( E) of the Ising model on a 20 20 square lattice is obtained for a sequence of modification factors f i = exp[21- i ] ( i = 1 ~ 30). The sampling results are evaluated by using the traditional maximum entropy and the first partition function zero (a more sensitive indicator) for the first time. With both speed and accuracy considered, the best choice of the final modification factor f final can be f final - 1 = 10-7. If one wants to save simulation time, a clever choice is f final - 1 = 10-4, yielding a valuable estimate of g( E).

  1. Exploring Replica-Exchange Wang-Landau sampling in higher-dimensional parameter space

    SciTech Connect

    Valentim, Alexandra; Rocha, Julio C. S.; Tsai, Shan-Ho; Li, Ying Wai; Eisenbach, Markus; Fiore, Carlos E; Landau, David P

    2015-01-01

    We considered a higher-dimensional extension for the replica-exchange Wang-Landau algorithm to perform a random walk in the energy and magnetization space of the two-dimensional Ising model. This hybrid scheme combines the advantages of Wang-Landau and Replica-Exchange algorithms, and the one-dimensional version of this approach has been shown to be very efficient and to scale well, up to several thousands of computing cores. This approach allows us to split the parameter space of the system to be simulated into several pieces and still perform a random walk over the entire parameter range, ensuring the ergodicity of the simulation. Previous work, in which a similar scheme of parallel simulation was implemented without using replica exchange and with a different way to combine the result from the pieces, led to discontinuities in the final density of states over the entire range of parameters. From our simulations, it appears that the replica-exchange Wang-Landau algorithm is able to overcome this diculty, allowing exploration of higher parameter phase space by keeping track of the joint density of states.

  2. Exploring Replica-Exchange Wang-Landau sampling in higher-dimensional parameter space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentim, Alexandra; Rocha, Julio C. S.; Tsai, Shan-Ho; Li, Ying Wai; Eisenbach, Markus; Fiore, Carlos E.; Landau, David P.

    2015-09-01

    We considered a higher-dimensional extension for the replica-exchange Wang- Landau algorithm to perform a random walk in the energy and magnetization space of the two-dimensional Ising model. This hybrid scheme combines the advantages of Wang-Landau and Replica-Exchange algorithms, and the one-dimensional version of this approach has been shown to be very efficient and to scale well, up to several thousands of computing cores. This approach allows us to split the parameter space of the system to be simulated into several pieces and still perform a random walk over the entire parameter range, ensuring the ergodicity of the simulation. Previous work, in which a similar scheme of parallel simulation was implemented without using replica exchange and with a different way to combine the result from the pieces, led to discontinuities in the final density of states over the entire range of parameters. From our simulations, it appears that the replica-exchange Wang-Landau algorithm is able to overcome this difficulty, allowing exploration of higher parameter phase space by keeping track of the joint density of states.

  3. Simultaneous determination of 11 major components in Palmul-tang by HPLC-DAD and LC-MS-MS.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bohyoung; Weon, Jin Bae; Yun, Bo-Ra; Lee, Jiwoo; Eom, Min Rye; Ma, Choong Je

    2014-07-01

    Palmul-tang, a traditional herbal medicine, is composed of eight herbs (Ginseng radix, Glycyrrhizae radix, Hoelen, Atractylodis rhizoma, Angelicae gigantis radix, Cnidii rhizoma, Paeoniae radix and Rehmanniae radix) and exhibits various bioactivities, including antiallergic and antitumor effects. In this study, an effective, reliable and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 11 marker components in Palmul-tang: hydroxymethylfurfural, albiflorin, paeoniflorin, ferulic acid, nodakenin, ginsenoside Rg1, decursinol, glycyrrhizin, 6-gingerol, ginsenoside Rg3 and decursin. All calibration curves of the 11 components indicated excellent linearity (correlation coefficient > 0.9997) within the test range. The limits of detection and quantification of each component were in the ranges of 0.08-1.03 and 0.23-3.11 µg/mL, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation values were within 1.65 and 2.71%, respectively. The mean recovery values were 94.49 to 101.10%. The established method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of 11 major components in 12 commercial samples of Palmul-tang. The developed analytical method is simple and suitable for the quality control of Palmul-tang. PMID:23741048

  4. Effect of land use on the seasonal variation of streamwater quality in the Wei River basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, S.; Xu, Z.; Wu, W.; Zuo, D.

    2015-05-01

    The temporal effect of land use on streamwater quality needs to be addressed for a better understanding of the complex relationship between land use and streamwater quality. In this study, GIS and Pearson correlation analysis were used to determine whether there were correlations of land-use types with streamwater quality at the sub-basin scale in the Wei River basin, China, during dry and rainy seasons in 2012. Temporal variation of these relations was observed, indicating that relationships between water quality variables and proportions of different land uses were weaker in the rainy season than that in the dry season. Comparing with other land uses, agriculture and urban lands had a stronger relationship with water quality variables in both the rainy and dry seasons. These results suggest that the aspect of temporal effects should be taken into account for better land-use management.

  5. HUMAN EXPOSURE AND DOSIMETRY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN URINE FROM XUAN WEI, CHINA WITH HIGH LUNG CANCER MORTALITY ASSOCIATED WITH EXPOSURE TO UNVENTED COAL SMOKE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lung cancer mortality rate in Xuan Wei (XW) county, China is 5 times the China national average; women's rate is China's highest. W residents have been exposed to unvented coal or wood smoke during cooling or heating in homes. his study investigated indoor air exposure and dosime...

  6. MOUSE SKIN TUMORIGENICITY STUDIES OF INDOOR COAL AND WOOD COMBUSTION EMISSIONS FROM HOMES OF RESIDENTS IN XUAN WEI, CHINA WITH HIGH LUNG CANCER MORTALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rural Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, China, has an unusually high lung cancer mortality rate that cannot be attributed to tobacco smoke or occupational exposure. he lung cancer rate is associated with "smoky" coal, in contrast to wood or "smokeless" coal burned in unventil...

  7. POLYMORPHISMS IN THE DNA BASE EXCISION REPAIR GENES APEX1 AND XRCC1 AND LUNG CANCER RISK IN XUAN WEI, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The lung cancer mortality rate in Xuan Wei County is among the highest in China and has been attributed to exposure to indoor smoky coal emissions that contain very high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Nucleotide excision repair (NER) plays a key role in revers...

  8. GSTM1 AND GSTT1 GENOTYPES AND LUNG CANCER RISK ASSOCIATED WITH EXPOSURE TO INDOOR COAL EMISSIONS: A CASE-CONTROL STUDY IN XUAN WEI, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The lung cancer mortality rate in Xuan Wei County, China is among the highest in the country and has been associated with exposure to indoor smoky coal emissions that contain high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This risk may be modified by variation in metabolism gen...

  9. A Systems Biology-Based Investigation into the Pharmacological Mechanisms of Wu Tou Tang Acting on Rheumatoid Arthritis by Integrating Network Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanqiong; Lin, Na

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To investigate pharmacological mechanisms of Wu Tou Tang acting on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by integrating network analysis at a system level. Methods and Results. Drug similarity search tool in Therapeutic Targets Database was used to screen 153 drugs with similar structures to compositive compounds of each ingredient in Wu Tou Tang and to identify 56 known targets of these similar drugs as predicted molecules which Wu Tou Tang affects. The recall, precision, accuracy, and F1-score, which were calculated to evaluate the performance of this method, were, respectively, 0.98, 0.61, 59.67%, and 0.76. Then, the predicted effector molecules of Wu Tou Tang were significantly enriched in neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction and calcium signaling pathway. Next, the importance of these predicted effector molecules was evaluated by analyzing their network topological features, such as degree, betweenness, and k-coreness. We further elucidated the biological significance of nine major candidate effector molecules of Wu Tou Tang for RA therapy and validated their associations with compositive compounds in Wu Tou Tang by the molecular docking simulation. Conclusion. Our data suggest the potential pharmacological mechanisms of Wu Tou Tang acting on RA by combining the strategies of systems biology and network pharmacology. PMID:23690848

  10. Finding fault: Earthquakes during the reign of Tang Dezong (785-805)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortenberry, Kyle S.

    Drawing from trends in environmental and disaster studies, this study examines the meaning of earthquakes within the official histories of China's Tang Dynasty (618-907), specifically those during the reign of Emperor Dezong (r. 785-805), as both historiographic metaphors and incidents of real natural-induced disaster. Earthquakes, like other forms of potentially harmful natural phenomena, demonstrated, the Chinese believed, Heaven's dissatisfaction with a sitting ruler. Over time, ministers and court scholars sought to draw connections between earthquakes and specific forms of behavior in attempts to perhaps prevent future incidents of seismic reproach. And though certain relationships are articulated more clearly in some parts of the histories than others, earthquakes nevertheless demonstrated an ability to engender a great sense of uncertainty and discord within historical memory. Consequently, the reading of the natural world codified in the official histories marked an attempt by the Chinese state to control human behavior for generations to come.

  11. Numerical simulation of the compressible Orszag-Tang vortex 2. Supersonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picone, J. M.; Dahlburg, Russell B.

    1990-01-01

    The numerical investigation of the Orszag-Tang vortex system in compressible magnetofluids will consider initial conditions with embedded supersonic regions. The simulations have initial average Mach numbers 1.0 and 1.5 and beta 10/3 with Lundquist numbers 50, 100, or 200. The behavior of the system differs significantly from that found previously for the incompressible and subsonic analogs. Shocks form at the downstream boundaries of the embedded supersonic regions outside the central magnetic X-point and produce strong local current sheets which dissipate appreciable magnetic energy. Reconnection at the central X-point, which dominates the incompressible and subsonic systems, peaks later and has a smaller impact as M increases from 0.6 to 1.5. Similarly, correlation between the momentum and magnetic field begins significant growth later than in subsonic and incompressible flows. The shocks bound large compression regions, which dominate the wavenumber spectra of autocorrelations in mass density, velocity, and magnetic field.

  12. Collective effect of a Chinese formula--a study of xiao-jian-zhong-tang.

    PubMed

    Wang, W K; Hsu, T L; Huang, Z Y; Wang, Y Y

    1995-01-01

    Components of a traditional Chinese medicine formula Xiao-Jian-Zhong-Tang were divided into three groups: (1) Radix Paeoniae Lactiflorae, (2) Radix Astragali, and (3) Cinnamon twig, Radix Glycyrrhizae, Fructus jujubae and Saccharum Granorum. Extracts of each group were injected into rats to observe the blood pressure wave spectrum changes at the caudate artery. The whole formula was also extracted and injected into rats to monitor blood pressure wave spectrum changes. Each group has its own effect on the Fourier components of the blood pressure wave. The meridian effects of these herbs are the same as described in the Chinese medical literature, if we consider each meridian in resonance with a specific Fourier component. The whole formula when injected into rats had an effect on the Fourier components of the blood pressure wave similar to the linear combination of individual effect of the three herb groups when used separately. This may be the fundamental idea behind formula construction. PMID:8571926

  13. Simultaneous determination of five marker constituents in Ssanghwa tang by HPLC/DAD

    PubMed Central

    Won, Jin Bae; Ma, Jin Yeul; Um, Young Ran; Ma, Choong Je

    2010-01-01

    A HPLC-DAD method was established for the simultaneous evaluation of five bioactive compounds in Ssanghwa tang (SHT) including glycyrrhizin, paeoniflorin, cinnamic acid, decursin and 6-gingerol. These compounds were separated in less than 40 min using a Dionex C18 column with a gradient elution system of water and methanol at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. Calibration curve of standard components presented excellent linear regression (R2 > 0.9903) within the test range. Limit of detection and limit of quantification varied from 0.07 to 0.46 μg/ml and 0.13 to 1.11 μg/ml, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of data of the intraday and interday experiments were less than 3.67 and 5.73%, respectively. The accuracy of recovery test ranged from 95.98 to 105.88% with RSD values 0.10– 4.82%. PMID:20668576

  14. Comments on "Adaptive resolution simulation in equilibrium and beyond" by H. Wang and A. Agarwal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, R.

    2015-09-01

    Wang and Agarwal (Eur. Phys. J. Special Topics, this issue, 2015, doi: 10.1140/epjst/e2015-02411-2) discuss variants of Adaptive Resolution Molecular Dynamics Simulations (AdResS), and their applications. Here we comment on their report, addressing scaling properties of the method, artificial forcings implemented to ensure constant density across the full simulation despite changing thermodynamic properties of the simulated media, the possible relation between an AdResS system on the one hand and a phase transition phenomenon on the other, and peculiarities of the SPC/E water model.

  15. Wang-Landau Algorithm for Continuous Models and Joint Density of States

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Chenggang; Schulthess, Thomas C; Torbrugge, S.; Landau, D. P.

    2006-01-01

    We present a modified Wang-Landau algorithm for models with continuous degrees of freedom. We demonstrate this algorithm with the calculation of the joint density of states of ferromagnet Heisenberg models and a model polymer chain. The joint density of states contains more information than the density of states of a single variable-energy, but is also much more time consuming to calculate. We present strategies to significantly speed up this calculation for large systems over a large range of energy and order parameter.

  16. An L1-script-transfer-effect fallacy: a rejoinder to Wang et al. (2003).

    PubMed

    Yamada, Jun

    2004-09-01

    Do different L1 (first language) writing systems differentially affect word identification in English as a second language (ESL)? Wang, Koda, and Perfetti [Cognition 87 (2003) 129] answered yes by examining Chinese students with a logographic L1 background and Korean students with an alphabetic L1 background for their phonological and orthographic processing skills on English word identification. Such a conclusion is premature, however. We propose that the L1 phonological system (rather than the L1 writing system) of the learner largely accounts for cognitive processes in learning to read a second language (L2). PMID:15147932

  17. [Analysis on professor WANG Juyi's crevice theory from Tao Teh King].

    PubMed

    Luo, Lu; Wang, Juyi

    2015-10-01

    The crevice theory proposed by professor WANG Juyi is analyzed in this article. In the crevice theory, it is believed that the meridians are located among "skin, pulse, flesh, tendon and bone", and the crevice is the path for the transportation of qi-blood and body fluid in the body, which is the essential condition for vital movement. This is in agreement with the idea of "action through inaction" from Tao Teh King. Based on crevice theory, the abnormalities of meridians can reflex the deficiency and excess of diseases, and regulating meridians is a significant way to treat diseases, and maintaining smooth meridian is important for healthcare. PMID:26790228

  18. Protein folding of the H0P model: A parallel Wang-Landau study

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Guangjie; Wuest, Thomas; Li, Ying Wai; Landau, David P

    2015-01-01

    We propose a simple modication to the hydrophobic-polar (HP) protein model, by introducing a new type of monomer, "0", with intermediate hydrophobicity of some amino acids between H and P. With the replica-exchange Wang-Landau sampling method, we investigate some widely studied HP sequences as well as their H0P counterparts and observe that the H0P sequences exhibit dramatically reduced ground state degeneracy and more signicant transition signals at low temperature for some thermodynamic properties, such as the specific heat.

  19. The development of echocardiography in China: the pioneering role of Xin-fang Wang.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tsung O

    2012-01-01

    I cannot discuss the history of the development of echocardiography in China without describing the pioneering role of Xin-fang Wang (王新房) from Wuhan, China, who is the "father of modern echocardiography."(1) Although Inge Edler from Sweden(2-5) and Harvey Feigenbaum from the United States(6) were also oftentimes referred to as the fathers of echocardiography, both Edler(7) and Feigenbaum(8) recognized that the Chinese used cardiac ultrasonography in the very early years (Figure 1). PMID:23227296

  20. Conodont index fossil Hindeodus changxingensis Wang fingers greatest mass extinction event

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metcalfe, I.; Nicoll, R.S.; Wardlaw, B.R.

    2007-01-01

    The marine conodont fossil species, Hindeodus changxingensis Wang, that has a distinctive morphology, is restricted to a very narrow stratigraphic interval essentially from the Permian-Triassic extinction event through the internationally recognized boundary and into the very earliest Triassic. The species is geographically widespread in the Tethyan Region, from Italy to South China, and serves as a characteristic index fossil to reliably identify this short but critical interval that encompasses the greatest mass extinction of life on earth and the boundary between the Paleozoic and Mesozoic Eras. ?? 2007 Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, CAS.

  1. Security analysis of boolean algebra based on Zhang-Wang digital signature scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jinbin

    2014-10-01

    In 2005, Zhang and Wang proposed an improvement signature scheme without using one-way hash function and message redundancy. In this paper, we show that this scheme exits potential safety concerns through the analysis of boolean algebra, such as bitwise exclusive-or, and point out that mapping is not one to one between assembly instructions and machine code actually by means of the analysis of the result of the assembly program segment, and which possibly causes safety problems unknown to the software.

  2. Security analysis of boolean algebra based on Zhang-Wang digital signature scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Jinbin

    2014-10-06

    In 2005, Zhang and Wang proposed an improvement signature scheme without using one-way hash function and message redundancy. In this paper, we show that this scheme exits potential safety concerns through the analysis of boolean algebra, such as bitwise exclusive-or, and point out that mapping is not one to one between assembly instructions and machine code actually by means of the analysis of the result of the assembly program segment, and which possibly causes safety problems unknown to the software.

  3. Replica-exchange Wang-Landau simulations of the H0P model of protein folding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Guangjie; Landau, David P.; Wüst, Thomas; Li, Ying Wai Li

    2015-03-01

    The hydrophobic-polar (HP) model has served as a coarse-grained lattice protein folding model attracting scientists from various disciplines. However, simplification into H and P monomers may yield high ground state degeneracies which stands in contrast to the generally unique native states of natural proteins. We propose a simple modification, by introducing a new type of ``neutral'' monomer, 0, i.e. neither hydrophobic nor polar, rendering the model more realistic without increasing the difficulties of sampling significantly. With the newly developed parallel Wang-Landau (replica exchange Wang-Landau) scheme and an innovative method of estimating the ground state degeneracies, we investigated some widely studied HP proteins and their H0P counterparts. Dramatic differences in ground state and thermodynamic properties have been observed, e.g. the estimation of ground state degeneracy for the 46mer is 460,000 for the HP version and only 20 for the H0P mapping. Similarly, the specific heat and structural properties: radius of gyration and etc. show more pronounced signals associated with folding. Supported by NSF.

  4. Efficient combination of Wang-Landau and transition matrix Monte Carlo methods for protein simulations.

    PubMed

    Ghulghazaryan, Ruben G; Hayryan, Shura; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2007-02-01

    An efficient combination of the Wang-Landau and transition matrix Monte Carlo methods for protein and peptide simulations is described. At the initial stage of simulation the algorithm behaves like the Wang-Landau algorithm, allowing to sample the entire interval of energies, and at the later stages, it behaves like transition matrix Monte Carlo method and has significantly lower statistical errors. This combination allows to achieve fast convergence to the correct values of density of states. We propose that the violation of TTT identities may serve as a qualitative criterion to check the convergence of density of states. The simulation process can be parallelized by cutting the entire interval of simulation into subintervals. The violation of ergodicity in this case is discussed. We test the algorithm on a set of peptides of different lengths and observe good statistical convergent properties for the density of states. We believe that the method is of general nature and can be used for simulations of other systems with either discrete or continuous energy spectrum. PMID:17195159

  5. Evaluation of the Influence of Sulfur-Fumigated Paeoniae Radix Alba on the Quality of Si Wu Tang by Chromatographic and Chemometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Ke; Duan, Yu; Qiao, Feng-Xian; Tu, Si-Cong; Liu, Xiao; Wang, Xiao-Li; Song, Xiao-Qing; Fan, Kai-Lei; Cai, Bao-Chang

    2016-01-01

    An accurate and reliable method of high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprint combining with multi-ingredient determination was developed and validated to evaluate the influence of sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Radix Alba on the quality and chemical constituents of Si Wu Tang. Multivariate data analysis including hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis, which integrated with high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprint and multi-ingredient determination, was employed to evaluate Si Wu Tang in a more objective and scientific way. Interestingly, in this paper, a total of 37 and 36 peaks were marked as common peaks in ten batches of Si Wu Tang containing sun-dried Paeoniae Radix Alba and ten batches of Si Wu Tang containing sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Radix Alba, respectively, which indicated the changed fingerprint profile of Si Wu Tang when containing sulfur-fumigated herb. Furthermore, the results of simultaneous determination for multiple ingredients showed that the contents of albiflorin and paeoniflorin decreased significantly (P < 0.01) and the contents of gallic acid and Z-ligustilide decreased to some extent at the same time when Si Wu Tang contained sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Radix Alba. Therefore, sulfur-fumigation processing may have great influence on the quality of Chinese herbal prescription. PMID:27034892

  6. Sipjeondaebo-tang in patients with cancer with anorexia: a protocol for a pilot, randomised, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Chunhoo; Park, Sunju; Park, Yu Lee; Huang, Ching-Wen; Ko, Youme; Jang, Bo-Hyoung; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cancer-related anorexia is the loss of appetite or desire to eat in patients with cancer. Although treatments for cancer-related anorexia do exist, patients have sought complementary and alternative medicine including herbal remedies, due to safety concerns. Sipjeondaebo-tang is one among other popular herbal medicines that are beneficial to management of anorexia in Korea. The purpose of this study is to examine the feasibility for a full randomised clinical trial of Sipjeondaebo-tang for cancer-related anorexia. Methods and analysis This study is a randomised, double-blinded and placebo-controlled trial of Sipjeondaebo-tang. For the study, 40 patients with cancer, aged 20–80 years, who reported anorexia, will be recruited. The participants will receive either 3 g of Sipjeondaebo-tang or a placebo, 3 times a day for 4 weeks. The primary end point is a change in the anorexia/cachexia subscale (A/CS) of Functional Assessment of Anorexia/Cachexia Therapy (FAACT). The secondary end points include changes in the visual analogue scale (VAS) of appetite, cortisol and ghrelin. The outcomes will be measured on every visit. Each participant will visit once a week during 4 weeks. Ethics and dissemination The present study has been approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Dunsan Korean Medicine Hospital of Daejeon University (reference DJDSKH-15-03-2 (V.2.0)). The results will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and scientific conference. Trial registration number NCT02468141; Pre-results. PMID:27173813

  7. Tiao He Yi Wei Granule, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Ulcer in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jinfu

    2015-01-01

    Tiao He Yi Wei granule (DHYW), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been used for the treatment of gastric ulcer in clinical setting. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the possible effect of DHYW and explore the underlying mechanism against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice. The model of ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice was induced by ethanol (0.2 mL/kg). Administration of DHYW at the doses of 250, 500 mg/kg body weight prior to the ethanol ingestion could effectively protect the stomach from ulceration. The gastric lesions were significantly ameliorated in the DHYW group compared with that in the model group. Treatment with DHYW markedly decreased the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). In addition, DHYW treatment elevated myeloperoxidase (MPO) level in stomach, increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and decreased malonaldehyde (MDA) content in serum and stomach compared with those in the model group. DHYW significantly inhibited NF-κB pathway expressions in the gastric mucosa ulcer group. Taken together, DHYW exerted a gastroprotective effect against gastric ulceration and the underlying mechanism might be associated with NF-κB pathway. PMID:26779276

  8. Effect of chimneys on indoor air concentrations of PM 10 and benzo[a]pyrene in Xuan Wei, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Linwei; Lan, Qing; Yang, Dong; He, Xingzhou; Yu, Ignatius T. S.; Hammond, S. Katharine

    This paper reports the effect of chimneys in reducing indoor air pollution in a lung cancer epidemic area of rural China. Household indoor air pollution concentrations were measured during unvented burning (chimneys blocked) and vented burning (chimneys open) of bituminous coal in Xuan Wei, China. Concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM 10) and of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were measured in 43 homes during normal activities. The use of chimneys led to significant decreases in indoor air concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM 10) by 66% and of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) by 84%. The average BaP content of PM 10 also decreased by 55% with the installation of a chimney. The reduction of indoor pollution levels by the installation of a chimney supports the epidemiology findings on the health benefits of stove improvement. However, even in the presence of a chimney, the indoor air concentrations for both PM 10 and BaP still exceeded the indoor air quality standards of China. Movement up the energy ladder to cleaner liquid or gaseous fuels is probably the only sustainable indoor air pollution control measure.

  9. Effects of the Chinese Herbal Formulation (Liu Wei Di Huang Wan) on the Pharmacokinetics of Isoflavones in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Limopasmanee, Wirin; Chansakaow, Sunee; Rojanasthien, Noppamas; Manorot, Maleeya; Sangdee, Chaichan; Teekachunhatean, Supanimit

    2015-01-01

    A combination of soy isoflavones and Liu Wei Di Huang Wan (LWDHW) is potentially effective for postmenopausal women with intolerable vasomotor episodes who are not suitable candidates for hormonal therapy. The objective of this open-label, three-phase, crossover study was to determine the influence of both single and multiple oral doses of LWDHW on isoflavone pharmacokinetics in healthy postmenopausal women. Eleven subjects were assigned to receive the following regimens in a fixed sequence with washout periods of at least one week: Phase A, a single oral dose of soy milk; Phase B, a single oral dose of soy milk coadministered with LWDHW; and Phase C, multiple oral doses of LWDHW for 14 days followed by a single oral dose of soy milk. Blood samples were collected and mixed with β-glucuronidase/sulfatase to hydrolyze isoflavone conjugates to their respective aglycones (i.e., daidzein and genistein) and were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. The pharmacokinetic parameters analyzed were maximal plasma concentration (C max), time to reach peak concentration (T max), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), and half-life (t 1/2). The results found no statistically significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters of daidzein and genistein among the three regimens. PMID:26146635

  10. Effects of Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San on the Peripheral and Lymphatic Pharmacokinetics of Paclitaxel in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Mei-Ling; Lu, Chia-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Paclitaxel is effective against breast cancer. The herbal medicine, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (JWXYS), is the most frequent prescription used to relieve the symptoms of breast cancer treatments. The aim of the study was to investigate the herb-drug interaction effects of a herbal medicine on the distribution of paclitaxel to lymph. A validated ultraperformance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was used to determine the paclitaxel levels in rat plasma and lymph after intravenous infusion of paclitaxel alone with or without 7 days of JWXYS pretreatment. The pharmacokinetic results indicate that paclitaxel concentrations in plasma exceeded those in lymph by approximately 3.6-fold. The biodistribution of paclitaxel from plasma to lymph was 39 ± 5%; however, this increased to 45 ± 4% with JWXYS pretreatment. With JWXYS pretreatment, the AUC and Cmax of paclitaxel in plasma were significantly reduced by approximately 1.5-fold, compared to paclitaxel alone. Additionally, JWXYS decreased the AUC and Cmax of paclitaxel in lymph. However, the lymph absorption rate of paclitaxel with or without JWXYS pretreatment was not significantly changed (27 ± 3 and 30 ± 2%, resp.). Our findings demonstrate that when paclitaxel is prescribed concurrently with herbal medicine, monitoring of the blood pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel is recommended. PMID:27057200

  11. Chemopreventive flavonoids from Millettia pulchra Kurz var-laxior (Dunn) Z.Wei (Yulangsan) function as Michael reaction acceptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenli; Wang, Jian; Li, Ning; Zhang, Xiangrong; Zhao, Weihong; Li, Jiayuan; Si, Yingying

    2015-03-01

    Natural NQO1 [NAD(P)H quinine oxidoreductase 1] inducing agents play a critical role in cancer chemoprevention. The expression of NQO1 is regulated by Michael reaction acceptors (MRAs) via the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway. The aims of this study were to identify and characterize novel effective chemopreventive agents from naturally occurring products. Using bioassay-guided isolation approaches 16 bioactive MRAs from Millettia pulchra Kurz var-laxior (Dunn) Z.Wei, also called Yulangsan as a famous Zhuang medicine. The structures were elucidated as chalcone (1-7), flavonone (8-14), flavanone (15) and isoflavan (16). Their electrophilic abilities and NQO1 inducing activity were assessed using GSH (glutathione) rapid screening, and in vitro cell-based (Hepa 1c1c7 cells) assay, respectively. Compounds 3, 4, 6, 13, and 14 showed to have NQO1 inducing activity. Among them, compounds 4 and 14 interact with NQO1 at Gly 149, Gly 150, Phe 106, Typ 105 and His 161, revealed by molecular docking studies. PMID:25630222

  12. Chemical characterization of indoor air of homes from communes in Xuan Wei, China, with high lung cancer mortality rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, J. C.; Cao, S. R.; Xian, Y. L.; Harris, D. B.; Mumford, J. L.

    In a rural county, Xuan Wei, China, the lung cancer mortality rate is among China's highest, especially in women. This mortality rate is more associated with indoor air burning of smoky coal, as opposed to smokeless coal or wood, for cooking and heating under unvented conditions. Homes using different fuels from communes with high and low lung cancer mortality rates were sampled for particulate matter (< 10 μm) and semivolatile organics. The fine particles obtained from homes using smoky coal contained highest concentrations of organic matter (> 70%), including PAH, followed by homes using wood and smokeless coal. The major components present in the smoky coal filter samples were PAH and alkylated PAH. The smokeless coal filter samples exhibited profiles which were similar to the smoky coal samples except that some sulfur compounds were found. The estimated concentration levels of PAH in the smokeless coal samples were about one to two orders of magnitude lower than those of the smoky coal samples. In addition to PAH, aliphatic compounds and fatty acids were the major components found in the wood samples. Selected sample extracts from homes using smoky coal were fractionated into four fractions, and the results showed that the PAH and polar fractions have high mutagenic activity. Chemical characterization of the PAH fraction indicated that concentrations of some alkylated PAH were higher than those of their parent compounds. Chemical characterization of the polar fractions showed that nitrogen heterocyclic compounds are present.

  13. Effects of the Chinese Herbal Formulation (Liu Wei Di Huang Wan) on the Pharmacokinetics of Isoflavones in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Limopasmanee, Wirin; Chansakaow, Sunee; Rojanasthien, Noppamas; Manorot, Maleeya; Sangdee, Chaichan; Teekachunhatean, Supanimit

    2015-01-01

    A combination of soy isoflavones and Liu Wei Di Huang Wan (LWDHW) is potentially effective for postmenopausal women with intolerable vasomotor episodes who are not suitable candidates for hormonal therapy. The objective of this open-label, three-phase, crossover study was to determine the influence of both single and multiple oral doses of LWDHW on isoflavone pharmacokinetics in healthy postmenopausal women. Eleven subjects were assigned to receive the following regimens in a fixed sequence with washout periods of at least one week: Phase A, a single oral dose of soy milk; Phase B, a single oral dose of soy milk coadministered with LWDHW; and Phase C, multiple oral doses of LWDHW for 14 days followed by a single oral dose of soy milk. Blood samples were collected and mixed with β-glucuronidase/sulfatase to hydrolyze isoflavone conjugates to their respective aglycones (i.e., daidzein and genistein) and were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. The pharmacokinetic parameters analyzed were maximal plasma concentration (Cmax), time to reach peak concentration (Tmax), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), and half-life (t1/2). The results found no statistically significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters of daidzein and genistein among the three regimens. PMID:26146635

  14. Identification of abrupt changes of the relationship between rainfall and runoff in the Wei River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shengzhi; Chang, Jianxia; Huang, Qiang; Chen, Yutong

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between rainfall and runoff in the Wei River Basin, one of the most important relationships in hydrology, possibly changed due to the changing climate and increasingly intensifying human activities. The identification of abrupt changes of the relationship will help to further understand the changing mechanism of runoff generation, being a great stimulus to the development of water resources planning and management. Therefore, a new method based on copulas was employed to detect change points of the relationship. Additionally, a Bayesian copula selection method was employed to choose the most appropriate copula, and the primary conclusions are as follows:(1) the Bayesian copula selection method based on Bayesian analysis is independent of parameter selections and easy to implement; (2) the identified change points can be summarized as the early 1970s, the late 1980s, and the middle 1990s; (3) from climate change perspective, the combined impact of increasing air temperature and initially decreasing then increasing potential evaporation had a certain effect on these change points; from human activities perspective, the underlying causes of these change points of the early 1970s, the late 1980s, and the middle 1990s were the construction of water projects and soil conservation, the growing effective arable land of the late 1980s and the growing utilization of water resources in the middle 1990s, respectively. The dominant factor influencing the relation between precipitation and runoff is the increasingly intensifying human activities, and this relation is increasingly weakening.

  15. Spatial-temporal change in precipitation patterns based on the cloud model across the Wei River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shengzhi; Hou, Beibei; Chang, Jianxia; Huang, Qiang; Chen, Yutong

    2015-04-01

    It is of significant importance to investigate the spatial-temporal change in precipitation patterns due to its great effects on droughts, floods, soil erosion and water resource management. A complete investigation of precipitation structure and its distribution pattern based on daily precipitation covering 1960-2005 at 21 meteorological stations in the Wei River Basin has been performed. In order to comprehensively and objectively describe the changing pattern of precipitation, the cloud model is employed to quantitatively analyse the average, uniformity and stability of precipitation. Results indicate the following: (1) the occurrence of different precipitation durations exhibits a positive exponential curve with the decrease in precipitation durations, and 1-3-day events are the predominant precipitation events which have an increasing trend; (2) precipitation and its non-uniformity is increasingly reducing, while its stability increases initially then decreases; (3) mean precipitation reduces from southeast to northwest, and the precipitation of the Guanzhong Plain has a low uniformity and stability due to its location and increasingly intensifying human activities. The cloud model provides a new idea and quantitative measure for the evaluation of the uniformity and stability of precipitation.

  16. Contributions of Climate Variability and Human Activities to the Variation of Runoff in the Wei River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Q.

    2014-12-01

    The Wei River Basin is a typical arid and semi-arid area of the Yellow River Basin. The heuristic segmentation method was used to detect the inflection points of the annual runoff. The slope change ratio of accumulative quantity (SCRAQ) method was applied to computing the relative contribution of human activities and climate changes to the decreasing runoff in the whole basin and the basin above Linjiacun. For the whole basin, when 1960-1969 is selected as the baseline, the contributions of climate changes and human activities in 1970-1993 are 26.47% and 73.53%, respectively, those in 1993-2005 are 23.33% and 76.67%, respectively. When 1970-1993 is selected as the baseline, the contribution of climate and human impacts in 1994-2005 are 18.88% and 81.12%, respectively. The results imply that human activities are the dominant driving factors on runoff reduction, whose effect is increasingly intensifying. Furthermore, in order to verify the contribution of human activities and climate changes based on the SCRAQ method, a method based on the Budyko hypothesis was used in this paper. The results indicate that the contribution of human activities and climate change based on the SCRAQ method is consistent with that based on the sensitivity-based method.

  17. Chemical characterization of indoor air of homes from communes in Xuan Wei, China, with high lung cancer mortality rate

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, J.; Cao, S.; Xian, Y.; Harris, B.; Mumford, J.

    1992-01-01

    In a rural county, Xuan Wei, China, the lung cancer mortality rate is among China's highest, especially in women. This mortality rate is more associated with indoor air burning of smoky coal, as opposed to smokeless coal or wood, for cooking and heating under unvented conditions. Homes using different fuels from communes with high and low lung cancer mortality rates were sampled for particulate matter (<10 micrometers) and semivolatile organics. The fine particles obtained from homes using smoky coal contained highest concentrations of organic matter (> 70%), including PAH, followed by homes using wood and smokeless coal. The major components present in the smoky coal filter samples were PAH and alkylated PAH. The smokeless coal filter samples exhibited profiles which were similar to the smoky coal samples except that some sulfur compounds were found. The estimated concentration levels of PAH in the smokeless coal samples were about one to two orders of magnitude lower than those of the smoky coal samples. In addition to PAH, aliphatic compounds and fatty acids were the major components found in the wood samples. Selected sample extracts from homes using smoky coal were fractionated into four fractions, and the results showed that the PAH and polar fractions have high mutagenic activity. Chemical characterization of the PAH fraction indicated that concentrations of some alkylated PAH were higher than those of their parent compounds. Chemical characterization of the polar fractions showed that nitrogen heterocyclic compounds are present.

  18. Hemopoietic effect of extracts from constituent herbal medicines of Samul-tang on phenylhydrazine-induced hemolytic anemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Won; Kim, Hyojun; Ryuk, Jin Ah; Kil, Ki-Jung; Ko, Byoung Seob

    2014-01-01

    Samul-tang (Si-Wu-Tang, SMT), a kind of herbal medicines, has been used for the hemato-deficient disease for hundreds of years. In this work, investigate the anti-anemia activity of the H2O extracts from constituent herbal medicines of Samul-tang in an anemia model induced by intravenous infection of phenylhydrazine-HCL (PHZ) at 10 mg/kg for 4 days. After PHZ injection, female Sparague-Dawley rats were administrated extracts from constituent herbal medicines of SMT (300 mg/kg/day, p.o.) daily for 1 week. Results showed that sever hemolysis was induced by PHZ. For Paeonia lactiflora (PL2) H2O extract treated groups, the concentration of hemoglobin, hematocrit and red blood cells number increased much more significantly than PHZ-treated group. Moreover, Angelica gigas (AG), Angelica. acutiloba (AA), Paeonia lactiflora (PL2) and Rehmannia glutinosa (RG) extract administration significantly improved serum erythropoietin concentration. The activity of aminolevulinic acid dehydrates (ALDL) in liver homegenate was increased in Angelica gigas(AA), Paeonia lactiflora (PL2) and Rehmannia glutinosa (RG) treated group. PMID:25337267

  19. Flavonoid profiling of a traditional Chinese medicine formula of Huangqin Tang using high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Zhuang, Shuaixing; Wang, Yiwei; Wang, Yanli; Wang, Weihao; Zhang, Huihui; Chen, Li; Wang, Dunfang; Zhou, Zhongming; Yang, Weipeng

    2016-03-01

    The quality control processes for herbal medicines have been problematic. Flavonoids are the major active components of Huangqin Tang (HQT, a traditional Chinese medicine formula). In this study, we used a combinative method approach consisting of chromatographic fingerprinting (high performance liquid chromatography; HPLC), quantitative methods and a pharmacodynamic evaluation model to analyze the flavonoids of HQT obtained from different sources. Ten batches of HQT were analyzed by the HPLC fingerprinting method and 26 common peaks were detected, of which 23 peaks corresponded with the chemical profile of HQT. In addition, 11 major compounds were identified by LC-MS analysis (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer; LC-MS (n) ) and quantified by the HPLC quantitative method approach. The studied 10 batches of HQT were found to be homogeneous in their composition with a similarity between 0.990 and 1.000. The distribution of the 11 identified compounds was found to be very similar among the batches. Only slight pharmacodynamic differences were detected between the different batches, confirming the homogeneity of HQT. The results of this study prove that the combination of chromatographic fingerprinting and quantitative analysis can be readily used for comprehensive quality control of herbal medicines. PMID:27006899

  20. Effects of Sheng Hua Tang on Uterine Involution and Ovarian Activity in Postpartum Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K. H.; Lee, Y. T.; Chen, T. C.; Yeh, C. C.; Chen, J. Y.; Liu, L. Y.; Chi, C. H.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of Sheng Hua Tang (SHT) on uterine involution and ovarian activity were investigated in postpartum dairy cows. SHT (70 g) was given to dairy cows (n = 10) to evaluate its effects for five days from the first postpartum day. Postpartum cows fed with a basal diet without SHT were used as the control group (n = 10). Ultrasounds and blood tests were recorded for four weeks from postpartum day seven with a 3-d interval. The results showed that the areas and diameters of endometria were significantly (p<0.01) reduced in the group that received SHT compared to the control group on the seventh postpartum day. The group that received SHT had an intrauterine fluid volume mean of 1.2±0.6 cm3, which was significantly lower than that of the control group, 2.3±0.8 cm3 (p<0.01) on the 13th postpartum day. In addition, the uterine tension score was a mean of 1.0±0.0 in the group that received SHT, which was also significantly lower than that of the control group, 1.5±0.5 (p<0.01) on the 19th postpartum day. Taken together, the Chinese herbal medicine remedy, SHT, promoted uterine involution and ovarian activity in postpartum dairy cows. PMID:25049906

  1. Huangqi Jianzhong Tang for Treatment of Chronic Gastritis: A Systematic Review of Randomized Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yue; Ma, Li-Xin; Yin, Sheng-Jun; An, Jing; Wei, Qi; Yang, Jin-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    To assess the clinical effects and safety of Huangqi Jianzhong Tang (HQJZ) for the treatment of chronic gastritis (CG), three English databases and four Chinese databases were searched through the inception to January 2015. In randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing HQJZ with placebo, no intervention and western medicine were included. A total of 9 RCTs involving 979 participants were identified. The methodological quality of the included trials was generally poor. Meta-analyses demonstrated that HQJZ plus conventional medicine was more effective in improving overall gastroscopy outcome than western medicine alone for treatment of chronic superficial gastritis with the pooling result of overall improvement [OR 3.78 (1.29,11.06), P = 0.02]. In addition, the combination of HQJZ with antibiotics has higher overall effect rate than antibiotics alone for the treatment of CG [OR 2.60 (1.49,4.54), P = 0.0007]. There were no serious adverse events reported in both the intervention and controlled groups. HQJZ has the potential of improvement of the patients' gastroscopy outcomes, Helicobacter pylori clearance rate, traditional Chinese Medicine syndromes, and overall effect rate alone or in combination use with conventional western medicine for chronic atrophic gastritis. However, due to poor methodological quality, the beneficial effect and safeties of HQJZ for CG could not be confirmed. PMID:26819622

  2. Immune checkpoint blockade therapy: the 2014 Tang Prize in Biopharmaceutical Science.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Shan; Shen, Chia-Rui

    2015-01-01

    The first Tang Prize for Biopharmaceutical Science has been awarded to Prof. James P. Allison and Prof. Tasuku Honjo for their contributions leading to an entirely new way to treat cancer by blocking the molecules cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) that turn off immune response. The treatment, called "immune checkpoint blockade therapy," has opened a new therapeutic era. Here the discoveries of the immune checkpoints and how they contribute to the maintenance of self-tolerance, as well as how to protect tissues from the excess immune responses causing damage are reviewed. The efforts made by Prof. Allison and Prof. Honjo for developing the most promising approaches to activate therapeutic antitumor immunity are also summarized. Since these certain immune checkpoint pathways appear to be one of the major mechanisms resulting in immune escape of tumors, the presence of anti-CTLA-4 and/or anti-PD-1 should contribute to removal of the inhibition signals for T cell activation. Subsequently, it will enhance specific T cell activation and, therefore, strengthen antitumor immunity. PMID:25673064

  3. The Chinese Herbal Decoction Danggui Buxue Tang Inhibits Angiogenesis in a Rat Model of Liver Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jing; Zhao, Zhimin; Chen, Yuan; Wang, Qinglan; Tao, Yanyan; Yang, Li; Fan, Tai-Ping; Liu, Chenghai

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the anti-angiogenic effect of the Chinese herbal decoction Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT; Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae sinensis in 5?:?1 ratio) in a rat model of liver fibrosis, in order to elucidate its mechanisms of action against liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis was induced with CCl4 and high-fat food for 6 weeks, and the rats were treated with oral doses of DBT (6?g raw herbs/kg/d) and N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC; 0.1?g/kg/d). The results showed that both DBT and NAC attenuated liver fibrosis and neo-angiogenesis. Furthermore, DBT and NAC improved SOD activity but decreased MDA content and 8-OH-dG in fibrotic livers, with DBT being more effective than NAC. DBT decreased the expression of VEGF, Ang1 and TGF-?1 and their signaling mediators, whereas NAC had no effect on VEGF and VEGFR2 expression. Both DBT and NAC reduced HIF-1? gene and protein expression in fibrotic livers, with DBT being more effective. These data clearly demonstrate that the anti-fibrotic properties of DBT are related to its ability to inhibit angiogenesis and its anti-angiogenic mechanisms are associated with improving oxidative stress, regulating the expression and signaling of angiogenic factors, and especially modulating HIF-1? in fibrotic livers. PMID:22927877

  4. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Chinese Herbal Formula Sini Tang in Myocardial Infarction Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiangang; Peter, Karoline; Shi, Dazhuo; Zhang, Lei; Dong, Guoju; Zhang, Dawu; Breiteneder, Heimo; Bauer, Rudolf; Ma, Yan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory profiling of the Chinese herbal formula Sini Tang (SNT) in myocardial infarction (MI) rats. SNT, a decoction consisting of four herbs: Aconitum carmichaelii, Cinnamomum cassia, Zingiber officinale, and Glycyrrhiza uralensis, was characterized as a remedy to treat syndromes corresponding to heart failure and MI in China. Potential biomarkers, which reflect the extent of myocardial necrosis and correlate with cardiac outcomes following MI, such as atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β) were determined in plasma, serum, and in myocardial tissue of MI rats after treatment with SNT. Our data indicate that SNT decreased significantly the levels of hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in MI rats. SNT decreased the expression of ANP levels in plasma and increased the vascular active marker nitric oxide, which limits vascular inflammation. In addition, SNT could decrease the expression of endothelin-1 levels in rat plasma post-MI. Our data suggest that the Chinese herbal formula SNT has the potential to improve cardiac function after MI. SNT may be a candidate for treating MI and its associated inflammatory responses. PMID:24723959

  5. Antihypertensive Effect of the GaMiSamHwangSaSimTang in Spontaneous Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyungjin; Kim, Bumjung; Hur, Heseung; Chinannai, Khanita Suman; Ham, Inhye; Choi, Ho-Young

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the antihypertensive effect of GaMiSamHwangSaSimTang (HVC1), a 30% ethanol extract of a mixture comprising Pruni Cortex, Scutellariae Radix, Coptidis Rhizoma, and Rhei Rhizoma, on spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs). The systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured every 4 or 7 days using the noninvasive tail cuff system. The vasorelaxant effects on isolated aortic rings were evaluated. Aortic rings were contracted using phenylephrine (PE) or KCl, and the changes in tension were recorded via isometric transducers connected to a data acquisition system. In this study, oral administration of HVC1 decreased the SBP of SHRs over the experimental period. HVC1 induced concentration-dependent relaxation in the aortic rings that had been precontracted using PE or KCl. The vasorelaxant effects of HVC1 on endothelium-intact aortic rings were inhibited by pretreatment with Nω-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or methylene blue. HVC1 inhibited the contraction induced by extracellular Ca2+ in endothelium-denuded rat aortic rings that had been precontracted using PE or KCl. In conclusion, HVC1 reduced the SBP of SHR and relaxed isolated SHR aortic rings by upregulating NO formation and the NO-cGMP pathway and blocking the entry of extracellular Ca2+ via receptor-operative Ca2+ channel and voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel. PMID:26539233

  6. Coptidis rhizome and Si Jun Zi Tang Can Prevent Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chiung-Hung; Yu, Bi; Su, Chiu-Hsian; Chen, Daniel S.; Hou, Yu-Chi; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Hsu, Yuan-Man

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella, a common zoonotic pathogen, causes gastroenteritis in both humans and animals. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been used to improve gastrointestinal dysfunction and to modify the immune response to inflammation for centuries. This study used six herbal plants and four TCM formulae to rate their efficacy in preventing S. Typhimurium infection via mouse model. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Coptidis rhizome (CR) against the reference strain tallied 12.5 mg/ml and against clinical isolate ST21 was 25 mg/ml. MBCs of other herbal extracts and formulae on Salmonella Typhimurium strains were above 50 mg/ml. In the mice model, CR and Si Jun Zi Tang (SJZT) could significantly decrease the bacterial load in organs and blood after being challenged, along with body weight loss due to the infection. CR and SJZT alleviated infection-induced interferon-gamma levels in the serum and tissues, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels in intestinal tissues. CR and SJZT serum metabolites could suppress S. Typhimurium invasion and TNF-α expression in RAW264.7 cells. The therapeutic activity of CR and SJZT may involve berberine, ginsenoside Rb1, and glycyrrhizin, interfering with Salmonella when invading macrophages. CR and SJZT has shown potential in preventing S. Typhimurium infection through the regulation of the immune response. PMID:25133542

  7. Tang-Tong-Fang Confers Protection against Experimental Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy by Reducing Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingdi; Huang, Da; Liu, Xiaoxing; Lin, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Tang-tong-fang (TTF) is a Chinese herbal formula that has been shown to be beneficial in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), a common complication secondary to diabetic microvascular injury. However, the underlying mechanism of protection in nerve ischemia provided by TTF is still unclear. We hypothesized that TTF alleviates DPN via inhibition of ICAM-1 expression. Therefore, we tested the effect of TTF in a previously established DPN model, in which nerve injury was induced by ischemia/reperfusion in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. We found that the conduction velocity and amplitude of action potentials of sciatic nerve conduction were reduced in the DPN model group but were rescued by TTF treatment. In addition, TTF treatment also attenuated the effect of DPN on other parameters including histology and ultrastructural changes, expression of ICAM-1, MPO, and TNF-α in rat sciatic nerves, and plasma sICAM-1 and MPO levels. Together, our data suggest that TTF treatment may alleviate DPN via ICAM-1 inhibition. PMID:26539228

  8. The Effects of Maekmoondong-Tang on Cockroach Extract-Induced Allergic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Sung-Hwa; Jung, Kyung-Hwa; Lee, Kun-young; Yeom, Yu Rim; Kim, Gae-Eun; Jung, Sungki; Jung, Heejae; Bae, Hyunsu

    2014-01-01

    Maekmoondong-tang (MMDT) has long been used in Asian countries to treat respiratory diseases. However, the precise mechanisms underlying its effects on asthma are unknown. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of MMDT in a cockroach allergen (CKA-)induced animal model of allergic asthma. After being challenged with CKA, the number of macrophages, eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and total cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was evaluated. The Th2 specific cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 were also analyzed in BALF along with IgE levels in serum. For histological analysis, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining, and immunohistochemical staining were performed. In addition, airway hyperresponsiveness was assessed by noninvasive plethysmography. The cellular profiles and histopathologic analysis demonstrated that peribronchial and perivascular inflammatory cell infiltrates were significantly decreased in the MMDT-treated groups compared with the cockroach extract-injected (CKA) groups. In addition, the IgE, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 levels were significantly decreased in the MMDT group. MMDT treatment also significantly attenuated airway hyperresponsiveness. These results demonstrated that MMDT significantly reduced the hallmark signs of asthma: elevated serum IgE, airway eosinophilia, airway remodeling, mucus hypersecretion, and airway hyperresponsiveness. The remarkable antiasthmatic effects of MMDT suggest its therapeutic potential in allergic asthma treatment. PMID:24723965

  9. Flavonoid profiling of a traditional Chinese medicine formula of Huangqin Tang using high performance liquid chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Zhuang, Shuaixing; Wang, Yiwei; Wang, Yanli; Wang, Weihao; Zhang, Huihui; Chen, Li; Wang, Dunfang; Zhou, Zhongming; Yang, Weipeng

    2016-01-01

    The quality control processes for herbal medicines have been problematic. Flavonoids are the major active components of Huangqin Tang (HQT, a traditional Chinese medicine formula). In this study, we used a combinative method approach consisting of chromatographic fingerprinting (high performance liquid chromatography; HPLC), quantitative methods and a pharmacodynamic evaluation model to analyze the flavonoids of HQT obtained from different sources. Ten batches of HQT were analyzed by the HPLC fingerprinting method and 26 common peaks were detected, of which 23 peaks corresponded with the chemical profile of HQT. In addition, 11 major compounds were identified by LC–MS analysis (liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometer; LC–MSn) and quantified by the HPLC quantitative method approach. The studied 10 batches of HQT were found to be homogeneous in their composition with a similarity between 0.990 and 1.000. The distribution of the 11 identified compounds was found to be very similar among the batches. Only slight pharmacodynamic differences were detected between the different batches, confirming the homogeneity of HQT. The results of this study prove that the combination of chromatographic fingerprinting and quantitative analysis can be readily used for comprehensive quality control of herbal medicines. PMID:27006899

  10. HPLC-PDA Method for Simultaneous Determination of Nine Marker Components in Banhasasim-Tang.

    PubMed

    Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2016-03-01

    A simple and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (HPLC-PDA) detection method has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of nine components-liquiritin, coptisine, baicalin, palmatine, berberine, wogonoside, baicalein, glycyrrhizin and wogonin-in the traditional Korean formula, Banhasasim-tang decoction. A Gemini C18 analytical column was used to separate the nine constituents and kept at 40°C by gradient elution with 0.1% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid in distilled water (A) and acetonitrile (B) as mobile phases. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the injection volume was 10 µL. The PDA detection wavelengths were set at 254, 275 and 350 nm. Calibration curves of all compounds showed good linearity with coefficients of determination ≥0.9998 within the test ranges. The limits of detection and quantification of all compounds were in the range 0.01-0.09 and 0.03-0.30 µg/mL, respectively. All recoveries of the nine marker compounds ranged from 98.65 to 103.22% with relative standard deviation (RSD) values <1.25%. The RSDs of intraday and interday precision were <1.13 and 1.83%, respectively. The concentrations of the nine marker constituents were 0.19-41.09 mg/g. PMID:26354947

  11. Fermented soshiho-tang with Lactobacillus plantarum enhances the antiproliferative activity in vascular smooth muscle cell

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Soshiho-tang (SST) is a traditional medicine widely used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis. SST has been shown to confer a variety of pharmacological activities, including prevention of hepatotoxicity, promotion of liver regeneration, and modulation of liver fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the antiproliferative activity of native and fermented (FSST) formulations of SST in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and examined the potential underlying mechanisms driving these effects. Methods SST, along with preparations fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum KFRI-144 (S-A144), L. amylophilus KFRI-161 (S-A161) and L. bulgaricus KFRI-344 (S-A344), were investigated to determine their effects on the proliferation and viability of VSMCs, along with the signalling pathways underlying these effects. Results S-A144 exhibited a strong, dose-dependent inhibition of VSMC proliferation relative to untreated controls, but the others did not affect. In addition, S-A144 significantly decreased the phosphorylation of Akt and PLCγ1 in a dose-dependent manner and induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase characterised by decreased expression of CDKs, cyclins and PCNA. Conclusions The findings suggest that S-A144 exhibit enhanced inhibition of PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation comparison to S-AOR through the suppression of cell cycle progression and expression of cell cycle-related proteins, along with the downregulation of Akt phosphorylation. PMID:24580756

  12. Neuroprotective and cognitive enhancing activity of the fermented Bozhougyiqi-Tang

    PubMed Central

    Weon, Jin Bae; Lee, Bohyoung; Yun, Bo-Ra; Lee, Jiwoo; Ma, Jin Y; Ma, Choong Je

    2014-01-01

    Background: Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disease related to memory impairments and neuronal cell death. Bozhougyiqi-Tang (BZYQT), a traditional herbal medicine, has been therapeutically used for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluated the neuroprotective effect of the fermented BZYQT and compared with unfermented BZYQT in HT22 cells by MTT assay and tested the beneficial effect on memory impairments induced by scopolamine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) using the passive avoidance and Morris water maze tests. Results: Compared with unfermented BZYQT, the neuroprotective effect of fermented BZYQT on glutamate induced neurotoxicity in HT22 cells increased at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. Fermented BZYQT increased the step-through latency of the passive avoidance response. Furthermore, in Morris water maze test for evaluation of spatial learning and memory, escape latency time was significantly reduced by fermented BZYQT. Conclusion: These results suggest that the fermentation process of BZYQT led to improve neuroprotective and cognitive enhancing effect. PMID:24991099

  13. Effects of Hyeonggaeyeongyo-tang in ovalbumin-induced allergic rhinitis model.

    PubMed

    Hong, Se Hyang; Kim, Soon Re; Choi, Han-Seok; Ku, Jin Mo; Seo, Hye Sook; Shin, Yong Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an allergic inflammation of the nasal airways. The prevalence of AR is increasing worldwide. We investigated whether Hyeonggaeyeongyo-tang (HYT) is effective to suppress the progression of AR induced by ovalbumin (OVA). Male BALB/c mice were used for this study. Allergic rhinitis was induced by OVA. Treatment with HYT was assessed to study the effect of HYT on allergic rhinitis in mice. Histological analysis, immunohistochemistry, multiplex cytokine assay, blood analysis, and cell viability assay were performed to verify inhibitory effect of HYT on allergic rhinitis. HYT did not show any toxicity maintaining body weight. Food intake was steady without variation in mice. HYT reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells and mast cells into nasal cavity. HYT reduced the levels of cytokines and leukocytes in the blood. HYT decreased the splenocyte cell viability. Antihistamines and steroids are the most common medications used to treat allergic rhinitis. However, long-term use of drug generates resistance or side effects requiring the development of new drug. Our present study clearly demonstrates that HYT suppresses the progression of allergic rhinitis induced by OVA. This suggests that HYT might be a useful drug for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. PMID:25221386

  14. OpenACC programs of the Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster spin flip algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komura, Yukihiro

    2015-12-01

    We present sample OpenACC programs of the Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster spin flip algorithm. OpenACC is a directive-based programming model for accelerators without requiring modification to the underlying CPU code itself. In this paper, we deal with the classical spin models as with the sample CUDA programs (Komura and Okabe, 2014), that is, two-dimensional (2D) Ising model, three-dimensional (3D) Ising model, 2D Potts model, 3D Potts model, 2D XY model and 3D XY model. We explain the details of sample OpenACC programs and compare the performance of the present OpenACC implementations with that of the CUDA implementations for the 2D and 3D Ising models and the 2D and 3D XY models.

  15. Thermodynamics and structural properties of a confined HP protein determined by Wang-Landau simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Pattanasiri, Busara; Li, Ying Wai; Landau, David P; Wuest, Thomas; Triampo, Wannapong

    2013-01-01

    We used Wang-Landau sampling with inventive Monte Carlo moves to study the influence of surface characteristics on physical behavior of a hydrophobic-polar (HP) lattice protein model confined between two attractive surfaces. Three types of surfaces, namely, surfaces that attract: (a) all monomers; (b) only P monomers; or (c) only H monomers, have been considered. After obtaining the densities of states, we then found the thermodynamic and structural quantities, such as specific heat, number of surface contacts, and number of hydrophobic interaction pairs. A few conformational transitions , e.g., debridging process and hydrophobic core formation, can be identified based on an analysis of these quantities. Depending on the surface types, these transitions take place at different temperatures, while the ground state configurations show structural variations. These scenarios are confirmed by snapshots of typical states of the systems.

  16. Free energies of the ?4 model from Wang-Landau simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trster, A.; Dellago, C.; Schranz, W.

    2005-09-01

    Using the Wang-Landau algorithm we derive the full thermal order parameter probability distribution of the ?4 model for various displacive degrees and temperatures and calculate the resulting free energies. We obtain high-precision data on the shape of the free-energy barrier separating states of opposite order parameter values. For order-disorder-like systems, i.e., at low displacive degree we observe phase separation below the transition temperature. A model taking into account the surface free energy related to different domain shapes, which fits the simulation data extremely well at low temperatures, is constructed. The interpretation of the results in the context of Landau or Landau-Ginzburg theory is discussed and an improved setup for simulating Landau potentials is proposed.

  17. Replica-exchange Wang-Landau simulations of the H0P lattice protein model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Guangjie; Wüst, Thomas; Li, Ying Wai; Landau, David P.

    The hydrophobic-polar (HP) lattice protein model has been the subject of intensive investigation in an effort to aid our understanding of protein folding. However, the high ground state degeneracies caused by its simplification stands in contrast to the generally unique native states of natural proteins. Here we proposed a simple modification, by introducing a new type of ``neutral'' monomer, 0, i.e. neither hydrophobic nor polar, thus rendering the model more realistic without increasing the difficulties of sampling significantly. With the replica exchange Wang-Landau (REWL) scheme we investigated several widely studied HP proteins and their H0P counterparts. Dramatic differences in both ground state and thermodynamic properties have been found. For example, the H0P version of Crambin shows more clear two-step folding and 3 order of magnitudes less ground state degeneracy than its HP counterpart. Supported by NSF.

  18. Nonequilibrium behaviors of the three-dimensional Heisenberg model in the Swendsen-Wang algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonomura, Yoshihiko; Tomita, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it was shown [Y. Nonomura, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 83, 113001 (2014), 10.7566/JPSJ.83.113001] that the nonequilibrium critical relaxation of the two-dimensional (2D) Ising model from a perfectly ordered state in the Wolff algorithm is described by stretched-exponential decay, and a universal scaling scheme was found to connect nonequilibrium and equilibrium behaviors. In the present study we extend these findings to vector spin models, and the 3D Heisenberg model could be a typical example. To evaluate the critical temperature and critical exponents precisely using the above scaling scheme, we calculate nonequilibrium ordering from the perfectly disordered state in the Swendsen-Wang algorithm, and we find that the critical ordering process is described by stretched-exponential growth with a comparable exponent to that of the 3D X Y model. The critical exponents evaluated in the present study are consistent with those in previous studies.

  19. [RAPD and SCAR molecular markers linked to the sexuality of cycads (Cycas tanqingii D. Y. Wang)].

    PubMed

    Jing, Jian-Zhou; Jin, Hong; Li, Dong-Liang; Chen, Xiao-Ke; Zhang, Yong

    2007-11-01

    The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to amplify DNA fragment, aiming at finding markers linked to the sex trait in Cycas tanqingii D. Y. Wang. A total number of 160 random primers were screened in the RAPD-PCR and more than 2500 RAPD fragments were generated from the male or the female plants. One fragment of about 500 bp was amplified steadily and repeatedly by the S0465 (CCCCGGTAAC) primer only from female plants but not male plants. The RAPD marker was then converted into female-linked dominant SCAR (Sequence Characterized Amplified Regions) marker named STQC-S465-483. The development of this sex-linked SCAR marker provides a possibility of identifying the sex of Cycas tanqingii before sexual maturation, which is very important to in situ or ex situ conservation. PMID:18257243

  20. Nonequilibrium behaviors of the three-dimensional Heisenberg model in the Swendsen-Wang algorithm.

    PubMed

    Nonomura, Yoshihiko; Tomita, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it was shown [Y. Nonomura, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 83, 113001 (2014)JUPSAU0031-901510.7566/JPSJ.83.113001] that the nonequilibrium critical relaxation of the two-dimensional (2D) Ising model from a perfectly ordered state in the Wolff algorithm is described by stretched-exponential decay, and a universal scaling scheme was found to connect nonequilibrium and equilibrium behaviors. In the present study we extend these findings to vector spin models, and the 3D Heisenberg model could be a typical example. To evaluate the critical temperature and critical exponents precisely using the above scaling scheme, we calculate nonequilibrium ordering from the perfectly disordered state in the Swendsen-Wang algorithm, and we find that the critical ordering process is described by stretched-exponential growth with a comparable exponent to that of the 3D XY model. The critical exponents evaluated in the present study are consistent with those in previous studies. PMID:26871018

  1. ``Binless Wang-Landau sampling'' - a multicanonical Monte Carlo algorithm without histograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying Wai; Eisenbach, Markus

    Inspired by the very successful Wang-Landau (WL) sampling, we innovated a multicanonical Monte Carlo algorithm to obtain the density of states (DOS) for physical systems with continuous state variables. Unlike the original WL scheme where the DOS is obtained as a numerical array of finite resolution, our algorithm assumes an analytical form for the DOS using a well chosen basis set, with coefficients determined iteratively similar to the WL approach. To avoid undesirable artificial errors caused by the discretization of state variables, we get rid of the use of a histogram for keeping track of the number of visits to energy levels, but store the visited states directly for the fitting of coefficients. This new algorithm has the advantage of producing an analytical expression for the DOS, while the original WL sampling can be readily recovered. This research was supported by the Office of Science of the Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  2. Probing phase transition order of q-state Potts models using Wang-Landau algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surungan, T.; Komura, Y.; Okabe, Y.

    2014-09-01

    Phase transitions are ubiquitous phenomena, exemplified by the melting of ice and spontaneous magnetization of magnetic material. In general, a phase transition is associated with a symmetry breaking of a system; occurs due to the competition between coupling interaction and external fields such as thermal energy. If the phase transition occurs with no latent heat, the system experiences continuous transition, also known as second order phase transition. The ferromagnetic q-state Potts model with r extra invisible states, introduced by Tamura, Tanaka, and Kawashima [Prog. Theor. Phys. 124, 381 (2010)], is studied by using the Wang-Landau method. The density of states difference (DOSD), ln g(E + ?E) - ln g(E), is used to investigate the order of the phase transition and examine the critical value of r changing the second to the first order transition.

  3. The administration of Sheng Hua Tang immediately after delivery to reduce the incidence of retained placenta in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cui, Dongan; Wang, Xuezhi; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xurong; Zhang, Jingyan; Qin, Zhe; Li, Jianxi; Yang, Zhiqiang

    2014-03-15

    Sheng Hua Tang, a classical herbal formula consisting of Radix Angelicae sinensis, Ligustici rhizoma, Semen persicae, Zingiberis rhizoma, and Radix glycyrrhizae, is known to be beneficial in alleviating postpartum diseases and facilitating a return to normal reproductive function. This study investigated whether the administration of Sheng Hua Tang within 2 to 4 hours after delivery was effective as a preventive treatment for reducing the risk of retained placenta in Holstein dairy cows. A total of 357 cows, each of which had delivered its calf spontaneously, were randomly allocated to one of two groups. In the treatment group, the cows (n = 175) received Sheng Hua Tang with an oral dose of 0.36 g crude herb per kg·body weight once daily for three consecutive days. The controls (n = 182) received no treatment. The placental retention proportion was 4.0% and 17.0% within 12 hours after delivery in the treated and control animals, respectively (P < 0.01). We found decreases in the calving-to-first-service interval (73.2 ± 25.1 vs. 81.9 ± 32.8 days; P < 0.01), calving-to-conception interval (93.4 ± 38.8 vs. 114.6 ± 42.9 days; P < 0.01), and service per conception (1.5 ± 0.8 vs. 1.9 ± 1.0 days; P < 0.01) in the treatment group compared with the control group. The first artificial insemination conception proportion was higher in the treatment group than in the control group (60.4% vs. 41.1%; P = 0.01). Moreover, the between-group difference in the proportion of cows that were pregnant within 180 days postpartum approached statistical significance (88.2% vs. 80.6%; P = 0.07). Sheng Hua Tang showed beneficial effects in reducing the incidence of retained placenta and improving subsequent reproductive performance in cows. This preventive treatment strategy would be effective in improving the management of puerperal health. The potential benefits of Sheng Hua Tang warrant further investigation to determine whether this preventive treatment strategy can be endorsed as a general preventive approach in postpartum cows. PMID:24444716

  4. Performance of Replica-Exchange Wang-Landau Sampling for the 2D Ising Model: A Brief Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yiwei; Cheung, Siu Wun; Li, Ying Wai; Eisenbach, Markus

    2014-01-01

    We report a brief performance study of the replica-exchange Wang-Landau algorithm, a recently proposed parallel realization of Wang-Landau sampling, using the 2D Ising model as a test case. The simulation time is found to scale inversely with the square root of the number of subwindows (and thus number of processors) used to span the global parameter space. We also investigate the time profiles for random walkers in dierent subwindows to complete iterations, which will aid the development of and adaptive load-balancing scheme.

  5. Mineralogical and compositional characteristics of Late Permian coals from an area of high lung cancer rate in Xuan Wei, Yunnan, China: Occurrence and origin of quartz and chamosite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dai, S.; Tian, L.; Chou, C.-L.; Zhou, Y.; Zhang, M.; Zhao, L.; Wang, Jingyuan; Yang, Z.; Cao, H.; Ren, D.

    2008-01-01

    Some townships in Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, have one of the highest lung cancer mortality rates in China and the epidemic disease in the area has generally been attributed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) released from domestic coal burning. However, the cancer-causing culprit is not settled as Tian [Tian, L., 2005. Coal Combustion Emissions and Lung Cancer in Xuan Wei, China. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley.] found nanometer quartz in these coals, soot emissions, and lung cancer tissues. We have conducted mineralogical and geochemical studies of the coals from Xuan Wei for the purpose of shedding light on the minerals which may be related to the epidemic lung cancer. In this paper, abundances, modes of occurrence, and origins of minerals and elements in the coals from two mines in Xuan Wei have been studied using optical microscope, low-temperature ashing, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The minerals in the coals are mainly composed of quartz, chamosite, kaolinite, and calcite. The particle size of quartz is rather small, mostly less than 20????m and it is of authigenic origin. Chamosite occurs mainly as cell-fillings. The occurrence of quartz and chamosite indicates that they were derived from the hydrothermal fluids. Epigenetic calcite is derived from calcic fluids. Kaolinite is derived mainly from sediment source region of Kangdian Oldland to the west of coal basin. The composition of Xuan Wei coal is high in SiO2, Fe2O3, TiO2, CaO, MnO, V, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn. The high SiO2 content is attributed to quartz, and the Fe2O3 content to chamosite. The high Mn and low Mg contents in the coal indicate the inputs of hydrothermal fluids. CaO occurs mainly in epigenetic calcite. Elements Ti, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and rare earth elements were derived from the basaltic rocks at sediment source region. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Victimization in Korean Schools: The Nature, Incidence, and Distinctive Features of Korean Bullying or "Wang-Ta"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Hyojin; Kwak, Keumjoo; Smith, Peter K.

    2008-01-01

    School bullying in South Korea may take different forms from bullying in western societies, and there is little data on its nature and extent nationally. We report results from a nationwide survey on the Korean form of bullying, "wang-ta". Two pilot studies were carried out, to adapt a western-based questionnaire for use in Korea. With the revised…

  7. Two new cave-dwelling species of the millipede genus Paracortina Wang & Zhang, 1993 from southern China (Diplopoda, Callipodida, Paracortinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weixin; Tian, Mingyi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of the millipede genus Paracortina Wang & Zhang, 1993 are described. Both are presumed troglophiles: Paracortina zhangi sp. n. from a cave in Ceheng County, southwestern Guizhou Province and Paracortina yinae sp. n. from a cave in Longlin County, western Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. A distribution map and a key to all 12 Paracortina species are also provided. PMID:26312031

  8. Why Three Heads Are a Better Bet than Four: A Reply to Sun, Tweney, and Wang (2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Ulrike; Warren, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    We (Hahn & Warren, 2009) recently proposed a new account of the systematic errors and biases that appear to be present in people's perception of randomly generated events. In a comment on that article, Sun, Tweney, and Wang (2010) critiqued our treatment of the gambler's fallacy. We had argued that this fallacy was less gross an error than it…

  9. Simultaneous determination of multiple marker constituents in concentrated Gegen Tang granule by high performance liquid chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jingzheng; Han, Quanbin; Qiao, Chunfeng; Yip, Yuekeung; Xu, Hongxi

    2007-01-01

    Background Concentrated Gegen Tang (GT) granule is a widely available traditional Chinese medicinal product for the treatment of cold and flu. There was no reliable analytical method available for the quality assessment of GT granules. Methods An HPLC method with an Agilent Zorbax SB-Phenyl Stablebond column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) was developed and validated. The mobile phase gradient was a mixture of 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in acetonitrile (ACN) and 0.1% TFA in water. The detection with a diode-array detector was set at 207, 230, 250 and 275 nm. Seven components, namely puerarin, daidzein, paeoniflorin, cinnamic acid, glycyrrhizin, ephedrine and pseudoephedrine were selected as marker compounds for the evaluation. Results The regression equations revealed good linear relationships (correlation coefficients: 0.9994–0.9998) between the peak areas and concentrations. The recovery was between 98.8% and 101.7% with good precision and accuracy. The quality of GT granule from four different manufacturers was evaluated with this newly developed method. Samples from four manufacturers showed similar profiles but contents of the detected markers varied significantly among manufacturers and batches. Conclusion A new method using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been developed for simple and reliable quality control of commercial concentrated GT granules. Sensitivity was increased by multi-wavelength detection. The contents of selected marker components in GT granules varied significantly among manufacturers and batches, making it necessary to evaluate the quality of concentrated GT granules in the market. PMID:17578586

  10. The cumulative effects of urban expansion on land surface temperatures in metropolitan JingjinTang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yonghong; Jia, Gensuo; Hou, Meiting; Zhang, Xiaoxuan; Zheng, Feixiang; Liu, Yonghe

    2015-10-01

    Rapid urbanization has resulted in the permanent conversion of large areas of cropland and natural vegetation to impervious surfaces and therefore greatly modified land surface properties and land-atmosphere interactions. This study sought to examine the urbanization process using Landsat images from 2001 to 2010 in metropolitan JingjinTang (JJT), a rapidly expanding urban cluster in northern China. We aggregated the original results of land use data as fractional cover information in 1 km and 10 km grids. Annual and seasonal land surface temperatures (LSTs) were processed from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer products. We used moving window and gradient analysis methods to examine the differences in LST between urban and other land types, further identifying LST increases in gradients of urbanization levels. Urban extent increased by 1.6 times, and approximately 45% newly developed areas were converted from croplands during this process. Emerging urban land in JJT has caused approximately 0.85 ± 0.68°C warming in terms of annual mean LST, and the greatest warming occurred in the summer. An increase in urban land of 10% in a 1 km grid in JJT would cause approximately a 0.21°C increase in annual LST. Urbanization also led to increases in daytime LSTs and nighttime LSTs by approximately 1.03 ± 1.38°C and 0.78 ± 1.02°C, respectively. The warming trend induced by urbanization exhibits clear seasonal and diurnal differences, and this warming trend is most likely caused by the cumulative effects of changes in land properties, radiation storage, and anthropogenic heat release by urbanization.

  11. Hwangryun-Haedok-Tang Fermented with Lactobacillus casei Suppresses Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Ki-Shuk; Kim, Taesoo; Ha, Hyunil; Cho, Chang-Won; Kim, Han Sung; Seo, Dong-Hyun; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2012-01-01

    Hwangryun-haedok-tang (HRT) is the common recipe in traditional Asian medicine, and microbial fermentation is used for the conventional methods for processing traditional medicine. We investigated the inhibitory effect of the n-butanol fraction of HRT (HRT-BU) and fHRT (fHRT-BU) on the RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in bone-marrow-derived macrophages. mRNA expression of osteoclastogenesis-related genes were evaluated by real-time QPCR. The activation of signaling pathways was determined by western blot analysis. The marker compounds of HRT-BU and fHRT-BU were analyzed by HPLC. The inhibitory effect of HRT or fHRT on ovariectomy-induced bone loss were evaluated using OVX rats with orally administered HRT, fHRT (300, 1000 mg/kg), or its vehicle for 12 weeks. fHRT-BU significantly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis, and phosphorylation of p38, IKKα/β, and NF-κBp65 compared to HRT-BU. In addition, fHRT-BU also significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of Nfκb2, TNF-α, NFATc1, TRAP, ATPv0d2, and cathepsin K. Furthermore, administration of fHRT had a greater effect on the increase of BMD, and greater improved bone microstructure of the femora than that of HRT in ovariectomy rats. This study demonstrated that bacterial fermentation enhances the inhibitory effect of HRT on osteoclastogenesis and bone loss. These results suggest that fermented HRT might have the beneficial effects on bone disease by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. PMID:23082080

  12. Effects of age, size, and density on natural survival for an important coral reef fishery species, yellow tang, Zebrasoma flavescens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claisse, J. T.; McTee, S. A.; Parrish, J. D.

    2009-03-01

    Hundreds of thousands of juvenile yellow tang, Zebrasoma flavescens, are caught each year in the state of Hawai’i (USA) for the live aquarium trade. As part of an extensive adaptive management strategy built around a network of protected areas, an emphasis was placed on understanding this important species’ life history. Multiple capture-mark-recapture techniques and a model selection approach to data analysis in Program MARK were used to estimate the effects of individual age and conspecific density on natural per-capita daily survival probabilities of yellow tang recruits (recently settled individuals, 30-50 mm total length) and the effects of body size and site on natural per-capita monthly survival probabilities for juveniles (58-127 mm total length). The models of recruit survival that included additive effects of density and age were best supported by the data and indicated an increase of survival with age and decrease of survival with increased conspecific density. At 1 day post-settlement, the model averaged daily per-capita survival probability ranged from 0.963 (95% CI: 0.932-0.981) at a low density of 0.1 recruits m-2 to 0.848 (95% CI: 0.752-0.911) at a high density of 1.3 recruits m-2. The best supported model of juvenile survival had no effect of fish length or site, with a constant monthly per-capita survival of 0.939 (95% CI: 0.925-0.950). Only about 1% of recruits may survive to adulthood when protected from fishing. These results can be used to better analyze and interpret data from protected area monitoring surveys and refine management practices. Continued long-term monitoring, combined with targeted life history studies and demographic modeling, is needed to further investigate the population level effects of fishing yellow tang juveniles.

  13. Escaping paradise: Larval export from Hawaii in an Indo-Pacific reef fish, the Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens)

    PubMed Central

    Eble, Jeff A.; Toonen, Robert J.; Sorenson, Laurie; Basch, Larry V.; Papastamatiou, Yannis P.; Bowen, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    The depauperate marine ecosystems of the Hawaiian Archipelago share a high proportion of species with the southern and western Pacific, indicating historical and/or ongoing connections across the large oceanic expanse separating Hawaii from its nearest neighbors. The rate and direction of these interactions are, however, unknown. While previous biogeographic studies have consistently described Hawaii as a diversity sink, prevailing currents likely offer opportunities for larval export. To assess interactions between the remote reefs of the Hawaiian Archipelago and the species rich communities of the Central and West Pacific, we surveyed 14 nuclear microsatellite loci (nDNA; n = 857) and a 614 bp segment of mitochondrial cytochrome b (mtDNA; n = 654) in the Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens). Concordant frequency shifts in both nDNA and mtDNA reveal significant population differentiation among three West Pacific sites and Hawaii (nDNA F′CT = 0.116, mtDNA ϕCT = 0.098, P < 0.001). SAMOVA analyses of microsatellite data additionally indicate fine scale differentiation within the 2600 km Hawaiian Archipelago (F′SC = 0.026; P < 0.001), with implications for management of this heavily-exploited aquarium fish. Mismatch analyses indicate the oldest contemporary populations are in the Hawaiian Archipelago (circa 318,000 y), with younger populations in the West Pacific (91,000 – 175,000 y). Estimates of Yellow Tang historical demography contradict expectations of Hawaii as a population sink, and instead indicate asymmetrical gene flow, with Hawaii exporting rather than importing Yellow Tang larvae. PMID:25505806

  14. Interoccurrence times in the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model: a comparison with the observed statistics of solar flares.

    PubMed

    Paczuski, Maya; Boettcher, Stefan; Baiesi, Marco

    2005-10-28

    A sequence of bursts observed in an intermittent time series may be caused by a single avalanche, even though these bursts appear as distinct events when noise and/or instrument resolution impose a detection threshold. In the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile, the statistics of quiet times between bursts switches from Poissonian to scale invariant on raising the threshold for detecting instantaneous activity, since each zero-threshold avalanche breaks into a hierarchy of correlated bursts. Calibrating the model with the time resolution of GOES data, qualitative agreement with the interoccurrence time statistics of solar flares at different intensity thresholds is found. PMID:16383890

  15. On the convergence improvement in the metadynamics simulations: a Wang-Landau recursion approach.

    PubMed

    Min, Donghong; Liu, Yusong; Carbone, Irina; Yang, Wei

    2007-05-21

    As a popular tool in exploring free energy landscapes, the metadynamics method has been widely applied to elucidate various chemical or biochemical processes. As deeply discussed by Laio et al. [J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 6714 (2005)], the size of the updating Gaussian function is pivotal to the free energy convergence toward the target free energy surface. For instance, a greater Gaussian height can facilitate the quick visit of a conformation region of interest; however, it may lead to a larger error of the calculated free energy surface. In contrast, a lower Gaussian height can guarantee a better resolution of the calculated free energy surface; however, it will take longer time for such a simulation to navigate through the defined conformational region. In order to reconcile such confliction, the authors present a method by implementing the Wang-Landau recursion scheme in the metadynamics simulations to adaptively update the height of the unit Gaussian function. As demonstrated in their model studies on both a toy system, and a realistic molecular system treated with the hybrid quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QMMM) potential, the present approach can quickly result in more decently converged free energy surfaces, compared with the classical metadynamics simulations employing the fixed Gaussian heights. PMID:17523795

  16. Validation of Community Models: 2. Development of a Baseline, Using the Wang-Sheeley-Arge Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacNeice, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series providing independent validation of community models of the outer corona and inner heliosphere. Here I present a comprehensive validation of the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) model. These results will serve as a baseline against which to compare the next generation of comparable forecasting models. The WSA model is used by a number of agencies to predict Solar wind conditions at Earth up to 4 days into the future. Given its importance to both the research and forecasting communities, it is essential that its performance be measured systematically and independently. I offer just such an independent and systematic validation. I report skill scores for the model's predictions of wind speed and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) polarity for a large set of Carrington rotations. The model was run in all its routinely used configurations. It ingests synoptic line of sight magnetograms. For this study I generated model results for monthly magnetograms from multiple observatories, spanning the Carrington rotation range from 1650 to 2074. I compare the influence of the different magnetogram sources and performance at quiet and active times. I also consider the ability of the WSA model to forecast both sharp transitions in wind speed from slow to fast wind and reversals in the polarity of the radial component of the IMF. These results will serve as a baseline against which to compare future versions of the model as well as the current and future generation of magnetohydrodynamic models under development for forecasting use.

  17. Temperature-dependent phase transition of ferroelectric perovskites: A Wang-Landau-DFT approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuk, Simuck; Li, Ying Wai; Eisenbach, Markus; Cooper, Valentino

    Since the discovery of ferroelectricity in perovskite oxides, considerable efforts have been devoted to understanding their phase transition behaviors in terms of temperature, pressure, and composition. Such materials have regularly been used in transducer and actuator applications. As our first step to make accurate predictions of the crystal phases of more complex oxides such as Pb(ZrxTi1-x) O3, we have used the Wang-Landau (WL) algorithm and density functional theory (DFT) to examine the temperature-dependent phase transition of PbTiO3, BaTiO3, and KNbO3. DFT was employed to evaluate the energetics of important crystal-structure candidates, which were later used as the input for WL algorithm. In addition, we examine how the choice of exchange-correlation functionals affects our predictions of the relevant phase transition temperatures. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Science and Engineering Division and the Office of Science Early Career Research Program (V.R.C.) and used resources at NERSC and OLCF.

  18. Somatic embryogenesis and enhanced shoot organogenesis in Metabriggsia ovalifolia W. T. Wang

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Yao; Chen, Yulu; Lü, Jinfeng; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A.; Zhang, Xinhua; Ma, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    An efficient protocol providing a dual regeneration pathway via direct shoot organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis for an endangered species, Metabriggsia ovalifolia W. T. Wang, was established from leaf explants. When applied at 2.5 μM, the cytokinins 6-benzyladenine (BA) or thidiazuron (TDZ) and the auxins indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) could induce shoots when on basal Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. BA and TDZ could induce more adventitious shoots (19.1 and 31.2/explant, respectively) than NAA (4.6/explant), IBA (5.7/explant) or IAA (6.4/explant). BA and TDZ at 5–10 μM could induce both shoots and somatic embryos. A higher concentration of TDZ (25 μM) induced only somatic embryos (39.8/explant). The same concentration of BA induced both adventitious shoots (23.6/explant) and somatic embryos (9.7/explant). Thus, somatic embryogenesis in this plant needs a high cytokinin concentration (BA; TDZ), as evidenced by histology. Somatic embryos germinated easily when left on the same media, but formed adventitious roots in two weeks on MS supplemented with 0.5 μM NAA, 0.5 μM IBA and 0.1% activated charcoal. Over 93% of plantlets survived following acclimatization and transfer to a mixture of sand and vermiculite (1:1, v/v) in trays. PMID:27090564

  19. Somatic embryogenesis and enhanced shoot organogenesis in Metabriggsia ovalifolia W. T. Wang.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Yao; Chen, Yulu; Lü, Jinfeng; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Zhang, Xinhua; Ma, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    An efficient protocol providing a dual regeneration pathway via direct shoot organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis for an endangered species, Metabriggsia ovalifolia W. T. Wang, was established from leaf explants. When applied at 2.5 μM, the cytokinins 6-benzyladenine (BA) or thidiazuron (TDZ) and the auxins indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) could induce shoots when on basal Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. BA and TDZ could induce more adventitious shoots (19.1 and 31.2/explant, respectively) than NAA (4.6/explant), IBA (5.7/explant) or IAA (6.4/explant). BA and TDZ at 5-10 μM could induce both shoots and somatic embryos. A higher concentration of TDZ (25 μM) induced only somatic embryos (39.8/explant). The same concentration of BA induced both adventitious shoots (23.6/explant) and somatic embryos (9.7/explant). Thus, somatic embryogenesis in this plant needs a high cytokinin concentration (BA; TDZ), as evidenced by histology. Somatic embryos germinated easily when left on the same media, but formed adventitious roots in two weeks on MS supplemented with 0.5 μM NAA, 0.5 μM IBA and 0.1% activated charcoal. Over 93% of plantlets survived following acclimatization and transfer to a mixture of sand and vermiculite (1:1, v/v) in trays. PMID:27090564

  20. Generic transition hierarchies of lattice HP protein adsorption: A Wang-Landau study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying Wai; Landau, D. P.; Wüst, T.

    2012-02-01

    We have applied Wang-Landau sampling with appropriate trial movesootnotetextT. W"ust and D. P. Landau, Phy. Rev. Lett. 102, 178101 (2009). to investigate the thermodynamics and structural properties of the HP lattice protein modelootnotetextK. A. Dill, Biochemistry 24, 1501 (1985). interacting with an attractive substrate. The conformational ``phase transitions'' of several benchmark HP sequences have been identified by a comprehensive canonical analysis of the specific heat and structural observables, e. g. radius of gyration and thermal derivatives of number of surface contacts. Three major ``transitions'': adsorption, hydrophobic core formation, and ``flattening'' of adsorbed structures, are observed. Depending on the surface attractive strength relative to the intra-protein attraction among the H monomers, these processes take place in a different order upon cooling. We identify a small number of generic categories that are sufficient to classify the folding hierarchies for different HP chains consisting of assorted sequences and chain lengths, regardless of the monomer type that the surface attracts. We thus believe that this classification scheme is generally applicable to lattice protein adsorption problems.

  1. Enhanced von Weizsäcker Wang-Govind-Carter kinetic energy density functional for semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Ilgyou; Carter, Emily A.

    2014-05-14

    We propose a new form of orbital-free (OF) kinetic energy density functional (KEDF) for semiconductors that is based on the Wang-Govind-Carter (WGC99) nonlocal KEDF. We enhance within the latter the semi-local von Weizsäcker KEDF term, which is exact for a single orbital. The enhancement factor we introduce is related to the extent to which the electron density is localized. The accuracy of the new KEDF is benchmarked against Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KSDFT) by comparing predicted energy differences between phases, equilibrium volumes, and bulk moduli for various semiconductors, along with metal-insulator phase transition pressures. We also compare point defect and (100) surface energies in silicon for a broad test of its applicability. This new KEDF accurately reproduces the exact non-interacting kinetic energy of KSDFT with only one additional adjustable parameter beyond the three parameters in the WGC99 KEDF; it exhibits good transferability between semiconducting to metallic silicon phases and between various III-V semiconductors without parameter adjustment. Overall, this KEDF is more accurate than previously proposed OF KEDFs (e.g., the Huang-Carter (HC) KEDF) for semiconductors, while the computational efficiency remains at the level of the WGC99 KEDF (several hundred times faster than the HC KEDF). This accurate, fast, and transferable new KEDF holds considerable promise for large-scale OFDFT simulations of metallic through semiconducting materials.

  2. Wang-Landau sampling of the interplay between surface adsorption and folding of HP lattice proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ying Wai; Wuest, Thomas; Landau, David P

    2014-01-01

    Generic features associated with the adsorption of proteins on solid surfaces are reviewed within the framework of the hydrophobic-polar (HP) lattice protein model. The thermodynamic behavior and structural properties of various HP protein sequences interacting with attractive surfaces have been studied using extensive Wang-Landau sampling with different types of surfaces, each of which attracts either: all monomers, only hydrophobic (H) monomers, or only polar (P) monomers, respectively. Consequently, different types of folding behavior occur for varied surface strengths. Analysis of the combined patterns of various structural observables, e.g., the derivatives of the numbers of interaction contacts, together with the specific heat, leads to the identification of fundamental categories of folding and transition hierarchies. We also inferred a connection between the transition categories and the relative surface strengths, i.e., the ratios of the surface attractive strengths to the intra-chain attraction among H monomers. We thus believe that the folding hierarchies and identification scheme are generic for different HP sequences interacting with attractive surfaces, regardless of the chain length, sequence, or surface attraction.

  3. Simulated warm periods of climate over China during the last two millennia: The Sui-Tang warm period versus the Song-Yuan warm period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Qing; Zhang, Zhongshi; Wang, Huijun; Jiang, Dabang

    2015-03-01

    A 2000 year simulation forced by the external forcings of the last two millennia is carried out with the Community Earth System Model. We compare climate changes over China between the peak Sui-Tang warm period (Sui-TangWP; 650-700 A.D.) and Song-Yuan warm period (Song-YuanWP; 950-1000 A.D.), which were two key culturally, economically, and educationally prosperous eras in Chinese history. The simulation indicates warm conditions in both periods, but the warmth is mainly seen in East China in the peak Sui-TangWP, and over the whole of China in the peak Song-YuanWP. The warming in the peak Sui-TangWP is attributed to the localized increase of atmospheric net energy with favorable heat transport, whereas the peak Song-YuanWP results from the increase of global solar radiation. The annual mean precipitation anomalies in the peak Sui-TangWP exhibit a meridional dipole pattern over East China, with enhanced precipitation in the region south of the Yangtze River and decreased precipitation to the north. In the peak Song-YuanWP, the precipitation enhances over most parts of China. The precipitation anomalies are largely attributed to the water vapor transport anomalies associated with monsoon circulation changes. The simulated climate changes are broadly consistent with reconstructions, but the magnitude is greatly underestimated. Based on the simulation and reconstructions, we suggest that the Sui-TangWP may have been a regional phenomenon in China, while the Song-YuanWP was a reflection of global/hemispheric-scale warm events that took place at the same time.

  4. Simultaneous quantification and inhibitory effect on LDL oxidation of the traditional Korean medicine, Leejung-tang

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Leejung-tang (LJT) is a traditional Korean herbal medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. In this study, we performed quantification analysis of five marker components, liquiritin (1), ginsenoside Rg1 (2), ginsenoside Rb1 (3), glycyrrhizin (4), and 6-gingerol (5) in LJT using a high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (HPLCPDA). In addition, we investigated the inhibitory effect on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation by the LJT sample. Methods Compounds 15 were separated within 35min using a Gemini C18 column. The mobile phase used gradient elution with 1.0% (v/v) aqueous acetic acid (A) and 1.0% (v/v) acetic acid in acetonitrile (B). The flow rate was 1.0mL/min and the detector was a photodiode array (PDA) set at 203nm, 254nm, and 280nm. The inhibitory effect on LDL oxidation conduct an experiment on thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) assay, relative electrophoretic mobility (REM) assay, and electrophoresis of ApoB fragmentation of LJT. Results Calibration curves of compounds 15 showed good linearity (r2 ?0.9995) in different concentration ranges. The recoveries of compounds 15 were in the range of 98.90103.39%, with relative standard deviations (RSD) below 3.0%. The RSDs (%) of intra-day and inter-day precision were 0.101.08% and 0.291.87%, respectively. The inhibitory effect of LJT on Cu2+-induced LDL oxidation was defined by TBARS assay (IC50: 165.7?g/mL) and REM of oxLDL (decrease of 50% at 127.7?g/mL). Furthermore LJT reduced the fragmentation of ApoB of oxLDL in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions The established HPLC-PDA method will be helpful to improve quality control of LJT. In addition, LJT is a potential LDL oxidation inhibitor. PMID:24383717

  5. A new felt scale genus Macroporicoccus gen. n. (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Eriococcidae) from China, with a redescription of Macroporicoccus ulmi (Tang & Hao) comb. n. .

    PubMed

    Nan, Nan; Deng, Jun; Wu, San'an

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese species Cryptococcus ulmi Tang & Hao is found to be distantly related to other sampled Cryptococcus species based on both molecular and morphological study. A new felt scale genus, Macroporicoccus Nan & Wu gen. n., is erected therefore for C. ulmi. The new genus differs from other eriococcid genera due to the presence of large simple pores, here referred to as macrodisc pores. The adult female of Macroporicoccus ulmi (Tang & Hao) comb. n. is redescribed and illustrated. Some important taxonomic characters are illustrated with SEM photographs. PMID:26171521

  6. Effect of Guibi-Tang, a Traditional Herbal Formula, on Retinal Neovascularization in a Mouse Model of Proliferative Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun Mi; Lee, Yu-Ri; Kim, Chan-Sik; Jo, Kyuhyung; Sohn, Eunjin; Kim, Jin Sook; Kim, Junghyun

    2015-01-01

    Ocular pathologic angiogenesis is an important causative risk factor of blindness in retinopathy of prematurity, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and neovascular macular degeneration. Guibi-tang (GBT) is a frequently used oriental herbal formula in East Asian countries, and is also called Qui-pi-tang in Chinese and Kihi-To in Japanese. In the present study, we investigated the preventive effect of GBT on retinal pathogenic neovascularization in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 75% hyperoxia for five days on postnatal day 7 (P7). The mice were then exposed to room air from P12 to P17 to induce ischemic proliferative retinopathy. GBT (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) was intraperitoneally administered daily for five days (from P12 to P16). On P17, Retinal neovascularization was measured on P17, and the expression levels of 55 angiogenesis-related factors were analyzed using protein arrays. GBT significantly decreased retinal pathogenic angiogenesis in OIR mice, and protein arrays revealed that GBT decreased PAI-1 protein expression levels. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that GBT reduced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) mRNA levels in OIR mice. GBT promotes potent inhibitory activity for retinal neovascularization by decreasing VEGF, FGF2, and PAI-1 levels. PMID:26694358

  7. Effect of Guibi-Tang, a Traditional Herbal Formula, on Retinal Neovascularization in a Mouse Model of Proliferative Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun Mi; Lee, Yu-Ri; Kim, Chan-Sik; Jo, Kyuhyung; Sohn, Eunjin; Kim, Jin Sook; Kim, Junghyun

    2015-01-01

    Ocular pathologic angiogenesis is an important causative risk factor of blindness in retinopathy of prematurity, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and neovascular macular degeneration. Guibi-tang (GBT) is a frequently used oriental herbal formula in East Asian countries, and is also called Qui-pi-tang in Chinese and Kihi-To in Japanese. In the present study, we investigated the preventive effect of GBT on retinal pathogenic neovascularization in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 75% hyperoxia for five days on postnatal day 7 (P7). The mice were then exposed to room air from P12 to P17 to induce ischemic proliferative retinopathy. GBT (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) was intraperitoneally administered daily for five days (from P12 to P16). On P17, Retinal neovascularization was measured on P17, and the expression levels of 55 angiogenesis-related factors were analyzed using protein arrays. GBT significantly decreased retinal pathogenic angiogenesis in OIR mice, and protein arrays revealed that GBT decreased PAI-1 protein expression levels. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that GBT reduced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) mRNA levels in OIR mice. GBT promotes potent inhibitory activity for retinal neovascularization by decreasing VEGF, FGF2, and PAI-1 levels. PMID:26694358

  8. Safety assessment of So-cheong-ryong-tang: subchronic toxicity study in Crl:CD Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mee-Young; Seo, Chang-Seob; Cha, Shin-Woo; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2014-06-01

    So-cheong-ryong-tang, an oriental herbal formula, is used in Korea for treating pulmonary disorders, including asthma, bronchitis and allergic diseases. The objective of the present study was to investigate the potential adverse effects, if any, of subchronic administration of So-cheong-ryong-tang aqueous extract (SCRT) in male and female rats. In the present study, 0, 1,000, 2,000 and 5,000 mg/kg/day of SCRT was administered to Crl:CD Sprague Dawley rats (10/gender/group) for 13 weeks via oral gavage. Administration of the SCRT did not result in any mortality. There were no clinical or ophthalmological signs, changes in urinalysis, body weight, food consumption, gross findings, hematology, serum biochemistry, organ weight or histopathology attributable to the administration of SCRT. Any alterations noted were incidental and consistent with those historically observed in the age and strain of rats used in the present study. Based on the results of the present study, the no observed adverse effect level for SCRT under the present experimental conditions was determined to be 5,000 mg/kg/day, the highest dose assessed, for both genders. PMID:24700072

  9. Toxicity of Alangium salvifolium Wang chemical constituents against the tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura Fab.

    PubMed

    Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Revathi, Kannan; Chandrasekaran, Rajamanickam; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Edwin, Edward Sam; Pradeepa, Venkatraman

    2016-01-01

    Widespread use of synthetic pesticides has resulted in the development of insecticide-resistant populations of pests and harmful effects on human health and the environment. There is a need to identify alternative pest management strategies to reduce our reliance on conventional chemical pesticides. In recent years the use of botanical pesticides for protecting crops from insect pests has assumed greater importance. Methanol extract of Alangium salvifolium (L.f.) Wang has potential insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura Fab. The active fractions were identified through chromatographic techniques as F-IV (Rf value=0.45) and F-VI (Rf value=0.63) and were subjected to GC-MS (GCMATE II). Fifty, 100 and 200ppm of active fractions were applied to fourth instar larvae and the mortality increased with higher concentrations. Relative consumption rate, relative growth rate, efficiency of conversion of ingested food and efficiency of conversion of digested food values all decreased in treated larvae, but approximate digestibility rate increased after treatment. The hydrolytic enzymes, such as acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and the glycolytic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase were inhibited in treated larvae compared with controls. The histopathology study revealed that the epithelial columnar cells were enlarged, completely atrophied; intercellular spaces were swollen, and also noted a cytoplasmic ooze of cell material that mixed with food column. The present study clearly showed the active fractions from A. salvifolium as potential botanicals to control the larvae of S. litura. This is the first report for nutritional indices, enzymatic activities and histological effects of A. salvifolium chemical constituents against S. litura. Thus probably, this will be used as an alternative for synthetic pesticides against the polyphagous pest like S. litura. PMID:26778440

  10. Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics in the Multicanonical Ensemble: Connections between Wang-Landau Sampling and Metadynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Thomas; Perez, Danny; Junghans, Christoph

    2014-03-01

    We show direct formal relationships between the Wang-Landau iteration [PRL 86, 2050 (2001)], metadynamics [PNAS 99, 12562 (2002)] and statistical temperature molecular dynamics [PRL 97, 050601 (2006)], the major Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics work horses for sampling from a generalized, multicanonical ensemble. We aim at helping to consolidate the developments in the different areas by indicating how methodological advancements can be transferred in a straightforward way, avoiding the parallel, largely independent, developments tracks observed in the past.

  11. Micro-Raman analysis of the pigments on painted pottery figurines from two tombs of the Northern Wei Dynasty in Luoyang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhaojun; Han, Yunxia; Han, Ligang; Cheng, Yongjian; Ma, Yiqiang; Fang, Li

    2013-05-01

    The pigments on the painted pottery figurines from two tombs of Northern Wei Dynasty (AD 386-534) in Luoyang were analyzed by Raman microscopy. All the pigments were identified compared with the Raman spectra of standard pigments. The red pigments were identified as haematite, the blue pigment as lapis lazuli, the green pigment as malachite, the black pigment as carbon black and the white pigment as calcite. Similar pigments were used in the two tombs despite the pottery figurines were very different in artistic style. The use of lapis lazuli as blue pigment on Chinese painted pottery figurines was found for the first time. This pigment and the painted pottery figurine of Sogdians are of great archaeological significance because it demonstrated that the trade and cultural exchanges via the Silk Road had extended to Luoyang city in the Northern Wei Dynasty. The result also confirms that micro-Raman spectroscopy is a powerful analytical method for the identification of pigments on ancient artworks.

  12. Micro-Raman analysis of the pigments on painted pottery figurines from two tombs of the Northern Wei Dynasty in Luoyang.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaojun; Han, Yunxia; Han, Ligang; Cheng, Yongjian; Ma, Yiqiang; Fang, Li

    2013-05-15

    The pigments on the painted pottery figurines from two tombs of Northern Wei Dynasty (AD 386-534) in Luoyang were analyzed by Raman microscopy. All the pigments were identified compared with the Raman spectra of standard pigments. The red pigments were identified as haematite, the blue pigment as lapis lazuli, the green pigment as malachite, the black pigment as carbon black and the white pigment as calcite. Similar pigments were used in the two tombs despite the pottery figurines were very different in artistic style. The use of lapis lazuli as blue pigment on Chinese painted pottery figurines was found for the first time. This pigment and the painted pottery figurine of Sogdians are of great archaeological significance because it demonstrated that the trade and cultural exchanges via the Silk Road had extended to Luoyang city in the Northern Wei Dynasty. The result also confirms that micro-Raman spectroscopy is a powerful analytical method for the identification of pigments on ancient artworks. PMID:23501716

  13. The WEI6K, a 6-kW 7-m Small Wind Turbine: Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, Kyle K.; McCleer, Patrick J.; Hahlbeck, Edwin C.; DOE Project Office - Keith Bennett

    2006-07-21

    This project was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy under a DOE solicitation “Low Wind Speed Technology for Small Turbine Development.” The objective of this project has been to design a new small wind turbine with improved cost, reliability and performance in grid-connected residential and small business applications, in order to achieve the overall DOE goal of cost effectiveness in Class 3 wind resources that can now be achieved in Class 5 resources. The scope of work for this project has been to complete the preliminary design of an improved small wind turbine, including preliminary loads and strength analyses; analysis and design of all major components; systems integration and structural dynamic analysis; estimation of life-cycle cost of energy; and design documentation and review. The project did not entail hardware fabrication or testing. The WEI6K Turbine resulting from this project is an upwind horizontal-axis wind turbine rated at 6 kW. It features a 3-blade 7-m diameter rotor. The generator is a direct-drive permanent magnet synchronous machine generating 3-phase power at 240 VAC. The turbine is maintained oriented in to the wind via active yaw control using electromechanical servos. Power is regulated with active blade pitch control. The turbine is presently designed to be placed on a 100-foot (30m) tower. The turbine is predicted to generate electricity at a levelized cost of energy (COE) between 7.3 and 8.9 ¢/kWh at an IEC Class II site, with an average wind speed of 8.5 m/s at hub height, depending upon whether the customer uses a guyed truss tower (the lower figure) or a monopole tower. For the NREL Reference Site, with a mean wind speed of 5.35 m/s at 10 m height, the turbine would generate at a levelized cost of energy of between 9.7 and 11.9 ¢/kWh. The lowest of these numbers is presently competitive with retail electricity rates in most of the country. The 8.9 ¢/kWh is still competitive with retail rates in many regions of the country with high electricity costs. The study further concludes that several design changes could shave 10-14% from the cost of energy determined in the preliminary design. These changes include a new tower design that offers tilt-up capability without guy wires and takes better advantage of the lowered loads produced by pitch control; design a family of airfoils more appropriate for pitch regulation on a turbine of this size; tune the pitch controller properly to minimize shedding of power during turbulent operation in the transition from Region 2 to 3; value engineer the pitch system to shave costs, including consideration of a collective pitch system; and refine the design of the hub and main frame castings to minimize weight and cost. We are generally encouraged by the results. These preliminary numbers show that we can produce a turbine that is competitive with retail electric rates at relatively windy IEC Class II sites. With further improvements in the design, we believe the turbine could be competitive at sites with lesser wind resource.

  14. Improved prescription of taohechengqi-tang alleviates D-galactosamine acute liver failure in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Luo, Jian-Xing; Hu, Xiao-Yu; Yang, Fang; Zhong, Sen; Lin, Wu

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the hepatoprotective effect of improved prescription of Taohechengqi-tang (IPTT) against acute liver failure (ALF) in rats. METHODS: Seventy specific pathogen free male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group (normal rats, n = 10), ALF group (ALF model, n = 20), Stronger Neo-Minophagen C (SNMC) group (ALF model + SNMC, n = 20), and IPTT group (ALF model + IPTT, n = 20). The ALF model group was administered an intraperitoneal injection of D-galactosamine (1.4 g/kg), and the control group received normal saline intraperitoneally. The SNMC and IPTT groups were treated with SMMC (15.6 mg/kg) or IPTT (28.6 g/kg) by gavage at 24 h intervals, and the ALF and control groups were treated with normal saline. At 36 h after injection, serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, albumin, and cholinesterase and prothrombin time were determined, and liver histopathological scores were observed by microscopy after hematoxylin and eosin staining. mRNA expression of high mobility group box (HMGB) 1, toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and caspase-3 were analyzed via fluorescence quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry in liver tissue was also performed. RESULTS: D-galactosamine notably decreased the biochemical and coagulation profiles in serum. IPTT not only improved liver function and histopathology but also normalized the gene expression levels in liver tissue. Compared with the model group, in the IPTT and SNMC groups, HMGB1 mRNA/β-actin (0.06 ± 0.03, 0.11 ± 0.04 vs 0.25 ± 0.04, P < 0.05); TLR4 mRNA/β-actin (0.07 ± 0.02, 0.22 ± 0.08 vs 0.41 ± 0.22, P < 0.05); NF-κB mRNA/β-actin (0.74 ± 0.41, 1.78 ± 0.64 vs 2.68 ± 1.35, P < 0.05); and caspase-3 mRNA/β-actin levels were all significantly reduced (1.61 ± 0.45, 2.57 ± 1.04 vs 3.41 ± 0.85, P < 0.05). The gene expression levels were significantly lower in the IPTT group than in the SNMC group (P < 0.05). Compared with the model group, the PCNA expression in liver tissue was significantly enhanced in the IPTT and SNMC groups (36.34 ± 4.91, 25.57 ± 2.94 vs 17.55 ± 2.40, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: IPTT attenuates inflammation in ALF via inhibition of HMGB1 production, which may contribute to limited liver regeneration. PMID:26937143

  15. A Wang-Landau study of a lattice model for lipid bilayer self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Gai, Lili; Maerzke, Katie; Cummings, Peter T; McCabe, Clare

    2012-10-14

    The Wang-Landau (WL) Monte Carlo method has been applied to simulate the self-assembly of a lipid bilayer on a 3D lattice. The WL method differs from conventional Monte Carlo methods in that a complete density of states is obtained directly for the system, from which properties, such as the free energy, can be derived. Furthermore, from a single WL simulation, continuous curves of the average energy and heat capacity can be determined, which provide a complete picture of the phase behavior. The lipid model studied consists of 3 or 5 coarse-grained segments on lattices of varying sizes, with the empty lattice sites representing water. A bilayer structure is found to form at low temperatures, with phase transitions to clusters as temperature increases. For 3-segment chains, varying lattice sizes were studied, with the observation that the ratio of chain number to lattice area (i.e., area per lipid) affects the phase transition temperature. At small ratios, only one phase transition occurs between the bilayer and cluster phases, while at high lipid ratios the phase transition occurs in a two-step process with a stable intermediate phase. This second phase transition was not observed in conventional Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations on the same model, demonstrating the advantage of being able to perform a complete scan of the whole temperature range with the WL method. For longer 5-segment chains similar phase transitions are also observed with changes in temperature. In the WL method, due to the extensive nature of the energy, the number of energy bins required to represent the density of states increases as the system size increases and so limits its practical application to larger systems. To improve this, an extension of the WL algorithm, the statistical-temperature Monte Carlo method that allows simulations with larger energy bin sizes, has recently been proposed and is implemented in this work for the 3-segment lattice model. The results obtained are in good agreement with the original WL method and appear to be independent of the energy bin size used. PMID:23061859

  16. Effects of traditional Chinese herbal medicine San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang on gastrointestinal motility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Min Woo; Ahn, Tae Seok; Hong, Noo Ri; Jeong, Han-Sol; Jung, Myeong Ho; Ha, Ki-Tae; Kim, Byung Joo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXXT), a herbal product used in traditional Chinese medicine, on gastrointestinal (GI) motility in mice. METHODS: The in vivo effects of SHXXT on GI motility were investigated by measuring the intestinal transit rates (ITRs) using Evans blue in normal mice and in mice with experimentally induced GI motility dysfunction (GMD). RESULTS: In normal ICR mice, ITRs were significantly and dose-dependently increased by SHXXT (0.1-1 g/kg). GMD was induced by injecting acetic acid or streptozotocin intraperitoneally. The ITRs of GMD mice were significantly reduced compared to normal mice, and these reductions were significantly and dose-dependently inhibited by SHXXT (0.1-1 g/kg). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that SHXXT is a novel candidate for the development of a prokinetic agent that may prevent or alleviate GMD. PMID:25632184

  17. Anti-allergic effect of a Korean traditional medicine, Biyeom-Tang on mast cells and allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Biyeom-Tang, a medicine prescribed by oriental clinics, has been used for the treatment of the allergic rhinitis (AR). In the present study, an ethanol extract of Biyeom-Tang (EBT) was investigated for anti-allergic properties on bone-marrow derived mast cells (BMMC) and in vivo models. Methods The anti-allergic properties of EBT were evaluated by measuring β-Hex release and the production of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and leukotriene C4 (LTC4) on BMMC in vitro and PCA and OVA-induced AR models in vivo. Results EBT strongly inhibited a degranulation reaction in a dose dependent manner with an IC50 value of 35.6 μg/ml. In addition, the generation of PGD2 and LTC4 was inhibited in BMMC in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 values of 7.0 μg/ml and 10.9 μg/ml, respectively. When administrated orally, EBT ameliorated the mast cell-mediated PCA reaction. In the OVA-induced AR model, the increased levels of IgE were reduced by EBT. The levels of cytokines, such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13 decreased in the splenocytes of EBT-treated mice. The histological analysis shows that the infiltration of inflammatory cells increased by OVA-sensitization was also reduced. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggested that EBT has anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo models. PMID:24521096

  18. A description of preimaginal stages of Pseudaspidapion botanicum Alonso-Zarazaga & Wang, 2011 (Apionidae, Curculionoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiliang; Alonso-Zarazaga, M. A.; Zhou, Dakang; Zhang, Runzhi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The preimaginal stages including egg, mature larva and pupa of Pseudaspidapion botanicum Alonso-Zarazaga & Wang, 2011 were described and figured, diagnostic characters of larva and pupa were discussed, and corresponding biological information was supplied. The nomenclature of frontal setae in the larva compared with curculionid weevils, the absence of the hypopharyngeal bracon in the larva, and the metafemoral setae in the pupa were discussed. Common and different characters among the larvae of Pseudaspidapion botanicum, Aspidapion radiolus (Marsham, 1802) and Aspidapion aeneum (Fabricius, 1775) were also provided. PMID:23653504

  19. Farmer and retailer knowledge and awareness of the risks from pesticide use: a case study in the Wei River catchment, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaomei; Wang, Fei; Meng, Lei; Zhang, Wenshuai; Fan, Liangxin; Geissen, Violette; Ritsema, Coen J

    2014-11-01

    Monitoring the educational level of farmers and retailers on pesticide use would be useful to assess the appropriateness of information for reducing or/and avoiding the risks from pesticides in rural regions. The levels of knowledge and awareness of the dangers to the environment and human health were investigated by questionnaires for farmers (209) and retailers (20) in two rural regions (Qianyang County (S1) and Chencang County (S2)) of the Wei River catchment in China where the modes of farming and the state of erosion are very different. The results showed that farmers learned the use and dangers of pesticides mainly by oral communication (p<0.01). Protective measures were inadequate; 65% (S1) and 55% (S2) of farmers never used any protective measures during spraying (p<0.05). Washing hands (>70%) was the most common mode of personal hygiene, relative to wearing masks, showering, and changing clothes, but no significant differences were observed between the selected regions. Most pesticide wastes were dumped directly onto the land or into water, suggesting that educational measures should be taken to address the potential risks from the residues in the wastes. Over 85% of farmers (S1 and S2) claimed to use illegal pesticides, but the reasons for their use varied (p<0.01). Retailers were well-informed and highly conscious of their responsibility for the safe use of pesticides, especially in S2 (p<0.01). A canonical correspondence analysis indicated that educational level and age differed between the two regions and contributed greatly to the risks from pesticide use (p<0.01). Educational programmes targeted to age groups, proper disposal of pesticide waste, and sufficient supervision from authorities should consequently be considered for improving the levels of knowledge and awareness of the dangers of pesticides to human health and environmental pollution in the Wei River catchment, China. PMID:25128887

  20. Comments on 'A structure-preserving method for the quaternion LU decomposition in quaternionic quantum theory' by Minghui Wang and Wenhao Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangwine, Stephen J.

    2015-03-01

    Claims were made in an article by Wang and Ma in 2013 that they had devised an algorithm for the quaternion LU decomposition that was significantly faster than the LU decomposition implemented in the Quaternion Toolbox for MATLAB (QTFM). These claims have been tested and found to be unsupported by MATLAB code supplied to the author by Wang and Ma. The author's tests are presented, and test code made available as supplementary material. It is found that not only is the QTFM code faster, but that Wang and Ma's algorithm has run-time that scales with the square of the size of the matrix, whereas the algorithm in QTFM has run time approximately linear in matrix size. These findings are consistent with an inspection of the code. wang_qlu7.m-Source code file supplied by Wang and Ma through the editor. structured_lu.m-Wang and Ma's (WM) code made into a function with the same parameter profile as the QTFM function. structured_test.m-A script to run the QTFM and WM codes for various matrix sizes and plot the results. The data in the variables t1 and t2 is available for inspection after the code runs. The corresponding matrix sizes are in variable S. The QTFM code is not made available as supplementary material, as it is a large toolbox, and is freely available from the Sourceforge site [2]. Version 1.9 (used by Wang and Ma) and later versions are available there. The QTFM LU code is in the source file named lu.m which will be found in the directory @quaternion.

  1. Calculation of the Curie temperature of Ni using first principles based Wang-Landau Monte-Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenbach, Markus; Yin, Junqi; Li, Ying Wai; Nicholson, Don

    2015-03-01

    We combine constrained first principles density functional with a Wang-Landau Monte Carlo algorithm to calculate the Curie temperature of Ni. Mapping the magnetic interactions in Ni onto a Heisenberg like model to underestimates the Curie temperature. Using a model we show that the addition of the magnitude of the local magnetic moments can account for the difference in the calculated Curie temperature. For ab initio calculations, we have extended our Locally Selfconsistent Multiple Scattering (LSMS) code to constrain the magnitude of the local moments in addition to their direction and apply the Replica Exchange Wang-Landau method to sample the larger phase space efficiently to investigate Ni where the fluctuation in the magnitude of the local magnetic moments is of importance equal to their directional fluctuations. We will present our results for Ni where we compare calculations that consider only the moment directions and those including fluctuations of the magnetic moment magnitude on the Curie temperature. This research was sponsored by the Department of Energy, Offices of Basic Energy Science and Advanced Computing. We used Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility resources at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, supported by US DOE under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  2. Three-Dimensional MHD Modeling of The Solar Corona and Solar Wind: Comparison with The Wang-Sheeley Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usmanov, A. V.; Goldstein, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    We present simulation results from a tilted-dipole steady-state MHD model of the solar corona and solar wind and compare the output from our model with the Wang-Sheeley model which relates the divergence rate of magnetic flux tubes near the Sun (inferred from solar magnetograms) to the solar wind speed observed near Earth and at Ulysses. The boundary conditions in our model specified at the coronal base and our simulation region extends out to 10 AU. We assumed that a flux of Alfven waves with amplitude of 35 km per second emanates from the Sun and provides additional heating and acceleration for the coronal outflow in the open field regions. The waves are treated in the WKB approximation. The incorporation of wave acceleration allows us to reproduce the fast wind measurements obtained by Ulysses, while preserving reasonable agreement with plasma densities typically found at the coronal base. We find that our simulation results agree well with Wang and Sheeley's empirical model.

  3. Thermodynamics of the classical spin-ice model with nearest neighbour interactions using the Wang-Landau algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreyra, Maria V.; Giordano, Gaston; Borzi, Rodolfo A.; Betouras, Joseph J.; Grigera, Santiago A.

    2016-02-01

    In this article we study the classical nearest-neighbour spin-ice model (nnSI) by means of Monte Carlo simulations, using the Wang-Landau algorithm. The nnSI describes several of the salient features of the spin-ice materials. Despite its simplicity it exhibits a remarkably rich behaviour. The model has been studied using a variety of techniques, thus it serves as an ideal benchmark to test the capabilities of the Wang Landau algorithm in magnetically frustrated systems. We study in detail the residual entropy of the nnSI and, by introducing an applied magnetic field in two different crystallographic directions ([111] and [100]), we explore the physics of the kagome-ice phase, the transition to full polarisation, and the three dimensional Kasteleyn transition. In the latter case, we discuss how additional constraints can be added to the Hamiltonian, by taking into account a selective choice of states in the partition function and, then, show how this choice leads to the realization of the ideal Kasteleyn transition in the system.

  4. Effect of “Deqi” during the Study of Needling “Wang's Jiaji” Acupoints Treating Spasticity after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huanqin; Liu, Huilin; Liu, Cunzhi; Shi, Guangxia; Zhou, Wei; Zhao, Chengmei; Wang, Xuefei; Wang, Guiling; Zhao, Yin; Sun, Jingqing; Wang, Jing; Wang, Linpeng

    2014-01-01

    Background. Acupuncture has been shown to reduce spasticity and prevent the onset of spasticity after stroke. The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of “Deqi” during needling “Wang's Jiaji” acupoints treating spasticity in the early stage of stroke. Methods. This study is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. 238 patients with stroke (<21 days) participated and were randomly allocated to the verum-acupuncture (n = 121) group or sham-acupuncture group (n = 117). The verum-acupuncture group received verum acupuncture required to produce the sense of “Deqi” while the sham-acupuncture group received sham acupuncture without “Deqi.” Patients in both groups followed the same 30 min acupuncture regimen 5 times per week for a period of 4 weeks. Scales of MAS, FMA, ADL, MBI, NIHSS, SS-QOL, and MRS were measured at baseline and at 2, 4, and 12 weeks after intervention. Results. Significant differences were observed between two groups. The MRS rating composition has the statistical difference after 4 weeks (P = 0.017). The score of MAS, FMA, Barthel, and SSQOL in verum-acupuncture group has increased significantly compared with the sham-acupuncture group after 12 weeks. There was 14% reduction of higher muscle tension in the verum-acupuncture group. Conclusion. Acupuncture “Wang's Jiaji” points with sensation of “Deqi” in the early stage may reduce the occurrence and decrease the severity of spasticity after stroke. PMID:25477996

  5. Efficacy and mechanism of action of yin lai tang (lung-stomach treatment) in dyspepsia mouse infected by FM1 virus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tiegang; Yu, He; Zhang, Wang; Zhen, Jianhua; Li, Xiaofei; Lv, Guokai; Gu, Hong-Xiao; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and elaborate the mechanism of action of Yin Lai Tang (Lung-Stomach Treatment) on dyspepsia mouse infected by FM1 virus. Ninety male, 4 week old Kunming mouse with 12-14 g weight, were randomly divided into 9 groups, i.e., normal, infected, dyspepsia, ribavirin, Shuanghuanglian, Children's indigestion tablet, YinLaiTang high dose, YinLaiTang middle dose and YinLaiTang low dose, and these groups had been treated by according drugs to get objectives. Compared with normal group, lung index significantly (p < 0.01) increased in all groups except ribavirin group where lung index obviously (p < 0.05) increased. There was non-significant (p > 0.05) difference in the values of lung homogenate virus titer between dyspepsia group and other groups. Compared to normal group, there was variable degree of inflammatory cell infiltrations in respiratory tract structures in the animals of other groups, and there was a significant (p < 0.01) increase in the level of serum IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-alpha in infected and dyspepsia group and significant (p < 0.01) decrease in the level of serum IFN-gamma was observed. Compared with single clearing stomach method and single clearing lung approach, lung-stomach treatment reduced the level of IL-6 with non-significant difference (p > 0.05) and increased the level of IL-10 obviously, and compared with the single clearing lung method, there was a significant difference (p < 0.05). Compared with the single clearing stomach method and the single clearing lung method, the lung-stomach treatment method had a better efficacy and showed effects on the expression of pro-inflammatory factor and anti-inflammatory factor. PMID:24383334

  6. A new genus of oak gallwasp, Cyclocynips Melika, Tang & Sinclair (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini), with descriptions of two new species from Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Melika, George; Tang, Chang-ti; Sinclair, Frazer; Yang, Man-miao; Lohse, Konrad; Hearn, Jack; Nicholls, James A; Stone, Graham N

    2013-01-01

    A new genus of cynipid oak gallwasp-Cyclocynips Melika, Tang, & Sinclair (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini), with two new species--C. uberis and C. tumorvirgae--reared from galls on oaks of the Quercus subgenus Cyclobalanopsis is described from Taiwan. Descriptions of asexual generation adults and their diagnostic characters are presented. The likelihood of yet undiscovered sexual generations and the evolution of host-plant associations in these species are discussed. PMID:26131530

  7. Clinical Efficacy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Suan Zao Ren Tang, for Sleep Disturbance during Methadone Maintenance: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yuan-Yu; Chen, Yi-Hung; Yang, Szu-Nian; Lo, Wan-Yu; Lin, Jaung-Geng

    2015-01-01

    Methadone maintenance therapy is an effective treatment for opiate dependence, but more than three-quarters of persons receiving the treatment report sleep quality disturbances. In this double-blind, randomized, controlled trial, we recruited 90 individuals receiving methadone for at least one month who reported sleep disturbances and had Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scores > 5. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Suan Zao Ren Tang, one of the most commonly prescribed traditional Chinese medications for treatment of insomnia, improves subjective sleep among methadone-maintained persons with disturbed sleep quality. Ninety patients were randomly assigned to intervention group (n = 45) and placebo group (n = 45), and all participants were analyzed. Compared with placebo treatment, Suan Zao Ren Tang treatment for four weeks produced a statistically significant improvement in the mean total PSQI scores (P = 0.007) and average sleep efficiency (P = 0.017). All adverse events (e.g., lethargy, diarrhea, and dizziness) were mild in severity. Suan Zao Ren Tang is effective for improving sleep quality and sleep efficiency among methadone-maintained patients with sleep complaints. PMID:26346534

  8. Inter- and intra-annual variability of fluvial sediment transport in the proglacial river Riffler Bach (Weißseeferner, Ötztal Alps, Tyrol)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baewert, Henning; Weber, Martin; Morche, David

    2015-04-01

    The hydrology of a proglacial river is strongly affected by glacier melting. Due to glacier retreat the effects of snow melt and rain storms will become more important in future decades. Additionally, the development of periglacial landscapes will play a more important role in the hydrology of proglacial rivers. The importance of paraglacial sediment sources in sediment budgets of glacier forefields is increasing, while the role of glacial erosion is declining. In two consecutive ablation seasons the fluvial sediment transport of the river Riffler Bach in the Kaunertal (Tyrol/Austria) was quantified. The catchment area of this station is 20 km² with an altitudinal range from 1929 m to 3518 m above msl. The "Weißseeferner" glacier (2.34 km² in 2012) is the greatest of the remaining glaciers. An automatic water sampler (AWS 2002) and a probe for water level were installed were installed at the outlet of the catchment. In order to calculate annual stage-discharge-relations, discharge (Q) was repeatedly measured with current meters. Concurrent to the discharge measurements bed load was collected using a portable Helley-Smith sampler. Bed load (BL) samples were weighted and sieved in the laboratory to gain annual bed load rating curves and grain size distributions. In 2012, 154 water samples were sampled during 7 periods and subsequently filtered to quantify suspended sediment concentrations (SSC). A Q-SSC-relation was calculated for every period due to the high variability in suspended sediment transport. In addition, the grain size distribution of the filtered material was determined by laser diffraction analysis. In 2013, the same procedure was performed for 232 water samples which were collected during 9 periods. Meteorological data were logged at the climate station "Weißsee", which is located in the centre of the study area. First results show a high variability of discharge and solid sediment transport both at the inter-annual as well as at the intra-annual timescale. In 2012, a larger amount of sediment was transported compared to 2013. A higher runoff during the snowmelt period 2012 and a heavy rain fall event in late August 2012 were the main reasons. Only 8 of 16 Q-SSC-relations show causal dependency. Thus, indicating that sediment transport strongly depends on the availability of sediment and the coupling of sediment sources to the fluvial system.

  9. Quality Control of Danggui Buxue Tang, a Traditional Chinese Medicine Decoction, by 1H-NMR Metabolic Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wendy L.; Cheung, Chi Yuen; Tsim, Karl W. K.

    2014-01-01

    Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) is one of the simplest traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) decoctions, first described in China in 1247 AD. DBT is composed of 2 herbs, Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelica Sinensis Radix (ASR), boiled together in a 5 : 1 ratio. Clinically, DBT is prescribed to women as a remedy for menopausal symptoms. Here, H-NMR metabolic profiling was conducted for DBT and the water extracts of AR or ASR, to evaluate the potential of this chemical profiling method for quality control of the herbal decoction. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that DBT could be readily distinguished from the water extracts of its constituent herbs by the metabolic profiles. More interestingly, the metabolic profile of DBT was not a simple sum of that of AR and ASR. Asparagine was found at significantly higher concentration in DBT than that in either AR or ASR extract, contributing mainly to the discrimination of DBT sample. In addition, we employed the same method to profile a commercial DBT powder, verifying its authenticity as compared to our prepared DBT. This study is the first to employ H-NMR metabolic profiling for the quality control of traditional Chinese medicine decoctions. PMID:24826194

  10. Effect of traditional Chinese medicine Shu-mai-tang on angiogenesis, arteriogenesis and cardiac function in rats with myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Yin, Huiqiu; Zhang, Jidong; Lin, Haiqing; Qiao, Yun; Wang, Rong; Lu, Huixia; Liang, Su

    2009-01-01

    Ischemic heart disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Shu-mai-tang (SMT) is a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of ischemic heart disease. To better understand the underlying cardioprotection mechanisms of SMT on myocardial ischemia (MI), the effect of SMT on angiogenesis, arteriogenesis and cardiac function was investigated in a rat model of MI, as well as the potential mechanism. Rats with a ligated left anterior descending coronary artery (MI model) were randomized (24 rats/group) to receive SMT/LY294002 [phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor], SMT or no treatment. A sham-operation group was included. It was demonstrated that 2 and 4 weeks after treatment the oral administration of SMT significantly increased capillaries and arterioles, suppressed myocardial fibrosis, as well as significantly increased cardiac phosphorylation of Akt, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB) levels and functional improvement. PI3K inhibitor down-regulated SMT-induced angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. These novel therapeutic properties of SMT to induce the reconstitution of stable blood supply networks, reverse LV remodeling may offer an alternative therapy for the treatment of ischemic heart disease. The potential mechanism may be that SMT promotes VEGF and PDGF-BB-mediated angiogenesis and arteriogenesis through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. PMID:18814204

  11. Statistical investigation of the cross sections of wave clusters in the three-dimensional Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dashti-Naserabadi, H.; Najafi, M. N.

    2015-05-01

    We consider the three-dimensional (3D) Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model in a cubic lattice. Along with analyzing the 3D problem, the geometrical structure of the two-dimensional (2D) cross section of waves is investigated. By analyzing the statistical observables defined in the cross sections, it is shown that the model in that plane (named as 2D-induced model) is in the critical state and fulfills the finite-size scaling hypothesis. The analysis of the critical loops that are interfaces of the 2D-induced model is of special importance in this paper. Most importantly, we see that their fractal dimension is Df=1.387 0.005 , which is compatible with the fractal dimension of the external perimeter of geometrical spin clusters of 2D critical Ising model. Some hyperscaling relations between the exponents of the model are proposed and numerically confirmed. We then address the problem of conformal invariance of the mentioned domain walls using Schramm-Lowener evolution (SLE). We found that they are described by SLE with the diffusivity parameter ? =2.8 0.2 , nearly consistent with observed fractal dimension.

  12. Du-Huo-Ji-Sheng-Tang Attenuates Inflammation of TNF-Tg Mice Related to Promoting Lymphatic Drainage Function

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Li, Jinlong; Li, Qiang; Wang, Tengteng; Xing, Lianping; Xu, Hao; Wang, Yongjun; Shi, Qi; Zhou, Quan; Liang, Qianqian

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether Du-Huo-Ji-Sheng-Tang (DHJST) attenuate inflammation of RA related to lymphatic drainage function in vivo, we treated eight 3-month-old TNF-Tg mice with DHJST (12 g/kg) or the same volume of physiological saline once every day for 12 weeks, and 3-month-old WT littermates were used as negative control. After twelve weeks, we performed NIR-ICG imaging and found that DHJST increased the ICG clearance at the footpad and the pulse of efferent lymphatic vessel between popliteal lymph node and footpad. Histology staining at ankle joints showed that DHJST decreases synovial inflammation, bone erosion, cartilage erosion, and TRAP+ osteoclast area in TNF-Tg mice. Immunohistochemical staining by using anti-Lyve-1 and anti-podoplanin antibody showed that DHJST stimulated lymphangiogenesis in ankle joints of TNF-Tg mice. And zebrafish study suggested that DHJST promoted the formation of lymphatic thoracic duct. In conclusion, DHJST inhibits inflammation severity and promotes lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic drainage function of TNF-Tg mice.

  13. Advancing drug discovery and development from active constituents of yinchenhao tang, a famous traditional chinese medicine formula.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Qiu, Shi; Wang, Xijun

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula has been playing a very important role in health protection and disease control for thousands of years. Guided by TCM syndrome theories, formula are designed to contain a combination of various kinds of crude drugs that, when combined, will achieve synergistic efficacy. However, the precise mechanism of synergistic action remains poorly understood. One example is a famous TCM formula Yinchenhao Tang (YCHT), whose efficacy in treating hepatic injury (HI) and Jaundice syndrome, has recently been well established as a case study. We also conducted a systematic analysis of synergistic effects of the principal compound using biochemistry, pharmacokinetics and systems biology, to explore the key molecular mechanisms. We had found that the three component (6,7-dimethylesculetin (D), geniposide (G), and rhein (R)) combination exerts a more robust synergistic effect than any one or two of the three individual compounds by hitting multiple targets. They can regulate molecular networks through activating both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways to synergistically cause intensified therapeutic effects. This paper provides an overview of the recent and potential developments of chemical fingerprinting coupled with systems biology advancing drug discovery towards more agile development of targeted combination therapies for the YCHT. PMID:24191164

  14. Enhanced Bone Tissue Regeneration by Porous Gelatin Composites Loaded with the Chinese Herbal Decoction Danggui Buxue Tang

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Ling; Sheu, Shi-Yuan; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Kao, Shung-Te; Fu, Yuan-Tsung; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Chen, Kuo-Yu; Yao, Chun-Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) is a traditional Chinese herbal decoction containing Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae sinensis. Pharmacological results indicate that DBT can stimulate bone cell proliferation and differentiation. The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of adding DBT to bone substitutes on bone regeneration following bone injury. DBT was incorporated into porous composites (GGT) made from genipin-crosslinked gelatin and β-triclacium phosphates as bone substitutes (GGTDBT). The biological response of mouse calvarial bone to these composites was evaluated by in vivo imaging systems (IVIS), micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and histology analysis. IVIS images revealed a stronger fluorescent signal in GGTDBT-treated defect than in GGT-treated defect at 8 weeks after implantation. Micro-CT analysis demonstrated that the level of repair from week 4 to 8 increased from 42.1% to 71.2% at the sites treated with GGTDBT, while that increased from 33.2% to 54.1% at GGT-treated sites. These findings suggest that the GGTDBT stimulates the innate regenerative capacity of bone, supporting their use in bone tissue regeneration. PMID:26126113

  15. Correlative analysis of metabolite profiling of Danggui Buxue Tang in rat biological fluids by rapid resolution LC-TOF/MS.

    PubMed

    Li, Chang-Yin; Qi, Lian-Wen; Li, Ping

    2011-04-28

    In this work, the metabolite profiles of Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) in rat bile and plasma were qualitatively described, and the possible metabolic pathways of DBT were subsequently proposed. Emphasis was put on correlative analysis of metabolite profiling in different biological fluids. After oral administration of DBT, bile and plasma samples were collected and pretreated by solid phase extraction. Rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-TOFMS) was used for characterization of DBT-related compounds (parent compounds and metabolites) in biological matrices. A total of 142 metabolites were detected and tentatively identified from the drug-containing bile and plasma samples. Metabolite profiling shows that rat bile contained relatively more glutathione-derived conjugates, more saponins compounds and more diverse forms of metabolites than urine. The metabolite profile in plasma revealed that glucuronide conjugates of isoflavonoids, dimmers, acetylcysteine conjugates and parent form of phthalides, as well as saponin aglycones were the major circulating forms of DBT. Collectively, the metabolite profile analysis of DBT in different biological matrices provided a comprehensive understanding of the in vivo metabolic fates of constituents in DBT. PMID:21277133

  16. Huangqin-Tang Ameliorates TNBS-Induced Colitis by Regulating Effector and Regulatory CD4+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Ying; Li, Wen-Yang; Wan, Zheng; Zhao, Bing; He, Zhi-Wei; Wu, Zhu-Guo; Huang, Guo-Liang; Wang, Jian; Li, Bin-Bin; Lu, Yang-Jia; Ding, Cong-Cong; Chi, Hong-Gang; Zheng, Xue-Bao

    2015-01-01

    Huangqin-Tang decoction (HQT) is a classic traditional Chinese herbal formulation that is widely used to ameliorate the symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study was designed to investigate the therapeutic potential and immunological regulatory activity of HQT in experimental colitis in rats. Using an animal model of colitis by intrarectally administering 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS), we found that administration of HQT significantly inhibited the severity of TNBS-induced colitis in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, treatment with HQT produced better results than that with mesalazine, as shown by improvedweight loss bleeding and diarrhoea scores, colon length, and intestinal inflammation. As for potential immunological regulation of HQT action, the percentages of Th1 and Th17 cells were reduced, but those Th2 and Treg cells were enhanced in LPMCs after HQT treatment. Additionally, HQT lowered the levels of Th1/Th17-associated cytokines but increased production of Th2/Treg-associated cytokines in the colon and MLNs. Furthermore, we observed a remarkable suppression of the Th1/Th17-associated transcription factors T-bet and ROR-γt. However, expression levels of the Th2/Treg-associated transcription factors GATA-3 and Foxp3 were enhanced during treatment with HQT. Our results suggest that HQT has the therapeutic potential to ameliorate TNBS-induced colitis symptoms. This protective effect is possibly mediated by its effects on CD4+ T cells subsets. PMID:26347453

  17. Pharmacokinetics and Relative Bioavailability of Flavonoids between Two Dosage Forms of Gegen-Qinlian-Tang in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chung-Ping; Shia, Chi-Sheng; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Hou, Yu-Chi

    2012-01-01

    Gegen-Qinlian-Tang (GQT), a popular Chinese medicine prescription, consists of Puerariae Radix, Scutellariae Radix, Coptidis Rhizoma, and Glycyrrhizae Radix. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of GQT in rats and compared the bioavailability between two dosage forms, that is, traditional decoction (TD) and concentrated powder (CP). Rats were given TD and CP of GQT in a crossover design, and blood samples were withdrawn at predetermined time points. The quantitation methods of ten constituents in two dosage forms of GQT and in serum specimen using HPLC were developed and validated in this study. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartment model. The results showed that daidzein, baicalein, wogonin, berberine, palmatine, and coptisine were not found in the circulation, whereas the sulfates/glucuronides of daidzein, baicalein, and wogonin were the major forms after oral administration of GQT. Comparison between two dosage forms indicated that the AUC0–t of daidzein sulfates/glucuronides after administration of CP was significantly lower than that of TD by 28.9%, whereas the bioavailabilities of baicalin/baicalein and wogonoside/wogonin were comparable between two dosage forms. In conclusion, the major flavonoids of GQT were extensively metabolized into sulfates/glucuronides and present as the major molecules in the circulation. TD of GQT revealed higher bioavailability of daidzin/daidzein than CP. PMID:23258986

  18. The usefulness of xuefu zhuyu tang for patients with angina pectoris: a meta-analysis and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Yi, Guo-Zhong; Qiu, Yu-Qin; Xiao, Ya; Yuan, Li-Xia

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of Xuefu Zhuyu Tang (XFZYT) for treating angina pectoris (AP). Methods. Six databases were searched (up to December, 2013). Eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficiency of XFZYT plus traditional antianginal medications (TAMs) compared with TAMs alone in patients with AP were included. The outcomes were relief of anginal symptoms (RAS) and improvement of electrocardiogram (ECG) and blood high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level. Result. Finally 14 RCTs were included. There were evidences that XFZYT combined with TAMs was more effective in improving RAS (RR = 1.29; 95% CI = [1.20, 1.38]), ECG (RR = 1.37; 95% CI = [1.22, 1.54]), and blood HDL-C level (MD = 0.29 mmol/L; 95% CI = [0.23, 0.35]) compared with TAMs alone. Our meta-analysis also showed the pooled number needed to treat (NNT) of the group with stable angina pectoris (SAP) was smaller in improving RAS (4.2 versus 5.7) and ECG (3.1 versus 5.5) compared with the group with both SAP and unstable angina pectoris (UAP). Conclusion. Combination therapy with XFZYT and TAMs is more effective in treating AP compared with TAMs alone. And XFZYT may be a more suitable choice for the treatment of SAP. However, the findings should be interpreted with caution due to the mediocre methodological quality of the included RCTs. PMID:25254054

  19. Anti-adipogenic and antioxidant effects of the traditional Korean herbal formula Samchulgeonbi-tang: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Sae-Rom; Seo, Chang-Seob; Kim, Ohn-Soon; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Jeong, Soo-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Here we report in vitro anti-adipogenic and antioxidant effects of Samchulgeonbi-tang (SCGBT), a traditional Korean herbal formula. Methods: 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes with or without SCGBT. After differentiation, we measured Oil Red O staining, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity and leptin production. In addition, its effect on scavenging activities of 2,2’-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 2,2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals in in vitro systems. Results: In differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, SCGBT significantly inhibited lipid accumulation and triglyceride production, and mediated inactivation of GPDH, a major enzyme in the process of adipogenesis. Consistent with this, SCGBT stimulation significantly decreased the amount of leptin in 3T3-L1 adipose cells. Furthermore, SCGBT enhanced the scavenging activities on ABTS and DPPH radicals. The generation of malondialdehyde (MDA) during low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation was significantly reduced by SCGBT treatment. Of interest, SCGBT extract inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Conclusion: Overall, our findings suggest that SCGBT has the potential for anti-adipogenic activity and antioxidant properties. PMID:26309521

  20. Effect of Sipjeondaebo-tang on cancer-induced anorexia and cachexia in CT-26 tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youn Kyung; Jung, Ki Yong; Woo, Sang-Mi; Yun, Yee Jin; Jun, Chan-Yong; Park, Jong Hyeong; Shin, Yong Cheol; Cho, Sung-Gook; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    Cancer-associated anorexia and cachexia are a multifactorial condition described by a loss of body weight and muscle with anorexia, asthenia, and anemia. Moreover, they correlate with a high mortality rate, poor response to chemotherapy, poor performance status, and poor quality of life. Cancer cachexia is regulated by proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α). In addition, glucagon like peptide-1 (GIP-1), peptide YY (PYY), ghrelin, and leptin plays a crucial role in food intake. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of one of the traditional herbal medicines, Sipjeondaebo-tang (Juzen-taiho-to in Japanese; SJDBT), on cancer anorexia and cachexia in a fundamental mouse cancer anorexia/cachexia model, CT-26 tumor-bearing mice. SJDBT was more significantly effective in a treatment model where it was treated after anorexia and cachexia than in a prevention model where it was treated before anorexia and cachexia on the basis of parameters such as weights of muscles and whole body and food intakes. Moreover, SJDBT inhibited a production of IL-6, MCP-1, PYY, and GLP-1 and ameliorated cancer-induced anemia. Therefore, our in vivo studies provide evidence on the role of SJDBT in cancer-associated anorexia and cachexia, thereby suggesting that SJDBT may be useful for treating cancer-associated anorexia and cachexia. PMID:24963216

  1. Serum Metabolomic Characterization of Liver Fibrosis in Rats and Anti-Fibrotic Effects of Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongyang; Wang, Xiaoning; Hu, Ping; Zhou, Wenjun; Zhang, Min; Liu, Jia; Wang, Yuerong; Liu, Ping; Luo, Guoan

    2016-01-01

    Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang (YCHT) is a famous Chinese medicine formula which has long been used in clinical practice for treating various liver diseases, such as liver fibrosis. However, to date, the mechanism for its anti-fibrotic effects remains unclear. In this paper, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF-MS)-based metabolomic study was performed to characterize dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced liver fibrosis in rats and evaluate the therapeutic effects of YCHT. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) showed that the model group was well separated from the control group, whereas the YCHT-treated group exhibited a tendency to restore to the controls. Seven significantly changed fibrosis-related metabolites, including unsaturated fatty acids and lysophosphatidylcholines (Lyso-PCs), were identified. Moreover, statistical analysis demonstrated that YCHT treatment could reverse the levels of most metabolites close to the normal levels. These results, along with histological and biochemical examinations, indicate that YCHT has anti-fibrotic effects, which may be due to the suppression of oxidative stress and resulting lipid peroxidation involved in hepatic fibrogenesis. This study offers new opportunities to improve our understanding of liver fibrosis and the anti-fibrotic mechanisms of YCHT. PMID:26805802

  2. Effects of Hyul-Bu-Chuke-Tang on Erythrocyte Deformability and Cerebrovascular CO2 Reactivity in Normal Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Woo-Sang; Park, Joo-Young; Byeon, Hyung-Sik; Kim, Young-Jee; Park, Jung-Mi; Park, Seong-Uk; Cho, Seung-Yeon; Moon, Sang-Kwan

    2012-01-01

    Aim. Hyul-bu-chuke-tang (HCEt) is a well-known traditional herbal medicine that is used for the treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular disorders. We investigated the acute effects of HCEt on erythrocyte deformability and cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity (CVR) in healthy male subjects. Materials and Methods. We examined erythrocyte deformability in an HCEt group (n = 14) and a control group (n = 10). CVR was measured using hyperventilation-induced CO2 reactivity of the middle cerebral artery and transcranial Doppler (TCD) in the HCEt group (n = 11). A historical control group (n = 10) of CVR measurements was also created from our previous study. All measurements were performed prior to and 1, 2, and 3 hours after HCEt administration. Results. HCEt significantly improved erythrocyte deformability 1 hour after administration compared to the control group (2.9 ± 1.1% versus −0.6 ± 1.0%, P = 0.034). HCEt significantly improved the CVR 2 hours after administration compared to the historical control group (9.1 ± 4.0% versus −8.1 ± 4.1%, P = 0.007). The mean blood pressure and pulse rate did not vary from baseline values in either group. Conclusions. We demonstrated that HCEt improved erythrocyte deformability and CVR. Our findings suggest that an improvement in erythrocyte deformability contributes to HCEt's effect on cerebral microcirculation. PMID:22690250

  3. The Usefulness of Xuefu Zhuyu Tang for Patients with Angina Pectoris: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Guo-zhong; Qiu, Yu-qin; Xiao, Ya; Yuan, Li-xia

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of Xuefu Zhuyu Tang (XFZYT) for treating angina pectoris (AP). Methods. Six databases were searched (up to December, 2013). Eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficiency of XFZYT plus traditional antianginal medications (TAMs) compared with TAMs alone in patients with AP were included. The outcomes were relief of anginal symptoms (RAS) and improvement of electrocardiogram (ECG) and blood high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level. Result. Finally 14 RCTs were included. There were evidences that XFZYT combined with TAMs was more effective in improving RAS (RR = 1.29; 95% CI = [1.20, 1.38]), ECG (RR = 1.37; 95% CI = [1.22, 1.54]), and blood HDL-C level (MD = 0.29 mmol/L; 95% CI = [0.23, 0.35]) compared with TAMs alone. Our meta-analysis also showed the pooled number needed to treat (NNT) of the group with stable angina pectoris (SAP) was smaller in improving RAS (4.2 versus 5.7) and ECG (3.1 versus 5.5) compared with the group with both SAP and unstable angina pectoris (UAP). Conclusion. Combination therapy with XFZYT and TAMs is more effective in treating AP compared with TAMs alone. And XFZYT may be a more suitable choice for the treatment of SAP. However, the findings should be interpreted with caution due to the mediocre methodological quality of the included RCTs. PMID:25254054

  4. Anti-apoptotic effect of San Huang Shel Shin Tang cyclodextrin complex (SHSSTc) on CCl4 -induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng-Hsun; Ting, Wei-Jen; Shen, Chia-Yao; Hsu, Hsi-Hsien; Lin, Yueh-Min; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Tsai, Yuhsin; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-06-01

    The metabolic loading is heavier in liver especially when injured or inflammation. San Huang Shel Shin Tang (SHSST) was an old traditional herbal decoction, which composed with Rheum officinale Baill, Scutellaria baicalnsis Geprgi and Coptis chinensis Franch (1:1:2 in weight), can provide a liver protection effects. We used a beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) drug modification method in reduce of the necessary dose of the SHSST. As the results, the FAS-FADD expressions leaded apoptosis in CCl4 intraperitoneal (IP) injection induced acute liver injury in rats. Silymarin, baicalein, SHSST, and SHSST β-CD complex (SHSSTc) pretreatments protected liver through the decreasing of the expressions of FAS-FADD and downstream caspase-3 and caspase-8. Particularly, SHSSTc (30 mg/kg day) treatment enhanced cell survival pathway activation through the PI3K, Akt and Bad phosphorylation. Compared with SHSST as well as silymarin and baicalein, SHSSTc provided a magnificent liver protection effect, especially in survival pathway activation/TUNEL-apoptotic cell reduction/serum cholesterol level suppression. All these data suggested that β-CD complex modified the SHSST and promoted the bioavailability and liver protection effects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 663-670, 2016. PMID:25447754

  5. Cognitive enhancing effect of the fermented Gumiganghwal-tang on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice.

    PubMed

    Weon, Jin Bae; Lee, Jiwoo; Eom, Min Rye; Jung, Youn Sik; Ma, Choong Je

    2016-04-01

    Gumiganghwal-tang (GT) is a traditional herbal medicine that is widely used for its anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic actions. Fermented GT has been reported to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and to exert a neuroprotective effect. In this study, we investigated the effect of fermented GT against scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice using the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. The results of the Morris water maze test indicated that fermented GT significantly decreased escape latency, as compared with that observed in the scopolamine-treated group. In the prove test, fermented GT attenuated the decreased time spent in the target quadrant observed after scopolamine treatment. The results of the passive avoidance test indicated that the treatment with fermented GT increased latency time when compared with the scopolamine-treated group. Moreover, fermented GT inhibited AChE activity in the hippocampi of the treated mice. These results suggest that fermented GT reduced scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice through AChE inhibition. Therefore, we hypothesize that fermented GT may be a useful therapeutic agent for the prevention or treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25216329

  6. Protection Effect of Zhen-Wu-Tang on Adriamycin-Induced Nephrotic Syndrome via Inhibiting Oxidative Lesions and Inflammation Damage

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Chun-ling; Wu, Jun-biao; Lai, Jie-mei; Ye, Shu-fang; Lin, Jin; Ouyang, Hui; Zhan, Janis Ya-xian; Zhou, Jiu-yao

    2014-01-01

    Zhen-wu-tang (ZWT), a well-known formula in China, is widely used to treat chronic kidney diseases. However, very little information on ZWT's mechanism of action is currently available. In this study, we investigated the possible protective role and underlying mechanism of ZWT on nephrotic syndrome (NS) induced by Adriamycin (intravenous injection, 6.0 mg/kg) in rats using biochemical and histopathological approaches. ZWT decreased urine protein excretion and the serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine significantly in diseased rats. A decrease in plasma levels of total protein and albumin was also recorded in nephropathic rats. Pathological results show an improved pathological state and recovering glomerular structure in ZWT treatment groups. ZWT decreased renal IL-8 level but increased renal IL-4 level. In addition, rats subjected to ZWT exhibited less IgG deposition in glomerulus compared with model group. RT-PCR results showed that ZWT decreased the mRNA expression of NF-κB p65 and increased the mRNA expression of IκB. Furthermore, ZWT reduced the level of MDA and increased SOD activity. These results demonstrated that ZWT ameliorated Adriamycin-induced NS in rats possibly by inhibiting Adriamycin-induced inflammation damage, enhancing body's antioxidant capacity, thereby protecting glomerulus from injury. PMID:24812565

  7. In vitro and in vivo assessment of cytochrome P450-mediated herb-drug interaction of Ssang-hwa-tang.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Yoon; Lee, Ji-Yoon; Kang, Wonku; Kwon, Kwang-il; Oh, Soo Jin; Ma, Jin Yeul; Kim, Sang Kyum

    2013-01-15

    We have evaluated the herb-drug interaction potential of Ssang-hwa-tang (SHT) mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition/induction. Further, the effects of fermentation on the CYP-mediated herb-drug interaction potential were determined. SHT showed inhibitory activity toward CYP1A2, but not 2A6, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4 in human liver microsomes. The results of the enzyme kinetic study suggested that the SHT-induced CYP1A2 inhibition is mixed reversible inhibition. The hepatic CYP expression and activity in rats treated with SHT were examined. The expression/activity of CYP2E1 increased as a result of SHT extract treatment (P<0.005 or P<0.001, respectively), which raises the possibility that SHT may increase the toxicity of environmental toxicants through the elevation of CYP2E1-mediated metabolic activation. SHT fermentation using Lactobacillus fermentum or Lactobacillus gasseri resulted in attenuation of the SHT-induced CYP1A2 inhibition, but not CYP2E1 induction, suggesting that changes in the chemical composition of SHT through fermentation can affect the inhibition of CYP1A2 activity. PMID:23122083

  8. Simultaneous determination of 11 bioactive compounds in Jaeumganghwa-tang by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Bo-Ra; Weon, Jin Bae; Lee, Jiwoo; Eom, Min Rye; Ma, Choong Je

    2014-01-01

    Background: Jaeumganghwa-tang (JEGH) is a traditional Korean herbal medicine for the treatment of chronic bronchitis, nephritis and diabetes mellitus. Objective: A high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was developed for simultaneous determination of 11 major compounds such as 5- hydroxymethylfurfural, mangiferin, paeoniflorin, nodakenin, naringin, hesperidin, decursinol, berberine, glycyrrhizin, atractylenolide III and decursin, in JEGH. Materials and Methods: The separation was conducted on Shishedo C18 column with gradient elution of 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid–acetonitrile. Detection of wavelength was set at 205, 250, 280 and 330 nm. Results: The developed analysis showed a good linearity (R2 >0.9997). The range of limit of detection and limit of quantification were observed from 0.04 to 0.43 and from 0.11 to 1.30, respectively. The intra- and inter-day test relative standard deviations (RSD) were less than 3% and the accuracy was 95.98-108.44%. The recoveries were between 92.75% and 109.19% and RSD range of recoveries was measured from 0.52% to 2.78%. Conclusion: This HPLC-DAD method can be successfully applied for simultaneous determination of 11 major compounds in JEGH samples. PMID:24991100

  9. Subacute Oral Toxicity of Yukmijiwhang-Tang in Crl:CD Sprague-Dawley Rats and Its Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Chang-Seob; Huh, Jung-Im; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2014-01-01

    Background. The traditional herbal formula Yukmijiwhang-tang (YMJ) consists of six medicinal herbs and has been used to treat dysuria, diabetic mellitus, and neurosis in Korea, China, and Japan. Here we report safety information on its subacute toxicity and the cytotoxicity. Methods. YMJ extract was administered to SD rats at various dosages for 4 weeks. We monitored clinical signs, mortality, body and organ weights, food intake, and hematological and serum biochemistry factors. For cytotoxicity testing, each cell line was treated with various concentrations of YMJ for 24 h. Results. YMJ treatment had no significant effects on changes in clinical signs, body weight, or food intake in male or female rats. In male rats, YMJ treatment decreased the absolute weights of the epididymides and serum Na levels. In female rats, YMJ significantly reduced the prothrombin time (PT) and serum creatine level. However, the changes were not severe and were considered to be in the normal physiological range for rats. The no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) was estimated to be 2000 mg/kg/day. YMJ extract did not exert any cytotoxicity against 23 tested cell lines. Conclusions. Our data provide scientific evidence on the safety of YMJ for potential development as a prescription drug. PMID:25431608

  10. All-atom simulation study of protein PTH(1-34) by using the Wang-Landau sampling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung-Yeon; Kwak, Wooseop

    2014-12-01

    We perform simulations of the N-terminal 34-residue protein fragment PTH(1-34), consisting of 581 atoms, of the 84-residue human parathyroid hormone by using the all-atom ECEPP/3 force field and the Wang-Landau sampling method. Through a massive high-performance computation, the density of states and the partition function Z( T), as a continuous function of T, are obtained for PTH(1-34). From the continuous partition function Z( T), the partition function zeros of PTH(1-34) are evaluated for the first time. From both the specific heat and the partition function zeros, two characteristic transition temperatures are obtained for the all-atom protein PTH(1-34). The higher transition temperature T 1 and the lower transition temperature T 2 of PTH(1-34) can be interpreted as the collapse temperature T θ and the folding temperature T f , respectively.

  11. Mouse skin tumorigenicity studies of indoor coal and wood combustion emissions from homes of residents in Xuan Wei, China with high lung cancer mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Mumford, J.L.; Helmes, C.T.; Lee, X.; Seidenberg, J.; Nesnow, S.

    1990-01-01

    The rural Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, China, has an unusually high lung cancer mortality rate that cannot be attributed to tobacco smoke or occupational exposure. The lung cancer rate is associated with 'smoky' coal, in contrast to wood or 'smokeless' coal burned in unventilated homes. The study was conducted to characterize and compare mouse skin tumorigenicity of the coal and the wood combustion emissions and to link the resulting animal data to human lung cancer. Indoor air particles were collected from a central commune where the lung cancer mortality rate is high and smoky coal is the major fuel used, and also from a south western commune where lung cancer mortality rate is low and wood and smokeless coal are the major fuels used. The organic extracts of these indoor air particles were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and assayed for skin tumor initiation activity and complete carcinogenicity in SENCAR mice. Mouse skin was initiated with 1,2,5,10, and 20 mg of organic extracts of the emission particles during the first week, and one week after initiation the mice were promoted with 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA, 2 microgram/mouse) applied topically twice a week for 26 weeks. The results showed that the smoky coal sample is the most active among the three combustion emission samples.

  12. The Dual Antimelanogenic and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil Extracted from the Leaves of Acorus macrospadiceus (Yamamoto) F. N. Wei et Y. K. Li

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huey-Chun; Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Yih, Kuang-Hway; Chang, Long-Zen; Chang, Tsong-Min

    2012-01-01

    The antimelanogenic and antioxidant activities of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Acorus macrospadiceus (Yamamoto) F. N. Wei et Y. K. Li have never been explored. The essential oil effectively inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity (EC50 = 1.57 mg/mL) and B16F10 tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 1.01 mg/mL), decreased the melanin content (EC50 = 1.04 mg/mL), and depleted the cellular level of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) (EC50 = 1.87 mg/mL). The essential oil effectively scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) (EC50 = 0.121 mg/mL) and 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) ABTS+ radicals (EC50 = 0.122 mg/mL). It also exhibited an apparent reducing power (EC50 = 0.021 mg/mL) and metal-ion chelating activity (EC50 = 0.029 mg/mL). The chemical constituents of the essential oil are ethers (55.73%), ketones (19.57%), monoterpenes (7.82%), alcohols (3.85%), esters (3.77%), sesquiterpenes (3.72%), and aromatic compounds (2.85%). The results confirm that A. macrospadiceus essential oil is a natural antioxidant and inhibitor of melanogenesis. PMID:23304214

  13. Factors affecting domestic water consumption in rural households upon access to improved water supply: insights from the Wei River Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Liangxin; Liu, Guobin; Wang, Fei; Geissen, Violette; Ritsema, Coen J

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensively understanding water consumption behavior is necessary to design efficient and effective water use strategies. Despite global efforts to identify the factors that affect domestic water consumption, those related to domestic water use in rural regions have not been sufficiently studied, particularly in villages that have gained access to improved water supply. To address this gap, we investigated 247 households in eight villages in the Wei River Basin where three types of improved water supply systems are implemented. Results show that domestic water consumption in liters per capita per day was significantly correlated with water supply pattern and vegetable garden area, and significantly negatively correlated with family size and age of household head. Traditional hygiene habits, use of water appliances, and preference for vegetable gardening remain dominant behaviors in the villages with access to improved water supply. Future studies on rural domestic water consumption should pay more attention to user lifestyles (water appliance usage habits, outdoor water use) and cultural backgrounds (age, education). PMID:23977190

  14. Prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis among school girls of Chuang-Wei and Nan-Ao Districts in I-Lan County and Man-Chow District in Ping-Tung County, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chao, D; Liu, H Y; Fan, P C

    1981-03-01

    By using the naked eye examination and comb method, a field survey and combing collection of head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) among school girls in three different area (Man-Chow, Nan-Ao and Chuang-Wei) of Taiwan were performed from July 1979 to February, 1980. The general infestation rate of head louse was 39.8% (or 998/2,509). In the primary schools, comparatively, the rate at Man-Chow (66.7%) was highest, the next at Nan-Ao (55.4%) and the lowest at Chuang-Wei (39.4%). While in the junior high schools, the rate was apparently higher at Nan-Ao (38.4%) than that at Man-Chow (15.6%) and Chang-Wei (12.0%). The highest rate in the primary schools was found in 3rd graders except at Chuang-Wei in 5th graders. The corresponding figure in the junior high schools was found in 1st graders except at Nan-Ao in 2nd graders. Of 774 infested girls studied, according to the number of lice per infested girl, the percentages of infestation in the 5 groups were: the very light (nits only) 54.5, light (1-10) 38.5, moderate (11-50) 6.5, heavy (51-100) 0.4 and very heavy (over 100) 0.1 respectively. Of 2,178 head lice examined, 53.0% was nymphs; 28.7% females; 18.2% males. The average number of head louse in each infested girl 6.2. PMID:7261698

  15. Two Simple Approaches to Overcome a Problem with the Mantel-Haenszel Statistic: Comments on Wang, Bradlow, Wainer, and Muller (2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinharay, Sandip; Dorans, Neil J.

    2010-01-01

    The Mantel-Haenszel (MH) procedure (Mantel and Haenszel) is a popular method for estimating and testing a common two-factor association parameter in a 2 x 2 x K table. Holland and Holland and Thayer described how to use the procedure to detect differential item functioning (DIF) for tests with dichotomously scored items. Wang, Bradlow, Wainer, and…

  16. Assessment of Impact of Insecticides on Anagrus nilaparvatae (Pang et Wang) (Hymenoptera: Mymanidae), an Egg Parasitoid of the Rice Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitoid Anagrus Nilaparvatae (Pang et Wang) (Hymenoptera: Mymanidae) is a major natural enemy of the rice planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). It plays an important role in the IPM of the rice planthopper. Contact and oral toxicity and residual effect of fourteen pesticide...

  17. Bai-Hu-Tang, Ancient Chinese Medicine Formula, May Provide a New Complementary Treatment Option for Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chien-Jung; Su, Yi-Chang; Lee, Cheng-Hung; Li, Tsai-Chung; Chen, Yun-An; Lin, Sunny Jui-Shan

    2013-01-01

    Bai-Hu-Tang (BHT) has been broadly applied to treating the early stage of acute infection with systemic inflammation for two thousand years in Chinese medicine. We explore whether BHT is beneficial in treating sepsis and its effects on proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6, and anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10, in which both play key roles in the progress of sepsis. Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into six groups, with cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) performed in all but the sham-control group. Rats in CLP + BHT-L6 and CLP + BHT-H6 groups, respectively, received a low (0.45 g/kg) and high doses (0.9 g/kg) of BHT, 6 hrs postoperatively. CLP + BHT-L12 and CLP + BHT-H12 groups, respectively, received low and high doses of BHT, 12 hrs postoperatively. Sham-control and sepsis-control groups received distilled water (1 mL) as vehicle, 6 hrs postoperatively. Serial blood samples were drawn before operation, as baseline, and at 4, 8, and 12 hrs postoperatively for IL-6 and IL-10 assay. All rats were monitored for 3 days for survival study. Rats in the CLP + BHT-H6 group had significantly higher survival rate (80%) and significantly lower levels of both IL-6 and IL-10 at 12 hrs postoperatively than those in the sepsis-control group. Results suggested that BHT may be a new complementary treatment option for sepsis. PMID:23762108

  18. The effects of venting and decompression on Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens) in the marine ornamental aquarium fish trade

    PubMed Central

    Tissot, Brian N.; Heidel, Jerry R.; Miller-Morgan, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Each year, over 45 countries export 30 million fish from coral reefs as part of the global marine ornamental aquarium trade. This catch volume is partly influenced by collection methods that cause mortality. Barotrauma in fish resulting from forced ascent from depth can contribute to post-collection mortality. However, implementing decompression stops during ascent can prevent barotrauma. Conversely, venting (puncturing the swim bladder to release expanded internal gas) following ascent can mitigate some signs of barotrauma like positive buoyancy. Here, we evaluate how decompression and venting affect stress and mortality in the Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens). We examined the effects of three ascent treatments, each with decompression stops of varying frequency and duration, coupled with or without venting, on sublethal effects and mortality using histology and serum cortisol measurements. In fish subjected to ascent without decompression stops or venting, a mean post-collection mortality of 6.2% occurred within 24 h of capture. Common collection methods in the fishery, ascent without decompression stops coupled with venting, or one long decompression stop coupled with venting, resulted in no mortality. Histopathologic examination of heart, liver, head kidney, and swim bladder tissues in fish 0d and 21d post-collection revealed no significant barotrauma- or venting-related lesions in any treatment group. Ascent without decompression stops resulted in significantly higher serum cortisol than ascent with many stops, while venting alone did not affect cortisol. Future work should examine links in the supply chain following collection to determine if further handling and transport stressors affect survivorship and sublethal effects. PMID:25737809

  19. Changes in urinary Cu, Zn, and Se levels in cancer patients after treatment with Sha Shen Mai Men Dong Tang

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Tung-Yuan; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Sha Shen Mai Men Dong Tang (SMD-2; 沙參麥冬湯 shā shēn mài dōng tāng) is a Chinese medicinal herb (CMH; 中草藥 zhōng cǎo yào) used to treat symptoms associated with cancer therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of SMD-2 on the levels of urinary copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) in lung cancer patients and head and neck cancer patients receiving chemoradiotherapy. Forty-two head and neck cancer patients and 10 lung cancer patients participated in our clinical trial. Each patient received chemoradiotherapy for 4 weeks. In addition, each patient was treated with SMD-2 for 8 weeks, including 2 weeks prior to and after the chemoradiotherapy treatment. Comparison of urinary Cu, Zn, and Se levels and the ratios of Zn to Cu and Se to Cu at three time points in the two types of cancer were assessed using the generalized estimating equations (GEEs). After the patients received chemoradiotherapy for 4 weeks, SMD-2 treatment was found to be associated with a significant decrease in urinary Cu levels, whereas urinary Zn and Se levels increased significantly. In addition, the ratios of Zn to Cu and Se to Cu in the urine samples of these patients also increased significantly. Both the urinary Zn levels and the ratio of Zn to Cu in head and neck cancer patients were significantly higher than in lung cancer patients. Urinary Zn and Se levels and the ratios of Zn to Cu and Se to Cu, but not urinary Cu levels, increased significantly during and after treatment when assessed using the GEE model. The SMD-2 treatments significantly increased Zn and Se levels in the urine of head and neck cancer patients. Increased Zn and Se levels in urine strengthened immune system. PMID:27114935

  20. Shape Variation in Aterian Tanged Tools and the Origins of Projectile Technology: A Morphometric Perspective on Stone Tool Function

    PubMed Central

    Iovita, Radu

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent findings suggest that the North African Middle Stone Age technocomplex known as the Aterian is both much older than previously assumed, and certainly associated with fossils exhibiting anatomically modern human morphology and behavior. The Aterian is defined by the presence of ‘tanged’ or ‘stemmed’ tools, which have been widely assumed to be among the earliest projectile weapon tips. The present study systematically investigates morphological variation in a large sample of Aterian tools to test the hypothesis that these tools were hafted and/or used as projectile weapons. Methodology/Principal Findings Both classical morphometrics and Elliptical Fourier Analysis of tool outlines are used to show that the shape variation in the sample exhibits size-dependent patterns consistent with a reduction of the tools from the tip down, with the tang remaining intact. Additionally, the process of reduction led to increasing side-to-side asymmetries as the tools got smaller. Finally, a comparison of shape-change trajectories between Aterian tools and Late Paleolithic arrowheads from the North German site of Stellmoor reveal significant differences in terms of the amount and location of the variation. Conclusions/Significance The patterns of size-dependent shape variation strongly support the functional hypothesis of Aterian tools as hafted knives or scrapers with alternating active edges, rather than as weapon tips. Nevertheless, the same morphological patterns are interpreted as one of the earliest evidences for a hafting modification, and for the successful combination of different raw materials (haft and stone tip) into one implement, in itself an important achievement in the evolution of hominin technologies. PMID:22216161

  1. Activity-dependent branching ratios in stocks, solar x-ray flux, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model.

    PubMed

    Martin, Elliot; Shreim, Amer; Paczuski, Maya

    2010-01-01

    We define an activity-dependent branching ratio that allows comparison of different time series X(t). The branching ratio b(x) is defined as b(x)=E[xi(x)/x]. The random variable xi(x) is the value of the next signal given that the previous one is equal to x, so xi(x)=[X(t+1) | X(t)=x]. If b(x)>1, the process is on average supercritical when the signal is equal to x, while if b(x)<1, it is subcritical. For stock prices we find b(x)=1 within statistical uncertainty, for all x, consistent with an "efficient market hypothesis." For stock volumes, solar x-ray flux intensities, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) sandpile model, b(x) is supercritical for small values of activity and subcritical for the largest ones, indicating a tendency to return to a typical value. For stock volumes this tendency has an approximate power-law behavior. For solar x-ray flux and the BTW model, there is a broad regime of activity where b(x) approximately equal 1, which we interpret as an indicator of critical behavior. This is true despite different underlying probability distributions for X(t) and for xi(x). For the BTW model the distribution of xi(x) is Gaussian, for x sufficiently larger than 1, and its variance grows linearly with x. Hence, the activity in the BTW model obeys a central limit theorem when sampling over past histories. The broad region of activity where b(x) is close to one disappears once bulk dissipation is introduced in the BTW model-supporting our hypothesis that it is an indicator of criticality. PMID:20365434

  2. Activity-dependent branching ratios in stocks, solar x-ray flux, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Elliot; Shreim, Amer; Paczuski, Maya

    2010-01-01

    We define an activity-dependent branching ratio that allows comparison of different time series Xt . The branching ratio bx is defined as bx=E[ξx/x] . The random variable ξx is the value of the next signal given that the previous one is equal to x , so ξx={Xt+1∣Xt=x} . If bx>1 , the process is on average supercritical when the signal is equal to x , while if bx<1 , it is subcritical. For stock prices we find bx=1 within statistical uncertainty, for all x , consistent with an “efficient market hypothesis.” For stock volumes, solar x-ray flux intensities, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) sandpile model, bx is supercritical for small values of activity and subcritical for the largest ones, indicating a tendency to return to a typical value. For stock volumes this tendency has an approximate power-law behavior. For solar x-ray flux and the BTW model, there is a broad regime of activity where bx≃1 , which we interpret as an indicator of critical behavior. This is true despite different underlying probability distributions for Xt and for ξx . For the BTW model the distribution of ξx is Gaussian, for x sufficiently larger than 1, and its variance grows linearly with x . Hence, the activity in the BTW model obeys a central limit theorem when sampling over past histories. The broad region of activity where bx is close to one disappears once bulk dissipation is introduced in the BTW model—supporting our hypothesis that it is an indicator of criticality.

  3. Ren Shen Yangrong Tang for Fatigue in Cancer Survivors: A Phase I/II Open-Label Study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yichen; Chen, Yanzhi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: This open-label, prospective, phase I/II trial was performed to establish the safety and efficacy of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) herbal products for treating non–anemia-related fatigue in patients with cancer. Although this practice is widespread in China, it has not been confirmed in a prospective clinical study. Design: Thirty-three patients who had completed cancer treatment, had stable disease and no anemia, and reported moderate to severe fatigue (rated ≥4 on a 0–10 scale) were enrolled in a TCM outpatient clinic. Patients took Ren Shen Yangrong Tang (RSYRT) decoction, a soup containing 12 TCM herbs, twice a day for 6 weeks. RSYRT aims to correct qi deficiency. Fatigue was assessed before and after RSYRT therapy, which all patients completed. Results: No discomfort or toxicity was observed. Before the study, all patients had had fatigue for at least 4 months. Fatigue severity decreased significantly from before therapy to 6 weeks after therapy: from 7.06 to 3.30 on a 0–10 scale (p<0.001). Fatigue category (mild, moderate, severe) shifted significantly (p=0.024): Of 22 patients with severe fatigue (rated ≥7) before therapy, 11 had mild fatigue and 11 had moderate fatigue after TCM treatment. The time-to-fatigue-alleviation was 2–3 weeks. Conclusion: RSYRT therapy was safe and was associated with fatigue improvement in nonanemic cancer survivors, consistent with historical TCM clinical practice experience. Because of a possible placebo effect in this open-label study, decoction RSYRT warrants further study in randomized clinical trials to confirm its effectiveness for managing moderate to severe fatigue. PMID:25918996

  4. Immuno-enhancement effects of Huang Qi Liu Yi Tang in a murine model of cyclophosphamide-induced leucopenia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guan-Cheng; Wu, Lien-Sheng; Chen, Lih-Geeng; Yang, Ling-Ling; Wang, Ching-Chiung

    2007-01-19

    Tonic Chinese prescriptions are widely used in daily foods to improve health in Taiwan. Huang Qi Liu Yi Tang (HQLYT) is one such tonic Chinese prescription. In this study, the immuno-enhancement effects of HQLYT tonic were explored using an in vitro splenocyte proliferation assay and by evaluating improvements in cyclophosphamide-induced leucopenia in a BaLb/c mice model. HQLYT is composed of Radix Astragali, licorice, and jujube, and extracted in boiling water. The contents of glycyrrhizin and formononetin were used as bioactive markers to control the quality of the HQLYT water extract, at 7.26+/-0.04mg/g and 112.07+/-0.08 micro g/g, respectively. In the in vitro assay, HQLYT (12.5 micro g/ml) showed better immuno-enhancing effects than Radix Astragali, licorice, or jujube alone, and enhanced the survival rate of splenocytes by 88%. Moreover, HQLYT significantly enhanced the cytotoxic effects of natural killer cells of splenocytes against YAC-1 cells. The BaLb/c mice were fed HQLYT once a day for 14 days. After oral treatment with HQLYT 400mg/kg body weight (BW), the IL-2 release in BaLb/c mice and the natural killer cell activity of the splenocytes were both enhanced, and the WBC level of cyclophosphamide-induced leucopenic mice was improved by treatment with 400mg HQLYT/kgBW. HQLYT significantly delayed the decline in the WBC level and affected a faster recovery of the WBC level back to a normal status. In summary, HQLYT enhanced immunologic functions in both in vitro and in vivo studies. These results offer scientific evidence to prove the efficacy of this tonic Chinese prescription. PMID:16963213

  5. Changes in urinary Cu, Zn, and Se levels in cancer patients after treatment with Sha Shen Mai Men Dong Tang.

    PubMed

    Lai, Tung-Yuan; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

    2016-04-01

    Sha Shen Mai Men Dong Tang (SMD-2; shā shēn mài dōng tāng) is a Chinese medicinal herb (CMH; zhōng cǎo yào) used to treat symptoms associated with cancer therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of SMD-2 on the levels of urinary copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) in lung cancer patients and head and neck cancer patients receiving chemoradiotherapy. Forty-two head and neck cancer patients and 10 lung cancer patients participated in our clinical trial. Each patient received chemoradiotherapy for 4 weeks. In addition, each patient was treated with SMD-2 for 8 weeks, including 2 weeks prior to and after the chemoradiotherapy treatment. Comparison of urinary Cu, Zn, and Se levels and the ratios of Zn to Cu and Se to Cu at three time points in the two types of cancer were assessed using the generalized estimating equations (GEEs). After the patients received chemoradiotherapy for 4 weeks, SMD-2 treatment was found to be associated with a significant decrease in urinary Cu levels, whereas urinary Zn and Se levels increased significantly. In addition, the ratios of Zn to Cu and Se to Cu in the urine samples of these patients also increased significantly. Both the urinary Zn levels and the ratio of Zn to Cu in head and neck cancer patients were significantly higher than in lung cancer patients. Urinary Zn and Se levels and the ratios of Zn to Cu and Se to Cu, but not urinary Cu levels, increased significantly during and after treatment when assessed using the GEE model. The SMD-2 treatments significantly increased Zn and Se levels in the urine of head and neck cancer patients. Increased Zn and Se levels in urine strengthened immune system. PMID:27114935

  6. Effects of Dang-Gui-Bu-Xue-Tang, an herbal decoction, on iron uptake in iron-deficient anemia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guan-Cheng; Chen, Shih-Yu; Tsai, Po-Wei; Ganzon, Jerome G; Lee, Chia-Jung; Shiah, Her-Shyong; Wang, Ching-Chiung

    2016-01-01

    Dang-Gui-Bu-Xue-Tang (DBT), a combination of Angelicae Sinensis Radix and Astragali Radix, is a widely used herbal decoction in traditional Chinese medicine primarily to promote or invigorate the “blood”. In this study, we explored this ancient formulation and provide evidence of its blood-toning properties. We used the improvement iron uptake as promote or invigorate the “blood” indicator. Ferritin formation of Caco-2 cells in vitro assay and diet-induced anemia (DIA) in rat model were used to prove its improvement iron uptake and ameliorating effects. Finally, the iron–DBT interactions were measured by iron-binding assay. We first demonstrated DBT increased uptake of ferrous iron through the biosynthesis of ferritin by Caco-2 cells and determined which complementary treatment would provide optimum results. Thereafter, effects of the treatment on improving the bioavailability of absorbed iron in the form of hemoglobin (Hb) were established using a DIA-animal model. The results showed that DBT slightly improved Hb levels compared with the baseline Hb and pretreatment with DBT for 2 hours prior to supplementation with ferrous sulfate provided the greatest gain in Hb levels in DIA rats. However, DBT and ferrous sulfate were co-treated with Caco-2 cell or DIA rats, the ferritin formation and Hb levels both were decreased. In iron-binding assay, the DBT extract influenced the free Fe(II) type in the FeSO4 solution. Therefore, we suggest that complementary treatment with DBT and iron supplementation can have a strong ameliorating effect on iron-deficiency anemia in clinical settings, but needs a 2-hour interval of DBT administration prior to ferrous sulfate treatment. PMID:27041997

  7. Efficient preparation of Hangekobokuto (Banxia-Houpo-Tang) decoction by adding perilla herb before decoction is finished.

    PubMed

    Sumino, Megumi; Saito, Yuko; Ikegami, Fumio; Hirasaki, Yoshiro; Namiki, Takao

    2012-12-01

    Hangekobokuto (banxia-houpo-tang) is a Kampo (traditional Japanese) medicine used mostly for anxiety disorder and consists of Pinellia Tuber, Poria Sclerotium, Magnolia Bark, Perilla Herb and Ginger. Perilla Herb contains an essential oil rich in perillaldehyde, which has a pleasant flavor, but this is easily lost due to heating. We therefore investigated how the major constituents of hangekobokuto, namely perillaldehyde, rosmarinic acid, magnolol and [6]-gingerol, varied with time during decoction and approached an optimal condition for decoction. Rosmarinic acid at 15 min after boiling, and magnolol and [6]-gingerol at 30 min were mostly extracted, while 0.09 mg of perillaldehyde remained at 15 min, but was not detected at 30 min. From these results, a decoction was prepared by adding Perilla Herb 1, 2, 5 and 10 min prior to the termination time of decoction at 30 min. When Perilla Herb was added 1 min beforehand, perillaldehyde was abundant (1.58 mg) and the amount of rosmarinic acid was already the same as that in the conventional decoction at 30 min, but the amount of total extract was inadequate. When Perilla Herb was added 5 min beforehand, perillaldehyde remained to some extent (0.61 mg) and rosmarinic acid was significantly increased compared with that in the conventional decoction at 30 min. From these results, we can conclude that the decoction should be prepared by boiling for not more than 30 min and, if possible, Perilla Herb should be added 5 min prior to the termination time. Considering the antidepressant-like activity of perillaldehyde and rosmarinic acid, the suggested method will not only achieve better treatment for anxiety, but also provide an effective use of crude drugs in the resource-limited environment. PMID:23413567

  8. Lactobacillus fermentation enhances the inhibitory effect of Hwangryun-haedok-tang in an ovariectomy-induced bone loss

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hwangryun-haedok-tang (HRT) is traditional herbal medicine used to treat inflammatory-related diseases in Asia. However, its effect on osteoclastogenesis and bone loss is still unknown. In this study, we evaluated the effect of HRT and its fermented product (fHRT) on the receptor activator for the nuclear factor-κB ligand-induced osteoclastogenesis using murine bone marrow-derived macrophages and postmenopausal bone loss using an ovariectomy (OVX) rat model. Methods Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining was employed to evaluate osteoclast formation. mRNA level of transcription factor and protein levels of signaling molecules were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis, respectively. Effect of HRT or fHRT on OVX-induced bone loss was evaluated using OVX rats orally administered HRT, or fHRT with 300 mg/kg for 12 weeks. Micro-CT analysis of femora was performed to analyze bone parameter. Results HRT or fHRT treatment significantly decreased TRAP activity and the number of TRAP positive multinuclear cells on osteoclastogenesis. Interestingly, these inhibitory effects of HRT were enhanced by fermentation. Furthermore, fHRT significantly inhibited mRNA and protein expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1, which leads to down-regulation of NFATc1-regulated mRNA expressions such as TRAP, the d2 isoform of vacuolar ATPase V(0) domain, and cathepsin K. Administration of fHRT significantly inhibited the decrease of bone mineral density, and improved bone parameter of femora more than that of HRT and vehicle in OVX rats. Conclusions This study demonstrated that lactic bacterial fermentation fortifies the inhibitory effect of HRT on osteoclastogenesis and bone loss. These results suggest that fermented HRT might have the beneficial potential on osteoporosis by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. PMID:23680047

  9. Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang alleviates biliary obstructive cirrhosis in rats by inhibiting biliary epithelial cell proliferation and activation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bing; Sun, Ming-Yu; Long, Ai-Hua; Cao, Hong-Yan; Ren, Shuang; Bian, Yan-Qin; Lu, Xiong; Gu, Hong-Tu; Liu, Cheng-Hai; Liu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background: Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang (YCHT) consists of three aqueous extracts from Artemisia capillaris, Gardenia sp., and prepared Rheum rhabarbarum (rhubarb) (3:2:1). YCHT is characterized by its anti-inflammatory properties in liver regulation and relief of jaundice. We aimed to study the effects and mechanisms of action of YCHT on biliary obstructive cirrhosis. Materials and Methods: Secondary biliary fibrosis was induced in rats by bile duct ligation (BDL) and scission. One week after BDL, rats were randomly divided into a saline-treated BDL or YCHT-treated BDL group for 4 weeks. Liver function and hepatic hydroxyproline (Hyp) content were assessed. Types I and IV collagen (Col-IV), laminin, fibronectin, alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen protein and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression were assessed with immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: In the YCHT-treated BDL group, serum total bilirubin, total bile acids, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyl transferase were lower than those in the sham-operated BDL group. The proliferation of bile ducts in hepatic tissues and the Hyp content and Col deposition were also significantly lower than those in control rats. In addition, α-SMA and Col-IV staining was less obvious, and mRNA expression of Procol-α1 (IV), platelet derived growth factor subunit B (PDGF)-B, connective tissue growth factor, and transforming growth factor-beta in proliferative biliary epithelial cells (BECs) in the YCHT-treated BDL group was significantly lower than those in controls. Conclusions: YCHT effectively reduces the formation of biliary obstructive cirrhosis mainly via inhibition of BEC proliferation by down-regulation of PDGF-B mRNA expression, inhibition of BEC profibrogenic paracrines, and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition pathological process. PMID:25829784

  10. Herb-Drug Pharmacokinetic Interaction of a Traditional Chinese Medicine Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San with 5-Fluorouracil in the Blood and Brain of Rat Using Microdialysis

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Meng-Hsuan; Chang, Li-Wen; Wang, Ju-Wen; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2015-01-01

    According to a survey from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD), Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (JWXYS) is the most popular Chinese medicine for cancer patients in Taiwan. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a general anticancer drug for the chemotherapy. To investigate the herb-drug interaction of JWXYS on pharmacokinetics of 5-FU, a microdialysis technique coupled with a high-performance liquid chromatography system was used to monitor 5-FU in rat blood and brain. Rats were divided into four parallel groups, one of which was treated with 5-FU (100 mg/kg, i.v.) alone and the remaining three groups were pretreated with a different dose of JWXYS (600, 1200, or 2400 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days) followed by a combination with 5-FU. This study demonstrates that 5-FU with JWXYS (600 mg/kg/day or 1200 mg/kg/day) has no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of 5-FU in the blood and brain. However, JWXYS (2400 mg/kg/day) coadministered with 5-FU extends the elimination half-life and increases the volume of distribution of 5-FU in the blood. The elimination half-life of 5-FU in the brain for the pretreatment group with 2400 mg/kg/day of JWXYS is significantly longer than that for the group treated with 5-FU alone and also reduces the clearance. This study provides practical dosage information for clinical practice and proves the safety of 5-FU coadministered with JWXYS. PMID:25861367

  11. Aqueous Extract of Shi-Liu-Wei-Liu-Qi-Yin Induces G2/M Phase Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Bladder Carcinoma Cells via Fas and Mitochondrial Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Ting-Tsz; Wang, Chau-Jong; Hung, Guang-Uei; Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Lee, Huei-Jane

    2011-01-01

    Shi-Liu-Wei-Liu-Qi-Yin (SLWLQY) was traditionally used to treat cancers. However, scientific evidence of the anticancer effects still remains undefined. In this study, we aimed to clarify the possible mechanisms of SLWLQY in treating cancer. We evaluated the effects of SLWLQY on apoptosis-related experiments inducing in TSGH-8301 cells by (i) 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-zyl)-2,5-diphenylterazolium bromide (MTT) for cytotoxicity; (ii) cell-cycle analysis and (iii) western blot analysis of the G2/M-phase and apoptosis regulatory proteins. Human bladder carcinoma TSGH-8301 cells were transplanted into BALB/c nude mice as a tumor model for evaluating the antitumor effect of SLWLQY. Treatment of SLWLQY resulted in the G2/M phase arrest and apoptotic death in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied by a decrease in cyclin-dependent kinases (cdc2) and cyclins (cyclin B1). SLWLQY stimulated increases in the protein expression of Fas and FasL, and induced the cleavage of caspase-3, caspase-9 and caspase-8. The ratio of Bax/Bcl2 was increased by SLWLQY treatment. SLWLQY markedly reduced tumor size in TSGH-8301 cells-xenografted tumor tissues. In the tissue specimen, SLWLQY up-regulated the expression of Fas, FasL and Bax proteins, and down-regulated Bcl2 as well as in in vitro assay. Our results showed that SLWLQY reduced tumor growth, caused cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in TSGH-8301 cells via the Fas and mitochondrial pathway. PMID:19383839

  12. On the hydrology and fluvial sediment transport of the proglacial river Riffler Bach (Weißseeferner, Ötztal Alps, Tyrol)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morche, David; Baewert, Henning; Weber, Martin; Schmidt, Karl-Heinz

    2013-04-01

    The hydrology of proglacial rivers is strongly affected by glacier melting. With ongoing glacier retreat the proportion of glacier meltwater in proglacial rivers is declining over longer time periods. Snow melt or rain fall events will play a more important role as water source. Due to glacial erosion the glacier system is also an important player in the orchestra of sediment sources/processes contributing to proglacial sediment budgets. The consequence of increasing deglaciation is a growing importance of other sediment sources/processes, mainly known as paraglacial, for sediment budgets in glacier forefields. The sediment export out of proglacial areas is mainly done by solid river load. Knowledge on the quantity of the exported sediments is important for reservoir management and torrent control. In order to measure fluvial sediment transport in the catchment area of the Gepatsch reservoir in the Ötztal Alps (Tyrol/Austria) we have installed a gauging station at the proglacial river Riffler Bach in June 2012. The catchment area of this station is about 20 km² with an altitudinal range from 1929 m to 3518 m. The higher altitudes in the southern part of the area are covered by the glacier Weißseeferner. Our station is equipped with an automatic water sampler (AWS 2002) and probes for water level, turbidity and electrical conductivity. All parameters are recorded in 5-15 minute intervals during the ablation period. Discharge is measured with current meters during wadable stages and salt dilution during higher floods. Bed load is measured concurrent to discharge measurements using a Helley-Smith sampler. In 2012, 189 water samples were taken and will be analyzed for suspended sediment concentration and ion content. Additionally, the grain size distribution will be determined using a Malvern laser diffractometer. Rating-curves will be used to calculate discharge from stage recordings. Solid load of the Riffler Bach will be quantified using the discharge data and bed load measurements as well as suspended sediment concentrations.

  13. Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang shows preventive effect of asthma in an allergic asthma mouse model through neurotrophin regulation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study investigates the effect of Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang (XQLT) on neurotrophin in an established mouse model of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p)-induced acute allergic asthma and in a LA4 cell line model of lung adenoma. The effects of XQLT on the regulation of nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and immunoglobulin E were measured. Methods LA4 cells were stimulated with 100 ?g/ml Der p 24 h and the supernatant was collected for ELISA analysis. Der p-stimulated LA4 cells with either XQLT pre-treatment or XQLT co-treatment were used to evaluate the XQLT effect on neurotrophin. Balb/c mice were sensitized on days 0 and 7 with a base-tail injection of 50 ?g Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) that was emulsified in 50 ?l incomplete Freunds adjuvant (IFA). On day 14, mice received an intra-tracheal challenge of 50 ?l Der p (2 mg/ml). XQLT (1g/Kg) was administered orally to mice either on days 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 as a preventive strategy or on day 15 as a therapeutic strategy. Results XQLT inhibited expression of those NGF, BDNF and thymus-and activation-regulated cytokine (TARC) in LA4 cells that were subjected to a Der p allergen. Both preventive and therapeutic treatments with XQLT in mice reduced AHR. Preventive treatment with XQLT markedly decreased NGF in broncho-alveolar lavage fluids (BALF) and BDNF in serum, whereas therapeutic treatment reduced only serum BDNF level. The reduced NGF levels corresponded to a decrease in AHR by XQLT treatment. Reduced BALF NGF and TARC and serum BDNF levels may have been responsible for decreased eosinophil infiltration into lung tissue. Immunohistochemistry showed that p75NTR and TrkA levels were reduced in the lungs of mice under both XQLT treatment protocols, and this reduction may have been correlated with the prevention of the asthmatic reaction by XQLT. Conclusion XQLT alleviated allergic inflammation including AHR, IgE elevation and eosinophil infiltration in Der p stimulated mice by regulating neurotrophin and reducing TARC. These results revealed the potential pharmacological targets on which the XQLT decotion exerts preventive and therapeutic effects in an allergic asthma mouse model. PMID:24010817

  14. Protective effect of Sam-Hwang-Sa-Sim-Tang against hepatic steatosis in mice fed a high-cholesterol diet

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sam-Hwang-Sa-Sim-Tang (SHSST) is a traditional Oriental medication that has been commonly used in Korea for the treatment of hypertension, insomnia, and chest pain. In addition, some studies reported that administration of SHSST results suppression of hyperlipidemia in rats or lowering lipid plasma level such as total cholesterol (TC). Those results made us find and demonstrate positive effect of SHSST much more. The aim of the current study was to examine whether SHSST exerts an effect against hepatic steatosis and two type of SHSST has different efficacy on liver steatosis. Methods Total 40 mice were divided randomly and equally into 4 groups: a normal diet (CON) group, high-cholesterol diet (HC) group, and treatment groups fed a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) with a 30% or 80% ethanol extract of SHSST (SHSST-L and SHSST-H, respectively). The HCD was given for 9 weeks. The SHSST-treated groups were orally administered SHSST at a dose of 150 mg/kg, whereas the other groups received physiological saline. Results SHSST administration to mice resulted in a decline in serum levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein. Histological examination showed that lipid droplets were smaller in the SHSST-treated group than in the HC group. At the protein level, expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP-2) was suppressed by SHSST. In addition, the mRNA expression of cholesterol metabolism-related molecules such as SREBP-2, liver X receptor (LXR), low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), and 3-hydroxy-3methylglutary-CoA (HMG-CoA) was also suppressed in SHSST-treated groups in the liver. In the aorta tissue, SHSST decreased the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and fibronectin. Conclusions The present study indicates that SHSST protects against liver steatosis and protects vessels against inflammation arising from excessive ingestion of cholesterol. These findings may also suggest that SHSST could be used as an adjuvant remedy for protection against liver steatosis. PMID:24364887

  15. Public health impact of disease-behavior dynamics. Comment on "Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review" by Z. Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Chad R.; Galvani, Alison P.

    2015-12-01

    In a loop of dynamic feedback, behavior such as the decision to vaccinate, hand washing, or avoidance influences the progression of the epidemic, yet behavior is driven by the individual's and population's perceived risk of infection during an outbreak. In what we believe will become a seminal paper that stimulates future research as well as an informative teaching aid, Wang et. al. comprehensively review methodological advances that have been used to incorporate human behavior into epidemiological models on the effects of coupling disease transmission and behavior on complex social networks [1]. As illustrated by the recent outbreaks of measles and Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), here we highlight the importance of coupling behavior and disease transmission that Wang et al. address.

  16. A systems biology-based investigation into the therapeutic effects of Gansui Banxia Tang on reversing the imbalanced network of hepatocellular carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanqiong; Guo, Xiaodong; Wang, Danhua; Li, Ruisheng; Li, Xiaojuan; Xu, Ying; Liu, Zhenli; Song, Zhiqian; Lin, Ya; Li, Zhiyan; Lin, Na

    2014-02-01

    Several complex molecular events are involved in tumorigenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The interactions of these molecules may constitute the HCC imbalanced network. Gansui Banxia Tang (GSBXT), as a classic Chinese herbal formula, is a popular complementary and alternative medicine modality for treating HCC. In order to investigate the therapeutic effects and the pharmacological mechanisms of GSBXT on reversing HCC imbalanced network, we in the current study developed a comprehensive systems approach of integrating disease-specific and drug-specific networks, and successfully revealed the relationships of the ingredients in GSBXT with their putative targets, and with HCC significant molecules and HCC related pathway systems for the first time. Meanwhile, further experimental validation also demonstrated the preventive effects of GSBXT on tumor growth in mice and its regulatory effects on potential targets.

  17. [Establishment of three-dimensional integrated "serum pharmacochemistry-pharmacokinetics (pharmacodynamics)-systems biology" for research of traditional Chinese medicine prescription and its application in Yinchenhao Tang].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ai-Hua; Sun, Hui; Yan, Guang-Li; Han, Ying; Wang, Xi-Jun

    2013-11-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription is a valuable asset for clinical medication, has multi-component and multi-target characteristics. However, due to the complex ingredients of prescription, the unclear mechanism, the lack of scientific data to support the dose-response relationship, it has become the bottleneck for the in-depth study for the process of modernization and internationalization of TCM. It requires the integration of Chinese medicine theory, modern analysis and data mining technology to build new research model for characteristic of TCM prescription. This paper provides an overview of TCM serum pharmacochemistry, pharmacokinetics (pharmacodynamics) and systems biology theory and practice, to establish the integrated three-dimensional "serum pharmacochemistry-pharmacokinetics (pharmacodynamics)-systems biology" for the research of TCM prescription to reveal the pharma-material basis and action mechanism and the compatibility scientific connotation, with a prescription Yinchenhao Tang as a case study. PMID:24494574

  18. A systems biology-based investigation into the therapeutic effects of Gansui Banxia Tang on reversing the imbalanced network of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Yanqiong; GUO, Xiaodong; WANG, Danhua; LI, Ruisheng; LI, Xiaojuan; XU, Ying; LIU, Zhenli; SONG, Zhiqian; LIN, Ya; LI, Zhiyan; LIN, Na

    2014-01-01

    Several complex molecular events are involved in tumorigenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The interactions of these molecules may constitute the HCC imbalanced network. Gansui Banxia Tang (GSBXT), as a classic Chinese herbal formula, is a popular complementary and alternative medicine modality for treating HCC. In order to investigate the therapeutic effects and the pharmacological mechanisms of GSBXT on reversing HCC imbalanced network, we in the current study developed a comprehensive systems approach of integrating disease-specific and drug-specific networks, and successfully revealed the relationships of the ingredients in GSBXT with their putative targets, and with HCC significant molecules and HCC related pathway systems for the first time. Meanwhile, further experimental validation also demonstrated the preventive effects of GSBXT on tumor growth in mice and its regulatory effects on potential targets. PMID:24561634

  19. Quality evaluation of commercial Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang based on simultaneous determination of fourteen major chemical constituents using high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Ka-Yan; Xu, Jun; Ho, Hing-Man; Chen, Hu-Biao; Li, Min; Lang, Yan; Han, Quan-Bin

    2013-11-01

    Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT), comprising Coptidis Rhizoma, Scutellariae Radix, Phellodendri Cortex and Gardeniae Fructus, is one of the commonly used Chinese medicine formulas for clearing heat and detoxifying. Quality control of the herbal complex like Chinese medicine formulas still remains a challenge. The successful approval of botanical drug Veregen by FDA indicated the importance of quantitative analysis in quality control of herbal medicines. In this study, an effective quantitative method based on conventional HPLC-DAD was developed for simultaneous determination of fourteen major ingredients (seven alkaloids, four flavonoids, three terpenes) in HLJDT. The established method was well validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and stability and then successfully applied to quality evaluation of commercial HLJDT samples. The developed method can quantitatively determine up to 70% of the chemicals of commercial HLJDT sample and effectively revealed the significant variation in the quality of the commercial HLJDT samples collected from different locations. PMID:23973454

  20. The construction of the spatio-temporal database of the ancient Silk Road within Xinjiang province during the Han and Tang dynasties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Jiantao; Luo, Guilin; Wang, Xingxing; Zhu, Zuojia

    2014-03-01

    As the bridge over the Chinese and Western civilization, the ancient Silk Road has made a huge contribution to cultural, economic, political exchanges between China and western countries. In this paper, we treated the historical period of Western Han Dynasty, Eastern Han Dynasty and Tang Dynasty as the research time domain, and the Western Regions' countries that were existed along the Silk Road at the mean time as the research spatial domain. Then we imported these data into the SQL Server database we constructed, from which we could either query the attribute information such as population, military force, the era of the Central Plains empire, the significant events taking place in the country and some related attribute information of these events like the happened calendar year in addition to some related spatial information such as the present location, the coordinates of the capital and the territory by inputting the name of the Western countries. At the same time we could query the significant events, government institution in Central Plains and the existent Western countries at the mean time by inputting the calendar year. Based on the database, associated with GIS, RS, Flex, C# and other related information technology and network technology, we could not only browsing, searching and editing the information of the ancient Silk Road in Xinjiang Province during the Han and Tang Dynasties, but preliminary analysing as well. This is the combination of archaeology and modern information technology, and the database could also be a reference to further study, research and practice in the related fields in the future.

  1. Jaeumganghwa-Tang Induces Apoptosis via the Mitochondrial Pathway and Lactobacillus Fermentation Enhances Its Anti-Cancer Activity in HT1080 Human Fibrosarcoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Aeyung; Im, Minju; Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Yang, Hye Jin; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2015-01-01

    Jaeumganghwa-tang (JGT, Zi-yin-jiang-huo-tang in Chinese and Jiin-koka-to in Japanese) is an oriental herbal formula that has long been used as a traditional medicine to treat respiratory and kidney diseases. Recent studies revealed that JGT exhibited potent inhibitory effects on allergies, inflammation, pain, convulsions, and prostate hyperplasia. Several constituent herbs in JGT induce apoptotic cancer cell death. However, the anti-cancer activity of JGT has not been examined. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer effects of JGT using highly tumorigenic HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. In addition, we examined whether the Lactobacillus fermentation of JGT enhanced its anti-cancer activity using an in vivo xenograft model because fermentation of herbal extracts is thought to strengthen their therapeutic effects. Data revealed that JGT suppressed the growth of cancer cells efficiently by stimulating G1 cell cycle arrest and then inducing apoptotic cell death by causing mitochondrial damage and activating caspases. The phosphorylation of p38 and ERK also played a role in JGT-induced cell death. In vitro experiments demonstrated that JGT fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus, designated fJGT162, elicited similar patterns of cell death as did non-fermented JGT. Meanwhile, the daily oral administration of 120 mg/kg fJGT162 to HT1080-bearing BALB/c nude mice suppressed tumor growth dramatically (up to 90%) compared with saline treatment, whereas the administration of non-fermented JGT suppressed tumor growth by ~70%. Collectively, these results suggest that JGT and fJGT162 are safe and useful complementary and alternative anti-cancer herbal therapies, and that Lactobacillus fermentation improves the in vivo anti-cancer efficacy of JGT significantly. PMID:26020238

  2. Jaeumganghwa-Tang Induces Apoptosis via the Mitochondrial Pathway and Lactobacillus Fermentation Enhances Its Anti-Cancer Activity in HT1080 Human Fibrosarcoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Aeyung; Im, Minju; Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Yang, Hye Jin; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2015-01-01

    Jaeumganghwa-tang (JGT, Zi-yin-jiang-huo-tang in Chinese and Jiin-koka-to in Japanese) is an oriental herbal formula that has long been used as a traditional medicine to treat respiratory and kidney diseases. Recent studies revealed that JGT exhibited potent inhibitory effects on allergies, inflammation, pain, convulsions, and prostate hyperplasia. Several constituent herbs in JGT induce apoptotic cancer cell death. However, the anti-cancer activity of JGT has not been examined. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer effects of JGT using highly tumorigenic HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. In addition, we examined whether the Lactobacillus fermentation of JGT enhanced its anti-cancer activity using an in vivo xenograft model because fermentation of herbal extracts is thought to strengthen their therapeutic effects. Data revealed that JGT suppressed the growth of cancer cells efficiently by stimulating G1 cell cycle arrest and then inducing apoptotic cell death by causing mitochondrial damage and activating caspases. The phosphorylation of p38 and ERK also played a role in JGT-induced cell death. In vitro experiments demonstrated that JGT fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus, designated fJGT162, elicited similar patterns of cell death as did non-fermented JGT. Meanwhile, the daily oral administration of 120 mg/kg fJGT162 to HT1080-bearing BALB/c nude mice suppressed tumor growth dramatically (up to 90%) compared with saline treatment, whereas the administration of non-fermented JGT suppressed tumor growth by ~70%. Collectively, these results suggest that JGT and fJGT162 are safe and useful complementary and alternative anti-cancer herbal therapies, and that Lactobacillus fermentation improves the in vivo anti-cancer efficacy of JGT significantly. PMID:26020238

  3. Reply to Comment on ``Effects of fast and slow solar wind on the correlations between interplanetary medium and geomagnetic activity'' by C. B. Wang and J. K. Chao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballatore, Paola

    2003-10-01

    The paper [2002] (the paper commented) shows that the statistical significance of the correlations between the interplanetary parameters and the geomagnetic indices (Kp or Dst) is generally less significant during the fastest solar wind. On the other hand, at these fast solar wind periods, the significance of the Kp versus Dst correlation is equal to or higher than during slower solar wind. These results, together with further observations related to substorm periods and with previously published findings, are interpreted in terms of a difference in the interplanetary-magnetospheric coupling for solar wind faster or slower than a certain threshold (identified between about 500 and 600 km/s). Specifically, it is suggested that a possible linear approximation of the geomagnetic-interplanetary coupling is more appropriate during solar wind speed (Vsw) slower than this threshold, being nonlinear processes more dominant during the fastest speeds. This reply highlights that the correlation coefficients shown by [2003] are in agreement with these findings. In addition, Wang and Chao show that the statistical significance of the difference between the correlation coefficients for Vsw ≥ 550 km/s and those for Vsw < 550 km/s would indicate that the interplanetary-geomagnetic correlations during the fastest speeds are not significantly different from those at slower Vsw ranges. Here we give evidence of the fact that according to the common definition of this parameter, the calculation of the significance of the difference between two correlation coefficients made by Wang and Chao is wrong. Moreover, Wang and Chao recalculate the correlations between the interplanetary parameters and the ΔDst instead of Dst; in fact they note that the time derivative of this index (not the index itself) is driven by the interplanetary medium. Here we note that on the contrary, they show that the correlation coefficients between interplanetary parameters and Dst are larger than those obtained using ΔDst and we suggest a possible interpretation in terms of nonlinearity.

  4. Improved CUDA programs for GPU computing of Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster spin flip algorithm: 2D and 3D Ising, Potts, and XY models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komura, Yukihiro; Okabe, Yutaka

    2016-03-01

    We present new versions of sample CUDA programs for the GPU computing of the Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster spin flip algorithm. In this update, we add the method of GPU-based cluster-labeling algorithm without the use of conventional iteration (Komura, 2015) to those programs. For high-precision calculations, we also add a random-number generator in the cuRAND library. Moreover, we fix several bugs and remove the extra usage of shared memory in the kernel functions.

  5. Grateloupia ramosa Wang & Luan sp. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta), a new species from China based on morphological evidence and comparative rbcL sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Cuicui; Liu, Miao; Guo, Shaoru; Zhao, Dan; Luan, Rixiao; Wang, Hongwei

    2015-08-01

    Grateloupia ramosa Wang & Luan sp. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta) is newly described from Hainan Province, southern China. The organism has the following morphological features: (1) purplish red, cartilaginous and lubricous thalli 5-10 cm in height; (2) compressed percurrent axes bearing abundant branches with opposite arrangement; (3) claw-like apices on top, constricted to 2-4 cm at the base; (4) cortex consisting of 3-6 layers of elliptical or anomalous cells and a medulla covered by compact medullary filaments; (5) reproductive structures distributed throughout the thallus, especially centralized at the bottom of the end portion of the branches; and (6) 4-celled Carpogonial branches and 3-celled auxiliary-cell branches, both of the Grateloupia-type. The morphological differences were supported by molecular phylogenetics based on ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase ( rbc L) gene sequence analysis. There was only a 1 bp divergence between specimens collected from Wenchang and Lingshui of Hainan province. The new species was embedded in the large Grateloupia clade of the Halymeniaceae. The pairwise distances between G. ramosa and other species within Grateloupia ranged from 26 to 105 bp, within pairwise distances of 13-111 bp between species of the large genus Grateloupia in Halymeniaceae. Thus, we propose this new species as G. ramosa Wang & Luan sp. nov.

  6. Grateloupia ramosa Wang & Luan sp. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta), a new species from China based on morphological evidence and comparative rbcL sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Cuicui; Liu, Miao; Guo, Shaoru; Zhao, Dan; Luan, Rixiao; Wang, Hongwei

    2016-03-01

    Grateloupia ramosa Wang & Luan sp. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta) is newly described from Hainan Province, southern China. The organism has the following morphological features: (1) purplish red, cartilaginous and lubricous thalli 5-10 cm in height; (2) compressed percurrent axes bearing abundant branches with opposite arrangement; (3) claw-like apices on top, constricted to 2-4 cm at the base; (4) cortex consisting of 3-6 layers of elliptical or anomalous cells and a medulla covered by compact medullary filaments; (5) reproductive structures distributed throughout the thallus, especially centralized at the bottom of the end portion of the branches; and (6) 4-celled Carpogonial branches and 3-celled auxiliary-cell branches, both of the Grateloupia-type. The morphological diff erences were supported by molecular phylogenetics based on ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase ( rbcL) gene sequence analysis. There was only a 1 bp divergence between specimens collected from Wenchang and Lingshui of Hainan province. The new species was embedded in the large Grateloupia clade of the Halymeniaceae. The pairwise distances between G. ramosa and other species within Grateloupia ranged from 26 to 105 bp, within pairwise distances of 13-111 bp between species of the large genus Grateloupia in Halymeniaceae. Thus, we propose this new species as G. ramosa Wang & Luan sp. nov.

  7. Sosiho‑tang ameliorates cachexia‑related symptoms in mice bearing colon 26 adenocarcinoma by reducing systemic inflammation and muscle loss.

    PubMed

    Kim, Aeyung; Im, Minju; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-03-01

    Cachexia accompanied by muscle wasting is a key determinant of poor prognosis in cancer patients and cancer‑related death. Previous studies have demonstrated that inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin‑6 (IL‑6), tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α), IL‑1 and interferon‑γ (IFN‑γ) secreted from host cells and tumor cells participate in skeletal muscle wasting followed by severe loss of body weight. Therefore, blockade of the inflammatory response is thought to be a logical target for pharmacological and nutritional interventions to preserve skeletal muscle mass under cachectic conditions. Sosiho‑tang (SO; Xiaocharihu‑tang in Chinese and Sho‑saiko‑to in Japanese) is an Oriental herbal medicine that has been used to treat chronic hepatic diseases and to control fever. In recent studies, SO inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑stimulated macrophages, prevented thrombus formation and suppressed cancer progression. However, the anti‑cachectic activity of SO in tumor‑bearing mice has not yet been examined. In the present study, we characterized the effect of SO administration on cancer‑induced cachexia in CT‑26‑bearing mice, and elucidated the anti‑cachectic mechanisms. Daily oral administration of SO at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg to CT‑26‑bearing mice significantly retarded tumor growth and prevented the loss of final body weight, carcass weight, heart weight, gastrocnemius muscle, and epididymal fat, compared with saline‑treated control mice. In addition, serum IL‑6 levels elevated by cancer were decreased by SO administration. In the J774A.1 macrophage cell line, SO efficiently suppressed LPS‑mediated increases in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, nitric oxide (NO), and procachectic inflammatory cytokine production through inhibition of nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB) and p38 activation. In addition, SO attenuated muscle atrophy caused by cancer cells by affecting myoblast proliferation and differentiation, and C2C12 myotube wasting. Taken together, these results suggest that SO is a safe and useful anti‑cachectic therapy for cancer patients with severe weight loss. PMID:26718030

  8. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of nine major compounds in the Bozhougyiqi-Tang using a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector and electrospray ionization mass spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Weon, Jin Bae; Ma, Jin Yeul; Yang, Hye Jin; Lee, Bohyoung; Yun, Bo-Ra; Ma, Choong Je

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bozhougyiqi-Tang (BZYQT) is of traditional herbal medicine used for enhancement of digestive capacity. Objective: An accurate and reliable simultaneous determination using a HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS was developed and validated for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of 9 major compounds, ferulic acid (1), naringin (2), hesperidin (3), decursinol (4), glycyrrhizin (5), saikosaponin A (6), 6-gingerol (7), ginsenoside Rg3 (8), decursin (9), in traditional herbal medicine ‘Bozhougyiqi-Tang.’ Materials and Methods: The chromatographic separation of 9 compounds was performed on a SHISEIDO C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., S-5 μm) using gradient elution with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The 9 compounds were identified based on peak retention time and UV spectrum and MS data of these compounds. Results: This developed method showed good linearity (R2 > 0.999). The LOD and LOQ of the major compounds were less than 0.09 and 0.28 μg/ml, respectively. The intra - day and inter - day RSD values were within 2.06% and 1.64%, respectively. The mean recoveries were from 92.10% to 108.56% with less than 1.88%. The results indicated that established method had good precision and accuracy. Conclusion: The new method was successfully applied to the simultaneous analysis of 9 compounds in Bozhougyiqi-Tangs samples. PMID:23930013

  9. Relationship between climate change and wars between nomadic and farming groups from the Western Han Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Y.; Liu, L.; Fang, X. Q.; Ma, Y. N.

    2015-07-01

    In ancient China, the change in regional agriculture and animal husbandry productivity caused by climate change led to either wars or peaceful relations between nomadic and farming groups. From the Western Han Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty there were 367 wars between the two groups. The nomadic people initiated 69 % of the wars, but 62.4 % were won by the farmers. On a 30 year-period timescale, warm climates corresponded to a high incidence of wars. The conflicts between the nomadic and farming groups took place in some areas which are sensitive to climate change. During the cold periods, the battlefields were mostly in the southern regions. The main causes which leading to the above results are following: (1) warm climate provided a solid material foundation for nomadic and farming groups, especially contributed to improve the productivity of nomadic group; meanwhile, the excessive desire for essential means of subsistence in nomadic group could led to wars. (2) During the cold periods, people of farming group moved to the south and construct the south, meanwhile, nomadic group occupied the central plains, thus the battlefields also changed. As the background, climate change plays an indirect role in wars between groups.

  10. Metabolomic Study of Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Rats and the Interventional Effects of Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang, a Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Rongcai; Zhao, Ling; Hu, Yaohua; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Shuping; Xiang, Li; Liu, Wencong; Shan, Lei; Zhang, Weidong; Liu, Runhui

    2013-01-01

    Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with anti-inflammatory activity. The present study used a metabolomic approach based on LC-Q-TOF-MS to profile rheumatoid-arthritis- (RA-) related metabolic changes and to investigate the interventional mechanisms of HLJDT in collagen-induced arthritis rats. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: (1) a model group, (2) a normal control group, (3) a dexamethasone group, (4) a HLJDT group, and (5) a group that received 13 components of HLJDT. Plasma samples were collected 8, 15, and 22 days after the rats were injected with bovine type II collagen. By combining variable importance in the projection values with partial least squares discriminant analysis, 18 potential biomarkers were identified in the plasma samples. The biomarkers were primarily involved in glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, phenylalanine metabolism, purine metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, and bile acid biosynthesis. Using the potential biomarkers as a screening index, the results suggest that HLJDT can potentially reverse the process of RA by partially regulating fatty acid oxidation and arachidonic acid metabolism. This study demonstrates that a metabolomic strategy is useful for identifying potential RA biomarkers and investigating the underlying mechanisms of a TCM in RA treatment. PMID:23533484

  11. Bai-Hu-Jia-Ren-Shen-Tang Decoction Reduces Fatty Liver by Activating AMP-Activated Protein Kinase In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui-Kang; Hung, Tzu-Min; Huang, Hsiu-Chen; Lee, I-Jung; Chang, Chia-Chuan; Cheng, Jing-Jy; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Huang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and associated conditions, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), are currently a worldwide health problem. In Asian traditional medicine, Bai-Hu-Jia-Ren-Shen-Tang (BHJRST) is widely used in diabetes patients to reduce thirst. However, whether it has a therapeutic effect on T2DM or NAFLD is not known. The aim of this study was to examine whether BHJRST had a lipid-lowering effect using a HuS-E/2 cell model of fatty liver induced by palmitate and in a db/db mouse model of dyslipidemia. Incubation of HuS-E/2 cells with palmitate markedly increased lipid accumulation and expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), which is involved in lipolysis. BHJRST significantly decreased lipid accumulation and increased ATGL levels and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its primary downstream target, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), which are involved in fatty acid oxidation. Furthermore, after twice daily oral administration for six weeks, BHJRST significantly reduced hepatic fat accumulation in db/db mice, as demonstrated by increased hepatic AMPK and ACC phosphorylation, reduced serum triglyceride levels, and reduced hepatic total lipid content. The results show that BHJRST has a lipid-lowering effect in the liver that is mediated by activation of the AMPK signaling pathway. PMID:26508982

  12. Identification of multiple ingredients for a Traditional Chinese Medicine preparation (bu-yang-huan-wu-tang) by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Lee-Hsin; Chen, Wei-Ming; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2013-01-01

    Bu-yang-huan-wu-tang (BYHWT) is a popular Traditional Chinese Medicine formula consisting of seven herbal medicines (Astragalus membranaceus, Angelica sinensis, Paeonia lactiflora, Ligusticum chuanxiong, Carthamus tinctorius, Amygdalus persica and Pheretima aspergillum), that has been used in China for centuries to overcome stroke-induced disability. To ensure the consistency of quality, a reliable analytical method is required, therefore, we developed a liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for quantitative analysis of the major constituents in BYHWT. The herbal ingredients consisting of the cycloartane-type triterpene glycosides of astragaloside I, astragaloside II and astragaloside IV; isoflavones of formononetin, ononin calycosin, calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside; ligustilide and paeoniflorin were separated on a C18 column with gradient elution of methanol/10 mM ammonium acetate buffer-formic acid (100:0.1, v/v). This study was performed by a mass spectrometer using electrospray ionization (ESI) with positive ionization ions monitored in the multiple reaction-monitoring (MRM) mode. The linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD) and lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) were validated for this quantification method, and the sensitivity, reliability and reproducibility were all confirmed. The experiments provided a good method for analyzing BYHWT extracts. This study also quantitated the active components in various brands of commercially available products. The results indicated that the pharmaceutical industrial products of BYHWT exhibited considerable variation in their contents of the herbal compounds. PMID:24036516

  13. The influence of commonly prescribed synthetic drugs for peptic ulcer on the pharmacokinetic fate of glycyrrhizin from Shaoyao-Gancao-tang.

    PubMed

    He, J X; Akao, T; Nishino, T; Tani, T

    2001-12-01

    The influence of synthetic drugs prescribed for peptic ulcer on the pharmacokinetic fate of glycyrrhizin (GL) from Shaoyao-Gancao-tang (SGT, a traditional Chinese formulation, Shakuyaku-Kanzo-to in Japanese) was investigated in rats. Co-administration of histamine H2-receptor antagonist (cimetidine) and anticholinergic drug (scopolamine butyl bromide) with SGT didn't influence the area under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUC) of glycyrrhetic acid (GA), an active metabolite derived from GL in SGT. The AUC of GA from SGT were significantly reduced by co-administration of synthetic drugs commonly used for peptic ulcer in a triple therapy (OAM), a combination of a proton pump inhibitor (omeprazole) and two antibiotics (amoxicillin and metronidazole). We found that the reduction of AUC in OAM treatment was due to the antibacterial effect of amoxicillin and metronidazole on intestinal bacteria in rat which lead to the decrease of GL-hydrolysis activity. The present study suggests that it may not be a proper way to use triple therapy containing antibiotics simultaneously with SGT for healing of chronic ulcers. PMID:11767109

  14. Development of Chemical Fingerprints for Quality Control of Xiong Ma Tang and its Related Preparations by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hengyan; Guo, Jiansheng; Li, Zhi; Zhang, Xiaodan; Liu, Xiangqian; Yook, Changsoo

    2016-02-01

    Xiong Ma Tang (XMT), one of the ancient herbal prescriptions, has been used in treatment of migraine disease. In this study, efficient high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprints were developed for identification of 11 major marker components, named 1-(β-D-ribofuranosyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazone, gastrodin, ligustrazine, 3,4-bihydroxy benzaldehyde, p-hydroxy benzaldehyde, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, benzoic acid, vanillin, ferulic acid, caffeic acid and senkyunolide I, respectively, in XMT and three related preparations. The analysis of 11 marker compounds was carried out using a Kromasil C18 reserved-phase column (5 μm, 4.6 × 250 mm) and gradient elution with methanol and aqueous phosphoric acid (0.1%, v/v). The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the detector wavelength was set at 276 nm. Mean chromatograms and correlation coefficients of samples were calculated by the software "Similarity Evaluation System for Chromatographic Fingerprint of Traditional Chinese Medicine". The correlation coefficients of XMT and three related preparations ranged from 0.935 to 0.986, 0.909 to 0.949, 0.900 to 0.926 and 0.937 to 0.988, respectively. It was the first time 11 peaks of XMT and three related preparations were identified by comparing with standard compounds. These results have shown that the developed method was efficient for the quality evaluation of XMT and its related preparations. PMID:26472809

  15. Inhibitory effect of Sihoga-Yonggol-Moryo-Tang on matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 activities and invasiveness potential of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ha, Ki-Tae; Kim, June-Ki; Kang, Sung-Koo; Kim, Dong-Wook; Lee, Young-Choon; Kim, Hyung-Min; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2004-09-01

    A Korean traditional herbal formulation, Sihoga-Yonggol-Moryo-Tang (SGYMT), is being used for the treatment of many diseases such as tumor, neuropsychiatric, and vascular disorders. The extracts prepared from SGYMT and its herbal ingredients were assayed for the inhibitory effects on tumor-specific matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 (MMP-2/9) activities using gelatin zymography. The results showed that SGYMT decreased the gelatinolytic activities of MMP-2 and -9, which were secreted from SK-Hep1 cells. The IC(50) values of SGYMT against these enzymes were 85 and 145 micrograms ml(-1), respectively. The cytotoxocities of SGYMT and its ingredients on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell, SK-Hep1 cells, were very low (IC(50)>150 micrograms ml(-1)) as measured by the XTT assay method. The extract were then investigated the inhibitory effect on the invasion of SK-Hep1 cells using matrigel precoated transwell chambers. The results showed that SGYMT effectively inhibited the invasion of SK-Hep1 cells as compared with the control groups. In addition, among herbal ingredients of SGYMT, the bark of Cinnamomum cassia BLUME (Cinnamomi Cortex) and roots of Scutellaria baicalensis GEORGI (Scutelleria Radix) have shown significant inhibition against MMP-2 and -9 activity and invasion of SK-Hep1 cells. From these results, it was suggested that SGYMT could be used as potential anti-tumor agent. PMID:15225671

  16. A Systems Biology-Based Investigation into the Pharmacological Mechanisms of Sheng-ma-bie-jia-tang Acting on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus by Multi-Level Data Integration

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lin; Lv, Qi; Liu, Fenfen; Shi, Tieliu; Wen, Chengping

    2015-01-01

    Sheng-ma-bie-jia-tang (SMBJT) is a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula that is widely used for the treatment of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) in China. However, molecular mechanism behind this formula remains unknown. Here, we systematically analyzed targets of the ingredients in SMBJT to evaluate its potential molecular mechanism. First, we collected 1,267 targets from our previously published database, the Traditional Chinese Medicine Integrated Database (TCMID). Next, we conducted gene ontology and pathway enrichment analyses for these targets and determined that they were enriched in metabolism (amino acids, fatty acids, etc.) and signaling pathways (chemokines, Toll-like receptors, adipocytokines, etc.). 96 targets, which are known SLE disease proteins, were identified as essential targets and the rest 1,171 targets were defined as common targets of this formula. The essential targets directly interacted with SLE disease proteins. Besides, some common targets also had essential connections to both key targets and SLE disease proteins in enriched signaling pathway, e.g. toll-like receptor signaling pathway. We also found distinct function of essential and common targets in immune system processes. This multi-level approach to deciphering the underlying mechanism of SMBJT treatment of SLE details a new perspective that will further our understanding of TCM formulas. PMID:26560501

  17. Simultaneous determination of thirteen flavonoids from Xiaobuxin-Tang extract using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cen, Meifeng; Ruan, Jinxiu; Huang, Lihua; Zhang, Zhenqing; Yu, Nengjiang; Zhang, Youzhi; Cheng, Xuange; Xiong, Xiaohong; Wang, Guixiang; Zang, Linquan; Wang, Sujun

    2015-11-10

    A simple and reliable high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) analysis method was established to simultaneously determine thirteen flavonoids of Xiaobuxing-Tang in intestine perfusate, namely onpordin, 3'-O-methylorobol, glycitein, patuletin, genistein, luteolin, quercetin, nepitrin, quercimeritrin, daidzin, patulitrin, quercetagitrin and 3-glucosylisorhamnetin. Detection was performed on a quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source operating in negative ionization mode. Negative ion ESI was used to form deprotonated molecules at m/z 315 for onpordin, m/z 299 for 3'-O-methylorobol, m/z 283 for glycitein, m/z 331 for patuletin, m/z 269 for genistein, m/z 285 for luteolin, m/z 301 for quercetin, m/z 477 for nepitrin, m/z 463 for quercimeritrin, m/z 461 for daidzin, m/z 493 for patulitrin, m/z 479 for quercetagitrin, m/z 477 for 3-glucosylisorhamnetin and m/z 609.2 for rutin. The linearity, sensitivity, selectivity, repeatability, accuracy, precision, recovery and matrix effect of the assay were evaluated. The proposed method was successfully applied to simultaneous determination of these thirteen flavonoids, and using this method, the intestinal absorption profiles of thirteen flavonoids were preliminarily predicted. PMID:26232587

  18. Zhen-wu-tang attenuates cationic bovine serum albumin-induced inflammatory response in membranous glomerulonephritis rat through inhibiting AGEs/RAGE/NF-κB pathway activation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junbiao; Liu, Bihao; Liang, Chunling; Ouyang, Hui; Lin, Jin; Zhong, Yanchun; He, Yu; Zhou, Jie; Zhou, Yuan; Zhou, Jiuyao

    2016-04-01

    Zhen-wu-tang (ZWT), a traditional Chinese compound formula recorded in the Treatise on Febrile Diseases, has significant inhibitory effects on inflammatory damage and oxidative lesions in rats, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to explore whether the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of ZWT were mediated by the AGEs/RAGE/NF-κB signaling pathway in rats with cationic bovine serum albumin (C-BSA)-induced membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN). We found that ZWT significantly reduced the production of malondialdehyde (MDA), but enhanced the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The ELISA results showed that ZWT not only reduced the serum levels of AGEs but also decreased the release of inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6). Meanwhile, HE staining showed that pathological kidney injury was alleviated by ZWT. In addition, ZWT suppressed the expression of RAGE1 and NF-κB p65, as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. The accumulation of AGEs, oxidative lesions and inflammation damage were reduced by an AGE inhibitor. Thus, the present study demonstrates that AGEs play a role in the pathogenesis of MGN and that AGE inhibition could reduce the inflammatory reactions and oxidative lesions in MGN. In general, ZWT attenuated MGN, in part, by inhibiting the AGEs/RAGE/NF-κB pathway. PMID:26851631

  19. Optimization of the extraction process for the seven bioactive compounds in Yukmijihwang-tang, an herbal formula, using response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Seo, Chang-Seob

    2014-01-01

    Background: Yukmijihwang-tang (YJT) contains multiple bioactive compounds. Heat-reflux extraction was employed and optimized for the extraction of the bioactive compounds in YJT. Objective: The determination of optimal conditions with maximum yields of bioactive compounds, gallic acid, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, morroniside, loganin, paeoniflorin, benzoic acid and paeonol, in YJT. Materials and Methods: The extraction ratio (ratio of water to herbal formula), extraction time and extraction number were set as individual values and the yields of the seven compounds were the response values that were optimized with a Box–Behnken design. Results: The optimal conditions obtained from response surface methodology (RSM) were 1:11.99 for the extraction ratio, 94.53 min for the extraction time and 2.21 for the extraction number. Under the optimal conditions, the response value of the experiment closely agreed with the predicted response value. Conclusions: The result suggests that RSM is successfully applied for optimizing the extraction of the marker compounds in YJT. PMID:25298681

  20. Antioxidant Formulae, Shengmai San, and LingGuiZhuGanTang, Prevent MPTP Induced Brain Dysfunction and Oxidative Damage in Mice.

    PubMed

    Giridharan, Vijayasree Vayalanellore; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan Amirthalingam; Konishi, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the preventive effect of antioxidative traditional oriental medicine formulae, Shengmai San (SMS) and LingGuiZhuGanTang (LGZGT), against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) (i.p 30 mg·kg(-1) for 5 consecutive days) induced neurotoxicity. In in vitro antioxidant assays measured with Trolox and butyl hydroxyl toluene as reference antioxidant revealed that SMS has higher scavenging potential against hydroxyl radical than superoxide anion radical, but LGZGT was the reverse. The neuroprotective effect of SMS and LGZGT against MPTP was evaluated in mice by behavioral, biochemical, and immunohistochemical studies. In the behavioral study, both SMS and LGZGT significantly reversed the locomotive impairment induced by MPTP. Simultaneously, both formulae significantly prevented the MPTP induced dopaminergic neuron loss assessed by tyrosine hydroxylase in the midbrain. Both SMS and LGZGT significantly attenuated the elevated lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls levels by MPTP. The DNA damage induced by MPTP was also prevented by both formulae. Although a little difference in the protective functions was observed between the two formulae, such as in DNA damage and behavioral studies, the results indicate that both SMS and LGZGT with antioxidant property act as a good candidate applicable for the antioxidant based complementary therapies of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26612995

  1. Traditional Formula, Modern Application: Chinese Medicine Formula Sini Tang Improves Early Ventricular Remodeling and Cardiac Function after Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiangang; Peter, Karoline; Shi, Dazhuo; Zhang, Lei; Dong, Guoju; Zhang, Dawu; Breiteneder, Heimo; Ma, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Sini Tang (SNT) is a traditional Chinese herbal formula consisting of four different herbs: the root of Aconitum carmichaelii, the bark of Cinnamomum cassia, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, and the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis. This study aims to evaluate the improvement of early ventricular remodeling and cardiac function in myocardial infarction (MI) rats by SNT. A MI model was established by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Following treatment for 4 weeks, ultrasonic echocardiography was performed. Myocardial histopathological changes were observed using haematoxylin and eosin staining. Collagens (type I and type III), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and Toll-like receptors (TLR-2 and TLR-4) were measured in plasma, serum, and myocardial tissue. SNT treatment decreased the infarct size, the left ventricular cavity area/heart cavity area ratio, and the left ventricle dimension at end systole and increased the left ventricular ejection fraction. SNT reduced the levels of TLR-2 and TLR-4 in myocardial tissue significantly and decreased the collagens content in serum and in myocardial tissue. SNT could partially reduce the level of TGF-β1 in serum and in myocardial tissue. Our data suggest that the Chinese medicine formula SNT has the potential to improve early ventricular remodeling and cardiac function after MI. PMID:24971143

  2. Traditional Herbal Formula Banhasasim-tang Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effects in RAW 264.7 Macrophages and HaCaT Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hye-Sun; Kim, Yeji; Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2015-01-01

    Banhasasim-tang (BHSST) is a Korean traditional herbal formula comprising eight medicinal herbs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of BHSST using macrophage and keratinocyte cell lines. First, we evaluated the effects of BHSST on inflammatory mediator and cytokine production in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. BHSST markedly inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and interleukin- (IL-) 6. BHSST significantly suppressed the protein expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and phosphorylated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 in RAW 264.7 cells. Second, we examined whether BHSST influences the production of chemokines and STAT1 phosphorylation in tumor necrosis factor-α/interferon-γ TI-stimulated HaCaT keratinocytes. BHSST significantly suppressed the production of RANTES/CCL5, TARC/CCL17, MDC/CCL22, and IL-8 in TI-stimulated HaCaT cells. BHSST also suppressed TI-induced phosphorylation of STAT1 in HaCaT cells. These results suggest that BHSST may be useful as an anti-inflammatory agent, especially for inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:25838833

  3. High-throughput screening of inhibitory effects of Bo-yang-hwan-o-tang on human cytochrome P450 isoforms in vitro using UPLC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Lee, Miran; Park, Jeonghyeon; Lim, Mi-sun; Seong, Sook Jin; Lee, Joomi; Seo, Jeong Ju; Park, Yong-Ki; Lee, Hae Won; Yoon, Young-Ran

    2012-01-01

    Bo-yang-hwan-o-tang (BHT) is an oriental herbal medicine for treating brain disorders such as cerebral ischemia. The objective of this study was to develop an economically feasible and time-saving high-throughput screening method to monitor the potential inhibitory effects of BHT on human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in vitro. Two cocktail sets were used for incubation of human liver microsomes: Cocktail A: 6 probe substrates for CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2C8, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4; Cocktail B: 3 for CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2E1. The concentrations of the substrate metabolites were simultaneously analyzed using UPLC/MS/MS. The BHT extract had almost negligible inhibitory effects on the nine human CYP isoforms tested, with the half-maximal inhibitory concentration value ranged from 3624.99 to 45412.44 μg/ml. The results suggest that BHT extract has no inhibitory effects on CYP isoforms within the clinically recommended dosage range. We conclude that BHT might be free of drug-herb interactions when co-administered with other medicines. However, more in vivo human studies are needed to confirm these results. The high-throughput screening method can be a useful tool for drug discovery and for understanding drug interactions. PMID:23232241

  4. Antioxidant Formulae, Shengmai San, and LingGuiZhuGanTang, Prevent MPTP Induced Brain Dysfunction and Oxidative Damage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Giridharan, Vijayasree Vayalanellore; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan Amirthalingam; Konishi, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the preventive effect of antioxidative traditional oriental medicine formulae, Shengmai San (SMS) and LingGuiZhuGanTang (LGZGT), against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) (i.p 30 mg·kg−1 for 5 consecutive days) induced neurotoxicity. In in vitro antioxidant assays measured with Trolox and butyl hydroxyl toluene as reference antioxidant revealed that SMS has higher scavenging potential against hydroxyl radical than superoxide anion radical, but LGZGT was the reverse. The neuroprotective effect of SMS and LGZGT against MPTP was evaluated in mice by behavioral, biochemical, and immunohistochemical studies. In the behavioral study, both SMS and LGZGT significantly reversed the locomotive impairment induced by MPTP. Simultaneously, both formulae significantly prevented the MPTP induced dopaminergic neuron loss assessed by tyrosine hydroxylase in the midbrain. Both SMS and LGZGT significantly attenuated the elevated lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls levels by MPTP. The DNA damage induced by MPTP was also prevented by both formulae. Although a little difference in the protective functions was observed between the two formulae, such as in DNA damage and behavioral studies, the results indicate that both SMS and LGZGT with antioxidant property act as a good candidate applicable for the antioxidant based complementary therapies of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26612995

  5. Involvement of MAPKs and PLC Pathways in Modulation of Pacemaking Activity by So-Cheong-Ryong-Tang in Interstitial Cells of Cajal from Murine Small Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Min Woo; Lee, Hee Jung

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are the pacemaker cells that generate slow waves in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We have aimed to investigate the effects of Socheongryong-Tang (SCRT) in ICCs from mouse's small intestine. Methods. The whole-cell patch-clamp configuration was used to record membrane potentials from cultured ICCs. Intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) increase was studied in cultured ICCs using fura-2 AM. Results. ICCs generated pacemaker potentials in mouse's small intestine. SCRT produced membrane depolarization in current clamp mode. Y25130 (5-HT3 receptor antagonist) and RS39604 (5-HT4 receptor antagonist) blocked SCRT-induced membrane depolarizations, whereas SB269970 (5-HT7 receptor antagonist) did not. When GDP-β-S (1 mM) was in the pipette solution, SCRT did not induce the membrane depolarizations. [Ca2+]i analysis showed that SCRT increased [Ca2+]i. In the presence of PD98059 (p42/44 MAPK inhibitor), SCRT did not produce membrane depolarizations. In addition, SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) and JNK inhibitors blocked the depolarizations by SCRT in pacemaker potentials. Furthermore, the membrane depolarizations by SCRT were not inhibited by U-73122, an active phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, but by U-73343, an inactive PLC inhibitor. Conclusion. These results suggest that SCRT might affect GI motility by the modulation of pacemaker activity through MAPKs and PLC pathways in the ICCs. PMID:24288491

  6. Gyejigachulbu-Tang Relieves Oxaliplatin-Induced Neuropathic Cold and Mechanical Hypersensitivity in Rats via the Suppression of Spinal Glial Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Byung-Soo; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Kim, Ha Neul; Lee, Ji-Hye; Lee, Ji-Hwan; Hwang, Deog Sang; Min, Byung-Il

    2014-01-01

    Activation of spinal glial cells plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. An administration of oxaliplatin, an important anticancer drug, often induces acute neuropathic cold hypersensitivity and/or mechanical hypersensitivity in patients. Gyejigachulbu-tang (GBT), a herbal formula comprising Cinnamomi Cortex, Paeoniae Radix, Atractylodis Lanceae Rhizoma, Zizyphi Fructus, Glycyrrhizae Radix, Zingiberis Rhizoma, and Aconiti Tuber, has been used in East Asia to treat various pain symptoms, especially in cold patients. This study investigated whether and how GBT alleviates oxaliplatin-induced cold and mechanical hypersensitivity in rats. The behavioral signs of cold and mechanical hypersensitivity were evaluated by a tail immersion test in cold water (4°C) and a von Frey hair test, respectively. The significant cold and mechanical hypersensitivity were observed 3 days after an oxaliplatin injection (6 mg/kg, i.p.). Daily oral administration of GBT (200, 400, and 600 mg/kg) for 5 days markedly attenuated cold and mechanical hypersensitivity. Immunoreactivities of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, astrocyte marker) and OX-42 (microglia marker) in the spinal dorsal horn were significantly increased by an oxaliplatin injection, which were restored by GBT administration. These results indicate that GBT relieves oxaliplatin-induced cold and mechanical hypersensitivity in rats possibly through the suppression of spinal glial activation. PMID:25505922

  7. The relationship between climate change and wars waged between nomadic and farming groups from the Western Han Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Y.; Liu, L.; Fang, X. Q.; Ma, Y. N.

    2016-01-01

    In ancient China, shifts in regional productivity of agriculture and animal husbandry, caused by climate change, either led to wars or peaceful relations between nomadic and farming groups. During the period spanning the Western Han Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty, 367 wars were waged between these groups. While 69 % of the wars were initiated by nomads, 62.4 % were won by the farming groups. On a centennial timescale, the battlegrounds were mostly in northern areas (at an average latitude of 38.92° N) during warm periods, moving southward (at an average latitude of 34.66° N) during cold periods. On a decadal timescale, warm climates corresponded to a high incidence of wars (a correlation coefficient of 0.293). While farming groups were inclined to initiate wars during dry and cold periods, their chances of achieving victory were reduced at such times. The main reasons for this are, first, that a warm climate provided a solid material foundation for nomadic and farming groups, contributing especially to enhanced productivity among the former. However, the overriding desire of nomadic groups to expand essential subsistence means led to wars. Second, during cold periods, farming groups moved to and settled in the south, while nomadic groups occupied the Central Plain. Thus, the locations of the battlefields also changed. While other factors also influenced these wars, climate change served as a backdrop, playing an indirect role in wars between these groups.

  8. Immunomodulatory Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine Formula Sheng-Fei-Yu-Chuan-Tang in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Hung; Yeh, Ching-Hua; Wang, Shulhn-Der; Wang, Jen-Shu; Kao, Shung-Te

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine formula Sheng-Fei-Yu-Chuan-Tang (SFYCT), consisting of 13 medicinal plants, was used to treat patients with lung diseases. This study investigated the immunoregulatory effect of SFYCT on intratracheal lipopolysaccharides- (LPS-) challenged acute lung injury (ALI) mice. SFYCT attenuated pulmonary edema, macrophages, and neutrophils infiltration in the airways. SFYCT decreased inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?), interleukin-1?, and interleukin-6 and inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production but increased anti-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-4, and interleukin-10, in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of LPS-challenged mice. TNF? and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 mRNA expression in the lung of LPS-challenged mice as well as LPS-stimulated lung epithelial cell and macrophage were decreased by SFYCT treatment. SFYCT treatment also decreased the inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and phosphorylation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) in the lung of mice and macrophage with LPS stimulation. SFYCT treatment dose dependently decreased the LPS-induced NO and reactive oxygen species generation in LPS-stimulated macrophage. In conclusion, SFYCT attenuated lung inflammation during LPS-induced ALI through decreasing inflammatory cytokines production while increasing anti-inflammatory cytokines production. The immunoregulatory effect of SFYCT is related to inhibiting NF-?B phosphorylation. PMID:23997804

  9. Efficacy and Safety of Taeeumjowi-tang in Obese Korean Adults: A Double-Blind, Randomized, and Placebo-Controlled Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nahmkoong, Won; Cheon, ChunHoo; Park, Jeong-Su; Shin, Yongcheol; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Go, Hoyeon; Song, Yun-Kyung; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of Taeeumjowi-tang (TJ001) as well as to estimate obesity-related factors. Methods. This was a 12-week trial with 5 visits. A total of 102 participants of both genders were randomized to either TJ001 (n = 57) group or the placebo group (n = 55). Subjects were administered 7?g of either TJ001 or placebo 3 times a day. The primary outcome was a rate of subjects who lost 5% or more of initial weight. Secondary outcomes included anthropometric parameters, lipid profiles, and body fat composition. Results. The subject response rate of ?5% weight loss compared to baseline was similar in both groups, and no statistically significant difference was observed (P = 0.87). Changes in anthropometric parameters were greater during the first 4 weeks in the treatment group (P < 0.0001). There were no significant changes in both within groups and between groups for lipid profile and body fat composition. No adverse event was reported in either group. Conclusion. Although the difference between the groups regarding a rate of subjects who lost 5% or more of initial weight did not show statistical significance, TJ001 appears to be beneficial in safely controlling weight. PMID:24062784

  10. Chung-Yeul-Gue-Soup-Sa-Gan-Tang, traditional Korean medicine, enhances CD4(+) T cell activities and modulates Th1/Th2 lineage development.

    PubMed

    Ko, Eunjung; Park, Jae-Woo; Rho, Samwoong; Cho, Chongwoon; Park, Seongkyu; Ko, Seonggyu; Lee, Yongwon; Hong, Moo-Chang; Shin, Min-Kyu; Ryu, Ki-Won; Bae, Hyunsu

    2004-04-01

    Chung-Yeul-Gue-Soup-Sa-Gan-Tang (CYT), a traditional Korea herbal medicine, has been widely used in Korea for the treatment of various immunological disorders, including allergic asthma. In this study, CYT was examined in vitro and tested for possible immunological effects. The results demonstrated that CYT had no mitogenic effects on unstimulated CD4(+) T cells, but rather increased CD4(+) T cell proliferation upon activation with anti-CD3/CD28 antibody. Under the Th0 condition, CYT also enhanced expression of interleukin (IL)-2 in purified murine CD4(+) T cells assayed by real-time PCR, suggesting that CYT moderately increases the activity of helper T cells upon T cell receptor ligation under the neutral condition. However, the Th1 cells were overpopulated following CYT treatment under the Th1 condition, while Th2 cells were under-populated in the Th2 driven condition. In addition, under Th1/Th2-skewed conditions, the levels of IL-4 were considerably decreased, while the expression of T-bet and interferon-gamma were increased with CYT treatment. Thus, CYT enhances Th1 lineage development from naive CD4(+) T cells both by increasing Th1 specific cytokine secretion and repressing Th2 specific cytokine production. These results suggest that CYT is a desirable agent for the correction of Th2 dominant pathological disorders. PMID:15107575

  11. A Systems Biology-Based Investigation into the Pharmacological Mechanisms of Sheng-ma-bie-jia-tang Acting on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus by Multi-Level Data Integration.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lin; Lv, Qi; Liu, Fenfen; Shi, Tieliu; Wen, Chengping

    2015-01-01

    Sheng-ma-bie-jia-tang (SMBJT) is a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula that is widely used for the treatment of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) in China. However, molecular mechanism behind this formula remains unknown. Here, we systematically analyzed targets of the ingredients in SMBJT to evaluate its potential molecular mechanism. First, we collected 1,267 targets from our previously published database, the Traditional Chinese Medicine Integrated Database (TCMID). Next, we conducted gene ontology and pathway enrichment analyses for these targets and determined that they were enriched in metabolism (amino acids, fatty acids, etc.) and signaling pathways (chemokines, Toll-like receptors, adipocytokines, etc.). 96 targets, which are known SLE disease proteins, were identified as essential targets and the rest 1,171 targets were defined as common targets of this formula. The essential targets directly interacted with SLE disease proteins. Besides, some common targets also had essential connections to both key targets and SLE disease proteins in enriched signaling pathway, e.g. toll-like receptor signaling pathway. We also found distinct function of essential and common targets in immune system processes. This multi-level approach to deciphering the underlying mechanism of SMBJT treatment of SLE details a new perspective that will further our understanding of TCM formulas. PMID:26560501

  12. Potential Beneficial Effects of Si-Wu-Tang on White Blood Cell Numbers and the Gastrointestinal Tract of γ-Ray Irradiated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Jin; Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-01-01

    Si-Wu-Tang (SWT) is a decoction consisting of a mixture of ingredients of Rehmanniae Radix, Angelica Radix, Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Paeoniae Radix. As a traditional Chinese herbal decoction, SWT has been widely used for the treatment of diseases characterized as blood and/or energy deficit. The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of SWT on the different populations of circulating white blood cells (WBCs) and gastrointestinal changes in γ-ray irradiated mice. Female mice were treated daily with orally administered SWT seven days before irradiation, until one day before irradiation or until one day before sample collection. WBC counts were determined from peripheral blood samples taken from the mice at different times post-irradiation. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, as well as immunohistochemical analysis of fibrinogen, were utilized to evaluate the effects of SWT in the intestines of mice after radiation exposure. The results of the present studies demonstrate that SWT has protective effects against radiation damage to circulating WBCs, specifically to lymphocytes, and to the gastrointestinal tract of the irradiated animals. PMID:25324699

  13. Simultaneous Determination of Nine Active Compounds of the Traditional Chinese Medicinal Prescription Shaoyao-Gancao-Tang and Analysis of the Relationship between Therapeutical Effect and Compatibility of Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guijun; Wang, Meng; Wang, Jingjuan; Zeng, Weixin; Gao, Xiaomei

    2014-01-01

    A simple and sensitive HPLC-DAD detection method was established for the simultaneous determination of nine compounds including oxypaeoniflorin, albiflorin, paeoniflorin, benzoylpaeoniflorin, glycyrrhizic acid, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, and isoliquiritigenin in the Traditional Chinese Medicinal Prescription Shaoyao-Gancao-Tang (SGT) and we analyze the relationship between therapeutical effect and compatibility of medicines by using an Agilent extend-C18 column at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The column temperature was maintained at 30°C and the detection wavelength was set at 230 nm for oxypaeoniflorin, albiflorin, paeoniflorin, benzoylpaeoniflorin, and glycyrrhizic acid; 276 nm for liquiritin and liquiritigenin; 360 nm for isoliquiritin and isoliquiritigenin. The total contents of the nine compounds in SGT varied from 4.65 to 20.06 mg/mL. The results of this study showed that the content of chemical compounds of Traditional Chinese Medicinal Prescription is mainly influenced by the dosage and compatibility of medicines and the therapeutical effect of Traditional Chinese Medicinal prescription is mainly influenced by the dosage and compatibility of medicines. The method could be suitable for quality control of SGT with bioactive multicompounds. PMID:25431610

  14. Functions of Danggui Buxue Tang, a Chinese Herbal Decoction Containing Astragali Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix, in Uterus and Liver are Both Estrogen Receptor-Dependent and -Independent

    PubMed Central

    Zierau, Oliver; Zheng, Ken Y. Z.; Dong, Tina T. X.; Tsim, Karl W. K.; Vollmer, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), a herbal decoction containing Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR), has been used in treating menopausal irregularity in women for more than 800 years in China. Pharmacological results showed that DBT exhibited significant estrogenic properties in vitro, which therefore suggested that DBT could activate the nuclear estrogen receptors. Here, we assessed the estrogenic properties of DBT in an ovariectomized in vivo rat model: DBT was applied to the ovariectomized rats for 3 days. The application of DBT did not alter the weight of uterus and liver, as well as the transcript expression of the proliferation markers including the estrogen receptors α and β. However, DBT stimulated the transcript expression of the estrogen responsive genes. In addition, the inductive role of DBT on the expression of members of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor family in uterus and liver of ovariectomized rats was confirmed. These responses of DBT however were clearly distinct from the response pattern detectable here for 17β-estradiol. Therefore, DBT exhibited weak, but significant, estrogenic properties in vivo; however, some of its activities were independent of the estrogen receptor. Thus, DBT could be an exciting Chinese herbal decoction for an alternative treatment of hormone replacement therapy for women in menopause without subsequent estrogenic side effects. PMID:25214874

  15. Simultaneous determination of five marker compounds in Xuanfu Daizhe Tang by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection for quality control

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Kunming; Wang, Bin; Cai, Hao; Li, Weidong; Yao, Zhongqing; Zhang, Xingde; Lu, Tulin; Cai, Baochang

    2012-01-01

    Background: Xuanfu Daizhe Tang (XDT) is a classical traditional Chinese medicinal prescription that has been widely used for treating digestive system illnesses for hundreds of years. Materials and Methods: In this study, a simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method was established for the simultaneous determination of five marker compounds in XDT including chlorogenic acid, glycyrrhizic acid, ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Rb1 and ginsenoside Re, for quality control of this well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Results: These compounds were separated in less than 130 min using a YMC C18 column with a gradient elution system of acetonitrile and 0.1% phosphoric acid water solution at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. All calibration curves of standard components showed good linearity with R2 >0.9991. Limit of detection and limit of quantification varied from 0.11 to 4.3 μg/ml and 0.20 to 11.6 μg/ml, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the intra-day and inter-day experiments were less than 4.72 and 5.48%, respectively. The accuracy of recovery test ranged from 95.0 to 105.0% with RSD values 1.28- 4.32%. Conclusion: The validated method is simple, reliable, and successfully applied to determine the contents of the selected compounds in XDT for quality control. PMID:24082626

  16. Traditional medicine yanggyuksanhwa-tang inhibits adipogenesis and suppresses proliferator-activated receptor-gamma expression in 3T3-L1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Soo-Jin; Yoo, Sae-Rom; Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Yanggyuksanhwa-tang (YGSHT) is a specific traditional Korean herbal formula for Soyangin according to Sasang constitutional philosophy. Although its biological activities against inflammation and cerebral infarction have been reporting, there is no information about the adipogenic activity of YGSHT. In the present study, we investigated the anti-adipogenic activity of YGSHT to evaluate effects of YGSHT on adipogenesis in vitro. Materials and Methods: Using 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, we induced the cellular differentiation into adipocytes by adding insulin. Anti-adipogenic activity of YGSHT was measured by oil red O staining, triglyceride assay, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity test, and leptin assay. Results: YGSHT extract had no significant cytotoxicity in preadipocytes or differentiated adipocytes. YGSHT reduced the number of lipid droplets and content of triglyceride in adipose cells. YGSHT also significantly inhibited GPDH activity and decreased leptin production compared with control adipocytes. Down-regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) expression at the messenger RNA level was observed in YGSHT-treated adipocytes. Conclusion: Taken together, our data suggest that YGSHT has potential as an anti-obesity drug candidate. PMID:26246724

  17. U-Bang-Haequi Tang: A Herbal Prescription that Prevents Acute Inflammation through Inhibition of NF-κB-Mediated Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Hwangbo, Min; Jung, Ji Yun; Ki, Sung Hwan; Park, Sang Mi; Jegal, Kyung Hwan; Lee, Ju-Hee; Kang, Seung Ho; Park, Sun-Dong; Ku, Sae Kwang; Zhao, Rong Jie; Jee, Seon Young

    2014-01-01

    Since antiquity, medical herbs have been prescribed for both treatment and preventative purposes. Herbal formulas are used to reduce toxicity as well as increase efficacy in traditional Korean medicine. U-bang-haequi tang (UBT) is a herbal prescription containing Arctii fructus and Forsythia suspensa as its main components and has treated many human diseases in traditional Korean medicine. This research investigated the effects of UBT against an acute phase of inflammation. For this, we measured induction of nitric oxide (NO) and related proteins in macrophage cell line stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Further, paw swelling was measured in carrageenan-treated rats. Carrageenan significantly induced activation of inflammatory cells and increases in paw volume, whereas oral administration of 0.3 or 1 g/kg/day of UBT inhibited the acute inflammatory response. In RAW264.7 cells, UBT inhibited mRNA and protein expression levels of iNOS. UBT treatment also blocked elevation of NO production, nuclear translocation of NF-κB, phosphorylation of Iκ-Bα induced by LPS. Moreover, UBT treatment significantly blocked the phosphorylation of p38 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases by LPS. In conclusion, UBT prevented both acute inflammation in rats as well as LPS-induced NO and iNOS gene expression through inhibition of NF-κB in RAW264.7 cells. PMID:24959187

  18. Folding-unfolding transition in the mini-protein villin headpiece (HP35): An equilibrium study using the Wang-Landau algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Priya; Sarkar, Subir K.; Bandyopadhyay, Pradipta

    2016-04-01

    A computational study, using the Wang-Landau algorithm, is carried out for the 35 residue mini-protein villin headpiece (HP35) to investigate some equilibrium aspects of its folding-unfolding transition in water. The force field used is ECEPP/3 and a solvent-accessible surface area method is used to describe the interaction with water. The density of states and the conditional probabilities of some physically interesting geometrical descriptors of the molecule at various energies are calculated by analyzing the high-statistics data generated by the simulations. All canonical ensemble averages are subsequently calculated by using these data. The computed quantities include specific heat, radius of gyration, number of native contacts, number of helical residues and the potential of mean force for three pairs of geometric descriptors. High precision and a systematic check on the convergence of the computation are the two key points of our methodology.

  19. Simple deterministic models and applications. Comment on "Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review" by Z. Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hyun Mo

    2015-12-01

    Currently, discrete modellings are largely accepted due to the access to computers with huge storage capacity and high performance processors and easy implementation of algorithms, allowing to develop and simulate increasingly sophisticated models. Wang et al. [7] present a review of dynamics in complex networks, focusing on the interaction between disease dynamics and human behavioral and social dynamics. By doing an extensive review regarding to the human behavior responding to disease dynamics, the authors briefly describe the complex dynamics found in the literature: well-mixed populations networks, where spatial structure can be neglected, and other networks considering heterogeneity on spatially distributed populations. As controlling mechanisms are implemented, such as social distancing due 'social contagion', quarantine, non-pharmaceutical interventions and vaccination, adaptive behavior can occur in human population, which can be easily taken into account in the dynamics formulated by networked populations.

  20. News & Views Evaluation of Projects for Basic Research of Scientific Instruments in 2008 Completed NSFC Former President Tang Ao-qing Passed Away Professor Tang Aoqing and NSFC Carbon Nanotube Film-Based Speaker Developed in Tsinghua University Dinosaur Footprint Fossils Discovered in Xinjiang New Method for Early Cancer Diagnosis New Progress Achieved by NSFC Project in Basic Research of Black Hole Physics New progress in Organic FET 67 NSFC-RFBR Cooperative Projects Approved for 2008 Spin Configuration and Super-exchange Mechanism in Molecular Magnets Observed NSFC Strengthens its Funding in Wenchuan Concerns Go to Disaster's Impact on Economy and Emergency Response Thirty-seven NSFC-KOSEF Cooperative Projects Approved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of Projects for Basic Research of Scientific Instruments in 2008 Completed NSFC Former President Tang Ao-qing Passed Away Professor Tang Aoqing and NSFC Carbon Nanotube Film-Based Speaker Developed in Tsinghua University Dinosaur Footprint Fossils Discovered in Xinjiang New Method for Early Cancer Diagnosis New Progress Achieved by NSFC Project in Basic Research of Black Hole Physics New progress in Organic FET 67 NSFC-RFBR Cooperative Projects Approved for 2008 Spin Configuration and Super-exchange Mechanism in Molecular Magnets Observed NSFC Strengthens its Funding in Wenchuan Concerns Go to Disaster's Impact on Economy and Emergency Response Thirty-seven NSFC-KOSEF Cooperative Projects Approved

  1. Using UPLC-QTOF-MS to analyze the chemical changes between traditional and dispensing granule decoctions of San-Ao-Tang.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunhua; Qian, Yefei; Fan, Xinsheng; Shang, ErXin; Yao, Xin; Ma, Shiping

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, a chemical profiling approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-TOF-MS) was proposed to rapidly evaluate the chemical consistency between traditional and dispensing granule decoctions of traditional medicine combinatorial formulae and validated using San-Ao-Tang (SAT) as a model combinatorial formula. SAT is an effective traditional Chinese medicine, which is usually used in treating asthma and other diseases of the respiratory system. Two decoctions were prepared: traditional decoction, which is a water extract of three mixed constituent herbs of SAT; and dispensing granule decoction, which is a mixed water extract of each individual herb of SAT. Batches of these two decoction samples were subjected to UPLC-PDA-TOF-MS analysis and the data sets of t(R)-m/z pairs, ion intensities and sample codes were processed with supervised orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis to holistically compare their differences. Once a clear classification trend was found in the score plot, further statistics were performed to generate points at the two ends of S, and the components that correlated to these ions were regarded as the most changed components during decoction of the combinatorial formula. The changed components were identified by comparing the mass/ultraviolet spectra and retention times with those of reference compounds and/or tentatively assigned by matching empirical molecular formulae with those of the known compounds published in the literature. Using the proposed approach, global chemical differences were found between traditional and dispensing granule decoctions, like ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, licorice saponine H2, licorice saponine G2 and amygdalin. PMID:23572319

  2. Teng-Long-Bu-Zhong-Tang, a Chinese herbal formula, enhances anticancer effects of 5 - Fluorouracil in CT26 colon carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer remains one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has played a positive role in colorectal cancer treatment. There is a great need to establish effective herbal formula for colorectal cancer treatment. Based on TCM principles and clinical practices, we have established an eight herbs composed formula for colorectal cancer treatment, which is Teng-Long-Bu-Zhong-Tang (TLBZT). We have demonstrated the anticancer effects of TLBZT against colorectal carcinoma in vitro. In present study, we evaluated the anticancer potential of TLBZT, used alone or in combination with low dose of 5-Fluorouracil (5-Fu), in CT26 colon carcinoma in vivo. Methods CT26 colon carcinoma was established in BALB/c mice and treated with TLBZT, 5-Fu, or TLBZT plus 5-Fu. The tumor volumes were observed. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL assay. Caspases activities were detected by colorimetric assay. Cell senescence was indentified by senescence β-galactosidase staining. Gene expression and angiogenesis was observed by immunohistochemistry or western blot. Results TLBZT significantly inhibited CT26 colon carcinoma growth. TLBZT elicited apoptosis in CT26 colon carcinoma, accompanied by Caspase-3, 8, and 9 activation and PARP cleavage, and downregulation of XIAP and Survivin. TLBZT also induced cell senescence in CT26 colon carcinoma, with concomitant upregulation of p16 and p21 and downregulation of RB phosphorylation. In addition, angiogenesis and VEGF expression in CT26 colon carcinoma was significantly inhibited by TLBZT treatment. Furthermore, TLBZT significantly enhanced anticancer effects of 5-Fu in CT26 colon carcinoma. Conclusions TLBZT exhibited significantly anticancer effect, and enhanced the effects of 5-Fu in CT26 colon carcinoma, which may correlate with induction of apoptosis and cell senescence, and angiogenesis inhibition. The present study provides new insight into TCM approaches for colon cancer treatment that are worth of further study. PMID:23758730

  3. Soluble toll-like receptor 4 reversed attenuating effect of Chinese herbal Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang on allergen induced nerve growth factor and thymic stromal lymphopoietin

    PubMed Central

    CHANG, REN-SHIU; WANG, YU-CHIN; KAO, SHUNG-TE

    2013-01-01

    Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang (XQLT) is known to regulate allergic immune reactions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of XQLT on allergen-induced cytokines and associated signaling pathways. An acute allergic mouse model was used to investigate the effects of XQLT on nerve growth factor (NGF) during an allergic reaction, while human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells (HPAEpiCs) were used to investigate the effects of XQLT on Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus group 2 (Der p 2)-induced NGF, p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) expression. XQLT was demonstrated to inhibit NGF- and p75NTR-related allergic reactions in the mouse model. XQLT also reduced the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the lungs of the model mice. XQLT inhibited Der p 2-induced NGF, TSLP and p75NTR expression in the HPAEpiC cell line. The use of recombinant soluble TLR4 (sTLR4) in a competitive assay partially attenuated the inhibitory effect of XQLT on NGF, TSLP and p75NTR expression in HPAEpiC cells. The inhibitory effect of XQLT on the Ser536 phosphorylation of p65 (nuclear factor-?B; NF-?B), a TLR4-induced factor, was also attenuated by sTLR4. In conclusion, XQLT inhibited Der p allergen-induced NGF, p75NTR and TSLP expression. This inhibition was attenuated by sTLR4. The mechanism of action of XQLT may be correlated with TLR4, a primary receptor in the innate immune system. The findings of this study may focus the search for pharmacological targets of XQLT onto TLR4, which is important in the allergen presentation pathway. PMID:24223644

  4. Proteomic Analysis of Anti-inflammatory Effects of a Kampo (Japanese Herbal) Medicine Shoseiryuto (Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang) on Airway Inflammation in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Takayuki; Nakao, Marino; Shimizu, Yuliko; Kodera, Yoshio; Oh-Ishi, Masamichi; Maeda, Tadakazu; Yamada, Haruki

    2011-01-01

    Effects of a Kampo (Japanese herbal) medicine shoseiryuto (SST, xiao-qing-long-tang in Chinese), which has been used for the treatment of allergic bronchial asthma clinically, were examined on ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized allergic airway inflammation model (i.e., bronchial asthma) in a mouse. When SST was orally administered at 0.5?g?kg?1?day?1 from day 1 to 6 after OVA inhalation, SST reduced the inflammation in lung tissue, the number of eosinophils and the OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody titer in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids at 7 days after the OVA inhalation. SST also reduced the airway hyperreactivity at 6 days after the OVA inhalation. Proteomic analysis with the agarose two-dimensional electrophoresis showed that the expression of spectrin ?2 was reduced in the lung tissue of OVA-sensitized mice and SST recovered the expression. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses of lung tissue also confirmed this result. When prednisolone was orally administered at 3?mg?kg?1?day?1 from day 1 to 6 after OVA inhalation, the inflammation in lung tissue, the number of eosinophils in BAL fluids and airway hyperreactivity were reduced in the OVA-sensitized mice. However, prednisolone did not reduce the OVA-specific IgE antibody titer in BAL fluids and did not recover the expression of spectrin ?2 in lung tissue. These results suggest that at least a part of action mechanism of SST against OVA-sensitized allergic airway inflammation in a mouse model is different from that of prednisolone. PMID:19861507

  5. Effect of modified Bo-yang-Hwan-o-Tang, a polyherbal medicine on the hippocampal neuronal damage in a rat model of global ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Tae Woo; Jung, Hyo Won; Park, Yong-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion has been well-characterized as a common pathological status contributing to vascular dementia (VD). In this study, the neuroprotective effect of modified Bo-yang-Hwan-O Tang (mBHT), a polyherbal medicine for ischemic stroke, was investigated in a rat model for global ischemia. Materials and Methods: Global ischemia model was prepared in Sprague-Dawley rats by the permanent occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries (two-vessel occlusion [2VO])-induced chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. mBHT at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg was orally administrated for 4 weeks once a day, 24 h after 2VO. Histopathological change of the hippocampal region was observed by hematoxylin and eosin, Nissl, and Fluoro-Jade B staining and immunohistochemistry with anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein and anti-neuronal nuclei antibodies. The expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3 was investigated in the hippocampus by Western blot. The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) expression was also analyzed in hippocampal CA1 region using immunofluorescence staining. Results: The administration of mBHT at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg significantly inhibited chronic cerebral hypoperfusion-induced neuronal damage and astroglial activation in the hippocampal CA1 region in 2VO rats. mBHT increased the NF-κB expression in the CA1 neuronal cells but decreased in activated astrocytes. In addition, mBHT significantly decreased the hippocampal expression of Bax and caspase-3 and increased the Bcl-2 expression in 2VO rats. Conclusions: Our data indicate that mBHT has a neuroprotective property in VD induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion through inhibiting the hippocampal neuronal damage and astrogliosis. PMID:26246747

  6. CUDA programs for the GPU computing of the Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster spin flip algorithm: 2D and 3D Ising, Potts, and XY models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komura, Yukihiro; Okabe, Yutaka

    2014-03-01

    We present sample CUDA programs for the GPU computing of the Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster spin flip algorithm. We deal with the classical spin models; the Ising model, the q-state Potts model, and the classical XY model. As for the lattice, both the 2D (square) lattice and the 3D (simple cubic) lattice are treated. We already reported the idea of the GPU implementation for 2D models (Komura and Okabe, 2012). We here explain the details of sample programs, and discuss the performance of the present GPU implementation for the 3D Ising and XY models. We also show the calculated results of the moment ratio for these models, and discuss phase transitions. Catalogue identifier: AERM_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AERM_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 5632 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 14688 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C, CUDA. Computer: System with an NVIDIA CUDA enabled GPU. Operating system: System with an NVIDIA CUDA enabled GPU. Classification: 23. External routines: NVIDIA CUDA Toolkit 3.0 or newer Nature of problem: Monte Carlo simulation of classical spin systems. Ising, q-state Potts model, and the classical XY model are treated for both two-dimensional and three-dimensional lattices. Solution method: GPU-based Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster spin flip Monte Carlo method. The CUDA implementation for the cluster-labeling is based on the work by Hawick et al. [1] and that by Kalentev et al. [2]. Restrictions: The system size is limited depending on the memory of a GPU. Running time: For the parameters used in the sample programs, it takes about a minute for each program. Of course, it depends on the system size, the number of Monte Carlo steps, etc. References: [1] K.A. Hawick, A. Leist, and D. P. Playne, Parallel Computing 36 (2010) 655-678 [2] O. Kalentev, A. Rai, S. Kemnitzb, and R. Schneider, J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 71 (2011) 615-620

  7. Wang-Landau density of states based study of the folding-unfolding transition in the mini-protein Trp-cage (TC5b)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Priya; Sarkar, Subir K.; Bandyopadhyay, Pradipta

    2014-07-01

    We present the results of a high-statistics equilibrium study of the folding/unfolding transition for the 20-residue mini-protein Trp-cage (TC5b) in water. The ECEPP/3 force field is used and the interaction with water is treated by a solvent-accessible surface area method. A Wang-Landau type simulation is used to calculate the density of states and the conditional probabilities for the various values of the radius of gyration and the number of native contacts at fixed values of energy—along with a systematic check on their convergence. All thermodynamic quantities of interest are calculated from this information. The folding-unfolding transition corresponds to a peak in the temperature dependence of the computed specific heat. This is corroborated further by the structural signatures of folding in the distributions for radius of gyration and the number of native contacts as a function of temperature. The potentials of mean force are also calculated for these variables, both separately and jointly. A local free energy minimum, in addition to the global minimum, is found in a temperature range substantially below the folding temperature. The free energy at this second minimum is approximately 5 kBT higher than the value at the global minimum.

  8. Wang-Landau density of states based study of the folding-unfolding transition in the mini-protein Trp-cage (TC5b)

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Priya; Sarkar, Subir K.; Bandyopadhyay, Pradipta

    2014-07-07

    We present the results of a high-statistics equilibrium study of the folding/unfolding transition for the 20-residue mini-protein Trp-cage (TC5b) in water. The ECEPP/3 force field is used and the interaction with water is treated by a solvent-accessible surface area method. A Wang-Landau type simulation is used to calculate the density of states and the conditional probabilities for the various values of the radius of gyration and the number of native contacts at fixed values of energy—along with a systematic check on their convergence. All thermodynamic quantities of interest are calculated from this information. The folding-unfolding transition corresponds to a peak in the temperature dependence of the computed specific heat. This is corroborated further by the structural signatures of folding in the distributions for radius of gyration and the number of native contacts as a function of temperature. The potentials of mean force are also calculated for these variables, both separately and jointly. A local free energy minimum, in addition to the global minimum, is found in a temperature range substantially below the folding temperature. The free energy at this second minimum is approximately 5 k{sub B}T higher than the value at the global minimum.

  9. Evaluation of the grand-canonical partition function using expanded Wang-Landau simulations. III. Impact of combining rules on mixtures properties

    SciTech Connect

    Desgranges, Caroline; Delhommelle, Jerome

    2014-03-14

    Combining rules, such as the Lorentz-Berthelot rules, are routinely used to calculate the thermodynamic properties of mixtures using molecular simulations. Here we extend the expanded Wang-Landau simulation approach to determine the impact of the combining rules on the value of the partition function of binary systems, and, in turn, on the phase coexistence and thermodynamics of these mixtures. We study various types of mixtures, ranging from systems of rare gases to biologically and technologically relevant mixtures, such as water-urea and water-carbon dioxide. Comparing the simulation results to the experimental data on mixtures of rare gases allows us to rank the performance of combining rules. We find that the widely used Lorentz-Berthelot rules exhibit the largest deviations from the experimental data, both for the bulk and at coexistence, while the Kong and Waldman-Hagler provide much better alternatives. In particular, in the case of aqueous solutions of urea, we show that the use of the Lorentz-Berthelot rules has a strong impact on the Gibbs free energy of the solute, overshooting the value predicted by the Waldman-Hagler rules by 7%. This result emphasizes the importance of the combining rule for the determination of hydration free energies using molecular simulations.

  10. Critical nonequilibrium relaxation in the Swendsen-Wang algorithm in the Berezinsky-Kosterlitz-Thouless and weak first-order phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonomura, Yoshihiko; Tomita, Yusuke

    2015-12-01

    Recently we showed that the critical nonequilibrium relaxation in the Swendsen-Wang algorithm is widely described by the stretched-exponential relaxation of physical quantities in the Ising or Heisenberg models. Here we make a similar analysis in the Berezinsky-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition in the two-dimensional (2D) X Y model and in the first-order phase transition in the 2D q =5 Potts model and find that these phase transitions are described by the simple exponential relaxation and power-law relaxation of physical quantities, respectively. We compare the relaxation behaviors of these phase transitions with those of the second-order phase transition in the three- and four-dimensional X Y models and in the 2D q -state Potts models for 2 ≤q ≤4 and show that the species of phase transitions can be clearly characterized by the present analysis. We also compare the size dependence of relaxation behaviors of the first-order phase transition in the 2D q =5 and 6 Potts models and propose a quantitative criterion on "weakness" of the first-order phase transition.

  11. An isoquinoline alkaloid from the Chinese herbal plant Corydalis yanhusuo W.T. Wang inhibits P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associate protein 1.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yu; Tan, Juan; Wink, Michael; Ma, Yonggang; Li, Na; Su, Guannan

    2013-02-15

    Overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associate protein 1 (MRP1) is a major mechanism leading to multidrug resistance (MDR) of cancer cells. These transporters expel anti-cancer drugs and greatly impair therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapy. A Chinese herbal plant Yanhusuo (Corydalis yanhusuo W.T. Wang, YHS) is frequently used in functional food and traditional Chinese medicine to improve the efficacy of chemotherapy. The objective of this work was to study effects of glaucine, an alkaloid component of YHS, on P-gp and MRP1 in resistant cancer cells. The resistant cancer cell line, MCF-7/ADR and corresponding parental sensitive cells were employed to determine reversal properties of glaucine. Glaucine inhibits P-gp and MRP1-mediated efflux and activates ATPase activities of the transporters, indicating that it is a substrate and inhibits P-gp and MRP1 competitively. Furthermore, glaucine suppresses expression of ABC transporter genes. It reverses the resistance of MCF-7/ADR to adriamycin and mitoxantrone effectively. PMID:23194502

  12. Scaling behavior can be tricky: Comment on "Universal scaling for the dilemma strength in evolutionary games" by Z. Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Pak Ming; Xu, Chen

    2015-09-01

    Evolutionary game theory is a powerful tool for studying the emergence of cooperation among competing individuals [1]. Popularly studied games include the prisoner's dilemma [2], snowdrift game [3] and stag hunt game [4]. They have been extensively studied for the extent of cooperative behavior under different dilemma strengths. Generally, the games can be defined by a 2 × 2 matrix and thus four payoff elements, T, R, P, and S, for the possible payoffs to players when they use pure strategies against each other. Detailed definitions of the four payoffs are given in the review by Wang et al. [5]. For simplicity, it is often the case that fewer parameters are invoked, e.g. a single parameter [3] and more generally two parameters [6]. Generally speaking, reducing the number of parameters has the effect of restricting the system to a certain subspace of the unreduced case. In addition, the spatial structures, such as a well-mixed population or a population forming a complex network, that govern the competing relationship and environment of the agents, and the evolutionary rules, that govern how agents update their strategies, are vital in determining how cooperation evolves, as well documented in the references of [5].

  13. From polymers to proteins: the effect of side chains and broken symmetry on the formation of secondary structures within a Wang-Landau approach.

    PubMed

    Škrbić, Tatjana; Badasyan, Artem; Hoang, Trinh Xuan; Podgornik, Rudolf; Giacometti, Achille

    2016-05-25

    We use a micro-canonical Wang-Landau technique to study the equilibrium properties of a single flexible homopolymer where consecutive monomers are represented by impenetrable hard spherical beads tangential to each other, and non-consecutive monomers interact via a square-well potential. To mimic the characteristics of a protein-like system, the model is then refined in two different directions. Firstly, by allowing partial overlap between consecutive beads, we break the spherical symmetry and thus provide a severe constraint on the possible conformations of the chain. Alternatively, we introduce additional spherical beads at specific positions in the direction normal to the backbone, to represent the steric hindrance of the side chains in real proteins. Finally, we consider also a combination of these two ingredients. In all three systems, we obtain the full phase diagram in the temperature-interaction range plane and find the presence of helicoidal structures at low temperatures in the intermediate range of interactions. The effect of the range of the square-well attraction is highlighted, and shown to play a role similar to that found in simple liquids and polymers. Perspectives in terms of protein folding are finally discussed. PMID:27137225

  14. Tang-Nai-Kang Alleviates Pre-diabetes and Metabolic Disorders and Induces a Gene Expression Switch toward Fatty Acid Oxidation in SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linyi; Yoshitomi, Hisae; Wei, Ying; Qin, Lingling; Zhou, Jingxin; Xu, Tunhai; Wu, Xinli; Zhou, Tian; Sun, Wen; Guo, Xiangyu; Wu, Lili; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Yan; Li, Chunna; Liu, Tonghua; Gao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Increased energy intake and reduced physical activity can lead to obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Transcriptional modulation of metabolic networks has become a focus of current drug discovery research into the prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders associated with energy surplus and obesity. Tang-Nai-Kang (TNK), a mixture of five herbal plant extracts, has been shown to improve abnormal glucose metabolism in patients with pre-diabetes. Here, we report the metabolic phenotype of SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr (SHR/cp) rats treated with TNK. Pre-diabetic SHR/cp rats were randomly divided into control, TNK low-dose (1.67 g/kg) and TNK high-dose (3.24 g/kg) groups. After high-dose treatment for 2 weeks, the serum triglycerides and free fatty acids in SHR/cp rats were markedly reduced compared to controls. After 3 weeks of administration, the high dose of TNK significantly reduced the body weight and fat mass of SHR/cp rats without affecting food consumption. Serum fasting glucose and insulin levels in the TNK-treated groups decreased after 6 weeks of treatment. Furthermore, TNK-treated rats exhibited obvious improvements in glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. The improved glucose metabolism may be caused by the substantial reduction in serum lipids and body weight observed in SHR/cp rats starting at 3 weeks of TNK treatment. The mRNA expression of NAD+-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and genes related to fatty acid oxidation was markedly up-regulated in the muscle, liver and adipose tissue after TNK treatment. Furthermore, TNK promoted the deacetylation of two well-established SIRT1 targets, PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC1α) and forkhead transcription factor 1 (FOXO1), and induced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in different tissues. These observations suggested that TNK may be an alternative treatment for pre-diabetes and metabolic syndrome by inducing a gene expression switch toward fat oxidation through the activation of SIRT1 and AMPK signaling. PMID:25874615

  15. Effects of Huanglian-Jie-Du-Tang and Its Modified Formula on the Modulation of Amyloid-β Precursor Protein Processing in Alzheimer's Disease Models

    PubMed Central

    Durairajan, Siva Sundara Kumar; Huang, Ying-Yu; Yuen, Pui-Yee; Chen, Lei-Lei; Kwok, Ka-Yan; Liu, Liang-Feng; Song, Ju-Xian; Han, Quan-Bin; Xue, Lei; K. Chung, Sookja; Huang, Jian-Dong; Baum, Larry; Senapati, Sanjib; Li, Min

    2014-01-01

    Huanglian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT) is a famous traditional Chinese herbal formula that has been widely used clinically to treat cerebral ischemia. Recently, we found that berberine, a major alkaloid compound in HLJDT, reduced amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation in an Alzheimer’s disease (AD) mouse model. In this study, we compared the effects of HLJDT, four single component herbs of HLJDT (Rhizoma coptidis (RC), Radix scutellariae (RS), Cortex phellodendri (CP) and Fructus gardenia (FG)) and the modified formula of HLJDT (HLJDT-M, which is free of RS) on the regulatory processing of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) in an in vitro model of AD. Here we show that treatment with HLJDT-M and its components RC, CP, and the main compound berberine on N2a mouse neuroblastoma cells stably expressing human APP with the Swedish mutation (N2a-SwedAPP) significantly decreased the levels of full-length APP, phosphorylated APP at threonine 668, C-terminal fragments of APP, soluble APP (sAPP)-α and sAPPβ-Swedish and reduced the generation of Aβ peptide in the cell lysates of N2a-SwedAPP. HLJDT-M showed more significant APP- and Aβ- reducing effects than berberine, RC or CP treatment alone. In contrast, HLJDT, its component RS and the main active compound of RS, baicalein, strongly increased the levels of all the metabolic products of APP in the cell lysates. The extract from FG, however, did not influence APP modulation. Interestingly, regular treatment of TgCRND8 APP transgenic mice with baicalein exacerbated the amyloid plaque burden, APP metabolism and Aβ production. Taken together, these data provide convincing evidence that HLJDT and baicalein treatment can increase the amyloidogenic metabolism of APP which is at least partly responsible for the baicalein-mediated Aβ plaque increase in the brains of TgCRND8 mice. On the other hand, HLJDT-M significantly decreased all the APP metabolic products including Aβ. Further study of HLJDT-M for therapeutic use in treating AD is warranted. PMID:24671102

  16. Tang-Nai-Kang alleviates pre-diabetes and metabolic disorders and induces a gene expression switch toward fatty acid oxidation in SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Linyi; Yoshitomi, Hisae; Wei, Ying; Qin, Lingling; Zhou, Jingxin; Xu, Tunhai; Wu, Xinli; Zhou, Tian; Sun, Wen; Guo, Xiangyu; Wu, Lili; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Yan; Li, Chunna; Liu, Tonghua; Gao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Increased energy intake and reduced physical activity can lead to obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Transcriptional modulation of metabolic networks has become a focus of current drug discovery research into the prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders associated with energy surplus and obesity. Tang-Nai-Kang (TNK), a mixture of five herbal plant extracts, has been shown to improve abnormal glucose metabolism in patients with pre-diabetes. Here, we report the metabolic phenotype of SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr (SHR/cp) rats treated with TNK. Pre-diabetic SHR/cp rats were randomly divided into control, TNK low-dose (1.67 g/kg) and TNK high-dose (3.24 g/kg) groups. After high-dose treatment for 2 weeks, the serum triglycerides and free fatty acids in SHR/cp rats were markedly reduced compared to controls. After 3 weeks of administration, the high dose of TNK significantly reduced the body weight and fat mass of SHR/cp rats without affecting food consumption. Serum fasting glucose and insulin levels in the TNK-treated groups decreased after 6 weeks of treatment. Furthermore, TNK-treated rats exhibited obvious improvements in glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. The improved glucose metabolism may be caused by the substantial reduction in serum lipids and body weight observed in SHR/cp rats starting at 3 weeks of TNK treatment. The mRNA expression of NAD+-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and genes related to fatty acid oxidation was markedly up-regulated in the muscle, liver and adipose tissue after TNK treatment. Furthermore, TNK promoted the deacetylation of two well-established SIRT1 targets, PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC1α) and forkhead transcription factor 1 (FOXO1), and induced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in different tissues. These observations suggested that TNK may be an alternative treatment for pre-diabetes and metabolic syndrome by inducing a gene expression switch toward fat oxidation through the activation of SIRT1 and AMPK signaling. PMID:25874615

  17. Unique Mechanisms of Sheng Yu Decoction (聖愈湯 Shèng Yù Tang) on Ischemic Stroke Mice Revealed by an Integrated Neurofunctional and Transcriptome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yu-Chang; Lu, Chung-Kuang; Wang, Yea-Hwey; Chern, Chang-Ming; Liou, Kuo-Tong; Wang, Hsei-Wei; Shen, Yuh-Chiang

    2013-01-01

    Sheng Yu Decoction (聖愈湯 Shèng Yù Tang; SYD) is a popular traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) remedy used in treating cardiovascular and brain-related dysfunction clinically; yet, its neuroprotective mechanisms are still unclear. Here, mice were subjected to an acute ischemic stroke to examine the efficacy and mechanisms of action of SYD by an integrated neurofunctional and transcriptome analysis. More than 80% of the mice died within 2 days after ischemic stroke with vehicle treatment. Treatments with SYD (1.0 g/kg, twice daily, orally or p.o.) and recombinant thrombolytic tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA; 10 mg/kg, once daily, intravenously or i.v.) both significantly extended the lifespan as compared to that of the vehicle-treated stroke group. SYD successfully restored brain function, ameliorated cerebral infarction and oxidative stress, and significantly improved neurological deficits in mice with stroke. Molecular impact of SYD by a genome-wide transcriptome analysis using brains from stroke mice showed a total of 162 out of 2081 ischemia-induced probe sets were significantly influenced by SYD. Mining the functional modules and genetic networks of these 162 genes revealed a significant upregulation of neuroprotective genes in Wnt receptor signaling pathway (3 genes) and regulation of cell communication (7 genes) and downregulation of destructive genes in response to stress (13 genes) and in the induction of inflammation (5 genes), cytokine production (4 genes), angiogenesis (3 genes), vasculature (6 genes) and blood vessel (5 genes) development, wound healing (7 genes), defense response (7 genes), chemotaxis (4 genes), immune response (7 genes), antigen processing and presenting (3 genes), and leukocyte-mediated cytotoxicity (2 genes) by SYD. Our results suggest that SYD could protect mice against ischemic stroke primarily through significantly downregulating the damaging genes involved in stress, inflammation, angiogenesis, blood vessel formation, immune responses, and wound healing, as well as upregulating the genes mediating neurogenesis and cell communication, which make SYD beneficial for treating ischemic stroke. PMID:24716184

  18. So-Cheong-Ryong-Tang, a herbal medicine, modulates inflammatory cell infiltration and prevents airway remodeling via regulation of interleukin-17 and GM-CSF in allergic asthma in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung-Woo; Lim, Chi-Yeon; Kim, Bu-Yeo; Cho, Su-In

    2014-01-01

    Background: So-Cheong-Ryong-Tang (SCRT), herbal medicine, has been used for the control of respiratory disease in East Asian countries. However, its therapeutic mechanisms, especially an inhibitory effect on inflammatory cell infiltration and airway remodeling in allergic asthma are unclear. Objective: The present study investigated the mechanism of antiasthmatic effects of SCRT in allergic asthma in mice. Materials and Methods: We investigated the influence of SCRT on levels of interleukin-17 (IL-17), granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-4, and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), ovalbumin (OVA)-specific IgE in serum, and histopathological changes in allergen-induced asthma. Results: So-Cheong-Ryong-Tang decreased levels of IL-17 and GM-CSF in BALF. IL-4, a Th2-driven cytokine, was also decreased by SCRT, but IFN-γ, a Th1-driven cytokine, was not changed. Levels of OVA-specific IgE in serum were also decreased by SCRT. With SCRT treatment, histopathological findings showed reduced tendency of inflammatory cell infiltration, and prevention from airway remodeling such as epithelial hyperplasia. Conclusion: In this study, we firstly demonstrated that regulation of IL-17 and GM-CSF production may be one of the mechanism contributed to a reduction of inflammatory cell infiltration and prevention from airway remodeling. PMID:25298667

  19. Screening and analysis of the multiple absorbed bioactive components and metabolites of Baihe Zhimu Tang by the metabolic fingerprinting technique and liquid chromatography/diode array detection-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Kunming; Cai, Hao; Liu, Xiao; Lu, Tulin; Fang, Qianbo; Yao, Zhongqing; Xu, Zisheng; Cai, Baochang

    2011-01-01

    Background: Baihe Zhimu Tang (BZT) is a widely used traditional Chinese medicinal formula in treating various diseases; however, its active components have remained unknown. Materials and Methods: Based on the metabolic fingerprinting technique and liquid chromatography/diode array detection-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/DAD-ESI-MS), a method for rapid screening and analysis of the multiple absorbed bioactive components and metabolites of an oral solution of Baihe Zhimu Tang (BZT) in rabbit plasma, urine and feces after oral administration of BZT was developed. Results: The results obtained from a comprehensive comparative analysis of the fingerprints of the BZT and its metabolic fingerprints in rabbit biological samples indicated that 19 components in the BZT were absorbed into the rabbit's body. Both of them were tentatively identified from their MS and UV spectra and retention behaviors by comparing the results with the reported literature. In addition, only six components were found in the metabolic fingerprints, which suggested that they might be metabolites of some components in the BZT. Conclusion: The findings demonstrated that the proposed method could be used to rapidly and simultaneously analyze and screen the multiple absorbed bioactive constituents and metabolites in a formula of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) by comparing and contrasting the chromatographic fingerprints with its metabolic fingerprints. This is very important not only for the pharmaceutical discovery process and the quality control of crude drugs, but also for explaining the curative mechanism of TCMs. PMID:21969787

  20. A tale of two theorems. Comment on "Universal scaling for the dilemma strength in evolutionary games" by Z. Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudge, Simon J.; Brede, Markus

    2015-09-01

    Wang et al. [12] give an extensive review on evolutionary game theory, with a particular focus on the evolution of cooperation; an area that is of central importance to understanding many disparate biological topics [1,2,8,9]. One of the key focuses of the paper is that there are potentially two differing ways of defining two-by-two games so that they can be parameterised with only two variables. This is a highly worthwhile endeavour in that it allows one to systematically investigate and categorise all such games with much greater ease. Perhaps the key result of the paper is that the authors argue that one such parameterisation is far superior to the other, as it retains predictive power even with the additional assumption of a number of reciprocity mechanisms, such as network reciprocity. We wish to draw attention to the fact that these two parameterisations can be understood as the application of two invariance theorems in evolutionary game theory. Furthermore, we complement the authors' extensive simulations with a mathematical argument that might help explain their result in a more transparent way. We will show that one of these invariance theorems generalises to the case of an assorted population and the other does not. It may be argued that many, if not all, of the particular mechanisms of reciprocity crucially rely on the positive assortment of cooperative behaviours [3-7,10]; if one accepts this then our result acts as an argument towards why only one game parameterisation will be sufficient for models of reciprocity.

  1. The friendship paradox as a strategy for scenarios with incomplete network data. Comment on "Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review" by Z. Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaku, Marcos; Grisi-Filho, José Henrique Hildebrand

    2015-12-01

    Wang et al. [1] reviewed the coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks and reported how certain empirical contact patterns of real-world networks were estimated. However, if surveying the network is not possible, approaches based on the knowledge of the entire network are not useful. This limitation poses a challenge in applying the knowledge obtained with disease-behavior coupled models in scenarios where data are incomplete or unavailable.

  2. Comment on “Displacement along the Karakoram fault, NW Himalaya, estimated from LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of offset geologic markers” published by Shifeng Wang et al. in EPSL, 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leloup, P. H.; Weinberg, R. F.; Mukherjee, B. K.; Tapponnier, P.; Lacassin, R.; Boutonnet, E.; Chevalier, M.-L.; Valli, F.; Li, H.; Arnaud, N.; Paquette, J.-L.

    2013-02-01

    Field evidence for syn-deformation migmatization and crystallization along the Karakorum fault contradicts the study of Wang et al. (2012). The ages of such magmatic rocks provide minimum ages for the onset of deformation at ∼23 Ma in North Ayilari and ∼19 Ma in Tangtse. The onset of deformation at 12 Ma in the Ayilari range inferred by Wang et al. (2012) from a muscovite Ar/Ar age is a cooling age, thus only a minimum age. The ∼60 Ma granodiorite bodies, the ophiolitic rocks and the south Kailash thrust that are correlated across the fault to provide a 52±2 km finite offset do not define reliable piercing points. Such observations as well as our previous work concur to show that the Karakorum fault initiated in the Oligo-Miocene, and has a long-term dextral slip-rate between 7.5 and 13 mm/yr, approximately twice that proposed by Wang et al. (2012).

  3. l-Tetrahydropalmatine, an active component of Corydalis yanhusuo W.T. Wang, protects against myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Yi; Zhang, Wen; Tang, Yan; Bai, Wenli; Yang, Fan; Xie, Liping; Li, Xiaozhen; Zhou, Suming; Pan, Shiyang; Chen, Qi; Ferro, Albert; Ji, Yong

    2012-01-01

    l-Tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP) is an active ingredients of Corydalis yanhusuo W.T. Wang, which protects against acute global cerebral ischaemia-reperfusion injury. In this study, we show that l-THP is cardioprotective in myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury and examined the mechanism. Rats were treated with l-THP (0, 10, 20, 40 mg/kg b.w.) for 20 min before occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery and subjected to myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion (30 min/6 h). Compared with vehicle-treated animals, the infarct area/risk area (IA/RA) of l-THP (20, 40 mg/kg b.w.) treated rats was reduced, whilst l-THP (10 mg/kg b.w.) had no significant effect. Cardiac function was improved in l-THP-treated rats whilst plasma creatine kinase activity declined. Following treatment with l-THP (20 mg/kg b.w.), subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase p85, serine(473) phosphorylation of Akt and serine(1177) phosphorylation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) increased in myocardium, whilst expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) decreased. However, the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF were increased in I(30 min)R(6 h), but decreased to normal level in I(30 min)R(24 h), while treatment with l-THP (20 mg/kg b.w.) enhanced the levels of these two genes in I(30 min)R(24 h). Production of NO in myocardium and plasma, activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in plasma and the expression of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in myocardium were decreased by l-THP. TUNEL assay revealed that l-THP (20 mg/kg b.w.) reduced apoptosis in myocardium. Thus, we show that l-THP activates the PI3K/Akt/eNOS/NO pathway and increases expression of HIF-1α and VEGF, whilst depressing iNOS-derived NO production in myocardium. This effect may decrease the accumulation of inflammatory factors, including TNF-α and MPO, and lessen the extent of apoptosis, therefore contributing to the cardioprotective effects of l-THP in myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:22715398

  4. On the use of COSMO-SkyMed time series for the identification of Archaeological traces dating from the Eastern-Han to Northern-Wei Dynasties in Luoyang city.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fulong; Masini, Nicola; Yang, Ruixia; Feng, Dexian; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    The availability of Very High Resolution (VHR) Synthetic Aperture SAR (SAR) data (Lasaponara and Masini 2013, Tapete et al. 2013), such as TerraSAR-X and Cosmo Sky Med launched in 2007, opened a new era in the spaceborne SAR remote sensing, including archaeology remote sensing previous mainly based on optical data (see for example Lasaponara and Masini 2012, Ciminale et al. 2009, Masini and Lasaponara 2006). They provide powerful tools, based on active sensors from space operating in the microwave frequency range, which are useful to extract information about the contemporary landscape and make possible, in some conditions, to infer changes in the former environment and to detect archaeological remains. Nevertheless, the capability of satellite radar technology in archaeology has so far not been fully assessed. This paper (Chen et al 2015) is a pioneering effort to assess the potential of satellite SAR X-band data in the detection of archaeological marks. We focus on the results obtained from a collaborative contribution jointly carried out by archaeologists and remote sensing experts in order to test the use of COSMO-SkyMed data in different contexts and environmental conditions. The methodological approach we adopted is based on multi-temporal analysis performed to reduce noise and highlight archaeological marks. Results from multi-temporal data analysis, conducted using 40 scenes from COSMO-SkyMed X-band Stripmap data (27 February to 17 October 2013), enable us to detect unknown archaeological crop, soil, and shadow marks representing Luoyang city, dating from the Eastern-Han to Northern-Wei Dynasties. Reference Chen F., Masini N., Yang R., Milillo P., Feng D., Lasaponara R., 2015 A Space View of Radar Archaeological Marks: First Applications of COSMO-SkyMed X-Band Data. Remote Sens. 2015, 7, 24-50; doi:10.3390/rs70100024. Lasaponara R., Masini N. 2013, Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar in Archaeology and Cultural Landscape: An Overview. Archaeological Prospection, 20, 71-78, doi: 10.1002/arp.1452 Tapete D., Cigna F., Masini N., Lasaponara R. 2013. Prospection and monitoring of the archaeological heritage of Nasca, Peru, with ENVISAT ASAR, Archaeological Prospection, 20, 133-147, doi: 10.1002/arp.1449. Ciminale M, D Gallo, R Lasaponara, N Masini, 2009 A multiscale approach for reconstructing archaeological landscapes: applications in Northern Apulia (Italy) Archaeological Prospection 16 (3), 143-153 Lasaponara R, N Masini, 2012 Satellite Remote Sensing, A New Tool for Archaeology (Series Remote Sensing and Digital Image) Springer book Masini N, R Lasaponara, 2006, Satellite-based recognition of landscape archaeological features related to ancient human transformation Journal of Geophysics and Engineering 3 (3), 230.

  5. The efficacy and safety of Jian-Wei-Qu-Tong Pills for the treatment of chronic non-atrophic gastritis (spleen and stomach qi deficiency with damp-heat stasis syndrome): study protocol for a phase II, randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic gastritis (CG), a poorly understood entity, is a very common disease of the digestive tract and is difficult to cure. Chronic non-atrophic gastritis (CNG) is the most common type of CG. Even if treated with current standard chemotherapy, some patients will not be freed from this confusing disease. Many studies have shown traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is more effective compared to chemotherapy in the treatment of chronic gastritis and no serious side effects have been identified. However, the studies that have been carried out were not scientifically rigorous trials. Our aim is to design a high-quality trial for a new TCM drug, the Jian-Wei-Qu-Tong Pills (JWQTP), to investigate the efficacy and safety of this new drug in treating chronic non-atrophic gastritis patients with spleen and stomach qi deficiency with damp-heat stasis syndrome (SSQDDSS). Methods/Design This is a phase II, multicenter, parallel-group, double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial. A total of 240 participants will be assigned to a high-dose group, a low-dose group or a placebo control group with a 1:1:1 ratio at five sites. Then, one dose (six 1-g pills), with a variable ratio between real drug and dummy drug according to the intervention protocol, will be taken three times a day before each meal for 8 weeks. The primary outcome is the eradication rate of epigastric pain. The secondary outcome includes the changes of endoscopic examination, histopathological examination, traditional Chinese medicine symptom scores and patient-reported outcome instrument scores for chronic gastrointestinal diseases and the eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori (HP). Discussion Many CNG patients suffer from frequent, recurrent bouts of dyspeptic symptoms. This is the first clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of JWQTP in treating CNG with SSQDDSS in a multicenter, parallel-group, double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled manner. This trial may not only provide evidence for a phase III clinical trial, but also a vision of an alternative option for CNG treatment. Trial registration The registration number, ChiCTR-TRC-14004088, was assigned by the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry on 7 January 2014. PMID:25002101

  6. Effect of modified Chung-Sim-Youn-Ja-Tang on anti-inflammatory and anti-lipogenesis in RAW 264.7 and 3T3-L1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Eun Hyoung; Lee, Hoyoung; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Jea-Ma-Chung-Sim-Youn-Ja-Tang (JCST), one of herbal formulae, is modified prescription base on Chung-Sim-Youn-Ja-Tang (CST) which treats cerebrovascular disease for the Tae-Eum-In (TE). This study was designed to determine the anti-inflammatory and anti-adipogenesis effect of CST and JCST in vitro. CST and JCST of various concentrations were added in RAW 264.7 and 3T3-L1 cell. To determine the anti-inflammatory and anti-adipogenesis effects of CST and JCST, the PGE2 production was measured by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treated RAW 264.7 cell. The adipocytes was determined by Oil red O staining, triglyceride (TG) production, leptin level and the protein expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins alpha (C/EBPα) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our results showed that treatment with JCST significantly decreased PGE2 production on RAW 264.7 cell and suppressed adipocyte differentiation, lipid accumulation, TG production, leptin contents and the protein expressions of PPARγ, C/EBPα and FABP4 on 3T3-L1 adipocytes compared to CST without affecting cell viability. In conclusions, our results suggest that JCST may be useful to inhibit the effect on lipid metabolism compared to CST, and regulates lipogenesis effectively. Therefore, our data provides scientific evidence to support the clinical use of JCST in the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases such as stroke in the TE. PMID:25755734

  7. Reciprocity Mechanisms meet together. A previous step to bridge the gap with experiments?. Comment on "Universal scaling for the dilemma strength in evolutionary games", by Z. Wang, et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús

    2015-09-01

    As it is well-recognized, powerful theoretical schemes for the promotion of cooperation fall into the following five categories: direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, kin selection, group selection, and network reciprocity, all of which got a great deal of attention and theoretical validation during the past decades [1,2]. In [3] Wang et al. briefly explain how reciprocity mechanisms work, illustrating the huge amount of theoretical work done in the area during the last decades, to finally pose some of the still unsolved puzzles that need to be solved in order to achieve a full (theoretical) understanding of the mechanisms that allow cooperative traits to survive in different scenarios.

  8. A pilot study to evaluate the effect of Taeumjowi-tang on obesity in Korean adults: study protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity, which is described as excessive or abnormal body fat, increases the risk of diet-related diseases. In Korea and around the world, the prevalence of obesity has grown annually from 1998 to 2008. This growth has continued despite various therapeutic efforts. The discovery of new and alternative treatments for obesity should be considered an important priority. Taeumjowi-tang (TJ001), a traditional Korean medicinal extract consisting of eight herbs, is a widely used herbal remedy for obesity in Korea. However, the efficacy and safety of TJ001 have not been fully investigated in a clinical trial. The purpose of this pilot study is to estimate obesity-related parameters and to assess the efficacy and safety of TJ001. Methods Our study is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre clinical trial of Taeumjowi-tang (TJ001). For this study, we will recruit obese Korean patients of both sexes, ages 18 to 65 years, from four university hospitals. A total of 104 subjects will be recruited. The participants will receive either 7 g of TJ001 or a placebo three times daily for 12 weeks. The primary end point will be the rate of subjects who lose at least 5% of their baseline body weight. The secondary end points will be changes in body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist/hip circumference ratio, lipid profiles, body fat composition, blood pressure, fasting glucose concentration, C-reactive protein and questionnaires related to the quality of life. The outcomes will be measured every 4 weeks. The study period will be 12 weeks and will include a total of five visits with each subject (at screening and at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks). Conclusions The results of our study will inform various estimates of TJ001 and will serve as the basis for a larger-scale trial. This study will assess the efficacy and safety of TJ001 as an alternative herbal remedy for obesity. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN87153759 PMID:22483238

  9. Gastrointestinal Malignancies Faculty

    Cancer.gov

    Chairs Citrin, Deborah Greten, Tim Steering Committee Citrin, Deborah Cross, Amanda Greten, Tim| Hussain, S. Perwez Wang, Xin Wei Members Arias, Irwin Budhu, Anuradha Camphausen, Kevin Camps, Jordi Cao, Liang Cheng, Jie Clifford, Robert Colburn, Nancy Cre

  10. Sip-jeon-dea-bo-tang, a traditional herbal medicine, ameliorates cisplatin-induced anorexia via the activation of JAK1/STAT3-mediated leptin and IL-6 production in the fat tissue of mice.

    PubMed

    Woo, Sang-Mi; Choi, Youn Kyung; Kim, Ah-Jeong; Yun, Yee Jin; Shin, Yong Cheol; Cho, Sung-Gook; Ko, Seong Gyu

    2016-04-01

    Despite its therapeutic advantages, chemotherapy can also cause adverse effects, including anorexia and loss of appetite. Although numerous patients with cancer have been reported to suffer from anorexia during or following chemotherapy, treatment options for anorexia remain to be determined. In Asian countries, traditional medicines are widely used to treat problems with appetite; sip-jeon-dea-bo-tang (SJDBT) is one of those medicines used for the treatment of anorexia. The present study demonstrated that SJDBT ameliorated cisplatin-induced anorexia. In a mouse model of chemotherapy-induced anorexia, oral administration of SJDBT prevented the cisplatin-induced reduction of food intake, inhibiting weight loss. The results of multiplex assays showed that SJDBT only altered the levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and leptin in the serum and fat tissue. In addition, SJDBT maintained the serum leptin level and increased the serum IL-6 level, whereas cisplatin reduced the levels of both serum leptin and IL‑6. Furthermore, SJDBT was revealed to increase the levels of leptin and IL-6 in the fat tissue by activating the JAK1/STAT3 signaling pathway. In conclusion, the present results revealed that SJDBT ameliorated cisplatin-induced anorexia, suggesting its usefulness in the prevention of anorexia during chemotherapy. PMID:26936678

  11. Effect of Dangguibohyul-Tang, a Mixed Extract of Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica sinensis, on Allergic and Inflammatory Skin Reaction Compared with Single Extracts of Astragalus membranaceus or Angelica sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, You Yeon; Kim, Mi Hye; Hong, Jongki

    2016-01-01

    Dangguibohyul-tang (DBT), herbal formula composed of Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Angelica sinensis (AS) at a ratio of 5 : 1, has been used for the treatment of various skin diseases in traditional medicine. We investigated the effect of DBT on allergic and inflammatory skin reaction in atopic dermatitis-like model compared to the single extract of AM or AS. DBT treatment showed the remission of clinical symptoms, including decreased skin thickness and scratching behavior, the total serum IgE level, and the number of mast cells compared to DNCB group as well as the single extract of AM- or AS-treated group. Levels of cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-1β) and inflammatory mediators (NF-κB, phospho-IκBα, and phospho-MAPKs) were significantly decreased in AM, AS, and DBT groups. These results demonstrated that AM, AS, and DBT may have the therapeutic property on atopic dermatitis by inhibition of allergic and inflammatory mediators and DBT formula; a mixed extract of AM and AS based on the herb pairs theory especially might be more effective on antiallergic reaction as compared with the single extract of AM or AS. PMID:27051450

  12. UPLC-MS/MS determination of ephedrine, methylephedrine, amygdalin and glycyrrhizic acid in Beagle plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of Ma Huang Tang.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tianhua; Fu, Qiang; Wang, Jing; Ma, Shiping

    2015-02-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS) method was developed to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of ephedrine, methylephedrine, amygdalin, and glycyrrhizic acid after oral gavage of Ma Huang Tang (MHT) in Beagles. Beagle plasma samples were pretreated using liquid-liquid extraction, and chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column using a linear gradient of water-formic acid mixture (0.1%). The pharmacokinetic parameters of ephedrine, methylephedrine, amygdalin, and glycyrrhizic acid from MHT in Beagles were quantitatively determined by UPLC with tandem mass detector. The qualitative detection of the four compounds was accomplished by selected ion monitoring in negative/positive ion modes electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Detection was based on multiple reaction monitoring with the precursor-to-product ion transitions m/z 166.096-116.983 (ephedrine), m/z 179.034-146.087 (methylephedrine), m/z 456.351-323.074 (amygdalin), and m/z 821.606-351.062 (glycyrrhizic acid). The selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, extraction recovery, ion suppression, and stability were within the acceptable ranges. The method described was successfully applied to reveal the pharmacokinetic properties of ephedrine, methylephedrine, amygdalin, and glycyrrhizic acid after oral gavage of MHT in Beagles. PMID:24824649

  13. Sip-jeon-dea-bo-tang, a traditional herbal medicine, ameliorates cisplatin-induced anorexia via the activation of JAK1/STAT3-mediated leptin and IL-6 production in the fat tissue of mice

    PubMed Central

    WOO, SANG-MI; CHOI, YOUN KYUNG; KIM, AH-JEONG; YUN, YEE JIN; SHIN, YONG CHEOL; CHO, SUNG-GOOK; KO, SEONG GYU

    2016-01-01

    Despite its therapeutic advantages, chemotherapy can also cause adverse effects, including anorexia and loss of appetite. Although numerous patients with cancer have been reported to suffer from anorexia during or following chemotherapy, treatment options for anorexia remain to be determined. In Asian countries, traditional medicines are widely used to treat problems with appetite; sip-jeon-dea-bo-tang (SJDBT) is one of those medicines used for the treatment of anorexia. The present study demonstrated that SJDBT ameliorated cisplatin-induced anorexia. In a mouse model of chemotherapy-induced anorexia, oral administration of SJDBT prevented the cisplatin-induced reduction of food intake, inhibiting weight loss. The results of multiplex assays showed that SJDBT only altered the levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and leptin in the serum and fat tissue. In addition, SJDBT maintained the serum leptin level and increased the serum IL-6 level, whereas cisplatin reduced the levels of both serum leptin and IL-6. Furthermore, SJDBT was revealed to increase the levels of leptin and IL-6 in the fat tissue by activating the JAK1/STAT3 signaling pathway. In conclusion, the present results revealed that SJDBT ameliorated cisplatin-induced anorexia, suggesting its usefulness in the prevention of anorexia during chemotherapy. PMID:26936678

  14. A Chinese Herbal Decoction, Dang Gui Bu Xue Tang, Prepared from Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae sinensis, Ameliorates Insulin Resistance Induced by A High-Fructose Diet in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, I-Min; Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Liou, Shorong-Shii

    2011-01-01

    Dang Gui Bu Xue Tang (DBT), a Chinese medicinal decoction contains Radix Angelicae sinensis (Danggui) and Radix Astragali (Huangqi) at a ratio of 1 : 5, is used commonly for treating women's ailments. This study was conducted to explore the effects of this preparation on insulin resistance in rats fed with 6-week diet containing 60% fructose. Similar to the action of rosiglitazone (4 mg kg−1 per day by an oral administration), repeated oral administration of DBT (2.5 g kg−1 per day) for 14 days was found to significantly alleviate the hyperglycemia but made no influence on plasma lipid profiles nor weight gain in fructose chow-fed rats. Also, the higher degree of insulin resistance as measured by homeostasis model assessment of basal insulin resistance in fructose chow-fed rats was significantly decreased by repeated DBT treatment. DBT displays the characteristic of rosiglitazone by increasing the whole-body insulin sensitivity in fructose chow-fed rats after 2-week treatment, as evidenced by the marked elevation of composite whole-body insulin sensitivity index during the oral glucose tolerance test. DBT improves insulin sensitivity through increased post-receptor insulin signaling mediated by enhancements in insulin receptor substrate-1-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase step and glucose transporter subtype 4 translocation in soleus muscles of animals exhibiting insulin resistance. DBT is therefore proposed as potentially useful adjuvant therapy for patients with insulin resistance and/or the patients who wish to increase insulin sensitivity. PMID:19233878

  15. Sann-Joong-Kuey-Jian-Tang induces autophagy in HepG2 cells via regulation of the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways

    PubMed Central

    CHUANG, WAN-LING; SU, CHIN-CHENG; LIN, PING-YI; LIN, CHI-CHEN; CHEN, YAO-LI

    2015-01-01

    Sann-Joong-Kuey-Jian-Tang (SJKJT), a traditional Chinese medicine, was previously reported to induce autophagy and inhibit the proliferation of the human HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cell line via an extrinsic pathway. In the present study, the effects of SJKJT-induced autophagy and the cytotoxic mechanisms mediating these effects were investigated in HepG2 cells. The cytotoxicity of SJKJT in the HepG2 cells was evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The results demonstrated that the half-maximal inhibitory concentration of SJKJT was 2.91 mg/ml at 24 h, 1.64 mg/ml at 48 h and 1.26 mg/ml at 72 h. The results of confocal fluorescence microscopy indicated that SJKJT resulted in the accumulation of green fluorescent protein-LC3 and vacuolation of the cytoplasm. Flow cytometric analysis revealed the accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles. Furthermore, western blot analysis, used to determine the expression levels of autophagy-associated proteins, demonstrated that the HepG2 cells treated with SJKJT exhibited LC3B-I/LC3B-II conversion, increased expression levels of Beclin, Atg-3 and Atg-5 and reduced expression levels of p62 and decreased signaling of the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Taken together, these findings may assist in the development of novel chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of malignant types of liver cancer. PMID:25847489

  16. Reply to Comments to X. Li and Y. M. Wang (2011) Comparisons of geoid models over Alaska computed with different Stokes' kernel modifications, JGS 1(2): 136-142 by L. E. Sjöberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The authors thank professor Sjöberg for having interest in our paper. The main goal of the paper is to test kernel modification methods used in geoid computations. Our tests found that Vanicek/Kleusberg's and Featherstone's methods fit the GPS/leveling data the best in the relative sense at various cap sizes. At the same time, we also pointed out that their methods are unstable and the mean values change from dm to meters by just changing the cap size. By contrast, the modification of the Wong and Gore type (including the spectral combination, method of Heck and Grüninger) is stable and insensitive to the truncation degree and cap size. This feature is especially useful when we know the accuracy of the gravity field at different frequency bands. For instance, it is advisable to truncate Stokes' kernel at a degree to which the satellite model is believed to be more accurate than surface data. The method of the Wong and Goretype does this job quite well. In contrast, the low degrees of Stokes' kernel are modified by Molodensky's coefficients tn in Vanicek/Kleusberg's and Featherstone's methods (cf. Eq. (6) in Li and Wang (2011)). It implies that the low degree gravity field of the reference model will be altered by less accurate surface data in the final geoid. This is also the cause of the larger variation in mean values of the geoid.

  17. Diversity of Stomoxys spp. (Diptera: Muscidae) and diurnal variations of activity of Stomoxys indicus and S. Calcitrans in a farm, in Wang Nam Khiao District, Nakhon ratchasima Province, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Keawrayup, S.; Duvallet, G.; Sukonthabhirom, S.; Chareonviriyaphap, T.

    2012-01-01

    A study of species diversity of Stomoxys spp. and diurnal variations of activity of the most abundant was performed during a one year period at a local dairy cattle farm in Wang Nam Khiao District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. Four species of stomoxyine flies were morphologically identified, including Stomoxys indicus Picard 1908, S. calcitrans (Linnaeus 1758), S. sitiens Rondani 1873 and S. uruma Shinonaga and Kanao 1966. The most common species were S. indicus (50.2%) and S. calcitrans (49.5%). S. sitiens and S. uruma were found in small proportions (< 1%). The number of flies captured was significantly different among the three seasons with the greatest number in the rainy season (mean = 66%; df = 2, P < 0.05). The variations of diurnal activity were observed during different period of times (06:00 to 18:00) during three seasons. Both sexes of S. indicus and males of S. calcitrans showed unimodal activity pattern in cool and summer seasons. But a bimodal activity pattern was recorded in rainy season. For females S. calcitrans, a unimodal peak of activity was observed in cool season and a constant variation of activity all along the day in summer and rainy seasons, with an increase from the morning to the evening. A better understanding of stomoxyine fly behavior, especially the daily flight activity, can assist in prioritization and design of appropriate vector prevention and control strategies. PMID:22910668

  18. Diversity of Stomoxys spp. (Diptera: Muscidae) and diurnal variations of activity of Stomoxys indicus and S. calcitrans in a farm, in Wang Nam Khiao District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Keawrayup, S; Duvallet, G; Sukonthabhirom, S; Chareonviriyaphap, T

    2012-08-01

    A study of species diversity of Stomoxys spp. and diurnal variations of activity of the most abundant was performed during a one year period at a local dairy cattle farm in Wang Nam Khiao District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. Four species of stomoxyine flies were morphologically identified, including Stomoxys indicus Picard 1908, S. calcitrans (Linnaeus 1758), S. sitiens Rondani 1873 and S. uruma Shinonaga and Kanao 1966. The most common species were S. indicus (50.2%) and S. calcitrans (49.5%). S. sitiens and S. uruma were found in small proportions (< 1%). The number of flies captured was significantly different among the three seasons with the greatest number in the rainy season (mean = 66%; df = 2, P < 0.05). The variations of diurnal activity were observed during different period of times (06:00 to 18:00) during three seasons. Both sexes of S. indicus and males of S. calcitrans showed unimodal activity pattern in cool and summer seasons. But a bimodal activity pattern was recorded in rainy season. For females S. calcitrans, a unimodal peak of activity was observed in cool season and a constant variation of activity all along the day in summer and rainy seasons, with an increase from the morning to the evening. A better understanding of stomoxyine fly behavior, especially the daily flight activity, can assist in prioritization and design of appropriate vector prevention and control strategies. PMID:22910668

  19. Evaluation of the grand-canonical partition function using expanded Wang-Landau simulations. IV. Performance of many-body force fields and tight-binding schemes for the fluid phases of silicon.

    PubMed

    Desgranges, Caroline; Delhommelle, Jerome

    2016-03-28

    We extend Expanded Wang-Landau (EWL) simulations beyond classical systems and develop the EWL method for systems modeled with a tight-binding Hamiltonian. We then apply the method to determine the partition function and thus all thermodynamic properties, including the Gibbs free energy and entropy, of the fluid phases of Si. We compare the results from quantum many-body (QMB) tight binding models, which explicitly calculate the overlap between the atomic orbitals of neighboring atoms, to those obtained with classical many-body (CMB) force fields, which allow to recover the tetrahedral organization in condensed phases of Si through, e.g., a repulsive 3-body term that favors the ideal tetrahedral angle. Along the vapor-liquid coexistence, between 3000 K and 6000 K, the densities for the two coexisting phases are found to vary significantly (by 5 orders of magnitude for the vapor and by up to 25% for the liquid) and to provide a stringent test of the models. Transitions from vapor to liquid are predicted to occur for chemical potentials that are 10%-15% higher for CMB models than for QMB models, and a ranking of the force fields is provided by comparing the predictions for the vapor pressure to the experimental data. QMB models also reveal the formation of a gap in the electronic density of states of the coexisting liquid at high temperatures. Subjecting Si to a nanoscopic confinement has a dramatic effect on the phase diagram with, e.g. at 6000 K, a decrease in liquid densities by about 50% for both CMB and QMB models and an increase in vapor densities between 90% (CMB) and 170% (QMB). The results presented here provide a full picture of the impact of the strategy (CMB or QMB) chosen to model many-body effects on the thermodynamic properties of the fluid phases of Si. PMID:27036464

  20. New observations - with older ones reviewed - on mass migrations in millipedes based on a recent outbreak on Hachijojima (Izu Islands) of the polydesmid diplopod (Chamberlinius hualienensis, Wang 1956): Nothing appears to make much sense.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno

    2015-05-18

    Mass aggregations and migrations of millipedes despite numerous attempts to find causes for their occurrences are still an enigma. They have been reported from both southern and northern hemisphere countries, from highlands and lowlands of both tropical and temperate regions and they can involve species belonging to the orders Julida and Spirobolida, Polydesmida and Glomerida. According to the main suggestions put forward in the past, mass occurrences in Diplopoda occur: (1) because of a lack of food and a population increase beyond sustainable levels; (2) for the purpose of reproduction and in order to locate suitable oviposition sites; (3) to find overwintering or aestivation sites; (4) because of habitat disruption and changes in the local environment; (5) as a consequence of weather conditions the year (or winter and spring) before. A recent outbreak (November 2014) of a mass migration of the polydesmid Chamberlinius hualienensis Wang 1956 on the Japanese Izu Island of Hachijojima 300 km to the south of Tokyo gave this author an opportunity to review the existing literature on millipede mass migrations and to carry out additional observations on the phenomenon in the field as well as the laboratory. Hitherto unreported heavy infestations with phoretic deutonymphs of the mite Histiostoma sp. as well as dense populations of internal rhabditid nematodes (Oscheius cf. necromena and an unidentified species of the genus Fictor), suggest that infestations of this kind could be necromenic and either have been a contributing factor for the mass migration or been a consequence of so many individuals occurring together at close proximity. It is concluded that mass migrations and aggregations in millipedes do not have one common cause, but represent phenomena that often are seasonally recurring events and appear identical in their outcome, but which have evolved as responses to different causes in different millipede taxa and therefore need to be examined on a case-to-case basis. PMID:26018855

  1. Evaluation of the grand-canonical partition function using expanded Wang-Landau simulations. IV. Performance of many-body force fields and tight-binding schemes for the fluid phases of silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desgranges, Caroline; Delhommelle, Jerome

    2016-03-01

    We extend Expanded Wang-Landau (EWL) simulations beyond classical systems and develop the EWL method for systems modeled with a tight-binding Hamiltonian. We then apply the method to determine the partition function and thus all thermodynamic properties, including the Gibbs free energy and entropy, of the fluid phases of Si. We compare the results from quantum many-body (QMB) tight binding models, which explicitly calculate the overlap between the atomic orbitals of neighboring atoms, to those obtained with classical many-body (CMB) force fields, which allow to recover the tetrahedral organization in condensed phases of Si through, e.g., a repulsive 3-body term that favors the ideal tetrahedral angle. Along the vapor-liquid coexistence, between 3000 K and 6000 K, the densities for the two coexisting phases are found to vary significantly (by 5 orders of magnitude for the vapor and by up to 25% for the liquid) and to provide a stringent test of the models. Transitions from vapor to liquid are predicted to occur for chemical potentials that are 10%-15% higher for CMB models than for QMB models, and a ranking of the force fields is provided by comparing the predictions for the vapor pressure to the experimental data. QMB models also reveal the formation of a gap in the electronic density of states of the coexisting liquid at high temperatures. Subjecting Si to a nanoscopic confinement has a dramatic effect on the phase diagram with, e.g. at 6000 K, a decrease in liquid densities by about 50% for both CMB and QMB models and an increase in vapor densities between 90% (CMB) and 170% (QMB). The results presented here provide a full picture of the impact of the strategy (CMB or QMB) chosen to model many-body effects on the thermodynamic properties of the fluid phases of Si.

  2. New observations - with older ones reviewed - on mass migrations in millipedes based on a recent outbreak on Hachijojima (Izu Islands) of the polydesmid diplopod (Chamberlinius hualienensis, Wang 1956): Nothing appears to make much sense

    PubMed Central

    MEYER-ROCHOW, Victor Benno

    2015-01-01

    Mass aggregations and migrations of millipedes despite numerous attempts to find causes for their occurrences are still an enigma. They have been reported from both southern and northern hemisphere countries, from highlands and lowlands of both tropical and temperate regions and they can involve species belonging to the orders Julida and Spirobolida, Polydesmida and Glomerida. According to the main suggestions put forward in the past, mass occurrences in Diplopoda occur: (1) because of a lack of food and a population increase beyond sustainable levels; (2) for the purpose of reproduction and in order to locate suitable oviposition sites; (3) to find overwintering or aestivation sites; (4) because of habitat disruption and changes in the local environment; (5) as a consequence of weather conditions the year (or winter and spring) before. A recent outbreak (November 2014) of a mass migration of the polydesmid Chamberlinius hualienensis Wang 1956 on the Japanese Izu Island of Hachijojima 300 km to the south of Tokyo gave this author an opportunity to review the existing literature on millipede mass migrations and to carry out additional observations on the phenomenon in the field as well as the laboratory. Hitherto unreported heavy infestations with phoretic deutonymphs of the mite Histiostoma sp. as well as dense populations of internal rhabditid nematodes (Oscheius cf. necromena and an unidentified species of the genus Fictor), suggest that infestations of this kind could be necromenic and either have been a contributing factor for the mass migration or been a consequence of so many individuals occurring together at close proximity. It is concluded that mass migrations and aggregations in millipedes do not have one common cause, but represent phenomena that often are seasonally recurring events and appear identical in their outcome, but which have evolved as responses to different causes in different millipede taxa and therefore need to be examined on a case-to-case basis. PMID:26018855

  3. Northern Song Reflections on the Tang

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    In the mid-eleventh century Chinese intellectuals argued about history, and left their competing narratives to us in print. They contested how history should be written, and what relevant lessons ought to be adapted to the changing society of Song (960-1279) dynasty China. They were particularly concerned with the history of the long-lasting Tang…

  4. Peer review statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-11-01

    All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the editors of the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems proceedings. Reviews were conducted by expert referees from the International Technical Committee to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. The members of the Scientific Committee who selected and reviewed the papers included in the Proceedings of the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems are: Yulin WU Tsinghua University China François AVELLAN EPFL-LMH Switzerland (principal) Xingqi LUO Xi'an University of Sci & Tech China Martin BÖHLE Kaiserslautern University Germany Gerard BOIS Arts et Métiers ParisTech France Luca D'AGOSTINO University of Pisa Italy Eduard EGUSQUIZA Polytechnical University Catalonia Spain Richard FISHER Voith Hydro Inc USA Regiane FORTES-PATELLA Institute Polytechnique de Grenoble France Aleksandar GAJIC University of Belgrade Serbia Wei YANG China Agriculture University China YinLu YOUNG University of Michigan USA Adrian LUNGU Dunarea de Jos University of Galati Romania Arpad FAY University of Miskolcz Hungary José GONZÁLEZ Universidad de Oviedo Spain Baoshan ZHU Tsinghua University China Hongxun CHEN Shanghai University China Chisachi KATO University of Tokyo Japan Zhenyue MA Dalian University of Sci & Tech China Honggang FAN Tsinghua University China François GUIBAULT Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal Canada Pengcheng GUO Xian University of Technology China Leqing WANG Zhejiang University China Toshiaki IKOHAGI Tohoku University Japan Jiandong YANG Wuhan University China Jianzhong ZHOU Huazhong University of Sci & Tech China Jinwei LI NULL China Rennian LI Lanzhou University of Sci & Tech China Houlin LIU NULL China Juan LIU Tsinghua University China Shuhong LIU Tsinghua University China Xianwu LUO Tsinghua University China Michihiro NISHI Tsinghua University China Peter PELZ Darmstadt University Germany František POCHYLY Brno University Czech Republic Rudolf SCHILLING Technische Universität München Germany Minguan YANG Jiangsu University China Smaine KOUIDRI Université Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris 6) France Kazuhiro TANAKA Kyushu Institute of Technology Japan Xuelin TANG Tsinghua University China Yoshinobu TSUJIMOTO Osaka University Japan Fujun WANG China Agriculture University China Guoyu WANG Beijing University of Sci & Tech China Wenwu SONG NULL China Zhengwei WANG Tsinghua University China Hongyuan XU Tsinghua University China Lefu XIAO NULL China Fan YANG Tsinghua University China Yuan ZHENG Hehai University China Zhigang ZUO Tsinghua University China Hongwu ZHU China Petroleum University China Lixiang ZHANG Yunnan University of Sci & Tech China Shengchang ZHANG Zhejiang University of Tech China

  5. Kostenvergleich zwischen weißer, schwarzer und brauner Wanne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlicht, Jürgen

    Bei Gebäuden, deren Kellergeschosse im Grundwasser stehen, ist je nach Nutzung und Tragsystem zu entscheiden, welches der folgenden Dichtungssysteme für Kellerwände und Gebäudesohle eine optimale Funktion bei gleichzeitiger Wertung der Kosten erfüllt.

  6. A reply to Wang T, Shan L, Du L, Feng J, Xu Z, Staal WG, Jia F. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2015; doi: 10.1007/s00787-015-0786-1.

    PubMed

    Fluegge, Keith

    2016-04-01

    The author of this correspondence has recently published findings of an ecological investigation wherein herbicide use was proposed as an instrumental variable that predicts healthcare utilization among subjects with severe ADHD impairment via individual exposure to nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Vitamin D deficiency, a possible risk factor for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) as discussed by Wang et al., may be a homeostatic response to increasing chronic environmental N2O exposures. The author explains how deficient and insufficient states of vitamin D may promote vagal withdrawal and tolerance to increasing opioid exposures in the environment and how these characteristics are particularly relevant in neurodevelopmental disorders, like ASD and ADHD. PMID:26662808

  7. Cloning and Characterization of ifitm1 and ifitm3 Expression During Early Zebrafish Development - CORRIGENDUM.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wei-Wei; Wang, Huan-Nan; Wang, Zhi-Meng; Qiu, Meng-Xi; Che, Jing; Deng, Feng-Jiao; Liu, Jiang-Dong

    2016-02-01

    The authors apologise for errors in the corresponding authors details given on page 1 of the article. Below is the correct information of the corresponding author and email address : 1) Wei-Wei Xue, Huan-Nan Wang, Zhi-Meng Wang, Meng-Xi Qiu, Jing Che, Feng-Jiao Deng* and Jiang-Dong Liu* 2) *All correspondence to: Feng-Jiao Deng and Jiang-Dong Liu. e-mail: fish4@whu.edu.cn 3) All authors are from the same one laboratory. The second laboratory was superfluous and should be deleted. PMID:26194805

  8. Discussion of "Carbon benefits of wolfberry plantation on secondary saline land in Jingtai oasis, Gansu - A case study on application of the CBP model" by Yaolin Wang, Chuanyan Zhao, Quanlin Ma, Yingke Li, Hujia Jing, Tao Sun, Eleanor Milne, Mark Easter, Keith Paustian, Hoi Wen Au Yong, John McDonagh (2015) [Journal of Environmental Management 157, 303-310].

    PubMed

    Azarnivand, Ali

    2015-12-01

    Wang et al. (2015) employed driving force-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) framework to provide a robust decision-making structure for carbon emission reduction by use of wolfberry plantation in the Jingtai oasis, China. DPSIR appropriately identified the causes of problem along with adopting the responses to the barriers associated with wolfberry plantation. However, the discusser argues that, the paper could have prepared more viable outcomes, if the authors had used causal network rather than causal chains through the DPSIR framework. Furthermore, they could have quantified the mutual relationship among the relevant factors to provide a detailed economic assessment. With this knowledge in hand, the current discussion letter suggests eDPSIR and meDPSIR to address drawbacks regarding conventional DPSIR framework. Due to proper performance of eDPSIR and meDPSIR, they are recommended as practical tools in the future environmental studies. PMID:26355261

  9. Integrating Real-World Numeracy Applications and Modelling into Vocational Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Practitioner research is in progress at a Further Education college to improve the motivation of vocational students for numeracy and problem solving. A framework proposed by Tang, Sui, & Wang (2003) has been adapted for use in courses. Five levels are identified for embedding numeracy applications and modelling into vocational studies:…

  10. Joint Density of States Calculation Employing Wang-Landau Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyan, M. Suman; Bharath, R.; Sastry, V. S. S.; Murthy, K. P. N.

    2016-04-01

    Joint density of states (JDoS), which depends both on energy and another variable like order parameter provides more information than the conventional density of states (DoS) which depend only on energy. Calculation of JDoS requires huge computational time. In this paper we employ two level method to calculate JDoS which requires relatively much less computational time. We demonstrate this method on a two dimensional Ising spin system, lattice spin model of double strand DNA (dsDNA) and Heisenberg ferromagnet.

  11. Sustainable development needs family planning: Mr. Wang Guoging.

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    This brief article refers to the comments of the Director of Policy and Regulation for the State Family Planning Committee in China on the need for family planning and control of population growth for the sake of sustainable development. Population growth varies between regions in China. Growth should be equalized and brought to a level that will sustain development. A representative of the Institute of Population Research at the People's University stated that the problem was in coordinating population with resources, the environment, and the socioeconomy. Population factors are not the problem. Control of population size has been effective in alleviating pressure on resources, the environment, and socioeconomic development. The population structure, with increased number of elderly and nuclear families, is becoming a problem. China's population of 5.84 billion in mid-1997 accounts for 21.2% of world total population. The growth of world population, which has accelerated since 1950, is currently concentrated in less developed countries. An important factor limiting human and other life is the supply of water. A professor at the China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research indicated that the basic water needs for a Chinese population size of 1.6 billion must increase. China already has water shortage and water pollution problems that reduce the supply of water. The solution is integrated management of water resources and comprehensive effective countermeasures at all links of development, use, protection, and management of water resources. There is a need to promote efficient use of water resources that will result in water savings. Researchers need to develop new water resources, promote water reuse and wastewater reclamation, and coordinate the relationship between water supplies and development. The economy must be based on water conservation. PMID:12292781

  12. Joint Density of States Calculation Employing Wang-Landau Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyan, M. Suman; Bharath, R.; Sastry, V. S. S.; Murthy, K. P. N.

    2016-02-01

    Joint density of states (JDoS), which depends both on energy and another variable like order parameter provides more information than the conventional density of states (DoS) which depend only on energy. Calculation of JDoS requires huge computational time. In this paper we employ two level method to calculate JDoS which requires relatively much less computational time. We demonstrate this method on a two dimensional Ising spin system, lattice spin model of double strand DNA (dsDNA) and Heisenberg ferromagnet.

  13. 76 FR 72387 - Order Relating to Xun Wang

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0;Notices #0; Federal Register #0; #0; #0;This section of the FEDERAL REGISTER contains documents other than rules #0;or proposed rules that are applicable to the public. Notices of hearings #0;and investigations, committee...

  14. Reply to the comment on “Mudflat/distal fan and shallow lake sedimentation (upper Vallesian-Turolian) in the Tianshui Basin, Central China: Evidence against the late Miocene eolian loess” by A.M. Alonso-Zarza, Z. Zhao, C.H. Song, J.J. Li, J. Zhang, A. Martín-Pérez, R. Martín-García, X.X. Wang, Y. Zhang and M.H. Zhang [Sedimentary Geology 222 (2009) 42-51

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Zarza, A. M.; Zhao, Z.; Song, C. H.; Li, J. J.; Zhang, J.; Martín-Pérez, A.; Martín-García, R.; Wang, X. X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, M. H.; Meléndez, A.

    2010-10-01

    Guo's et al. comments on our paper (Z.T. Guo, J.Y, Ge, G.Q. Xiao, Q.Z. Hao, H.B. Wu, T. Zhan, L. Liu, L. Qin, F.M. Zeng, B.Y. Yuan, Comment on "Mudflat/distal fan and shallow lake sedimentation (upper Vallesian-Turolian) in the Tianshui Basin, Central China: Evidence against the late Miocene eolian loess" by A.M. Alonso-Zarza, Z. Zhao, C.H. Song, J.J. Li, J. Zhang, A. Martín-Pérez, R. Martín-García, X.X. Wang, Y. Zhang and M.H. Zhang [Sedimentary Geology 222 (2009) 42-51], Sedimentary Geology, 2010-this issue) mostly stress their previous data and their model of configuration and evolution of the study area; it is not a real discussion of the sedimentological features we describe. In this reply we will discuss some of the key features of the basin configuration, correlations and sedimentology of the Tinshui basin. Our work has followed the common procedures used in stratigraphy and sedimentology and so we can confirm our interpretation on basin configuration and correlations. In all cases we have taken into account previous papers, including those of Guo's group. In addition the sedimentological model we proposed is new due to the lack of previous sedimentological studies, including facies analysis and petrography, in the studied area. Our model of a continental alluvial-lacustrine basin fits well with other well-known examples over the world and explains clearly the lateral facies transitions across the basin. It is not the aim of this reply to discuss all the previous papers by Guo's group, but to reply to their main comments on our paper.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SiIX K-shell energy levels and transitions (Wei+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, H. G.; Shi, J. R.; Wang, F. L.; Zhong, J. Y.; Liang, G. Y.; Zhao, G.

    2014-05-01

    Accurate atomic data are needed to analyze the SiIX K-shell features in astrophysical X-ray spectra. Relative large discrepancies in the existing atomic data have impeded this progress. We present the accurate SiIX K-shell transition data, including K-shell energy levels, wavelengths, radiative rates, and oscillator strengths. The flexible atomic code (FAC), which is a fully relativistic atomic code with configuration interaction (CI) included, was employed to calculate these data. To investigate the CI effects, calculations with different configurations included were carried out. The K-shell atomic data of SiIX transitions between 1s22s22p2, 1s22s2p3, 1s22p4, 1s2s22p3, 1s2s2p4, and 1s2p5 are reported. The accuracy of our data is demonstrated by comparing them with the available experimental measurements and theoretical calculations. The energy levels are accurate to 3.5eV, the wavelengths to within 15mÅ. For most transitions, the radiative rates an accuracy of 20%. The effects of CI from high-energy configurations were investigated as well. (2 data files).

  16. [Introduction of Indian medicine into China in the Wei-Jin-Southern-Northern dynasties as interpreted by beriberi].

    PubMed

    Fan, J

    1995-01-01

    Since the sea route between China and all countries in the Western Region was unimpeded, many Buddhist monks came to China. Some of them settled in Lingnan Region. With them, Indian medicine was imported which greatly expanded the coverage of TCM. Some of the Northerners moved southward into Lingnan Region and contracted beriberi which were cured by Indian monks. The author explores the importation of Indian medcine through analysis of beriberi as an example. PMID:11613581

  17. The effects of land use change and precipitation change on direct runoff in Wei River watershed, China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Leihua; Xiong, Lihua; Lall, Upmanu; Wang, Jiwu

    2015-01-01

    The principles and degrees to which land use change and climate change affect direct runoff generation are distinctive. In this paper, based on the MODIS data of land use in 1992 and 2003, the impacts of land use and climate change are explored using the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) method under two defined scenarios. In the first scenario, the precipitation is assumed to be constant, and thus the consequence of land use change could be evaluated. In the second scenario, the condition of land use is assumed to be constant, so the influence only induced by climate change could be assessed. Combining the conclusions of two scenarios, the effects of land use and climate change on direct runoff volume can be separated. At last, it is concluded: for the study basin, the land use types which have the greatest effect on direct runoff generation are agricultural land and water body. For the big sub basins, the effect of land use change is generally larger than that of climate change; for middle and small sub basins, most of them suffer more from land use change than from climate change. PMID:25633954

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Si XI K-shell energy levels and radiative rates (Wei+, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, H. G.; Shi, J. R.; Zhao, G.; Liang, Z. T.

    2010-07-01

    Atomic data for K-shell transitions are essential for modeling the K absorption lines, which have been observed in the spectra of active galaxies by high-resolution X-ray observatories, e.g. XMM, Chandra, and Suzaku. These accurate atomic data are also needed for line identifications and spectroscopic diagnostic of plasmas in laboratory generated by laser or beam-foil method.The atomic code Flexible Atomic Code (FAC) has been used to calculate these data. Relativistic effects and configuration interactions are taken into account in calculations.The K-shell transitions among the configurations of 1s22s2, 1s22s2p, 1s22p2, 1s22sn'l', 1s2^2pn'l', 1s2s22p, 1s2s2p2, 1s2p3, 1s2s2pn'l' and 1s2p2n'l', n'<=4, l'<=n' for beryllium-like Si XI have been calculated. The K-shell energy levels, wavelengths, radiative rates and oscillator strengths for Si XI are reported. In order to assess the accuracy of current data, comparison between our results with former experiments and other theoretical works have been made. (3 data files).

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: BP Peg times of maximum light (Wang+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.-M.; Qian, S.-B.; He, J.-J.; Zhou, X.; Zhao, E.-G.

    2015-05-01

    Photometric observations of BP Peg were obtained on November 4, 2013 by using the 1.0-m reflecting telescope at Yunnan Observatories (YNOs) that is equipped with a Cassegrain-focus multicolor CCD photometer. An Andor DW436 2K CCD camera together with the wide-band, Johnson-Cousins Rc and Ic filters, attached to this Cassegrain telescope is used. To increase the photometric precision, we also observed the variable star without filters. BP Peg was also observed on December 29, 2013 by using the 85-cm telescope at the Xinglong Station of National Astronomical Observatory (NAO). The telescope is equipped with a primary-focus multi-color CCD photometer where a PI1024 BFT (Back-illuminated and Frame-Transfer) camera is used as the detector. The wide-band filter in V was used during the observations. (1 data file).

  20. DOE/GO/15075-MacDiarmid-Wang Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Pen-Cheng

    2007-11-01

    Since Cho et al. reported up to ~8 wt% room-temperature hydrogen adsorption in HCl-treated polyaniline and polypyrrole [1], the research on the interactions between hydrogen and conducting polymers has become an area of special interest in the hydrogen economy community. However, later studies on hydrogen sorption using conducting polymers gave controversial results, which showed either much lower H2 uptake [2] or no H2 uptake at all [3]. As conducting polymers possess some unique “unconventional” and complex characteristics [4], it is highly likely that the controversial results could be attributed to the variation in material characteristics caused by “ambiguous” processing/handling procedures employed in H2 uptake studies involving conducting polymers. In order to determine whether conducting polymers can be developed into a new type of high-performance media for hydrogen storage applications, the goals of the project were to (i) confirm the brief report by Cho et al. [1] that ~8 wt% hydrogen gas storage in doped (metallic) forms of organic conducting polymers (“synthetic metals”), polyaniline and polypyrrole, can be attained, (ii) determine the optimum polymer preparative methods, chemical composition, polymer electrode potential, polymer crystallinity and morphology to give quantitative optimum conditions of hydrogen gas adsorption and desorption and (iii) investigate hydrogen storage by the many known types of organic conducting polymers in their semiconducting and, metallic forms, and in selected oxidation states.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: GLASS. IV. Lensing cluster Abell 2744 (Wang+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Hoag, A.; Huang, K.-H.; Treu, T.; Bradac, M.; Schmidt, K. B.; Brammer, G. B.; Vulcani, B.; Jones, T. A.; Ryan, R. E. Jr; Amorin, R.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Merlin, E.; Trenti, M.

    2016-02-01

    The two position angles (P.A.s) of Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS) data analyzed in this study were taken on 2014 August 22 and 23 (P.A.=135) and 2014 October 24 and 25 (P.A.=233), respectively. The Hubble Frontier Fields initiative (HFF, P.I. Lotz) is a Director's Discretionary Time legacy program with HST devoting 840 orbits of HST time to acquire optical ACS and NIR WFC3 imaging of six of the strongest lensing galaxy clusters on the sky. All six HFF clusters are included in the GLASS sample. The Spitzer Frontier Fields program (P.I. Soifer) is a Director's Discretionary Time program that images all six strong lensing galaxy clusters targeted by the HFF in both warm IRAC channels (3.6 and 4.5um). (2 data files).

  2. Argonne's Michael Wang talks about the GREET Model for reducing vehicle emi

    ScienceCinema

    Michael Wang

    2013-06-05

    To fully evaluate energy and emission impacts of advanced vehicle technologies and new transportation fuels, the fuel cycle from wells to wheels and the vehicle cycle through material recovery and vehicle disposal need to be considered. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Argonne has developed a full life-cycle model called GREET (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation). It allows researchers and analysts to evaluate various vehicle and fuel combinations on a full fuel-cycle/vehicle-cycle basis. The first version of GREET was released in 1996. Since then, Argonne has continued to update and expand the model. The most recent GREET versions are the GREET 1 2012 version for fuel-cycle analysis and GREET 2.7 version for vehicle-cycle analysis.

  3. Argonne's Michael Wang talks about the GREET Model for reducing vehicle emi

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Wang

    2012-07-25

    To fully evaluate energy and emission impacts of advanced vehicle technologies and new transportation fuels, the fuel cycle from wells to wheels and the vehicle cycle through material recovery and vehicle disposal need to be considered. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Argonne has developed a full life-cycle model called GREET (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation). It allows researchers and analysts to evaluate various vehicle and fuel combinations on a full fuel-cycle/vehicle-cycle basis. The first version of GREET was released in 1996. Since then, Argonne has continued to update and expand the model. The most recent GREET versions are the GREET 1 2012 version for fuel-cycle analysis and GREET 2.7 version for vehicle-cycle analysis.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Photometric variability search in the CSTAR field (Wang+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Zhang, H.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, J.-L.; Fu, J.-N.; Yang, M.; Liu, H.; Xie, J.; Wang, L.; Wang, L.; Wittenmyer, R. A.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Feng, L.-L.; Gong, X.; Lawrence, J. S.; Liu, Q.; Luong-van, D. M.; Ma, J.; Peng, X.; Storey, J. W. V.; Wu, Z.; Yan, J.; Yang, H.; Yang, J.; Yuan, X.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, X.; Zhu, Z.; Zou, H.

    2015-08-01

    Chinese Small Telescope Array (CSTAR), controlled from the PLATO autonomous observatory, consists of four fixed co-aligned 14.5cm (effective aperture of 10cm) telescopes, each with a different optical filter in SDSS bands: r, g, i, and open. CSTAR, the first photometric telescope to enter operation at Dome A, was successfully deployed in 2008 January and operated for the subsequent four winters until it was retrieved in 2012 to be repurposed. The data set analyzed in this work was collected from 2008 March 4 to August 8. In this observing season, about 1728hr observations provided some 0.3million i-band frames for 18145 stars with exposure times of 20s or 30s. A detailed description of the CSTAR observations in 2008 is given in Zhou et al. (2010, J/PASP/122/347). (3 data files).

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Atomic data of vanadium (V I) (Wang+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Jiang, L. Y.; Quinet, P.; Palmeri, P.; Zhang, W.; Shang, X.; Tian, Y. S.; Dai, Z. W.

    2014-05-01

    Radiative lifetimes of 79 levels belonging to the 3d34s4p, 3d< 3d34s5p, 3d45p, and 3d34s4d configurations of V I with energy from 26604.807 to 46862.786cm-1 have been measured using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (TR-LIF) spectroscopy in laser-produced plasma. The lifetime values reported in this paper are in the range of 3.3-494ns, and the uncertainties of these measurements are within +/-10%. A good agreement was obtained with previous data. HFR+CPOL (Hartree-Fock with relativistic corrections method - Cowan; 1981tass.book.....C + core-polarization; Quinet et al. 1999MNRAS.307..934Q) calculations have been performed and used to combine the calculated branching fractions with the available experimental lifetimes to determine semi-empirical transition probabilities for 784 V I transitions. (1 data file).

  6. IFSSH Flexor Tendon Committee report 2014: from the IFSSH Flexor Tendon Committee (Chairman: Jin Bo Tang).

    PubMed

    Tang, Jin Bo; Chang, James; Elliot, David; Lalonde, Donald H; Sandow, Michael; Vögelin, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Hand surgeons continue to search for the best surgical flexor tendon repair and treatment of the tendon sheaths and pulleys, and they are attempting to establish postoperative regimens that fit diverse clinical needs. It is the purpose of this report to present the current views, methods, and suggestions of six senior hand surgeons from six different countries - all experienced in tendon repair and reconstruction. Although certainly there is common ground, the report presents provocative views and approaches. The report reflects an update in the views of the committee. We hope that it is helpful to surgeons and therapists in treating flexor tendon injuries. PMID:23962872

  7. EDITORIAL: High performance under pressure High performance under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2011-11-01

    The accumulation of charge in certain materials in response to an applied mechanical stress was first discovered in 1880 by Pierre Curie and his brother Paul-Jacques. The effect, piezoelectricity, forms the basis of today's microphones, quartz watches, and electronic components and constitutes an awesome scientific legacy. Research continues to develop further applications in a range of fields including imaging [1, 2], sensing [3] and, as reported in this issue of Nanotechnology, energy harvesting [4]. Piezoelectricity in biological tissue was first reported in 1941 [5]. More recently Majid Minary-Jolandan and Min-Feng Yu at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in the USA have studied the piezoelectric properties of collagen I [1]. Their observations support the nanoscale origin of piezoelectricity in bone and tendons and also imply the potential importance of the shear load transfer mechanism in mechanoelectric transduction in bone. Shear load transfer has been the principle basis of the nanoscale mechanics model of collagen. The piezoelectric effect in quartz causes a shift in the resonant frequency in response to a force gradient. This has been exploited for sensing forces in scanning probe microscopes that do not need optical readout. Recently researchers in Spain explored the dynamics of a double-pronged quartz tuning fork [2]. They observed thermal noise spectra in agreement with a coupled-oscillators model, providing important insights into the system's behaviour. Nano-electromechanical systems are increasingly exploiting piezoresistivity for motion detection. Observations of the change in a material's resistance in response to the applied stress pre-date the discovery of piezoelectric effect and were first reported in 1856 by Lord Kelvin. Researchers at Caltech recently demonstrated that a bridge configuration of piezoresistive nanowires can be used to detect in-plane CMOS-based and fully compatible with future very-large scale integration of nanoelectromechanical systems. Researchers in China exploit the coupling between piezoelectric and semiconducting properties of ZnO in an optimised diode device design [6]. They used a Schottky rather than an ohmic contact to depress the off current. In addition they used ZnO nanobelts that have dominantly polar surfaces instead of [0001] ZnO nanowires to enhance the on current under the small applied forces obtained by using an atomic force microscopy tip. The nanobelts have potential for use in random access memory devices. Much of the success in applying piezoresistivity in device applications stems from a deepening understanding of the mechanisms behind the process. A collaboration of researchers in the USA and China have proposed a new criterion for identifying the carrier type of individual ZnO nanowires based on the piezoelectric output of a nanowire when it is mechanically deformed by a conductive atomic force microscopy tip in contact mode [7]. The p-type/n-type shell/core nanowires give positive piezoelectric outputs, while the n-type nanowires produce negative piezoelectric outputs. In this issue Zhong Lin Wang and colleagues in Italy and the US report theoretical investigations into the piezoresistive behaviour of ZnO nanowires for energy harvesting. The work develops previous research on the ability of vertically aligned ZnO nanowires under uniaxial compression to power a nanodevice, in particular a pH sensor [8]. Now the authors have used finite element simulations to study the system. Among their conclusions they find that, for typical geometries and donor concentrations, the length of the nanowire does not significantly influence the maximum output piezopotential because the potential mainly drops across the tip. This has important implications for low-cost, CMOS- and microelectromechanical-systems-compatible fabrication of nanogenerators. The simulations also reveal the influence of the dielectric surrounding the nanowire on the output piezopotential, especially for low donor concentrations. Back in 19th Century France, observations of the reverse piezoresistive effect inspired Pierre Curie to investigate similar symmetry in other physical processes. These endeavours led to significant progress in the theories of magnetism, such as the discovery of the Curie point at which temperature the magnetic properties of materials change. As an avid scientist, he is remembered as happiest in the lab, where he spent most of his time with his wife with whom he shares the 1903 Nobel Prize for physics [9]. As he once said to his wife, "[In science] we can aspire to accomplish something...every discovery, however small, is a permanent gain" [10]. His life was cut short in a traffic accident in 1906 but the truth in his words are evident as his work continues to inspire research and progress in the understanding and application of the piezoelectric effect and other physical phenomena. References [1] Minary-Jolandan M and Yu M-F 2009 Nanotechnology 20 085706 [2] Castellanos-Gomez A, Agraït N and Rubio-Bollinger G 2009 Nanotechnology 20 215502 [3] Mile E et al2010 Nanotechnology 21 165504 [4] Romano G, Mantini G, Di Carlo A, D'Amico A and Falconi C 2011 Nanotechnology 22 465401 [5] Martin A J P 1941 Proc. Phys. Soc. 53 186 [6] CYang Y, Qi J, Liao Q, Li H, Wang Y, Tang L and Zhang Y 2009 Nanotechnology 20 125201 [7] Lin S S, Song J H, Lu Y F and Wang Z L 2009 Nanotechnology 20 365703 [8] Xu S, Qin Y, Xu C, Wei Y, Yang R and Wang L Z 2010 Nanotechnology 5 366-73 [9] The Nobel Prize in Physics Nobelprize.org [10] Pasachoff N 2000 Pierre Curie Marie Curie and the Science of Radioactivity

  8. Observations from Space: Marine Ecosystem and Environment Response to Typhoon/ Hurricanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Danling; Yi, Sui

    Marine ecosystem is sensitive to environmental factors, including typhoon. Typhoon's activities have been strengthening in both intensity and spatial coverage in the past several decades, along with global changes; however, our knowledge about the impact of typhoons upon the marine ecosystem is very scarce. To understand how could typhoon/hurricane impact on marine ecosystem, we have conducted a series studies in the South China Sea, by using Satellite remote sensing and in situ observation data to investigate phytoplankton concentration, sea surface temperature (SST) and related factors before, during, and after typhoon. Results show that typhoon can induce large area of phytoplankton blooms with increases of Chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations and decrease of sea surface temperature (SST) about 4 oC. Analysis showed that typhoon can support nutrients to surface phytoplankton by upwelling and vertical mixing, and typhoon rain can also nourish marine phytoplankton. More observations confirmed that typhoon can induce cold eddy, and cold eddy can support eddy-shape phyto-plankton bloom by upwelling. Typhoon can also induce transport of nutrient-rich water from depth and from the coast to offshore regions, nourishing phytoplankton biomass. Comparative study show that slow-moving typhoon induced phytoplankton blooms of higher Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), the strong typhoon induced phytoplankton blooms of a large area. Therefore, typhoons may have important contribution to the marine primary production. Those studies may help better understand the mechanism of typhoon impacts on marine ecosys-tem, and the role of typhoon in the global environmental changes. The series research were sup-ported by: NSFC (40976091, 40811140533) and GD NSF (8351030101000002); (2) CAS(kzcx2-yw-226 and LYQ200701); (3) The CAS/SAFEA International Partnership Program for Creative Research Teams (KZCX2-YW-T001). References: Tang, DanLing, H Kawamura, P Shi, W Takahashi, T Shimada, F. Sakaida, O Isoguchi, 2005. Seasonal phytoplankton blooms associated with monsoonal influences and coastal environments in the sea areas either side of the Indochina Peninsula. JGR-Bio-geo. VOL. 111, G01010, doi:10.1029/2005JG000050, 2006. Tang, DanLing, H Kawamura, Hai Doan-Nhu, W Takahashi , 2004. Remote sensing oceanography of a harmful algal bloom (HAB) off the coast of southeastern Vietnam. J. of Geophysical Research (Ocean).Vol 109, doi:10.1029/2003JC002045; Tang, DanLing, H Kawamura, TV Dien. MA Lee, 2004. Offshore phytoplankton biomass increase and its oceanographic causes in the South China Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 268: 31-41; Tang, DanLing, H ZHAO, B. Satyanarayana, GM ZHENG, RP. SINGH, JH LV, 2009, Enhancement of Chlorophyll-a in the Northeastern Indian Ocean after the 2004 South Asian Tsunami, Int. J. Remote Sensing doi10.1080/01431160802603778 , Vol.30 (17):4553-4565; Zhao, H., DanLing Tang, and Y. Wang, 2008, Comparison of phyto-plankton blooms triggered by two typhoons with different intensities and translation speeds in the South China SeaMar Ecol Prog Ser, 365, 57-65; Zheng, GM. and DanLing Tang ,2007Off-shore and nearshore chlorophyll increases induced by typhoon winds and subsequent terrestrial rainwater runoff, Mar Ecol Prog Ser, 333, 61-72; H Zhao, DanLing TANG, DX Wang, 2009, Phytoplankton blooms near the Pearl River Estuary induced by Typhoon Nuri, Journal of Geophysical Research -Oceans. 114, C12027; YQ Chen, DanLing Tang, 2010, Cold eddies and eddy-shape phytoplankton blooms induced by tropical cyclone Linfa in the South China Sea. In preparation; XX Yang, DanLing Tang, 2010, Sea Surface Temperature Decreasing in the Northern South China Sea Induced by Typhoon. In preparation.

  9. PREFACE: IUPAP C20 Conference on Computational Physics (CCP 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troparevsky, Claudia; Stocks, George Malcolm

    2012-12-01

    Increasingly, computational physics stands alongside experiment and theory as an integral part of the modern approach to solving the great scientific challenges of the day on all scales - from cosmology and astrophysics, through climate science, to materials physics, and the fundamental structure of matter. Computational physics touches aspects of science and technology with direct relevance to our everyday lives, such as communication technologies and securing a clean and efficient energy future. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains the proceedings of the scientific contributions presented at the 23rd Conference on Computational Physics held in Gatlinburg, Tennessee, USA, in November 2011. The annual Conferences on Computational Physics (CCP) are dedicated to presenting an overview of the most recent developments and opportunities in computational physics across a broad range of topical areas and from around the world. The CCP series has been in existence for more than 20 years, serving as a lively forum for computational physicists. The topics covered by this conference were: Materials/Condensed Matter Theory and Nanoscience, Strongly Correlated Systems and Quantum Phase Transitions, Quantum Chemistry and Atomic Physics, Quantum Chromodynamics, Astrophysics, Plasma Physics, Nuclear and High Energy Physics, Complex Systems: Chaos and Statistical Physics, Macroscopic Transport and Mesoscopic Methods, Biological Physics and Soft Materials, Supercomputing and Computational Physics Teaching, Computational Physics and Sustainable Energy. We would like to take this opportunity to thank our sponsors: International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP), IUPAP Commission on Computational Physics (C20), American Physical Society Division of Computational Physics (APS-DCOMP), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Center for Defect Physics (CDP), the University of Tennessee (UT)/ORNL Joint Institute for Computational Sciences (JICS) and Cray, Inc. We are grateful to the committees that helped put the conference together, especially the local organizing committee. Particular thanks are also due to a number of ORNL staff who spent long hours with the administrative details. We are pleased to express our thanks to the conference administrator Ann Strange (ORNL/CDP) for her responsive and efficient day-to-day handling of this event, Sherry Samples, Assistant Conference Administrator (ORNL), Angie Beach and the ORNL Conference Office, and Shirley Shugart (ORNL) and Fern Stooksbury (ORNL) who created and maintained the conference website. Editors: G Malcolm Stocks (ORNL) and M Claudia Troparevsky (UT) http://ccp2011.ornl.gov Chair: Dr Malcolm Stocks (ORNL) Vice Chairs: Adriana Moreo (ORNL/UT) James Guberrnatis (LANL) Local Program Committee: Don Batchelor (ORNL) Jack Dongarra (UTK/ORNL) James Hack (ORNL) Robert Harrison (ORNL) Paul Kent (ORNL) Anthony Mezzacappa (ORNL) Adriana Moreo (ORNL) Witold Nazarewicz (UT) Loukas Petridis (ORNL) David Schultz (ORNL) Bill Shelton (ORNL) Claudia Troparevsky (ORNL) Mina Yoon (ORNL) International Advisory Board Members: Joan Adler (Israel Institute of Technology, Israel) Constantia Alexandrou (University of Cyprus, Cyprus) Claudia Ambrosch-Draxl (University of Leoben, Austria) Amanda Barnard (CSIRO, Australia) Peter Borcherds (University of Birmingham, UK) Klaus Cappelle (UFABC, Brazil) Giovanni Ciccotti (Università degli Studi di Roma 'La Sapienza', Italy) Nithaya Chetty (University of Pretoria, South Africa) Charlotte Froese-Fischer (NIST, US) Giulia A. Galli (University of California, Davis, US) Gillian Gehring (University of Sheffield, UK) Guang-Yu Guo (National Taiwan University, Taiwan) Sharon Hammes-Schiffer (Penn State, US) Alex Hansen (Norweigan UST) Duane D. Johnson (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, US) David Landau (University of Georgia, US) Joaquin Marro (University of Granada, Spain) Richard Martin (UIUC, US) Todd Martinez (Stanford University, US) Bill McCurdy (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, US) Ingrid Mertig (Martin Luther University, Germany) Alejandro Muramatsu (Universitat Stuttgart, Germany) Richard Needs (Cavendish Laboratory, UK) Giuseppina Orlandini (University of Trento, Italy) Martin Savage (University of Washington, US) Thomas Schulthess (ETH, Switzerland) Dzidka Szotek (Daresbury Laboratory, UK) Hideaki Takabe (Osaka University, Japan) William M. Tang (Princeton University, US) James Vary (Iowa State, US) Enge Wang (Chinese Academy of Science, China) Jian-Guo Wang (Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, China) Jian-Sheng Wang (National University, Singapore) Dan Wei (Tsinghua University, China) Tony Williams (University of Adelaide, Australia) Rudy Zeller (Julich, Germany) Conference Administrator: Ann Strange (ORNL)

  10. Contributions to the knowledge of subterranean trechine beetles in southern China’s karsts: five new genera (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae)

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Mingyi; Huang, Sunbin; Wang, Xinhui; Tang, Mingruo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent discoveries reveal that southern China’s karsts hold the most diverse and morphologically modified subterranean trechine beetles in the world, albeit the first troglobitic blind beetle was only reported in the early 1990’s. In total, 110 species belonging to 43 genera of cavernicolous trechines have hitherto been recorded from the karsts of southern China, including the following five new genera proposed below: Shiqianaphaenops Tian, gen. n., to contain two species: Shiqianaphaenops majusculus (Uéno, 1999) (= Shenaphaenops majusculus Uéno, 1999, comb. n.), the type species from Cave Feng Dong, Shiqian, Guizhou, and Shiqianaphaenops cursor (Uéno, 1999) (= Shenaphaenops cursor Uéno, 1999, comb. n.), from Cave Shenxian Dong, Shiqian, Guizhou; and the monotypic Dianotrechus Tian, gen. n. (the type species: Dianotrechus gueorguievi Tian, sp. n., from Cave Dashi Dong, Kunming, Yunnan), Tianeotrechus Tian & Tang, gen. n. (the type species: Tianeotrechus trisetosus Tian & Tang, sp. n., from Cave Bahao Dong, Tian’e County, Guangxi), Huoyanodytes Tian & Huang, gen. n. (the type species: Huoyanodytes tujiaphilus Tian & Huang, sp. n., from Longshan, Hunan) and Wanhuaphaenops Tian & Wang, gen. n. (the type species: Wanhuaphaenops zhangi Tian & Wang, sp. n., from Cave Songjia Dong, Chenzhou, Hunan). PMID:27081334

  11. Coprescription of Chinese herbal medicine and Western medication among female patients with breast cancer in Taiwan: analysis of national insurance claims

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bih-Ru; Chang, Yuh-Lih; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chiu, Jen-Hwey; Wu, Jing Chong; Wu, Min-Shan; Chou, Chia-Lin; Chou, Yueh-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Background Many female breast cancer (FBC) patients take Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) and Western medication (WM) concurrently in Taiwan. Despite the possibility of interactions between the CHM and WM mentioned in previous studies, the pattern of these coprescriptions in FBC patients remains unclear. Hence, the aim of the present study is to investigate the utilization of coprescriptions of CHM and WM among the FBC patients in Taiwan. Methods The study was a cross-sectional survey using the sampled cohort in 2009 obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. There were 3,507 FBC patients identified from the registry for catastrophic illness patients. Ambulatory visit records, corresponding prescriptions, and the data of beneficiaries belonging to the FBC patients were further extracted. A total of 1,086 FBC patients used CHM at least once. CHM and WM prescribed within any overlapping duration were defined as coprescriptions. Results There were 868 (80.0%) patients simultaneously receiving CHM and WM. A total of 4,927 CHM prescriptions and 6,358 WM prescriptions were prescribed concurrently. Among these coprescriptions, the most frequently used CHM was jia-wei-xiao-yao-san (21.2%), and the most frequently coprescribed WM was acetaminophen (38.9%), followed by tamoxifen (25.5%). There were 346 patients using systemic adjuvant therapy and CHM concurrently. The most commonly coprescribed CHM with chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, and trastuzumab was xiang-sha-liu-jun-zi-tang, jia-wei-xiao-yao-san, and zhi-gan-cao-tang, respectively. Conclusion The combined use of CHM with WM is prevalent. The main purpose of combining CHM with systemic cancer treatment is to alleviate the treatment-related adverse effects. However, the combination may result in the potential risk of drugherb interactions. Further clinical studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the CHM and WM coprescriptions for FBC patients. PMID:24855343

  12. Biases in Global Reanalysis Datasets Undermine Intraseasonal Prediction Skill Xiouhua Fu1, Bin Wang, June-Yi Lee, Wanqiu Wang, and Li Gao 1International Pacific Research Center (IPRC), SOEST, University of Hawaii at Manoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, J. X.

    2010-12-01

    Predictability of Intra-Seasonal Oscillation (ISO) relies on both initial conditions and lower boundary conditions (or atmosphere-ocean interaction). The atmospheric reanalysis datasets are commonly used as initial conditions. Here, the biases of three reanalysis datasets (NCEP_R1, _R2, and ERA_Interim) in describing ISO were revealed and the impacts of these biases as initial conditions on ISO prediction skills were assessed. A signal recovery method is proposed to improve ISO prediction. All three reanalysis datasets underestimate the intensity of the equatorial eastward-propagating ISO. When these reanalyses are used as initial conditions in the ECHAM4-UH hybrid coupled model (UH_HCM hereinafter), skillful ISO prediction reaches only about one week for both the 850-hPa zonal winds (U850) and rainfall over Southeast Asia and the global tropics. An enhanced nudging of divergence field is shown to significantly improve the initial conditions, resulting in an extension of the skillful rainfall prediction by 2-3 days and U850 prediction by 5-10 days. After recovering the ISO signals in the original reanalyses, the resultant initial conditions contain ISO strength much closer to the observed. Use of these signal-recovered reanalyses as initial conditions extends the skillful prediction of U850 and rainfall, respectively, to 23 and 18 days over Southeast Asia, and to 20 and 10 days over the global tropics. This finding underlines the urgent need to improve data assimilation systems and observations in advancement of ISO prediction by offering better initial conditions. It is also found that small-scale synoptic weather disturbances in initial conditions generally increase ISO prediction skill. The UH_HCM has better rainfall prediction than the NCEP Climate Forecast System (CFS) over Southeast Asia and both models suffer the prediction barrier over the Maritime Continent.

  13. The law of cooperation: Comment on "Universal scaling for the dilemma strength in evolutionary games" by Z. Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichinose, Genki

    2015-09-01

    Cooperation is a behavior that benefits others while incurring costs to the actor. Thus, natural selection favors defection (non-cooperation), which unilaterally takes the benefits without paying any costs, rather than cooperation. Despite this logical consequence, reality is the opposite: Cooperation is ubiquitous at any level from genomes to human societies. This contradiction is known as the puzzle of the evolution of cooperation. For a long time, evolutionary game theorists have used the prisoner's dilemma game (PD) and the chicken game (CH) as the standard models to solve this puzzle. For these researchers, it is recognized that a specific mechanism is needed for the evolution of cooperation [1]. Five mechanisms are proposed: kin selection, direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, network reciprocity, and group selection. By using the donor and recipient game (D&R), which is one of the particular forms of PD, Nowak theoretically showed that once benefit (b), cost (c), and the other one or two parameters for each mechanism are given, we (evolutionary game theorists) can immediately know whether cooperation evolves [1]. The point here is that he included those unique parameters for each mechanism into PD and then reformulated the payoff matrix. Therefore, we can use this extended PD as the first scaling parameters.

  14. Orgo Cards: Organic Chemistry Review (Steven Q. Wang, Babak Razani, Edward J. K. Lee, Jennifer Wu, and William Berkowitz)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooch, Eugene

    2003-09-01

    Most students are intimidated by the reputation of organic chemistry, while others see the course as nonessential to their career goals. While they usually have the ability to meet the challenge and succeed, many seek any mechanism by which they can pass the course with minimal study time. Products like Orgo Cards pander to such desires and will not be of benefit to the student with mediocre talent or poor motivation. The best students who buy this set may be bright enough to focus on those very well done mechanisms. But remember, theres nothing in Orgo Cards that isnt already in a good organic text.

  15. Inventing a Modern Lexicon for Grammar in Chinese: The Experience of Wang Fengzao, Ma Jianzhong and Yan Fu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellin, Tommaso

    2008-01-01

    In China, from the second half of the nineteenth century to the first years of the twentieth century, extensive translation of Western works on science, economics and law was undertaken. The goal was to spread "Western learning", thought of as the key tool for the industrial and military modernization of the country, among the Chinese ruling…

  16. Equivalence of cooperation indexes. Comment on "Universal scaling for the dilemma strength in evolutionary games" by Z. Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Vaquero, Luis; Grujić, Jelena; Lenaerts, Tom

    2016-03-01

    Symmetric 2 × 2 games where two players can select between two actions and the payoff depends on what they both choose, provide one of the simplest models to study the evolution of cooperation. The actions are usually called cooperation (C) and defection (D) and the payoffs they receive are R (reward for mutual cooperation), P (punishment for mutual defection), T (temptation to defect) and S (suckers payoff). The relative ordering of these 4 payoff values determines the type of dilemma: Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) when T > R > P > S, Snowdrift with T > R > S > P and Stag-Hunt with R > T > P > S. Within the framework of Darwinian Evolution it is well known that in the PD, where both greed (T > R) and fear (P > S) are present, the evolution of cooperation is an important conundrum [1], requiring the identification of mechanisms to overcome it.

  17. Fermented Sipjeondaebo-tang Alleviates Memory Deficits and Loss of Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Scopolamine-induced Amnesia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee Ra; Lee, Heeeun; Park, Hwayong; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the anti-amnesic effects of SJ and fermented SJ (FSJ) on scopolamine (SCO)-induced amnesia mouse model. Mice were orally co-treated with SJ or FSJ (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) and SCO (1 mg/kg), which was injected intraperitoneally for 14 days. SCO decreased the step-through latency and prolonged latency time to find the hidden platform in the passive avoidance test and Morris water maze test, respectively, and both SCO effects were ameliorated by FSJ treatment. FSJ was discovered to promote hippocampal neurogenesis during SCO treatment by increasing proliferation and survival of BrdU-positive cells, immature/mature neurons. In the hippocampus of SCO, oxidative stress and the activity of acetylcholinesterase were elevated, whereas the levels of acetylcholine and choline acetyltransferase were diminished; however, all of these alterations were attenuated by FSJ-treatment. The alterations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor, phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein, and phosphorylated Akt that occurred following SCO treatment were protected by FSJ administration. Therefore, our findings are the first to suggest that FSJ may be a promising therapeutic drug for the treatment of amnesia and aging-related or neurodegenerative disease-related memory impairment. Furthermore, the molecular mechanism by which FSJ exerts its effects may involve modulation of the cholinergic system and BDNF/CREB/Akt pathway. PMID:26939918

  18. Stratigraphy, microfacies and sedimentary environments of Asmari Formation at Tang-e-Bolhayat, north of Kazerun, Fars Province, Iran.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrami, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Oligo-Miocene Asmari Formation is the most important petroleum reservoir in the Folded Zagros Zone (FZZ). The FZZ is one of the tectono-sedimentary provinces of Iran, situated to the SW of the country and is recognized as the southwesterly boundary of the Zagros Orogen near the Persian Gulf. This area is easily recognised by the NW-SE trending parallel anticlines that verge to the SW in a 6-12 km cover sequence. As mentioned above, this area is home to some of the world largest oil reservoirs, and was the location of initial continental collision between the Arabian and Eurasian Plates. The Asmari Formation includes Kalhur (evaporates) and Ahwaz (sandstone) Members, measured in Lorestan and Khuzestan Provinces, respectively. The Asmari Formation is present throughout the Zagros Basin but it is best developed in Dezful Embayment. Most studies of the formation in this basin are related to subsurface data, while this study is focused on an outcrop. In the type section, which was measured at Kuh-e-Asmari (Asmari Mountain), SE of Masjed-e-Soleiman (a town in Khuzestan Province, SW of Iran), the formation comprises 314 m resistant, severely fractured, cream to brown limestones, with the occurrence of thin bedded shales. The lower contact with Pabdeh Formation and the upper contact with Gachsaran Formation are gradual and conformable. In the study area, from the viewpoint of lithology, the Asmari Formation consists up to 430 meters of thin to massive bedded limestone, dolomitic limestone, argillaceous limestone and occasionally marl. According to petrography and field observations and analysis of larger benthic foraminifera assemblages and microfacies features 4 major depositional environments were identified. These include open marine, barrier, lagoon and tidal flat. These environments are represented by 10 microfacies. A carbonate ramp platform is suggested for the depositional environment of the Asmari Formation. The inner ramp facies are characterized by wackstone-packstone, dominated by various taxa of imperforate foraminifera, the middle ramp facies are characterized by packstone-grainstone with diverse assemblage of larger hyaline foraminifera. The outer ramp is dominated by argillaceous wackstone and mudstone, characterized by hyaline foraminifera. On a sequence stratigraphic framework, the Lower Asmari is marly in character near the base, overlain by foraminiferal limestone, and deposited in HST stage, wears TST started during the deposition of underlying Pabded Formation and transgression reached to highest level Just in the boundary of Asmari and Pabdeh formations. The Middle Asmari is marked as late HST sediments composed of lagoonal facies (miliolidae wackstones). This sequence comprises one stage of HST, one LST and one TST. The Upper Asmari which is existed in the Dezful Embayment very well, comprises two HST and two TST; the latter began with echinoderm wackstone microfacies. Two third- order sequences are identified based on deepening and shallowing patterns in microfacies, stacking patterns and the distribution of foraminiferas. Sequence boundary is type 2 and no evidence of exposure was observed. Keywords: Stratigraphy, Microfacies, Sedimentary Environments, Kazerun, Iran.

  19. Soldier crab ( Dotilla myctiroides) distribution, food resources and subsequent role in organic matter fate in Ao Tang Khen, Phuket, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Kimberly K.; Cherdsukjai, Phaothep; Mimura, Izumi; Yano, Yuka; Adulyanukosol, Kanjana; Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2010-05-01

    This study aimed to elucidate Dotilla myctiroides (H. Milne-Edwards) food resources and how the soldier crab influences the organic matter composition on the intertidal flat. A preliminary assessment of D. myctiroides size, sex, and population distribution was conducted to clarify the characteristics of the inhabiting population. Overall, D. myctiroides size and abundance was normal across the tidal flat area. Comparison of different sediment types from the soldier crab habitat (surface sediments, igloos, burrow lining, burrow pellets, feeding pellets, and feces) using the fatty acid (FA) analysis technique revealed D. myctiroides removes organic matter via the significantly lower contributions of polyunsaturated FAs, essential FAs, and dinoflagellates in the feeding pellets. Dotilla myctiroides tissue analysis of the hepatopancreas and hindgut in individuals that had been starved for 24 h confirmed not only the consumption of dinoflagellates, but diatoms and macroalgae as well. In addition, the FA metabolism within the digestive system implied the ability of the soldier crab to synthesize highly unsaturated FAs (HUFAs) such as 20:4 n-6, 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3.

  20. Fermented Sipjeondaebo-tang Alleviates Memory Deficits and Loss of Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Scopolamine-induced Amnesia in Mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee Ra; Lee, Heeeun; Park, Hwayong; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the anti-amnesic effects of SJ and fermented SJ (FSJ) on scopolamine (SCO)-induced amnesia mouse model. Mice were orally co-treated with SJ or FSJ (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) and SCO (1 mg/kg), which was injected intraperitoneally for 14 days. SCO decreased the step-through latency and prolonged latency time to find the hidden platform in the passive avoidance test and Morris water maze test, respectively, and both SCO effects were ameliorated by FSJ treatment. FSJ was discovered to promote hippocampal neurogenesis during SCO treatment by increasing proliferation and survival of BrdU-positive cells, immature/mature neurons. In the hippocampus of SCO, oxidative stress and the activity of acetylcholinesterase were elevated, whereas the levels of acetylcholine and choline acetyltransferase were diminished; however, all of these alterations were attenuated by FSJ-treatment. The alterations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor, phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein, and phosphorylated Akt that occurred following SCO treatment were protected by FSJ administration. Therefore, our findings are the first to suggest that FSJ may be a promising therapeutic drug for the treatment of amnesia and aging-related or neurodegenerative disease-related memory impairment. Furthermore, the molecular mechanism by which FSJ exerts its effects may involve modulation of the cholinergic system and BDNF/CREB/Akt pathway. PMID:26939918

  1. Cross-Linguistic Studies of Directionality in First Language Acquisition: The Japanese Data--A Response to O'Grady, Suzuki-Wei and Cho (1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lust, Barbara; Mazuka, Reiko

    1989-01-01

    Argues that current attempts to show that forward directionality effects can also be induced in Japanese acquisition do not succeed in supporting the forward directionality preference of anaphora. (57 references) (Author/CB)

  2. Automatic locking knee brace joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    This invention is an apparatus for controlling the pivotal movement of a knee brace comprising a tang-and-clevis joint that has been uniquely modified. Both the tang and the clevis have a set of teeth that, when engaged, can lock the tang and the clevis together. In addition, the tang is biased away from the clevis. Consequently, when there is no axial force (i.e., body weight) on the tang, the tang is free to pivot within the clevis. However, when an axial force is exerted on the tang, the tang is pushed into the clevis, both sets of teeth engage, and the tang and the clevis lock together.

  3. Feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-01-01

    Shi Changxu, former vice-president of NSFC wins Top Prize of National Science and Technology Award of China Both China and the world materials community have greatly benefitted from his service, by RPH Chang Shi Changxu—a great teacher and mentor for materials scientists, by Gaoqing Max Lu A bright example for all of us—Professor Shi Changxu, by Wei Gao Professor Shi Changxu—The Giant Materials Scientist of China, by Wuzong Zhou Congratulations to Academician Changxu Shi on the Occasion of His Winning the 2010 Chinese Science & Technology Grand Prize, by Ju Li, Kai Chen, Zhiwei Shan, Guanjun Qiao, Jun Sun and Evan Ma Materials—the foundation for technology revolutions, by Zhong Lin Wang

  4. Analysis of Forgery Attack on One-Time Proxy Signature and the Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tian-Yin; Wei, Zong-Li

    2016-02-01

    In a recent paper, Yang et al. (Quant. Inf. Process. 13(9), 2007-2016, 2014) analyzed the security of one-time proxy signature scheme Wang and Wei (Quant. Inf. Process. 11(2), 455-463, 2012) and pointed out that it cannot satisfy the security requirements of unforgeability and undeniability because an eavesdropper Eve can forge a valid proxy signature on a message chosen by herself. However, we find that the so-called proxy message-signature pair forged by Eve is issued by the proxy signer in fact, and anybody can obtain it as a requester, which means that the forgery attack is not considered as a successful attack. Therefore, the conclusion that this scheme cannot satisfy the security requirements of proxy signature against forging and denying is not appropriate in this sense. Finally, we study the reason for the misunderstanding and clarify the security requirements for proxy signatures.

  5. Auxiliary Lagrangian and Conservation Laws for a Wave Equation Incorporating Dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Long

    2015-04-01

    In this work we study the Lagrangian and the conservation laws for a wave equation with a dissipative source. Using semi-inverse method, we show that the equation possesses a nonlocal Lagrangian with an auxiliary function. As a result, from a modified Noether's theorem and the nonclassical Noether symmetry generators, we construct some conservation laws for this equation, which are different from the ones obtained by Ibragimov's theorem in [Y. Wang and L. Wei, Abstr. App. Anal. 2013 (2013) 407908]. The results show that our method work for arbitrary functions f(u) and g(u) rather than special ones. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11101111, and Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. LY14A010029 and LY12A01003

  6. Upgrade of absolute extreme ultraviolet diagnostic on J-TEXT.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X L; Cheng, Z F; Hou, S Y; Zhuang, G; Luo, J

    2014-11-01

    The absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) diagnostic system is used for radiation observation on J-TEXT tokamak [J. Zhang, G. Zhuang, Z. J. Wang, Y. H. Ding, X. Q. Zhang, and Y. J. Tang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073509 (2010)]. The upgrade of the AXUV system is aimed to improve the spatial resolution and provide a three-dimensional image on J-TEXT. The new system consists of 12 AXUV arrays (4 AXUV16ELG arrays, 8 AXUV20ELG arrays). The spatial resolution in the cross-section is 21 mm for the AXUV16ELG arrays and 17 mm for the AXUV20ELG arrays. The pre-amplifier is also upgraded for a higher signal to noise ratio. By upgrading the AXUV imaging system, a more accurate observation on the radiation information is obtained. PMID:25430327

  7. Upgrade of absolute extreme ultraviolet diagnostic on J-TEXTa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. L.; Cheng, Z. F.; Hou, S. Y.; Zhuang, G.; Luo, J.

    2014-11-01

    The absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) diagnostic system is used for radiation observation on J-TEXT tokamak [J. Zhang, G. Zhuang, Z. J. Wang, Y. H. Ding, X. Q. Zhang, and Y. J. Tang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073509 (2010)]. The upgrade of the AXUV system is aimed to improve the spatial resolution and provide a three-dimensional image on J-TEXT. The new system consists of 12 AXUV arrays (4 AXUV16ELG arrays, 8 AXUV20ELG arrays). The spatial resolution in the cross-section is 21 mm for the AXUV16ELG arrays and 17 mm for the AXUV20ELG arrays. The pre-amplifier is also upgraded for a higher signal to noise ratio. By upgrading the AXUV imaging system, a more accurate observation on the radiation information is obtained.

  8. Upgrade of absolute extreme ultraviolet diagnostic on J-TEXT

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X. L.; Cheng, Z. F. Hou, S. Y.; Zhuang, G.; Luo, J.

    2014-11-15

    The absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) diagnostic system is used for radiation observation on J-TEXT tokamak [J. Zhang, G. Zhuang, Z. J. Wang, Y. H. Ding, X. Q. Zhang, and Y. J. Tang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073509 (2010)]. The upgrade of the AXUV system is aimed to improve the spatial resolution and provide a three-dimensional image on J-TEXT. The new system consists of 12 AXUV arrays (4 AXUV16ELG arrays, 8 AXUV20ELG arrays). The spatial resolution in the cross-section is 21 mm for the AXUV16ELG arrays and 17 mm for the AXUV20ELG arrays. The pre-amplifier is also upgraded for a higher signal to noise ratio. By upgrading the AXUV imaging system, a more accurate observation on the radiation information is obtained.

  9. [Evolution and changes of authentic medicinal of Rhizoma Corydalis].

    PubMed

    Chu, Shanshan; Peng, Huasheng

    2015-09-01

    Rhizoma Corydalis was first recorded in Ben cao shi yi (A Supplement to Materia Medica). In the Tang and Song Dynasties, Rhizoma Corydalis used was derived from Corydalis turtschaninovii Bess. grown in the Northeast China. After the Ming Dynasty, the producing area migrated to the South and Rhizoma Corydalis was replaced by the"Maoshan Rhizoma Corydalis", that is Corydalis yanhusuo W. T. Wang nowadays, and those produced in Jiangsu and Zhejiang areas were recognized as the authentic ones. The collected time of Rhizoma Corydalis was also changed from fall to the beginning of summer. And then the processing methods in the production places underwent a change from the "critical dry", "shade dry" to the modern "boiling" method. In addition, the evaluation of quality of this medicinal was gradually changed from the location of its origin to its medicinal properties. PMID:26813088

  10. Finite Time Extinction for Stochastic Sign Fast Diffusion and Self-Organized Criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gess, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    We prove finite time extinction for stochastic sign fast diffusion equations driven by linear multiplicative space-time noise, corresponding to the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model for self-organized criticality. This solves a problem posed and left open in several works: (Barbu, Methods Appl Sci 36:1726-1733, 2013; Röckner and Wang, J Lond Math Soc (2) 87:545-560, 2013; Barbu et al. J Math Anal Appl 389:147-164, 2012; Barbu and Röckner, Comm Math Phys 311:539-555, 2012; Barbu et al., Comm Math Phys 285:901-923, 2009, C R Math Acad Sci Paris 347(1-2):81-84, 2009). The highly singular-degenerate nature of the drift in interplay with the stochastic perturbation causes the need for new methods in the analysis of mass diffusion, and several new estimates and techniques are introduced.

  11. On textual and contextual position of the ophthalmological treatise of bodhisattva nāgārjuna.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seongsu; Kang, Sungyong

    2013-04-01

    Medical knowledge in India began to be introduced to China in earliest from the Later Han Dynasty period to the times of Wei-Qin and South & North Dynasties. This is proved by many Buddhist medical books appeared in those days. Of the contents of Indian medicine, the theory of four major elements affected Chinese medicine more than did the theory of body fluids. Based on the theory of four major elements that was began to be introduced in Fú shuō fú yī jīng, an attempt to establish a new medical system was made in Zhŏu hòu băi yīfāng written by Táo Hóng-jĭng and Sūn Sī-miăo who tried to develop etiology further but could not achieve any great outcomes. Unlike the foregoing situation, Indian medicine aroused a large echo in China in the field of ophthalmology with ophthalmological knowledge mentioned in Suśrutasa hitā and 'Jīnzhēn-shù'(cataract couching) introduced as a surgical treatment of cataract. The Suśrutasa hitā which is one of the three major texts of Indian medicine contains additional information on surgical operations not introduced in the Carakasa hitā. The technique of cataract surgery was particularly popular in the Tang and Song dynasty periods in China under the name Lóng shù pú sà yăn lùn(The Ophthalmological Treatise of Bodhisattva Nāgārjuna) or Lóng shù lùn and was even designated as a subject to educate medical officers. While the original text of Lóng shù pú sà yăn lùn was not handed down, the first testimony that show the trace of the introduction of this text into China was the Tiān zhú jīng lùn yăn mentioned in Wài tái mì yào(Arcane Essential from the Imperial Library) written by Wang Tao. Long shàng dào ren who was mentioned as the compiler of the book is assumed to be Lóng shù. Although Tiān zhú jīng lùn yăn introduced anatomical knowledge about the eyeball that could have not been in the traditional Chinese medicine, this book has only limited quantity of information in this regard. Thereafter, Tài píng shèng huì fāng (Holy Prescriptions for Universal Relief) compiled by a national agency at the beginning of the Song Dynasty period introduced Lóng shù pú sà yăn lùn without clear indication of the reference. Contemporary with this book, many ophthalmological books such as Mì chuán yăn kē lóng mù lùn(Longmu's Ophthalmology Secretly Handed Down) were published. As Chinese culture was spreading out into surrounding countries, medical knowledge was also introduced to Korean peninsula and Japan. The ophthalmological knowledge contained in Lóng shù pú sà yăn lùn was also reflected and some parts of it were introduced in I shin bō in Japan. Based on the policy decision of King Sejong, the fourth king of Joseon Dynasty, large scaled promoting projects of medical knowledge was established. It is notable that the Ui bang ryu chwi compiled as a result of the synthesis of the medical treatises available at that time initiated by King Sejong contained a considerable part of Lóng shù pú sà yăn lùn in reedited form that had already passed into oblivion in China. The intellectuals in Joseon Dynasty who participated in the compilation of Ui bang ryu chwi not only indicated that Lóng shù pú sà yăn lùn was a medical text published in the times of Wei-Qin and South & North Dynasties in China but also clearly indicated the textual reference and left the original text for later generation without modifying the contents. According to the Ui bang ryu chwi, the Lóng shù pú sà yăn lùn indicated that the core causes of eye diseases were heat, winds, and three body fluids(trido a) and contained the analyses of symptoms, related treatments, and several analyses of wrong treatments. In addition, Lóng shù pú sà yăn lùn explained diverse eye diseases through more than 30 medical treatments. In particular, this book accurately described golden needle acupuncture for treatment of a Nèi-zhàng understood to be cataract. Therefore, this book is a significant textual record in the history of ophthalmological medicine in East Asia. Along with the golden needle acupuncture which is a method of removing the crystalline lens in which white turbidity occurred by stabbing the eyeball with a needle, traces of Indian medicine that had been already lost in China were clearly indicated in Lóng shù pú sà yăn lùn kept in the Ui bang ryu chwi. In particular, the book indicates that the eyes were directly correlated with the brain and that to treat the internal disorder, treating the brain that lost stability due to heat and bodily wind was indispensable; these are the traces of Indian influence. This textual source demonstrates a case of knowledge exchange in field of medicine with concrete cases of the encounter and clash between the standpoints of understanding human body. PMID:23695753

  12. Taxonomic Status, Phylogenetic Affinities and Genetic Diversity of a Presumed Extinct Genus, Paraisometrum W.T. Wang (Gesneriaceae) from the Karst Regions of Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Hong; Shui, Yu-Min; Yang, Jun-Bo; Wang, Hong; Nishii, Kanae; Wen, Fang; Zhang, Zhi-Rong; Möller, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background The karst regions in South China have an abundance of endemic plants that face high extinction risks. The Chinese Gesneriaceae endemic Paraisometrum mileense ( = Oreocharis mileensis), was presumed extinct for 100 years. After its re-discovery, the species has become one of five key plants selected by the Chinese forestry government to establish a new conservation category for plants with extremely small populations. For conservation purposes, we studied the phylogenetic and population genetic status of P. mileense at the three only known localities in Guangxi, Guizhou and Yunnan. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected 64 samples (52 species) of Oreocharis and 8 samples from three provinces of P. mileense and generated molecular phylogenies, and inferred that P. mileense represents a relatively isolated and derived taxonomic unit within Oreocharis. Phylogeographic results of 104 samples of 12 populations of P. mileense indicated that the populations in Yunnan have derived from those in Guangxi and Guizhou. Based on AFLP data, the populations were found to harbor low levels of genetic diversity (He = 0.118), with no apparent gradient across the species’ range, a restricted gene flow and significant isolation-by-distance with limited genetic differentiation among the populations across the three provinces (FST = 0.207, P<0.001). The 10 populations in Yunnan were found to represent two distinct lineages residing at different altitudes and distances from villages. Conclusion/Significance The low levels of genetic diversity found in P. mileense are perhaps a consequence of severe bottlenecks in the recent past. The distribution of the genetic diversity suggests that all populations are significant for conservation. Current in situ and ex situ measures are discussed. Further conservation actions are apparently needed to fully safeguard this conservation flagship species. Our work provides a model of an integrated study for the numerous endemic species in the karst regions with extremely small populations. PMID:25250568

  13. Dynamically rich, yet parameter-sparse models for spatial epidemiology. Comment on "Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review" by Z. Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jusup, Marko; Iwami, Shingo; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2015-12-01

    Since the very inception of mathematical modeling in epidemiology, scientists exploited the simplicity ingrained in the assumption of a well-mixed population. For example, perhaps the earliest susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) model developed by L. Reed and W.H. Frost in the 1920s [1], included the well-mixed assumption such that any two individuals in the population could meet each other. The problem was that, unlike many other simplifying assumptions used in epidemiological modeling whose validity holds in one situation or the other, well-mixed populations are almost non-existent in reality because the nature of human socio-economic interactions is, for the most part, highly heterogeneous (e.g. [2-6]).

  14. The role of complex networks in behavior epidemiology. Comment on "Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review" by Z. Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dawei; Wang, Lianhai

    2015-12-01

    Outbreaks of disease can trigger spontaneous behavioral response of individuals to consider prevention measures (mainly including medical cure and non-pharmaceutical intervention), which usually in turn influence the diffusion of epidemic, namely, forming the interplay between individual behaviors and epidemic dynamics. During the past decade, understanding such coupled disease-behavior dynamics in population has become a critical tool for predicting the disease evolution and designing effective prevention strategies [1-3].

  15. Unifying perspectives on cooperation under social viscosity. Comment on "Universal scaling for the dilemma strength in evolutionary games" by Z. Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauch, Chris T.

    2015-09-01

    How cooperation evolved in populations of self-interested agents puzzled Charles Darwin, who portrayed the paradox in The Descent of Man as such: "He who was ready to sacrifice his life, as many a savage has been, rather than betray his comrades, would often leave no offspring to inherit his noble nature" [1]. Darwin invoked group selection to explain cooperation: if groups of cooperating individuals could work together to outcompete groups of selfish individuals, cooperation could thrive. Fundamentally, this mechanism works by allowing cooperators to interact preferentially with one another: cooperators tend to interact with other co-operators whereas selfish "defectors" tend to interact with other defectors. Since cooperators cooperate and defectors defect, groups of cooperators should do better, on average.

  16. Re-parametrizing the dilemmas. Comment on "Universal scaling for the dilemma strength in evolutionary games", by Z. Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobilia, Mauro

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the mechanisms at the origin of cooperation is a major challenge to Darwin's natural selection theory [1]: If only the fittest individuals survive, how to explain the ubiquity of cooperation? Among many examples of altruistic behaviors, one can mention insects that coordinate their efforts for the benefit of their "queen" [2].

  17. Scaling up complexity in host-pathogens interaction models. Comment on "Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review" by Z. Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, Maíra

    2015-12-01

    Caused by micro-organisms that are pathogenic to the host, infectious diseases have caused debilitation and premature death to large portions of the human population, leading to serious social-economic concerns. The persistence and increase in the occurrence of infectious diseases as well the emergence or resurgence of vector-borne diseases are closely related with demographic factors such as the uncontrolled urbanization and remarkable population growth, political, social and economical changes, deforestation, development of resistance to insecticides and drugs and increased human travel. In recent years, mathematical modeling became an important tool for the understanding of infectious disease epidemiology and dynamics, addressing ideas about the components of host-pathogen interactions. Acting as a possible tool to understand, predict the spread of infectious diseases these models are also used to evaluate the introduction of intervention strategies like vector control and vaccination. Many scientific papers have been published recently on these topics, and most of the models developed try to incorporate factors focusing on several different aspects of the disease (and eventually biological aspects of the vector), which can imply rich dynamic behavior even in the most basic dynamical models. As one example to be cited, there is a minimalistic dengue model that has shown rich dynamic structures, with bifurcations (Hopf, pitchfork, torus and tangent bifurcations) up to chaotic attractors in unexpected parameter regions [1,2], which was able to describe the large fluctuations observed in empirical outbreak data [3,4].

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galaxy clusters at z=0.23 and 0.45 X-ray emission (Wang+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q. D.; Walker, S.

    2016-02-01

    The Chandra data used in this work were taken in nine separate observations. We reprocess the data with the latest version of the Chandra Interactive Analysis of Observations (CIAO; version 4.5). (1 data file).

  19. Towards unified characterization of cooperation mechanisms. Comment on "Universal scaling for the dilemma strength in evolutionary games" by Z. Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, The Anh

    2015-09-01

    "I will jump into the river to save two brothers or eight cousins": This famous quote by J.B.S. Haldane accurately anticipates the conditions under which cooperation is the favorable choice in an interaction between genetic relatives. The general condition can later be formulated as a surprisingly simple mathematical expression, known as the Hamilton's rule, stating that natural selection favors cooperation if the genetic relatedness (r) between the donor and the recipient of a cooperative act is greater than its cost (c) to benefit (b) ratio [1]: r > c / b. Motivated by Hamilton's elegant early studies, researchers have attempted to find simple and concise rules that characterize the conditions for cooperation to be selected under various social viscosity [2,3]. For example, the seminal work by M. Nowak [3] in 2006 shows that similarly simple rules can be derived that govern each of the other four popular mechanisms of cooperation-direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, group selection and network reciprocity-, which can be expressed via the cost-to-benefit ratio being smaller than some critical value associated with the mechanism at work (as seen, for kin interactions, the critical value is relatedness). However, these rules are restricted to the donor and recipient (D&R) paradigm. The question is thus whether it is possible to obtain simple rules even for the general case? The answer is not trivial as a general two-player game is described by four independent parameters, not just two as in the D&R game.

  20. Modelling real disease dynamics with behaviourally adaptive complex networks. Comment on "Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review" by Z. Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Mean field compartmental models of disease transmission have been successfully applied to a host of different scenarios, and the Kermack-McKendrick equations are now a staple of mathematical biology text books. In Susceptible-Infected-Removed format these equations provide three coupled first order ordinary differential equations with a very mild nonlinearity and they are very well understood. However, underpinning these equations are two important assumptions: that the population is (a) homogeneous, and (b) well-mixed. These assumptions become closest to being true for diseases infecting a large portion of the population for which inevitable individual effects can be averaged away. Emerging infectious disease (such as, in recent times, SARS, avian influenza, swine flu and ebola) typically does not conform to this scenario. Individual contacts and peculiarities of the transmission network play a vital role in understanding the dynamics of such relatively rare infections - particularly during the early stages of an outbreak.

  1. The impact of information spreading on disease dynamics. Comment on "Coupled disease-behavior on complex networks: A review" by Z. Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Francisco A.

    2015-12-01

    Epidemic modeling is fundamental to our understanding of the disease dynamics [1]. Theoretical models have allowed the development of methods for immunization and vaccination policies, being used for disease forecast and control [1-3]. Typically, disease propagation is modeled as a stochastic process in which an infectious agent is transmitted from an infected individual to a susceptible subject via the connection between them [4]. The initial models to describe the disease propagation considered homogeneous-mixing compartmental models [2], which assume that all subjects have identical probabilities of interaction. In this way, the network of contacts is a fully connected graph wherein the interaction might happen between every pair of individuals [2].

  2. The importance of accurately modelling human interactions. Comment on "Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review" by Z. Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosati, Dora P.; Molina, Chai; Earn, David J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Human behaviour and disease dynamics can greatly influence each other. In particular, people often engage in self-protective behaviours that affect epidemic patterns (e.g., vaccination, use of barrier precautions, isolation, etc.). Self-protective measures usually have a mitigating effect on an epidemic [16], but can in principle have negative impacts at the population level [12,15,18]. The structure of underlying social and biological contact networks can significantly influence the specific ways in which population-level effects are manifested. Using a different contact network in a disease dynamics model-keeping all else equal-can yield very different epidemic patterns. For example, it has been shown that when individuals imitate their neighbours' vaccination decisions with some probability, this can lead to herd immunity in some networks [9], yet for other networks it can preserve clusters of susceptible individuals that can drive further outbreaks of infectious disease [12].

  3. Theory must be informed by experiments (and back). Comment on "Universal scaling for the dilemma strength in evolutionary games", by Z. Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Angel

    2015-09-01

    The emergence and stability of cooperation has received a great deal of attention in the last two decades, and in fact the number of papers about this issue has increased in the last few years: compare the 155 references in [1] with the 314 in [2]. In spite of all this effort, the conditions allowing cooperation to be sustained are still unclear, in particular among humans, a key issue to understand our complex societies. One of the main reasons for this is that the models proposed to study cooperativeness from a theoretical viewpoint have ingredients, such as evolutionary dynamics or population structure, whose choice changes dramatically the corresponding predictions. Furthermore, apparently minor details, e.g., the presence of small mutations or different time scales in the dynamics, strongly modify the model outcomes, as discussed in detail in [1]. In this context, the review [2] deals with one of this difficulties, namely the effect of the payoff values on cooperation in a set of social dilemmas, and proposes a reparametrization that might lead to a more unified view.

  4. Mathematical universality and direct applicability of evolutionary games. Comment on "Universal scaling for the dilemma strength in evolutionary games", by Z. Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arranz, Jordi; Traulsen, Arne

    2015-09-01

    The application of classical game theory to biological sciences allowed researchers to successfully approach problems in theoretical and evolutionary biology in a novel manner [1]. Among those, the evolution of cooperation is the most popular application of evolutionary game theory. The evolution of cooperation is traditionally modeled through games, in particular social dilemmas. These depict situations, in which the interest of an individual is in conflict with the interest of the group, thus games offer an ideal ground to study how cooperation can emerge in the face of natural selection, where individual advantage triumphs over group benefits.

  5. Estimating the dilemma strength for game systems. Comment on "Universal scaling for the dilemma strength in evolutionary games", by Z. Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaojie

    2015-09-01

    The puzzle of cooperation exists widely in the realistic world, including biological, social, and engineering systems. How to solve the cooperation puzzle has received considerable attention in recent years [1]. Evolutionary game theory provides a common mathematical framework to study the problem of cooperation. In principle, these practical biological, social, or engineering systems can be described by complex game models composed of multiple autonomous individuals with mutual interactions. And generally there exists a dilemma for the evolution of cooperation in the game systems.

  6. Large-Scale Simulation of the Effects of Climate Change on Runoff Erosion Following Extreme Wildfire Events Authors: Gould, Adam, Warren, Barber, Wagenbrenner, Robichaud, Wang, Cherkauer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, G.; Adam, J. C.; Barber, M. E.; Wagenbrenner, J. W.; Robichaud, P. R.; Wang, L.; Cherkauer, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Across the western U.S., there is clear concern for increases in wildfire occurrence, severity, and post-fire runoff erosion due to projected climate changes. The aim of this study was to advance our capability to simulate post-fire runoff erosion at scales larger than a single hillslope to examine the relative contribution of sediment being released to larger streams and rivers in response to wildfire. We applied the Variable Capacity Infiltration-Water Erosion Prediction Project (VIC-WEPP), a newly-developed physically-based modeling framework that combines large-scale hydrology with hillslope-scale runoff erosion, over the Salmon River basin (SRB) in central Idaho. We selected the SRB for this study because of recent research that suggested that forest wildfires are likely contributing the majority of coarser sands that settle in downstream navigation channels and in reservoirs, causing adverse impacts to aquatic life, navigation, and flood storage. Using the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR), burn intensity and severity maps show the regularity of wildfire occurrence in the SRB. These maps compare pre-fire images to next growing season images from the Landsat Thematic Mapper multispectral scanning sensor. Rather than implementing WEPP over all hillslopes within the SRB, we applied a representative hillslope approach. A monofractal scaling method downscales globally available 30 arc second digital elevation model (DEM) data to a 30 m resolution for simulations. This information determined the distribution of slope gradients within each VIC grid cell. This study applied VIC-WEPP over the 1979-2010 period and compared an ensemble of future climate simulations for the period of 2041-2070. For future scenarios, we only considered meteorological impacts on post-fire erosion and did not incorporate changes in future fire occurrence or severity. We ran scenarios for a variety of land cover and soil parameter sets, particularly those that relate to pre and post-fire characteristics, such as vegetative cover, interrill and rill erodibility factors, and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Evaluation of runoff erosion at experimental sites, observed by the U.S. Forest Service, involved using Disturbed WEPP which showed reasonable first post-fire year annual erosion predictions. We evaluated VIC-WEPP by comparing sediment observations downstream of the SRB with simulated yields for both pre and post-fire conditions. Generation of maps showing erosion over the SRB for each of the scenarios show specific areas within the SRB to be high, moderate, or low runoff-induced post-fire erosion regions. Our methodology will enable forest managers in the region to incorporate the impacts of changes in meteorological events on runoff erosion into their strategic management plans.

  7. Connecting human behavior and infectious disease spreading. Comment on "Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review" by Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holme, Petter

    2015-12-01

    Vaccination against measles is one of the great success stories of 20th century medicine. In the USA, before the introduction of the vaccine in 1963, three to four million adolescents were infected annually, around 500 died, around 5000 got serious complications (primarily encephalitis, swelling of the brain), and around 50,000 were hospitalized [7]. With the vaccine, measles virtually vanished and by 2000 it was declared extinct from the USA. This was, however, not the end of the story. There is still a small fraction of parents who do not let their children be vaccinated. The reasons vary-fear of side effects, an aversion of exposing children to something "unnatural", and a large number of other ideas. (For a non-academic account of the psychology of vaccination, we recommend Eula Biss's On Immunity[3].) The last few decades, anti-vaccination ideas have been spreading in social media and united people opposing vaccination into something of a movement [4]. In December 2014 there was a first larger outbreak (over 500 cases) of the century, centered around Disneyland (Anaheim, California) [10], and the anti-vaccination movement got much of the blame [4]. This example illustrates how ideas and opinions-that just like diseases are spreading over networks of people-can facilitate outbreaks. The reverse is, thankfully, more common-people, aware of an emerging outbreak, try to lower the chance of contagion by improving hygiene etc., which impedes the outbreak.

  8. Timing of metamorphism of the Lansang gneiss and implications for left-lateral motion along the Mae Ping (Wang Chao) strike-slip fault, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palin, R. M.; Searle, M. P.; Morley, C. K.; Charusiri, P.; Horstwood, M. S. A.; Roberts, N. M. W.

    2013-10-01

    The Mae Ping fault (MPF), western Thailand, exhibits dominantly left-lateral strike-slip motion and stretches for >600 km, reportedly branching off the right-lateral Sagaing fault in Myanmar and extending southeast towards Cambodia. Previous studies have suggested that the fault assisted the large-scale extrusion of Sundaland that occurred during the Late Eocene-Early Oligocene, with a geological offset of ˜120-150 km estimated from displaced high-grade gneisses and granites of the Chiang Mai-Lincang belt. Exposures of high-grade orthogneiss in the Lansang National Park, part of this belt, locally contain strong mylonitic textures and are bounded by strike-slip ductile shear zones and brittle faults. Geochronological analysis of monazite from a sample of sheared biotite-K-feldspar orthogneiss suggests two episodes of crystallization, with core regions documenting Th-Pb ages between c. 123 and c. 114 Ma and rim regions documenting a significantly younger age range between c. 45-37 Ma. These data are interpreted to represent possible magmatic protolith emplacement for the Lansang orthogneiss during the Early Cretaceous, with a later episode of metamorphism occurring during the Eocene. Textural relationships provided by in situ analysis suggest that ductile shearing along the MPF occurred during the latter stages of, or after, this metamorphic event. In addition, monazite analyzed from an undeformed garnet-two-mica granite dyke intruding metamorphic units at Bhumipol Lake outside of the Mae Ping shear zone produced a Th-Pb age of 66.2 ± 1.6 Ma. This age is interpreted to date the timing of dyke emplacement, implying that the MPF cuts through earlier formed magmatic and high-grade metamorphic rocks. These new data, when combined with regional mapping and earlier geochronological work, show that neither metamorphism, nor regional cooling, was directly related to strike-slip motion.

  9. Hochu?ekki?to (Bu?zhong?yi?qi?tang), a herbal medicine, enhances cisplatin?induced apoptosis in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tetsuo; Kita, Kazuko; Sato, Chihomi; Kaneda, Atsushi

    2015-10-01

    Hochu?ekki?to (HET), a Kamp? herbal medicine composed of ten medicinal plants, is traditionally used to improve the general state of patients with malignant diseases such as cancer. Recent studies showed that HET had an anti?cancer effect against several cancer cell lines in vitro by inducing apoptosis. However, high doses of HET may have cytotoxic effects attributed to saponins or detergent?like compounds. Therefore, the present study used low doses of HET (50 g/ml), which did not affect cell viability, to evaluate its synergistic anti?cancer effects with cisplatin. HeLa cells were cultured for 24 h with 50 g/ml HET, followed by cisplatin treatment for 24 h at various concentrations. Subsequently, the sensitivity of the cells to cisplatin was assessed using a colony survival and a crystal violet cell viability assay. Furthermore, cisplatin?induced apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Proteins associated with cell viability and apoptosis, including phosphorylated (p?)Akt, p53, B?cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl?2), Bcl?2?associated X protein (Bax) and active caspase?3 were analyzed by immunoblotting. The present study revealed that cell survival was decreased and apoptosis was increased in HeLa cells pre?treated with HET prior to cisplatin treatment compared with HET?untreated cells. Furthermore, protein expression of p53 and active caspase?3 was increased, while the expression of p?Akt as well as the Bcl?2/Bax ratio, an index of survival activity in cells, were decreased in the HET?pre?treated cells compared with those in HET?untreated cells following incubation with cisplatin. In conclusion, the present study indicated that HET enhanced cisplatin?induced apoptosis of HeLa cells and that the administration of HET may therefore be clinically beneficial alongside apoptosis?inducing chemotherapy. PMID:26239548

  10. Rhodiola: a promising anti-aging Chinese herb.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Mahtab; Felgner, Jeffrey S; Bussel, Irvin I; Hutchili, Tony; Khodayari, Behnood; Rose, Michael R; Vince-Cruz, C; Mueller, Laurence D

    2007-12-01

    Using the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, we investigated the effects of Rhodiola on life-span. Rhodiola is a plant root used in traditional Chinese medicine that may increase an organism's resistance to stress. It has been proposed that Rhodiola can extend longevity and improve health span by alleviating oxidative stress. Rhodiola supplied every other day at 30 mg/mL significantly increased the lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster. When comparing the distribution of deaths between Rhodiola-supplemented and control flies, Rhodiola-fed flies exhibited decelerated aging. Although the observed extension in lifespan was associated with statistically insignificant reductions in fecundity, correcting for a possible dietary restriction effect still did not eliminate the difference between supplemented and control flies, nor does the effect of Rhodiola depend on dietary manipulation, strongly suggesting that Rhodiola is not a mere dietary restriction mimetic. Although this study does not reveal the causal mechanism behind the effect of Rhodiola, it does suggest that the supplement is worthy of continued investigation, unlike the other Chinese herbals, Lu Duo Wei (LDW), Bu Zhong Yi Qi Tang (BZYQT), San Zhi Pian (SZP, Three Imperial Mushrooms), Hong Jing Tian (Rhodiola) that were evaluated in this study. PMID:17990971

  11. [Study on identification of "Digeda" raw materials in Mongolian patent medicine by PCR amplification of specific alleles].

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhan-hu; Huang, Xian-zhang; Long, Ping; Zhang, Le; Zhao, Dong-dong; Wang, Ying-li; Li, Min-hui

    2015-03-01

    To explore a new method for identification of Mongolian patent medicine (MPM) by PCR amplification of specific alleles. Eight kinds of MPM were used to study the identification of "Digeda" raw materials. The total DNA of Lomatogonium rotatum and Corydalis bungeana samples were extracted through modified CTAB method, psbA-trnH sequence was amplified by PCR and sequenced directionally. Specific primer was designed. The DNA of 8 kinds of MPM also was extracted and purified by the commercial DNA purification kits. The rbcL and two pair of specific primers sequences were amplified. The specific amplified products were sequenced in forward directions. All specific sequences were aligned and were analyzed. The results indicated that L rotatum can be identified by specific primers from Digeda-4 Tang, Digeda-8 San, Digeda-4 San, and C. bungeana medicinal materials can be identified by specific primers from Li Dan Ba Wei San, Yi He Ha Ri-12 and A Ga Ri-35. PCR amplification of specific alleles can stably and accurately distinguish raw medicinal materials in MPM. PMID:26087535

  12. THE LITHOSPHERIC MAGNETIC FIELD ALONG THE NISHAN-GUYANG PROFILE, CHINA 6 datesYuan Jiehao1; Gu Zuowen1; Chen Bin1; Xu Rugang2; Wang Lie2; Wang Can1 1. Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration(IGP CEA), yjh810405@163.com 2. Anhui Earthquake Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, J.

    2014-12-01

    In order to research the lithospheric magnetic field and the magnetization structure, the geomagnetic field was surveyed along the Nishan-Guyang profile with 900 km long in the Neimenggu and Shanxi provinces in China. The distance between the adjacent geomagnetic sites is about 7 km along the profile. The geomagnetic data were analyzed, and the lithospheric magnetic field was obtained. Using the upward continuation method, the geomagnetic anomalies in different depths were obtained: the basement anomaly, the upper crust anomaly and the superficial anomaly. Basing on these geomagnetic anomalies, the magnetization structure was obtained by using the software of the ModelVision 11.0. The preliminary results show: (1) The geomagnetic anomalies have good relationship with the local geological structure. (2) The magnetization structure is related to the depth variation of the Curie interface, the values of the magnetic susceptibility, the seismic activity and the tectonic block.

  13. Chronic morphine induces the concomitant phosphorylation and altered association of multiple signaling proteins: A novel mechanism for modulating cell signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Sumita; Oppermann, Martin; Gintzler, Alan R.

    2001-01-01

    Traditional mechanisms thought to underlie opioid tolerance include receptor phosphorylation/down-regulation, G-protein uncoupling, and adenylyl cyclase superactivation. A parallel line of investigation also indicates that opioid tolerance development results from a switch from predominantly opioid receptor Giα inhibitory to Gβγ stimulatory signaling. As described previously, this results, in part, from the increased relative abundance of Gβγ-stimulated adenylyl cyclase isoforms as well as from a profound increase in their phosphorylation [Chakrabarti, S., Rivera, M., Yan, S.-Z., Tang, W.-J. & Gintzler, A. R. (1998) Mol. Pharmacol. 54, 655–662; Chakrabarti, S., Wang, L., Tang, W.-J. & Gintzler, A. R. (1998) Mol. Pharmacol. 54, 949–953]. The present study demonstrates that chronic morphine administration results in the concomitant phosphorylation of three key signaling proteins, G protein receptor kinase (GRK) 2/3, β-arrestin, and Gβ, in the guinea pig longitudinal muscle myenteric plexus tissue. Augmented phosphorylation of all three proteins is evident in immunoprecipitate obtained by using either anti-GRK2/3 or Gβ antibodies, but the phosphorylation increment is greater in immunoprecipitate obtained with Gβ antibodies. Analyses of coimmunoprecipitated proteins indicate that phosphorylation of GRK2/3, β-arrestin, and Gβ has varying consequences on their ability to associate. As a result, increased availability of and signaling via Gβγ could occur without compromising the membrane content (and presumably activity) of GRK2/3. Induction of the concomitant phosphorylation of multiple proteins in a multimolecular complex with attendant modulation of their association represents a novel mechanism for increasing Gβγ signaling and opioid tolerance formation. PMID:11274443

  14. From genome to drug lead: identification of a small-molecule inhibitor of the SARS virus.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Andrea J; Shindo, Nice; Taggart, Barbara; Park, Jewn-Giew; Pang, Yuan-Ping

    2006-02-15

    Virtual screening, a fast, computational approach to identify drug leads [Perola, E.; Xu, K.; Kollmeyer, T. M.; Kaufmann, S. H.; Prendergast, F. G. J. Med. Chem.2000, 43, 401; Miller, M. A. Nat. Rev. Drug Disc.2002, 1 220], is limited by a known challenge in crystallographically determining flexible regions of proteins. This approach has not been able to identify active inhibitors of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) using solely the crystal structures of a SARS-CoV cysteine proteinase with a flexible loop in the active site [Yang, H. T.; Yang, M. J.; Ding, Y.; Liu, Y. W.; Lou, Z. Y. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.2003, 100, 13190; Jenwitheesuk, E.; Samudrala, R. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.2003, 13, 3989; Rajnarayanan, R. V.; Dakshanamurthy, S.; Pattabiraman, N. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.2004, 321, 370; Du, Q.; Wang, S.; Wei, D.; Sirois, S.; Chou, K. Anal. Biochem.2005, 337, 262; Du, Q.; Wang, S.; Zhu, Y.; Wei, D.; Guo, H. Peptides2004, 25, 1857; Lee, V.; Wittayanarakul, K.; Remsungenen, T.; Parasuk, V.; Sompornpisut, P. Science (Asia)2003, 29, 181; Toney, J.; Navas-Martin, S.; Weiss, S.; Koeller, A. J. Med. Chem.2004, 47, 1079; Zhang, X. W.; Yap, Y. L. Bioorg. Med. Chem.2004, 12, 2517]. This article demonstrates a genome-to-drug-lead approach that uses terascale computing to model flexible regions of proteins, thus permitting the utilization of genetic information to identify drug leads expeditiously. A small-molecule inhibitor of SARS-CoV, exhibiting an effective concentration (EC50) of 23 microM in cell-based assays, was identified through virtual screening against a computer-predicted model of the cysteine proteinase. Screening against two crystal structures of the same proteinase failed to identify the 23-microM inhibitor. This study suggests that terascale computing can complement crystallography, broaden the scope of virtual screening, and accelerate the development of therapeutics to treat emerging infectious diseases such as SARS and Bird Flu. PMID:16325400

  15. The zebrafish miR-462/miR-731 cluster is induced under hypoxic stress via hypoxia-inducible factor 1? and functions in cellular adaptations.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Xiao; Chen, Nan; Wu, Xin-Jie; Huang, Cui-Hong; He, Yan; Tang, Rong; Wang, Wei-Min; Wang, Huan-Ling

    2015-12-01

    Hypoxia, a unique and essential environmental stress, evokes highly coordinated cellular responses, and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1 in the hypoxia signaling pathway, an evolutionarily conserved cellular signaling pathway, acts as a master regulator of the transcriptional response to hypoxic stress. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a major class of posttranscriptional gene expression regulators, also play pivotal roles in orchestrating hypoxia-mediated cellular adaptations. Here, global miRNA expression profiling and quantitative real-time PCR indicated that the up-regulation of the miR-462/miR-731 cluster in zebrafish larvae is induced by hypoxia. It was further validated that miR-462 and miR-731 are up-regulated in a Hif-1?-mediated manner under hypoxia and specifically target ddx5 and ppm1da, respectively. Overexpression of miR-462 and miR-731 represses cell proliferation through blocking cell cycle progress of DNA replication, and induces apoptosis. In situ detection revealed that the miR-462/miR-731 cluster is highly expressed in a consistent and ubiquitous manner throughout the early developmental stages. Additionally, the transcripts become restricted to the notochord, pharyngeal arch, liver, and gut regions from postfertiliztion d 3 to 5. These data highlight a previously unidentified role of the miR-462/miR-731 cluster as a crucial signaling mediator for hypoxia-mediated cellular adaptations and provide some insights into the potential function of the cluster during embryonic development.-Huang, C.-X., Chen, N., Wu, X.-J., Huang, C.-H., He, Y., Tang, R., Wang, W.-M., Wang, H.-L. The zebrafish miR-462/miR-731 cluster is induced under hypoxic stress via hypoxia-inducible factor 1? and functions in cellular adaptations. PMID:26265472

  16. Graphene monofluoride: a wide bandgap material derived from graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jun

    2011-03-01

    Fluorination provides an effective way of controlling the properties of carbon materials. In this talk, I will describe our experimental and theoretical work on the synthesis, structural, electrical and optical properties of fully fluorinated graphene and graphite, i. e., graphene monofluoride CF and graphite monofluoride (CF)n . (CF)n is synthesized by reacting HOPG graphite with F2 gas at high temperature. Transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction measurements show crystalline few-layer CF with a lattice constant 4% larger than that of graphene, in good agreement with first principle calculations. We observe the Eg and A1 g Raman modes of graphene monofluoride using UV Raman spectroscopy. Photoluminescence measurements of (CF)n using variable excitation wavelength (244-514 nm) and temperature (5-295 K) show several emission modes in the visible spectrum, which likely originate from mid-gap defect states. The absence of the band edge emission suggests a large band gap of greater than 5 eV. Partially fluorinated graphene fluoride exhibits non-linear, strongly insulating transport with variable-range hopping temperature dependence, consistent with the presence of localized states due to missing fluorine atoms. Highly conductive graphene can be recovered by annealing CF in Ar/H2 at high temperature, resulting in a conductance improvement of five orders of magnitude. As a transparent and atomically thin insulator, graphene monofluoride may find its use in graphene electronics and photonics. In collaboration with: Bei Wang, Shih-Ho Cheng, Justin Sparks, Humberto Gutierrez, Ke Zou, Ning Shen, Youjian Tang, Qingzhen Hao, Awnish Gupta, Peter Eklund, Vincent Crespi, Jorge Sofo and Fujio Okino (Shinshu University, Japan). References: Cheng et al, ``Reversible fluorination of graphene: towards a two-dimensional wide band gap semiconductor,'' Phys. Rev. B 81, 205435 (2010) Wang et al, ``Photoluminescence from nanocrystalline graphite monofluoride,'' Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 141915 (2010)

  17. EDITORIAL: Focus on Quantum Cryptography: Theory and Practice FOCUS ON QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY: THEORY AND PRACTICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lütkenhaus, N.; Shields, A. J.

    2009-04-01

    Quantum cryptography, and especially quantum key distribution (QKD), is steadily progressing to become a viable tool for cryptographic services. In recent years we have witnessed a dramatic increase in the secure bit rate of QKD, as well as its extension to ever longer fibre- and air-based links and the emergence of metro-scale trusted networks. In the foreseeable future even global-scale communications may be possible using quantum repeaters or Earth-satellite links. A handful of start-ups and some bigger companies are already active in the field. The launch of an initiative to form industrial standards for QKD, under the auspices of the European Telecommunication Standards Institute, described in the paper by Laenger and Lenhart in this Focus Issue, can be taken as a sign of the growing commercial interest. Recent progress has seen an increase in the secure bit rate of QKD links, by orders of magnitude, to over 1 Mb s-1. This has resulted mainly from an improvement in the detection technology. Here changes in the way conventional semiconductor detectors are gated, as well as the development of novel devices based on non-linear processes and superconducting materials, are leading the way. Additional challenges for QKD at GHz clock rates include the design of high speed electronics, remote synchronization and high rate random number generation. Substantial effort is being devoted to increasing the range of individual links, which is limited by attenuation and other losses in optical fibres and air links. An important advance in the past few years has been the introduction of protocols with the same scaling as an ideal single-photon set-up. The good news is that these schemes use standard optical devices, such as weak laser pulses. Thanks to these new protocols and improvements in the detection technology, the range of a single fibre link can exceed a few hundred km. Outstanding issues include proving the unconditional security of some of the schemes. Much of the work done to date relates to point-to-point links. Another recent advance has been the development of trusted networks for QKD. This is important for further increasing the range of the technology, and for overcoming denial-of-service attacks on an individual link. It is interesting to see that the optimization of QKD devices differs for point-to-point and network applications. Network operation is essential for widespread adoption of the technology, as it can dramatically reduce the deployment costs and allow connection flexibility. Also important is the multiplexing of the quantum signals with conventional network traffic. For the future, quantum repeaters should be developed for longer range links. On the theoretical side, different approaches to security proofs have recently started to converge, offering several paradigms of the same basic idea. Our improved theoretical understanding places more stringent demands on the QKD devices. We are aware by now that finite size effects in key generation arise not only from parameter estimation. It will not be possible to generate a key from just a few hundred received signals. It is a stimulating challenge for the theory of security proofs to develop lean proof strategies that work with finite signal block sizes. As QKD advances to a real-world cryptographic solution, side channel attacks must be carefully analysed. Theoretical security proofs for QKD schemes are so far based on physical models of these devices. It is in the nature of models that any real implementation will deviate from this model, creating a potential weakness for an eavesdropper to exploit. There are two solutions to this problem: the traditional path of refining the models to reduce the deviations, or the radically different approach of device-independent security proofs, in which none or only a few well controlled assumptions about the devices are made. Clearly, it is desirable to find security proofs that require only minimal or fairly general model descriptions and are based on observable tests during the run of QKD sessions. It is now 25 years since the first proposal for QKD was published and 20 since the first experimental realization. The intervening years have brought several technological and theoretical advances, which have driven new insights into the application of quantum theory to the wider field of information technology. We are looking forward to the new twists and turns this field will take in the next 25 years! Focus on Quantum Cryptography: Theory and Practice Contents Security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution: towards a de Finetti theorem for rotation symmetry in phase space A Leverrier, E Karpov, P Grangier and N J Cerf Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications T E Chapuran, P Toliver, N A Peters, J Jackel, M S Goodman, R J Runser, S R McNown, N Dallmann, R J Hughes, K P McCabe, J E Nordholt, C G Peterson, K T Tyagi, L Mercer and H Dardy Proof-of-concept of real-world quantum key distribution with quantum frames I Lucio-Martinez, P Chan, X Mo, S Hosier and W Tittel Composability in quantum cryptography Jörn Müller-Quade and Renato Renner Distributed authentication for randomly compromised networks Travis R Beals, Kevin P Hynes and Barry C Sanders Feasibility of 300 km quantum key distribution with entangled states Thomas Scheidl, Rupert Ursin, Alessandro Fedrizzi, Sven Ramelow, Xiao-Song Ma, Thomas Herbst, Robert Prevedel, Lothar Ratschbacher, Johannes Kofler, Thomas Jennewein and Anton Zeilinger Decoy-state quantum key distribution with both source errors and statistical fluctuations Xiang-Bin Wang, Lin Yang, Cheng-Zhi Peng and Jian-Wei Pan High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres D Stucki, N Walenta, F Vannel, R T Thew, N Gisin, H Zbinden, S Gray, C R Towery and S Ten Topological optimization of quantum key distribution networks R Alléaume, F Roueff, E Diamanti and N Lütkenhaus The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna M Peev, C Pacher, R Alléaume, C Barreiro, J Bouda, W Boxleitner, T Debuisschert, E Diamanti, M Dianati, J F Dynes, S Fasel, S Fossier, M Fürst, J-D Gautier, O Gay, N Gisin, P Grangier, A Happe, Y Hasani, M Hentschel, H Hübel, G Humer, T Länger, M Legré, R Lieger, J Lodewyck, T Lorünser, N Lütkenhaus, A Marhold, T Matyus, O Maurhart, L Monat, S Nauerth, J-B Page, A Poppe, E Querasser, G Ribordy, S Robyr, L Salvail, A W Sharpe, A J Shields, D Stucki, M Suda, C Tamas, T Themel, R T Thew, Y Thoma, A Treiber, P Trinkler, R Tualle-Brouri, F Vannel, N Walenta, H Weier, H Weinfurter, I Wimberger, Z L Yuan, H Zbinden and A Zeilinger Stable quantum key distribution with active polarization control based on time-division multiplexing J Chen, G Wu, L Xu, X Gu, E Wu and H Zeng Controlling passively quenched single photon detectors by bright light Vadim Makarov Information leakage via side channels in freespace BB84 quantum cryptography Sebastian Nauerth, Martin Fürst, Tobias Schmitt-Manderbach, Henning Weier and Harald Weinfurter Standardization of quantum key distribution and the ETSI standardization initiative ISG-QKD Thomas Länger and Gaby Lenhart Entangled quantum key distribution with a biased basis choice Chris Erven, Xiongfeng Ma, Raymond Laflamme and Gregor Weihs Finite-key analysis for practical implementations of quantum key distribution Raymond Y Q Cai and Valerio Scarani Field test of a continuous-variable quantum key distribution prototype S Fossier, E Diamanti, T Debuisschert, A Villing, R Tualle-Brouri and P Grangier Physics and application of photon number resolving detectors based on superconducting parallel nanowires F Marsili, D Bitauld, A Gaggero, S Jahanmirinejad, R Leoni, F Mattioli and A Fiore Device-independent quantum key distribution secure against collective attacks Stefano Pironio, Antonio Acín, Nicolas Brunner, Nicolas Gisin, Serge Massar and Valerio Scarani 1310 nm differential-phase-shift QKD system using superconducting single-photon detectors Lijun Ma, S Nam, Hai Xu, B Baek, Tiejun Chang, O Slattery, A Mink and Xiao Tang Practical gigahertz quantum key distribution based on avalanche photodiodes Z L Yuan, A R Dixon, J F Dynes, A W Sharpe and A J Shields Simple security proof of quantum key distribution based on complementarity M Koashi Feasibility of satellite quantum key distribution C Bonato, A Tomaello, V Da Deppo, G Naletto and P Villoresi Programmable instrumentation and gigahertz signaling for single-photon quantum communication systems Alan Mink, Joshua C Bienfang, Robert Carpenter, Lijun Ma, Barry Hershman, Alessandro Restelli and Xiao Tang Experimental polarization encoded quantum key distribution over optical fibres with real-time continuous birefringence compensation G B Xavier, N Walenta, G Vilela de Faria, G P Temporão, N Gisin, H Zbinden and J P von der Weid Feasibility of free space quantum key distribution with coherent polarization states D Elser, T Bartley, B Heim, Ch Wittmann, D Sych and G Leuchs A fully automated entanglement-based quantum cryptography system for telecom fiber networks Alexander Treiber, Andreas Poppe, Michael Hentschel, Daniele Ferrini, Thomas Lorünser, Edwin Querasser, Thomas Matyus, Hannes Hübel and Anton Zeilinger Dense wavelength multiplexing of 1550 nm QKD with strong classical channels in reconfigurable networking environments N A Peters, P Toliver, T E Chapuran, R J Runser, S R McNown, C G Peterson, D Rosenberg, N Dallmann, R J Hughes, K P McCabe, J E Nordholt and K T Tyagi Clock synchronization by remote detection of correlated photon pairs Caleb Ho, Antía Lamas-Linares and Christian Kurtsiefer Megabits secure key rate quantum key distribution Q Zhang, H Takesue, T Honjo, K Wen, T Hirohata, M Suyama, Y Takiguchi, H Kamada, Y Tokura, O Tadanaga, Y Nishida, M Asobe and Y Yamamoto Practical long-distance quantum key distribution system using decoy levels D Rosenberg, C G Peterson, J W Harrington, P R Rice, N Dallmann, K T Tyagi, K P McCabe, S Nam, B Baek, R H Hadfield, R J Hughes and J E Nordholt Detector decoy quantum key distribution Tobias Moroder, Marcos Curty and Norbert Lütkenhaus Daylight operation of a free space, entanglement-based quantum key distribution system Matthew P Peloso, Ilja Gerhardt, Caleb Ho, Antía Lamas-Linares and Christian Kurtsiefer Observation of 1.5 μm band entanglement using single photon detectors based on sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes Benjamin Miquel and Hiroki Takesue

  18. RR interval variation, sympathetic skin reflex and QT dispersion in the assessment of autonomic function in peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Parisi, L; Valente, G; Serrao, M; Castagnoli, C; Cardinali, P; Valletta, L; Tramutoli, R; Amabile, G

    1999-12-01

    In recent years, two simple non-invasive tests, sympathetic skin response (SSR) and RR interval variation (RRIV) have been used to assess autonomic function (Wang et al., 1994; Drory et al., 1995; Chassande et al., 1996; Bordet et al., 1996; Spitzer et al., 1997). Their easy performance by an electromyographic (EMG) machine and successful clinical correlation (Shahani et al., 1990) have made them routine in autonomic assessment in several EMG laboratories. More recently QT dispersion on electrocardiogram (ECG) has been shown to have increased in patients with diabetic neuropathy and several autonomic dysfunctions (Wei et al., 1995; Lengyel et al., 1997; Langen et al., 1997; Axelrod et al., 1997). In order to evaluate the diagnostic value of the RR interval variation, sympathetic skin response and QT dispersion combined, we performed the three tests on a group of 37 patients with several peripheral neuropathies with and without clinical signs of dysautonomia. All patients were studied using an electromyograph (EMG). The results of the SSR, RRIV and QT dispersion combined have shown abnormal values in all patients with neuropathy and clinical dysautonomia and in some patients without clinical signs of dysautonomia, suggesting a subclinical autonomic dysfunction. The principal finding of this study is that the evaluation of the RRIV, SSR and QT dispersion combined may contribute to the assessment of dysautonomia in patients with somatic neuropathy and that they may be currently performed by an electromyograph. PMID:10627930

  19. STAR: an integrated solution to management and visualization of sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Liu, Jie; Shen, Li; Tonti-Filippini, Julian; Zhu, Yun; Jia, Haiyang; Lister, Ryan; Whitaker, John W.; Ecker, Joseph R.; Millar, A. Harvey; Ren, Bing; Wang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Easily visualization of complex data features is a necessary step to conduct studies on next-generation sequencing (NGS) data. We developed STAR, an integrated web application that enables online management, visualization and track-based analysis of NGS data. Results: STAR is a multilayer web service system. On the client side, STAR leverages JavaScript, HTML5 Canvas and asynchronous communications to deliver a smoothly scrolling desktop-like graphical user interface with a suite of in-browser analysis tools that range from providing simple track configuration controls to sophisticated feature detection within datasets. On the server side, STAR supports private session state retention via an account management system and provides data management modules that enable collection, visualization and analysis of third-party sequencing data from the public domain with over thousands of tracks hosted to date. Overall, STAR represents a next-generation data exploration solution to match the requirements of NGS data, enabling both intuitive visualization and dynamic analysis of data. Availability and implementation: STAR browser system is freely available on the web at http://wanglab.ucsd.edu/star/browser and https://github.com/angell1117/STAR-genome-browser. Contact: wei-wang@ucsd.edu PMID:24078702

  20. Scale disparity and spectral transfer in anisotropic numerical turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, YE; Yeung, P. K.; Brasseur, James G.

    1994-01-01

    To study the effect of cancellations within long-range interactions on local isotropy at the small scales, we calculate explicitly the degree of cancellation in distant interactions in the simulations of Yeung & Brasseur and Yeung, Brasseur & Wang using the single scale disparity parameter 's' developed by Zhou. In the simulations, initially isotropic simulated turbulence was subjected to coherent anisotropic forcing at the large scales and the smallest scales were found to become anisotropic as a consequence of direct large-small scale couplings. We find that the marginally distant interactions in the simulation do not cancel out under summation and that the development of small-scale anisotropy is indeed a direct consequence of the distant triadic group, as argued by Yeung, et. al. A reduction of anisotropy at later times occurs as a result of the isotropizing influences of more local energy-cascading triadic interactions. Nevertheless, the local-to-nonlocal triadic group persists as an isotropizing influence at later times. We find that, whereas long-range interactions, in general, contribute little to net energy transfer into or out of a high wavenumber shell k, the anisotropic transfer of component energy within the shell increases with increasing scale separations. These results are consistent with results by Zhou, and Brasseur & Wei, and suggest that the anisotropizing influences of long range interactions should persist to higher Reynolds numbers. The residual effect of the forced distant group in this low-Reynolds number simulation is found to be forward cascading, on average.

  1. Superconductivity in the vicinity of antiferromagnetic order in CrAs and related materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jianlin

    2015-03-01

    Transition-metal oxides or pnictides are in rich of novel and intriguing electronic behaviors due to multiple quantum orders and competing phenomena. Among the different electronic states, the emergence of superconductivity in the vicinity of other quantum orders is at the heart of the rich physics. Superconductivity has been observed in a majority of 3d transition-metal compounds except for the Cr- and Mn- based compounds. It is thus of high interest in exploring possible superconductivity in those systems. In this talk, I will present the discovery of superconductivity on the verge of antiferromagnetic order in CrAs via the application of external high pressure. Bulk superconductivity with Tc ~ 2 K emerges at the critical pressure Pc ~ 8 kbar, where the first-order antiferromagnetic transition at TN ~ 265 K under ambient pressure is completely suppressed. In addition, quantum criticality and non-Fermi liquid behavior are observed near Pc, which we interpret as originating from a nearly second-order magnetic quantum phase transition that is concomitant with a first-order structural transition. The present finding opens a new avenue for searching novel superconductors in the Cr and other 3d transitional-metal based systems. In collaboration with Wei Wu, Jinguang Cheng, Kazuyuki Matsubayashi, Panpan Kong, Fukun Lin, Changqing Jin, Nanlin Wang, Yoshiya Uwatoko, Rong Yi, and Qimiao Si.

  2. Deep Orogen-parallel Electrically Conductive Troughs And The Relationship To Surface Deformation In Eastern Tibet And Indochina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meju, M. A.; Bai, D.; Ma, X.; Jiang, C.; Zhou, Z.; Zhao, C.; Wang, L.

    2007-12-01

    While it is accepted that the Cenozoic collision of India and Eurasia created the world's&plargest plateau in Tibet through a range of processes including crustal thickening, delamination and extrusion, the debate continues about which tectonic processes contribute to the overall mass balance of this continent- continent collision. Competing models explaining the post-collisional deformation in Himalaya and Tibet advocate eastward extrusion of rigid blocks between slip-surfaces (Tapponier et al. 2001) or ductile crustal flow decoupling the upper and lower parts of the lithosphere (Clark and Royden, 2000; Beaumont et al., 2001). Yet, the crustal and upper mantle structure in the southeastern Himalaya-Tibet regions remains poorly understood. It is pivotal for constraining the nature of lateral extrusion or ductile flow. We recently initiated a major regional study of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis (e.g. Sun et al. 2003). Here, we present the electrical conductivity images of the lithosphere across the eastern Tibetan Plateau and off- plateau in Indochina (lat. 25-32 deg. N, long. 97-105 deg. E) which suggest the presence of a coherent and geometrically similar orogen-parallel trough-like features of low electrical resistivity in the region. We compared our images to those published by other workers (Wei et al., 2001; Unsworth et al.2004) for the regions to the west and found the troughs to be a common regional feature. We find a continuous 10-30 km thick, electrically conductive crustal layer with two pronounced ca. 150-km-wide localised downwarps that are about 30-60 km deep and can be traced from the Tibetan plateau eastwards into Indochina. The lateral terminations of these low- resistivity troughs are marked on the surface by major E-W trending (Tibet) and N-S trending (Indochina) strike- slip faults. Their axes are parallel to the dominant surface structural trend suggesting coupling between upper and lower crust. Also, zones of Cenozoic volcanism appear to be spatially related to the crustal conductive layer suggesting a link between lower crustal conductivity heterogeneity and surface deformation in and off the Tibetan plateau. We suggest that the troughs are pre-existing fold structures or buried basins and that they probably influenced crustal melt distribution and deformation in the region. Our folding interpretation is shown to be consistent with inferences from gravity and topographical data (Jin et al.,1994; Braitenberg et al. 2000). References: Beaumont, C., R. A. Jamieson, M. H. Nguyen and B. Lee, Nature, 414, 738-742, 2001. Braitenberg, C., Zado, M., Fang, J., Wang, Y. & Hsu, H.T., J. Geodynamics 30, 489-505, 2000. Clark, M. K., L. H. Royden, Geology, 28, 703-706, 2000. Jin, Y., McNutt, M. & Zhu, Y. , Nature 371, 669-674, 1994. Sun, J., G. Jin, D. Bai, and L. Wang, Science in China, 46, 243-253, 2003. Unsworth M., Wei Wenbo, Jones A., et al., JGR, 109, B02403, doi:10.1029/2002JB002305, 2004. Tapponnier P., Xu Z., Roger F., Meyer B., Arnaud N., Wittlinger G., Yang J., Science, 294 (5547), 1671-1677, 2001. Wei W., Unsworth M., Jones A., et al., Science, 292 (5517), 716-719, 2001. Yin, A., T. M. Harrison, Annual Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 28, 211-280, 2000.

  3. Electron tunneling characteristics of a cubic quantum dot, (PbS){sub 32}

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Sanjeev K. E-mail: haiying.he@valpo.edu; Banyai, Douglas; Pandey, Ravindra; He, Haiying E-mail: haiying.he@valpo.edu; Kandalam, Anil K.

    2013-12-28

    The electron transport properties of the cubic quantum dot, (PbS){sub 32}, are investigated. The stability of the quantum dot has been established by recent scanning tunneling microscope experiments [B. Kiran, A. K. Kandalam, R. Rallabandi, P. Koirala, X. Li, X. Tang, Y. Wang, H. Fairbrother, G. Gantefoer, and K. Bowen, J. Chem. Phys. 136(2), 024317 (2012)]. In spite of the noticeable energy band gap (∼2 eV), a relatively high tunneling current for (PbS){sub 32} is predicted affirming the observed bright images for (PbS){sub 32}. The calculated I-V characteristics of (PbS){sub 32} are predicted to be substrate-dependent; (PbS){sub 32} on the Au (001) exhibits the molecular diode-like behavior and the unusual negative differential resistance effect, though this is not the case with (PbS){sub 32} on the Au (110). Appearance of the conduction channels associated with the hybridized states of quantum dot and substrate together with their asymmetric distribution at the Fermi level seem to determine the tunneling characteristics of the system.

  4. 78 FR 19565 - Notice of Proposal To Extend the Memorandum of Understanding Between the Government of the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... Restrictions on Categories of Archaeological Material From the Paleolithic Period Through the Tang Dynasty and... Archaeological Material from the Paleolithic Period Through the Tang Dynasty and Monumental Sculpture and...

  5. Treatment of Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease with Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Pilot Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Kum, Wan Fung; Durairajan, Siva Sundara Kumar; Bian, Zhao Xiang; Man, Sui Cheung; Lam, Yuen Chi; Xie, Li Xia; Lu, Jia Hong; Wang, Yan; Huang, Xian Zhang; Li, Min

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this clinical study is to examine the effects of a Chinese herbal medicine formula (Jia Wei Liu Jun Zi Tang: JWLJZT) on motor and non-motor symptoms, and on complications of conventional therapy in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), using an add-on design. Fifty-five patients with PD were randomly allocated to receive either Chinese herbal medicine or placebo for 24 weeks. Primary outcome measure was the 39-item Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39). Secondary outcome measures included the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Short-Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), home diaries, and a range of category rating scales. JWLJZT resulted in a significant improvement in the UPDRS IVC when compared with placebo at 12 weeks (P = .039) and 24 weeks (P = .034). In addition, patients in the Chinese herbal medicine group also showed significant improvement in PDQ-39 communication scores at 12 weeks (P = .024) and 24 weeks (P = .047) when compared with the placebo group. There were no significant differences between treatment and control groups for SF-36 variables, GDS score or the mean daily on-off time. One case of mild diarrhea was noted in the treatment group. The findings suggest that JWLJZT can relieve some non-motor complications of conventional therapy and improve the communication ability in patients with PD. The results of this pilot study warrant larger multi-center clinical studies to assess long-term efficacy and tolerability of JWLJZT, and to elucidate the mechanisms by which it affects PD function. PMID:19692449

  6. [Sun Simiao's voyage to Chu and Shu regions].

    PubMed

    Song, Zhenmin

    2014-07-01

    During the 4(th)-11(th) years of Zhenguan reign of the Tang Dynasty, Sun Simiao paid a voyage to the regions of Chu (now mostly the Hubei Province) and Shu (now Sichuan Province) for a total of 14 years. In the 4(th) year of Zhenguan, he went to treat the "hydropsy" of Li Gui, the King of Hanyang, hence, the record given as the 9(th) year of Zhenguan by Bei ji qian jin yao fang (Essential Prescriptions for Emergency Worth a Thousand Gold) is not correct. Later, he went to Jiangzhou (now Jiujiang city of Jiangxi Province) to treat Chen Shuping's, the King of Chenxiangdong beriberi due to wind-poisoning. In the 15(th) of July, the 5(th) year of Zhenguan, he himself suffered a swelling pain in his finger when travelling in Shu region, due to a poisonous sting, which was cured by rubbing with the juice from the root and stem of dendelion. In the 7(th) year of Zhenguan, he suffered a facial erysipelas due to over drinking when he was in Neijiang County which was treated by the mayor, Master Li, with various medications to no avail, which was eventually cured by himself. In the 10(th) year of Zhenguan, he treated the Governor of Zizhou Li Wenbo's consuming thirst. He also got a large amount of copper salts in the Counties of Xuanwu and Feiwu nearby. In the 17(th) year of Zhenguan or later, he processed the "Tai yi spiritual powder" in Wei's family of Shu County. After finishing the processing, he returned to Guanzhong (now Shaanxi) at certain period of "August of 17(th) year of Zhenguan", "January of 18(th) year of Zhenguan", or "January of 19(th) year of Zhenguan". PMID:25429884

  7. Taxonomic study of the genus Meleonoma Meyrick from Thailand (Lepidoptera, Gelechioidea)

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Aihui; Wang, Shuxia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Five species of the genus Meleonoma Meyrick are reported from Thailand. Meleonoma triangula Wang, sp. n., Meleonoma dorsolobulata Wang, sp. n., Meleonoma elongata Wang, sp. n., and Meleonoma bilobata Wang, sp. n. are described as new; Meleonoma facialis Li & Wang, 2002 is redescribed and recorded for the first time from Thailand.

  8. How to analytically characterize the epidemic threshold within the coupled disease-behavior systems?. Comment on "Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review" by Z. Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Cheng-Yi; Ding, Shuai; Sun, Shi-Wen; Wang, Li; Gao, Zhong-Ke; Wang, Juan

    2015-12-01

    As is well known, outbreak of epidemics may drive the human population to take some necessary measures to protect themselves from not being infected by infective ones, these precautions in turn will also keep from the further spreading of infectious diseases among the population. Thus, to fully comprehend the epidemic spreading behavior within real-world systems, the interplay between disease dynamics and human behavioral and social dynamics needs to be considered simultaneously, such that some effective containment-measures can be successfully developed [1-3].

  9. Comment on: "Crustal strength in central Tibet determined from Holocene shoreline deflection around Siling Co" by Xuhua Shi, Eric Kirby, Kevin P. Furlong, Kai Meng, Ruth Robinson and Erchie Wang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, Philip C.; Walker, Richard T.

    2016-01-01

    Shi et al. (2015) analysed the distributions of elevation of palaeoshorelines around Siling Tso, central Tibet assuming a model in which surface loads are entirely supported by an elastic lid overlying an inviscid fluid. They concluded that the thickness of the elastic lid is 20-30 km and that, for the assumption of an inviscid substrate in this model to be valid, the viscosity of the crust below the elastic lid must be less than 1- 2 ×1019 Pas. Here we relax the assumption of an inviscid lower crust and show that the distribution of shoreline elevations may be explained either by a thick elastic lid or by high viscosity in the lower crust. In the limit of an inviscid lower crust, the thickness of the elastic lid must be greater than 25 to 39 km. If the elastic lid is thinner than this, then the viscosity of the crust beneath must be at least 5 ×1019 to 2 ×1020 Pas, depending on the time interval over which the lake was loaded.

  10. Is the universal scaling for the dilemma strength still available in populations with heterogeneous connectivity or activities?. Comment on "Universal scaling for the dilemma strength in evolutionary games" by Z. Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Cheng-Yi; Wang, Lin

    2015-09-01

    The emergence and maintenance of cooperative behavior are widely observed in various realistic systems, such as cellular organisms, vertebrates, and human society [1]. Understanding the ubiquity of cooperation is a challenging problem, attracting great interest from diverse communities. The development of evolutionary game theory contributes to valuable tools for studying the origin of cooperative behavior and solving related social dilemmas [2]. Five key reciprocal mechanisms to promote the cooperation, including direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, network reciprocity, group selection, and kin selection, have been identified [3], inspiring much effort in exploring the effects of game dynamics and population's connectivity structure on the patterns of cooperation. Most of current works generate conclusions by focusing on specific game models or mechanisms, which imply the probable existence of some effective and universal laws.

  11. How to identify the most effective control measures based on disease-behavior coupled mechanisms?. Comment on "Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review" by Z. Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Gui-Quan; Jin, Zhen

    2015-12-01

    Modelling infectious diseases on complex networks is a significant tool to understand the transmission of epidemics in human society, and consequently it has commanded increasing attention in the community of mathematicians, physicists, epidemiologists, public health policy-makers and so on [1-4]. Human behavior responses are associated with the emergence of infectious disease, for instance, wearing masks [5], staying away from a thick crowd [6], cutting contacts with infected individuals [7] and receiving a vaccination [8]. However, infectious diseases and human behavior were often modeled as independent systems in the literature, despite the fact that in the real world they are often mutually influential on each other, and hence their coupling exerts significant impacts on disease spread [9,10].

  12. Virus-Mediated Chemical Changes in Rice Plants Impact the Relationship between Non-Vector Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens Stål and Its Egg Parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Guanchun; Zhou, Xiaojun; Zheng, Xusong; Sun, Yujian; Yang, Yajun; Tian, Junce; Lu, Zhongxian

    2014-01-01

    In order to clarify the impacts of southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) infection on rice plants, rice planthoppers and natural enemies, differences in nutrients and volatile secondary metabolites between infected and healthy rice plants were examined. Furthermore, the impacts of virus-mediated changes in plants on the population growth of non-vector brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, and the selectivity and parasitic capability of planthopper egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae were studied. The results showed that rice plants had no significant changes in amino acid and soluble sugar contents after SRBSDV infection, and SRBSDV-infected plants had no significant effect on population growth of non-vector BPH. A. nilaparvatae preferred BPH eggs both in infected and healthy rice plants, and tended to parasitize eggs on infected plants, but it had no significant preference for infected plants or healthy plants. GC-MS analysis showed that tridecylic aldehyde occurred only in rice plants infected with SRBSDV, whereas octanal, undecane, methyl salicylate and hexadecane occurred only in healthy rice plants. However, in tests of behavioral responses to these five volatile substances using a Y-tube olfactometer, A. nilaparvatae did not show obvious selectivity between single volatile substances at different concentrations and liquid paraffin in the control group. The parasitic capability of A. nilaparvatae did not differ between SRBSDV-infected plants and healthy plant seedlings. The results suggested that SRBSDV-infected plants have no significant impacts on the non-vector planthopper and its egg parasitoid, A. nilaparvatae. PMID:25141278

  13. Alleviative Effects of a Kampo (a Japanese Herbal) Medicine “Maoto (Ma-Huang-Tang)” on the Early Phase of Influenza Virus Infection and Its Possible Mode of Action

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, Erika; Aoki, Yuka; Hokari, Rei

    2014-01-01

    A Kampo medicine, maoto, has been prescribed in an early phase of influenza-like illness and used for a treatment of influenza clinically in Japan these days. However, the efficacy of maoto against the virus infection remains to be elucidated. This study was conducted to evaluate the alleviative effects of maoto against early phase of influenza virus infection and its preliminary mode of actions through immune systems. When maoto (0.9 and 1.6 g/kg/day) was orally administered to A/J mice on upper respiratory tract infection of influenza virus A/PR/8/34 from 4 hours to 52 hours postinfection (p.i.) significant antipyretic effect was shown in comparison with water-treated control. Administration of maoto (0.8 and 1.3 g/kg/day) significantly decreased the virus titers in both nasal (NLF) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) at 52 hours p.i., and significantly increased the anti-influenza virus IgM, IgA, and IgG1 antibody titers in NLF, BALF, and serum, respectively. Maoto also increased significantly the influenza virus-bound IgG1 and IgM antibody titers in serum and the virus-bound IgM antibody titer in even the BALF of uninfected A/J mice. These results indicate that maoto exerts antipyretic activity in influenza virus-infected mice and virus reducing effect at an early phase of the infection through probably augmentation of the virus-bound natural antibodies. PMID:24778699

  14. Structural behavior of solid rocket motor field joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, Michael F.; Wingate, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    Structural analysis studies conducted on three concepts for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor field joints are summarized. Deflections and stresses in the Challenger clevis-tang joint are compared with a proposed capture-tang replacement joint and with an alternate bolted joint design. Results indicate deflections and stresses are subsequently reduced in both the capture-tang and bolted joint concepts. The capture-tang and bolted joint designs are respectively 24 and 70 percent heavier than the baseline clevis-tang joint.

  15. PREFACE International Symposium on Spintronic Devices and Commercialization 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, You-wei; Judy, Jack; Qian, Zhenghong; Wang, Jianping

    2011-01-01

    SSDC logo Preface The International Symposium on Spintronic Devices and Commercialization (ISSDC' 2010) was held in Beijing, China, from 21 to 24 October 2010. The aim of the symposium was to provide an opportunity for international experts, academics, researchers, practitioners and students working in the areas of spintronic theories, spintronic materials, and spintronic devices to exchange information on the R&D and commercialization of spintronic materials and devices. New developments, concepts, future research trends and potential commercialization areas were also discussed. The topics covered by ISSDC' 2010 were: Fundmental Spintronic Theories/Experiments Spin polarization, spin-dependent scattering, spin relaxation, spin manipulation and optimization, as well as other related characterizations and applications, etc. Spintronic Materials Giant magnetoresistance materials, magnetic tunnel junction materials, magnetic semiconductor materials, molecular spintronic materials. Spintronic Devices Sensors, isolators, spin logic devices and magnetic random access memories (MRAMs), microwave devices, spin diodes, spin transistor, spin filters and detectors, spin optoelectronic devices, spin quantum devices, single chip computer, spin molecule and single electron devices. Other Magnetic Materials Soft magnetic materials, hard magnetic materials, magneto-optical materials, magnetostriction materials. Applications of Spintronic Devices Magnetic position/angle/velocity/rotation velocity sensors, magnetic encoders, magnetic compasses, bio-medical magnetic devices and other applications. Future Research Trends and the Commercialization of Spintronic Devices Approximately 85 scientists from almost 10 countries participated in the conference. The conference featured 6 keynote lectures, 8 invited lectures, 12 contributed lectures and about 30 posters. We would like to express our gratitude to all participants for their presentations and discussions, which made the conference very successful indeed. We are also grateful to the Advisory Committee, the Conference Chairs, the Excutive Chairs, the Academic Committee, the Organization Committee and the Secretariat for their fruitful work. We would especially like to thank all the organizers listed below for their support in all aspects of the conference. We would like to express our thanks to all the authors for their time and genuine efforts, and to the reviewers for their fruitful comments during the preparation of this volume. ISSDC'2010 ORGANIZATION Advisory Committee Chialing Chien, USAJunhao Chu, ChinaBernard Dieny, FranceKoichiro Inomata, Japan Liangmo Mei, ChinaJohn Sivertsen, USAMingjing Tu, ChinaDingsheng Wang, China Zhanguo Wang, ChinaQikun Xue, ChinaWenshan Zhan, China Conference Chairs Jack Judy, USAYouwei Du, China Executive Chairs Zhenghong Qian, USAJianping Wang, USA Organization Committee ChairJiyan Luo, China Vice ChairsGuilin Duan, ChinaLingling Sun, ChinaBaogen Shen, China MembersTiecheng Lu, ChinaDa Ma, ChinaYe Tian, China Jinsong Xu, ChinaQiuling XuChangmao Yang, China Guanghua Yu, ChinaYi Yan, China Academic Committee ChairsZhenghong Qian, USAYongbing Xu, UK Vice ChairsSeongtae Bae, SingaporeYong Jiang, ChinaDexin Wang, USA Huaiwu Zhang, ChinaJianhua Zhao, China MembersJianwang Cai, ChinaXiangdong Chen, ChinaHaifeng Ding, China Chunhong Hou, USAGunther Baubock, USABin Hu, USA Jungchun Huang, TaiwanDexuan Huo, ChinaYoon H Jeong, Korea Chihuang Lai, TaiwanRunwei Li, ChinaWei Liu, China Jing Shi, USAYasushi Takemura, JapanMark Tondra, USA Shan X Wang, USADi Wu, ChinaDesheng Xue, China Minglang Yan, USAShishen Yan, ChinaXiaofei Yang, China Chun Yeol You, KoreaWei Zhao, ChinaShiming Zhou, China Jianguo Zhu, China Secretariat Secretary-generalChangmao Yang, China Vice Secretary-generalJunli Wang, ChinaJinsong Xu, ChinaYe Tian, China MembersRu Bai, ChinaHongliang Zhan, China ISSDC' 2010 Organizers Department of Science and Technology, CSIC, China SpinIC Inc., China Hangzhou Dianzi University, China State Key Laboratory of Magnetism, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China Institute of Measurement Technology, China Magnetic Materials and Devices Branch of Electronic Component Association, China Shenyang Academy of Instrumentation Science / National Engineering Research Center for Transducer, China

  16. The impact of agriculture management on soil quality in citrus orchards in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hondebrink, Merel; Cerdà, Artemi; Cammeraat, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Currently, the agricultural management of citrus orchard in the Valencia region in E Spain, is changing from traditionally irrigated and managed orchards to drip irrigated organic managed orchards. It is not known what is the effect of such changes on soil quality and hope to shed some light with this study on this transition. It is known that the drip-irrigated orchards built in sloping terrain increase soil erosion (Cerdà et al., 2009; Li et al., 2014) and that agricultural management such as catch crops and mulches reduce sediment yield and surface runoff (Xu et al., 2012; ), as in other orchards around the world (Wang et al., 2010; Wanshnong et al., 2013; Li et al., 2014; Hazarika et al., 2014): We hypothesize that these changes have an important impact on the soil chemical and physical properties. Therefor we studied the soil quality of 12 citrus orchards, which had different land and irrigation management techniques. We compared organic (OR) and conventional (CO) land management with either drip irrigation (DRP) or flood irrigation (FLD). Soil samples at two depths, 0-1 cm and 5-10 cm, were taken for studying soil quality parameters under the different treatments. These parameters included soil chemical parameters, bulk density, texture, soil surface shear strength and soil aggregation. Half of the studied orchards were organically managed and the other 6 were conventionally managed, and for each of these 6 study sites three fields were flood irrigated plots (FLD) and the other three drip irrigated systems (DRP) In total 108 soil samples were taken as well additional irrigation water samples. We will present the results of this study with regard to the impact of the studied irrigation systems and land management systems with regard to soil quality. This knowledge might help in improving citrus orchard management with respect to maintaining or improving soil quality to ensure sustainable agricultural practices. References Cerdà, A., Giménez-Morera, A. and Bodí, M.B. 2009. Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western Mediterranean basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 34, 1822-1830. DOI: 10.1002/esp.1889 Hazarika, S., Thakuria, D., Ganeshamurthy, A. N., & Sakthivel, T. (2014). Soil quality as influenced by land use history of orchards in humid subtropics. Catena, 123, 37-44. Wang, L., Tang, L., Wang, X., & Chen, F. (2010). Effects of alley crop planting on soil and nutrient losses in the citrus orchards of the Three Gorges Region. Soil and Tillage Research, 110(2), 243-250. Wanshnong, R. K., Thakuria, D., Sangma, C. B., Ram, V., & Bora, P. K. (2013). Influence of hill slope on biological pools of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in acidic alfisols of citrus orchard. Catena, 111, 1-8. X. H. Li, J. Yang, C. Y Zhao and B. Wang
 (2014) Runoff and sediment from orchard terraces in Southeastern China. Land Degradation and Development, 25, 184-192. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.1160 Xu, Q. X., Wang, T. W., CAI, C. F., Li, Z.X., SHI, Z. H. 2012. Effects of soil conservation on soil properties of citrus orchards in the Three-Gorges Area, China. Land Degradation & Development, 23: 34 -42. DOI 10.1002/ldr.1045

  17. Pumpspeicherbecken im Karstgrundwasserleiter des Weißen Jura der Schwäbischen Alb. Erste Ergebnisse aus der geologischen und hydrogeologischen Erkundung für die Planfeststellung Pumped-storage hydroelectric power plant in the Jurassic karst aquifer of the swabian alb, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neukum, Christoph; Köhler, Hans Joachim; Fernandez-Steeger, Tomas; Hennings, Sibylle; Azzam, Rafig

    2014-06-01

    Extensive geological and hydrogeological investigations have been undertaken for the planned pumped-storage hydroelectric power plant in "Blautal" (Swabian Alb, Germany) in order to characterise the Jurassic karst aquifer in which the lower reservoir will be constructed. The preferred option for the plant setup is to integrate the lower reservoir into the groundwater without sealing. Therefore, in order to reliably predict the impact of the pumped storage plant operations on the surrounding drinking water wells and groundwater dependent ecosystems, a comprehensive database has been developed to assess the hydraulic conditions of the karst aquifer. A large scale geological site investigation was carried out to characterise the rock mass and extensive hydraulic tests were performed in many boreholes. The results of the hydraulic characterisation were then implemented in a three dimensional flow model. In this paper, the first results of the geological and hydrogeological investigations are presented and discussed.

  18. Automatic locking orthotic knee device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce C. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An articulated tang in clevis joint for incorporation in newly manufactured conventional strap-on orthotic knee devices or for replacing such joints in conventional strap-on orthotic knee devices is discussed. The instant tang in clevis joint allows the user the freedom to extend and bend the knee normally when no load (weight) is applied to the knee and to automatically lock the knee when the user transfers weight to the knee, thus preventing a damaged knee from bending uncontrollably when weight is applied to the knee. The tang in clevis joint of the present invention includes first and second clevis plates, a tang assembly and a spacer plate secured between the clevis plates. Each clevis plate includes a bevelled serrated upper section. A bevelled shoe is secured to the tank in close proximity to the bevelled serrated upper section of the clevis plates. A coiled spring mounted within an oblong bore of the tang normally urges the shoes secured to the tang out of engagement with the serrated upper section of each clevic plate to allow rotation of the tang relative to the clevis plate. When weight is applied to the joint, the load compresses the coiled spring, the serrations on each clevis plate dig into the bevelled shoes secured to the tang to prevent relative movement between the tang and clevis plates. A shoulder is provided on the tang and the spacer plate to prevent overextension of the joint.

  19. Circulating Angiogenic T Cells and Their Subpopulations in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Jinlin; Qiu, Feng; Li, Tingting; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Kui; Lv, Minghua; Wan, Jun; Qi, Xiaokun; Zhu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular risk. Angiogenic T cells (Tang), a specific T cell subset, have been identified and involved in the repair of damaged endothelium. This study aimed to analyze the Tang cell subsets in relation to disease specific features from SLE patients. Methods. Tang cell subsets were assessed in peripheral blood samples from 41 SLE patients and 22 healthy controls (HC) by flow cytometry on the basis of CD31 and CXCR4 expression on CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells. Results. The percentage of circulating CD8+CD31+CXCR4+ T cells (CD8+ Tang), but not CD3+CD31+CXCR4+ T cells (Tang) and CD4+CD31+CXCR4+ T cells (CD4+ Tang), in SLE was higher than HC. The percentages of Tang cell subsets in anti-dsDNA-positive SLE patients were significantly increased as compared to their negative counterparts and HC. Additionally, the levels of circulating Tang cell subsets were negatively correlated with age at sampling and at diagnosis, but not disease duration or disease activity. Conclusion. Anti-dsDNA-positivity may identify a group of SLE patients with increased Tang cell subsets and circulating CD8+ Tang cells may be viewed as a potentially useful biomarker of endothelial damage and cardiovascular risk in SLE. PMID:27065298

  20. Gyrokinetic Turbulence Driven Toroidal Momentum Transport and Comparison to Experimental Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weixing

    2008-11-01

    Global gyrokinetic simulations using the GTS code [1] have found that a large inward flux of toroidal momentum is driven robustly in the post saturation phase of ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence. As a consequence, core plasma rotation spins up resulting in δu a few percent of vth in the case with no momentum source at the edge. The underlying physics for the inward flux is identified to be the generation of residual stress due to the k symmetry breaking [2] induced by self-generated zonal flow shear which is quasi-stationary in global simulations. The elatively low level momentum flux in the long- time steady state appears to be approximately diffusive, with effective χφ/χi on the order of unity, in broad agreement with experimental observations and theory predictions for ITG turbulence [3]. Neoclassical simulations using the GTC- NEO code [4] also show that the ion temperature gradient can drive a significant inward nondiffusive momentum flux. However, the overall neoclassical contribution to the momentum transport is negligibly small compared to experimental levels for NSTX and DIII-D plasmas. It is also found that finite residual turbulence can survive strong mean ExB shear flow induced damping. This residual turbulence in the presence of strong ExB shear may drive an insignificant ion heat flux reasonably close to the neoclassical value, and a finite momentum flux significantly higher than the neoclassical level. Moreover, the equilibrium ExB flow shear is found to reduce the turbulence driven transport for energy more efficiently than for momentum. These findings may offer an explanation for rather peculiar observations of near neoclassical ion heat and anomalous momentum transport in experiments, which has been often observed in various machines, but with little theoretical understanding. [1] W.X. Wang et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 072306 (2007). [2] O.D. Gurcan et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 042306 (2007). [3] N. Mattor and P.H. Diamond, Phys. Fluids 31, 1180 (1988). [4] W.X. Wang et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 082501 (2006). In collaboration with: T.S. Hahm, S. Ethier, S.M. Kaye, W.W. Lee, G. Rewoldt, W.M. Tang (PPPL), P.H. Diamond (UCSD), M. Adams (Columbia U.).

  1. Graphene: a partially ordered non-periodic solid.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dongshan; Wang, Feng

    2014-10-14

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the structural features of graphene over a wide range of temperatures from 50 to 4000 K using the PPBE-G potential [D. Wei, Y. Song, and F. Wang, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 184704 (2011)]. This potential was developed by force matching the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange correlation functional and has been validated previously to provide accurate potential energy surface for graphene at temperatures as high as 3000 K. Simulations with the PPBE‑G potential are the best available approximation to a direct Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics study of graphene. One advantage of the PBE-G potential is to allow large simulation boxes to be modeled efficiently so that properties showing strong finite size effects can be studied. Our simulation box contains more than 600,000 C atoms and is one of the largest graphene boxes ever modeled. With the PPBE-G potential, the thermal-expansion coefficient is negative up to 4000 K. With a large box and an accurate potential, the critical exponent for the scaling properties associated with the normal-normal and height-height correlation functions was confirmed to be 0.85. This exponent remains constant up to 4000 K suggesting graphene to be in the deeply cooled regime even close to the experimental melting temperature. The reduced peak heights in the radial distribution function of graphene show an inverse power law dependence to distance, which indicates that a macroscopic graphene sheet will lose long-range crystalline order as predicted by the Mermin-Wagner instability. Although graphene loses long-range translational order, it retains long range orientational order as indicated by its orientational correlation function; graphene is thus partially ordered but not periodic. PMID:25318732

  2. Graphene: A partially ordered non-periodic solid

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Dongshan; Wang, Feng

    2014-10-14

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the structural features of graphene over a wide range of temperatures from 50 to 4000 K using the PPBE-G potential [D. Wei, Y. Song, and F. Wang, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 184704 (2011)]. This potential was developed by force matching the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange correlation functional and has been validated previously to provide accurate potential energy surface for graphene at temperatures as high as 3000 K. Simulations with the PPBE‑G potential are the best available approximation to a direct Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics study of graphene. One advantage of the PBE-G potential is to allow large simulation boxes to be modeled efficiently so that properties showing strong finite size effects can be studied. Our simulation box contains more than 600 000 C atoms and is one of the largest graphene boxes ever modeled. With the PPBE-G potential, the thermal-expansion coefficient is negative up to 4000 K. With a large box and an accurate potential, the critical exponent for the scaling properties associated with the normal-normal and height-height correlation functions was confirmed to be 0.85. This exponent remains constant up to 4000 K suggesting graphene to be in the deeply cooled regime even close to the experimental melting temperature. The reduced peak heights in the radial distribution function of graphene show an inverse power law dependence to distance, which indicates that a macroscopic graphene sheet will lose long-range crystalline order as predicted by the Mermin-Wagner instability. Although graphene loses long-range translational order, it retains long range orientational order as indicated by its orientational correlation function; graphene is thus partially ordered but not periodic.

  3. First Radio Burst Imaging Observation From Mingantu Ultrawide Spectral Radioheliograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yihua; Chen, Linjie; Yu, Sijie; CSRH Team

    2015-08-01

    Radio imaging spectroscopy over wide range wavelength in dm/cm-bands will open new windows on solar flares and coronal mass ejections by tracing the radio emissions from accelerated electrons. The Chinese Spectral Radioheliograph (CSRH) with two arrays in 400MHz-2GHz /2-15GHz ranges with 64/532 frequency channels have been established in Mingantu Observing Station, Inner Mongolia of China, since 2013 and is in test observations now. CSRH is renamed as MUSER (Mingantu Ultrawide SpEctral Radioheliograph) after it's accomplishment We will introduce the progress and current status of CSRH. Some preliminary results of CSRH will be presented.On 11 Nov2014, the first burst event was registered by MUSER-I array at 400MHz-2GHz waveband. According to SGD event list there was a C-class flare peaked at 04:49UT in the disk center and the radio bursts around 04:22-04:24UT was attributed to this flare. However, MUSER-I image observation of the burst indicates that the radio burst peaked around 04:22UT was due to the eruption at the east limb of the Sun and connected to a CME appeared in that direction about 1 hour later. This demonstrate the importance of the spectroscopy observation of the solar radio burst.Acknowledgement: The CSRH team includes Wei Wang, Zhijun Chen, Fei Liu, Lihong Geng and Jian Zhang and CSRH project is supported by National Major Scientific Equipment R&D Project ZDYZ2009-3. The research was also supported by NSFC grants (11433006, 11221063), MOST grant (MOST2011CB811401), CAS Pilot-B Project (XDB09000000) and Marie Curie PIRSES- GA-295272-RADIOSUN.

  4. FDCSUSYDecay: An MSSM decay package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Wei; Wang, Jian-xiong

    2007-08-01

    FDCSUSYDecay is a FORTRAN program package generated by FDC (Feynman Diagram Calculation) system fully automatically. It is dedicated to calculate at tree-level all the possible 2-body decays of SUSY and Higgs particles in the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM). The format of its output files complies with SUSY Les Houches Accord and can be easily imported by other packages. Program summaryManuscript title:FDCSUSYDecay: An MSSM decay package Authors:Wei Qi, Jian-xiong Wang Program title:FDCSUSYDecay (Version 1.00) Catalogue identifier:ADYV_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADYV_v1_0.html Program obtainable from:CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions:Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:22 008 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:622 751 Distribution format:tar.gz Programming language:FORTRAN 77 Operating system:Linux Keywords:SUSY decay, MSSM, FDC PACS:02.70.-c, 12.60.Jv Classification:11.1, 11.6 External routines:CERNLIB 2003 (or up) Nature of problem: This package can calculate all the possible SUSY particle and Higgs 2-body decay width and branch ratio at tree-level in the MSSM model. Solution method: By running FDC, the Feynman rules for the MSSM model are generated, all the decay widths are calculated analytically and corresponding FORTRAN codes are generated for this package. Running time: Less than 1 second for both high-scale and low-scale modes on a Pentium IV 2.4 GHz machine (512 MB memory).

  5. Why are the Tcs so high in rare-earth doped CaFe2As2 single crystals and ultrathin FeSe epi-films?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, C. W.

    2015-03-01

    Recent reports of non-bulk superconductivity with unexpectedly high onset-Tcs up to 49 K in the Pr-doped CaFe2As2 [(Ca,Pr)122] single crystals and up to 100 K in one-unit-cell (1UC) FeSe epi-films, respectively, offer an unusual opportunity to seek an answer to the question posed in the title. Through systematic compositional, structural, resistive, and magnetic investigations on (Ca,R)122 single crystals with R = La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, we have observed a doping-level-independent Tc, a large magnetic anisotropy, and the existence of mesoscopic-2D structures in these crystals, thus providing evidence consistent with the proposed interface-enhanced Tc in these naturally assembled Fe-based superconductors. Similar resistive and magnetic measurements were also made on the 1-4UC FeSe ultra thin epi-films. We have detected a Meissner state below 1 Oe with extensive weak-links up to ~ 20 K, unconnected small superconducting patches up to ~ 40 K, and an unusual dispersion of diamagnetic moment with frequency up to 80 K. The unusual frequency dependences of the diamagnetic moment observed in the films at different temperature ranges suggest that collective excitations of electron and/or spin nature may exist in the FeSe films below 20 K and 40-80 K. The experimental results will be presented and the implications discussed. Collaborators: Liangzi Deng, Bing Lv, Fengyan Wei, and Yu-Yi Xue, University of Houston; Li-Li Wang, Xu-Cun Ma, and Qi-Kun Xue, Tsinghua University, Beijing.

  6. Fake "Returnee" Earns 4 Million through Fraudulent Marriages: More than Ten Women Fall for His Claims of Being a Boss and Possessing a House and Car

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese Education and Society, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the case of Wang Ruiliang. Ms. Huang filed a case against Wang Jun, alleging that he had defrauded her. Ms. Huang met a man named Wang Jun in April 2002 through a certain matrimonial agency. Before they had been together for very long, Wang Jun asked to borrow money from Ms. Huang, claiming that he was having difficulties in

  7. Fake "Returnee" Earns 4 Million through Fraudulent Marriages: More than Ten Women Fall for His Claims of Being a Boss and Possessing a House and Car

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese Education and Society, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the case of Wang Ruiliang. Ms. Huang filed a case against Wang Jun, alleging that he had defrauded her. Ms. Huang met a man named Wang Jun in April 2002 through a certain matrimonial agency. Before they had been together for very long, Wang Jun asked to borrow money from Ms. Huang, claiming that he was having difficulties in…

  8. Pollination by deceit in Paphiopedilum barbigerum (Orchidaceae): a staminode exploits the innate colour preferences of hoverflies (Syrphidae).

    PubMed

    Shi, J; Luo, Y-B; Bernhardt, P; Ran, J-C; Liu, Z-J; Zhou, Q

    2009-01-01

    Paphiopedilum barbigerum T. Tang et F. T. Wang, a slipper orchid native to southwest China and northern Vietnam, produces deceptive flowers that are self-compatible but incapable of mechanical self-pollination (autogamy). The flowers are visited by females of Allograpta javana and Episyrphus balteatus (Syrphidae) that disperse the orchid's massulate pollen onto the receptive stigmas. Measurements of insect bodies and floral architecture show that the physical dimensions of these two fly species correlate with the relative positions of the receptive stigma and dehiscent anthers of P. barbigerum. These hoverflies land on the slippery centralised wart located on the shiny yellow staminode and then fall backwards through the labellum entrance. They are temporarily trapped in the inflated chamber composed of the interconnected labellum and column. The attractive staminode of P. barbigerum strongly reflects the colour yellow (500-560 nm), a colour preferred innately by most pollen-eating members of the Syrphidae. No scent molecules were detected using GC mass spectrometry analysis, showing that the primary attractant in this system is visual, not olfactory. Pollination-by-deceit in P. barbigerum is contrasted with its congener, P. dianthum, a brood site mimic that is pollinated by ovipositing females of E. balteatus. As the natural rate of fruit set in P. barbigerum (mean 26.3% pooled over three seasons) is lower than that of P. dianthum (mean 58.5% over two seasons), the evolution of false brood sites in some Paphiopedilum spp. should be selectively advantageous as they may provide an increase in the attention and return rates of dependable pollinators to flowers that always lack a reward. PMID:19121110

  9. The prostamide-related glaucoma therapy, bimatoprost, offers a novel approach for treating scalp alopecias

    PubMed Central

    Khidhir, Karzan G.; Woodward, David F.; Farjo, Nilofer P.; Farjo, Bessam K.; Tang, Elaine S.; Wang, Jenny W.; Picksley, Steven M.; Randall, Valerie A.

    2013-01-01

    Balding causes widespread psychological distress but is poorly controlled. The commonest treatment, minoxidil, was originally an antihypertensive drug that promoted unwanted hair. We hypothesized that another serendipitous discovery, increased eyelash growth side-effects of prostamide F2?-related eyedrops for glaucoma, may be relevant for scalp alopecias. Eyelash hairs and follicles are highly specialized and remain unaffected by androgens that inhibit scalp follicles and stimulate many others. Therefore, we investigated whether non-eyelash follicles could respond to bimatoprost, a prostamide F2? analog recently licensed for eyelash hypotrichosis. Bimatoprost, at pharmacologically selective concentrations, increased hair synthesis in scalp follicle organ culture and advanced mouse pelage hair regrowth in vivo compared to vehicle alone. A prostamide receptor antagonist blocked isolated follicle growth, confirming a direct, receptor-mediated mechanism within follicles; RT-PCR analysis identified 3 relevant receptor genes in scalp follicles in vivo. Receptors were located in the key follicle regulator, the dermal papilla, by analyzing individual follicular structures and immunohistochemistry. Thus, bimatoprost stimulates human scalp follicles in culture and rodent pelage follicles in vivo, mirroring eyelash behavior, and scalp follicles contain bimatoprost-sensitive prostamide receptors in vivo. This highlights a new follicular signaling system and confirms that bimatoprost offers a novel, low-risk therapeutic approach for scalp alopecias.Khidhir, K. G., Woodward, D. F., Farjo, N. P., Farjo, B. K., Tang, E. S., Wang, J. W., Picksley, S. M., and Randall, V. A. The prostamide-related glaucoma therapy, bimatoprost, offers a novel approach for treating scalp alopecias. PMID:23104985

  10. A bibenzyl from Dendrobium ellipsophyllum inhibits migration in lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chaotham, Chatchai; Chanvorachote, Pithi

    2015-10-01

    Metastatic cancer cells have been shown to have aggressive behaviors accounting for the high incidence of chemotherapeutic failure and mortality. Because migration and invasion are crucial behaviors for cancer cell dissemination, promising compounds exhibiting potential antimigration effects are of interest for metastasis-based therapeutic approaches. This study aimed to evaluate the activity of a bibenzyl, 4,5,4'-trihydroxy-3,3'-dimethoxybibenzyl (TDB), isolated from Dendrobium ellipsophyllum Tang and Wang, in the suppression of migration in human lung cancer cells. TDB at nontoxic concentrations (1 and 5 µM) significantly inhibited the motility of lung cancer cells in scratch-wound assay. Chemotaxis-induced migration and invasion assays also revealed that the cell motility dramatically diminished in the cells treated with 1-5 µM TDB. Western blot analysis provided the underlying molecular mechanism, showing that TDB reduced such cell migration and invasion by decreasing migration-regulating proteins, including integrins αv, α4, β1, β3 and β5, as well as downstream signaling proteins, such as activated focal adhesion kinase (pFAK), activated Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1-GTP) and cell division control protein 42 (Cdc42). As the presence of cellular protrusion, called filopodia, has been indicated as a hallmark of migrating cells, we showed that the reduction of the mentioned proteins correlated well with the disappearance of filopodia. In summary, this study demonstrates the promising activity of TDB and its mechanism in the inhibition of lung cancer cell migration, which might be useful for encouraging the development of this compound for antimetastatic approaches. PMID:26109451

  11. Potent Antiviral Activity of Topoisomerase I and II Inhibitors against Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus

    PubMed Central

    González-Molleda, Lorenzo; Wang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The lytic DNA replication of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) initiates at an origin (ori-Lyt) and requires trans-acting elements, both viral and cellular. We recently demonstrated that several host cellular proteins, including topoisomerases I and II (Topo I and II), are involved in KSHV lytic DNA replication (Y. Wang, H. Li, Q. Tang, G. G. Maul, and Y. Yuan. J. Virol. 82: 2867–2882, 2008). To assess the importance of these topoisomerases in viral lytic replication, shRNA-mediated gene silencing was used. Depletion of Topo I and II severely inhibited viral lytic DNA replication as well as virion production, suggesting essential roles of these cellular proteins in viral DNA replication. The discovery of Topo I and II as enzymes indispensable for KSHV DNA replication raises a possibility that these cellular proteins could be new targets of therapeutic approaches to halt KSHV replication and treat KSHV-associated diseases. In this report, we examined one Topo I inhibitor and several Topo II inhibitors (inclusive of Topo II poison and catalytic inhibitors) as potential therapeutic agents for blocking KSHV replication. The Topo II catalytic inhibitors in general exhibited marked inhibition on KSHV replication and minimal cytotoxicity. In particular, novobiocin, with the best selectivity index (SI = 31.62) among the inhibitors tested in this study, is effective in inhibiting KSHV DNA replication and virion production but shows little adverse effect on cell proliferation and cycle progression in its therapeutic concentration, suggesting its potential to become an effective and safe drug for the treatment of human diseases associated with KSHV infection. PMID:22106228

  12. Influence of equine chorionic gonadotropin on weaning-to-estrus interval and estrus duration in early-weaned, primiparous, female swine.

    PubMed

    Lucia, T; Corrêa, M N; Deschamps, J C; Peruzzo, I A; Matheus, J E; Aleixo, J A

    1999-12-01

    The weaning-to-estrus interval (WEI) influences the total nonproductive days (NPD) accumulated by the breeding herd and affects herd productivity. Short lactation lengths (LL) are commonly followed by prolonged WEI, which are also associated with short estrus duration (ED). Equine chorionic gonadotropin treatment is a tool that has been used to reduce WEI, especially for low-parity females. The objectives for this study were to evaluate the effect of LL on the association between WEI and ED and to estimate the effects of postweaning eCG administration on WEI and ED for early-weaned females. Two treatments (TREAT) consisting of 750 IU of eCG (n = 96) or control (n = 77) were applied 1 d after weaning to first-parity, weaned females. The study was conducted on a commercial farm having a target LL of 18 d. Estrus detection was conducted three times daily, and estrus duration was determined as the interval between the first and the last positive response to back pressure. Analyses of variance were conducted to estimate the effects of LL and TREAT on WEI and the effects of TREAT and WEI on estrus duration. Mean LL was 17.9+/-1.7 d, mean WEI was 106.6+/-29.2 h, and mean estrus duration was 55.9+/-15.5 h. Even though the frequency of short WEI tended to increase with longer LL, mean WEI was shortest for females weaned after 18 d and longest for those weaned after 20 d (P<.05). The WEI for females receiving eCG (98.7+/-2.7 h) was shorter (P = .0001) than that for control females (121.5+/-3.3 h). The WEI was also affected by a LL x TREAT interaction (P = .0014), indicating that the interval was longer (P<.05) for control females weaned after 17 and 20+ d than for other females. The LL and TREAT did not affect estrus duration (P = .20 and P = .157, respectively). However, estrus duration was reduced as the WEI increased (P = .0001), and it was also influenced by a WEI x TREAT interaction (P = .024). A linear regression model estimated that the association between WEI and estrus duration was stronger in the eCG group than in the control group (R2 = .51 and .15, respectively; both P<.001). In conclusion, the use of eCG postweaning was associated with more precise prediction of estrus duration as a function of the WEI and allows optimization of breeding management in early-weaned, primiparous females. PMID:10641859

  13. 77 FR 28880 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ..., Inglewood, CA 90301, Officers: Edison Chen, Manager (Qualifying Individual), Wei-Nung (Janus) Lin, Member... A. Case, Vice President (Qualifying Individual), Thomas C. Case, President, Application Type:...

  14. Research Projects, Technical Reports and Publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliger, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) was established by the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) at the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) on June 6, 1983. RIACS is privately operated by USRA, a consortium of universities with research programs in the aerospace sciences, under contract with NASA. The primary mission of RIACS is to provide research and expertise in computer science and scientific computing to support the scientific missions of NASA ARC. The research carried out at RIACS must change its emphasis from year to year in response to NASA ARC's changing needs and technological opportunities. A flexible scientific staff is provided through a university faculty visitor program, a post doctoral program, and a student visitor program. Not only does this provide appropriate expertise but it also introduces scientists outside of NASA to NASA problems. A small group of core RIACS staff provides continuity and interacts with an ARC technical monitor and scientific advisory group to determine the RIACS mission. RIACS activities are reviewed and monitored by a USRA advisory council and ARC technical monitor. Research at RIACS is currently being done in the following areas: Advanced Methods for Scientific Computing High Performance Networks During this report pefiod Professor Antony Jameson of Princeton University, Professor Wei-Pai Tang of the University of Waterloo, Professor Marsha Berger of New York University, Professor Tony Chan of UCLA, Associate Professor David Zingg of University of Toronto, Canada and Assistant Professor Andrew Sohn of New Jersey Institute of Technology have been visiting RIACS. January 1, 1996 through September 30, 1996 RIACS had three staff scientists, four visiting scientists, one post-doctoral scientist, three consultants, two research associates and one research assistant. RIACS held a joint workshop with Code 1 29-30 July 1996. The workshop was held to discuss needs and opportunities in basic research in computer science in and for NASA applications. There were 14 talks given by NASA, industry and university scientists and three open discussion sessions. There were approximately fifty participants. A proceedings is being prepared. It is planned to have similar workshops on an annual basis. RIACS technical reports are usually preprints of manuscripts that have been submitted to research 'ournals or conference proceedings. A list of these reports for the period January i 1, 1996 through September 30, 1996 is in the Reports and Abstracts section of this report.

  15. New species of cynipid inquilines of the genus Saphonecrus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Synergini) from the Eastern Palaearctic, with a re-appraisal of known species world-wide.

    PubMed

    Schwéger, Szabina; Melika, George; Tang, Chang-Ti; Yang, Man-Miao; Stone, Graham N; Nicholls, James A; Sinclair, Frazer; Hearn, Jack; Bozsó, Miklós; Pénzes, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    Fifteen new species of cynipid inquilines, Saphonecrus chinensis Tang & Schwéger, S. gilvus Melika & Schwéger, S. globosus Schwéger & Tang, S. leleyi Melika & Schwéger, S. lithocarpii Schwéger & Melika, S. longinuxi Schwéger & Melika, S. morii Schwéger & Tang, S. nantoui Tang, Schwéger & Melika, S. nichollsi Schwéger & Melika, S. pachylomai Schwéger, Tang & Melika, S. robustus Schwéger & Melika, S. saliciniai Melika, Tang & Schwéger, S. shanzhukui Melika & Tang, S. symbioticus Melika & Schwéger, and S. taitungi Schwéger, Tang & Melika, from the Eastern Palaearctic are described. Descriptions, diagnoses, biology, and host associations for the new species, and a key to Palaearctic Saphonecrus species are given. All new taxa form distinct units as demonstrated by the molecular phylogenetic analyses of Palaearctic Saphonecrus species. The status of some earlier described Saphonecrus species is discussed also. The Synergini genus Lithonecrus Nieves-Aldrey & Butterill, 2014 is synonymized with Lithosaphonecrus Tang, Melika & Bozsó, 2013. Three Saphonecrus species are transferred to Synergus: Synergus brevis (Weld) comb. nova, Synergus hupingshanensis (Liu, Yang & Zhu) comb. nova, and Synergus yukawai (Wachi, Ide & Abe) comb. nova. Synophrus vietnamensis Abe, Ide, Konishi & Ueno is transferred to Lithosaphonecrus: Lithosaphonecrus vietnamensis Abe, Ide, Konishi & Ueno), comb. nova. The current number of valid Saphonecrus species worldwide is 36. PMID:26701460

  16. Leptotrombidium (Acari: Trombiculidae) of the World.

    PubMed

    Stekolnikov, Alexandr A

    2013-01-01

    The chigger mite genus Leptotrombidium Nagayo, Miyagawa, Mitamura and Imamura, 1916 is reviewed using literature data. For 340 larval species brief diagnoses, synonymy, data on type hosts and type localities are provided. The genus is divided into species-groups based on morphological evidence enabling easier establishment of group-membership of un-known specimens in the future. Some species groups are supported by a hierarchical cluster analysis with multiscale boot-strap resampling applied to a matrix including 335 species and geographic morphotypes and 19 standard quantitative characters. Six new species from mammalian hosts are described: L. aenigmami sp. nov., L. abramovi sp. nov., L. tikhon-ovi sp. nov., L. bochkovi sp. nov., L. laoense sp. nov., and L. megaloti sp. nov. from Laos. Seven names created by Ver-cammen-Grandjean and Langston (1976) for infrasubspecific entities are applied to species with the same descriptions: Leptotrombidium tenompaki sp. nov., L. kinabalui sp. nov., L. megabodense sp. nov., L. minului sp. nov., L. ului sp. nov., L. megalangati sp. nov., and L. saigoni sp. nov. A new replacement name is proposed: L. ushi nom. nov. pro L. hsui Wu, Yang and Li, 1999 (praeocc. Yu, Yang and Gong, 1986). Nineteen new synonyms and 7 new combinations are proposed: Leptotrombidium (= Hsuella Wang, Li and Shi, 1989, syn. nov.; = Leptotrombidium (Monosigmum) Wen, 2001, syn. nov.), L. deliense (Walch, 1922) (= L. deliense sinense Wen and Chen, 1984, syn. nov.; = L. deliense microsetosa Zhao, Tang and Mo, 1986, syn. nov.), L. sialkotense Vercammen-Grandjean and Langston, 1976 (= L. jishoum Wen, Li, Zhang and Liao, 1988, syn. nov.), L. imphalum Vercammen-Grandjean and Langston, 1976 (= L. imphalum sabahense Vercam-men-Grandjean and Langston, 1976, syn. nov.; = L. chiangraiensis Tanskul and Linthicum, 1997, syn. nov.), L. wenense Wu, Wen, Yang and Wu, 1982 (= L. kaohuense Li, Wang and Chen, 1997, syn. nov.), L. longimedian Brown, 1992 (= L. mindanensis Brown, 1992, syn. nov.), L. silvaticum Hushcha and Schluger, 1967 (= L. pakistanum Vercammen-Grandjean and Langston, 1976, syn. nov.), L. cricethrionis Wen, Sun and Sun, 1984 (= L. rusticum Yu, Yang and Gong, 1986, syn. nov.), L. intermedium (Nagayo, Mitamura and Tamiya, 1920) (= Trombicula (L.) daisen Kumada and Sasa, 1953, syn. nov.; = Trombicula hiranumai Kanda, 1942, syn. nov.), L. fletcheri (Womersley and Heaslip, 1943) (= L. fletcheri fran-colini Wen and Xiang, 1984b, syn. nov.), L. apertum Kudryashova, 1979 (= L. sorosi Kharadov, 1995, syn. nov.; = L. tolaicus Kharadov, 2000, syn. nov.), L. turdicola Vercammen-Grandjean and Langston, 1976 (= L. muntiaci Xiang and Wen, 1984d, syn. nov.; = L. suense Wen, 1984g, syn. nov.), L. paradux Vercammen-Grandjean and Langston, 1976 (= L. montanum Stekolnikov, 2004, syn. nov.), L. hubeiense (Wang, Li and Shi, 1989) comb. nov. from Hsuella, L. dunqingi (Liu, Xiang and Ma, 2003) comb. nov. from Hsuella, L. nainae (Kharadov, 1990) comb. nov. from Montivagum, L. mon-golicum (Kudryashova, 1988) comb. nov. from Montivagum, L. kunitzkyi (Kudryashova, 1988) comb. nov. from Monti-vagum, L. alaicum (Kharadov, 1994) comb. nov. from Montivagum, and Lorillatum nudisensillum (Yu, Gong and Tao, 1981) comb. nov. from Leptotrombidium. A key to Leptotrombidium species is provided. PMID:26079025

  17. Developing an Understanding of the Nature of Accessibility and Usability Problems Blind Students Face in Web-Enhanced Instruction Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babu, Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    The central premise of this research is that blind and visually impaired (BVI) people cannot use the Internet effectively due to accessibility and usability problems. Use of the Internet is indispensable in today's education system that relies on Web-enhanced instruction (WEI). Therefore, BVI students cannot participate effectively in WEI. Extant

  18. Pay Attention to the Phrasal Structures: Going beyond T-Units--A Response to Weiwei Yang

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biber, Douglas; Gray, Bethany; Poonpon, Kornwipa

    2013-01-01

    WeiWei Yang, in her forum piece, raises two main criticisms of the authors' "TQ" article on grammatical complexity: "The study the authors conducted [1] is not capable of answering development-related questions and [2] is mathematically questionable" (Yang, 2013, p. 190). In addition, Yang's article has a third goal that is not explicitly…

  19. Conduct Disorders: Are Boot Camps Effective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeter, LaVaughn V.

    2010-01-01

    Youth diagnosed with "conduct disorder" are often placed in programs using forced compliance and coercive control. One type of intervention used to treat conduct disorder is the boot camp. The basic idea is that disruptive behaviors can be corrected by strict behavioral regulation and an emphasis on skills training (Weis & Toolis 2009; Weis,…

  20. A Comment on Class Productions in Elite Secondary Schools in Twenty-First-Century Global Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Lois

    2014-01-01

    In this closing essay, Lois Weis offers a broad overview of the contributions of this Special Issue on class production in elite secondary schools in the twenty-first-century global context. Drawing upon her own research within US privileged secondary schools, Weis explores the contemporary social, economic and political landscape as connected to…

  1. Conduct Disorders: Are Boot Camps Effective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeter, LaVaughn V.

    2010-01-01

    Youth diagnosed with "conduct disorder" are often placed in programs using forced compliance and coercive control. One type of intervention used to treat conduct disorder is the boot camp. The basic idea is that disruptive behaviors can be corrected by strict behavioral regulation and an emphasis on skills training (Weis & Toolis 2009; Weis,

  2. Developing an Understanding of the Nature of Accessibility and Usability Problems Blind Students Face in Web-Enhanced Instruction Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babu, Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    The central premise of this research is that blind and visually impaired (BVI) people cannot use the Internet effectively due to accessibility and usability problems. Use of the Internet is indispensable in today's education system that relies on Web-enhanced instruction (WEI). Therefore, BVI students cannot participate effectively in WEI. Extant…

  3. Many conserved quantities induced by Lie symmetries of a Lagrangian system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nucci, M. C.

    2011-03-01

    Lie symmetries along with either Noether theorem or Jacobi Last Multiplier yield all the conserved quantities that one may seek and even more. We show that three new conserved quantities derived in Jian-Hui Fang, Ming-Jiang Zhang, Wei-Wei Zhang (2010) [1] can be algorithmically obtained by these old methods. Even more than three.

  4. Teachers for Tomorrow's Schools: Analysis of the World Education Indicators. 2001 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Montreal (Quebec). Inst. for Statistics.

    This book is the second in a series that analyzes the education indicators developed through the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)/UNESCO World Education Indicators (WEI) program. It brings together data from countries participating in the WEI program with comparable data from OECD countries. Its main objective is to…

  5. Measuring Student Perceptions of Blackboard Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Brett J. L.; Griffeth, Rodger; Hartman, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Web Enhanced Instruction (WEI) is not intended to replace the traditional classroom setting, but rather to supplement the traditional lecture with course content that can be accessed from campus or the Internet. WEI has the potential to extend the boundaries of traditional classrooms by providing new opportunities for communication and interaction…

  6. Toward Construct Validation of a Transfer Climate Instrument. [and] Improving Positive Transfer: A Test of Relapse Prevention Training on Transfer Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holton, Elwood F., III; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Includes "Toward Construct Validation of a Transfer Climate Instrument" (Holton et al.); "Improving Positive Transfer: A Test of Relapse Prevention Training on Transfer Outcomes" (Burke); "Invited Reaction: Progress or Relapse?" (Newstrom); "Invited Reaction: Theory, Research, and Practice" (Tang); "Final Word: Reply to Newstrom's and Tang's…

  7. 77 FR 75613 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR); Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR); Assessment Process Webinars for Caribbean Blue Tang and Queen... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of SEDAR 30 assessment webinar II for Caribbean blue tang and queen... of a series of workshops and webinars: This notice is for a webinar associated with the...

  8. 77 FR 55811 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Assessment Process Webinars for Caribbean Blue Tang and Queen... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of SEDAR 30 pre-assessment webinar for Caribbean blue tang and queen... of a series of workshops and webinars: This notice is for a webinar associated with the...

  9. John D.E., Z.A. Wang, X. Liu, R.H. Byrne, J.E. Corredor, J.M. López, A. Cabrera, D.A. Bronk, R. F. Tabita, and J.H. Paul. 2007. Carbon fixation gene (RuBisCO) transcripts and CO2 flux in the Mississippi River plume. ISME Journal. 1 -15.

    SciTech Connect

    John, D. E.; Wang, Z. A.; Liu, X.; Byrne, R. H.; Corredor, J. E.; López, J. M.; Cabrera, A.; Bronk, D. A.; Tabita, R. F.; Paul, J. H.

    2007-08-30

    River plumes deliver large quantities of nutrients to oligotrophic oceans, often resulting in significant CO2 drawdown. To determine the relationship between expression of the major gene in carbon fixation (large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, RuBisCO) and CO2 dynamics, we evaluated rbcL mRNA abundance using novel quantitative PCR assays, phytoplankton cell analyses, photophysiological parameters, and pCO2 in and around the Mississippi River plume (MRP) in the Gulf of Mexico. Lower salinity (30–32) stations were dominated by rbcL mRNA concentrations from heterokonts, such as diatoms and pelagophytes, which were at least an order of magnitude greater than haptophytes, a-Synechococcus or high-light Prochlorococcus. However, rbcL transcript abundances were similar among these groups at oligotrophic stations (salinity 34–36). Diatom cell counts and heterokont rbcL RNA showed a strong negative correlation to seawater pCO2. While Prochlorococcus cells did not exhibit a large difference between low and high pCO2 water, Prochlorococcus rbcL RNA concentrations had a strong positive correlation to pCO2, suggesting a very low level of RuBisCO RNA transcription among Prochlorococcus in the plume waters, possibly due to their relatively poor carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs). These results provide molecular evidence that diatom/pelagophyte productivity is largely responsible for the large CO2 drawdown occurring in the MRP, based on the cooccurrence of elevated RuBisCO gene transcript concentrations from this group and reduced seawater pCO2 levels. This may partly be due to efficient CCMs that enable heterokont eukaryotes such as diatoms to continue fixing CO2 in the face of strong CO2 drawdown. Our work represents the first attempt to relate in situ microbial gene expression to contemporaneous CO2 flux measurements in the ocean.

  10. Stable Isotope Fractionation during Cr(III) oxidation by manganese oxides Swati Joshi (sjoshi@calstatela.edu), Wang D T (dtw@mit.edu), Ellis A S (aellis3@calstatela.edu) Johnson T M (tmjohnsn@uius.edu), Bullen T D (tdbullen@usgs.gov)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, S.; Wang, D.; Ellis, A. S.; Johnson, T. M.; Bullen, T. D.

    2011-12-01

    Cr stable isotope ratios are being used to monitor Cr redox reactions and associated environmental applications. Previous studies have shown that isotope fractionation (expressed as ?53Cr in the remaining reactant Cr(VI) pool) during Cr(VI) reduction ranges from -1.8% to -4.2 % depending on the reducing agent and processes. A few studies have also been put forth for Cr isotope fractionation during oxidation reactions but mechanisms of isotope fractionation during the oxidation process are not well understood. Oxidation of Cr(III) by pyrolusite (?-MnO2) results in Cr(VI) enriched in 53Cr by +1.1%. We present here a summary of the Cr isotope fractionation during the Cr(III) to Cr(VI) oxidation process using different manganese oxides with recent data from oxidation caused by birnessite and manganite. Both birnessite (?-MnO2) and manganite (MnOOH) are considered common secondary forms of manganese oxides. Manganite is often associated with pyrolusite and some studies have also noted the reductive transformation of birnessite to manganite. Experiments with birnessite and manganite are conducted under varying pH (4 to 6), temperature (4oC and 22oC) and concentration of Cr(III) (10 to 50 mg/L) and Mn-oxides (100 to 500 mg/L). During Cr(III) oxidation with birnessite, we observed ?53Cr of the Cr(VI) product ranging from -0.5% to -0.07%. These results differ markedly from those obtained from oxidation with pyrolusite. Here, during oxidation with birnessite, the final Cr(VI) product is depleted in the heavier isotopes, while oxidation with pyrolusite produces Cr(VI) enriched in the heavier isotopes. We attribute these differences to different rates and isotope fractionations associated with the multi-step electron exchange mechanism and to structural differences between the manganese oxides. Cr(III) oxidation on manganite is generally similar to both pyrolusite and birnessite but the different structure and mixed oxidation state of Mn may result in isotope fractionations that are different from the previous form of Mn-oxides examined. The variations in Cr isotope fractionations seen with the different oxidation mechanisms are critical in interpreting Cr stable isotopes where oxidation reactions mobilize Cr.

  11. Effects of ice storm on forest ecosystem of southern China in 2008 Shaoqiang Wang1, Lei Zhou1, Weimin Ju2, Kun Huang1 1Key Lab of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Beijing, 10010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shaoqiang

    2014-05-01

    Evidence is mounting that an increase in extreme climate events has begun to occur worldwide during the recent decades, which affect biosphere function and biodiversity. Ecosystems returned to its original structures and functions to maintain its sustainability, which was closely dependent on ecosystem resilience. Understanding the resilience and recovery capacity of ecosystem to extreme climate events is essential to predicting future ecosystem responses to climate change. Given the overwhelming importance of this region in the overall carbon cycle of forest ecosystems in China, south China suffered a destructive ice storm in 2008. In this study, we used the number of freezing day and a process-based model (Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator, BEPS) to characterize the spatial distribution of ice storm region in southeastern China and explore the impacts on carbon cycle of forest ecosystem over the past decade. The ecosystem variables, i.e. Net primary productivity (NPP), Evapotranspiration (ET), and Water use efficiency (WUE, the ratio of NPP to ET) from the outputs of BEPS models were used to detect the resistance and resilience of forest ecosystem in southern China. The pattern of ice storm-induced forest productivity widespread decline was closely related to the number of freezing day during the ice storm period. The NPP of forest area suffered heavy ice storm returned to normal status after five months with high temperature and ample moisture, indicated a high resilience of subtropical forest in China. The long-term changes of forest WUE remain stable, behaving an inherent sensitivity of ecosystem to extreme climate events. In addition, ground visits suggested that the recovery of forest productivity was attributed to rapid growth of understory. Understanding the variability and recovery threshold of ecosystem following extreme climate events help us to better simulate and predict the variability of ecosystem structure and function under current and future climate change.

  12. Multifractal analysis of 2D gray soil images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Torres, Ivan; Losada, Juan Carlos; Heck, Richard; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2015-04-01

    Soil structure, understood as the spatial arrangement of soil pores, is one of the key factors in soil modelling processes. Geometric properties of individual and interpretation of the morphological parameters of pores can be estimated from thin sections or 3D Computed Tomography images (Tarquis et al., 2003), but there is no satisfactory method to binarized these images and quantify the complexity of their spatial arrangement (Tarquis et al., 2008, Tarquis et al., 2009; Baveye et al., 2010). The objective of this work was to apply a multifractal technique, their singularities (α) and f(α) spectra, to quantify it without applying any threshold (Gónzalez-Torres, 2014). Intact soil samples were collected from four horizons of an Argisol, formed on the Tertiary Barreiras group of formations in Pernambuco state, Brazil (Itapirema Experimental Station). The natural vegetation of the region is tropical, coastal rainforest. From each horizon, showing different porosities and spatial arrangements, three adjacent samples were taken having a set of twelve samples. The intact soil samples were imaged using an EVS (now GE Medical. London, Canada) MS-8 MicroCT scanner with 45 μm pixel-1 resolution (256x256 pixels). Though some samples required paring to fit the 64 mm diameter imaging tubes, field orientation was maintained. References Baveye, P.C., M. Laba, W. Otten, L. Bouckaert, P. Dello, R.R. Goswami, D. Grinev, A. Houston, Yaoping Hu, Jianli Liu, S. Mooney, R. Pajor, S. Sleutel, A. Tarquis, Wei Wang, Qiao Wei, Mehmet Sezgin. Observer-dependent variability of the thresholding step in the quantitative analysis of soil images and X-ray microtomography data. Geoderma, 157, 51-63, 2010. González-Torres, Iván. Theory and application of multifractal analysis methods in images for the study of soil structure. Master thesis, UPM, 2014. Tarquis, A.M., R.J. Heck, J.B. Grau; J. Fabregat, M.E. Sanchez and J.M. Antón. Influence of Thresholding in Mass and Entropy Dimension of 3-D Soil Images. Nonlinear Process in Geophysics, 15, 881-891, 2008. Tarquis, A.M., R.J. Heck, D. Andina, A. Alvarez and J.M. Antón. Multifractal analysis and thresholding of 3D soil images. Ecological Complexity, 6, 230-239, 2009. Tarquis, A.M.; D. Giménez, A. Saa, M.C. Díaz. and J.M. Gascó. Scaling and Multiscaling of Soil Pore Systems Determined by Image Analysis. Scaling Methods in Soil Systems. Pachepsky, Radcliffe and Selim Eds., 19-33, 2003. CRC Press, Boca Ratón, Florida. Acknowledgements First author acknowledges the financial support obtained from Soil Imaging Laboratory (University of Gueplh, Canada) in 2014.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Schindler disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... 08.021. Epub 2009 Aug 14. Desnick RJ, Wang AM. Schindler disease: an inherited neuroaxonal dystrophy due ... Kanzaki T, Yokota M, Irie F, Hirabayashi Y, Wang AM, Desnick RJ. Angiokeratoma corporis diffusum with glycopeptiduria ...

  14. 75 FR 67676 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... amended, 42 U.S.C. 7412. Dated: October 5, 2010. Deborah Jordan, Director, Air Division, Region IX. BILLING CODE 6560-50-P ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Mae Wang, EPA Region IX, (415) 947- 4124, wang.mae@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY...

  15. 75 FR 65036 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on AP1000...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... (DFO), Weidong Wang (Telephone 301-415-6279 or E-mail: Weidong.Wang@nrc.gov ) five days prior to...

  16. 75 FR 51499 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Thermal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268- 58269). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... Federal Official (DFO), Weidong Wang (Telephone 301-415-6279 or E-mail Weidong.Wang@nrc.gov ) five...

  17. A brief history of recognition of the Kuroshio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Hideo

    1998-10-01

    Since ancient times the Japanese and Asians have encountered the Kuroshio. For instance, records of long-distance driftings that must have been greatly influenced by the Kuroshio are found in official chronicles of Japan from before 833 and a biography of Ganjin, the Chinese Buddhist who arrived in Japan on a religious mission in 754 across the Kuroshio. In the seventh and eighth centuries, some of the ships of Japanese envoys to China during the Tang Dynasty crossed the Kuroshio in the East China Sea, despite frequent incidents of ship wrecks. In the Momoyama and early Edo periods (1592-1635) Japanese ships with the shogunate license for foreign trade crossed the Kuroshio east of Taiwan bound for Luzon. During those periods, however, no mention of the Kuroshio has been found, except for that of S. Vizcaı´no, the Spanish navigator who reported a segment of strong current east of the Boso Peninsula in 1614. After the National Isolation Policy was enforced in 1635, the building of large ships and navigation in waters beyond where the coast was visible were prohibited in Japan, and hence it seems unlikely that many early books from this period will mention the Kuroshio. However, by searching and deciphering early books, the author has found many important notes, descriptions and illustrations referring to the Kuroshio in maps and books from the Edo period (1603-1867). Terms “Luo-Ji” and “Wei-Lü”, Chinese equivalents of “Kuroshio”, were searched for in Chinese classics and were examined. The term “Luo-Ji” (Rakusai in Japanese) was cited by some Japanese books written in the Edo period referring to the Kuroshio in the East China Sea. Meanwhile, the term “Wei-Lü” (Biryo in Japanese) was considered to be too mythical to be used in Japan as indicating the Kuroshio, although Needham (1971) inferred that the “Wei-Lü” had been used since ancient times as the Chinese equivalent of “Kuroshio”. To clarify the evolution of types of image of the current recognized as the Kuroshio, early books were sought in which there was recognition by navigators from Western countries of the existence of the Kuroshio, although some of them were unavailable for reading. Examining and comparing synoptically these Japanese, Chinese and Western records, the author reached the following conclusions. The term “Kuroshio” (blackish stream or tide) originated as a local synonym for “Kurose Gawa” (a river over blackish shallows) among inhabitants of the Izu Islands. However, it really indicated only a branch of the actual Kuroshio that flows over shallows along the Izu Ridge. This type of image of the Kuroshio is called the “short concentrated stream”. Towards the end of the 18th century it came to refer to a somewhat longer (about 400 km) path of the Kuroshio, which had become better known among Japanese people, through the publishing of maps, local geographies, accounts of trips and novels. This type of image of the Kuroshio is called the “middle-distance concentrated stream”. However, the “conception of fragmented currents” prevalent at that period probably delayed the recognition that the Kuroshio is a long continuous stream. From the end of the 18th century to the mid-19th century, Westerners collected information about Japan's geography and carried out research and made surveys of the Kuroshio, when they sent naval vessels to Japan in order to establish commercial relations. Before the Meiji Restoration (1868), Westerners viewed the “Kuroshio” as a broadly dispersing stream along the Japanese Islands and Taiwan. This type of image of the Kuroshio is called the “long dispersed stream”, and it was predominant until the modern picture of the “long concentrated stream” was first recognized by the Japanese in about 1930. Ironically, written use of the term “Kuroshio” is found in documents that appeared after the Japanese had ceased oceanic activities under the National Isolation Policy. During these two hundred-plus years, the types of image of the Kuroshio underwent major changes, reflecting the turbulent national and international conditions encountered in Japan.

  18. Organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna; Krebs, Frederik C.; Chen, Hongzheng

    2013-12-01

    Energy inflation, the constant encouragement to economize on energy consumption and the huge investments in developing alternative energy resources might seem to suggest that there is a global shortage of energy. Far from it, the energy the Sun beams on the Earth each hour is equivalent to a year's supply, even at our increasingly ravenous rate of global energy consumption [1]. But it's not what you have got it's what you do with it. Hence the intense focus on photovoltaic research to find more efficient ways to harness energy from the Sun. Recently much of this research has centred on organic solar cells since they offer simple, low-cost, light-weight and large-area flexible photovoltaic structures. This issue with guest editors Frederik C Krebs and Hongzheng Chen focuses on some of the developments at the frontier of organic photovoltaic technology. Improving the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic systems, while maintaining the inherent material, economic and fabrication benefits, has absorbed a great deal of research attention in recent years. Here significant progress has been made with reports now of organic photovoltaic devices with efficiencies of around 10%. Yet operating effectively across the electromagnetic spectrum remains a challenge. 'The trend is towards engineering low bandgap polymers with a wide optical absorption range and efficient hole/electron transport materials, so that light harvesting in the red and infrared region is enhanced and as much light of the solar spectrum as possible can be converted into an electrical current', explains Mukundan Thelakkat and colleagues in Germany, the US and UK. In this special issue they report on how charge carrier mobility and morphology of the active blend layer in thin film organic solar cells correlate with device parameters [2]. The work contributes to a better understanding of the solar-cell characteristics of polymer:fullerene blends, which form the material basis for some of the most successful solution processable organic photovoltaic devices at present. Andrey E Rudenko, Sangtaik Noh, and Barry C Thompson at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, combine two approaches to broaden the absorption of conjugated polymers [3]. In atomistic bandgap control, a heavier chalcogen heteroatom is introduced into the aromatic repeat unit to decrease the HOMO-LUMO gap. In the semi-random donor-acceptor polymer architecture, small amounts of electron deficient monomers are incorporated at random. 'We have successfully established the concept of extending photon absorption through the combination of atomistic bandgap control and the donor-acceptor-based semi-random platform using a family of three new semi-random selenophene-based polymers', explain Thompson and colleagues. They add that the polymers exhibit extended and enhanced photon absorption compared with their polythiophene analogues while maintaining semicrystallinity. The benefits of various fabrication treatments are also reported, such as methanol rinsing for modifying the active layer interface [4] and annealing to achieve bicontinuous nanoscale phase separation for efficient exciton dissociation and charge collection [5]. The issue highlights how successfully structure and morphology can be manipulated to optimize solar-cell efficiencies while retaining advantageous material properties, with reports of innovative studies of bulk heterojunction [6-9] and inverse [10-13] structures, as well as innovative replacements for the traditional ITO transparent conducting electrode [14, 15]. Thomas Edison is famously quoted as saying 'I'd put my money on the Sun and solar energy, what a source of power! I hope we don't have to wait until oil and coal run out, before we tackle that'. Born in the wake of the industrial revolution when coal was king, the words seem strangely anachronistic and ahead of his time. As an undisputed genius of inventions it should not surprise us that he had such remarkable foresight, nor that the present generation of innovators are 'tackling' the opportunity with such promise and success, as the work in this special issue clearly demonstrates. References [1] http://environment.nationalgeographic.co.uk/environment/global-warming/solar-power-profile [2] Muth M-A, Mitchel W, Tierney S, Lada T A, Xue X, Richter H, Carrasco-Orozco M and Thelakkat M 2013 Influence of charge carrier mobility and morphology on solar cell parameters in devices of mono- and bis-fullerene adducts Nanotechnology 24 484001 [3] Rudenko A E, Noh S and Thompson B C 2013 Influence of selenophene on the properties of semi-random polymers and their blends with PC61BM Nanotechnology 24 484002 [4] Zhang K, Hu Z, Duan C, Ying L, Huang F and Cao Y 2013 The effect of methanol treatment on the performance of polymer solar cells Nanotechnology 24 484003 [5] Meng B, Fang G, Fu Y, Xie Z and Wang L 2013 Fine tuning of the PCDTBT-OR:PC71BM blend nanoscale phase separation via selective solvent annealing toward high-performance polymer photovoltaics Nanotechnology 24 484004 [6] Arar M et al 2013 Influence of morphology and polymer:nanoparticle ratio on device performance of hybrid solar cells—an approach in experiment and simulation Nanotechnology 24 484005 [7] Yu B, Wang H and Yan D 2013 Efficient organic photovoltaic cells with vertical ordered bulk heterojunction Nanotechnology 24 484006 [8] Chen G, Sasabe H, Sano T, Wang X-F, Hong Z, Kido J and Yang Y 2013 Chloroboron (III) subnaphthalocyanine as an electron donor in bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells Nanotechnology 24 484007 [9] Cheng P, Li Y and Zhan X 2013 DMF-assisted solution process boosts the efficiency in P3HT:PCBM solar cells up to 5.31% Nanotechnology 24 484008 [10] Chen H-Y, Lin S-H, Sun J-Y, Hsu C-H, Lan S and Lin C-F 2013 Morphologic improvement of the PBDTTT-C and PC71BM blend film with mixed solvent for high-performance inverted polymer solar cells Nanotechnology 24 484009 [11] Peng J, Sun Q, Zhai Z, Yuan J, Huang X, Jin Z, Li K, Wang S, Wang H and Ma W 2013 Low-temperature, solution-processed alumina for organic solar cells Nanotechnology 24 484010 [12] Chen F, Chen Q, Mao L, Wang Y, Huang X, Lu W, Wang B and Chen L 2013 Tuning ITO work function with solution-processed alkali carbonate interfacial layers for high-efficiency inverted organic photovoltaic cells Nanotechnology 24 484011 [13] Wu Z, Song T, Xia Z, Wei H and Sun B 2013 Enhanced performance of polymer solar cell with ZnO nanoparticle electron transporting layer passivated by in situ cross-linked three-dimensional polymer network Nanotechnology 24 484012 [14] Urbina A, Park J-S, Lee J-M, Kim S-O and Kim J-S 2013 Work function engineering of ZnO electrodes by using p-type and n-type doped carbon nanotubes Nanotechnology 24 484013 [15] van de Wiel H J et al 2013 R2R embedded conductive structures integrated into OPV devices Nanotechnology 24 484014

  19. Superoxide Anions Are Involved in Mediating the Effect of Low K Intake on c-Src Expression and Renal K Secretion in the Cortical Collecting Duct*

    PubMed Central

    Babilonia, Elisa; Wei, Yuan; Sterling, Hyacinth; Kaminski, Pawel; Wolin, Michael; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2010-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that low K intake stimulated the expression of c-Src and that stimulation of protein tyrosine kinase inhibited ROMK channel activity (Wei, Y., Bloom, P., Lin, D. H., Gu, R. M., and Wang, W. H. (2001) Am. J. Physiol. 281, F206–F212). Decreases in dietary K content significantly increased O2·¯ levels and the phosphorylation of c-Jun, a transcription factor, in renal cortex and outer medulla. The role of O2·¯ and related products such as H2O2 in stimulating the expression of protein tyrosine kinase is suggested by the observation that addition of 50–200 µM H2O2 increased the phosphorylation of c-Jun and the expression of c-Src in M1 cells, a mouse collecting duct principal cell line. The effect of H2O2 on c-Src expression was completely abolished with cyclohexamide or actinomycin D. The treatment of animals on a K-deficient (KD) diet with tempol for 7 days significantly decreased the production of O2·¯, c-Jun phosphorylation, and c-Src expression. Moreover, low K intake decreased the activity of ROMK-like small conductance channels from 1.37 (control K diet) to 0.5 in the cortical collecting duct and increased the tyrosine phosphorylation of ROMK in the renal cortex and outer medulla. In contrast, the tempol treatment not only increased channel activity to 1.1 in the cortical collecting duct but also decreased the tyrosine phosphorylation of ROMK from rats on a KD diet. Finally, suppressing O2·¯ production with tempol significantly increased renal K excretion measured with metabolic cage and lowered the plasma K concentration in comparison with those on a KD diet alone without tempol. We conclude that O2·¯ and related products play a role in mediating the effect of low K intake on c-Src expression and in suppressing ROMK channel activity and renal K secretion. PMID:15644319

  20. PREFACE: XXVIII International Conference on Photonic, Electronic and Atomic Collisions (ICPEAC 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Guoqing; Cai, Xiaohong; Ding, Dajun; Ma, Xinwen; Zhao, Yongtao

    2014-04-01

    The 28th International Conference on Photonic, Electronic and Atomic Collisions (XXVIII ICPEAC) was held by the Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IMP) on 24-30 July, 2013 in Lanzhou, China. The 444 conference participants came from 37 countries and/or regions. Five plenary lectures, more than 80 progress reports and special reports had been arranged according to the decision of the ICPEAC International General Committee. Meanwhile, more than 650 abstracts were selected as poster presentations. Before the conference, three highly distinguished scientists, Professor Joachim Burgdöorfer, Professor Hossein Sadeghpour and Professor Yasunori Yamazaki, presented tutorial lectures with the support of the IMP Branch of Youth Innovation Promotion Association, CAS (IMP-YIPA). During the conference, Professor Jianwei Pan from University of Sciences and Technology in China presented an enlightening public lecture on quantum communication. Furthermore, 2013 IUPAP Young Scientist Prize was awarded to Dr T Jahnke from Johann Wolfgang Goethe University of Germany. The Sheldon Datz Prize for an Outstanding Young Scientist Attending ICPEAC was awarded to Dr Diogo Almeida from University of Fribourg of Switzerland. As a biannual academic conference, ICPEAC is one of the most important international conferences on atomic and molecular physics. The topic of the conference covers the recent progresses in photonic, electronic, atomic, ionic, molecular, cluster collisions with matter. With a history back to 1958, ICPEAC came to China for the very first time. IMP has been preparing the conference six years before, ever since the ICPEAC International General Committee made the decision to hold the XXVIII ICPEAC in Lanzhou. This proceedings includes the papers of the two plenary lectures, 40 progress reports, 17 special reports and 337 posters, which were reviewed and revised according to the comments of the referees. The Local Organizing Committee would like to express its great appreciation to National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP), IMP, and IMP-YIPA for financial support, to Fangfang Ruan, Qiang Liang, Dacheng Zhang, Shukai Tian, Yuyu Wang, Wenping Zhu, Wei Liang, Mingwu Zhang, Haibo Yuan, Shan Sha, Jieru Ren, Jie Yang and Zhenhai Chen for their contributions to the organization, and to the volunteer group from Lanzhou University, the High School Attached Northwest Normal University and IMP for their excellent volunteer work. The Local Organizing Committee would like to thank all of the participants and the authors of the proceedings for their supports and contributions to the conference. Guoqing Xiao Director of Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences